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Sample records for infauna monitoring horns

  1. Twenty two years of sewage sludge marine disposal monitoring in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: Impact on sediment quality and infauna and the response to load reduction.

    PubMed

    Kress, N; Shoham-Frider, E; Galil, B S

    2016-09-15

    Effects of sewage sludge disposal on sediments and infauna are presented in a unique long-term (22years) data set from the Eastern Mediterranean. While organic carbon (Corg) and metals affected sediment quality in an area which size varied seasonally, the infauna exhibited seasonal "boom and bust" cycle. Metal concentrations declined following load reduction. However, Corg did not decrease and infaunal abundance, closely related to Corg, varied with changes in environmental forcing. Mild winters affected the infaunal populations at the heavily impacted stations, due to anoxic conditions. Planned cessation of disposal is estimated to reduce Corg and metal concentrations to pre-discharge levels. Yet the resettling biota is expected to differ significantly from the pre-discharge one and consist in large part of Erythraean non indigenous species. PMID:27373943

  2. Activity patterns and monitoring numbers of Horned Puffins and Parakeet Auklets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Shyla A.

    2002-01-01

    Nearshore counts of birds on the water and time-lapse photography were used to monitor seasonal activity patterns and interannual variation in numbers of Horned Puffins (Fratercula corniculata) and Parakeet Auklets (Aethia psittacula) at the Semidi Islands, Alaska. The best period for over-water counts was mid egg-laying through hatching in auklets and late prelaying through early hatching in puffins. Daily counts (07.00 h-09.30 h) varied widely, with peak numbers and days with few or no birds present occurring throughout the census period. Variation among annual means in four years amounted to 26% and 72% of total count variation in puffins and auklets, respectively. Time-lapse photography of nesting habitat in early incubation revealed a morning (08.00 h-12.00 h) peak in the number of puffins loitering on study plots. Birds recorded in time-lapse images never comprised more than a third of the estimated breeding population on a plot. Components of variance in the time-lapse study were 29% within hours, 9% among hours (08.00 h-12.00 h), and 62% among days (8-29 June). Variability of overwater and land-based counts is reduced by standardizing the time of day when counts are made, but weather conditions had little influence on either type of count. High international variation of population indices implies low power to detect numerical trends in crevice-nesting auklets and puffins.

  3. Variability in colony attendance of crevice-nesting horned puffins: Implications for population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Byrd, G.V.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Konyukhov, N.B.; Golubova, E.U.; Williams, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult to survey crevice-nesting seabirds because nest-sites are hard to identify and count, and the number of adult birds attending a colony can be extremely variable within and between days. There is no standardized method for surveying crevice-nesting horned puffins (Fratercula corniculata), and consequently little is known about abundance or changes in their numbers. We examined the variability in colony attendance of horned puffins at 5 breeding colonies in the North Pacific to assess whether variation in count data can be reduced to a level that would allow us to detect changes in the number of birds attending a colony. We used within-year measures of variation in attendance to examine the power to detect a change in numbers between 2 years, and we used measures of among-year variation to examine the power to detect trends over multiple years. Diurnal patterns of attendance differed among colonies, and among-day variation in attendance was generally lowest from mid- to late-incubation to early chick rearing. Within-year variation in water counts was lower than in land counts, and variation was lower using a daily index based on 5 counts per day than it was using 1 count per day. Measures of among-year variation in attendance also were higher for land-based than water-based counts, and they were higher when we used a 10-day survey period than when we used a 30-day period. The use of either 1 or 5 counts a day during the colony-specific diurnal peak of attendance had little influence on levels of among-year variation. Overall, our study suggests that variation in count data may be reduced to a level that allows detection of trends in numbers. However, more studies of interannual variability in horned puffin attendance are needed. Further, the relationship between count data and breeding population size needs more study before the number of birds present at the colony can be used with confidence as an index of population trend.

  4. Use of Earth Observation Data for Environmental Monitoring in the Horn of Africa within the Framework of MESA IGAD THEMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atheru, Zachary; Fortunate, Muyambi

    2015-12-01

    The achievements and challenges on the implementation of activities of IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC) regarding the use of Earth Observation data for environmental monitoring in the Horn of Africa within the framework of MESA IGAD THEMA. Examples of the outputs from the Land Degradation Assessment, Natural Habitat Conservation and Forest Monitoring are provided and explained. The difficulties faced in communicating and disseminating information particularly to decision makers are highlighted. Also outlined is the scope and expected results from the Monitoring for Environment and Security in Africa (MESA) IGAD Thematic action and emphasis placed on lessons learnt on (i) developing services from products (ii) strengthening national networks (III) disseminating and communicating information to decision and policy makers, and (iv) capacity building. The overall objective of the MESA programme in the IGAD region is to enhance land degradation mitigation, natural habitats assessment and Forest Monitoring for sustainable management of environmental resources through the use of Earth Observation data. This is done by strengthening the Earth Observation information management capacity of regional and national institutions in order to support decision and policy making processes. The services produce and distribute regularly land degradation index maps, land cover change indicators on IGAD selected Natural Habitats areas, Forest degradation, deforestation extent, vulnerability index map. It also develops the political and policy frameworks that are strengthened to ensure an active and sustainable participation of IGAD member states in global environmental surveillance initiatives and finally give adequate technical capacity of MESA IGAD stakeholders.

  5. Improved drought monitoring in the Greater Horn of Africa by combining meteorological and remote sensing based indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horion, Stephanie; Kurnik, Blaz; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Drought is a complex and insidious natural hazard. It is hence difficult to detect in its early stages and to monitor its spatial evolution. Defining drought is already a challenge and can be done differently by meteorologists, hydrologists or socio-economists. In each one of these research areas, various indicators were already set up to depict the development of drought. However they are usually considering only one aspect of the phenomenon. The development of integrated indicators could help to detect faster/better the onset of drought, to monitor more efficiently its evolution in time and space, and therefore to better trigger timely and appropriate actions on the field. In this study, meteorological and remote sensing based drought indicators were compared over the Greater Horn of Africa in order to better understand: (i) how they depict historical drought events ; (ii) if they could be combined into an integrated drought indicator. The meteorological indicator selected for our study is the well known Standardized Precipitation Index, SPI. This statistical indicator is evaluating the lack or surplus of precipitation during a given period of time as a function of the long-term average precipitation and its distribution. Two remote sensing based indicators were tested: the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) derived from SPOT-VEGETATION and the Global Vegetation Index (VGI) derived form MERIS. The first index is sensitive to change in leaf water content of vegetation canopies while the second is a proxy of the amount and vigour of vegetation. For both indexes, anomalies were estimated using available satellite archives. Cross-correlations between remote sensing based anomalies and SPI were analysed for five land covers (forest, shrubland, grassland, sparse grassland, cropland and bare soil) over different regions in the Greater Horn of Africa. The time window for the statistical analysis was set to the rainy season, as it is the most critical period for

  6. Cutaneous Horn

    MedlinePlus

    ... fair-skinned individuals with a history of significant sun exposure. Signs and Symptoms A cutaneous horn most often ... radiation therapy. Trusted Links MedlinePlus: Skin Conditions MedlinePlus: Sun Exposure References Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology , pp.1715. ...

  7. RECOLONIZATION OF SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED MICROALGAE AND EFFECTS OF ESTUARINE INFAUNA ON MICROALGAL PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to determine the rate of recolonization of sediment-associated microalgae and effects of infauna on microalgal biomass and production. Estuarine sediment was defaunated and transplanted to the field and the laboratory. Recolonization of sediment by flor...

  8. The mobilisation of sediment and benthic infauna by scallop dredges.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, F G; Robertson, M; Summerbell, K; Breen, M; Robinson, L A

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of experiments to assess the immediate impact of scallop dredging on the seabed sediment and on the inhabiting infauna. The passage of the scallop dredge is shown to homogenise the seabed, flattening sand ripples. The turbulent wake entrains up to the equivalent of a 1 mm layer of sediment per unit of swept width, although an analysis of the finer particles material implies that the suspended silt material must originate from depths of at least 10 mm. The species most abundant in the sediment plume either swim actively in the water column or are found in, or on, the upper layers of the substrate, whereas those most abundant in core samples taken from the sediment, but not present in the net samples, are almost all tube-building or deep burrowing. The vertical stratification of sediment concentration and of animal numbers in the water column suggests that even if some of these species respond actively to the presence of the dredge, once entrained, they are transported more or less passively in the same way as the larger sediment particles. There was no difference between the core samples taken before or after towing suggesting that animals mobilised by the dredge resettle in the tow path. Our analysis does not provide any information regarding the fate of these animals. PMID:23871519

  9. Site-specific growth of Au-Pd alloy horns on Au nanorods: a platform for highly sensitive monitoring of catalytic reactions by surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianfeng; Zhu, Yihan; Lin, Ming; Wang, Qingxiao; Zhao, Lan; Yang, Yang; Yao, Ke Xin; Han, Yu

    2013-06-12

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a highly sensitive probe for molecular detection. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient platform for investigating the kinetics of catalytic reactions with SERS. To achieve this, we synthesized a novel Au-Pd bimetallic nanostructure (HIF-AuNR@AuPd) through site-specific epitaxial growth of Au-Pd alloy horns as catalytic sites at the ends of Au nanorods. Using high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography, we successfully reconstructed the complex three-dimensional morphology of HIF-AuNR@AuPd and identified that the horns are bound with high-index {11l} (0.25 < l < 0.43) facets. With an electron beam probe, we visualized the distribution of surface plasmon over the HIF-AuNR@AuPd nanorods, finding that strong longitudinal surface plasmon resonance concentrated at the rod ends. This unique crystal morphology led to the coupling of high catalytic activity with a strong SERS effect at the rod ends, making HIF-AuNR@AuPd an excellent bifunctional platform for in situ monitoring of surface catalytic reactions. Using the hydrogenation of 4-nitrothiophenol as a model reaction, we demonstrated that its first-order reaction kinetics could be accurately determined from this platform. Moreover, we clearly identified the superior catalytic activity of the rod ends relative to that of the rod bodies, owing to the different SERS activities at the two positions. In comparison with other reported Au-Pd bimetallic nanostructures, HIF-AuNR@AuPd offered both higher catalytic activity and greater detection sensitivity. PMID:23675958

  10. Dielectrically loaded horns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tun, S. M.; Bustamante, R.; Williams, N.

    Dielectrically loaded horns have been proposed as alternatives to conical corrugated horns in high-performance primary feeds in virtue both of their lower cost and theoretical indications of superior operational bandwidth performance, while retaining circularly symmetric radiation, low sidelobes, and low cross-polarization. A prototype dielectric core-loaded horn, and a dual-band transmit/receive horn antenna incorporating a dielectric rod inside a small corrugated horn, have been developed and tested; the dielectric used for the rod is Rexolite. The high performance obtainable by this inexpensive technology has been experimentally demonstrated.

  11. Vertical distribution of benthic infauna in continental slope sediments off Cape Lookout, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, James A.

    The vertical distribution of 30 species of benthic infauna from continental slope (583-3000 m) sediments off Cape Lookout, North Carolina was closely correlated with feeding types. Carnivores, omnivores, filter feeders, and surface deposit feeders were mostly concentrated in the upper 0-2 cm of the cores. The depth distribution of subsurface deposit feeders was more variable, even among related taxa.

  12. The Ram's Horn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassias, John A., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The summer-fall and winter-spring numbers of the journal, "The Ram's Horn," contain these articles: "The Text as Dramatic Departure"; "The Dartmouth Language Outreach Approach to Spanish for Police Action"; "The Dartmouth Intensive Language Model (DILM) in Florida: John Rassias with High School Teachers"; "The Flexibility of Using Drama Techniques…

  13. Multi-mode horn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, Jeffrey M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A horn has an input aperture and an output aperture, and comprises a conductive inner surface formed by rotating a curve about a central axis. The curve comprises a first arc having an input aperture end and a transition end, and a second arc having a transition end and an output aperture end. When rotated about the central axis, the first arc input aperture end forms an input aperture, and the second arc output aperture end forms an output aperture. The curve is then optimized to provide a mode conversion which maximizes the power transfer of input energy to the Gaussian mode at the output aperture.

  14. Stacked Corrugated Horn Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sosnowski, John B.

    2010-01-01

    This Brief describes a method of machining and assembly when the depth of corrugations far exceeds the width and conventional machining is not practical. The horn is divided into easily machined, individual rings with shoulders to control the depth. In this specific instance, each of the corrugations is identical in profile, and only differs in diameter and outer profile. The horn is segmented into rings that are cut with an interference fit (zero clearance with all machining errors biased toward contact). The interference faces can be cut with a reverse taper to increase the holding strength of the joint. The taper is a compromise between the interference fit and the clearance of the two faces during assembly. Each internal ring is dipped in liquid nitrogen, then nested in the previous, larger ring. The ring is rotated in the nest until the temperature of the two parts equalizes and the pieces lock together. The resulting assay is stable, strong, and has an internal finish that cannot be achieved through other methods.

  15. SEDIMENT DATA - ST. PAUL WATERWAY - TACOMA, WA - 1996 MONITORING DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic Infauna Monitoring Data Files are Excel-format spreadsheet files which contain data presented in the St. Paul Waterway Area Remedial Action and Habitat Restoration Project, 1996 Monitoring Report. The files can be viewed directly or readily downlo aded and read into most ...

  16. Ancient celtic horns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  17. Successful outcome in preeclamptic rudimentary horn pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Ruchi; Sachan, Shikha; Khanna, Anuradha

    2011-01-01

    Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn is an uncommon type of mullerian duct malformation associated with various gynecological and obstetrical complications. Rudimentary horn pregnancy is a rare entity and the majority have rupture of gravid horn leading to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. A case of rudimentary horn pregnancy at 32 weeks and 6 days with pregnancy induced hypertension is reported where proper management results in successful pregnancy outcome. PMID:24591959

  18. Successful outcome in preeclamptic rudimentary horn pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ruchi; Sachan, Shikha; Khanna, Anuradha

    2011-01-01

    Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn is an uncommon type of mullerian duct malformation associated with various gynecological and obstetrical complications. Rudimentary horn pregnancy is a rare entity and the majority have rupture of gravid horn leading to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. A case of rudimentary horn pregnancy at 32 weeks and 6 days with pregnancy induced hypertension is reported where proper management results in successful pregnancy outcome. PMID:24591959

  19. Trichomoniasis in great horned owls.

    PubMed

    Jessup, D A

    1980-07-01

    Three cases of Trichomonas gallinae infection of deep tissues of the skull or of unusual tissues in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), refractory to recommended doses but responsive to higher doses of dimetridazole, are discussed. Trichomonads were isolated from the lesions. PMID:7432340

  20. ELECTROMIGRATION ISSUES IN HIGH CURRENT HORN.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG, S.Y.; BELLAVIA, S.; SANDBERG, J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The secondary particle focusing horn for the AGS neutrino experiment proposal is a high current and high current density device. The peak current of horn is 300 kA. At the smallest area of horn, the current density is near 8 kA/mm{sup 2}. At very high current density, a few kA/mm{sup 2}, the electromigration phenomena will occur. Momentum transfer between electrons and metal atoms at high current density causes electromigration. The reliability and lifetime of focusing horn can be severely reduced by electromigration. In this paper, we discuss issues such as device reliability model, incubation time of electromigration, and lifetime of horn.

  1. Predation of intertidal infauna on juveniles of the bivalve Macoma balthica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiddink, J. G.; ter Hofstede, R.; Wolff, W. J.

    2002-03-01

    Juveniles of the bivalve Macoma balthica live on tidal flats in the Wadden Sea. This study examined the interaction of Macoma with the infaunal polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor and the gastropod Retusa obtusa. The distribution of M. balthica spat on the flats, shortly after settlement in April, showed a positive correlation with the Arenicola distribution and a negative correlation with Nereis distribution. There were no locations where Macoma spat and Retusa occurred together. In August, Macoma spat had grown too large for predation by intertidal infauna. Small individuals of Macoma spat were found in stomachs of Arenicola (0.14 worm -1) and Nereis (0.05 worm -1). Laboratory experiments showed that Nereis and Retusa could reduce Macoma spat abundance, both in the absence and presence of sediment and alternative prey. Arenicola reduced the abundance of small Macoma (<1 mm) in sediment without, but not with, alternative prey. In field experiments, we manipulated the density of Arenicola in 0.25-1 m 2 plots and of Nereis in 0.03 m 2 cages and examined the effect on Macoma density several weeks later. We found a significant negative relation between densities of polychaetes and Macoma spat for both polychaete species in these experimental plots. Peculiarly, we found a significant positive relation between manipulated Nereis density and adult Macoma density in the cages; we cannot explain this. Consumption rates, calculated both from stomach contents and from field experiments, were 45 to 102 Macoma m -2 d -1 for Arenicola and 5 to 116 Macoma m -2 d -1 for Nereis. These values are higher than recorded consumption rates by epibenthic predators in the same area. Nevertheless, between-year differences in year-class strength could not be explained by differential abundance of these polychaetes. In conclusion, Arenicola and Nereis had a negative effect on the abundance of Macoma <1.5 mm, which was at least partly caused by direct consumption. Retusa

  2. Folded Resonant Horns for Power Ultrasonic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Askins, Stephen; Gradziel, Michael; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Dolgin, Benjamin; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Peterson, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Folded horns have been conceived as alternatives to straight horns used as resonators and strain amplifiers in power ultrasonic systems. Such systems are used for cleaning, welding, soldering, cutting, and drilling in a variety of industries. In addition, several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles have described instrumented drilling, coring, and burrowing machines that utilize combinations of sonic and ultrasonic vibrational actuation. The main advantage of a folded horn, relative to a straight horn of the same resonance frequency, is that the folded horn can be made shorter (that is, its greatest linear dimension measured from the outside can be made smaller). Alternatively, for a given length, the resonance frequency can be reduced. Hence, the folded-horn concept affords an additional degree of design freedom for reducing the length of an ultrasonic power system that includes a horn.

  3. Novel Horn Designs for Power Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, M.; Bao, X.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Chang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic horns are used in a variety of industrial and medical applications. At JPL a rock-sampling tool based on an ultrasonic horn was developed to drill, abrade and core rock samples including hard basalts. This device is an impact device, which uses ultrasonic vibratlons that occur at the horn tip to produce a sonic resonance with the aid of a loosely connected mass. Although standard horns are found in many current industrial designs they suffer from a few key limitations when used for USDC applications. Manufacturing a horn requires turning down stock material (e.g. Titanium) from the larger outer diameter to the horn tip diameter, and this process is both time consuming and wasteful. In this paper, we present novel horn designs that are specifically designed for impact applications as the USDC. One such design addressed the excasive length that is involved with the use of the horn limiting its applications when system dimensions are constrained. For this purpose, a folded horn design was conceived that reduces the overall length of the resonator (physical length) but maintains or increases the acoustic length. Initial experiments with horns having such P design indicate that the tip displacement can be further adjusted by phasing the bending displacements and the extensional displacements. Another conceived horn design is the 'dog bone' horn that uses an end mass on the horn tip io increase the impact efficiency of the horn. In this paper, the experimental results for these novel born designs are presented and compared to the results predicted by theory.

  4. The infauna of three widely distributed sponge species (Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) from the deep Ekström Shelf in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersken, Daniel; Göcke, Christian; Brandt, Angelika; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Schwabe, Enrico; Anna Seefeldt, Meike; Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Janussen, Dorte

    2014-10-01

    Due to their high abundance and large body size sponges have a central position in Antarctic zoobenthos, where they form the most extensive sponge grounds of the world. Though research on Antarctic benthos communities is quite established, research on sponge-associated infauna communities is scarce. We analyzed associated infauna of fifteen individuals of the sponge species Mycale (Oxymycale) acerata Kirkpatrick, 1907 (Demospongiae: Mycalina), Rossella antarctica Carter, 1872 and R. racovitzae Topsent, 1901 (both Hexactinellida: Lyssacinosida). Samples were collected from the deep Ekström Shelf at 602 m in the South-Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the ANT XXIV-2 (SYSTCO I) expedition of RV Polarstern. The number of species, α- and β-diversity and the significantly different species composition of infauna communities related to sponge species were calculated, the latter via cluster analysis. The sponge-associated infauna consisted of five phyla: Foraminifera, Nematoda, Polychaeta, Mollusca and Arthropoda. In total 11,463 infaunal specimens were extracted and we found at least 76 associated species. Highest values of α-diversity were calculated for a sample of R. antarctica with a Shannon-Index of 1.84 and Simpson-Index of 0.72 respectively. Our results of the cluster-analysis show significant differences between infauna communities and a unique species composition for single sponge species. Polychaetes of the genus Syllis Lamarck, 1818 were numerous in M. acerata and genera like Pionosyllis Malmgren, 1867 and Cirratulus Lamarck, 1801 were numerous in R. antarctica. Individuals of the amphipod species Seba cf. dubia Schellenberg, 1926 were often found in R. antarctica and R. racovitzae while Colomastix fissilingua Schellenberg, 1926 was frequent in samples of M. acerata. Molluscs were present in M. acerata and R. antarctica but absent in R. racovitzae.

  5. Multifrequency broadband polarized horn antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, K. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A corrugated conical horn antenna is simultaneously fed a multiplicity of signals, two for each of five frequencies, with each of a pair of signals fed in each of two orthogonal planes for excitation of a desired spherical hybrid mode. The lowest frequency is fed into the horn through orthogonal pairs of colinear slots, each pair being fed by coaxial tee power dividers. Other signals are fed through a circular waveguide connected to the vertex. The highest frequency signals are fed through orthogonal ports near the far end of the circular waveguide. The intermediate frequency signals are fed through orthogonal ports spaced along the waveguide. Filtering is incorporated for each to maintain isolation and low insertion loss.

  6. Multifrequency broadband polarized horn antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, K. A.

    1981-03-01

    A corrugated conical horn antenna is simultaneously fed a multiplicity of signals, two for each of five frequencies, with each of a pair of signals fed in each of two orthogonal planes for excitation of a desired spherical hybrid mode. The lowest frequency is fed into the horn through orthogonal pairs of colinear slots, each pair being fed by coaxial tee power dividers. Other signals are fed through a circular waveguide connected to the vertex. The highest frequency signals are fed through orthogonal ports near the far end of the circular waveguide. The intermediate frequency signals are fed through orthogonal ports spaced along the waveguide. Filtering is incorporated for each to maintain isolation and low insertion loss.

  7. Printed sectoral horn power combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccia, Luigi; Emanuele, Antonio; Shamsafar, Alireza; Arnieri, Emilio; Amendola, Giandomenico

    2015-02-01

    In this work, it is presented a new configuration of planar power combiner/divider based on an H-plane sectoral horn antenna. This component is proposed to realise the basic building blocks of printed power-combining amplifiers. It will be shown how the sectoral horn elements can be implemented on substrate integrated waveguide and multilayer printed circuit board technologies, thus obtaining a high integration level. In the following, the design procedure will be described reporting an example of an 11-stage power divider/combiner in C-band. A prototype has been fabricated, and the measured results compared with the numerical model. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations showing a single-stage efficiency of about 90% and a bandwidth of 40%.

  8. Miniaturization of Planar Horn Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2x2x2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of3 x 3x 0.2 cm.

  9. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive horn. 229.129 Section 229.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Cabs and Cab Equipment § 229.129 Locomotive horn. (a) Each...

  10. Rudimentary horn pregnancy: prerupture diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Seema; Suri, Vanita; Aggarwal, Neelam

    2007-01-01

    A unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn is a rare mullerian abnormality which may cause many gynecological and obstetrical complications. Rupture of pregnant rudimentary horn in the second trimester is the usual presentation, resulting in maternal morbidity and even mortality. PMID:17197736

  11. High-Aperture-Efficiency Horn Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Wesley; Hoppe, Daniel; Epp, Larry; Kahn, Abdur

    2005-01-01

    A horn antenna (see Figure 1) has been developed to satisfy requirements specific to its use as an essential component of a high-efficiency Ka-band amplifier: The combination of the horn antenna and an associated microstrip-patch antenna array is required to function as a spatial power divider that feeds 25 monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers. The foregoing requirement translates to, among other things, a further requirement that the horn produce a uniform, vertically polarized electromagnetic field in its patches identically so that the MMICs can operate at maximum efficiency. The horn is fed from a square waveguide of 5.9436-mm-square cross section via a transition piece. The horn features cosine-tapered, dielectric-filled longitudinal corrugations in its vertical walls to create a hard boundary condition: This aspect of the horn design causes the field in the horn aperture to be substantially vertically polarized and to be nearly uniform in amplitude and phase. As used here, cosine-tapered signifies that the depth of the corrugations is a cosine function of distance along the horn. Preliminary results of finite-element simulations of performance have shown that by virtue of the cosine taper the impedance response of this horn can be expected to be better than has been achieved previously in a similar horn having linearly tapered dielectric- filled longitudinal corrugations. It is possible to create a hard boundary condition by use of a single dielectric-filled corrugation in each affected wall, but better results can be obtained with more corrugations. Simulations were performed for a one- and a three-corrugation cosine-taper design. For comparison, a simulation was also performed for a linear- taper design (see Figure 2). The three-corrugation design was chosen to minimize the cost of fabrication while still affording acceptably high performance. Future designs using more corrugations per wavelength are expected to provide better

  12. The SeaHorn Verification Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurfinkel, Arie; Kahsai, Temesghen; Komuravelli, Anvesh; Navas, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present SeaHorn, a software verification framework. The key distinguishing feature of SeaHorn is its modular design that separates the concerns of the syntax of the programming language, its operational semantics, and the verification semantics. SeaHorn encompasses several novelties: it (a) encodes verification conditions using an efficient yet precise inter-procedural technique, (b) provides flexibility in the verification semantics to allow different levels of precision, (c) leverages the state-of-the-art in software model checking and abstract interpretation for verification, and (d) uses Horn-clauses as an intermediate language to represent verification conditions which simplifies interfacing with multiple verification tools based on Horn-clauses. SeaHorn provides users with a powerful verification tool and researchers with an extensible and customizable framework for experimenting with new software verification techniques. The effectiveness and scalability of SeaHorn are demonstrated by an extensive experimental evaluation using benchmarks from SV-COMP 2015 and real avionics code.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sheep horn.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The sheep horn presents outstanding mechanical properties of impact resistance and energy absorption, which suits the need of the vehicle bumper design, but the mechanism behind this phenomenon is less investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the sheep horn of Small Tailed Han Sheep (Ovis aries) living in northeast China were investigated in this article. The effect of sampling position and orientation of the sheep horn sheath on mechanical properties were researched by tensile and compression tests. Meanwhile, the surface morphology and microstructure of the sheep horn were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation mechanism of the mechanical properties of the sheep horn was investigated by biological coupling analysis. The analytical results indicated that the outstanding mechanical properties of the sheep horn are determined by configuration, structure, surface morphology and material coupling elements. These biological coupling elements make the sheep horn possess super characteristics of crashworthiness and energy absorption through the internal coupling mechanism. We suppose that these findings would make a difference in vehicle bumper design. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:664-674, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27184115

  14. Audibility of train horns in passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Thomas G; Rainey, Jess E

    2005-01-01

    Studies of accident rates associated with train horn bans indicate that motorists rely on horns to warn them of approaching trains. However, researchers have not yet established the levels of horn sounds necessary for detection at railroad crossings. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline measures of the auditory component of the motorist's detection task. Horn sounds recorded in three test vehicles were presented to 20 normal-hearing listeners in quiet and in four types of vehicle interior noise: engine idling, ventilation fan off; engine idling, fan on; vehicle moving at 30 miles/hr (mph), fan off; and vehicle moving at 30 mph, fan on. Thresholds of the horn sounds were determined by an adaptive procedure. Mean thresholds were lowest in quiet (1.8-4.4 dBA) and highest for the 30-mph, fan-on condition (49.7-58.4 dBA). Mean horn thresholds for all 12 noise conditions were more than 10 dB below the overall level of the vehicle interior noise. Our data are compared with those of previous studies and their implications are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include the establishment of a lower limit of signal-to-noise ratios required for the detection of horn sounds at highway-rail crossings. PMID:16435701

  15. An Annotated Guide and Interactive Database for Solo Horn Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schouten, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Given the horn's lengthy history, it is not surprising that many scholars have examined the evolution of the instrument from the natural horn to the modern horn and its expansive repertoire. Numerous dissertations, theses, and treatises illuminate specific elements of the horn's solo repertoire; however, no scholar has produced a…

  16. Laparoscopic Resection of Unruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepti; Usha, M G; Gaikwad, Ramesh; Sudha, S

    2011-01-01

    A non-communicating rudimentary horn is an uncommon site for ectopic pregnancy. Rudimentary horn pregnancy (RHP) is a rare entity but associated with grave clinical consequences. Majority of these cases if not detected timely end up in uterine rupture and present as an obstetrical emergency. We present this case of a 32-year-old, third gravida with a 12 weeks live gestation in the right rudimentary horn, which was successfully managed with laparoscopic resection. Early diagnosis is the key stone in the management of such cases. Laparoscopic resection is a safe and viable option in the surgical management of unruptured RHP. PMID:26085754

  17. Ruptured rudimentary horn at 22 weeks.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hansa

    2012-07-01

    Rudimentary horn is a developmental anomaly of the uterus. Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is very difficult to diagnose before it ruptures. A case of undiagnosed rudimentary horn pregnancy at 22 weeks presented to Nizwa regional referral hospital in shock with features of acute abdomen. Chances of rupture in first or second trimester are increased with catastrophic haemorrhage leading to increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Management of such cases is a challenge till today due to diagnostic dilemma. Expertise in ultrasonography and early resort to surgical management is life saving in such cases. PMID:23293421

  18. Ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy at sixteen weeks.

    PubMed

    Zeqiri, Fehmi; Paçarada, Myrvete; Kongjeli, Niltene; Zeqiri, Vlora; Kongjeli, Gyltene; Krasniqi, Burim

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is very difficult to diagnose before it ruptures, leading to life -threatening intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A 22-year-old second gravida patient presented at the Emergency Center of the University Clinical Center of Kosova with a 16-week history of amenorrhea and acute onset of severe abdominal pain. She was resuscitated and taken for an emergency laparotomy under general anesthesia. Intraoperatively, there was a massive hemoperitoneum with a ruptured right rudimentary horn Given their rarity, ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancies are of interest. PMID:24591927

  19. Rupture of non-communicating rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hansa

    2008-01-01

    Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn is a rare type of uterine malformation associated with obstetrical complications. Rupture of pregnant rudimentary horn is the usual presentation resulting in severe haemoperitoneum with increased maternal morbidity, and at times, mortality. A case of ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy in a 24-year-old, second gravida, is reported. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy of 14 weeks gestation with haemoperitoneum. Excision of the rudimentary horn was done and an uneventful recovery followed. PMID:18452672

  20. 802GHz integrated horn antennas imaging array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Dave, Hemant; Chin, Gordon

    1991-05-01

    Pattern measurements at 802GHz of a single element in 256-element integrated horn imaging array are presented. The integrated-horn antenna consists of a dipole-antenna suspended on a 1-micron dielectric membrane inside a pyramidal cavity etched in silicon. The theoretical far-field patterns, calculated using reciprocity and Floquet-modes representation of the free-space field, agree well with the measured far-field patterns at 802GHz. The associated directivity for a 1.40 lambda horn aperture, calculated from the measured E and H-plane patterns is 12.3dB + or - 0.2dB. This work demonstrates that high-efficiency integrated-horn antennas are easily scalable to terahertz frequencies and could be used for radio-astronomical and plasma-diagnostic applications.

  1. Non-communicating rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, I

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is an extremely rare form of ectopic gestation. The rudimentary horn may or may not communicate with the uterine cavity with the majority of cases being non-communicating. The patient exhibits features of acute abdomen and carries a high risk of maternal death. Even modern scans remain elusive whereas laparatomy remains the confirmatory procedure for the diagnosis. Because of the varied muscular constitution in the thickness and distensibility of the wall of the rudimentary horn, pregnancy is accommodated for a variable period of gestation. Here, we report three cases of pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn of the uterus in different periods of gestation, their outcome and a review of the available literature. PMID:22922902

  2. Radiation from Axisymmetric Waveguide Fed Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinn, G. C.; Hoppe, D. J.; Epp, L. W.

    1995-01-01

    Return losses and radiation patterns for axisymmetric waveguide fed horns are calculated with the finite element method (FEM) in conjunction with the method of moments (MoM) and the mode matching technique (MM).

  3. Planar Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Geiyer, Daniel; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Allen, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    A motor involves a simple design that can be embedded into a plate structure by incorporating ultrasonic horn actuators into the plate. The piezoelectric material that is integrated into the horns is pre-stressed with flexures. Piezoelectric actuators are attractive for their ability to generate precision high strokes, torques, and forces while operating under relatively harsh conditions (temperatures at single-digit K to as high as 1,273 K). Electromagnetic motors (EM) typically have high rotational speed and low torque. In order to produce a useful torque, these motors are geared down to reduce the speed and increase the torque. This gearing adds mass and reduces the efficiency of the EM. Piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds directly without the need for gears. Designs were developed for producing rotary motion based on the Barth concept of an ultrasonic horn driving a rotor. This idea was extended to a linear motor design by having the horns drive a slider. The unique feature of these motors is that they can be designed in a monolithic planar structure. The design is a unidirectional motor, which is driven by eight horn actuators, that rotates in the clockwise direction. There are two sets of flexures. The flexures around the piezoelectric material are pre-stress flexures and they pre-load the piezoelectric disks to maintain their being operated under compression when electric field is applied. The other set of flexures is a mounting flexure that attaches to the horn at the nodal point and can be designed to generate a normal force between the horn tip and the rotor so that to first order it operates independently and compensates for the wear between the horn and the rotor.

  4. Evolutionary design of corrugated horn antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoorfar, F.; Manshadi, V.; Jamnejad, A.

    2002-01-01

    An evolutionary progranirnitzg (EP) algorithm is used to optimize pattern of a corrugated circularhorn subject to various constraints on return loss and antenna beamwidth and pattern circularity and low crosspolarization. The EP algorithm uses a Gaussian mutation operator. Examples on design synthesis of a 45 section corrugated horn, with a total of 90 optimization parameters, are presented. The results show excellent and efficient optimization of the desired horn parameters.

  5. Placenta accreta in a separate uterine horn.

    PubMed

    Baughn, Mariah R; Vaux, Keith; Masliah, Eliezer

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with intrauterine fetal demise of a 17-2/7-week male fetus. The patient failed misoprostol induction and was taken for surgical evaluation. At the time of surgery an ectopic pregnancy in a noncommunicating rudimentary uterine horn was found. Histologic examination of the excised remnant uterine horn showed there was a placenta accreta. PMID:19642813

  6. Pregnancy in rudimentary horn of uterus.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Kranti; Ajmera, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    A 20-year-old primigravida with 3 months amenorrhea presented with complaints of acute abdominal pain. Her vital systemic parameters were stable. On vaginal examination, the patient was provisionally diagnosed of right cornual ectopic pregnancy, which was confirmed sonographically, and taken up for surgery. There was moderate hemoperitoneum and rupture of right horn of uterus with products protruding. The rudimentary horn was excised. The patient was discharged and advised contraception and follow-up. PMID:24178341

  7. [Penile cutaneous horn. A clinical case].

    PubMed

    Conde Sánchez, J M; Rico López, J; Blasco Hernández, P; Espinosa Olmedo, J; Domínguez Domínguez, M; García Pérez, M

    2000-02-01

    Contribution of a case report of cutaneous horn of penis surgically treated with extensive resection of the implantation base. A well differentiated, microinvasive epidermoid carcinoma was histopathologically demonstrated on a hyperkeratosis squamous papilloma. Although underlying lesions to cutaneous horn are usually benign, malignant changes have been reported in up to one third of cases; surgical treatment should therefore include extensive resection of the implantation base. PMID:10829451

  8. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy in rudimentary horn of the uterus.

    PubMed

    Tufail, Amber; Hashmi, Haleema A

    2007-02-01

    Rudimentary horn is one of the rarest congenital uterine anomalies and consists of a relatively normal appearing uterus on one side with a rudimentary horn on the other side. It is difficult to diagnose before surgery and hazardous to maternal life as rupture of pregnant horn result in severe hemoperitoneum. Case of rudimentary horn pregnancy is reported in a lady with history of habitual abortion and signs and symptoms of acute adnexal pathology. Exploratory laparotomy revealed ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy. Excision of accessory horn was done. PMID:17288859

  9. The rams horn in western history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubman, David

    2003-10-01

    The shofar or rams horn-one of the most ancient of surviving aerophones-may have originated with early Neolithic herders. The shofar is mentioned frequently and importantly in the Hebrew bible and in later biblical and post-biblical literature. Despite its long history, contemporary ritual uses, and profound symbolic significance to western religion, no documentation of shofar acoustical properties was found. Since ancient times, shepherds of many cultures have fashioned sound instruments from the horns of herd animals for practical and musical uses. Shepherd horns of other cultures exhibit an evolution of form and technology (e.g., the inclusion of finger holes). The shofar is unique in having retained its primitive form. It is suggested that after centuries of practical use, the shofar became emblematic of the shepherd culture. Ritual use then developed, which froze its form. A modern ritual rams horn played by an experienced blower was examined. This rather short horn was determined to have a source strength of 92 dB (A) at 1 m, a fundamental frequency near 420 Hz, and maximum power output between 1.2 and 1.8 kHz. Sample sounds and detection range estimates are provided.

  10. Pregnancy in the Rudimentary Uterine Horn

    PubMed Central

    Ambusaidi, Qamariya; Jha, Chitra

    2014-01-01

    A unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn is a uterine anomaly resulting from the incomplete development of one of the Müllerian ducts and an incomplete fusion with the contralateral side. Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn of the uterus is a rare clinical condition with a reported incidence of 1 in 100,000 to 140,000 pregnancies. Usually the diagnosis is missed and may present as an emergency with haemoperitoneum. The standard treatment is the surgical excision of the horn. A gravida 2, para 1 patient presented at 23 weeks’ gestation with fetal demise. Repeated failed attempts at induction of labour raised the suspicion of an abnormally located pregnancy which was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. She underwent a laparotomy with right rudimentary horn excision. The final diagnosis of a non-communicating rudimentary horn pregnancy was made intraoperatively and was confirmed by histopathology. This case highlights the importance of an early ultrasound in detecting uterine anomalies and the need for high clinical suspicion. PMID:24516746

  11. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  12. Fully Explorable Horned Particles Hiding Charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Vasihoun, Mahary

    2015-01-01

    We study a gauge field subsystem which is of a special non-linear form containing a square-root of the Maxwell term and which previously has been shown to produce a QCD-like confining gauge field dynamics in flat space-time. The condition of finite energy of the system or asymptotic flatness on one side of the horned particle implies that the charged object sitting at the throat expels all the flux it produces into the other side of the horned particle, which turns out to be of a "tube-like" nature. An outside observer in the asymptotically flat universe detects, therefore, apparently neutral object. The hiding of the electric flux behind the tube-like region of a horned particle is the only possible way that a truly charged particle can still be of finite energy, in a theory that in flat space describes confinement...

  13. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Allen, Phillip Grant (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic ultrasonic horn where the horn, backing, and pre-stress structures are combined in a single monolithic piece is disclosed. Pre-stress is applied by external flexure structures. The provision of the external flexures has numerous advantages including the elimination of the need for a pre-stress bolt. The removal of the pre-stress bolt eliminates potential internal electric discharge points in the actuator. In addition, it reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the actuator stacks that result from the free surface in the hole of conventional ring stacks. In addition, the removal of the stress bolt and the corresponding reduction in the overall number of parts reduces the overall complexity of the resulting ultrasonic horn actuator and simplifies the ease of the design, fabrication and integration of the actuator of the present invention into other structures.

  14. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Allen, Phillip Grant (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A monolithic ultrasonic horn where the horn, backing, and pre-stress structures are combined in a single monolithic piece is disclosed. Pre-stress is applied by external flexure structures. The provision of the external flexures has numerous advantages including the elimination of the need for a pre-stress bolt. The removal of the pre-stress bolt eliminates potential internal electric discharge points in the actuator. In addition, it reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the actuator stacks that result from the free surface in the hole of conventional ring stacks. In addition, the removal of the stress bolt and the corresponding reduction in the overall number of parts reduces the overall complexity of the resulting ultrasonic horn actuator and simplifies the ease of the design, fabrication and integration of the actuator of the present invention into other structures.

  15. 76 FR 26240 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming..., 2011, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County Weed...

  16. 78 FR 33326 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming... at 3:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at Big Horn County Weed and Pest Building,...

  17. 75 FR 49886 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in..., 2010, and will begin at 9 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County...

  18. 76 FR 47141 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ] ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming..., 2011 and will begin at 3 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County Weed and...

  19. 76 FR 7810 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Lovell, Wyoming..., 2011, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn Federal...

  20. 77 FR 49779 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming... 11, 2012 and will begin at 3 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County Weed...

  1. 75 FR 71069 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming... December 1, 2010, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County...

  2. A Case of Recurrent Rudimentary Horn Ectopic Pregnancies Managed by Methotrexate Therapy and Laparoscopic Excision of the Rudimentary Horn

    PubMed Central

    Moawad, Gaby N.; Abi Khalil, Elias D.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents a case of a 31-year-old woman successfully treated medically for a noncommunicating rudimentary horn ectopic pregnancy who presented with a second, successive rudimentary horn pregnancy. Patient underwent laparoscopic excision of right rudimentary horn and right salpingectomy after failed methotrexate therapy. Given the potential for rupture and recurrence, serious efforts should be made to excise a uterine rudimentary horn. PMID:26966602

  3. A Case of Recurrent Rudimentary Horn Ectopic Pregnancies Managed by Methotrexate Therapy and Laparoscopic Excision of the Rudimentary Horn.

    PubMed

    Moawad, Gaby N; Abi Khalil, Elias D

    2016-01-01

    This report presents a case of a 31-year-old woman successfully treated medically for a noncommunicating rudimentary horn ectopic pregnancy who presented with a second, successive rudimentary horn pregnancy. Patient underwent laparoscopic excision of right rudimentary horn and right salpingectomy after failed methotrexate therapy. Given the potential for rupture and recurrence, serious efforts should be made to excise a uterine rudimentary horn. PMID:26966602

  4. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... defectives equal to an AQL of 1% or less, as set forth in 7 CFR part 43. (2) Each locomotive built before... ambient air temperature is between 32 degrees and 104 degrees Fahrenheit inclusively; relative humidity is.... The observer shall not stand between the microphone and the horn. (8) Background noise shall...

  5. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... defectives equal to an AQL of 1% or less, as set forth in 7 CFR part 43. (2) Each locomotive built before... ambient air temperature is between 32 degrees and 104 degrees Fahrenheit inclusively; relative humidity is.... The observer shall not stand between the microphone and the horn. (8) Background noise shall...

  6. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... defectives equal to an AQL of 1% or less, as set forth in 7 CFR part 43. (2) Each locomotive built before... ambient air temperature is between 32 degrees and 104 degrees Fahrenheit inclusively; relative humidity is.... The observer shall not stand between the microphone and the horn. (8) Background noise shall...

  7. Assembly of the dorsal horn somatotopic map.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Koerber, H R; Millecchia, R

    1997-01-01

    We hypothesize: (a) peripheral innervation densities determine map scales in dorsal horn, (b) dorsal horn cell (DHC) receptive field (RF) geometries are determined by map scales, and (c) morphologies of primary afferents (PAs) and DHCs reflect their developmental history. We suggest the following sequence: (A) PAs project in a somatotopic mediolateral sequence. (B) DHCs assemble prototype RFs by sampling presynaptic neuropil with their dendrites. (C) PAs then project to all levels where their RFs are contained within prototype RFs of DHCs. (D) A competitive mechanism produces the adult form of DHC RFs. (E) Adult distributions of PA terminals and DHC dendrites reflect this developmental history. (F) Mediolateral somatotopic gradients are determined by RF densities of axons entering at the same levels. (G) Map scales at different rostrocaudal levels are determined by somatotopic gradients. (H) Geometries of DHC RFs are determined by constant convergence and divergence of monosynaptic connections. (I) Secondary processes further modify geometries of DHC RFs. (J) Residual self-organizing capacity supports maintenance and plastic mechanisms. We adduce the following evidence: (1) agreement between monosynaptically coupled inputs and cells' excitatory low threshold mechanoreceptive fields; (2) the temporal sequence of events during penetration of the gray matter by PAs; (3)variation of PA terminal and DHC dendritic domains as a function of map scale; (4) somatotopic gradients and geometries of DHC RFs in adult dorsal horn; (5) calculations of peripheral innervation densities and dorsal horn map scales; and (6) constant divergence and convergence between PAs and DHCs. PMID:9399410

  8. The National Implications of "Cain v. Horne"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This commentary addresses the Arizona Supreme Court's legal reasoning in "Cain v. Horne," which struck down two voucher programs for special needs children pursuant to one of Arizona's Blaine Amendments and explains that the court both failed to apply a straightforward textual analysis and ignored the analytical framework its prior precedents had…

  9. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Allen, Phillip Grant

    2011-01-01

    High-power ultrasonic actuators are generally assembled with a horn, backing, stress bolt, piezoelectric rings, and electrodes. The manufacturing process is complex, expensive, difficult, and time-consuming. The internal stress bolt needs to be insulated and presents a potential internal discharge point, which can decrease actuator life. Also, the introduction of a center hole for the bolt causes many failures, reducing the throughput of the manufactured actuators. A new design has been developed for producing ultrasonic horn actuators. This design consists of using flexures rather than stress bolts, allowing one to apply pre-load to the piezoelectric material. It also allows one to manufacture them from a single material/plate, rapid prototype them, or make an array in a plate or 3D structure. The actuator is easily assembled, and application of pre-stress greater than 25 MPa was demonstrated. The horn consists of external flexures that eliminate the need for the conventional stress bolt internal to the piezoelectric, and reduces the related complexity. The stress bolts are required in existing horns to provide prestress on piezoelectric stacks when driven at high power levels. In addition, the manufacturing process benefits from the amenability to produce horn structures with internal cavities. The removal of the pre-stress bolt removes a potential internal electric discharge point in the actuator. In addition, it significantly reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the piezoelectric stacks that result from the hole surface in conventional piezoelectric actuators. The novel features of this disclosure are: 1. A design that can be manufactured from a single piece of metal using EDM, precision machining, or rapid prototyping. 2. Increased electromechanical coupling of the horn actuator. 3. Higher energy density. 4. A monolithic structure of a horn that consists of an external flexure or flexures that can be used to pre-stress a solid piezoelectric structure

  10. Penile cutaneous horn: An enigma-newer insights and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Kaliaperumal

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous horn refers to unusually cohesive keratinized material and not a true pathologic diagnosis. Though cutaneous horn has been described at various sites, horn over the penis is very rare and represents the most unusual site. The role of chronic irritation, phimosis, surgical trauma and radiotherapy have been implicated in penile horn formation. Penile horns present as elongated, keratinous, white or yellowish projections that range from a few millimeters to centimeters in size arising from the glans penis. Histopathology of the keratotic mass reveals nothing but keratin. The underlying mass may vary from verruca vulgaris to squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment is based on the pathology. PMID:26392650

  11. Mechanical and biological properties of oxidized horn keratin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanbin; Shan, Guanghua; Cao, Ping; He, Jia; Lin, Zhongshi; Huang, Yaoxiong; Ao, Ningjian

    2015-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanical and biological properties of oxidized keratin materials, which were obtained by using buffalo horns to oxidize. It could provide a way to evaluate their potential for clinical translatability. The characterization on their composition, mechanical properties, and biological responses was performed. It is found that the oxidation process could lead the disulfide bond to break down and then to form sulfonic acid, or even make partial peptide chain to be fragment for the new modification of amino acid. Hence the oxidized horn keratins have lower thermal stability and hydrolytic stability in comparison with horn keratin, but the degradation products of oxidized horn keratins have no significant difference. In addition, the mechanical properties of oxidized horn keratins are poorer than that of horn keratin, but the oxidized horn keratins still have disulfide bonds to form a three-dimensional structure, which benefits for their mechanical properties. The fracture toughness of oxidized horn keratins increases with the increase in the degree of oxidation. After oxidation, the oxidized horn keratins have lower cytotoxicity and lower hemolysis ratio. Moreover, when the oxidized horn keratins, as well as different concentration of degradation products of oxidized horn keratins, are directly in contact with platelet-rich plasma, platelets are not activated. It suggests that the oxidized horn keratins have good hemocompatibility, without triggering blood thrombosis. The implantation experiment in vivo also demonstrates that the oxidized horn keratins are compatible with the tissue, because there are minimal fibrous capsule and less of infiltration of host cells, without causing serious inflammation. In summary, the oxidized horn keratins can act as implanted biomaterial devices that are directly in contact with blood and tissue. PMID:25492180

  12. Dual band combiner for horn antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, W. F.; Cohn, S. B. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A corrugated horn antenna, adapted to be coupled to a waveguide at its apex for X-band excitation is further adapted to be connected to waveguides through a circumferential slot for S-band excitation at four distinct phases selected for the desired S-band polarization. The circumferential slot is positioned along the axial length of the horn for good impedance matching and is provided with an X-band choke in the form of two concentric choke slots. For further improvement in impedance matching, the second (outer) choke slot is divided by plugs into four segments that coincide with waveguide ports for the four distinct phases of the S-band.

  13. The effect of nearby timpani strokes on horn playing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jer-Ming; Smith, John; Wolfe, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Horn players have observed that timpani strokes can interfere disruptively with their playing, especially when they are seated close to the timpani. Measuring the horn's transfer function in the bell-to-mouthpiece direction reveals that the horn behaves as an acoustic impedance matching device, capable of transmitting waves with pressure gains of at least 20 dB near horn playing resonances. During moderate to loud timpani strokes, the horn transmits an overall impulse gain response of at least 16 dB from the bell to the mouthpiece, while evidence of non-linear bore propagation can be observed for louder strokes. If the timpani is tuned near a horn resonance, as is usually the case, further bore resonance interactions may be observed leading to gains of ∼26 dB from bell to mouthpiece. Finally, measurements of horn playing made under conditions approximating playing reveal that timpani strokes sounding near the horn bell are capable of disrupting horn playing by affecting the amplitude, periodicity, and frequency of the pressure signal generated at the horn player's lips. PMID:24437787

  14. A Novel Type of Nutritional Ant–Plant Interaction: Ant Partners of Carnivorous Pitcher Plants Prevent Nutrient Export by Dipteran Pitcher Infauna

    PubMed Central

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G.; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect–plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant–plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated 15N/14N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ15N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants’ nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a 15N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ15N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers’ trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants’ prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant. PMID:23717446

  15. A novel type of nutritional ant-plant interaction: ant partners of carnivorous pitcher plants prevent nutrient export by dipteran pitcher infauna.

    PubMed

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G; Grafe, T Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect-plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant-plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated (15)N/(14)N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ(15)N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants' nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a (15)N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ(15)N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers' trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants' prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant. PMID:23717446

  16. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Susan Small, director of the Florida Wildlife Hospital, holds a great horned owl before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  17. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, remove two great horned owls from the vehicle before releasing them at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release..

  18. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, get ready to release two great horned owls at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  19. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, holds a great horned owl before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  20. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A great horned owl flies to freedom after its release at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  1. Three-Dimensional Distribution of Sensory Stimulation-Evoked Neuronal Activity of Spinal Dorsal Horn Neurons Analyzed by In Vivo Calcium Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn. PMID:25100083

  2. Aperture efficiency of integrated-circuit horn antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yong; Lee, Karen; Stimson, Philip; Potter, Kent; Rutledge, David

    1991-01-01

    The aperture efficiency of silicon integrated-circuit horn antennas has been improved by optimizing the length of the dipole probes and by coating the entire horn walls with gold. To make these measurements, a new thin-film power-density meter was developed for measuring power density with accuracies better than 5 percent. The measured aperture efficiency improved from 44 percent to 72 percent at 93 GHz. This is sufficient for use in many applications which now use machined waveguide horns.

  3. BigHorn Home Improvement Center: Proof that a Retail Building Can Be a Low Energy Building: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.

    2004-07-01

    The BigHorn Home Improvement Center in Silverthorne, Colorado was one of the first commercial buildings in the United States to integrate extensive high-performance design into a retail space. After monitoring and evaluation by NREL, the BigHorn Center was found to consume 54% less source energy and have 53% lower energy costs than typical retail buildings of similar size. The extensive use of daylighting to replace electric lighting reduced lighting energy requirements by 80% and significantly contributed to the reduced energy loads in the building.

  4. Ultrasonic actuators: Remote strain measurements, high strain horns and ultrasonic chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung Hoon

    In this thesis, optical diffraction strain measurement, silicon-based ultrasonic horn actuators for thin film testing, and mufluidic assay systems are presented. Optical ultrasonic strain measurement: Using optical diffraction gratings integrated on a PZT/silicon laminate actuator, the strain on the actuator was optically and remotely measured. The methodology, limitations, analytical and numerical (ANSYS) analysis are presented. This technology of diffraction grating for ultrasonic strain measurements could lead to an instrument useful for remote monitoring of strain on MEMS sensors. Design of high efficiency silicon-based ultrasonic horn, and their fabrication for thin film testing under cyclic load: A detailed ultrasonic horn design and its analysis are resented. For this application a Gaussian horn is utilized. Most ultrasonic horns have a single point maximum strain point along the horn resulting in strain gradient at all points. For the purpose of straining thin films it is desirable to have areas of spatially constant strain fields. Remarkably, the Gaussian horn has a constant strain area suitable for thin film testing. High strain values can lead to testing not only fatigue, but also fracture of thin films. We feel that the ability to generate constant ultrasonic strain areas on silicon is a technique suitable for industrial and academic material characterization. A portable high-intensity ultrasonic actuator for mufluidic separation (ultrasonic chromatography): Micro-particle manipulation in a liquid using ultrasonic fields in a micro-channel, principle of operation, and analysis are presented. Beads of different sizes could be separated within an optically viewable aperture (˜100 mum). It is found that the separation occurs due to ultrasonic radiation force and a new inertial force, acting on the beads. The key mechanism of focusing beads at the nodes of ultrasonic standing waves, and the origin of the inertial force for the separation are described. The

  5. BigHorn Home Improvement Center Energy Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    The BigHorn Development Project, located in Silverthorne, Colorado, is one of the nation's first commercial building projects to integrate extensive high-performance design into a retail space. The BigHorn Home Improvement Center, completed in the spring of 2000, is a 42,366-ft2 (3,936 m2) hardware store, warehouse, and lumberyard. The authors were brought in at the design stage of the project to provide research-level guidance to apply an integrated design process and perform a postoccupancy evaluation. An aggressive energy design goal of 60% energy cost saving was set early in the process, which focused the efforts of the design team and provided a goal for measuring the success of the project. The extensive use of natural light, combined with energy-efficient electrical lighting design, provides good illumination and excellent energy savings. The reduced lighting loads, management of solar gains, and cool climate allow natural ventilation to meet the cooling loads. A hydronic radiant floor system, gas-fired radiant heaters, and a transpired solar collector deliver heat. An 8.9-kW roof-integrated photovoltaic (PV) system offsets a portion of the electricity. After construction, the authors installed monitoring equipment to collect energy performance data and analyzed the building's energy performance for two and one-half years. The authors also helped program the building controls and provided recommendations for improving operating efficiency. The building shows an estimated 53% energy cost saving and a 54% source energy saving. These savings were determined with whole-building energy simulations that were calibrated with measured data. This paper discusses lessons learned related to the design process, the daylighting performance, the PV system, and the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system.

  6. Beyond "Cain v. Horne": Comment on Tim Keller's "The National Implications of 'Cain v. Horne'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    This commentary is in response to Tim Keller's article "The National Implications of 'Cain v. Horne.'" In his analysis, Keller asserts that the Arizona Supreme Court wrongfully struck down a voucher program for students with special needs by characterizing the voucher as aid to schools rather than aid to students. In this response to Keller, I…

  7. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY OF HORN POWER SUPPLY.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; WENG,W.T.

    2003-06-16

    A 250 kA pulsed power supply is required for the focusing horn of the proposed Brookhaven AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It is expected to pulse at 2.5 Hz repetition rate. A preliminary study is being conducted to explore the key issues associated with the power supply system design. Advanced technologies used in similar systems as well as new ideas are being examined, simulated and evaluated. This power supply will be a very high stored energy, high average power, and high peak power system.

  8. Experimental rabies in a great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, R D; Gough, P M; Graham, D L

    1976-07-01

    A great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was fed the carcass of an experimentally infected rabid skunk. The bird developed antibody titer to rabies, detected by passive haemagglutination, 27 days after oral inoculation by ingestion. The owl suppressed the infection until corticosteroid administration, after which a maximum antibody titer was attained. Evidence of active rabies viral infection was seen by fluorescent antibody staining of oral swabs, corneal impression smears and histologic tissue smears, by suckling mouse inoculation of oral swab washings, and by transmission electron microcopy. No clinical signs of rabies virus infection were observed. PMID:16498892

  9. Bioprospecting for podophyllotoxin in the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate variations in podophyllotoxin concentrations in Juniperus species found in the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming. It was found that Juniperus species in the Big Horn Mountains included three species; J. communis L. (common juniper), J. horizontalis Moench. (c...

  10. Rudimentary horn pregnancy: pre-rupture diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Buntugu, Ka; Ntumy, My; Ameh, Eo; Obed, Sa

    2008-06-01

    Rudimentary horn pregnancy is a rare obstetric entity and the diagnosis and management may pose some problems especially in a low-resource center. We report our experience in diagnosing and managing a case of fetal death in a rudimentary horn. PMID:19180211

  11. Planar Rotary Motor Using Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Chang, Zensheu; Geiyer, Daniel; Allen, Phillip; Ostlund, Patrick; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    One of the first piezoelectric motor designs with significant rotational speeds was outlined by Barth. This device used extensional piezoelectric elements to produce a time varying force at a distance r from the center of a centrally supported disk. These extensional actuators produced micro-steps at a high frequency with the end result being macroscopic rotation of the disk and high torque. The rotation direction is controlled by the choice of the actuators and the direction of the extension about the rotor center. A recent advancement in producing pre-stressed power ultrasonic horns using flexures allows for the development of high torque ultrasonic motors based on the Barth's idea that can be fabricated in a 2D plate or in more complicated 3D structures. In addition to the pre-stress flexures the design also allows for the use of flexures to produce the rotor/horn normal force. The torque can be controlled by the number of actuators in the plane and the amplitude of the normal force. This paper will present analytical and experimental results obtained from testing prototype planar motors.

  12. Diagnostic findings in 132 great horned owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Little, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N = 10), and Wisconsin (N = 9). Forty-two birds were emaciated but presumptive causes of emaciation, including old injuries, chronic lesions in various organs, and exposure to dieldrin, were found in only 16. A greater proportion of juveniles (56%) than adults (29%) were emaciated. Twelve owls were shot and 35 died from other traumatic injuries. Poisonings were diagnosed in 11 birds, including five associated with hydrogen sulfide exposure in oil fields and six cases of agricultural pesticide poisonings. Electrocution killed nine birds and infectious diseases were found in six. Miscellaneous conditions, including egg impaction, drowning, and visceral gout were diagnosed in three of the birds and the cause of death was undetermined in 14 owls. While this review identifies major diagnostic findings in great horned owls, sample bias prevents definitive conclusions regarding actual proportional causes of mortality.

  13. Progress Toward Corrugated Feed Horn Arrays in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, J.; Yoon, K. W.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Cho, H. M.; Hilton, G. C.; Niemack, M. D.; Irwin, K. D.

    2009-12-16

    We are developing monolithic arrays of corrugated feed horns fabricated in silicon for dual-polarization single-mode operation at 90, 145 and 220 GHz. The arrays consist of hundreds of platelet feed horns assembled from gold-coated stacks of micro-machined silicon wafers. As a first step, Au-coated Si waveguides with a circular, corrugated cross section were fabricated; their attenuation was measured to be less than 0.15 dB/cm from 80 to 110 GHz at room temperature. To ease the manufacture of horn arrays, electrolytic deposition of Au on degenerate Si without a metal seed layer was demonstrated. An apparatus for measuring the radiation pattern, optical efficiency, and spectral band-pass of prototype horns is described. Feed horn arrays made of silicon may find use in measurements of the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  14. [Rudimentary horn pregnancy: first trimester ultrasound diagnosis and laparoscopic confirmation].

    PubMed

    Salazar-López, R; Antillón-Valenzuela, J

    2013-08-01

    Case report of rudimentary uterine horn on first trimester pregnancy that was diagnosed by sonographic images and laparoscopically confirmed. We suggest a set of criteria for early diagnosis of this rare condition using sonographic with 3D endovaginal ultrasound. We present a first trimester extrauterine pregnancy that was diagnosed in rutinary sonographic analisys. A rudimentary horn pregnancy was detected by sonographic with 3D endovaginal ultrasound, that was confirmed laparoscopically. Rudimentary horn pregnancy was right sided without endometrial communication with the uterine body. The rudimentary horn pregnancy was laparoscopically resected, a fibrous bridge between horn and uterus is confirmed, also a normal aspect tube was observed, wich was underwent to fimbriectomy. We suggest to consider this rare posibility on extrauterine pregnancy diagnosis, and also apply 3D technology under endovaginal route to achieve an early diagnosis and avoid rupture. PMID:24049979

  15. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations. PMID:21310032

  16. A nonrational B-spline profiled horn with high displacement amplification for ultrasonic welding.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huu-Tu; Nguyen, Hai-Dang; Uan, Jun-Yen; Wang, Dung-An

    2014-12-01

    A new horn with high displacement amplification for ultrasonic welding is developed. The profile of the horn is a nonrational B-spline curve with an open uniform knot vector. The ultrasonic actuation of the horn exploits the first longitudinal displacement mode of the horn. The horn is designed by an optimization scheme and finite element analyses. Performances of the proposed horn have been evaluated by experiments. The displacement amplification of the proposed horn is 41.4% and 8.6% higher than that of the traditional catenoidal horn and a Bézier-profile horn, respectively, with the same length and end surface diameters. The developed horn has a lower displacement amplification than the nonuniform rational B-spline profiled horn but a much smoother stress distribution. The developed horn, the catenoidal horn, and the Bézier horn are fabricated and used for ultrasonic welding of lap-shear specimens. The bonding strength of the joints welded by the open uniform nonrational B-spline (OUNBS) horn is the highest among the three horns for the various welding parameters considered. The locations of the failure mode and the distribution of the voids of the specimens are investigated to explain the reason of the high bonding strength achieved by the OUNBS horn. PMID:25081407

  17. 49 CFR 222.59 - When may a wayside horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... grade crossing equipped with a wayside horn shall not be considered in calculating the Quiet Zone Risk Index or Crossing Corridor Risk Index. (b) A public authority installing a wayside horn at a grade... wayside horn will be operational and identify the grade crossing at which the wayside horn shall...

  18. A 20-dB quasi-integrated horn antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eleftheriades, George V.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-01-01

    A multimode quasi-integrated dipole-fed horn antenna is presented with a performance comparable to that of waveguide-fed corrugated horn antennas. The antenna has been designed using fullwave analysis and has been fabricated and tested at 91 GHz. The horn has a gain of 20 dB with very symmetric patterns, a Gaussian coupling efficiency of 97 percent, and a cross-polarization level of -22.7 dB. The antenna provides a significant improvement in integrated antenna designs and is suitable for millimeter-wave communication and radar systems and as a Gaussian-beam launcher in quasi-optical receiver systems.

  19. Formal verification of communication protocols using quantized Horn clauses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    The stochastic nature of quantum communication protocols naturally lends itself for expression via probabilistic logic languages. In this work we describe quantized computation using Horn clauses and base the semantics on quantum probability. Turing computable Horn clauses are very convenient to work with and the formalism can be extended to general form of first order languages. Towards this end we build a Hilbert space of H-interpretations and a corresponding non commutative von Neumann algebra of bounded linear operators. We demonstrate the expressive power of the language by casting quantum communication protocols as Horn clauses.

  20. Understanding recent eastern Horn of Africa rainfall variability and change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liebmann, Brant; Hoerling, Martin P.; Funk, Christopher C.; Blade, Ileana; Dole, Randall M.; Allured, Dave; Quan, Xiaowei; Eischeid, Jon K.

    2014-01-01

    The recent upward trend in the October–December wet season is rather weak, however, and its statistical significance is compromised by strong year-to-year fluctuations. October–December eastern Horn rain variability is strongly associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean dipole phenomena on interannual scales, in both model and observations. The interannual October–December correlation between the ensemble-average and observed Horn rainfall 0.87. By comparison, interannual March–May Horn precipitation is only weakly constrained by SST anomalies.

  1. Design of a Bézier-profile horn for high displacement amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, D-A; Chuang, W-Y; Hsu, K; Pham, H-T

    2011-02-01

    A new horn for high displacement amplification is developed. The profile of the horn is a cubic Bézier curve. The ultrasonic actuation of the horn exploits the first longitudinal displacement mode of the horn. A design method of the horn using an optimization scheme and finite element analyses is developed. Prototypes of the horns are manufactured by a numerical control machining process. Performances of the proposed horn have been evaluated by experiments. Experimental results of the harmonic response of the fabricated horn confirm the effectiveness of the design method. The displacement amplification of the proposed horn is 71% higher than that of the traditional catenoidal horn with the same length and end surface diameters. PMID:20696449

  2. Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David

    1984-01-01

    Provides guidelines for selecting a monitor to suit specific applications, explains the process by which graphics images are produced on a CRT monitor, and describes four types of flat-panel displays being used in the newest lap-sized portable computers. A comparison chart provides prices and specifications for over 80 monitors. (MBR)

  3. Image measurement technique on vibration amplitude of ultrasonic horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-bin; Wu, Zhi-qun; Zhu, Jian-ping; He, Jian-guo; Liu, Guang-min

    2013-10-01

    The paper proposes a method to measure vibration amplitude of ultrasonic horn which is a very important component in the spindle for micro-electrical-chemical discharging machining. The method of image measuring amplitude on high frequency vibration is introduced. Non-contact measurement system based on vision technology is constructed. High precision location algorithm on image centroid, quadratic location algorithm, is presented to find the center of little light spot. Measurement experiments have been done to show the effect of image measurement technique on vibration amplitude of ultrasonic horn. In the experiments, precise calibration of the vision system is implemented using a normal graticule to obtain the scale factor between image pixel and real distance. The vibration amplitude of ultrasonic horn is changed by modifying the voltage amplitude of pulse power supply. The image of feature on ultrasonic horn is captured and image processing is carried out. The vibration amplitudes are got at different voltages.

  4. 28. Photograph of interior view of fog horn signal building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photograph of interior view of fog horn signal building with two lighthouse keepers by steam engine wheel, ca. 1920. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  5. An aperture-matched compact range feed horn design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heedy, D. J.; Burnside, W. D.

    1985-01-01

    The moment method and the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction are used to obtain two separate solutions for the E-plane far field pattern of an aperture-matched horn antenna. This particular horn antenna consists of a standard pyramidal horn with the following modifications: a rolled edge section attached to the aperture edges and a curved throat section. The resulting geometry provides significantly better performance in terms of the pattern, impedance, and frequency characteristics than normally obtainable. The moment method is used to calculate the E-plane pattern and voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) of the antenna. However, at higher frequencies, the moment method requires large amounts of computation time. On the other hand, the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction provides a quick and efficient high frequency solution for the E-plane field pattern. This procedure has been successfully applied to design a compact range feed horn.

  6. The limits on combining recursive horn rules with description logics

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.Y.; Rousset, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Horn rule languages have formed the basis for many Artificial Intelligence application languages, but are not expressive enough to model domains with a rich hierarchical structure. Description logics have been designed especially to model rich hierarchies. Several applications would significantly benefit from combining the expressive power of both formalisms. This paper focuses on combining recursive function-free Horn rules with the expressive description logic ALCNR, and shows exactly when a hybrid language with decidable inference can be obtained. First, we show that several of the core constructors of description logics lead by themselves to undecidability of inference when combined with recursive function-free Horn rules. We then show that without these constructors we obtain a maximal subset of ALCNRR that yields a decidable hybrid language. Finally, we describe a restriction on the Horn rules that guarantees decidable inference when combined with all of ALCNR, and covers many of the common usages of recursive rules.

  7. Large loudspeaker horns and crated Edison radios from 1929 are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Large loudspeaker horns and crated Edison radios from 1929 are stored in a side room on the third floor. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  8. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna.

  9. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-19

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna. 8 figs.

  10. [Rudimentary horn pregnancy diagnostic: difficulties and therapeutic management].

    PubMed

    Mamouni, Nisrine; Ghazal, Nabil; Erraghay, Sanaa; Bouchikhi, Chahrazed; Banani, Abdelaziz

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of rudimentary horn pregnancy is an extremely rare and potentially serious obstetric entity, threatening maternal and fetal outcome. The authors report five cases of rudimentary horn pregnancy, the difficulties in making a proper diagnosis and the therapeutic management of this pathological entity, stressing the importance of transvaginal ultrasound, of pelvic MRI and laparoscopy in the early diagnosis of this type of uterine malformation. PMID:27583078

  11. Pyogenic granuloma underlying cutaneous horn in a young boy.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pragya A; Kota, Rahul Krishna S; Pilani, Abhisheik P

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is an elongated, keratinous projection that usually occurs over the sun-exposed areas. It is a clinical diagnosis and may overlie any benign, premalignant, or malignant conditions. Treatment includes wide surgical excision with careful histological examination to exclude a focus of malignancy. An unusual case of a pyogenic granuloma presenting as cutaneous horn on the lower lip in an 11-year-old boy is presented here. PMID:27057494

  12. Pyogenic granuloma underlying cutaneous horn in a young boy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A.; Kota, Rahul Krishna S.; Pilani, Abhisheik P.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is an elongated, keratinous projection that usually occurs over the sun-exposed areas. It is a clinical diagnosis and may overlie any benign, premalignant, or malignant conditions. Treatment includes wide surgical excision with careful histological examination to exclude a focus of malignancy. An unusual case of a pyogenic granuloma presenting as cutaneous horn on the lower lip in an 11-year-old boy is presented here. PMID:27057494

  13. Water resources of Big Horn County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafcan, Maria; Cassidy, E.W.; Smalley, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Groundwater in unconsolidated aquifers is the most reliable and accessible source of potable water in Big Horn County, Wyoming. Well yields generally ranged from 25 to 200 gal/min; however, yields of 1600 gal/min are reported from wells in the gravel, pediment, and fan deposits. Bedrock aquifers that yield the most abundant water supplies are the Tensleep Sandstone, Madison Limestone, Bighorn Dolomite, and Flathead Sandstone. The Madison Limestone, the Darby Formation, and the Bighorn Dolomite form the Madison/Bighorn aquifer. Shut-in pressure from flowing wells in bedrock indicate declines, from the time the wells were completed to 1988, by as much as 390 ft. Water samples from wells completed,in unconsolidated aquifers had concentration of dissolved solids less than 2000 mg/L. Water samples from wells in aquifers in Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks had median concentrations of dissolved solids ranging from 111 to 275 mg/L. Perennial streams originate in the mountains and ephemeral streams originate in the Bighorn Basin. The predominant dissolved constituents are calcium or sodium and bicarbonate or sulfate. Concentrations of pesticides detected in surface-water samples were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant levels. Pesticides detected in groundwater samples included dicamba and picloram at a concentration of 0.40 microg/L, atrazines (0.40 microg/L), aldicarb sulfoxide (1.44 microg/L), aldicarb sulfoxide (0.52 microg/L), and malathion (0.02 microg/L). Analyses of groundwater samples for radionuclides indicated that concentrations from four municipal wells exceeded the maximum contaminant levels established by the USEPA. Surface water accounts for 96 percent and groundwater accounts for 4 percent of total off-stream water use in Big Horn County. Irrigation is the largest off-stream use of both surface and groundwater. Groundwater supplies 89 percent of water used for domestic purposes and about 16 percent of water used

  14. Long-term ecological changes in the north Adriatic Sea: Epi-to Infauna turnover at the Brijuni islands national park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pifeas, Iason; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea with its densely populated coastline experienced strong anthropogenic impacts during the last centuries. The Brijuni islands at the southern tip of Istria, Croatia, are a national park since 1983 and represent a study area of special interest when comparing impacted marine areas with regions under relatively long-term protection that were able to recover from the pressure of fishing and bottom trawling. The present study is part of a project on the historical ecology of the northern Adriatic sea and focusses on long-term ecological changes and benthic community shifts as a result of anthropogenic impacts since the Holocene transgression. Several cores of 1.5 m length and a diameter of 90 mm were taken close to the main island of Brijuni and sliced into smaller subunits for sediment analyses and the investigation of death assemblages. Hard part remains of molluscs, crustaceans, bryozoans, echinoderms and sedentary polychaetes were analysed for species composition, abundance and indicators for high biomass epifauna. Death assemblages were compared with surface samples of the recent fauna taken at the same area by grab-sampling and by divers using a 100 x 100 cm frame. Data analyses revealed a steep increase of species abundance and diversity in the early stages of the Holocene transgression, at the very bottom of the core, followed by a steady decline, representing a major shift from a previously epibenthic to an infauna dominated community. Towards the top of the core, this trend weakens, and in the uppermost 6 cm it even reverses indicating a possible recovery of the benthic communities since the protection of the area. By correlating down-core changes in benthic community structure with sediment parameters (grain size distribution, TOC, heavy metal content, concentrations of organic pollutants) and data from radiometric sediment dating, we can further improve our understanding of the timing and the magnitude of past ecological changes and

  15. Restoration of the Golden Horn Estuary (Halic).

    PubMed

    Coleman, Heather M; Kanat, Gurdal; Aydinol Turkdogan, F Ilter

    2009-12-01

    Restoration of the iconic Golden Horn Estuary in Istanbul, Turkey was a substantial political, logistical, ecological, and social challenge. Forty years of uncontrolled industrial and urban growth resulted in thick layers of anoxic sediment, toxic bacteria, strong hydrogen sulfide odor, and ecologically unlivable conditions. The major components of restoration, spanning two decades, have included (1) demolition and relocation of industries and homes along the shore, (2) creation of wastewater infrastructure, (3) removal of anoxic sludge from the estuary, (4) removal of a floating bridge that impeded circulation, and (5) creation of cultural and social facilities. Although Turkey is not known as an environmental leader in pollution control, the sum of these efforts was largely successful in revitalizing the area through dramatic water quality improvement. Consequently, the estuary is once again inhabitable for aquatic life as well as amenable to local resource users and foreign visitors, and Istanbul has regained a lost sense of cultural identity. This paper focuses on literature review and personal interviews to discuss the causes of degradation, solutions employed to rehabilitate the estuary, and subsequent physicochemical, ecological, and social changes. PMID:19781731

  16. Thirty years of collaboration with Gabriel Horn.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    All the collaborative work described in this review was on the process of behavioural imprinting occurring early in the life of domestic chicks. Finding a link between learning and a change in the brain was only a first step in establishing a representation of the imprinting object. A series of overlapping experiments were necessary to eliminate alternative explanations. Once completed, a structure, the intermediate and medial mesopallium (IMM), was found to be strongly linked to the formation of a neural representation of the object used for imprinting the birds. With the site identified, lesion experiments showed that it was necessary for imprinting but not associative learning. Also the two sides of the brain responded differently with the left IMM acting as a permanent store and the right side acting as a way station to other parts of the brain. The collaborative work led to many studies by Gabriel Horn with others on the molecular and cellular bases of imprinting, and also to neural net modelling and behavioural studies with me on the nature of category formation in intact animals. PMID:25305059

  17. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF PROSTEPHANUS TRUNCATUS (HORN) (BOSTRICHIDAE: COLEOPTERA) FLIGHT ACTIVITY NEAR MAIZE STORES AND IN DIFFERENT FOREST TYPES IN SOUTHERN BENIN, WEST AFRICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weekly Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) flight activity (measured as captures of beetles in pheromone baited traps) was monitored during 76 consecutive weeks at 16 sites inside the Lama forest in southern Benin and at four sites in maize farmland just outside the forest. Prostephanus truncatus flight a...

  18. Detection of Gelatin Adulteration in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Analysis of Deer-Horn Glue by Rapid-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia; Cheng, Xian-Long; Wei, Feng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Li, Ming-Hua; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous identification of donkey-hide gelatin and bovine-hide gelatin in deer-horn glue was established by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Water containing 1% NH4HCO3 was used for sample dissolution and trypsin was used for hydrolysis of the gelatins. After separation by a SB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column, collagen marker peptides were detected by mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The method was specific, precise and reliable, and suitable for detection of adulterants derived from donkey-hide gelatin and bovine-hide gelatin in deer-horn glue. PMID:26504613

  19. Ovarian activity in the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) determined by faecal steroid analysis.

    PubMed

    Morrow, C J; Monfort, S L

    1998-10-01

    Ultrasonography and radioimmunoassay (RIA) of serum oestradiol-17beta, luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone, and faecal oestrogen and progestin was used to assess ovarian activity in the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). Ovarian examination using ultrasonography revealed maximal follicle and corpus luteum (CL) diameters of 15 and 32 mm, respectively. Steroid hormone metabolite distribution among individual faecal pellets within the same defaecation was relatively homogeneous with coefficients of variation averaging 10.2+/-1.8% and 16.2+/-4.6% for oestrogens and progestins, respectively. Elevated faecal oestrogen concentrations were associated with large (> 10 mm) antral follicles detected by ultrasonography. Periovulatory peaks in faecal oestrogen excretion, coincident with nadirs in progestin excretion, were detected in three females. Faecal progestin excretion exhibited a similar temporal pattern to serum progesterone concentrations, with a time lag of approximately 16 h. Faecal progestin concentrations corresponded with the presence of functional CL and proved useful for monitoring luteal function, spontaneous and prostaglandin-F2alpha analogue-induced luteolysis and anovulation. In summary, faecal steroid monitoring is a practical, noninvasive method for characterising ovarian steroid excretion and has potential for facilitating the application of assisted reproductive technologies in scimitar-horned oryx. PMID:9835376

  20. Variation of dorsal horn cell dendritic spread with map scale.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Millecchia, R; Culberson, J L; Gladfelter, W; Covalt-Dunning, D

    1996-10-21

    Cells in laminae III, IV, and V of cat dorsal horn were injected with horseradish peroxidase or neurobiotin. Dorsal views of the dendritic domains were constructed in order to measure their lengths, widths, areas, and length/width ratios in the horizontal plane (the plane of the somatotopic map). Dendritic domain width and area in the horizontal plane were negatively correlated with fractional distance between the medial and lateral edges of the dorsal horn. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that dendritic domain width varies with map scale, which is maximal in the medial dorsal horn. This is similar to the variation in widths of primary afferent bouton distributions. The parallel variation of dorsal horn cell dendritic domain width and primary afferent bouton distribution width with map scale suggests that there is a causal relation between morphology and map scale in the dorsal horn representation of the hindlimb. This variation of adult morphology with map scale must reflect mechanisms responsible for the assembly of receptive fields. PMID:8906504

  1. An unexpected near term pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Elisabete; Prata, João Pedro; Ferreira, Sandra; Abreu, Rita; Mesquita, Jorge; Carvalho, Agostinho; Pinheiro, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Unicornuate uterus occurs due to a complete or partial nondevelopment of one Mullerian duct; sometimes it is associated with a rudimentary horn, which can communicate or not with uterine cavity or contain functional endometrium. Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is rare and the outcome almost always unfavorable, usually ending in rupture during the first or second trimester with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability and advances on imagiologic procedures, recognition of this ectopic pregnancy is frequently made at laparotomy after abdominal pain and collapse. The authors describe a case of a primigravida with 34 weeks of gestation admitted with a preeclampsia with severity criteria. A cesarean for fetal malpresentation was done and, unexpectedly, a rudimentary horn pregnancy was found with a live newborn. In the literature, few reports of a horn pregnancy reaching the viability with a live newborn are described, enhancing the clinical importance of this case. A review of literature concerning the epidemics, clinical presentation, and appropriate management of uterine horn pregnancies is made. PMID:23710390

  2. An Unexpected Near Term Pregnancy in a Rudimentary Uterine Horn

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Elisabete; Prata, João Pedro; Abreu, Rita; Mesquita, Jorge; Carvalho, Agostinho; Pinheiro, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Unicornuate uterus occurs due to a complete or partial nondevelopment of one Mullerian duct; sometimes it is associated with a rudimentary horn, which can communicate or not with uterine cavity or contain functional endometrium. Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is rare and the outcome almost always unfavorable, usually ending in rupture during the first or second trimester with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability and advances on imagiologic procedures, recognition of this ectopic pregnancy is frequently made at laparotomy after abdominal pain and collapse. The authors describe a case of a primigravida with 34 weeks of gestation admitted with a preeclampsia with severity criteria. A cesarean for fetal malpresentation was done and, unexpectedly, a rudimentary horn pregnancy was found with a live newborn. In the literature, few reports of a horn pregnancy reaching the viability with a live newborn are described, enhancing the clinical importance of this case. A review of literature concerning the epidemics, clinical presentation, and appropriate management of uterine horn pregnancies is made. PMID:23710390

  3. Breeding ecology of Horned Puffins (Fratercula corniculata) in Alaska: annual variation and effects of El Niño

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Hamer, K.C.

    2003-01-01

    Both within and among seabird species, different aspects of breeding biology may respond to changes in prey availability in distinct ways, and the identification of species-specific breeding parameters that are sensitive to food availability is useful for monitoring purposes. We present data from a 5-year study (1995–1999) of the breeding ecology of Horned Puffins (Fratercula corniculata) in Alaska. The El Niño – Southern Oscillation event of 1997–1998 provided an opportunity to examine the sensitivity of various breeding parameters to a reduction in prey availability caused by the anomalous oceanographic conditions of 1998. Horned Puffins were able to maintain high fledging success (83–97%) over the 5 years of the study, despite the poor local feeding conditions in 1998. The rate of increase in chick mass was lowest in 1998, and evidence suggests that chicks also fledged at the youngest ages in that year. The impacts of reduced food availability on growth varied among body structures, suggesting differential allocation of energy and nutrients. There was no variation among years in either chick diet or the mass of food loads delivered by adults. We suggest that rates of chick growth, specifically mass increase, may be a good parameter to measure for use in monitoring Horned Puffins.

  4. Transverse electromagnetic horn antenna with resistively-loaded exterior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Aurand, John F.

    1999-01-01

    An improved transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antenna comprises a resistive loading material on the exterior surfaces of the antenna plates. The resistive loading material attenuates or inhibits currents on the exterior surfaces of the TEM horn antenna. The exterior electromagnetic fields are of opposite polarity in comparison to the primary and desired interior electromagnetic field, thus inherently cause partial cancellation of the interior wave upon radiation or upon reception. Reducing the exterior fields increases the radiation efficiency of the antenna by reducing the cancellation of the primary interior field (supported by the interior surface currents). This increases the transmit gain and receive sensitivity of the TEM horn antenna, as well as improving the transient (time-domain) response.

  5. A Micro Ultrasonic Scalpel with Modified Stepped Horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Minoru; Umehara, Yuji

    A transducer for a micro ultrasonic scalpel has been fabricated. The micro ultrasonic scalpel can be used with an endoscope for a non-abdominal operation or micro surgery, for example, through a microscope. The ultrasonic transducer was 9.8 mm long and 2.7 mm wide and has stepped horn to amplify vibration velocity; tip of the horn is 0.6 mm wide. The scalpel operated at the resonance frequency in longitudinal mode of 278 kHz. The piezoelectric material was lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that was deposited by the hydrothermal method. The vibration velocity at the tip of the horn in longitudinal direction was 4.0 m/s with 40Vp-p driving voltage in both side electrodes. To demonstrate a beneficial effect of the scalpel, a cutting test that the transducer was stuck into pork fat was carried out.

  6. Detecting flaws in Portland cement concrete using TEM horn antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qadi, Imad L.; Riad, Sedki M.; Su, Wansheng; Haddad, Rami H.

    1996-11-01

    To understand the dielectric properties of PCC and better correlate them with type and severity of PCC internal defects, a study was conducted to evaluate PCC complex permittivity and magnetic permeability over a wideband of frequencies using both time domain and frequency domain techniques. Three measuring devices were designed and fabricated: a parallel plate capacitor, a coaxial transmission line, and transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antennae. The TEM horn antenna covers the microwave frequencies. The measurement technique involves a time domain setup that was verified by a frequency domain measurement. Portland cement concrete slabs, 60 by 75 by 14 cm, were cast; defects include delamination, delamination filled with water, segregation, and chloride contamination. In this paper, measurements using the TEM horn antennae and the feasibility of detecting flaws at microwave frequency are presented.

  7. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  8. [Gene expression profile of spinal ventral horn in ALS].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2007-10-01

    The causative pathomechanism of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not clearly understood. Using microarray technology combined with laser-captured microdissection, gene expression profiles of degenerating spinal motor neurons as well as spinal ventral horn from autopsied patients with sporadic ALS were examined. Spinal motor neurons showed a distinct gene expression profile from the whole spinal ventral horn. Three percent of genes examined were significantly downregulated, and 1% were upregulated in motor neurons. In contrast with motor neurons, the total spinal ventral horn homogenates demonstrated 0.7% and 0.2% significant upregulation and downregulation of gene expression, respectively. Downregulated genes in motor neurons included those associated with cytoskeleton/axonal transport, transcription and cell surface antigens/receptors, such as dynactin 1 (DCTN1) and early growth response 3 (EGR3). In particular, DCTN1 was markedly downregulated in most residual motor neurons prior to the accumulation of pNF-H and ubiquitylated protein. Promoters for cell death pathway, death receptor 5 (DR5), cyclins C (CCNC) and A1 (CCNA), and caspases were upregulated, whereas cell death inhibitors, acetyl-CoA transporter (ACATN) and NF-kappaB (NFKB) were also upregulated. In terms of spinal ventral horn, the expression of genes related to cell surface antigens/receptors, transcription and cell adhesion/ECM were increased. The gene expression resulting in neurodegenerative and neuroprotective changes were both present in spinal motor neurons and ventral horn. Moreover, Inflammation-related genes, such as belonging to the cytokine family were not, however, significantly upregulated in either motor neurons or ventral horn. The sequence of motor neuron-specific gene expression changes from early DCTN1 downregulation to late CCNC upregulation in sporadic ALS can provide direct information on the genes leading to neurodegeneration and neuronal death, and are helpful

  9. a Modeling and Measurement Study of Acoustic Horns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, John Theodore

    Although acoustic horns have been in use for thousands of years, formal horn design only began approximately 80 years ago with the pioneering effort of A. G. Webster. In this dissertation, the improvements to Webster's original horn model are reviewed and the lack of analytical progress since Webster is noted. In an attempt to augment the traditional methods of analysis, a semi-analytical technique presented by Rayleigh is extended. Although Rayleigh's method is not based on one-dimensional wave propagation, it is found not to offer significant improvement over Webster's model. In order to be free of the limitations associated with analytical techniques, a numerical method based on boundary elements has been developed. It is suitable for solving radiation problems that can be modeled as a source in an infinite bafffe. The exterior boundary element formulation is exchanged for an interior formulation by placing a hemisphere over the baffled source and using an analytical expansion of the field in the exterior half space. The boundary element method is demonstrated by solving the baffled piston problem, and is then used to obtain the acoustic throat impedance and far-field directivity of axisymmetric horns having exponential and tractrix contours. Experiments are performed to measure the throat impedance and the far-field directivity of two axisymmetric horns mounted in a rigid baffle. An exponential horn and a tractrix horn with equal throat radius (2.54 cm), length (55.9 cm), and mouth radius (27.1 cm) are critically examined. A modern implementation of the "reaction on the source" method is compared with a new implementation of the two-microphone method for measuring acoustic impedance. The modified two-microphone method is found to be extremely simple and accurate, but the "reaction on the source" method has the advantage of in situ measurements. The far-field directivity is measured by a new technique that allows the far-field pressure to be calculated from the

  10. Coupling and degenerating modes in longitudinal-torsional step horns.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret; Cardoni, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Longitudinal-torsional vibration is used and proposed for a variety of ultrasonic applications including motors, welding, and rock-cutting. To obtain this behavior in an ultrasonic step horn one can either, (i) couple the longitudinal and torsional modes of the horn by incorporating a ring of diagonal slits in the thick base section or, (ii) place helical flutes in the thin stem section to degenerate the longitudinal mode into a modified behavior with a longitudinal-torsional motion. This paper compares the efficacy of these two design approaches using both numerical and experimental techniques. PMID:22770885

  11. Inclusion body disease in a great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Sileo, L; Carlson, H C; Crumley, S C

    1975-01-01

    The carcass of a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), which had been found moribund in southern Ontario, was presented for necropsy. Throughout the liver and spleen were numerous white foci 1-2 mm in diameter; also noted were white plaques in the mucosae of the pharyngeal papillae and intestine. Results of light and electron microscopic studies and experimental transmission to two captive great horned owls suggested that this was a herpvirus disease similar and possibly indentical to the owl disease reported by other workers in Wiconsin and Australia. PMID:163384

  12. [Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn of the uterus].

    PubMed

    Sroczyński, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn of the uterus, a rare form of ectopic pregnancy, develops in women affected by developmental abnormalities of the growth and fusion of the Müllerian paramesonephric ducts. In the Polish population, this problem affects 4-8 women per year. The paper analyzes the problems that are associated with pregnancy developing in the rudimentary horn. Due to the continuous progress in medical sciences, maternal mortality has been almost completely eliminated in this form of ectopic pregnancy, while neonatal survival has risen to about 20%. Further devel- opments in medicine allow us to be moderately optimis- tic about further improvement of the treatment's statistics. PMID:25518088

  13. Gain calibration of a horn antenna using pattern integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, A. C.; Hardy, J.; Norman, R.

    1972-01-01

    Gain measurement of a horn antenna using three different techniques is discussed. The methods include a two-antenna insertion loss measurement, a pattern integration method, and a near-field measurement method. The application of the pattern integration method is considered, as well as the evaluation of the near-field gain correction factors for the horn, which are determined by a method based directly on measured data. This method involves a spherical wave expansion of the experimental radiation pattern of the specific antenna being tested, rather than evaluation of an assumed analytical model. The spherical wave expansion is also compared to experimental near-field pattern data.

  14. Mechanical properties of the bovine claw horn during lactation.

    PubMed

    Winkler, B; Margerison, J K

    2012-04-01

    Claw horn disorders are one of the main causes of lameness in dairy cows globally. This study aimed to develop material testing techniques to assess changes in the mechanical properties of bovine claw horn (BCH) and to compare these mechanical properties with existing methods of assessing claw horn disorders during lactation. Lameness was also measured through locomotion scoring to assess the clinical significance of changes observed in the scoring for lesions. Experiment 1 used 8 claws collected from four 12 to 18 mo old beef heifers, to develop BCH sample storage methods and techniques to test the mechanical properties of BCH (puncture resistance and elastic modulus). The increase in the moisture content of BCH had a significant negative exponential effect on the elastic modulus of the sole and white line claw horn and a linear reduction in the puncture resistance of BCH. Placing BCH samples in sealed plastic bags and storing them either at 2°C or by freezing samples at -22°C did not alter the dry matter content and, consequently, the mechanical properties of the claw horn tissue. In experiment 2, BCH was collected from 36 lactating dairy cows and mechanical properties were tested using puncture resistance. Puncture resistance of the sole area of the claw horn decreased significantly when hemorrhages in the tested area increased. The puncture resistance of the sole and white line areas decreased at d 160 postpartum when the cows exhibited higher lesion scores and was lower in hind claws that had higher lesion scores when compared with the fore claws. The highest puncture resistance was found at 270 d postpartum, when the animals were at pasture. Puncture resistance was found to be an effective technique for assessing the effect of period of lactation and increasing hemorrhage levels on the mechanical properties and structural strength of bovine claw horn. It was found to be a good method of comparing changes and differences in mechanical properties and

  15. A new proof of tractability for ORD-horn relations

    SciTech Connect

    Ligozat, G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper gives an elementary proof of the tractability of a sub-class of temporal relations in Allen`s algebra and related temporal calculi, the class of pre-convex relations. In Allen`s case, this subclass coincides with the class of ORD-Horn relations. Nebel and Burckert defined ORD-Horn relations and proved that path-consistency is a sufficient condition for consistency of a network for this sub-class. We prove a stronger result: for each path-consistent network in the sub-class, we give an effective method for constructing a feasible scenario without backtrack.

  16. [Recurrence of a rudimentary uterine horn rupture at 25 weeks of gestation: a case report].

    PubMed

    Schmied, R; Sentilhes, L; Baron, M; Grzegorczyk, V; Resch, B; Marpeau, L

    2008-03-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn is a rare event which can be revealed by uterine rupture. Following the fetal extraction, some authors recommend the ablation of the rudimentary horn, in order to limit the risk of uterine rupture in case of subsequent pregnancy in the same horn. We report the obstetrical outcome of a patient with a history of rudimentary uterine horn rupture the treatment of which was conservative. PMID:18308608

  17. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.12 Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Bones, horns, and hoofs offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or...

  18. Torsion of a rudimentary uterine horn at 22 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Zhou, Jian-hong; Jin, Hang-mei

    2011-07-01

    Rudimentary uterine horn is an uncommon abnormality of the female reproductive tract. Torsion of rudimentary uterine horn in pregnancy is even rarer. A case of successful excision of distorted rudimentary uterine horn in the second trimester, which caused severe abdominal pain, is described. A congenital absence of the right kidney was discovered simultaneously. The pregnancy continued uneventfully until term delivery. PMID:21450021

  19. An Engaged Pragmatist: Uncovering and Assessing Ernest Horn's View of Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schul, James E.; Hamot, Gregory E.

    2011-01-01

    Ernest Horn was a curriculum professor at The University of Iowa in the early to mid-twentieth century. Predominantly known at the time for his spelling research, Horn also made important contributions to the field of social studies education. This historical inquiry illuminates one of Horn's contributions to social studies education by examining…

  20. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.12 Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Bones, horns, and hoofs offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or...

  1. Past and future rainfall in the Horn of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; deMenocal, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    The recent decline in Horn of Africa rainfall during the March–May “long rains” season has fomented drought and famine, threatening food security in an already vulnerable region. Some attribute this decline to anthropogenic forcing, whereas others maintain that it is a feature of internal climate variability. We show that the rate of drying in the Horn of Africa during the 20th century is unusual in the context of the last 2000 years, is synchronous with recent global and regional warming, and therefore may have an anthropogenic component. In contrast to 20th century drying, climate models predict that the Horn of Africa will become wetter as global temperatures rise. The projected increase in rainfall mainly occurs during the September–November “short rains” season, in response to large-scale weakening of the Walker circulation. Most of the models overestimate short rains precipitation while underestimating long rains precipitation, causing the Walker circulation response to unrealistically dominate the annual mean. Our results highlight the need for accurate simulation of the seasonal cycle and an improved understanding of the dynamics of the long rains season to predict future rainfall in the Horn of Africa. PMID:26601306

  2. Past and future rainfall in the Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Jessica E; Ummenhofer, Caroline C; deMenocal, Peter B

    2015-10-01

    The recent decline in Horn of Africa rainfall during the March-May "long rains" season has fomented drought and famine, threatening food security in an already vulnerable region. Some attribute this decline to anthropogenic forcing, whereas others maintain that it is a feature of internal climate variability. We show that the rate of drying in the Horn of Africa during the 20th century is unusual in the context of the last 2000 years, is synchronous with recent global and regional warming, and therefore may have an anthropogenic component. In contrast to 20th century drying, climate models predict that the Horn of Africa will become wetter as global temperatures rise. The projected increase in rainfall mainly occurs during the September-November "short rains" season, in response to large-scale weakening of the Walker circulation. Most of the models overestimate short rains precipitation while underestimating long rains precipitation, causing the Walker circulation response to unrealistically dominate the annual mean. Our results highlight the need for accurate simulation of the seasonal cycle and an improved understanding of the dynamics of the long rains season to predict future rainfall in the Horn of Africa. PMID:26601306

  3. Bioassay improvements for assessing pyrethroid resistance in horn flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horn fly (Haematobia irritans) is a major cattle pest in the American continent, causing yearly economic losses of over US $860 million in Brazil. Frequent use of chemical insecticides has led to the development of insecticide resistance, leading to significant economic losses and environmental ...

  4. Ventral horn cell responses to spaceflight and hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Bian; Roy, Roland R.; Poliakov, I. V.; Krasnov, I. B.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    Ventral horn cells of the lumbosacral enlargement of the spinal cord were studied focusing on the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and cross-sectional area of the soma of ventral horn cells which were measured using a computer-aided image-processing system. The relationships between the soma size and SDH activities of lumber ventral horn cells after 14 days of spaceflight (Cosmos 2044) or of hindlimb suspension are considered. Three groups of rats under consideration include control, 14-day spaceflight, and 14-day hindlimb suspension. Data obtained indicate that, compared to the control group, the population distribution of SDH activities in the flight rats shifted toward higher activities, whereas in the suspended rats the distribution shifted toward lower activities. The interactive effects within individual cells showed that there was a higher percentage of small cells with high SDH activities in the flight than in the control or suspended rats. It is suggested that changes in ventral horn cells were due to factors other than simply the absence of weight support.

  5. New gene coding regions from the horn fly, Haematobia irritans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used an EST approach to isolate new gene coding regions from the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. Two sources of expressed gene sequences were utilized. First, a subtracted library was synthesized from adult mixed sex fly cDNA of an organophosphate and pyrethroid resistant population of flies subtr...

  6. Spatial patterns in the abundance of the coastal horned lizard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, R.N.; Suarez, A.V.; Case, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Coastal horned lizards (Phrynosoma coronatum) have undergone severe declines in southern California and are a candidate species for state and federal listing tender the Endangered Species Act. Quantitative data on their habitat use, abundance, and distribution are lacking, however. We investigated the determinants of abundance for coastal horned lizards at multiple spatial scales throughout southern California. Specifically, we estimated lizard distribution and abundance by establishing 256 pitfall trap arrays clustered within 21 sites across four counties. These arrays were sampled bimonthly for 2-3 years. At each array we measured 26 "local" site descriptors and averaged these values with other "regional" measures to determine site characteristics. Our analyses were successful at identifying factors within and among sites correlated with the presence and abundance of coastal horned lizards. These factors included the absence of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) (and presence of native ant species eaten by the lizards), the presence of chaparral community plants, and the presence of sandy substrates. At a regional scale the relative abundance of Argentine ants was correlated with the relative amount of developed edge around a site. There was no evidence for spatial autocorrelation, even at the scale of the arrays within sites, suggesting that the determinants of the presence or absence and abundance of horned lizard can vary over relatively small spatial scales (hundreds of meters). Our results suggest that a gap-type approach may miss some of the fine-scale determinants of species abundance in fragmented habitats.

  7. Rudimentary horn pregnancy with herniation into the main uterine cavity.

    PubMed

    Fitzmaurice, Laura E; Ehsanipoor, Robert M; Porto, Manuel

    2010-03-01

    We report a case of a rudimentary horn pregnancy with herniation of a fetal arm and umbilical cord into the main uterine cavity that presented as an incidental finding on a routine second-trimester ultrasound scan. We also review the literature that guides the diagnosis and management of these rare complicated pregnancies. PMID:20207232

  8. Vegetative endocarditis in a scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Chai, N

    1999-12-01

    Streptococcus uberis was cultured from vegetative endocarditis lesions in a scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) from the Parc de la Haute Touche, France. This is the first reported single isolation of S. uberis from an oryx with vegetative endocarditis leading to fatal congestive heart failure. PMID:10749451

  9. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms. 56.14132 Section 56.14132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....14132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a)...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....14132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a)...

  12. Dog-Bone Horns for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic/Sonic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    A shape reminiscent of a dog bone has been found to be superior to other shapes for mechanical-amplification horns that are components of piezoelectrically driven actuators used in a series of related devices denoted generally as ultrasonic/sonic drill/corers (USDCs). The first of these devices was reported in Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors (NPO-20856), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January 2001), page 38. The dog-bone shape was conceived especially for use in a more recent device in the series, denoted an ultrasonic/ sonic gopher, that was described in Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The figure shows an example of a dog-bone-shaped horn and other components of an ultrasonic gopher. Prerequisite to a meaningful description of this development is an unavoidably lengthy recapitulation of the principle of operation of a USDC and, more specifically, of the ultrasonic/sonic gopher as described previously in NASA Tech Briefs. The ultrasonic actuator includes a stack of piezoelectric rings, the horn, a metal backing, and a bolt that connects the aforementioned parts and provides compressive pre-strain to the piezoelectric stack to prevent breakage of the rings during extension. The stack of piezoelectric rings is excited at the resonance frequency of the overall ultrasonic actuator. Through mechanical amplification by the horn, the displacement in the ultrasonic vibration reaches tens of microns at the tip of the horn. The horn hammers an object that is denoted the free mass because it is free to move longitudinally over a limited distance between hard stops: The free mass bounces back and forth between the ultrasonic horn and a tool bit (a drill bit or a corer). Because the longitudinal speed of the free mass is smaller than the longitudinal speed of vibration of the tip of the horn, contact between the free mass and the horn tip usually occurs at a

  13. Neutrino horn power supply operational experience

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, P.; Sandberg, J.; Carroll, A.S.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Pearson, C.; Pendzich, A.; Ryan, G.; Sims, W.P.; Smith, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The operational experiences required to run the 300 kA pulsed power supply at Brookhaven National Laboratory are given. Various interlocks and monitoring circuits are described and the impact on system reliability are discussed. The initial conditioning process of the power supply during startup is described.

  14. Automatic monitoring of vibration welding equipment

    DOEpatents

    Spicer, John Patrick; Chakraborty, Debejyo; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Abell, Jeffrey A; Bracey, Jennifer; Cai, Wayne W

    2014-10-14

    A vibration welding system includes vibration welding equipment having a welding horn and anvil, a host device, a check station, and a robot. The robot moves the horn and anvil via an arm to the check station. Sensors, e.g., temperature sensors, are positioned with respect to the welding equipment. Additional sensors are positioned with respect to the check station, including a pressure-sensitive array. The host device, which monitors a condition of the welding equipment, measures signals via the sensors positioned with respect to the welding equipment when the horn is actively forming a weld. The robot moves the horn and anvil to the check station, activates the check station sensors at the check station, and determines a condition of the welding equipment by processing the received signals. Acoustic, force, temperature, displacement, amplitude, and/or attitude/gyroscopic sensors may be used.

  15. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region.

    PubMed

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids. PMID:25992247

  16. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids. PMID:25992247

  17. Changes in horn size of Stone's sheep over four decades correlate with trophy hunting pressure.

    PubMed

    Douhard, Mathieu; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Pelletier, Fanie; Gaillard, Jean-michel; Bonenfanti, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Selective harvest may lead to rapid evolutionary change. For large herbivores, trophy hunting removes males with large horns. That artificial selection, operating in opposition to sexual selection, can lead to undesirable consequences for management and conservation. There have been no comparisons of long-term changes in trophy size under contrasting harvest pressures. We analyzed horn measurements of Stone's rams (Ovis dalli stonei) harvested over 37 years in two large regions of British Columbia, Canada, with marked differences in hunting pressure to identify when selective hunting may cause a long-term decrease in horn growth. Under strong selective harvest, horn growth early in life and the number of males harvested declined by 12% and 45%, respectively, over the study period. Horn shape also changed over time: horn length became shorter for a given base circumference, likely because horn base is not a direct target of hunter selection. In contrast, under relatively lower hunting pressure, there were no detectable temporal trends in early horn growth, number of males harvested, or horn length relative to base circumference. Trophy hunting is an important recreational activity and can generate substantial revenues for conservation. By providing a reproductive advantage to males with smaller horns and reducing the availability of desirable trophies, however, excessive harvest may have the undesirable long-term consequences of reducing both the harvest and the horn size of rams. These consequences can be avoided by limiting offtake. PMID:27039527

  18. Ruptured noncommunicating rudimentary horn pregnancy at 19 weeks with previous cesarean delivery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sita; Sood, Ajay; Sharma, Chanderdeep

    2012-01-01

    Unicornuate uterus with noncommunicating rudimentary horn occurs due to incomplete fusion of mullerian ducts. Pregnancy in this horn is a rare phenomenon usually resulting in rupture during second trimester of pregnancy. Prerupture diagnosis of pregnancy in rudimentary horn with ultrasonography is technically difficult, with sensitivity of 30%. We report a case of ruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn at 19 weeks in a woman with previous Cesarean delivery. She had a routine malformation scan in which diagnosis was missed. Later she presented to emergency in shock, with massive hemoperitoneum and ruptured horn. So a high index of suspicion is required to save this catastrophic event and associated maternal morbidity and mortality. In our opinion, routine excision of rudimentary horn should be undertaken during nonpregnant state laparoscopically. However, those women who refuse should be adequately counseled regarding potential complications and if pregnancy occurs in rudimentary horn, first trimester laparoscopic excision should be done. PMID:23119197

  19. Ruptured Noncommunicating Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy at 19 Weeks with Previous Cesarean Delivery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Sita; Sood, Ajay; Sharma, Chanderdeep

    2012-01-01

    Unicornuate uterus with noncommunicating rudimentary horn occurs due to incomplete fusion of mullerian ducts. Pregnancy in this horn is a rare phenomenon usually resulting in rupture during second trimester of pregnancy. Prerupture diagnosis of pregnancy in rudimentary horn with ultrasonography is technically difficult, with sensitivity of 30%. We report a case of ruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn at 19 weeks in a woman with previous Cesarean delivery. She had a routine malformation scan in which diagnosis was missed. Later she presented to emergency in shock, with massive hemoperitoneum and ruptured horn. So a high index of suspicion is required to save this catastrophic event and associated maternal morbidity and mortality. In our opinion, routine excision of rudimentary horn should be undertaken during nonpregnant state laparoscopically. However, those women who refuse should be adequately counseled regarding potential complications and if pregnancy occurs in rudimentary horn, first trimester laparoscopic excision should be done. PMID:23119197

  20. Micro-Horn Arrays for Ultrasonic Impedance Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti; Palmer, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Thin-layered structures containing arrays of micromachined horns, denoted solid micro-horn arrays (SMIHAs), have been conceived as improved means of matching acoustic impedances between ultrasonic transducers and the media with which the transducers are required to exchange acoustic energy. Typically, ultrasonic transducers (e.g., those used in medical imaging) are piezoelectric or similar devices, which produce small displacements at large stresses. However, larger displacements at smaller stresses are required in the target media (e.g., human tissues) with which acoustic energy is to be exchanged. Heretofore, efficiencies in transmission of acoustic energy between ultrasonic transducers and target media have been severely limited because substantial mismatches of acoustic impedances have remained, even when coupling material layers have been interposed between the transducers and the target media. In contrast, SMIHAs can, in principle, be designed to effect more nearly complete acoustic impedance matching, leading to power transmission efficiencies of 90 percent or even greater. The SMIHA concept is based on extension, into the higher-frequency/ lower-wavelength ultrasonic range, of the use of horns to match acoustic impedances in the audible and lower-frequency ultrasonic ranges. In matching acoustic impedance in transmission from a higher-impedance acoustic source (e.g., a piezoelectric transducer) and a lowerimpedance target medium (e.g., air or human tissue), a horn acts as a mechanical amplifier. The shape and size of the horn can be optimized for matching acoustic impedance in a specified frequency range. A typical SMIHA would consist of a base plate, a face plate, and an array of horns that would constitute pillars that connect the two plates (see figure). In use, the base plate would be connected to an ultrasonic transducer and the face plate would be placed in contact with the target medium. As at lower frequencies, the sizes and shapes of the pillars

  1. Attached cavitation at a small diameter ultrasonic horn tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Cairós, Carlos; Dular, Matevž

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids, for instance, for cell disruption or sonochemical reactions. They are operated typically in the frequency range up to about 50 kHz and have tip diameters from some mm to several cm. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e., below the acoustic driving frequency. Here, we present a systematic study of the cavitation dynamics in water at a 20 kHz horn tip of 3 mm diameter. The system was investigated by high-speed imaging with simultaneous recording of the acoustic emissions. Measurements were performed under variation of acoustic power, air saturation, viscosity, surface tension, and temperature of the liquid. Our findings show that the liquid properties play no significant role in the dynamics of the attached cavitation at the small ultrasonic horn. Also the variation of the experimental geometry, within a certain range, did not change the dynamics. We believe that the main two reasons for the peculiar dynamics of cavitation on a small ultrasonic horn are the higher energy density on a small tip and the inability of the big tip to "wash" away the gaseous bubbles. Calculation of the somewhat adapted Strouhal number revealed that, similar to the hydrodynamic cavitation, values which are relatively low characterize slow cavitation structure dynamics. In cases where the cavitation follows the driving frequency this value lies much higher - probably at Str > 20. In the spirit to distinguish the observed phenomenon with other cavitation dynamics at ultrasonic transducer surfaces, we suggest to term the observed phenomenon of attached cavities partly covering the full horn

  2. Animal health constraints to livestock exports from the Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Abbas, B; Yousif, M A; Nur, H M

    2014-12-01

    The Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea) is home to the largest population of livestock in Africa and is the historic centre of the livestock trade to the Middle East and northern Africa. The recent resumption of livestock exports from the region has resulted in the handling of over one million head of cattle, sheep, goats and camels at one quarantine facility during a single year. Several of the importing countries for which the facility operates have differing hygiene requirements for the same diseases. Most of the animals handled in the facility come from pastoralist areas, which lack state Veterinary Services. The pathological conditions encountered during one year of monitoring were recorded and the impacts of some of the endemic diseases are discussed, together with particular import-limiting hygiene requirements on this trade. PMID:25812200

  3. Physiological effects of etorphine, acepromazine and xylazine in the scimitar horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Pearce, P C; Kock, R A

    1989-07-01

    Scimitar horned oryx (Oryx dammah), kept under confined and unconfined conditions were immobilised with etorphine in combination with acepromazine or xylazine or both, and with xylazine alone. Both groups of animals were successfully sedated with etorphine and xylzine, with or without acepromazine, although hypothermia and mild hypoxaemia and a fall in packed cell volume were frequently noted. Xylazine alone produced a dose dependent degree of sedation in semitame subadult animals kept in confinement, but only slight depression in their wild, unconfined counterparts. If xylazine was not included in the immobilising mixture induction was traumatic and full sedation not achieved. Heart rates and arterial pressures (systemic and pulmonary) were also monitored but no remarkable changes were noted. The only abnormalities in blood biochemistry were raised aspartate transminase and creatine kinase. Ruminal regurgitation could be a major problem if endotracheal intubation was not achieved early in the procedure. PMID:2772409

  4. Comparing ovulation synchronization protocols for artificial insemination in the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Morrow, C J; Wolfe, B A; Roth, T L; Wildt, D E; Bush, M; Blumer, E S; Atkinson, M W; Monfort, S L

    2000-04-28

    Ovarian response and pregnancy success in scimitar-horned oryx (n=28) were compared, following treatment with two synchronization protocols and fixed-time artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed semen. Each oryx received two injections of 500 microg of prostaglandin-F(2alpha) analogue (PGF(2alpha)-only) 11 days apart, and half received PGF(2alpha) in combination with an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR11+PGF(2alpha)). Semen was collected by electroejaculation from anaesthetised adult oryx and cryopreserved. Anaesthetised females were transcervically inseminated 56.0+/-1.1 h (+/-S.E.M.) after PGF(2alpha) injection and/or device withdrawal using 28.0+/-1.5x10(6) motile thawed sperm. Ovarian endocrine response was monitored in 20 females by analysing faecal oestrogen and progesterone metabolites. Periovulatory oestrogen peaks were detected in 19/20 (95%) females after synchronization. There were no between-treatment differences in oestrogen concentrations or peak characteristics (P0.05). Luteal development after synchronization was delayed in half the progesterone treated (CIDR11+PGF(2alpha)) females, and faecal progestin excretion profiles indicated that the ovulatory follicle associated with synchronization either failed to ovulate or to fully lutenise. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and/or rectal palpation and was monitored by faecal progestin excretion. More (P=0. 013) pregnancies resulted from the PGF(2alpha)-only treatment (37.5%, 5/14) than from the CIDR11+PGF(2alpha) treatment (0/14), and four healthy scimitar-horned oryx calves were born, three after gestation intervals of 247 days and one after 249 days. PMID:10804277

  5. Clauser-Horne Bell test with imperfect random inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao; Zhao, Qi; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2015-08-01

    The Bell test is one of the most important tools in quantum information science. On the one hand, it enables fundamental tests of the basic physics laws of nature, and on the other hand, it can also be applied in a variety of device-independent tasks such as quantum key distribution and random number generation. In practice, loopholes existing in experimental demonstrations of Bell tests may affect the validity of the conclusions. In this work, we focus on the randomness (freewill) loophole and investigate the randomness requirement in a well-known Bell test, the Clauser-Horne test, under various conditions. We explicitly bound the Bell value for all local hidden variable models by optimizing over all classical strategies exploiting the knowledge of the partially random inputs. Our result thus provides input randomness requirements on the Clauser-Horne test under varieties of practical scenarios. The employed analysis technique can also be generalized to other Bell inequalities.

  6. Investigation of noninertial cavitation produced by an ultrasonic horn.

    PubMed

    Birkin, Peter R; Offin, Douglas G; Vian, Christopher J B; Leighton, Timothy G; Maksimov, Alexey O

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on noninertial cavitation that occurs beyond the zone close to the horn tip to which the inertial cavitation is confined. The noninertial cavitation is characterized by collating the data from a range of measurements of bubbles trapped on a solid surface in this noninertial zone. Specifically, the electrochemical measurement of mass transfer to an electrode is compared with high-speed video of the bubble oscillation. This gas bubble is shown to be a "noninertial" event by electrochemical surface erosion measurements and "ring-down" experiments showing the activity and motion of the bubble as the sound excitation was terminated. These measurements enable characterization of the complex environment produced below an operating ultrasonic horn outside of the region where inertial collapse can be detected. The extent to which solid boundaries in the liquid cause the frequencies and shapes of oscillatory modes on the bubble wall to differ from their free field values is discussed. PMID:22088002

  7. Simplified horn antenna parameter estimation using selective criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    An approximation can be used to avoid the complex mathematics and computation methods typically required for calculating the gain and radiation pattern of electromagnetic horn antenna. Because of the curvature of the antenna wave front, calculations using conventional techniques involve solving the Fresnel integrals and using computer-aided numerical integration. With this model, linear approximations give a reasonable estimate of the gain and radiation pattern using simple trigonometric functions, thereby allowing a hand calculator to replace the computer. Applying selected criteria, the case of the E-plane horn antenna was used to evaluate this technique. Results showed that the gain approximation holds for an antenna flare angle of less than 10{degree} for typical antenna dimensions, and the E field radiation pattern approximation holds until the antenna's phase error approaches 60{degree}, both within typical design parameters. This technique is a useful engineering tool. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Novel Features of the Prenatal Horn Bud Development in Cattle (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Dominique Judith; Wiedemar, Natalie; Welle, Monika Maria; Drögemüller, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the genetic background of horn growth in cattle has been studied extensively, little is known about the morphological changes in the developing fetal horn bud. In this study we histologically analyzed the development of horn buds of bovine fetuses between ~70 and ~268 days of pregnancy and compared them with biopsies taken from the frontal skin of the same fetuses. In addition we compared the samples from the wild type (horned) fetuses with samples taken from the horn bud region of age-matched genetically hornless (polled) fetuses. In summary, the horn bud with multiple layers of vacuolated keratinocytes is histologically visible early in fetal life already at around day 70 of gestation and can be easily differentiated from the much thinner epidermis of the frontal skin. However, at the gestation day (gd) 212 the epidermis above the horn bud shows a similar morphology to the epidermis of the frontal skin and the outstanding layers of vacuolated keratinocytes have disappeared. Immature hair follicles are seen in the frontal skin at gd 115 whereas hair follicles below the horn bud are not present until gd 155. Interestingly, thick nerve bundles appear in the dermis below the horn bud at gd 115. These nerve fibers grow in size over time and are prominent shortly before birth. Prominent nerve bundles are not present in the frontal skin of wild type or in polled fetuses at any time, indicating that the horn bud is a very sensitive area. The samples from the horn bud region from polled fetuses are histologically equivalent to samples taken from the frontal skin in horned species. This is the first study that presents unique histological data on bovine prenatal horn bud differentiation at different developmental stages which creates knowledge for a better understanding of recent molecular findings. PMID:25993643

  9. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform) to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population-genetic studies of O. taurus and

  10. Ultrasonic Heat Transfer Enhancement Using a Horn-Type Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Yamamoto, Akira; Murakami, Koichi

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify experimentally the influence of streaming induced by ultrasonic vibration on heat transfer using a horn-type ultrasonic vibrator. A horn tip of 6 mm diameter and 60.7 kHz resonant frequency was used as the ultrasonic transducer. Heat transfer experiments for a downward-facing horizontal heating surface with ultrasonic vibration from below were carried out in a natural convection region. The acoustic jet in the water from the horn tip of the transducer regarded as a nozzle exit was induced by this transducer, and as a result, up to a ten-fold increase in heat transfer coefficient was obtained by application of 20 W in both tap water and degassed water. It was found that the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement by ultrasonic vibration in tap water can be classified into four categories. In degassed water, heat transfer enhancement is influenced not by the acoustic jet, but by small-scale perturbations by cavitation microjets.

  11. Correlation of peripheral innervation density and dorsal horn map scale.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Millecchia, R; Brown, P B

    1997-08-01

    Dorsal horn map scale and peripheral innervation density were compared to test a hypothesized linear relationship. In anesthetized cats, low-threshold mechanoreceptive peripheral nerve innervation fields (IFs) were measured by outlining areas of skin from which action potentials could be elicited in cutaneous nerves. The same nerves were processed histologically and used to count myelinated axons. Innervation density for each nerve was calculated as number of axons divided by IF area. Single units were recorded throughout the hindlimb representation, in laminae III and IV. These data, combined with single-unit data from other animals and with cell counts in laminae III and IV, permitted estimation of numbers of cells whose receptive field centers fell in contiguous 1-cm bands from tips of toes to proximal thigh. A similar estimate was performed with the use of the nerve innervation data, so that peripheral innervation densities and map scales for the different 1-cm bands of skin could be compared. Correlation between the two was quite high (r = 0.8), and highly significant (P = 2.5 x 10(-7)). These results are consistent with a proposed developmental model in which map scale, peripheral innervation density, and reciprocal of dorsal horn cell receptive field size are mutually proportional, as a result of developmental mechanisms that produce constant divergence and convergence between primary afferent axons and dorsal horn cells. PMID:9307105

  12. Millimeter-wave integrated-horn antennas. I - Theory. II - Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eleftheriades, George V.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1991-01-01

    Full-wave analysis is employed to determine the far-field pattern and input impedance of a dipole-fed horn antenna in a ground plane, and the theoretical results are compared with mm-wave and microwave data. The theoretical work exploits the Green's function corresponding to the horn structure and the method of moments. It is determined that the horn should have 70 sections/wavelength and 50 secondary modes for optimized accuracy, and certain dipole positions can reduce the resonance to zero. The experimentally derived impedance and radiation patterns agree with the constraints developed theoretically. The 70-degree flare-angle horn with selected dipole positions and horn apertures yields good radiation patterns, cross-polarization levels, and resonant dipole impedances. The conclusions are of interest to the development of the horn antennas etched in Si/GaAs for applications to zero-visibility tracking, radio astronomy, plasma diagnostics, and remote sensing.

  13. Midtrimester spontaneous torsion of unruptured gravid rudimentary horn: Presurgical diagnosis on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pragya; Gupta, Rohini; Das, Banashree; Bajaj, Sunil Kumar; Misra, Ritu

    2015-09-01

    Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn occurs due to failure of complete development and partial fusion of one of the Müllerian ducts. Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is extremely rare, with a reported incidence of 1 in 76 000-150 000 pregnancies, and usually terminates in rupture during the first or second trimester. Clinical diagnosis of rudimentary horn pregnancy in a woman with history of normal vaginal delivery in prior gestations is difficult. The role of sonography, and more recently, magnetic resonance imaging, in the presurgical diagnosis of rudimentary horn pregnancy is established. We present a case of magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of 20-week pregnancy in the unruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn in a patient with previous history of two full-term normal vaginal deliveries. The novelty of the case lies in the fact that there was associated torsion of the gravid rudimentary horn and ipsilateral ovary, which has not been reported previously. PMID:26013913

  14. Rare case of live birth in a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kawthalkar, Anjali S; Gawande, Madhuri S; Jain, Sheela H; Joshi, Sulabha A; Ghike, Sunita D; Bhalerao, Anuja V

    2011-08-01

    Pregnancy in the rudimentary horn is a very rare condition. In these cases, rupture of the rudimentary horn in the second trimester with fetal death and catastrophic intraperitoneal hemorrhage is the commonly reported outcome. Silent rupture of the rudimentary horn and continuation of pregnancy as a secondary abdominal pregnancy is the most unusual outcome of this rare condition. We report such a case with a good maternal and neonatal outcome. The case is being reported for its rarity. PMID:21501332

  15. Sonographic diagnosis of uncomplicated first-trimester pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus.

    PubMed

    Taori, Kishor; Saha, Bimal Kumar; Shah, Deepal; Khadaria, Narottam; Jadhav, Vijay; Jawale, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Although pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn is rare, the correct diagnosis of this condition on routine sonographic examination is critical, because its natural history usually involves the rupture of the pregnant horn during the second or third trimester, resulting in life-threatening bleeding. We report a case in which the diagnosis of right unicornuate uterus with a left noncommunicating rudimentary horn was made in the first trimester on routine sonographic examination. PMID:17410585

  16. Pregnancy in a noncommunicating rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Okonta, Patrick I; Abedi, Harrison; Ajuyah, Caroline; Omo-Aghoja, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy in the rudimentary horn is rare and carries grave consequences for the mother and fetus. A case report is presented of a 26 year old single gravida 3 para 0(+2) lady with rupture of a rudimentary horn pregnancy at a gestational age of 20 weeks. Laparotomy was done and the rudimentary horn excised. Post-operative recovery was uneventful. The need for a high index of suspicion and the role of ultrasonography in the accurate diagnosis is highlighted. PMID:19829836

  17. Laparoscopic excision of rudimentary horn pregnancy in a patient with previous caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Jihong, Lu; Siow, Anthony; Chern, Bernard

    2009-03-01

    A rudimentary uterine horn is extremely rare and often difficult to diagnose. The frequency of this pathology is approximately 1:100,000. The diagnosis is sometimes elusive even at surgery. We present a case report of pregnancy in a rudimentary horn in the patient with one caesarean and one normal vaginal delivery, and we successfully conduct a removal of the rudimentary horn pregnancy laparoscopically. PMID:18629528

  18. [Uterine rupture plugged by omentum in a rudimentary horn pregnancy: About a rare case].

    PubMed

    Le Mitouard, M; Huissoud, C; Fichez, A; Roumieu, F; Allias, F; Rudigoz, R C; Caloone, J

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn of a pseudo-horned uterus is a rare obstetrical situation, for which, maternal-fetal prognosis is altered by the risk of uterine rupture. We report a rare case of pregnancy in a rudimentary horn with birth of a living child at 28 weeks of amenorrhea. During caesarean, uterine rupture plugged by the omentum was observed. We discuss from this case obstetric management of this pathology. PMID:27021927

  19. Studies on thermo-elastic heating of horns used in ultrasonic plastic welding.

    PubMed

    Roopa Rani, M; Prakasan, K; Rudramoorthy, R

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic welding horn is half wavelength section or tool used to focus the ultrasonic vibrations to the components being welded. The horn is designed in such a way that it maximizes the amplitude of the sound wave passing through it. The ends of the horn represent the displacement anti-nodes and the center the 'node' of the wave. As the horns perform 20,000 cycles of expansion and contraction per second, they are highly stressed at the nodes and are heated owing to thermo-elastic effects. Considerable temperature rise may be observed in the horn, at the nodal region when working at high amplitudes indicating high stress levels leading to failure of horns due to cyclic loading. The limits for amplitude must therefore be evaluated for the safe working of the horn. Horns made of different materials have different thermo-elastic behaviors and hence different temperatures at the nodes and antinodes. This temperature field can be used as a control mechanism for setting the amplitude/weld parameters. Safe stress levels can be predicted using modal and harmonic analyses followed by a stress analysis to study the effect of cyclic loads. These are achieved using 'Ansys'. The maximum amplitude level obtained from the stress analysis is used as input for 'Comsol' to predict the temperature field. The actual temperature developed in the horn during operation is measured using infrared camera and compared with the simulated temperature. From experiments, it is observed that horn made of titanium had the lowest temperature rise at the critical region and can be expected to operate at amplitudes up to 77 μm without suffering failure due to cyclic loading. The method of predicting thermo-elastic stresses and temperature may be adopted by the industry for operating the horn within the safe stress limits thereby extending the life of the horn. PMID:25087474

  20. Multiple flare-angle horn feeds for sub-mm astronomy and cosmic microwave background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leech, J.; Tan, B. K.; Yassin, G.; Kittara, P.; Wangsuya, S.; Treuttel, J.; Henry, M.; Oldfield, M. L.; Huggard, P. G.

    2011-08-01

    Context. The use of large-format focal plane imaging arrays employing multiple feed horns is becoming increasingly important for the next generation of single dish sub-mm telescopes and cosmology experiments. Such receivers are being commissioned on both general purpose, common user telescopes and telescopes specifically designed for mapping intensity and polarisation anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Telescopes are currently being constructed to map the CMB polarisation that employ hundreds of feeds and the cost of manufacturing these feeds has become a significant fraction of the total cost of the telescope. Aims: We have developed and manufactured low-cost easy-to-machine smooth-walled horns that have a performance comparable to the more traditional corrugated feed horns that are often used in focal plane arrays. Our horns are much easier to fabricate than corrugated horns enabling the rapid construction of arrays with a large number of horns at a very low cost. Methods: Our smooth walled horns use multiple changes in flare angle to excite higher order waveguide modes. They are designed using a genetic algorithm to optimise the positions and magnitudes of these flare angle discontinuities. We have developed a fully parallelised software suite for the optimisation of these horns. We have manufactured prototype horns by traditional electroforming and also by a new direct drilling technique and we have measured their beam patterns using a far-field antenna test range at 230 GHz. Results: We present simulated and measured far-field beam patterns for one of our horn designs. They exhibit low sidelobe levels, good beam circularity and low cross-polarisation levels over a fractional bandwidth of 20%. These results offer experimental confirmation of our design technique, allowing us to proceed confidently in the optimisation of horns with a wider operational bandwidth. The results also show that the new manufacturing technique using drilling is

  1. Spatial convergence and divergence between cutaneous afferent axons and dorsal horn cells are not constant.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Harton, P; Millecchia, R; Lawson, J; Kunjara-Na-Ayudhya, T; Stephens, S; Miller, M A; Hicks, L; Culberson, J

    2000-05-01

    We have proposed a quantitative model of the development of dorsal horn cell receptive fields (RFs) and somatotopic organization (Brown et al. [1997] Somatosens. Motor Res. 14:93-106). One component of that model is a hypothesis that convergence and divergence of connections between low-threshold primary afferent mechanoreceptive axons and dorsal horn cells are invariant over skin location and dorsal horn location. The more limited, and more easily tested, hypothesis that spatial convergence and divergence between cutaneous mechanoreceptors and dorsal horn cell are constant was examined. Spatial divergence is the number of dorsal horn cells whose RFs overlap the RF center of a primary afferent, and spatial convergence is the number of afferent RF centers that lie within the RF of a dorsal horn cell. Innervation density was determined as a function of location on the hindlimb by using peripheral nerve recording and axon counting. A descriptive model of dorsal horn cell receptive fields (Brown et al. [1998] J. Neurophysiol. 31:833-848) was used to simulate RFs of the entire dorsal horn cell population in order to estimate RF area and map scale as a function of location on the hindlimb. Previously reported correlations among innervation density, map scale, and RF size were confirmed. However, these correlations were not linear. The hypothesis that spatial convergence and divergence are constant was rejected. The previously proposed model of development of dorsal horn cell somatotopy and RF geometries must be revised to take variable spatial convergence and divergence into account. PMID:10754502

  2. Transcription profiling provides insights into gene pathways involved in horn and scurs development in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Two types of horns are evident in cattle - fixed horns attached to the skull and a variation called scurs, which refers to small loosely attached horns. Cattle lacking horns are referred to as polled. Although both the Poll and Scurs loci have been mapped to BTA1 and 19 respectively, the underlying genetic basis of these phenotypes is unknown, and so far, no candidate genes regulating these developmental processes have been described. This study is the first reported attempt at transcript profiling to identify genes and pathways contributing to horn and scurs development in Brahman cattle, relative to polled counterparts. Results Expression patterns in polled, horned and scurs tissues were obtained using the Agilent 44 k bovine array. The most notable feature when comparing transcriptional profiles of developing horn tissues against polled was the down regulation of genes coding for elements of the cadherin junction as well as those involved in epidermal development. We hypothesize this as a key event involved in keratinocyte migration and subsequent horn development. In the polled-scurs comparison, the most prevalent differentially expressed transcripts code for genes involved in extracellular matrix remodelling, which were up regulated in scurs tissues relative to polled. Conclusion For this first time we describe networks of genes involved in horn and scurs development. Interestingly, we did not observe differential expression in any of the genes present on the fine mapped region of BTA1 known to contain the Poll locus. PMID:20537189

  3. Ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy with a history of an uneventful vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nitin; Yadav, Nitin; Koshiya, Darshan; Jhanwar, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn is a rare event with an estimated incidence of 1 in 76,000 to 1 in 1,40,000 pregnancies. Unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn has a high incidence of obstetric and gynecological complications. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy in the rudimentary horn is one of the most dreaded complications, which can have grave consequences for both mother and fetus. In the majority of the cases, it is detected after rupture of the horn, usually during the first or second trimester of pregnancy. An ultrasonographic diagnosis made prior to rupture of the rudimentary horn may prevent this catastrophic outcome. We report a case of a G2 P1 L1 with a ruptured left rudimentary horn pregnancy at 16 weeks of gestation that was misdiagnosed as a pregnancy in the left uterine horn of a bicornuate uterus on prior prenatal ultrasound. The patient presented to our hospital with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. A diagnosis of ruptured left rudimentary horn pregnancy was made on the basis of emergency ultrasound and was later confirmed on laparotomy. The left rudimentary horn along with the ipsilateral fallopian tube was excised. PMID:26578500

  4. Novel horn designs for ultrasonic/sonic cleaning, welding, soldering, cutting, and drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Askins, Steven A.; Gradziol, Mike; Dolgin, Benjamin P.; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2002-07-01

    A variety of Industrial applications exist where power ultrasonic elements such as the ultrasonic horn are used. These included the Automotive, Instruments, Foods, Medical, Textiles and Material Joining and Fabrication Industries. In many of these devices the ultrasonic horn is the key component. The standard transducer used in these devices consists of three main parts, the backing, the piezoelectric elements and the horn. Standard horn designs have changed very little since their inception. There are four common types of standard horns. They are; constant, linear, exponential and stepped, which refer to the degree to which the area changes from the base to the tip. A magnification in the strain occurs in the horn that in general is a function of the ratio of diameters. In addition the device is generally driven at resonance to further amplify the strain. The resonance amplification is in general determined by the mechanical Q (attenuation) of the horn material and radiation damping. The horn length primarily determines the resonance frequency. For a 22 kHz resonance frequency a stepped horn of titanium has a length of approximately 8 cm. Although these standard horns are found in many current industrial designs they suffer from some key limitations. In many applications it would be useful to reduce the resonance frequency however this would require device lengths of the order of fractions of meters which may be impractical. In addition, manufacturing a horn requires the turning down of the stock material (eg. Titanium) from the larger outer diameter to the horn tip diameter, which is both time consuming and wasteful. In this paper we will present a variety of novel horn designs, which overcome some of the limitations discussed above. One particular design that has been found to overcome these limitations is the folded horn. In this design the horn elements are folded which reduce the overall length of the resonator (physical length) but maintain or increase the

  5. Computation of reflected and transmitted horn radiation patterns for a dichroic plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    A previous dichroic plate analysis has assumed that an ideal uniform plane wave illuminates the dichroic plate at a single angle of incidence. In fact, a horn radiates energy at the dichroic plate and illuminates it at many different angles. To model the horn and dichroic plate system, the horn pattern is represented as a group of plane waves traveling in different directions. The details of this analysis are presented this article. The calculated and measured reflected radiation patterns show good agreement. The noise temperature predicted from the horn pattern model is shown to be more accurate than that from a simple plane-wave model.

  6. Molar enamel thickness and dentine horn height in Gigantopithecus blacki.

    PubMed

    Olejniczak, A J; Smith, T M; Wang, W; Potts, R; Ciochon, R; Kullmer, O; Schrenk, F; Hublin, J-J

    2008-01-01

    Absolutely thick molar enamel is consistent with large body size estimates and dietary inferences about Gigantopithecus blacki, which focus on tough or fibrous vegetation. In this study, 10 G. blacki molars demonstrating various stages of attrition were imaged using high-resolution microtomography. Three-dimensional average enamel thickness and relative enamel thickness measurements were recorded on the least worn molars within the sample (n = 2). Seven molars were also virtually sectioned through the mesial cusps and two-dimensional enamel thickness and dentine horn height measurements were recorded. Gigantopithecus has the thickest enamel of any fossil or extant primate in terms of absolute thickness. Relative (size-scaled) measures of enamel thickness, however, support a thick characterization (i.e., not "hyper-thick"); G. blacki relative enamel thickness overlaps slightly with Pongo and completely with Homo. Gigantopithecus blacki dentine horns are relatively short, similar to (but shorter than) those of Pongo, which in turn are shorter than those of humans and African apes. Gigantopithecus blacki molar enamel (and to a lesser extent, that of Pongo pygmaeus) is distributed relatively evenly across the occlusal surface compared with the more complex distribution of enamel thickness in Homo sapiens. The combination of evenly distributed occlusal enamel and relatively short dentine horns in G. blacki results in a flat and low-cusped occlusal surface suitable to grinding tough or fibrous food objects. This suite of molar morphologies is also found to varying degrees in Pongo and Sivapithecus, but not in African apes and humans, and may be diagnostic of subfamily Ponginae. PMID:17941103

  7. Dorsal horn spatial representation of simple cutaneous stimuli.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Millecchia, R; Lawson, J J; Stephens, S; Harton, P; Culberson, J C

    1998-02-01

    A model of lamina III-IV dorsal horn cell receptive fields (RFs) has been developed to visualize the spatial patterns of cells activated by light touch stimuli. Low-threshold mechanoreceptive fields (RFs) of 551 dorsal horn neurons recorded in anesthetized cats were characterized by location of RF center in cylindrical coordinates, area, length/width ratio, and orientation of long axis. Best-fitting ellipses overlapped actual RFs by 90%. Exponentially smoothed mean and variance surfaces were estimated for these five variables, on a grid of 40 points mediolaterally by 20/segment rostrocaudally in dorsal horn segments L4-S1. The variations of model RF location, area, and length/width ratio with map location were all similar to previous observations. When elliptical RFs were simulated at the locations of the original cells, the RFs of real and simulated cells overlapped by 64%. The densities of cell representations of skin points on the hindlimb were represented as pseudocolor contour plots on dorsal view maps, and segmental representations were plotted on the standard views of the leg. Overlap of modeled and real segmental representations was at the 84% level. Simulated and observed RFs had similar relations between area and length/width ratio and location on the hindlimb: r(A) = 0.52; r(L/W) = 0.56. Although the representation of simple stimuli was orderly, and there was clearly only one somatotopic map of the skin, the representation of a single point often was not a single cluster of active neurons. When two-point stimuli were simulated, there usually was no fractionation of response zones or addition of new zones. Variation of stimulus size (area of skin contacted) produced less variation of representation size (number of cells responding) than movement of stimuli from one location to another. We conclude that stimulus features are preserved poorly in their dorsal horn spatial representation and that discrimination mechanisms that depend on detection of such

  8. Surveying woodland hawks with broadcasts of great horned owl vocalization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, James A.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    Pre-recorded vocalizations of great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) broadcast into predominantly wooded habitat along roadside survey routes resulted in as many detections of resident red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) as broadcasts of each conspecific calls. Survey results for 3 species, expressed as average number of contacts/route, were directly related to the number of resident pairs located during systematic searches conducted on foot across the study area. Regression models based on road-transect counts were significant for predicting abundance of red-shouldered hawks, broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), and Cooper's hawks from our study areas.

  9. Quantum Steganography via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ4 State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. El, Allati; M. B. Ould, Medeni; Hassouni, Y.

    2012-04-01

    A quantum steganography communication scheme via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ4 state is constructed to investigate the possibility of remotely transferred hidden information. Moreover, the multipartite entangled states are become a hectic topic due to its important applications and deep effects on aspects of quantum information. Then, the scheme consists of sharing the correlation of four particle GHZ4 states between the legitimate users. After insuring the security of the quantum channel, they begin to hide the secret information in the cover of message. Comparing the scheme with the previous quantum steganographies, capacity and imperceptibility of hidden message are good. The security of the present scheme against many attacks is also discussed.

  10. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Related to the Horn of Africa Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Africa Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by the... humanitarian crisis in the Horn of Africa. You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in...

  11. Nutritional Limitation on Growth and Development of Horn Fly (Diptera:Muscidae) Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging of bovine dung for 3-5 yr under refrigeration depleted nutrients required for growth and development of horn fly larvae. Growth of horn fly larvae in mixtures of nutrient-depleted dung and fresh dung resulted in production of larvae and pupae stunted in proportion to the relative amount of ag...

  12. Knockdown resistance in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) populations in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the kdr (knockdown resistance) resistance-associated gene mutation and determine its frequency in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly (Haematobia irritans) populations, a total of 1,804 horn flies of 37 different populations from all Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, Southe...

  13. An Interview with Michael Horn: Blending Education for High-Octane Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Blended learning holds the potential of improving the way we educate students and of making them more motivated. Blended education--the melding of information technology based distance learning with school attendance--is perhaps the best way to educate students for 21st century skills, says Michael Horn in a "Kappan" interview. Horn points out…

  14. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  15. Expressed gene sequences from egg and larval stages of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used an EST approach to initiate a study of the genome of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans and have isolated and sequenced 8,427 and 8,275 expressed genes from the egg and first instar larvae lifestages. Normalized cDNA libraries from eggs and first instar larvae from a field population of horn ...

  16. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of the microbiome associated with the horn fly, Haematobia irritans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the economically important pests of cattle. Use of insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns of insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticid...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 222 - Requirements for Wayside Horns

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for Wayside Horns E Appendix E to Part 222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... 222, App. E Appendix E to Part 222—Requirements for Wayside Horns This appendix sets forth...

  18. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  19. Rdl-containing Fragment of GABA(A) from the Horn Fly, Haematobia Irritans, Susceptible Genotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), is a significant economic pest of cattle found throughout Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, and the Americas. The major means of controlling the horn fly is through applications of chemicals with insecticidal activity. A cyclodiene-containing ear tag product h...

  20. Determination of the Phase Centers of Millimeter-Wave Horn Antennas Using a Holographic Interference Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuley, Ian; Murphy, J. Anthony; McCarthy, Darragh; Gradziel, Marcin; Mahon, Ronan; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Trappe, Neil

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss how a holographic interference technique can be applied in the experimental determination of the phase centers of non-standard horn antennas in the millimeter-waveband. The phase center is the point inside the horn from which the radiation appears to emanate when viewed from the far-field, and knowing its location is necessary for optimizing coupling efficiencies to quasi-optical systems. For non-standard horn designs, and other feed structures, the phase center may be difficult to reliably predict by simulation, in which case, before committing to antenna manufacture, there is a requirement for it to be determined experimentally. Although the phase center can be recovered by direct phase measurement of the far-field beam pattern, this usually involves expensive instrumentation such as a vector network analyzer for millimeter wave horn antennas. In this paper, we describe one inexpensive alternative, which is based on measuring the interference pattern in intensity between the radiation from the horn of interest and a reference beam derived from the same coherent source in an off-axis holography setup. The accuracy of the approach is improved by comparison with the interference pattern of a well-understood standard horn (such as a corrugated conical horn) in the same experimental setup. We present an example of the technique applied to a profiled smooth-walled horn antenna, which has been especially designed for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments.

  1. The Many Faces of Compliance: The Supreme Court's Decision in "Horne v. Flores"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thro, William E.

    2009-01-01

    At first blush, the Supreme Court's recent decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009) appears to be about the proper standard for determining when to modify a previous judgment, a topic that would interest only civil procedure geeks. Yet, on closer examination, "Horne" is about giving local and state officials discretion to solve education problems and,…

  2. Exploring the Sensitivity of Horn's Parallel Analysis to the Distributional Form of Random Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinno, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Horn's parallel analysis (PA) is the method of consensus in the literature on empirical methods for deciding how many components/factors to retain. Different authors have proposed various implementations of PA. Horn's seminal 1965 article, a 1996 article by Thompson and Daniel, and a 2004 article by Hayton, Allen, and Scarpello all make assertions…

  3. 454 pyrosequencing project identifying expressed genes from the horn fly, Haematobia irritans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used an EST approach to initiate a study of the genome of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans and have used 454 pyrosequencing techniques to sequence 73,512, 100,603, 71,550, and 85,769 expressed genes from the egg, first instar larvae, adult male, and adult female lifestages of the horn fly. cD...

  4. Longitudinally slotted conical horn antenna with small flare angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharten, T.; Nellen, J.; van den Bogaart, F.

    1981-06-01

    The radiation and cross polarization characteristics of a longitudinally slotted, conical horn antenna with small flare angle, excited in the modified TE(11) mode, are investigated. To this end the electromagnetic wave propagation in a longitudinally slotted circular waveguide is studied first, using a wall reactance model. Because of the need to introduce mode-dependent wall reactances in the present structure, conditions for orthogonality are given. Propagation characteristics and field line patterns are presented. It turns out that the modified TE(11) mode in this guide, used as an aperture antenna, produces a main radiation lobe which can be made nearly symmetrical around the axis over a wide frequency range by a proper choice of the slot depth. As a typical example, the maximum cross polarization level in the main lobe is lower than -30 to -45 dB, dependent on slot depth and frequency range. Experiments carried out with a slotted conical horn antenna with small flare angle confirm the theoretical results.

  5. Preference of redear sunfish on zebra mussels and rams-horn snails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Morgan, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    We tested prey preferences of adult (200- to 222-mm long) redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) on two size classes of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and two-ridge rams-horns (Helisoma anceps) in experimental aquaria. We also tested physical limitations on consuming these mollusks and determined prey bioenergetic profitability. Redear sunfish strongly preferred rams-horns over zebra mussels, but they displayed no size preference for either prey. Ingestion was not physically limited since both prey species up to 15-mm long fit within the pharyngeal gapes of redear sunfish. Rams-horns were more bioenergetically profitable than zebra mussels and ingestion of rams-horn shell fragments was about three times less than zebra mussels. Rams-horns were somewhat more resistant to shell-crushing, but all size ranges of both prey species tested were crushable by redear sunfish. These studies suggested that the redear sunfish should not be considered a panacea for biological control of zebra mussels.

  6. The value of hysteroscopy in the diagnostic approach to a rudimentary horn pregnancy.

    PubMed

    van Esch, E M G; Lashley, E E L O; Berning, B; de Kroon, C D

    2010-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman presented with an ectopic pregnancy without any complaints. Laparoscopy was performed since a tubal pregnancy was expected. However, both fallopian tubes appeared normal and it was not possible to differentiate accurately between a pregnancy in a non-communicating horn and a pregnancy in a bicornuate uterus. We therefore performed MRI which showed a thin myometrium around the pregnancy. In order to differentiate between a communicating and a non-communicating uterine horn the authors performed a hysteroscopy. Since there was only one cervical os, and an entrance to the second uterine cavity was not seen along the cervical canal, it was concluded that this pregnancy was situated in a non-communicating rudimentary horn. The non-communicating uterine horn, with the pregnancy in situ, was completely removed. Since a pregnancy in a bicornuate uterus is viable in contrast to a pregnancy in a non-communicating horn, accurate diagnosis is important. PMID:22802375

  7. Pangolin expression influences the development of a morphological novelty: beetle horns.

    PubMed

    Wasik, Bethany R; Moczek, Armin P

    2012-05-01

    Morphological diversity arises during development through the actions and interactions of diverse developmental pathways. Among those, the Wnt pathway is known to contribute to diverse developmental processes such as segmentation and the morphogenesis of appendages. Here, we characterize a transcription factor in the Wnt pathway, pangolin (pan), to investigate the role of Wnt signaling in the development of evolutionarily novel body structures: the horns of beetles. Beetle horns are highly diverse in size, shape, and number and develop principally from two major body regions: the head and prothorax. We investigate horns in two species of the genus Onthophagus using comparative in situ hybridization, larval RNA interference, and allometric measurements to analyze whether horn formation is regulated by pan and by extension the Wnt pathway. Our results illustrate that pan expression affects beetle horn growth in a species-, sex-, and location-specific manner in two morphologically distinct, yet closely-related, Onthophagus species. PMID:21998033

  8. Successful twin pregnancy in a unicornuate uterus with one fetus in the non-communicating rudimentary horn.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Smiti; Dahiya, Krishna; Sharma, Nidhi; Aggarwal, Deepika; Sighal, Savita Rani; Sangwan, Neetu

    2009-12-01

    Rudimentary horn is a rare anomaly and results from arrested development of the mullerian ducts. We report a case of twin pregnancy in a unicornuate uterus with a non-communicating rudimentary horn, in which two siblings each in separate horn were delivered successfully by caesarean section. PMID:19301025

  9. Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Horn Fly: Detection of Pyrethroid, Organophosphate and Cyclodiene Target Site Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans, is an important pest to the livestock industry that causes economic losses of approximately US$1 billion in the U.S. and a similar value in Latin America. Horn fly control efforts still relies mainly on direct application of insecticides although horn fly ...

  10. Trigeminal and spinal dorsal horn (dis)continuity and avian evolution.

    PubMed

    Wild, J Martin; Krützfeldt, Nils O E; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2010-01-01

    The organization of the dorsal horn in the avian spinal cord differs in different species. For instance, in pigeons and doves, cranes, cuckoos, songbirds, ratites and tinamous, the dorsal horn is organized in laminar fashion, such that laminae II and III are sandwiched between lamina I dorsally and lamina IV ventrally, as they are in mammals and other nonavian amniotes. In most other avian species, including chickens, however, the organization of the dorsal horn is not strictly laminar, in that the structures homologous to laminae II and III lie side by side rather than in dorsoventral order. Because spinal and trigeminal dorsal horns are generally thought to be continuous, the question arises as to the organization of the trigeminal dorsal horn in these species. We examined this question in chickens, first by defining II and III of trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns using calcium-binding protein immunohistochemistry, and second by determining the caudal extent of the projections of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve using injections of cholera toxin B chain. It was found (1) that the trigeminal dorsal horn and the spinal dorsal horn of the first 2 cervical segments are organized in laminar fashion, but further caudally, II and III in the spinal dorsal horn gradually come to be arranged side by side and (2) that the descending trigeminal tract terminates no further caudal than the 3rd spinal segment. Therefore, unlike spinal nerves, trigeminal nerve branches do not project to II and III, once these cease to be organized in laminar fashion. These findings imply some kind or organizational discontinuity of trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns in the chicken and perhaps in other species with a side-by-side arrangement of II and III. It has also been suggested that the condition in which the spinal dorsal horn structures homologous to laminae II and II lie side by side may define a novel clade of birds. This suggestion was reexamined within the context of a

  11. Rudimentary horn pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasound and treated by laparoscopy--a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kadan, Yfat; Romano, Shabtai

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn occurs once in 76,000 pregnancies. The most significant threat of pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is the risk of rupture. With the use of ultrasound the diagnosis can be made before symptoms occur. Management usually consists of excision of the rudimentary horn with the pregnancy and the ipsilateral tube, traditionally by laparotomy. We present a case of an 11-week pregnancy in a rudimentary horn with a nonviable fetus diagnosed by ultrasound and treated with laparoscopic resection. Review of the literature revealed 11 cases treated successfully with laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic treatment should be considered for pregnancy in rudimentary horn during the first trimester. PMID:18619925

  12. Dynamics of a Prominence-horn Structure during Its Evaporation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Yao; Fu, Jie; Li, Bo; Li, Xing; Liu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The physical connections among and formation mechanisms of various components of the prominence-horn cavity system remain elusive. Here we present observations of such a system, focusing on a section of the prominence that rises and separates gradually from the main body. This forms a configuration sufficiently simple to yield clues regarding the above issues. It is characterized by embedding horns, oscillations, and a gradual disappearance of the separated material. The prominence-horn structure exhibits a large-amplitude longitudinal oscillation with a period of ∼150 minutes and an amplitude of ∼30 Mm along the trajectory defined by the concave horn structure. The horns also experience a simultaneous transverse oscillation with a much smaller amplitude (∼3 Mm) and a shorter period (∼10–15 minutes), likely representative of a global mode of the large-scale magnetic structure. The gradual disappearance of the structure indicates that the horn, an observational manifestation of the field-aligned transition region separating the cool and dense prominence from the hot and tenuous corona, is formed due to the heating and diluting process of the central prominence mass; most previous studies suggested that it is the opposite process, i.e., the cooling and condensation of coronal plasmas, that formed the horn. This study also demonstrates how the prominence transports magnetic flux to the upper corona, a process essential for the gradual build-up of pre-eruption magnetic energy.

  13. Novel insights into the bovine polled phenotype and horn ontogenesis in Bovidae.

    PubMed

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Grohs, Cécile; Medugorac, Ivica; Krebs, Stefan; Djari, Anis; Graf, Alexander; Fritz, Sébastien; Seichter, Doris; Baur, Aurélia; Russ, Ingolf; Bouet, Stéphan; Rothammer, Sophie; Wahlberg, Per; Esquerré, Diane; Hoze, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Weiss, Bernard; Thépot, Dominique; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; van Marle-Köster, Este; Hreiðarsdóttir, Gunnfríður Elín; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Reversé, Patrick; Catros, Olivier; Marchand, Jean-Luc; Soulas, Pascal; Roy, Pierre; Marquant-Leguienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Clément, Laetitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle; Phocas, Florence; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fouchet, Michel; Journaux, Laurent; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Ponsart, Claire; Eggen, André; Blum, Helmut; Gallard, Yves; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric; Capitan, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC) and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF). We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae. PMID:23717440

  14. Dynamics of a Prominence-horn Structure during Its Evaporation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Yao; Fu, Jie; Li, Bo; Li, Xing; Liu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The physical connections among and formation mechanisms of various components of the prominence-horn cavity system remain elusive. Here we present observations of such a system, focusing on a section of the prominence that rises and separates gradually from the main body. This forms a configuration sufficiently simple to yield clues regarding the above issues. It is characterized by embedding horns, oscillations, and a gradual disappearance of the separated material. The prominence-horn structure exhibits a large-amplitude longitudinal oscillation with a period of ˜150 minutes and an amplitude of ˜30 Mm along the trajectory defined by the concave horn structure. The horns also experience a simultaneous transverse oscillation with a much smaller amplitude (˜3 Mm) and a shorter period (˜10–15 minutes), likely representative of a global mode of the large-scale magnetic structure. The gradual disappearance of the structure indicates that the horn, an observational manifestation of the field-aligned transition region separating the cool and dense prominence from the hot and tenuous corona, is formed due to the heating and diluting process of the central prominence mass; most previous studies suggested that it is the opposite process, i.e., the cooling and condensation of coronal plasmas, that formed the horn. This study also demonstrates how the prominence transports magnetic flux to the upper corona, a process essential for the gradual build-up of pre-eruption magnetic energy.

  15. Crossed receptive field components and crossed dendrites in cat sacrocaudal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Gladfelter, W E; Millecchia, R J; Pubols, L M; Sonty, R V; Ritz, L A; Covalt-Dunning, D; Culberson, J; Brown, P B

    1993-10-01

    The hypothesis that sacrocaudal dorsal horn neurons with crossed receptive field components on the tail have dendrites which cross to the contralateral dorsal horn was tested in a combined electrophysiological and morphological study. Dorsal horn cells in the sacrocaudal spinal cord of anesthetized cats were penetrated with horseradish peroxidase-filled microelectrodes. After mapping their low threshold mechanoreceptive fields, cells were iontophoretically injected with horseradish peroxidase. A sample of 16 well-stained cells was obtained in laminae III and IV. Cells with receptive fields crossing the dorsal midline of the tail (n = 8) had somata in the lateral ipsilateral dorsal horn, and some of these cells (5/8) had dendrites which crossed to the lateral contralateral dorsal horn. Cells with receptive fields spanning the ventral midline (n = 2) were located near the center of the fused dorsal horn, and one of these had bilateral dendrites in this region. Cells with receptive fields on the lateral tail, crossing neither the dorsal nor the ventral midline (n = 6), had cell bodies in the middle of the ipsilateral dorsal horn; half had only ipsilateral dendrites, and half had crossed dendritic branches. Although the relationship between cell receptive field (RF) location (RF center, expressed as distance from tips of toes) and mediolateral location of the cell body was statistically significant, the correlation between crossed RF components and crossed dendritic branches was not significant. PMID:8254116

  16. Somatotopic organization of single primary afferent axon projections to cat spinal cord dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Gladfelter, W E; Culberson, J C; Covalt-Dunning, D; Sonty, R V; Pubols, L M; Millecchia, R J

    1991-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase injection of identified low threshold cutaneous mechanoreceptor (LTCM) primary afferent axons was used to assess the somatotopic organization of hindlimb projections to laminae III and IV of cat dorsal horn. Multiple injections in the same animals were used to assess bilateral symmetry and precision. Thirty-one axons were injected, with more than 1 axon injected in each of 8 animals (25 axons). Somatotopic relations between their receptive field (RF) centers and the centers of their dorsal horn projections were similar to the somatotopic relations between dorsal horn cell RF centers and cell locations. Very few reversals of mediolateral somatotopic gradients (proximodistal RF location as a function of mediolateral projection center) were observed. Two afferents with nearly identical RFs in 1 animal had nearly identical projections. These observations held for many different combinations of receptor types. A simple mathematical model was used to demonstrate that assembly of dorsal horn cell RFs via passive sampling of the presynaptic neuropil by dorsal horn cell dendrites cannot account for the sizes of dorsal horn cell LTCM RFs. Hypothesized mechanisms for assembly of dorsal horn cell RFs must take into account the functional selectivity of connections required to produce RFs smaller than those predicted by the passive assembly model. PMID:1702466

  17. Cross-linked hyaluronate hydrogel prevents adhesion formation and reformation in mouse uterine horn model.

    PubMed

    Sawada, T; Tsukada, K; Hasegawa, K; Ohashi, Y; Udagawa, Y; Gomel, V

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cross-linked hyaluronate hydrogel (HA gel) as an adjuvant for postoperative adhesion prevention, in a mouse uterine horn model. In experiment 1 uterine horns were abrased with iodine. HA gel was applied to the injured surface before closure in the treatment group. In experiment 2, after injuring the uterine horns, three stitches were placed at equal distances around the uterine horns to appose the injured medial surfaces of the two horns during healing. HA gel was inserted between the uterine horns in the treatment group. In experiment 3 prevention of adhesion reformation was assessed. After lysis of adhesions that were induced as in experiment 2, HA gel was introduced between the serosal surfaces of apposing uterine horns. Untreated animals served as controls in each experiment. Statistical analysis was carried out using Student's t-test. The adhesion score was significantly lower in the HA gel group on the 14th day compared with controls in all the experiments: in experiment 1, 0.3 +/- 0.4 versus 1.7 +/- 1.2; in experiment 2, 0.9 +/- 1.0 versus 2.6 +/- 0.5; and in experiment 3, 1.5 +/- 0.9 versus 2.2 +/- 0.6 respectively. Cross-linked HA gel significantly reduced de-novo adhesions (P< 0.03) and adhesion reformation (P < 0.03). PMID:11157833

  18. Efficient horn antennas for next-generation terahertz and millimeter-wave space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Darragh; Trappe, Neil; Murphy, Anthony; Bracken, Colm; Doherty, Stephen; Gradziel, Marcin L.; O'Sullivan, Créidhe

    2013-03-01

    Astronomical observations in the far-infrared are critical for investigation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation and the formation and evolution of planets, stars and galaxies. In the case of space telescope receivers a strong heritage exists for corrugated horn antenna feeds to couple the far-infrared signals to the detectors mounted in a waveguide or cavity structure. Such antenna feeds have been utilized, for example, in the Planck satellite in both single-mode channels for the observation of the CMB and the multi-mode channels optimized for the detection of foreground sources. Looking to the demands of the future space missions, it is clear that the development of new technology solutions for the optimization and simplification of horn antenna structures will be required for large arrays. Horn antennas will continue to offer excellent control of beam and polarization properties for CMB polarisation experiments satisfying stringent requirements on low sidelobe levels, symmetry and low cross polarization in large arrays. Similarly for mid infrared systems multi-mode waveguide structures will give high throughput to reach the required sensitivities. In this paper we present a computationally efficient approach for modelling and optimising horn characteristics. We investigate smooth-walled profiled horns that have a performance equivalent to that of the corrugated horns traditionally used for CMB measurements. We discuss the horn optimisation process and the algorithms available to maximise performance of a merit parameter such as low cross polarisation or high Gaussicity.

  19. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-05-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in response to plantarflexion and inversion of the foot or ankle compression were recorded from the medial part of the deep dorsal horn, laminae IV-VI, in normal and ankle-sprained rats. One day after ankle sprain, rats showed significantly reduced WBRs on the affected foot, and this reduction was partially restored by systemic morphine. The majority of deep dorsal horn neurons responded to a single ankle stimulus modality. After ankle sprain, the mean evoked response rates were significantly increased, and afterdischarges were developed in recorded dorsal horn neurons. The ankle sprain-induced enhanced evoked responses were significantly reduced by morphine, which was reversed by naltrexone. The data indicate that movement-specific dorsal horn neuron responses were enhanced after ankle sprain in a morphine-dependent manner, thus suggesting that hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons is an underlying mechanism of pain after ankle sprain. PMID:21389306

  20. Novel Insights into the Bovine Polled Phenotype and Horn Ontogenesis in Bovidae

    PubMed Central

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Grohs, Cécile; Medugorac, Ivica; Krebs, Stefan; Djari, Anis; Graf, Alexander; Fritz, Sébastien; Seichter, Doris; Baur, Aurélia; Russ, Ingolf; Bouet, Stéphan; Rothammer, Sophie; Wahlberg, Per; Esquerré, Diane; Hoze, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Weiss, Bernard; Thépot, Dominique; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; van Marle-Köster, Este; Hreiðarsdóttir, Gunnfríður Elín; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Reversé, Patrick; Catros, Olivier; Marchand, Jean-Luc; Soulas, Pascal; Roy, Pierre; Marquant-Leguienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Clément, Laetitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle; Phocas, Florence; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fouchet, Michel; Journaux, Laurent; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Ponsart, Claire; Eggen, André; Blum, Helmut; Gallard, Yves; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric; Capitan, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC) and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF). We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae. PMID:23717440

  1. Irreducible multiqutrit correlations in Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fu-Lin; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2011-12-15

    Following the idea of the continuity approach by D. L. Zhou [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 180505 (2008)], we obtain the degrees of irreducible multiparty correlations in two families of n-qutrit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states. For the pure states in one of the families, the irreducible 2-party, n-party, and (n-m)-party (0

  2. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  3. Presumptive electric cataracts in a Great Horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Dees, D Dustin; MacLaren, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes suspected electrocution in a juvenile female Great Horned owl (Bubo virginianus) with subsequent bilateral cataract formation. The bird flew into a high-voltage power line and was immediately rescued. Burn wounds of the head and ataxia with apparent blindness were noted. Initial ophthalmic examination 5 days after the incident revealed bilaterally symmetrical anterior subcapsular vacuolar cataracts with absence of intraocular inflammation and a predominantly clear view to the normal appearing fundus. The bird appeared to be nonvisual. No ophthalmic medications were prescribed at initial examination. Subsequent recheck examination at 8 weeks revealed moderate resolution of the cataracts and improved vision. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report of suspected electric cataracts in an avian species. PMID:22432797

  4. Pulmonary carcinoma in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rettenmund, Christy; Sladky, Kurt K; Rodriguez, Daniel; Petersen, Michael; Pinkerton, Marie E; Rao, Deepa

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary carcinoma was diagnosed in an 18+-year-old captive female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). The owl presented with a history of progressive weakness and sudden onset of frank blood in the droppings. On physical examination, the owl had multiple white to yellow plaques in the oral cavity, decreased air sac sounds on the right side, dyspnea (during manual restraint), and reduced pectoral musculature. Whole-body radiographs revealed obliteration of the right-sided air sacs, a soft tissue plaque/density in the left caudal thoracic air sac, soft tissue opacity over the coelomic organs, and increased medullary opacity in the distal right humerus. The owl died during anesthetic recovery, and the body was submitted for necropsy. Although the clinical signs, physical examination results, radiographic signs, and gross pathology supported a diagnosis of mycotic infection, such as aspergillosis, histopathology confirmed pulmonary carcinoma with metastases to the air sacs and humerus. PMID:20722257

  5. Synaptic inhibition and disinhibition in the spinal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Nociceptive signals originating in the periphery must be transmitted to the brain to evoke pain. Rather than being conveyed unchanged, those signals undergo extensive processing in the spinal dorsal horn. Synaptic inhibition plays a crucial role in that processing. On the one hand, neuropathy and inflammation are associated with reduced spinal inhibition; on the other hand, the hypersensitivity associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain can be reproduced by blocking inhibition at the spinal level. To understand the consequences of disinhibition and how to therapeutically reverse it, one must understand how synaptic inhibition normally operates. To that end, this chapter will discuss the structure and function of GABAA and glycine receptors together with the role of associated molecules involved in transmitter handling and chloride regulation. Mechanisms by which inhibition modulates cellular excitability will be described. The chapter will end with discussion of how inhibition goes awry under pathological conditions and what the implications are for the treatment of resulting pain. PMID:25744679

  6. Measurements of very low-sidelobe conical horn antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toral, Marco A.; Ratliff, Roger B.; Lecha, Maria C.; Maruschak, John G.; Bennett, Charles L.

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of conical corrugated-horn antennas that were designed for millimeter-wave radiometers with a 7 degree field of view, namely the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMRs) that will measure the large-angular-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation that is generally thought to be the remnant of the primeval explosion, the Big Bang. The DMRs will be part of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite. Measured test results for three radiometers at 31.4, 53, and 90 GHz are reported along with those of a circular polarization orthomode transducer designed and characterized at 31.4 GHz. The measurement techniques and facilities are described, including an outdoor far-field facility where measurements down to levels 90 dB below the main beam maximum were achieved. The goal of achieving very low-sidelobe antennas with good symmetry has been demonstrated.

  7. Redefining ecological ethics: science, policy, and philosophy at Cape Horn.

    PubMed

    Frodeman, Robert

    2008-12-01

    In the twentieth century, philosophy (especially within the United States) embraced the notion of disciplinary expertise: philosophical research consists of working with and writing for other philosophers. Projects that involve non-philosophers earn the deprecating title of "applied" philosophy. The University of North Texas (UNT) doctoral program in philosophy exemplifies the possibility of a new model for philosophy, where graduate students are trained in academic philosophy and in how to work with scientists, engineers, and policy makers. This "field" (rather than "applied") approach emphasizes the inter- and transdisciplinary nature of the philosophical enterprise where theory and practice dialectically inform one another. UNT's field station in philosophy at Cape Horn, Patagonia, Chile is one site for developing this ongoing experiment in the theory and practice of interdisciplinary philosophic research and education. PMID:18941926

  8. A curious pellet from a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Dove, C.J.; Peurach, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    One of the traditional methods of determining the dietary preferences of owls relies upon the identification of bony remains of prey contained in regurgitated pellets. Discovery of a pellet containing a large, complete primary feather from an adult, male Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) prompted us to examine in detail a small sample of pellets from a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). Our analyses of feather and hair remains in these pellets documented the presence of three species of birds and two species of mammals, whereas bones in the pellets represented only mammals. This finding indicates an important bias that challenges the reliability of owl pellet studies making use of only osteological remains.

  9. Measurements of very low-sidelobe conical horn antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toral, Marco A.; Ratliff, Roger B.; Lecha, Maria C.; Maruschak, John G.; Bennett, Charles L.

    1989-02-01

    A description is given of conical corrugated-horn antennas that were designed for millimeter-wave radiometers with a 7 degree field of view, namely the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMRs) that will measure the large-angular-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation that is generally thought to be the remnant of the primeval explosion, the Big Bang. The DMRs will be part of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite. Measured test results for three radiometers at 31.4, 53, and 90 GHz are reported along with those of a circular polarization orthomode transducer designed and characterized at 31.4 GHz. The measurement techniques and facilities are described, including an outdoor far-field facility where measurements down to levels 90 dB below the main beam maximum were achieved. The goal of achieving very low-sidelobe antennas with good symmetry has been demonstrated.

  10. Comparison between different rectangular horn elements for array antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lier, E.; Rengarjan, S.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    1991-08-01

    The coupling and directivity characteristics of an array with fundamental smooth-walled, soft and hard open-ended waveguide elements with rectangular cross-section are considered. Exact and approximate methods to analyze coupling in arrays are discussed. It is known that the coupling, which can be expressed by a quadruple integral across the rectangular apertures, can be reduced to double integrals by introducing a coordinate transformation. Calculations show that the soft waveguide elements are suited for applications where low return loss and mutual coupling are required. Arrays with hard waveguide elements yield high directivity for limited scan applications. Both elements can, in contrast to conventional smooth-walled (SW) horns, operate in dual polarization with high isolation between the orthogonal modes.

  11. Entanglement concentration for concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chang-Cheng; Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2015-11-01

    The concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state is a new type of logic-qubit entanglement, which attracts a lot of attentions recently. In this paper, we discuss the entanglement concentration for such logic-qubit entanglement. We present two groups of entanglement concentration protocols (ECPs) for logic-qubit entanglement. In the first group, the parties do not know the initial coefficients of the partially logic-qubit entanglement. In the second group, the parties know the initial coefficients of the partially logic-qubit entanglement. In our ECPs, the unsuccessful cases can be reused to increase the total success probability in the next step. These ECPs may be useful in future long-distant quantum communication.

  12. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-06-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  13. Past and Future Rainfall in the Horn of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, J. E.; Ummenhofer, C.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    While the interannual response of rainfall in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) region to internal climatic forcings is generally well understood, it is unclear how external climate forcing from rising greenhouse gases will affect hydroclimate in the region. 20th century observations in the GHA are limited in number, giving us only a hint at recent trends. Here, we present the first high-resolution record of temperature and hydroclimate from the GHA spanning the last 2000 years. These data, consisting of biomarker proxies measured in a high-accumulation rate marine sediment core from the Gulf of Aden, provide a detailed view of both 20th century and last millennium GHA climate. Measurements of TEX86 show that the recent warming in upper ocean temperatures is unprecedented in the context of the last 2000 years. Paired measurements of the hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf waxes show that the 20th century warming in the region is associated with a drying trend that is also unprecedented in the last 2000 years. These data suggest that rising greenhouse gases drive drying in the Horn of Africa region, but the majority of climate model simulations from the CMIP5 archive (RCP 8.5 scenario) imply that the region will get wetter. We address this discrepancy by investigating both the ability of climate models to simulate the seasonal cycle in rainfall in the GHA region and the mechanisms driving model response. If the models are incorrect, and the GHA will indeed get drier as a consequence of global warming, this has major implications for projections of food security in the region.

  14. Erosional history of Big Horn basin: Mackin revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Palmquist, R.C.

    1983-08-01

    The classic study of the erosional history of Big Horn basin is by Mackin in 1937. In it he studied the terrace levels which ranged in age from Late Tertiary to late Pleistocene. He postulated that the terraces were the product of stream captures or intervals of interglacial stability alternating with glacial incision. More recent studies have revised Mackin's classically simple model. Detailed studies have increased the number of terrace levels, changed the timing of their stability episode, and estimated their ages. The number of terrace levels has been increased to nine along the Greybull and Bighorn Rivers and to six along the Shoshoni River. Because some of the different levels occur along each river, the number of unique levels within the basin is 12. The occurrence of a 600,000 and a 100,000 year old ash on two terrace levels allows the ages of the terraces to be estimated. The estimated ages range from 3 m.y. for the Tatman to 49,000 years for the Himes, which is the lowest level along the Bighorn River. Both ashes were deposited during river stability intervals and indicate that the Bighorn River and its eastern tributaries were stable late in the interglacial episodes. In contrast, the glaciofluvial gravels along the Shoshoni River at Cody indicate a late glacial stability episode for the western tributaries. The terrace cycles along the Bighorn River and its western tributaries are therefore out-of-phase. Comparison of the estimated terrace ages to termination in the marine isotopic record indicates that not all of the Pleistocene climatic cycles are preserved in the Big Horn basin terrace chronology.

  15. Unilateral intrauterine horn insemination of frozen semen in cats.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Tanaka, A; Takagi, Y; Nakagawa, K; Fujimoto, Y; Murai, M; Anzai, M; Hori, T

    2000-12-01

    Frozen feline semen was prepared using two types of extenders, egg yolk Tris-fructose citric acid (EYT-FC) and egg yolk sodium citrate solution (EYC), and the semen qualities after thawing and the conception rates obtained by unilateral intrauterine horn insemination (UIUI) were investigated. Cats used in the experiment were six males and 11 females aged 2-12 years (the number of experimental cases was 17). For preparation of frozen semen, semen collected by the artificial vagina method was adjusted to I x 10(8) sperm/m/ and 7% glycerol, put in 250 microl straws, and then frozen using a cell freezer. The mean sperm motility after thawing was 30.0+/-9.7 (SE) % in the semen prepared with EYT-FC and 30.0+/-3.3% in the semen prepared with EYC. Four of seven animals were fertilized by UIUI using two straws in both extenders, and the conception rate was 57.1%. The mean ratios of number of kits to the number of ovulations in the inseminated side were 61.1+/-24.5% and 30.5+/-3.4% for EYT-FC and EYC, respectively, showing that the ratio tended to be higher in the semen prepared with EYT-FC. The above findings, comparing the two extenders for preparation of frozen feline semen, showed that EYT-FC is slightly superior to EYC. To increase conception and fertility rates, it may be important to increase the sperm count for insemination and to inseminate both uterine horns. PMID:11193339

  16. Pyrosequencing-Based Analysis of the Microbiome Associated with the Horn Fly, Haematobia irritans

    PubMed Central

    Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Guerrero, Felix D.; Heekin, Andrew M.; Wang, Ju; Dowd, Scot E.; Sun, Yan; Foil, Lane D.; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.

    2012-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livestock products and give an impetus to the organic livestock farming segment. The horn fly, an obligatory blood feeder, requires the help of microflora to supply additional nutrients and metabolize the blood meal. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies enable researchers to examine the microflora diversity independent of culture methods. We used the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) method to carry out the classification analysis of bacterial flora in adult female and male horn flies and horn fly eggs. The bTEFAP method identified 16S rDNA sequences in our samples which allowed the identification of various prokaryotic taxa associated with the life stage examined. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the horn fly using a culture-independent method. Several rumen, environmental, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria associated with the horn fly were identified and quantified. This is the first report of the presence of Wolbachia in horn flies of USA origin and is the first report of the presence of Rikenella in an obligatory blood feeding insect. PMID:23028533

  17. Genome-wide association reveals the locus responsible for four-horned ruminant.

    PubMed

    Kijas, James W; Hadfield, Tracy; Naval Sanchez, Marina; Cockett, Noelle

    2016-04-01

    Phenotypic variability in horn characteristics, such as their size, number and shape, offers the opportunity to elucidate the molecular basis of horn development. The objective of this study was to map the genetic determinant controlling the production of four horns in two breeds, Jacob sheep and Navajo-Churro, and examine whether an eyelid abnormality occurring in the same populations is related. Genome-wide association mapping was performed using 125 animals from the two breeds that contain two- and four-horned individuals. A case-control design analysis of 570 712 SNPs genotyped with the ovine HD SNP Beadchip revealed a strong association signal on sheep chromosome 2. The 10 most strongly associated SNPs were all located in a region spanning Mb positions 131.9-132.6, indicating the genetic architecture underpinning the production of four horns is likely to involve a single gene. The closest genes to the most strongly associated marker (OAR2_132568092) were MTX2 and the HOXD cluster, located approximately 93 Kb and 251 Kb upstream respectively. The occurrence of an eyelid malformation across both breeds was restricted to polled animals and those carrying more than two horns. This suggests the eyelid abnormality may be associated with departures from the normal developmental production of two-horned animals and that the two conditions are developmentally linked. This study demonstrated the presence of separate loci responsible for the polled and four-horned phenotypes in sheep and advanced our understanding of the complexity that underpins horn morphology in ruminants. PMID:26767438

  18. Computational modeling and experimental studies of the dynamic performance of ultrasonic horn profiles used in plastic welding.

    PubMed

    Roopa Rani, M; Rudramoorthy, R

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasonic horns are tuned components designed to vibrate in a longitudinal mode at ultrasonic frequencies. Reliable performance of such horns is normally decided by the uniformity of vibration amplitude at the working surface and the stress developed during loading condition. The horn design engineer must pay particular attention to designing a tool that will produce the desired amplitude without fracturing. The present work discusses horn configurations which satisfy these criteria and investigates the design requirements of horns in ultrasonic system. Different horn profiles for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastics have been characterized in terms of displacement amplitude and von-Mises stresses using modal and harmonic analysis. To validate the simulated results, five different horns are fabricated from Aluminum, tested and tuned to the operating frequency. Standard ABS plastic parts are welded using these horns. Temperature developed during the welding of ABS test parts using different horns is recorded using sensors and National Instruments (NIs) data acquisition system. The recorded values are compared with the predicted values. Experimental results show that welding using a Bezier horn has a high interface temperature and the welded joints had higher strength as compared to the other horn profiles. PMID:23259979

  19. Use of electroporation as an option to transform the horn fly, Haematobia irritans: a species recalcitrant to microinjection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Guerrero, Felix D; Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2016-08-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is a serious pest of cattle in North America. The control of horn flies has primarily relied on insecticides. However, the heavy use of insecticides has led to the development of insecticide resistance in horn flies. Novel methods to control horn flies are greatly needed. Transgenic technology is an effective tool to genetically modify insects and may lead to novel methods of pest control based on genomic approaches. Here we report a piggyBac-mediated transformation of the horn fly via electroporation. Transformation with a DsRed fluorescent marker protein coding region was verified by PCR analysis of individual fly bodies and pupal cases and sequencing of PCR products. However, Southern blot analysis failed to indicate the DsRed gene was integrated into the horn fly genome. Thus, the electroporation protocol may have caused the DsRed gene to be integrated into bacterial symbionts of the horn fly. PMID:25645001

  20. Hand-assisted laparoscopic management of a midtrimester rudimentary horn pregnancy with placenta increta: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Karenrose R; Rothenberg, Jeffrey M; Kominiarek, Michelle A; Raff, Gregory J

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is an extremely rare but serious obstetric condition. It is associated with uterine rupture and increased maternal mortality. The standard treatment is excision of the pregnancy and rudimentary horn. Several case reports describe a successful laparoscopic approach for rudimentary horn pregnancies diagnosed in the first trimester. A midtrimester rudimentary horn pregnancy was managed with a hand-assisted laparoscopic technique. This patient sought prenatal care at 19 weeks without any symptoms. A routine ultrasound found an empty uterus and an abdominal pregnancy was suggested. She subsequently had a hand-assisted laparoscopic delivery of a 19-week fetus with excision of the left-sided noncommunicating rudimentary horn. Intraoperative and pathologic findings were both consistent with a noncommunicating uterine horn pregnancy with placenta increta. Midtrimester rudimentary horn pregnancy can be successfully managed via hand-assisted laparoscopy in a patient who is hemodynamically stable. PMID:18722979

  1. Opiates and Pain Pathways: Demonstration of Enkephalin Synapses on Dorsal Horn Projection Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, M. A.

    1982-03-01

    The participation of the opiate peptide enkephalin in the neural circuitry of the dorsal horn was examined at the light and ultrastructural level through the use of the combined techniques of immunocytochemistry and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. Enkephalin immunoreactive axonal endings made direct synaptic contact with the soma and proximal dendrites of dorsal horn thalamic projection neurons. This observation demonstrates that one major synaptic site of enkephalin modulation of the transfer of nociceptive information in the dorsal horn is on the projection neurons themselves.

  2. AMPA receptor trafficking in inflammation-induced dorsal horn central sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Activity-dependent postsynaptic receptor trafficking is critical for long-term synaptic plasticity in brain, but it is unclear whether this mechanism actually mediates spinal cord dorsal horn central sensitization (a specific form of synaptic plasticity) that is associated with persistent pain. Recent studies have shown that peripheral inflammation drives changes in AMPA receptor subunit trafficking in dorsal horn and that such changes contribute to the hypersensitivity that underlies persistent pain. Here, we review current evidence to illustrate how spinal cord AMPA receptors participate in dorsal horn central sensitization associated with persistent pain. Understanding these mechanisms may allow development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating persistent pain. PMID:22466122

  3. Cross polarization caused by perturbed circular cross sections of waveguides and horn antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lier, Erik

    1987-03-01

    The cross polarization caused by a perturbed cross section of the conical hybrid-mode horn is analyzed. The perturbed cross section is assumed to be slightly elliptical. The theory of Lier and Bergh (1986) for cross polarization in a smooth-walled waveguide supporting the TE11-mode is referred and applied to the HE11 mode as well. Simple analytical formulas which are sufficiently accurate for small ellipticites of the cross-section ellipse are presented. These show that the tolerances on the waveguide diameter are extremely strong, typically on the order of 0.02-0.04 mm in the horn throat for typical horn geometries at 12 GHz.

  4. A GTD study of pyramidal horns for offset reflector antenna applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Woo, K.

    1983-01-01

    An efficient computational method is demonstrated for determining the far-field patterns of reflectors illuminated by pyramidal horns. A uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) formulation is used to determine the near- and far-fields of the horn. The far-field patterns of the offset reflector are constructed using the physical optics (PO) formulation in conjunction with the Jacobi-Bessel expansion method. Many representative results are shown for the far-field patterns of the reflector. In particular, the concept of the optimum phase center for the best location of a horn illuminating a reflector is carefully studied and some useful observations are made.

  5. Analysis of behavioral changes in dairy cows associated with claw horn lesions.

    PubMed

    Nechanitzky, K; Starke, A; Vidondo, B; Müller, H; Reckardt, M; Friedli, K; Steiner, A

    2016-04-01

    Detecting lame cows is important in improving animal welfare. Automated tools are potentially useful to enable identification and monitoring of lame cows. The goals of this study were to evaluate the suitability of various physiological and behavioral parameters to automatically detect lameness in dairy cows housed in a cubicle barn. Lame cows suffering from a claw horn lesion (sole ulcer or white line disease) of one claw of the same hind limb (n=32; group L) and 10 nonlame healthy cows (group C) were included in this study. Lying and standing behavior at night by tridimensional accelerometers, weight distribution between hind limbs by the 4-scale weighing platform, feeding behavior at night by the nose band sensor, and heart activity by the Polar device (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) were assessed. Either the entire data set or parts of the data collected over a 48-h period were used for statistical analysis, depending upon the parameter in question. The standing time at night over 12 h and the limb weight ratio (LWR) were significantly higher in group C as compared with group L, whereas the lying time at night over 12 h, the mean limb difference (△weight), and the standard deviation (SD) of the weight applied on the limb taking less weight were significantly lower in group C as compared with group L. No significant difference was noted between the groups for the parameters of heart activity and feeding behavior at night. The locomotion score of cows in group L was positively correlated with the lying time and △weight, whereas it was negatively correlated with LWR and SD. The highest sensitivity (0.97) for lameness detection was found for the parameter SD [specificity of 0.80 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84]. The highest specificity (0.90) for lameness detection was present for Δweight (sensitivity=0.78; AUC=0.88) and LWR (sensitivity=0.81; AUC=0.87). The model considering the data of SD together with lying time at night was the best

  6. Suppressing Side-Lobe Radiations of Horn Antenna by Loading Metamaterial Lens

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Mei Qing; Tang, Wen Xuan; Ma, Hui Feng; Pan, Bai Cao; Tao, Zui; Sun, Yong Zhi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach to control the amplitude and phase distributions of electromagnetic fields over the aperture of a horn antenna. By loading a metamaterial lens inside the horn antenna, a tapered amplitude distribution of the aperture field is achieved, which can suppress the side-lobe radiations of the antenna. The metamaterial is further manipulated to achieve a flat phase distribution on the horn aperture to avoid the gain reduction that usually suffers in the conventional low-sidelobe antenna designs. A prototype of the metamaterial-loaded horn antenna is designed and fabricated. Both numerical simulations and measured results demonstrate the tapered aperture-field distribution and significant reduction of side-lobe and back-lobe radiations in the operating frequency band. PMID:25766083

  7. Treatment of pastures with diflubenzuron suppresses Horn Fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diflubenzuron is an insect growth regulator labeled for application to pastures and rangeland to suppress grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) populations. Livestock are permitted access to land immediately after treatment. We hypothesized that the development and survivorship of horn fly Haematobia ...

  8. Segmental aplasia of the uterine horn with ipsilateral renal agenesis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinhwa; Jung, Joo-hyun; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Min-cheol; Park, Jae Hak; Seo, Kang-Moon; Jeong, Seong Mok

    2008-06-01

    A nine-month-old domestic short haired cat was admitted with the history of acute vomiting, depression and shivering. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed minimum enlargement of the right uterine horn filled with anechoic fluid. On excretory urography, functionally and anatomically normal, enlarged left kidney was found, but right kidney was absent. It was preliminary diagnosed as hydrometra with right renal agenesis. Aiming at the correction of hydrometra, we performed ovariohysterectomy. During spaying, we found a missing segment of distal part of the right uterine horn and absence of ipsilateral kidney and ureter. Compressed uterine structure and segmental aplasia of right uterine horn were found in histopathological investigation. Taken together, it was diagnosed as a segmental aplasia of uterine horn with ipsilateral renal agenesis. PMID:18628611

  9. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14132 Horns and... shall be audible above the surrounding noise level. (3) An automatic reverse-activated strobe light...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14132 Horns and... shall be audible above the surrounding noise level. (3) An automatic reverse-activated strobe light...

  11. Meniscus delivery: a maneuver for easy arthroscopic access to the posterior horn of the medial meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hatem Galal; Goyal, Saumitra; Fetih, Tarek Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Pathology of posterior horn of medial meniscus is common and often presents a difficult approach during arthroscopy for various reasons. We describe an easy maneuver to facilitate “delivery of the medial meniscus” during arthroscopy. PMID:27163099

  12. An Unusual Extremely Distant Noncommunicating Uterine Horn with Myoma and Adenomyosis Treated with Laparoscopic Hemihysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, Michele; Mocciaro, Rita; Lico, Daniela; Zullo, Fulvio

    2013-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman referred to us with dysmenorrhea and severe pelvic pain although she was previously submitted to right laparotomic adnexectomy for ovarian endometrioma and to a subsequent operative laparoscopy for pelvic adhesions. After ultrasound examination, the patient underwent diagnostic hysteroscopy and operative laparoscopy which confirmed the clinic suspect of an unicornuate uterus. However, it was very unusual to see an extremely distanced right horn, without communication with uterus, without adnexa, and with a small myoma belonging to it. Moreover, omentum and bowel were attached to fundus of right horn and thick adhesions fixed it to rectum and right pelvic wall. Therefore, identification of anatomical structures was difficult, as it was extremely arduous to isolate the ureter, which was involved inside the adhesions surrounding the right uterine horn. Nevertheless, laparoscopic right hemihysterectomy was successfully performed and right horn was sent to our pathologist who recognized hypotrophic endometrium and adenomyosis. PMID:24109532

  13. Coring-type laparoscopic resection of a cavitated non-communicating rudimentary horn under hysteroscopic assistance.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Ali; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Sendag, Fatih; Karadadaş, Nedim

    2014-07-01

    Non-communicating accessory uterine horns with an endometrial cavity are the most common and clinically significant unicornuate subtype of Müllerian duct abnormality. They are generally associated with symptoms of dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, infertility, endometriosis, adhesions, and life-threatening cornual pregnancy. Treatment options include surgical resection of the rudimentary horn, hysteroscopic recanalization, and endometrial ablation. Currently, laparoscopic resection is the recommended treatment choice. Dissection of the rudimentary horn from the unicornuate uterus is the most challenging part of this procedure and may compromise the remaining unicornuate uterus wall. Here we describe a case of laparoscopic coring-type resection of a non-communicating functional rudimentary horn firmly attached to the unicornuate uterus, by using hysteroscopic assistance. The use of hysteroscopy, adjunct to laparoscopy, facilitates the coring-type resection and may strengthen the remaining myometrial scar. PMID:25056476

  14. Functional Rudimentary Horn as a Rare Cause of Pelvic Pain: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Maliheh; Mehdighalb, Sepideh; Khosravi, Donya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pelvic pain results from many causes such as primary dysmenorrhea, uterine anomalies, menstrual outflow obstruction, endometriosis, myoma and adenomyosis. This study reports on a rare case of non-communicating functional rudimentary horn. Case Presentations: A 15-year-old nulligravida young woman with a history of severe intermittent pelvic pain presented a 4-5 centimeter mass. A surgical procedure for appendicitis was previously performed on this patient. Per-operative diagnosis was myoma and suspicion of leismus sarcoma. Laparotomy revealed left rudimentary horn, non-communication was confirmed by postoperative hysterosalpingogram (HSG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Resection of mass and left fallopian tube was done during the second surgery. Conclusions: Rudimentary horn should be considered in differentiation of pelvic pain and mass in young females. Early diagnosis and horn resection prevents emergency surgery and reliefs pain. PMID:25763218

  15. A rare case of intact rudimentary horn pregnancy presenting as hemoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ruchi; Gami, Neha; Puri, Manju; Trivedi, Ss

    2010-05-01

    The availability of technological advances like ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made the diagnosis of rudimentary horn pregnancy possible at an early gestation. However, in advanced pregnancy, such cases can sometimes pose a diagnostic dilemma and are recognized only when patient presents with abdominal pain and collapse and is taken for laparotomy. We report one such rare case of a nulliparous female who was carrying on well with her pregnancy till she developed symptoms of acute abdomen at 28 weeks of gestation. She underwent USG and MRI but it was only after laparotomy that a final diagnosis of a pregnancy in a rudimentary horn with placenta percreta perforating through the fundus could be made. There was a significant amount of hemoperitoneum; however, the horn was intact and the fetus could be salvaged. We excised the rudimentary horn with ipsilateral tube and ovary. Post operatively, both the mother and the baby were discharged in healthy condition. PMID:21209759

  16. Anterior horn syndrome: A rare manifestation of primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zahlane, Safaa; Louhab, Nissrine; El Mellakh, Meriem; Kissani, Najib

    2016-07-01

    The authors report an exceptional case of an anterior horn syndrome associated with Sjögren's syndrome in a 58-year-old patient with a flaccid tetraparesis revealed by asymmetric atrophy and diffuse fasciculations associated with xerostomia and xerophthalmia. The electroneuromyography objectified a diffuse anterior horn syndrome. The brain MRI and spinal cord were normal. Laboratory tests revealed positive anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibody. The salivary glands biopsy objectified lymphocytic sialadenitis grade 3 of Chisholm. The Schirmer's test was abnormally low. Diagnosis of anterior horn syndrome as part of Sjögren's syndrome was retained. The methylprednisolone bolus allowed partial clinical improvement after 12 months of evolution. Therefore, in patients with isolated anterior horn involvement, a correct diagnosis of the underlying SS is often delayed or overlooked entirely; in these instances, standard clinicoserological assessment is recommendable. PMID:27118221

  17. Application of rectangular and elliptical dielcore feed horns to elliptical reflector antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lier, Erik; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Rengarajan, Sembiam R.

    1991-11-01

    The pattern characteristics of elliptical reflector antennas are investigated when they are fed by rectangular and elliptical horns partially filled with a dielectric. The bandwidth characteristics of these dielcore horns are superior to those of their corrugated horn counterparts. Representative reflector patterns are computed to properly demonstrate the utility of these feeds for reflector antennas with elliptical apertures. This reflector antenna exhibits high efficiency and low cross polarization, and may be suitable for radar and satellite antenna applications. The antenna configuration may become useful in relatively small antennas where more than 10 percent cross-polar bandwidth is required. The efficient dielcore horns may also be used as feeds for elliptical nonshaped dual-reflector antennas.

  18. The Morgan Recharger: a new horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) control device for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Barton, W E; Gray, E W; Noblet, R; Thompson, C E

    1990-08-01

    A 20% diazinon formulation was evaluated for control efficacy against the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), in the Morgan Recharger (Morgan International Products, College Grove, Tenn.). The Morgan Recharger releases insecticide with a wicking system from an insecticide reservoir and can be attached to an animal's ear or tail. This device was most effective against the horn fly when used as an ear tag with two per head; horn fly counts did not exceed five flies per side through 8 wk. The diazinon formulation tested was released from the Morgan Recharger at a decreasing rate. The problems and potential of the Morgan Recharger as an effective horn fly control device are discussed. PMID:2212237

  19. Suppressing side-lobe radiations of horn antenna by loading metamaterial lens.

    PubMed

    Qi, Mei Qing; Tang, Wen Xuan; Ma, Hui Feng; Pan, Bai Cao; Tao, Zui; Sun, Yong Zhi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach to control the amplitude and phase distributions of electromagnetic fields over the aperture of a horn antenna. By loading a metamaterial lens inside the horn antenna, a tapered amplitude distribution of the aperture field is achieved, which can suppress the side-lobe radiations of the antenna. The metamaterial is further manipulated to achieve a flat phase distribution on the horn aperture to avoid the gain reduction that usually suffers in the conventional low-sidelobe antenna designs. A prototype of the metamaterial-loaded horn antenna is designed and fabricated. Both numerical simulations and measured results demonstrate the tapered aperture-field distribution and significant reduction of side-lobe and back-lobe radiations in the operating frequency band. PMID:25766083

  20. Intersexuality associated with XX/XY mosaicism in a horned goat.

    PubMed

    Bongso, T A; Thavalingam, M; Mukherjee, T K

    1982-01-01

    Anatomical, histological, and cytogenetic studies were undertaken on a horned intersex goat kid and three of its normal litter mates. The intersex had male type horns, male beard, vestigial mammary glands, female external genitalia, and an enlarged peniform clitoris, exuded a pungent male odor, had a male bleat, and came into estrus every 20 days. At laparotomy and subsequent slaughter, an ovotestes was observed on the right side and a testis and epididymal remnants on the left side. Uterine horn segments, cervix, vagina, and enlarged clitoris (2 cm) were also present. Histologically, spermatogenesis was not observed in either testis, but active Leydig cells were present. The ovary contained mature follicles. Chromosome analysis revealed 60XX/60XY cell populations in blood, bone marrow, and skin. Lymphocytic metaphases from the male and female cosibs showed single populations of 60XY and 60XX, respectively. Mosaicism associated with the horned condition in the intersex goat was established. PMID:7160233

  1. A cephalic influence on gastric motility upon seeing food in domestic turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Duke, G E; Evanson, O A; Redig, P T

    1976-11-01

    Strain gage transducers were permanently implanted on the muscular stomachs of 13 turkeys, 3 great-horned owls and 2 red-tailed hawks to monitor gastric motility before, during and after eating. Following fasting, the sight of food resulted in significant increases in gastric contractile activity in all three species. Gastric motility further increased when the birds were allowed to eat. In raptors, however, a brief interruption in gastric motility occurred immediately after eating. This is apparently analogous to receptive relaxation which occurs in the stomach of mammals. PMID:1019075

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honghai; Ren, Ying; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a blood sample was obtained from a scimitar-horned oryx in Jinan Paomaling World of Wildlife and the complete nucleotide sequence of scimitar-horned oryx mitochondrial genome was determined. Sequence analysis showed that the genome structure was in accordance with other bovid species that it contained 22 tRNA genes, 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region. PMID:22775428

  3. Detached Anterior Horn of the Medial Meniscus Mimicking a Parameniscal Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Fukuta, Shoji; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Hamada, Daisuke; Goto, Tomohiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a detached anterior horn of the medial meniscus with anterior knee pain. Preoperative magnetic resonance images of the knee were initially interpreted as a parameniscal cyst. Arthroscopic examination revealed subluxation of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus due to detachment from its anterior tibial insertion. Arthroscopic fixation with a suture anchor was successful and the cystic lesion was no longer visible on postoperative images. PMID:26550510

  4. Mortality in fledgling great horned owls from black fly hematophaga and leucocytozoonosis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, D B; Rohner, C; Currie, D C

    1997-07-01

    Black fly feeding alone and in concert with Leucocytozoon spp. infection caused mortality in fledgling great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) in the Yukon, Canada 1990 to 1991. These mortalities occurred during a year of food shortage corresponding with a decline in the population of snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), the main prey for great horned owls. We hypothesize an interaction between food availability and the consequences of host-parasite interactions. PMID:9249694

  5. Congenital deficiency of the fibula with ipsilateral iliac horn and absence of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Haga, N; Lee, K; Nakamura, K; Okazaki, Y; Mamada, K; Kurokawa, T

    1997-04-01

    Congenital deficiency of the fibula is sometimes accompanied by femoral hypoplasia, genu valgum, patellar a/hypoplasia or dislocation, tibial bowing, foot deformity, and toe deficiency in the affected limb. 'Iliac horns' are bony projections extending posterolaterally from the ilium and considered to be pathognomonic of nail-patella syndrome. We report a 5-year-old Japanese girl with congenital complete deficiency of the left fibula, ipsilateral iliac horn and absence of the left kidney. PMID:9134300

  6. [Successful laparoscopic management of a non-communicating rudimentary horn pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Szabó, István; Börzsönyi, Balázs; Demendi, Csaba; Langmár, Zoltán

    2009-03-15

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is a rare entity with the most significant risk of life-threatening intraabdominal bleeding caused by rupture. With the use of vaginal ultrasonography, an early diagnosis can be made before symptoms occur. Management consists of laparoscopic resection of the rudimentary horn with the pregnancy and the ipsilateral tube. Authors present a case of a 9-week pregnancy successfully treated with laparoscopic resection. PMID:19258247

  7. Case report of ruptured non-communicating right rudimentary horn pregnancy: an acute emergency.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Che Hasnura Che; Karim, Abdul Kadir Abdul; Ismail, Nor Azlin Mohamed; Omar, Mohd Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Ruptured pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of women who have had a vaginal delivery is rare and unpredictable. However, when undiagnosed, this condition could lead to maternal morbidity and mortality. We report a pregnancy at 19 weeks gestation presented with acute abdomen and hypovolemic shock. She was initially thought to have an intrauterine pregnancy with the provisional diagnosis of a ruptured uterus. Intraoperatively, a ruptured non-communicating right rudimentary horn with ex utero pregnancy was discovered. PMID:22250483

  8. A rare case of heterotopic pregnancy with ruptured left rudimentary horn pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Setu; Samal, Sunil Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Heterotopic pregnancy(HP) occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies coexist. We report a case of HP at 14 wk of gestation presenting as ruptured left rudimentary horn ectopic pregnancy with live intrauterine gestation and was managed with emergency laparotomy followed by resection of left rudimentary non communicating horn of uterus. The intrauterine pregnancy continued uneventfully. A female baby was delivered vaginally at 41 wk following induction of labour. PMID:25954670

  9. HIGH ENERGY PULSED POWER SYSTEM FOR AGS SUPER NEUTRINO FOCUSING HORN.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG, S.Y.; SANDBERG, J.; WENG, W.-T.

    2005-05-16

    This paper present a preliminary design of a 300 kA, 2.5 Hz pulsed power system. This system will drive the focusing horn of proposed Brookhaven AGS Neutrino Super Beam Facility for Very Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment. The peak output power of the horn pulsed power system will reach Giga-watts, and the upgraded AGS will be capable of delivering 1 MW in beam power.

  10. A Rare Case of Heterotopic Pregnancy with Ruptured Left Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Setu

    2015-01-01

    Heterotopic pregnancy(HP) occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies coexist. We report a case of HP at 14 wk of gestation presenting as ruptured left rudimentary horn ectopic pregnancy with live intrauterine gestation and was managed with emergency laparotomy followed by resection of left rudimentary non communicating horn of uterus. The intrauterine pregnancy continued uneventfully. A female baby was delivered vaginally at 41 wk following induction of labour. PMID:25954670

  11. Properties of cutoff corrugated surfaces for corrugated horn design. [corrugation shape and density effects on scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentzer, C. A.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Corrugated horns involve a junction between the corrugated surface and a conducting ground plane. Proper horn design requires an understanding of the electromagnetic properties of the corrugated surface and this junction. An integral equation solution has been used to study the influence of corrugation density and tooth thickness on the power loss, surface current, and the scattering from a ground plane/corrugated surface junction.

  12. Insights into the Development and Evolution of Exaggerated Traits Using De Novo Transcriptomes of Two Species of Horned Scarab Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ian A.; Vera, J. Cristobal; Johns, Annika; Zinna, Robert; Marden, James H.; Emlen, Douglas J.; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as “horns”. These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits. PMID:24586317

  13. Ruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy Diagnosed by Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Resulting in Fetal Salvage

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Silja A.; Mathew, Mariam; Ishrat, Noreen; Kakaria, Anupam; Qureshi, Asim; Vaidyanathan, Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is very rare. The rupture of the horn during pregnancy is an obstetric emergency which can be life-threatening for both the mother and fetus. Preoperative diagnosis of such pregnancies can be challenging and they are usually diagnosed intraoperatively. We report a unique case of a 31-year-old multiparous woman who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in January 2013 at 32 gestational weeks with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography was inconclusive. A rudimentary horn pregnancy was subsequently diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An emergency laparotomy revealed haemoperitoneum and a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy. A live baby with an Apgar score of 2 at one minute and 7 at five minutes was delivered. The rudimentary horn with the placenta in situ was excised and a left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. The authors recommend MRI as an excellent diagnostic modality to confirm rudimentary horn pregnancies and to expedite appropriate management. PMID:26357563

  14. Ruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy Diagnosed by Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Resulting in Fetal Salvage.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Silja A; Mathew, Mariam; Ishrat, Noreen; Kakaria, Anupam; Qureshi, Asim; Vaidyanathan, Gowri

    2015-08-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is very rare. The rupture of the horn during pregnancy is an obstetric emergency which can be life-threatening for both the mother and fetus. Preoperative diagnosis of such pregnancies can be challenging and they are usually diagnosed intraoperatively. We report a unique case of a 31-year-old multiparous woman who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in January 2013 at 32 gestational weeks with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography was inconclusive. A rudimentary horn pregnancy was subsequently diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An emergency laparotomy revealed haemoperitoneum and a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy. A live baby with an Apgar score of 2 at one minute and 7 at five minutes was delivered. The rudimentary horn with the placenta in situ was excised and a left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. The authors recommend MRI as an excellent diagnostic modality to confirm rudimentary horn pregnancies and to expedite appropriate management. PMID:26357563

  15. Ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy at 25 weeks with previous vaginal delivery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kanagal, Deepa V; Hanumanalu, Lokeshchandra C

    2012-01-01

    Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn occurs due to failure of complete development of one of the Mullerian ducts and incomplete fusion with the contralateral side. Pregnancy in a noncommunicating rudimentary horn is extremely rare and usually terminates in rupture during first or second trimester of pregnancy. Diagnosis of rudimentary horn pregnancy and its rupture in a woman with prior vaginal delivery is difficult. It can be missed in routine ultrasound scan and in majority of cases it is detected after rupture. It requires a high index of suspicion. We report a case of G2PlL1 with rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy at 25 weeks of gestation which was misdiagnosed as intrauterine pregnancy with fetal demise by ultrasound, and termination was attempted and the case was later referred to our hospital after the patient developed hemoperitoneum and shock with a diagnosis of rupture uterus. Laparotomy revealed rupture of right rudimentary horn pregnancy with massive hemoperitoneum. Timely laparotomy, excision of the horn, and blood transfusion saved the patient. PMID:22720180

  16. Ruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy at 25 Weeks with Previous Vaginal Delivery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kanagal, Deepa V.; Hanumanalu, Lokeshchandra C.

    2012-01-01

    Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn occurs due to failure of complete development of one of the Mullerian ducts and incomplete fusion with the contralateral side. Pregnancy in a noncommunicating rudimentary horn is extremely rare and usually terminates in rupture during first or second trimester of pregnancy. Diagnosis of rudimentary horn pregnancy and its rupture in a woman with prior vaginal delivery is difficult. It can be missed in routine ultrasound scan and in majority of cases it is detected after rupture. It requires a high index of suspicion. We report a case of G2PlL1 with rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy at 25 weeks of gestation which was misdiagnosed as intrauterine pregnancy with fetal demise by ultrasound, and termination was attempted and the case was later referred to our hospital after the patient developed hemoperitoneum and shock with a diagnosis of rupture uterus. Laparotomy revealed rupture of right rudimentary horn pregnancy with massive hemoperitoneum. Timely laparotomy, excision of the horn, and blood transfusion saved the patient. PMID:22720180

  17. Tsirelson bounds for generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, Stephanie

    2006-02-15

    Quantum theory imposes a strict limit on the strength of nonlocal correlations. It only allows for a violation of the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality up to the value 2{radical}(2), known as Tsirelson's bound. In this paper, we consider generalized CHSH inequalities based on many measurement settings with two possible measurement outcomes each. We demonstrate how to prove Tsirelson bounds for any such generalized CHSH inequality using semidefinite programming. As an example, we show that for any shared entangled state and observables X{sub 1},...,X{sub n} and Y{sub 1},...,Y{sub n} with eigenvalues {+-}1 we have |++++{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}+-|{<=}2n cos[{pi}/(2n)]. It is well known that there exist observables such that equality can be achieved. However, we show that these are indeed optimal. Our approach can easily be generalized to other inequalities for such observables.

  18. Chronic myelogenous leukemia in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jennifer L; Whittington, Julia K; Wilmes, Christine M; Messick, Joanne B

    2009-03-01

    A free-ranging adult female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was presented to the Wildlife Medical Clinic at the University of Illinois after being observed with anorexia and decreased activity. A severe leukocytosis (212 400 cells/microl), primarily comprised of mature heterophils, was found at presentation. Results of various diagnostic tests including radiographs, Chlamydophila serologic testing, measurement of Aspergillus antibody and antigen titers, plasma protein electrophoresis, fecal culture and acid-fast staining, coelioscopy, endoscopy, tracheoscopy, exploratory coelomotomy, nuclear scintigraphy, tissue cultures, bone marrow biopsy, and histopathology revealed no underlying cause for the persistent leukocytosis. No response to treatment with antibiotics or antifungal agents was observed, although a transient, significant decrease in the leukocyte count (6200 cells/microl) was observed after treatment with fenbendazole. A presumptive diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia was made based on 3 factors: disease duration of greater than 3 months, a lack of identifiable foci of inflammation, and a lack of response to conventional therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed based on postmortem examination and testing 177 days after initial presentation. PMID:19530405

  19. Solid Micro Horn Array (SMIHA) for Acoustic Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Transduction of electrical signals to mechanical signals and vice-versa in piezoelectric materials is controlled by the material coupling coefficient. In general in a loss-less material the ratio of energy conversion per cycle is proportional to the square of the coupling coefficient. In practical transduction however the impedance mismatch between the piezoelectric material and the electrical drive circuitry or the mechanical structure can have a significant impact on the power transfer. This paper looks at novel methods of matching the acoustic impedance of structures to the piezoelectric material in an effort to increase power transmission and efficiency. In typical methods the density and acoustic velocity of the matching layer is adjusted to give good matching between the transducer and the load. The approach discussed in this paper utilizes solid micro horn arrays in the matching layer which channel the stress and increase the strain in the layer. This approach is found to have potential applications in energy harvesting, medical ultrasound and in liquid and gas coupled transducers.

  20. Metamorphosis and Gonad Maturation in the Horn Fly Haematobia irritans

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Alicia L; Forneris, Natalia S.; Filiberti, Adrián; Argaraña, Carlos E.; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    The bloodsucking horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most damaging pests of pasture cattle in many areas of the world. Both male and female imagoes spend their adult stage on the host, while immature stages develop in dung. Our goal was to determine if the progress of H. irritans gonad maturation can be correlated with eye and cuticle pigmentation events that occur during development of the imago within the puparium. The progression of germline cell divisions in immature gonads was analyzed from the beginning of the third larval instar (48 hours after egg hatch) until imago ecdysis. In the developing male larval gonad, meiosis began 72 hours after egg hatch, whereas in females oogonia were premeiotic at 72 hours. Meiosis was not detected in females until the mid-pharate adult stage, 120 hours after puparium formation. Therefore, gonad maturation in females appears to be delayed 144 hours with respect to that in males. In the stages within the puparium, the timing of germline cell division events was correlated with the progress of pigmentation of the eyes and cuticle as external markers. PMID:22957976

  1. Teleportation of continuous variable multimode Greeberger Horne Zeilinger entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangqiang; Zhang, Jingtao; Zeng, Guihua

    2008-11-01

    Quantum teleportation protocols of continuous variable (CV) Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states are proposed, and are generalized to teleportation of arbitrary multimode GHZ entangled states described by Van Loock and Braunstein (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 3482). Each mode of a multimode entangled state is teleported using a CV EPR entangled pair and classical communication. The analytical expression of fidelity for the multimode Gaussian states which evaluates the teleportation quality is presented. The analytical results show that the fidelity is a function of both the squeezing parameter r, which characterizes the multimode entangled state to be teleported, and the channel parameter p, which characterizes the EPR pairs shared by Alice and Bob. The fidelity increases with increasing p, but decreases with increasing r, i.e., it is more difficult to teleport the more perfect multimode entangled states. The entanglement degree of the teleported multimode entangled states increases with increasing both r and p. In addition, the fact is proved that our teleportation protocol of EPR entangled states using parallel EPR pairs as quantum channels is the best case of the protocol using four-mode entangled states (Adhikari et al 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 012337).

  2. [Multiple bladder diverticula caused by occipital horn syndrome].

    PubMed

    Legros, L; Revencu, N; Nassogne, M-C; Wese, F-X; Feyaerts, A

    2015-11-01

    We report on the case of a child who presented with recurrent, multiple, and voluminous bladder diverticula. Bladder diverticula are defined as a herniation of the mucosa through the bladder muscle or the detrusor. Causes are numerous and diverticula can be classified into primary congenital diverticula (para-ureteral - or Hutch diverticula - and posterolateral diverticula); secondary diverticula (resulting from chronic mechanical obstruction or from neurological disease; and diverticula secondary to connective tissue or muscle fragility. The latter is seen in disease entities such as prune belly syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, cutis laxa syndrome, OHS (occipital horn syndrome), Menkes disease, and Williams-Beuren syndrome. In this patient, the cause of these diverticula was OHS, a genetic, recessive X-chromosome-linked syndrome, responsible for abnormal tissue caused by a disorder in copper metabolism. This case reminds us of the importance of pushing the diagnostic workup when presented with multiple and/or large bladder diverticula, and in particular to search for rare malformation syndromes after exclusion of an obstacle. PMID:26386812

  3. Analysis of a disk-on-rod surface wave element inside a corrugated horn using the mode-matching technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    A disk-on-rod inside a corrugated horn is one of the horn configurations for dual-frequency or wide-band operation. A mode-matching analysis method is described. A disk-on-rod inside a corrugated horn is represented as a series of coaxial waveguide sections and circular waveguide sections connected to each other. Three kinds of junctions need to be considered: coaxial-to-coaxial, coaxial-to-circular, and circular-to-circular. A computer program was developed to calculate the scattering matrix and the radiation pattern of a disk-on-rod inside a corrugated horn. The software as verified by experiment, and good agreement between calculation and measurement was obtained. The disk-on-rod inside a corrugated horn design gives an option to the Deep Space Network dual-frequency operation system, which currently is a two-horn/one-dichroic plate system.

  4. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT/CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 527: HORN SILVER MINE, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    not show the migration of COCs beyond the floor of the 500-foot drift or from the air within the drift. On a conservative basis, the subsurface volume of the zone of contamination is limited to a depth from 150 ft to a maximum of 670 feet below ground surface extending to a radius of 300 feet from the mineshaft. Based on these data, a use restriction will be established for this volume of soil. In addition, the security of the mineshaft is maintained and does not allow unauthorized personnel to enter the vicinity of the mineshaft. Since the removal of the contaminants is not feasible, the close in place with administrative controls corrective action alternative is appropriate because it will prevent inadvertent contact with the subsurface COCs and meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site. Post-closure monitoring will be conducted for one year. This monitoring will include using the lysimeter at HSM-3 and the data logger to measure precipitation-induced vadose zone moisture flow through the rock beneath the waste shaft at the Horn Silver Mine. Results of the monitoring will be documented in a letter report at the end of one year, anticipated in June 2005. A copy of this report will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. After one year of monitoring, a determination will be made by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office if future monitoring is needed or if use restriction boundaries need to be adjusted. If a large enough pulse of water moves into the lysimeter, a sample will he collected for laboratory analysis. If there is not sufficient volume of liquid collected for a sample or if no COCs are detected in collected samples at the end of this time period, it is recommended that the monitoring wells at the HSM be sealed in accordance with the State of Nevada regulations.

  5. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    PubMed

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. Our objective was to determine the impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality. Cows (n = 53) were derived from Brangus dams and sired by Bonsmara (n = 7), Brangus (n = 13), Charolais (n = 8), Gelbvieh (n = 5), Hereford (n = 12), and Romosinuano (n = 8) bulls. Horn fly counts and estimates of milk yield and quality were recorded monthly from May through October on individual cows. Data for milk yield and quality and horn fly count were analyzed by mixed model least squares using a linear model including sire breed, cow in sire breed, month, and month × sire breed. Effects of horn fly count on milk yield and quality were estimated by analysis of covariance using log horn fly count and log horn fly count × sire breed. Horn fly counts varied by month (P < 0.0001), with lowest population recorded in May (99 flies) and peaked in August (520 flies). Bonsmara and Gelbvieh sired cows had greater (P < 0.05) milk yield compared to Hereford sired cows (8.75 and 8.62 vs. 6.02 kg/d, respectively). Milk yield from Charolais, Romosinuano, and Brangus sired cows was intermediate (7.28, 7.00, and 7.06 kg/d, respectively). Regression of milk yield on fly count differed (P < 0.05) among sire breeds. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.99 and 0.64 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count in Gelbvieh and Bonsmara sired cows. Regression coefficient for milk yield on log horn fly count was reduced (P < 0.01) in Gelbvieh sired cows when compared with Brangus, Charolais, Hereford, and Romosinuano sired cows, and coefficients for Bonsmara sired cows were reduced (P < 0.05) in comparison to Brangus sired cows. Increases in log fly count were associated with decreases (P < 0.05) in milk fat, solids-not-fat, and milk urea nitrogen. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by increased fly numbers depending on month of lactation and interaction with log horn fly count. In May, June, and July milk yield was

  6. Rehabilitation studies and recovery of a once lifeless estuary: the Golden Horn.

    PubMed

    Yüksek, A; Okuş, E; Yilmaz, N

    2005-01-01

    Within this study fluctuations in biodiversity of the Golden Horn from past to present are evaluated. Limited studies and observations dating back to 60 years ago pointed out the importance of the Golden Horn as a fishery. Unfortunately, in accordance with increase in unplanned settlements and industry around the Golden Horn in the 1960s, pollution stress became a demanding factor for this unique environment, affecting biodiversity adversely. Preliminary studies in the 1990s indicated survival of only a couple of pollution-resistant species, at the relatively cleaner outer estuary. Following intensification of "still ongoing" rehabilitation studies in 1998, a remarkable day-by-day recovery in marine life has began, in regard to improvements in water quality. Surveys conducted in 2002 using SCUBA, documented the level of diversification of life at the Golden Horn. Extended till Haliç Bridge, all appropriate substratums were intensely covered by macrobenthic forms and particularly filter feeders dominated the plankton-rich ecosystem. Detection of seahorses at the inner-middle parts of the estuary, in addition to numerous fish, invertebrate and macroalgae species, clearly depicted the level of recovery and change in the ecosystem. All results support the existence of a dynamic biological life at the Golden Horn, improving considerably with rehabilitation studies. Achieving the diversity of the 1940s is not possible, since the Black and Marmara seas, highly influencing water quality in the Golden Horn are also suffering from anthropogenic impacts and are far beyond their rich diversity in the 1940s. However, it is obvious that ecosystems should recover when mankind gave a chance to them. Recovery of the recently lifeless Golden Horn in such a short period of time is a very good example. PMID:16114614

  7. Responses of motor units during the hind limb flexion withdrawal reflex evoked by noxious skin heating: phasic and prolonged suppression by midbrain stimulation and comparison with simultaneously recorded dorsal horn units.

    PubMed

    Carstens, E; Campell, I G

    1992-02-01

    In rats anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, we quantitatively analyzed descending modulation from the midbrain of a nociceptive flexion withdrawal reflex and responses of associated spinal neurons. We monitored the isometric force of hind limb withdrawal elicited by noxious heat stimuli (42-54 degrees C, 10 sec) on the hind paw. In one series of experiments, single-fiber EMG electrodes recorded responses of single muscle fibers (i.e., motor units) in biceps femoris during the hind limb withdrawal, without and during electrical stimulation in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) or lateral midbrain reticular formation (LRF). In a second series, responses of single lumbar dorsal horn neurons were also recorded simultaneously. Withdrawal force and associated motor unit responses were suppressed for prolonged periods (4 to greater than 60 min) following the initial episode of PAG or LRF stimulation in 40% of the rats, while they were suppressed phasically (i.e., only during brain stimulation) in the remainder. Motor unit responses increased in a graded fashion with increasing skin stimulus temperature from threshold (45 degrees C) to 54 degrees C. During PAG stimulation, the slope of the rate coding function was reduced with no change in threshold temperature. During LRF stimulation the rate coding function was shifted toward higher temperatures with increased threshold (47 degrees C). In 14 experiments 43 paired recordings were made from a dorsal horn and a motor unit during hind limb withdrawals. Mean latency to onset and peak of the heat-evoked response was shorter for dorsal horn compared to motor units. In 6/14 rats withdrawal force and motor unit responses were significantly suppressed for more than 8 min following mechanical placement of the stimulating electrodes and/or the initial episode of midbrain stimulation, while the simultaneously recorded dorsal horn unit responses remained constant. Following supplemental administration of pentobarbital (10

  8. The Climate-Population Nexus in the East African Horn: Emerging Degradation Trends in Rangeland and Pastoral Livelihood Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricope, N. G.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing climate variability and extreme weather conditions along with declining trends in both rainfall and temperature represent major risk factors affecting agricultural production and food security in many regions of the world. We identify regions where significant rainfall decrease from 1979-2011 over the entire continent of Africa couples with significant human population density increase. The rangelands of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia in the East African Horn remain one of the world's most food insecure regions, yet have significantly increasing human populations predominantly dependent on pastoralist and agro-pastoralist livelihoods. Vegetation in this region is characterized by a variable mosaic of land covers, generally dominated by grasslands necessary for agro-pastoralism, interspersed by woody vegetation. Recent assessments indicate that widespread degradation is occurring, adversely impacting fragile ecosystems and human livelihoods. Using two underutilized MODIS products, we observe significant changes in vegetation patterns and productivity over the last decade all across the East African Horn. We observe significant vegetation browning trends in areas experiencing drying precipitation trends in addition to increasing population pressures. We also found that the drying precipitation trends only partially statistically explain the vegetation browning trends, further indicating that other factors such as population pressures and land use changes are responsible for the observed declining vegetation health. Furthermore, we show that the general vegetation browning trends persist even during years with normal rainfall conditions such as 2012, indicating potential long-term degradation of rangelands on which approximately 10 million people depend. These findings have serious implications for current and future regional food security monitoring and forecasting as well as for mitigation and adaptation strategies in a region where population is expected

  9. Distribution, abundance, biomass and diversity of benthic infauna in the Northeast Chukchi Sea, Alaska: Relation to environmental variables and marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonberg, Susan V.; Clarke, Janet T.; Dunton, Kenneth H.

    2014-04-01

    In summer 2009 and 2010, as part of Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) program, we performed a quantitative assessment of the biomass, abundance, and community structure of benthic infaunal populations of the Northeastern Chukchi Sea. This analysis documented a benthic species inventory of 361 taxa collected from 142 individual van Veen grab samples (0.1 m-2) at 52 stations. Infaunal abundance was dominated by Polychaeta, Mollusca, and Crustacea. Large concentrations of bivalves (up to 1235 m-2; 920.2 gww m-2) were collected south of Hanna Shoal where flow from two water masses converge and deposit labile carbon to the seafloor, as indicated by low surface sediment C:N ratios. Amphipods (up to 1640 m-2; 26.0 gww m-2), and polychaetes (up to 4665 m-2; 114.7 gww m-2) were documented from multiple stations west of and within Barrow Canyon. This high productivity was most likely due to the "canyon effect", where marine and coastal detrital carbon supplies are channeled by the canyon structure, enhancing carbon deposition and flux, which supports rich benthic communities within the canyon and surrounding areas. To examine the relationships between infaunal distributions of all collected taxa with the physical environment, we used a Biota and Environment matching (BIO-ENV) routine. A combination of water depth, bottom-water temperature and salinity, surface sediment total organic nitrogen (TON) and sediment C:N molar ratios correlated closest with infaunal abundance distribution (ρ=0.54), indicating that multiple factors influence the success of benthic communities. BIO-ENV routines produced similar correlation results when performed on targeted walrus prey items (bivalves (ρ=0.50), polychaetes (ρ=0.53), but gray whale prey items (amphipods) were not strongly correlated to any combination of physical environmental factors (ρ=0.24). Distributions of primary prey items for gray whales (amphipods) and walruses (bivalves

  10. Vegetation change, malnutrition and violence in the Horn of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowhani, P.; Degomme, O.; Linderman, M.; Guha-Sapir, D.; Lambin, E.

    2008-12-01

    In certain circumstances, climate change in association with a broad range of social factors may increase the risk of famines and subsequently, violent conflict. The impacts of climate change on society will be experienced both through changes in mean conditions over long time periods and through increases in extreme events. Recent studies have shown the historical effects of long term climate change on societies and the importance of short term climatic triggers on armed conflict. However, most of these studies are at the state level ignoring local conditions. Here we use detailed information extracted from wide-swath satellite data (MODIS) to analyze the impact of climate variability change on malnutrition and violent conflict. More specifically, we perform multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to explain the geographical distribution of malnutrition and conflict in the Horn of Africa on a sub-national level. This region, constituted by several unstable and poor states, has been affected by droughts, floods, famines, and violence in the past few years. Three commonly used nutrition and mortality indicators are used to characterize the health situation (CE-DAT database). To map violence we use the georeferenced Armed Conflicts dataset developed by the Center for the Study of Civil War. Explanatory variables include several socio-economic variables and environmental variables characterizing land degradation, vegetation activity, and interannual variability in land-surface conditions. First results show that interannual variability in land-surface conditions is associated with malnutrition but not with armed conflict. Furthermore, land degradation seems not to be associated with either malnutrition or armed conflict.

  11. The 24 GHz measurements of 2.2 lambda conical horn antennas illuminating a conducting sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, A. E.; Marshall, R. E.; Hearn, C. P.; Neece, R. T.

    1993-01-01

    Monostatic reflection-coefficient magnitude, absolute value of Gamma, measurements occurring between a radiating horn and a metal reflecting plate are presented for a family of three 2.2 lambda diameter conical horn antennas. The three horns have different aperture phase deviations: 6 deg, 22.5 deg, and 125 deg. Measurements of the magnitude of absolute value of Gamma as a function of horn-plate separation (d) extend from an effective antenna aperture short (d = O) to beyond the far-field boundary (d = 2D(sup 2)/lambda, where D is the antenna diameter). Measurement data are presented with various physical environments for each of the horns. Measured scalar data are compared with theoretical data from two models, a numerical model for a circular waveguide aperture in a ground plane and a scalar diffraction theory model. This work was conducted in support of the development effort for a spaceborne multifrequency microwave reflectometer designed to accurately determine the distance from a space vehicle's surface to a reflecting plasma boundary. The metal reflecting plate was used to simulate the RF reflectivity of a critically dense plasma. The resulting configuration, a ground plane mounted aperture facing a reflecting plane in close proximity, produces a strong interaction between the ground plane and the reflecting plate, especially at integral half-wavelength separations. The transition coefficient is characterized by large amplitude variations.

  12. A Low-cost 21 cm Horn-antenna Radio Telescope for Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Nimesh A.; Patel, Rishi N; Kimberk, Robert S; Test, John H; Krolewski, Alex; Ryan, James; Karkare, Kirit S; Kovac, John M; Dame, Thomas M.

    2014-06-01

    Small radio telescopes (1-3m) for observations of the 21 cm hydrogen line are widely used for education and outreach. A pyramidal horn was used by Ewen & Purcell (1951) to first detect the 21cm line at Harvard. Such a horn is simple to design and build, compared to a parabolic antenna which is usually purchased ready-made. Here we present a design of a horn antenna radio telescope that can be built entirely by students, using simple components costing less than $300. The horn has an aperture of 75 cm along the H-plane, 59 cm along the E-plane, and gain of about 20 dB. The receiver system consists of low noise amplifiers, band-pass filters and a software-defined-radio USB receiver that provides digitized samples for spectral processing in a computer. Starting from construction of the horn antenna, and ending with the measurement of the Galactic rotation curve, took about 6 weeks, as part of an undergraduate course at Harvard University. The project can also grow towards building a two-element interferometer for follow-up studies.

  13. Pregnancy in the Rudimentary Uterine Horn: Case report of an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Ambusaidi, Qamariya; Jha, Chitra

    2014-02-01

    A unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn is a uterine anomaly resulting from the incomplete development of one of the Müllerian ducts and an incomplete fusion with the contralateral side. Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn of the uterus is a rare clinical condition with a reported incidence of 1 in 100,000 to 140,000 pregnancies. Usually the diagnosis is missed and may present as an emergency with haemoperitoneum. The standard treatment is the surgical excision of the horn. A gravida 2, para 1 patient presented at 23 weeks' gestation with fetal demise. Repeated failed attempts at induction of labour raised the suspicion of an abnormally located pregnancy which was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. She underwent a laparotomy with right rudimentary horn excision. The final diagnosis of a non-communicating rudimentary horn pregnancy was made intraoperatively and was confirmed by histopathology. This case highlights the importance of an early ultrasound in detecting uterine anomalies and the need for high clinical suspicion. PMID:24516746

  14. CONCEPT DESIGN OF THE TARGET/HORN SYSTEM FOR THE BNL NEUTRINO OSCILLATION EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    SIMOS,N.KIRK,H.KAHN,S.CARROL,A.LUDEWIG,H.WENG,W.T.DIWAN,M.RAPARIA,D.MCDONALD,K.EVANGELAKIS,G.

    2003-05-12

    The design concept for the integration of the target and the focusing horn system for the proposed BNL neutrino oscillation experiment is described in this paper. Also presented are issues associated with the functionality and thermo-mechanical response of the selected target intercepting the 28 GeV protons of the 1 MW upgraded AGS beam, the loading and mechanical response of the focusing horn subjected to high currents and energy deposited due to beam/target interaction, the integration of the two systems, and the heat removal schemes. The proposed target intercepts the 8.9 x 10{sup 13}, 28 GeV protons with a 2.5 Hz cycle time over a spot that encloses the 3{sigma} of the beam. In the baseline. design the inner conductor of the aluminum horn encloses the target while allowing for an annular space for forced cooling. Approximately 250 kA pulse of current of 20{micro}s duration will flow through the horn at 2.5 Hz repetition rate inducing high compressive forces, vibration and heat. The paper addresses these issues of horn mechanical response, heat removal scenario, and useful life estimation including radiation damage.

  15. More bang for your monitoring bucks: Detection and reporting of non-indigenous species.

    PubMed

    Whomersley, P; Murray, J M; McIlwaine, P; Stephens, D; Stebbing, P D

    2015-05-15

    'Collect once, use often' is a frequently cited principle in both national and international efforts to promote the collection, archiving and sharing of marine monitoring data. Since the implementation of the Marine Conservation Zone (MCZ) evidence collection programme, 67 recommended MCZ sites have been visited and a suite of marine data collected. Here we present how this dataset was utilised outside of the MCZ programme to identify occurrences of non-indigenous species (NIS) around the UK coast. One hundred and thirty-five aquatic species from the Non-native Species Information Portal (NNSIP) register were used to produce a standard list of NIS against which, infauna and epifaunal data records from the MCZ project were compared. A total of 20 NIS were identified across 42 of the 67 sites surveyed. This study demonstrates that with sufficient coordination and management data collected for other purposes can be easily utilised to address additional policy requirements. PMID:25796545

  16. Propofol Produces Immobility via Action in the Ventral Horn of the Spinal Cord by a GABAergic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kungys, Gudrun; Kim, JongBun; Jinks, Steven L.; Atherley, Richard J.; Antognini, Joseph F.

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the actions of propofol and isoflurane on nociceptive responses of neurons in the spinal cord. Methods We determined nociceptive responses of lumbar neurons in the dorsal horn (<1200 μm) and ventral horn (>1200 μm) of decerebrate rats before and during propofol (1 effective dose, ED50) or isoflurane (1 minimum alveolar concentration) anesthesia. During recording of ventral horn neurons, we administered picrotoxin by infusion to determine whether isoflurane and propofol differed in their effects at the gamma amminobutyric acid (GABA) Type A receptors. We also determined whether decerebration altered propofol requirements to produce immobility. Results Decerebration did not affect propofol requirements. The ED50 for propofol was 497 ± 58 μg/kg/min in intact rats and 420 ± 65 μg/kg/min in decerebrated rats (p>0.05), with corresponding propofol blood concentrations of 8.1 ± 1.1 μg/ml and 7.3 ± 1.1 μg/ml, respectively (p>0.05). Propofol did not significantly depress dorsal horn neurons, but isoflurane depressed the responses to 56% of control (p<0.05). Propofol depressed ventral horn neurons to 47% of control, whereas isoflurane depressed ventral horn neurons to 20% of control. Picrotoxin significantly reversed the depressant effect of propofol on ventral horn neuronal responses (79% of control, not significantly different from control). Picrotoxin, however, had no effect on isoflurane’s depression of ventral horn neuronal responses (26% of control). Conclusions Propofol acts in the spinal cord to produce immobility. This depressive effect occurs in the ventral horn and is mediated mainly by GABAA receptors. Isoflurane also depresses neurons in the ventral horn; however, isoflurane actions at the GABAA receptor are either weak or overridden by other effects in the ventral horn. PMID:19372332

  17. Relationship between Horn Pressure and Welding Time in Ultrasonic Welding of Plastic Pipes Using Torsional Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, Kenichi; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Ide, Masao

    1999-05-01

    Application of ultrasonic welding to plastics has become common. Recently, an ultrasonic welding method for long plastic pipes using torsional vibrations was developed. Optimal welding conditions for this new method have not yet been clarified. This paper reports the results of an investigation made in order to clarify the conditions, focusing on the welding time and both horn pressure, static force that horns pinch pipe, and static pressure which is added to welding surface. Experiments were performed on the welding of acrylic resin and ABS resin pipes. It was found that welding time decreases exponentially with increasing horn pressure and that increasing the static pressure reduces the welding time. It was also found there is an optimum range ofhorn pressures.

  18. [Analysis and identification of water soluble components of water buffalo horn].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Duan, Jin-ao; Wu, Hao; Liu, Pei; Shang, Er-xin; Qian, Da-wei

    2015-05-01

    This study is to analyze and identify the water soluble components of water buffalo horn (Bubali Cornu, WBH), and also establish a method for investigating these components. Shotgun proteomic analysis identified proteins in WBH aqueous extraction: keratin, collagen, desmoglein, etc. Ultrafiltration and LC-MS/MS were used to separate and identify the peptides in WBH aqueous extract, as a result, identified peptides were mainly derived from nonspecific degradation products of keratin and collagen, which including C-terminal peptides and non C-terminal peptides. Hypoxanthine, uridine, guanosine, and adenosine were identified by comparing with the standards. The strategy in present study could be used in analyzing water soluble components of animal horn derived TCM. It provides a reference for investigation of the material basis of animal horn derived TCM. PMID:26234143

  19. The Pterional-Transsylvian Approach for Tumor in the Temporal Horn: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Seung, Won-Bae; Lee, Sung Hun; Park, Yong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    A variety of surgical approaches to temporal horn tumors of the lateral ventricle have been described. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography are the preferred modalities for preoperative evaluation and provide important information for the choice of surgical approach. A 59-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to confusion and gait disturbance. On enhanced MRI, a homogeneous enhanced solitary mass was observed within the temporal horn of the left lateral ventricle with transependymal extension. The lesion was accompanied by increased hypervascular tumor blush on preoperative cerebral angiography. Subtotal removal of the temporal horn tumor was performed because the lesion was identified as lymphoma during surgery. The postoperative course was un-eventful. The patient was referred to the oncology department for conventional chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy improved the clinical outcome. The pterional-transsylvian approach was beneficial for partial removal of the tumor and tissue diagnosis in this case. PMID:26605268

  20. The chemical oceanographic consequences of environmental restoration projects in the Golden Horn estuary (Marmara Sea, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Balkis, N; Müftüoğlu, E; Aksu, A; Sur, H I; Apak, R

    2010-05-01

    The input of industrial and domestic waste to the horizontal circulation in the Golden Horn Estuary of Marmara Sea has resulted in one of the most polluted estuaries in the past. Consequently, the dissolved oxygen concentrations in both the surface and bottom waters decreased toward to the estuary head during 1998-2005. In contrast, the total suspended solids content of the surface water decreased toward to the estuary mouth. However, construction of the operational collector system surrounding the estuary during the process of rehabilitation projects, combined with the opening of the middle pontoons of the Valide Sultan Bridge, resulted in gradually improved water quality of the estuary with a concomitant decrease in pollution. However, phytoplankton blooms and eutrophication persist especially in the innermost part of the Golden Horn in 2005. The region from the estuary mouth up to Camialti has a dynamic structure, and sufficient circulation seemingly occurs in this part of the Golden Horn. PMID:19353286

  1. Spontaneous second-trimester ruptured pregnancy of rudimentary horn: a case report in Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Messi, John Owoudou; Kamga, Danielle Tiako; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Sando, Zacharie

    2014-01-01

    Rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy is rare and, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported in Cameroon. We herein report the case of a 22 year old second gravida referred for acute abdominal pain at 17 weeks of gestation. Physical examination revealed hemoperitoneum with hypovolemic shock. After resuscitation, an emergency exploratory laparotomy was done and we found hemoperitoneum of 3,500 milliliters, a bicornuate uterus with a ruptured right rudimentary communicating horn containing a non viable foetus. There were no other abnormalities. We performed an excision of the rudimentary horn with ipsilateral salpingectomy. Post-operative course was uneventful and the woman was discharged seven days later. This case emphasizes the importance of good antenatal care to avoid complications. PMID:25400853

  2. Susceptibility to diazinon in populations of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Antonio Thadeu M; Gomes, Alberto; Ismael, Ana Paula K; Koller, Wilson W

    2002-09-01

    From October 2000 to April 2001, insecticide bioassays were conducted in 18 ranches from 10 counties in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, in Central Brazil. Horn flies from wild populations were exposed to diazinon-impregnated filter papers immediately after collection on cattle, and mortality was recorded after 2 h. A high susceptibility to diazinon was observed in all tested populations. The LC50s ranged from 0.15 to 0.64 micro g/cm2, and resistance ratios were always lower than one (ranging 0.1-0.6). Pyrethroid products, most applied by backpack sprayers, have been used since the horn fly entered the region, about 10 years ago. The high susceptibility observed to diazinon indicates that this insecticide (as probably other organophosphate insecticides) represents an useful tool for horn fly control and resistance management, particularly in pyrethroid-resistant populations. PMID:12386720

  3. Control of horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in Florida with an Australian trap.

    PubMed

    Tozer, R S; Sutherst, R W

    1996-04-01

    A newly developed Haematobia spp. trap is described, and results are presented from field trials to reduce populations of adult horn fly, Haematobia irritans L., on 5 dairy farms in western Florida and Alabama during the summer of 1992. We compared fly infestations on milkers subjected to trapping, versus either dry cattle on the same farm or milkers on a nearby farm, without the trap but where traditional horn fly control practices were used. Results gave 96.9% (95% CI, 93.8-98.4) reduction compared with dry cattle with a mean count of 228 per animal, and 90.2% (84.5-94.5%) compared with milkers on the control farms with a mean count of 113. Trapping removed the need to use insecticides to control this pest on milking dairy cattle and so offers a practical, environmentally acceptable, safe, and sustainable means of horn fly control on cattle which pass through the trap regularly. PMID:8934825

  4. Horn-coupled, commercially-fabricated aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter wavelengths.

    PubMed

    McCarrick, H; Flanigan, D; Jones, G; Johnson, B R; Ade, P; Araujo, D; Bradford, K; Cantor, R; Che, G; Day, P; Doyle, S; Leduc, H; Limon, M; Luu, V; Mauskopf, P; Miller, A; Mroczkowski, T; Tucker, C; Zmuidzinas, J

    2014-12-01

    We discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of prototype horn-coupled, lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed for cosmic microwave background studies. The LEKIDs are made from a thin aluminum film deposited on a silicon wafer and patterned using standard photolithographic techniques at STAR Cryoelectronics, a commercial device foundry. We fabricated 20-element arrays, optimized for a spectral band centered on 150 GHz, to test the sensitivity and yield of the devices as well as the multiplexing scheme. We characterized the detectors in two configurations. First, the detectors were tested in a dark environment with the horn apertures covered, and second, the horn apertures were pointed towards a beam-filling cryogenic blackbody load. These tests show that the multiplexing scheme is robust and scalable, the yield across multiple LEKID arrays is 91%, and the measured noise-equivalent temperatures for a 4 K optical load are in the range 26±6 μK√s. PMID:25554282

  5. Horn-coupled, commercially-fabricated aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    McCarrick, H. Flanigan, D.; Jones, G.; Johnson, B. R.; Araujo, D.; Limon, M.; Luu, V.; Miller, A.; Ade, P.; Doyle, S.; Tucker, C.; Bradford, K.; Che, G.; Cantor, R.; Day, P.; Leduc, H.; Mauskopf, P.; Mroczkowski, T.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2014-12-15

    We discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of prototype horn-coupled, lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed for cosmic microwave background studies. The LEKIDs are made from a thin aluminum film deposited on a silicon wafer and patterned using standard photolithographic techniques at STAR Cryoelectronics, a commercial device foundry. We fabricated 20-element arrays, optimized for a spectral band centered on 150 GHz, to test the sensitivity and yield of the devices as well as the multiplexing scheme. We characterized the detectors in two configurations. First, the detectors were tested in a dark environment with the horn apertures covered, and second, the horn apertures were pointed towards a beam-filling cryogenic blackbody load. These tests show that the multiplexing scheme is robust and scalable, the yield across multiple LEKID arrays is 91%, and the measured noise-equivalent temperatures for a 4 K optical load are in the range 26±6 μK√(s)

  6. The C-, G-, and R-banded karyotype of the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Claro, F; Hayes, H; Cribiu, E P

    1994-01-01

    Karyotypes of five males and one female scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) were prepared using lymphocyte and skin cells. CBG-, GTG-, and RBG-banded chromosomes were analysed and the banding patterns were compared with those of cattle, revealing a high level of homoeology except for chromosomes 9, 14, 21, Y, and X. Standard karyotypes are proposed for the scimitar-horned oryx karyotype, which contains 58 chromosomes with one pair of large submetacentric autosomes and 27 acrocentric autosomal pairs. The X and Y chromosomes are the largest and smallest acrocentrics. The scimitar-horned oryx chromosome 1 is submetacentric and appears to result from the fusion between ancestral forms of bovid chromosomes numbered 1 and 29 according to the READING CONFERENCE (1980) nomenclature and to ISCNDA 89 if GTG-banding is used. PMID:8206781

  7. Spontaneous second-trimester ruptured pregnancy of rudimentary horn: a case report in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Messi, John Owoudou; Kamga, Danielle Tiako; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Sando, Zacharie

    2014-01-01

    Rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy is rare and, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported in Cameroon. We herein report the case of a 22 year old second gravida referred for acute abdominal pain at 17 weeks of gestation. Physical examination revealed hemoperitoneum with hypovolemic shock. After resuscitation, an emergency exploratory laparotomy was done and we found hemoperitoneum of 3,500 milliliters, a bicornuate uterus with a ruptured right rudimentary communicating horn containing a non viable foetus. There were no other abnormalities. We performed an excision of the rudimentary horn with ipsilateral salpingectomy. Post-operative course was uneventful and the woman was discharged seven days later. This case emphasizes the importance of good antenatal care to avoid complications. PMID:25400853

  8. Unilateral intrauterine horn insemination of fresh semen in cats.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Tanaka, A; Takagi, Y; Nakagawa, K; Fujimoto, Y; Murai, M; Anzai, M; Hori, T

    2000-12-01

    The sperm count required were investigated to obtain a conception rate of 80% by unilateral intrauterine insemination (UIUI) of fresh semen in cats. The conception rates obtained by insemination before and after ovulation were also examined. Thirty-six female cats aged 1-7 years were used in the experiments, and the number of experimental cases was 44. Seven male cats aged 2-12 years from which semen could be collected by the artificial vagina method were used. In artificial insemination, 100 iu x 2 or 250 iu of hCG was administered on days 2-4 of estrus, and sperm were introduced into the uterine horn with a greater number of ovulations (or mature follicles) 15, 20 and 30 hr after hCG administration by laparotomy. The inseminated sperm counts were 2 x 10(6) (Exp. 1). 4 x 10(6) (Exp. 2), and 8 x 10(6) (Exp. 3). As a result, ovulation was induced in 42 of 44 cases (induction rate: 95.5%) regardless of the dosage of hCG. Conception was obtained by UIUI in two of 16 animals (conception rate: 12.5%) in the Exp. 1, five of 16 animals (31.3%) in Exp. 2, and eight of 10 animals (80.0%) in Exp. 3. Regarding the relationship between the ovulation state at insemination and conception, the conception rate obtained by insemination before ovulation was clearly higher than that obtained by insemination after ovulation (p<0.05). Regarding the number of kits compared to the number of ovulations on the inseminated side, the percentages of cases in which the number of kits exceeded the number of ovulations on the inseminated side were similar in all groups inseminated with a different number of sperm. It is therefore necessary to investigate conception rates obtained by bilateral insemination to increase the fertility rate. Based on the above findings, it was shown that the sperm count required for fertilization by UIUI is 8 x 10(6). PMID:11193338

  9. Glial glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase regulate GABAergic synaptic strength in the spinal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Enshe; Yan, Xisheng; Weng, Han-Rong

    2012-05-01

    Decreased GABAergic synaptic strength ('disinhibition') in the spinal dorsal horn is a crucial mechanism contributing to the development and maintenance of pathological pain. However, mechanisms leading to disinhibition in the spinal dorsal horn remain elusive. We investigated the role of glial glutamate transporters (GLT-1 and GLAST) and glutamine synthetase in maintaining GABAergic synaptic activity in the spinal dorsal horn. Electrically evoked GABAergic inhibitory post-synaptic currents (eIPSCs), spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) and miniature IPSCs were recorded in superficial spinal dorsal horn neurons of spinal slices from young adult rats. We used (2S,3S)-3-[3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoylamino]benzyloxy]aspartate (TFB-TBOA), to block both GLT-1 and GLAST and dihydrokainic acid to block only GLT-1. We found that blockade of both GLAST and GLT-1 and blockade of only GLT-1 in the spinal dorsal horn decreased the amplitude of GABAergic eIPSCs, as well as both the amplitude and frequency of GABAergic sIPSCs or miniature IPSCs. Pharmacological inhibition of glial glutamine synthetase had similar effects on both GABAergic eIPSCs and sIPSCs. We provided evidence demonstrating that the reduction in GABAergic strength induced by the inhibition of glial glutamate transporters is due to insufficient GABA synthesis through the glutamate-glutamine cycle between astrocytes and neurons. Thus, our results indicate that deficient glial glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase significantly attenuate GABAergic synaptic strength in the spinal dorsal horn, which may be a crucial synaptic mechanism underlying glial-neuronal interactions caused by dysfunctional astrocytes in pathological pain conditions. PMID:22339645

  10. Changes in biodiversity of the extremely polluted Golden Horn Estuary following the improvements in water quality.

    PubMed

    Yüksek, Ahsen; Okuş, Erdoğan; Yilmaz, I Noyan; Aslan-Yilmaz, Asli; Taş, Seyfettin

    2006-10-01

    Long-term biological data supported by physicochemical parameters were evaluated to investigate the biodiversity of the Golden Horn Estuary from the past to the present. Limited observations dating back to 60 years ago indicated the existence of a diverse community in this small estuary. Unfortunately, in parallel with the increase in unplanned settlements and industry around the Golden Horn, pollution stress increased since the 1960s. Preliminary studies in the 1990s indicated survival of only a couple of pollution-resistant species, in the relatively cleaner lower estuary. Following the intensification of rehabilitation studies in 1998 and particularly after the opening of the floating bridge at the mid estuary; a remarkable day-by-day recovery in marine life has begun with the improving water quality. Nutrient concentrations decreased markedly; while water clarity significantly increased. Fecal coliform values decreased 10(3) fold. Phytoplankton composition changed and dense blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankters frequently occurred. Hydrogen sulfide almost completely disappeared even during the warmest periods of the year and dissolved oxygen concentrations increased. All results clearly depicted that the Golden Horn ecosystem shifted to eutrophic conditions from an anoxic environment. SCUBA dives in 2002, documented the level of diversification of life in the Golden Horn. All appropriate substratums were intensely covered by macrobenthic forms until the Halic Bridge and filter feeders dominated the plankton-rich ecosystem. Achieving the diversity of 1940s is not possible since the Black and Marmara seas, influencing water quality of the Golden Horn, are also suffering from anthropogenic impacts and are far less diverse than their rich diversity in 1940s. However, the Golden Horn is a good example that even the most polluted ecosystems can recover when appropriate measures are taken. PMID:16814327

  11. Reducing physical size limits for low-frequency horn loudspeaker systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, Richard Allison

    From 1881 until the present day, many excellent scholars have studied acoustic horns. This dissertation begins by discussing over eighty results of such study. Next, the methods of modeling horn behavior are examined with an emphasis on the prediction of throat impedance. Because of the time constraints in a product-design environment, in which the results of this study may be used, boundary-element and cascaded-section types of analysis were not considered due to their time intensiveness. Of the methods studied, an analytical process based upon Olson's adaptation of Webster's analysis is selected as the most accurate of the rapid methods, although other good methods exist. Reasons and extent of inaccuracy are discussed. The concept of interleaved horn loading is introduced: it involves using two horns of different parameters, fed by a single driver, with a view toward interleaving and thus smoothing the impedance peaks of the separate horns to produce a smoother response. The validity of the technique is demonstrated both theoretically and practically. Then the reactance annulling technique is explained and tested experimentally. It is found to work well, but the exact parameter values involved are not found to be critical. Finally, the considerations involved in building a practical working system are discussed, and a preliminary working model reviewed. Future work could be directed toward finding the optimum parameter values for the two "parallel horns" whose impedances are to be interleaved, as well as the system parameters that determine these optimum values. Also, further experimental investigation or ported loading of the back air chamber would be useful.

  12. Predicted Loading on the Menisci during Gait: The Effect of Horn Laxity

    PubMed Central

    Guess, Trent M.; Razu, Swithin; Jahandar, Hamidreza; Stylianou, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic measurements have established a link between meniscus extrusion and meniscus degeneration as well as with knee osteoarthritis. The presented work combines medical imaging with motion capture data from two healthy female subjects to create subject specific knee models that predict tibio-menisco-femoral contact forces and ligament forces during muscle driven simulations of barefoot gait. The developed computational models were used to explore the relationship between the extent of meniscal extrusion and biomechanical function by altering the laxity of the meniscal horn attachments during gait. The extrusion distance increased as laxity increased and the amount of contact force transferred through the menisci during gait decreased rapidly as the meniscal attachments became more lax. Horn attachment lengths that were 20% longer than MRI attachment lengths resulted in an almost complete loss of force transfer through the menisci during the gait cycle. Relatively small changes (2 to 3 mm) in the lengths at which horn bundles first become taut, manifested in large changes in the capacity of the tissue to transmit forces. As meniscal horn attachment laxity increased from 80% to 120% of the MRI measured horn distance, medial meniscus extrusion increased 3.9 mm for the first subject and 2.7 mm for the second subject. For the same horn laxity changes, the percent of medial tibiofemoral contact force transmitted through the medial meniscus during early stance decreased from 51% to 8% and from 36% to 14% for the two subjects. The results of our study show that increased meniscal extrusion occurs with increased laxity of the meniscal tibia attachments and this increased laxity results in loss of meniscal function. PMID:25814179

  13. Salivary gland thrombostasin isoforms differentilally regulate blood uptake of horn flies fed on New Zealand white rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  14. 75 FR 18201 - Big Horn II Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Big Horn II Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Big Horn II Wind Project, LLC's application...

  15. 50 CFR 21.44 - Depredation order for horned larks, house finches, and white-crowned sparrows in California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.44 Depredation order for horned... horticultural crops. Take of birds under this order must be done under the supervision of the county agriculture... bird species, or for take of horned larks or white-crowned sparrows from May 1 through October 31....

  16. 75 FR 9377 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Flat-Tailed Horned Lizard as Threatened

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... distinct vertebrate population segments (61 FR 4722). (6) The potential effects global climate change may..., 1993 (58 FR 62624), to list the flat-tailed horned lizard as a threatened species, and reopens the... proposed rule to list the flat-tailed horned lizard as a threatened species under the Act (58 FR 62624)....

  17. Use of electroporation as an option to transform the Horn Fly, Haematobia irritans: a species recalcitrant to microinjection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horn flies are serious pests of cattle in North America and control of these flies has primarily relied on insecticides. However, the heavy use of insecticides has led to the development of resistance in horn flies and novel methods of fly control are greatly needed. The use of transformation techno...

  18. Comparisons of antifeedancy and spatial repellency of three natural product repellents against horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Horn flies are among the most important biting fly pests of cattle in the United States. Horn fly management is largely dependent upon pesticides, which ultimately leads to the rapid development of insecticide resistance. Alternative control strategies, including repellents, have shown p...

  19. Salivary Gland Thrombostasin Isoforms Differentially Regulate Blood Uptake of Horn Flies Fed on New Zealand White Rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  20. Salivary Gland Thrombostasin Isoforms Differentially Regulate Blood Uptake of Horn Flies Fed on Control- and Thrombostasin-Vaccinated Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is an anticlotting protein found in saliva of Haematobia irritans (horn flies). The polymorphic nature of the ts gene was first associated with success of horn flies blood feeding on a laboratory host, New Zealand White rabbits. In this study, we report results of similar studies ...

  1. Cloning and characterization of an MRNA encoding an insulin receptor from the horned scarab beetle Onthophagus nigriventris (Coleoptera: scarabaeidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insulin signaling pathway has been implicated in the control of insect polyphenisms for some caste-forming insects and potentially has a role in horn dimorphisms in beetles. Males of the sexually dimorphic dung beetle Onthophagus nigriventris develop a magnificent thoracic horn up to twice the l...

  2. Study of Saiga Horn Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mikulíková, Kateřina; Romanov, Oleg; Miksik, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Pataridis, Statis; Sedláková, Pavla

    2012-01-01

    The saiga horns have been investigated the using of modern analytic methods. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mass-spectrometric (MS and MS/MS) detection and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) were used. It could be concluded that basic proteins of the saiga horns are keratins and collagen. The basic representation protein in all samples is keratin type I microfibrillar (from sheep), keratin type II microfibrillar (from sheep), collagen type I (α1) (from bovine) and collagen type I (α2) (from bovine). Free amino acids we determined in all samples are nontreated by enzyme. PMID:22629195

  3. Chained Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for Hardy's ladder test of nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cereceda, José Luis

    2016-04-01

    Relativistic causality forbids superluminal signaling between distant observers. By exploiting the non-signaling principle, we derive the exact relationship between the chained Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt sum of correlations {CHSH}_K and the success probability P_K associated with Hardy's ladder test of nonlocality for two qubits and K+1 observables per qubit. Then, by invoking the Tsirelson bound for {CHSH}_K, the derived relationship allows us to establish an upper limit on P_K. In addition, we draw the connection between {CHSH}_K and the chained version of the Clauser-Horne (CH) inequality.

  4. Abrupt shifts in Horn of Africa hydroclimate since the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Jessica E; deMenocal, Peter B

    2013-11-15

    The timing and abruptness of the initiation and termination of the Early Holocene African Humid Period are subjects of ongoing debate, with direct consequences for our understanding of abrupt climate change, paleoenvironments, and early human cultural development. Here, we provide proxy evidence from the Horn of Africa region that documents abrupt transitions into and out of the African Humid Period in northeast Africa. Similar and generally synchronous abrupt transitions at other East African sites suggest that rapid shifts in hydroclimate are a regionally coherent feature. Our analysis suggests that the termination of the African Humid Period in the Horn of Africa occurred within centuries, underscoring the nonlinearity of the region's hydroclimate. PMID:24114782

  5. Morphological, biophysical and synaptic properties of glutamatergic neurons of the mouse spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    Punnakkal, Pradeep; Schoultz, Carolin; Haenraets, Karen; Wildner, Hendrik; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Interneurons of the spinal dorsal horn are central to somatosensory and nociceptive processing. A mechanistic understanding of their function depends on profound knowledge of their intrinsic properties and their integration into dorsal horn circuits. Here, we have used BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of the vesicular glutamate transporter (vGluT2) gene (vGluT2::eGFP mice) to perform a detailed electrophysiological and morphological characterisation of excitatory dorsal horn neurons, and to compare their properties to those of GABAergic (Gad67::eGFP tagged) and glycinergic (GlyT2::eGFP tagged) neurons. vGluT2::eGFP was detected in about one-third of all excitatory dorsal horn neurons and, as demonstrated by the co-expression of vGluT2::eGFP with different markers of subtypes of glutamatergic neurons, probably labelled a representative fraction of these neurons. Three types of dendritic tree morphologies (vertical, central, and radial), but no islet cell-type morphology, were identified in vGluT2::eGFP neurons. vGluT2::eGFP neurons had more depolarised action potential thresholds and longer action potential durations than inhibitory neurons, while no significant differences were found for the resting membrane potential, input resistance, cell capacitance and after-hyperpolarisation. Delayed firing and single action potential firing were the single most prevalent firing patterns in vGluT2::eGFP neurons of the superficial and deep dorsal horn, respectively. By contrast, tonic firing prevailed in inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal horn. Capsaicin-induced synaptic inputs were detected in about half of the excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and occurred more frequently in superficial than in deep dorsal horn neurons. Primary afferent-evoked (polysynaptic) inhibitory inputs were found in the majority of glutamatergic and glycinergic neurons, but only in less than half of the GABAergic population. Excitatory

  6. Diagnosis and management of a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy in a low-resource setting.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Hannah; Sornum, Alvin

    2013-01-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with amenorrhoea, lower abdominal pain and brown vaginal discharge. She was noted to be in hypovolaemic shock with a distended and peritonitic abdomen. On bimanual examination, the uterus was not palpated, the posterior fornix was full and cervical excitation was present. A clinical diagnosis of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy was made. She was resuscitated and an emergency laparotomy was performed. Intraoperatively, a ruptured rudimentary horn with an ex utero pregnancy was discovered. The right horn and tube were removed, as was the non-viable fetus. There were no postoperative complications and the patient was discharged after 5 days of observation. PMID:23749832

  7. Diagnosis and management of a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy in a low-resource setting

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Hannah; Sornum, Alvin

    2013-01-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with amenorrhoea, lower abdominal pain and brown vaginal discharge. She was noted to be in hypovolaemic shock with a distended and peritonitic abdomen. On bimanual examination, the uterus was not palpated, the posterior fornix was full and cervical excitation was present. A clinical diagnosis of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy was made. She was resuscitated and an emergency laparotomy was performed. Intraoperatively, a ruptured rudimentary horn with an ex utero pregnancy was discovered. The right horn and tube were removed, as was the non-viable fetus. There were no postoperative complications and the patient was discharged after 5 days of observation. PMID:23749832

  8. The hydrodynamics of the Big Horn Basin: a study of the role of faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Belitz, K.; Sharp-Hansen, S.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model simulates groundwater flow in the Big Horn basin, Wyoming. The hydraulic head at depth over much of the Big Horn basin is near the land surface elevation, a condition usually defined as hydrostatic. This condition indicates a high, regional-scale, vertical conductivity for the sediments in the basin. Our hypothesis to explain the high conductivity is that the faults act as vertical conduits for fluid flow. These same faults can act as either horizontal barriers to flow or nonbarriers, depending upon whether the fault zones are more permeable or less permeable than the adjoining aquifers. -from Authors

  9. Maximal violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Li-Bin; Zhao, Xian-Geng; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2003-08-01

    The Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (BCHSH) inequality (in terms of correlation functions) of two qutrits is studied in detail by employing tritter measurements. A uniform formula for the maximum value of this inequality for tritter measurements is obtained. Based on this formula, we show that nonmaximally entangled states violate the BCHSH inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled one. This result is consistent with what was obtained by Acin et al. [Phys. Rev. A 65, 052325 (2002)] using the Bell-Clauser-Horne inequality (in terms of probabilities)

  10. Neogene and Quaternary geology of a stratigraphic test hole on Horn Island, Mississippi Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, Gregory S.; Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn; Cronin, Thomas M.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gibson, Thomas G.; Rubin, Meyer; Willard, Debra A.

    1996-01-01

    During April and May, 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) drilled a 510-ft-deep, continuously cored, stratigraphic test hole on Horn Island, Mississippi Sound, as part of a field study of the Neogene and Quaternary geology of the Mississippi coastal area. The USGS drilled two new holes at the Horn Island site. The first hole was continuously cored to a depth of 510 ft; coring stopped at this depth due to mechanical problems. To facilitate geophysical logging, an unsampled second hole was drilled to a depth of 519 ft at the same location.

  11. Evaluation of six satellite rainfall products over the Great Horn of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattani, Elsa; Merino Suances, Andrés; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Satellite precipitation products are used in various application fields, as extreme event monitoring (flood and drought), generation of time series for regional or global climatological studies, and assimilation in hydro-meteorological models. They are particularly necessary in regions with very sparse rain-gauge networks to augment the observational capabilities, such as in the Great Horn of Africa (GHA). GHA is characterized by a complex topography and highly varying climatic conditions ranging from the wetter mountainous and coastal regions to the arid lowlands, which can greatly affect the quality of satellite rainfall estimations. Moreover GHA is characterized by very frequent drought events, whose monitoring and forecast can benefit from satellite rainfall estimations. All that justifies the importance of satellite product validation and inter-comparisons in order to assess their reliability and application domain. The monthly accumulated precipitation from six satellite products, TAMSAT, GSMaP, CMORPH, PERSIANN, RFE, and TRMM-3B42, are analysed for the time period 2003 - 2009, by dividing the studied region (5°S - 20°N, 28°E - 52°E) in six sub-areas (clusters) characterized by a different annual cycle. The measurement uncertainties in satellite products are evaluated by computing the variance from the ensemble of the six satellite products at the resolution of 0.25°. The annual cycle characteristics of each cluster are correctly identified by each satellite product, whereas marked differences can be seen in the precipitations amount. GSMaP, PERSIANN and CMORPH provide larger amount of precipitation on South Sudan and West Ethiopia and North Uganda and the coastal region of North Somalia with respect to the other products. The regions with higher variability among satellite products are mountainous West Ethiopia, during summer (wet season) and for heavy precipitation (> 200 mm), South Sudan during summer and fall, and the Lake Victoria region

  12. Taxonomic and nomenclatorial revision within the Neotropical genera of the subtribe Odontocheilina W. Horn in a new sense-15. The genus Opisthencentrus W. Horn (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical, monobasic tiger beetle genus Opisthencentrus W. Horn, 1893, based on Oxygonia dentipennis Germar, 1843, is presented along with a lectotype designation. Most of the diagnostic characters of Opisthencentrus dentipennis (Germar, 1843), including the aedeagus and structures of the internal sac, are illustrated for the first time. Redescription and illustrations in colour photographs of the habitus and diagnostic characters of the female lectotype (MFNB) and five other specimens of both sexes are provided. The validity of Opisthencentrus as a separate genus is confirmed and it is concluded that the genus is a natural member of the subtribe Odontocheilina W. Horn, 1899, markedly differing from the genus Oxygonia Mannerheim, 1837. The history of the taxonomy and relationship to other genera of the subtribe, as well as the biology and distribution of this very rare and hitherto little known tiger beetle in the Brazilian Atlantic rain-forest, are discussed. PMID:27394549

  13. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Shielded Horn Balances and Tabs on a 0.7-Scale Model of XF6F Vertical Tail Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, John G.; Maloney, James A.; Garner, I Elizabeth

    1944-01-01

    Results of subject tests indicate the difficulty of obtaining closely balanced rudder surfaces for most tail assemblies with shielded horns and maintaining a near zero rate-of-change of hinge-moment coefficient without an additional balancing device. A comparison is made between shielded and unshielded horn test results. Pressure distribution and tuft tests of flow over different shaped horns showed higher critical speed for medium-taper nosed horn. The trim tab nose shape had little effect on tab test results.

  14. Destabilization of Cohesive Intertidal Sediments by Infauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Deckere, E. M. G. T.; Tolhurst, T. J.; de Brouwer, J. F. C.

    2001-11-01

    Bioturbation activity was reduced in four plots on an intertidal mudflat in the Humber estuary (UK) during 4 days, by spraying the sediment with an insecticide, namely vydate. Macrofaunal, especially Nereis diversicolor and oligochaeta, and meiofaunal densities decreased, while the diatom biomass did not change. This resulted in a 300% increase in sediment stability, caused by a reduction in bioturbation and grazing pressure and a decrease in the water content.

  15. Quantitative differences in the histology of the attachment zones of the meniscal horns in the knee joint of man.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Evans, E J; Rao, R D; Findlay, J A; Pemberton, D J

    1991-01-01

    The attachment zones of the meniscal horns of 7 dissecting room cadavers were examined by routine histology. All the knees were devoid of gross pathological change and no discoid menisci were included. Significant differences are reported in the thickness of the zones of uncalcified fibrocartilage and cortical calcified tissue (calcified fibrocartilage and underlying lamellar bone) and in the percentage of bone:bone marrow. There was a thicker zone of uncalcified fibrocartilage and a greater quantity of calcified tissue at the horns of the lateral than the medial meniscus. The differences in uncalcified fibrocartilage were largely attributable to the posterior horns, but the variations in calcified tissue mainly reflected differences between the anterior horns. It is suggested that the greater mobility of the lateral meniscus and the blending of its anterior horn with the anterior cruciate ligament are important factors accounting for the quantitative differences in the meniscal attachment zones. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1769887

  16. In vivo release of serotonin in cat dorsal vagal complex and cervical ventral horn induced by electrical stimulation of the medullary raphe nuclei.

    PubMed

    Brodin, E; Linderoth, B; Goiny, M; Yamamoto, Y; Gazelius, B; Millhorn, D E; Hökfelt, T; Ungerstedt, U

    1990-12-10

    Extracellular levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) were monitored by microdialysis in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and the ventral horn of the spinal cord at the level of the phrenic motor nucleus in decerebrated cats. A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor, alaproclate (10(-4) M) was included in the dialysis probe perfusion fluid to increase basal and stimulated levels of 5-HT. Electrical stimulation (30 Hz, 10 V, 0.5 ms) in the nucleus raphe obscurus, containing neurons projecting to the DVC and to the ventral horn, induced a 2-3-fold increase of the 5-HT release in both these regions. After termination of the stimulation, the release gradually decreased during the following 60 min. Substance P, which coexists with 5-HT in descending neurons, did not significantly affect the 5-HT release when it was added (100 microM) to the probe perfusion fluid. The present findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that prolonged release of 5-HT is responsible for the previously demonstrated long-lasting facilitation of phrenic activity following raphe obscurus stimulation. PMID:1705856

  17. Sex-specific parental care strategies via nestling age: females pay more attention to nestling demands than males do in the horned lark, Eremophila alpestris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Jing; Du, Bo; Liu, Nai-Fa; Bao, Shi-Jie; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2014-06-01

    In many species, nestling demands vary continuously during early development and both parents have different parental care strategies at each nestling age. Sexual conflict arises when each parent expects its partner investing more in parental care. It is largely unknown how the two parents respond to the dynamics of nestling demands and resolve the sexual conflict during nestling period, especially on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To address this question, we monitored parental care behaviors of horned larks (Eremophila alpestris) using video-recording systems. We found that male horned larks invested less in parental care, but had a larger body size than females, which is consistent with the parental investment hypothesis. Only the female brooded nestlings, but both parents contributed to feeding efforts. Feeding rates of males and females were negatively correlated, indicating that they used evolutionarily stable strategies. Strategies of parental care via nestling age were sex-specific. Females continuously adjusted care behaviors to follow the dynamics of nestling demands as nestling age increased, such as decreasing brood attentiveness and increasing feeding rate. By contrast, male feeding rate showed no significant correlation with nestling age, but increased with the synchrony feeding rate. We suggest the synchrony feeding behavior may act as a control measure for females to promote and assess the males' contribution. We consider low mating opportunities drive males to act as assistants for females, and correspondingly cause males to pay less attention to nestling demands than females. PMID:24882094

  18. The optimisation, design and verification of feed horn structures for future Cosmic Microwave Background missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Darragh; Trappe, Neil; Murphy, J. Anthony; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Gradziel, Marcin; Doherty, Stephen; Huggard, Peter G.; Polegro, Arturo; van der Vorst, Maarten

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate the origins of the Universe, it is necessary to carry out full sky surveys of the temperature and polarisation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the remnant of the Big Bang. Missions such as COBE and Planck have previously mapped the CMB temperature, however in order to further constrain evolutionary and inflationary models, it is necessary to measure the polarisation of the CMB with greater accuracy and sensitivity than before. Missions undertaking such observations require large arrays of feed horn antennas to feed the detector arrays. Corrugated horns provide the best performance, however owing to the large number required (circa 5000 in the case of the proposed COrE+ mission), such horns are prohibitive in terms of thermal, mechanical and cost limitations. In this paper we consider the optimisation of an alternative smooth-walled piecewise conical profiled horn, using the mode-matching technique alongside a genetic algorithm. The technique is optimised to return a suitable design using efficient modelling software and standard desktop computing power. A design is presented showing a directional beam pattern and low levels of return loss, cross-polar power and sidelobes, as required by future CMB missions. This design is manufactured and the measured results compared with simulation, showing excellent agreement and meeting the required performance criteria. The optimisation process described here is robust and can be applied to many other applications where specific performance characteristics are required, with the user simply defining the beam requirements.

  19. Complete Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state analyzer using hyper-entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Ming; Zhu, Meng-Zheng; Ye, Liu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we design a scheme where a polarization Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state can be completely and deterministically distinguished by adopting linear momentum degree of freedom as the ancillary qubits or change of roles between the momentum and polarization degrees of freedom. Two ways for distinguishing three-photon GHZ state can be achieved in just one quantum circuit.

  20. Building a Beetle: How Larval Environment Leads to Adult Performance in a Horned Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Reaney, Leeann T.; Knell, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The link between the expression of the signals used by male animals in contests with the traits which determine success in those contests is poorly understood. This is particularly true in holometabolous insects such as horned beetles where signal expression is determined during metamorphosis and is fixed during adulthood, whereas performance is influenced by post-eclosion feeding. We used path analysis to investigate the relationships between larval and adult nutrition, horn and body size and fitness-related traits such as strength and testes mass in the horned beetle Euoniticellus intermedius. In males weight gain post-eclosion had a central role in determining both testes mass and strength. Weight gain was unaffected by adult nutrition but was strongly correlated with by horn length, itself determined by larval resource availability, indicating strong indirect effects of larval nutrition on the adult beetle’s ability to assimilate food and grow tissues. Female strength was predicted by a simple path diagram where strength was determined by eclosion weight, itself determined by larval nutrition: weight gain post-eclosion was not a predictor of strength in this sex. Based on earlier findings we discuss the insulin-like signalling pathway as a possible mechanism by which larval nutrition could affect adult weight gain and thence traits such as strength. PMID:26244874

  1. Limit quantum efficiency for violation of Clauser-Horne inequality for qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Genovese, M.

    2005-05-15

    In this paper we present the results of numerical calculations about the minimal value of detection efficiency for violating the Clauser-Horne inequality for qutrits. Our results show how the use of nonmaximally entangled states greatly improves this limit with respect to maximally entangled ones. A stronger resistance to noise is also found.

  2. 76 FR 53295 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, August 8, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-21958... Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa Presidential Determination No. 2011-13... Africa Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by...

  3. Control of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the rat spinal dorsal horn by the nucleoside transporter ENT1.

    PubMed

    Ackley, Michael A; Governo, Ricardo J M; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D; Baldwin, Stephen A; King, Anne E

    2003-04-15

    Adenosine modulates nociceptive processing in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. In other tissues, membrane transporters influence profoundly the extracellular levels of adenosine. To investigate the putative role of nucleoside transporters in the regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, we employed immunohistochemistry and whole-cell patch-clamp recording of substantia gelatinosa neurons in slices of rat spinal cord in vitro. The rat equilibrative nucleoside transporter (rENT1) was revealed by antibody staining to be abundant in neonatal and mature dorsal horn, especially within laminae I-III. This was confirmed by immunoblots of dorsal horn homogenate. Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), a potent non-transportable inhibitor of rENT1, attenuated synaptically evoked EPSCs onto lamina II neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. Application of an adenosine A1 antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine produced a parallel rightward shift in the NBMPR concentration-effect curve. The effects of NBMPR were partially reversed by adenosine deaminase, which facilitates the metabolic degradation of adenosine. The modulation by NBMPR of evoked EPSCs was mimicked by exogenous adenosine or the selective A1 receptor agonist, 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyl adenosine. NBMPR reduced the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous miniature EPSCs and increased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked currents, an effect that is consistent with presynaptic modulation. These data provide the first direct evidence that nucleoside transporters are able to critically modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission. PMID:12611914

  4. Comment on 'Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers'

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Fei; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2005-09-15

    In a recent paper [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], a quantum secret sharing protocol based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states was proposed. However, in this Comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure if Eve employs a special strategy to attack.

  5. Electrophysiological properties of rat spinal dorsal horn neurones in vitro: calcium-dependent action potentials.

    PubMed Central

    Murase, K; Randić, M

    1983-01-01

    1. The electrophysiological properties of dorsal horn neurones have been investigated in the immature rat in vitro spinal cord slice preparation. 2. Intracellular recordings from dorsal horn neurones show that direct or orthodromic stimulation generates action potentials followed by a brief after-hyperpolarization. Synaptic potentials were elicited by the activation of primary afferent fibres in the dorsal root. 3. Input resistance for dorsal horn neurones ranged from 48 to 267 M omega, and the membrane time constant was in the range of 4-19 ms. 4. In response to strong depolarizing currents dorsal horn neurones perfused with TTX and TEA frequently exhibit a slow regenerative depolarizing potential followed by a slow after-hyperpolarization. The depolarizing potential probably results from an influx of Ca. It is blocked by low concentration Ca, Co or Mn, and enhanced by high levels of extracellular Ca. 5. There is, in addition, a low-threshold Ca-dependent response which is activated at membrane potentials more negative than -65 mV and has a maximum rate of rise at the polarization level of about -80 mV. 6. The addition of Ba or TEA to the perfusing medium provided support for the Ca-dependence of the low- and high-threshold responses, and the lack of fast inactivation of the high-threshold Ca potential. Images Plate 1 PMID:6306228

  6. Connecting Communities, Schools, and Families: An Interview with Arthur (Andy) Horne, Phd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Arthur (Andy) Horne completed his PhD at Southern Illinois University in 1971. He taught at Indiana State University from 1971 until 1989, during which time he served as a member of the faculty and the director of training of the APA-accredited Counseling Psychology Program. He also was a member of the AAMFT-accredited Marriage and Family…

  7. Are Cattell-Horn-Carroll Broad Ability Composite Scores Exchangeable across Batteries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; McCormack, Allison C.; Anderson, Janice L.; Hargrove-Owens, Gabrielle L.

    2005-01-01

    Many school psychologists use the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities to guide their interpretation of scores from intelligence test batteries. Some may frequently assume that composite scores purported to measure the same CHC broad abilities should be relatively similar for individuals no matter what subtests or batteries…

  8. Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt violation and the entropy-concurrence plane

    SciTech Connect

    Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech

    2005-10-15

    We characterize violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequalities for mixed two-qubit states by their mixedness and entanglement. The class of states that have maximum degree of CHSH violation for a given linear entropy is also constructed.

  9. Evaluation of the VetCap® treatment method for horn fly control in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the VetCap® treatment method, (SmartVet Pty Ltd, Brisbane, Australia) to control horn flies infesting cattle. The VetCap® delivery system consists of a pressure (liquid CO2) driven launcher and an encapsulated insecticide (CyLence®) formulation...

  10. Mechanical support and transport system used for the neutrino horn system at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.C.; Carroll, A.S.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Pearson, C.; Pendzick, A.; Ryan, G.; Sandberg, J.; Sims, W.P.; Smith, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The study of neutrinos at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), requires hardware for their initiation and control. The basics consist of a target, two horns and three collimators. This paper describes the installation, support and positioning of these components within a settling concrete blockhouse.

  11. 23. H.Q. Morton photograph #47 'South Light, Fog Horn from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. H.Q. Morton photograph #47 'South Light, Fog Horn from Bluff', (view looking NE) ca. 1880. (H. Q. Morton, Photographer, 75 Westminster Street, Providence, RI. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  12. Horn antenna design studies. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstract data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    These citations from the international literature describe the antenna radiation patterns, polarization characteristics, wave propagation, noise temperature, wave diffraction, and wideband communication of various horn antennas. This updated bibliography contains 217 citations, 63 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  13. A Ghoulish Inconsistency: A Comment on Tim Keller's "The National Implications of "Cain v. Horne""

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenig, John

    2010-01-01

    Tim Keller's article insightfully explores the flawed legal reasoning behind and potentially pernicious consequences of the Arizona Supreme Court's 2009 "Cain vs. Horne" ruling. He carefully examines the two fundamental flaws in the court's interpretative methodology: a failure to engage in a straightforward textual analysis of Arizona's Blaine…

  14. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  15. The Court versus Consent Decrees? Schools, "Horne v. Flores" and Judicial Strategies of Institutional Reform Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilton, Bradley; Chwialkowski, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Is the U.S. Supreme Court inviting litigants to take aim at unraveling injunctions in institutional reform litigation--especially consent decrees in the schools? In "Horne v. Flores" (2009), the court remanded a 17-year-old school reform case to a federal judge with orders to look beyond consent decrees on financing, reducing class…

  16. Overstated Optimism: Arizona's Structured English Immersion Program under "Horne v. Flores"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Jill Kerper

    2010-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the educational implications of the Supreme Court (USSC) decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009). The USSC remanded the Arizona case to the lower court, requiring a rehearing of petitioners' request for relief from the court's oversight of AZ's "structured English immersion" (SEI) program mandated under HB2064. The…

  17. Unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy presenting with acute haemoperitoneum with combined intrauterine pregnancy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lallar, Meenakshi; Nandal, Rajesh; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of rudimentary heterotopic uterine horn pregnancy varies from 1:76,000 to 1:140,000. However the incidence of twin pregnancy i.e. intrauterine pregnancy in unicornuate uterus and its associated rudimentary horn pregnancy is estimated to be around 1 in 10 million gestations. Case: Here, we present 19 year old pramigravida women with acute haemoperitoneum with diagnosis of unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy combined by intrauterine pregnancy. The patient was managed with emergency laparatomy and resuscitation. Rudimentary horn containing foetus was excised and intrauterine pregnancy was left untouched. The intrauterine pregnancy was supported with progesterone and tocolytics and the patient delivered a newborn of 2.8 kg through spontaneous labor at 37 weeks of gestation. Conclusion: Heterotopic pregnancies incidence have increased in comparison to past and there should be high level of suspicion for this rare event as this is often associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality where diagnosis is difficult and challenging and easily missed. . Timely intervention provides survival of intrauterine pregnancy in case of twin pregnancy, even in low resource settings where usually the diagnosis is missed before acute event. PMID:25653676

  18. Advanced pregnancy loss in the rudimentary horn of an undiagnosed unicornuate uterus.

    PubMed

    Perez-Medina, Tirso; García-Andrade, Carmen; Bajo-Arenas, José

    2009-06-01

    A case of advanced pregnancy loss in the rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus is presented herein. The unknown uterine malformation and advanced pregnancy resulted in the condition being incorrectly diagnosed on ultrasound. After a failed attempt at dilatation and curettage, a correct diagnosis was made and proper treatment was given during salvage laparotomy performed for arising complications (coagulopathy). PMID:19527403

  19. An autopsy report on a ruptured rudimentary horn (uterine anomaly) with ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Izumi; Harada, Kazuki; Kuroda, Ryohei; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Makoto; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Takazawa, Yutaka; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-10

    The rudimentary horn is a rare developmental anomaly of the Müllerian duct. Ectopic pregnancy in the rudimentary horn is estimated to occur in one out of 76,000-150,000 pregnancies. A 30-year-old primigravida suddenly collapsed after 3 days of continuous abdominal pain. Emergency laparotomy revealed a massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage and fetal demise. The growth of the fetus after 19 weeks of gestation is believed to have caused the rudimentary horn rupture, thereby rapidly leading to hemorrhagic shock in the mother and ischemic death in the fetus. This is the first autopsy report on maternal death due to the rudimentary horn or other Müllerian duct anomalies, which emphasizes the need for forensic pathologists to consider this condition as a possible cause of unexpected death in fertile women. In addition, it is very important for clinicians to detect Müllerian duct anomalies by sonography during routine obstetric examinations, and promptly diagnose anomaly related ectopic pregnancies in women displaying symptoms of an acute abdomen, intraperitoneal hemorrhage, or shock in the emergency practice. PMID:23265443

  20. Implementation of Linus Programme Based on the Model of Van Meter and Van Horn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Nazariyah bt; Idris, Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the understanding of school leaders on the implementation of LINUS programme that based on the features contained in the Implementation Model of Van Meter and Van Horn (1975). The study was carried out in the form of qualitative method and particularly, the multiple case studies that were conducted in four…

  1. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly numbers and breed type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide resistance in horn flies indicates the need for more sustainable production systems. Cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS;n=7), Brangus (BRAN;n=13), Charolais (CHAR;n=8), Gelbvieh (GELV;n=5), Hereford (HERF;n=12), and Romosinuano (ROMO;n=8) from Brangus dams were used to determine breed difference...

  2. 9 CFR 95.11 - Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs. 95.11 Section 95.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL...

  3. 9 CFR 95.11 - Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs. 95.11 Section 95.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL...

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 in long-horned Ankole calf, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda. PMID:25531186

  5. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda. PMID:25531186

  6. Effects of choke-load position on radiation properties in double-choked small horn antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, K.; Suzuki, M.

    1983-04-01

    Results of experiments conducted for the purpose of investigating the effects of the choke position on the beam circularity and the crosspolarisation properties in double-choked small horn antennas are presented. It is shown that the value of the maximum crosspolarisation can be suppressed below -37 dB by properly displacing the choke position from the circular waveguide aperture.

  7. Influence of permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin treatments on insecticide resistance in the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Byford, R L; Craig, M E; DeRouen, S M; Kimball, M D; Morrison, D G; Wyatt, W E; Foil, L D

    1999-01-01

    The history of insecticide resistance in the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and the relationship between the characteristics of horn fly biology and insecticide use on resistance development is discussed. Colonies of susceptible horn flies were selected for resistance with six insecticide treatment regimens: continuous single use of permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin: permethrin-diazinon (1:2) mixture; and permethrin-diazinon and permethrin-ivermectin rotation (4-month cycle). Under laboratory conditions, resistance developed during generations 21, 31 and 30 to permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin, respectively. The magnitude of resistance ranged from < 3-fold with ivermectin to 1470-fold with permethrin. Field studies demonstrated that use of a single class of insecticidal ear tag during the horn-fly season resulted in product failure within 3-4 years for pyrethroids and organophosphates, respectively. In laboratory studies, use of alternating insecticides or a mixture of insecticides delayed the onset of resistance for up to 12 generations and reduced the magnitude of pyrethroid resistance. In field studies, yearly alternated use of pyrethroids and organophosphates did not slow or reverse pyrethroid resistance (Barros et al., unpublished data), while a 2-year alternated use with organophosphates resulted in partial reversion of pyrethroid resistance. When pyrethroid and organophosphate ear tags were used in a mosaic strategy at two different locations, efficacy of products did not change during a 3-year period. PMID:10048825

  8. Low threshold primary afferent drive onto GABAergic interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn of the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, Claire A.; MacDermott, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition in the spinal cord dorsal horn is crucial for maintaining separation of touch and pain modalities. Disruption of this inhibition results in allodynia, allowing low threshold drive onto pain and temperature sensitive projection neurons. This low threshold excitatory pathway is normally under strong inhibition. We hypothesized that superficial dorsal horn inhibitory neurons, which would be ideally located to suppress low threshold drive onto projection neurons in a feedforward manner, are driven by low threshold input. In addition, because disinhibition-induced allodynia shares some features with the immature dorsal horn such as elevated sensitivity to low threshold input, we also questioned whether low threshold drive onto inhibitory neurons changes during postnatal maturation. To investigate these questions, slices were made at different ages from transgenic mice with EGFP expression in GABAergic neurons and whole cell recordings were made from these fluorescent neurons. Evoked synaptic activity was measured in response to electrical stimulation of the dorsal root. We demonstrate that Aβ fibers activate a significant proportion of superficial dorsal horn GABAergic neurons. This occurs with similar excitatory synaptic drive throughout postnatal maturation, but with a greater prevalence at younger ages. These GABAergic neurons are well situated to contribute to suppressing low threshold activation of output projection neurons. In addition, the majority of these GABAergic neurons also had convergent input from high threshold fibers, suggesting that this novel subclass of GABAergic neurons is important for gating innocuous as well as noxious information. PMID:19158295

  9. A history of the oil business in the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hares, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a historical account of the discovery and development of the Big Horn Basin. It discusses the exploration and drilling history; government purchases and leasing programs; development of geophysical survey techniques; oil and gas market history; impacts of World War II; and production history.

  10. Solitary Angiokeratoma Presenting as Cutaneous Horn over the Prepuce: A Rare Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, Manoj Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sramana; Sekhar, M Raja; Menon, Aswathy; Peter, CV Dincy

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 47-year-old man with 4 months history of conical growth on the prepuce with a progressive increase in size. The patient had been treated for seminoma a decade ago. Histopathology of the growth showed features of angiokeratoma. It is unusual for angiokeratoma to masquerade as a cutaneous horn. PMID:27057048

  11. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% AI), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus), house flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus)...

  12. Radioactivity levels in mussels and sediments of the Golden Horn by the Bosphorus Strait, Marmara Sea.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Gözel, Furkan; Carvalho, Fernando P

    2014-09-15

    The Golden Horn is an estuary located in the center of İstanbul receiving freshwater discharges from two creeks and connecting to the Bosphorus Strait. Activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sediments from the Golden Horn sampled in February 2012. Mean activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in the mussels were determined at 1.03±0.23, 389±41.6, 2.61±1.23, not detected (ND), 91.96±37.88 and 11.48±4.85 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In sediments, it was observed that (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in<63 μm particle fraction of sediment were generally higher than those determined in mussels. Po-210 and (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in mussels from the Golden Horn were much lower than in mussels from other coastal regions and this was related to low plankton productivity and eutrophication of the Golden Horn. PMID:25023437

  13. Comment on ``Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Zhu, Fu-Chen

    2005-09-01

    In a recent paper [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], a quantum secret sharing protocol based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states was proposed. However, in this Comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure if Eve employs a special strategy to attack.

  14. Use of the Atlantic nut clam (Nucula proxima) and catworm (Nephtys incisa) in a sentinel species approach for monitoring the health of Bay of Fundy estuaries.

    PubMed

    Pippy, B A; Kidd, K A; Munkittrick, K R; Mercer, A; Hunt, H

    2016-05-15

    Designing an effective environmental monitoring system for population responses requires knowledge of the biology of appropriate sentinel species and baseline information on the area's physical and chemical characteristics. This study collected information in Saint John Harbor, NB, Canada, for two abundant marine benthic invertebrates, the Atlantic nut clam (Nucula proxima) and the catworm (Nephtys incisa) to characterize their seasonal and spatial variability, determine the ideal sampling time and methods, and develop baseline data for future studies. We also evaluated whether contamination is impacting invertebrates by comparing sediment metal concentrations to responses of benthic infauna. Metals were generally below sediment quality guidelines except for nickel and arsenic. Clam densities were variable between sites but not seasons, whereas catworm densities were not significantly different between sites or seasons. Overall, these species show potential for environmental monitoring, although investigation at more contaminated sites is warranted to assess their sensitivity. PMID:26994836

  15. A new horned dinosaur reveals convergent evolution in cranial ornamentation in Ceratopsidae.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caleb M; Henderson, Donald M

    2015-06-15

    Ceratopsid (horned) dinosaurs are an iconic group of large-bodied, quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs that evolved in the Late Cretaceous and were largely restricted to western North America [1-5]. Ceratopsids are easily recognized by their cranial ornamentation in the form of nasal and postorbital horns and frill (capped by epiossifications); these structures show high morphological disparity and also represent the largest cranial display structures known to have evolved [2, 4]. Despite their restricted occurrence in time and space, this group has one of the best fossil records within Dinosauria, showing a rapid diversification in horn and frill morphology [1]. Here a new genus and species of chasmosaurine ceratopsid is described based on a nearly complete and three-dimensionally preserved cranium recovered from the uppermost St. Mary River Formation (Maastrichtian) of southwestern Alberta. Regaliceratops peterhewsi gen. et sp. nov. exhibits many unique characters of the frill and is characterized by a large nasal horncore, small postorbital horncores, and massive parietal epiossifications. Cranial morphology, particularly the epiossifications, suggests close affinity with the late Campanian/early Maastrichian taxon Anchiceratops, as well as with the late Maastrichtian taxon Triceratops. A median epiparietal necessitates a reassessment of epiossification homology and results in a more resolved phylogeny. Most surprisingly, Regaliceratops exhibits a suite of cranial ornamentations that are superficially similar to Campanian centrosaurines, indicating both exploration of novel display morphospace in Chasmosaurinae, especially Maastrichtian forms, and convergent evolution in horn morphology with the recently extinct Centrosaurinae. This marks the first time that evolutionary convergence in horn-like display structures has been demonstrated between dinosaur clades, similar to those seen in fossil and extant mammals [6]. PMID:26051892

  16. A rapid chemical odour profiling method for the identification of rhinoceros horns.

    PubMed

    Ueland, Maiken; Ewart, Kyle; Troobnikoff, Amanda N; Frankham, Greta; Johnson, Rebecca N; Forbes, Shari L

    2016-09-01

    Illegal poaching causes great harm to species diversity and conservation. A vast amount of money is involved in the trade of illegal or forged animal parts worldwide. In many cases, the suspected animal part is unidentifiable and requires costly and invasive laboratory analysis such as isotopic fingerprinting or DNA testing. The lack of rapid and accurate methods to identify wildlife parts at the point of detection represents a major hindrance in the enforcement and prosecution of wildlife trafficking. The ability of wildlife detector dogs to alert to different wildlife species demonstrates that there is a detectable difference in scent profile of illegally traded animal parts. This difference was exploited to develop a rapid, non-invasive screening method for distinguishing rhinoceros horns of different species. The method involved the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). It was hypothesised that the use of the specific odour profile as a screening method could separate and differentiate geographic origin or exploit the difference in diets of different species within a family (such as white rhinoceros and black rhinoceros from the Rhinocerotidae family). Known black and white rhinoceros horn samples were analysed using HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS and multivariate statistics were applied to identify groupings in the data set. The black rhinoceros horn samples were distinctly different from the white rhinoceros horn samples. This demonstrated that seized rhinoceros horn samples can be identified based on their distinct odour profiles. The chemical odour profiling method has great potential as a rapid and non-invasive screening method in order to combat and track illegal trafficking of wildlife parts. PMID:27240958

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphisms concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    Cargill, Edward J; Nissing, Nick J; Grosz, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Background Cattle that naturally do not grow horns are referred to as polled, a trait inherited in a dominant Mendelian fashion. Previous studies have localized the polled mutation (which is unknown) to the proximal end of bovine chromosome 1 in a region approximately 3 Mb in size. While a polled genetic test, Tru-Polled™, is commercially available from MetaMorphix Inc., Holsteins are not a validated breed for this test. Findings Approximately 160 kb were sequenced within the known polled region from 12 polled and 12 horned Holsteins. Analysis of the polymorphisms identified 13 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are concordant with the horned/polled trait. Three of the 13 SNPs are located in gene coding or regulatory regions (e.g., the untranslated region, or UTR) where one is located in the 3'UTR of a gene and the other two are located in the 5'UTR and coding region (synonymous SNP) of another gene. The 3'UTR of genes have been shown to be targets of microRNAs regulating gene expression. In silico analysis indicates the 3'UTR SNP may disrupt a microRNA target site. Conclusion These 13 novel SNPs concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins represent a test panel for the breed and this is the first report to the authors' knowledge of SNPs within gene coding or regulatory regions concordant with the horned/polled trait in cattle. These SNPs will require further testing for verification and further study to determine if the 3'UTR SNP may have a functional effect on the polled trait in Holsteins. PMID:19063733

  18. Three-dimensional morphology of the Sinocyclocheilus hyalinus (Cypriniformes : Cyprinidae) horn based on synchrotron X-ray microtomography.

    PubMed

    He, You; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Ti-Qao; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2013-10-01

    Sinocyclocheilus is a cave-dwelling cyprinid genus endemic to southwest China. Several species possess a conspicuous horn on their head, which has been suggested as a constructive troglomorphic trait but lacks substantial evidence. We used non-invasive, high spatial resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the horn of Sinocyclocheilus hyalinus, one of eight such troglobiotic species. 3D renderings demonstrated the osteological components, which were comprised of a rear wall comprised of the supraoccipital bone, a remaining frontal wall with numerous fenestrae, and the bottom continuous with the parietal and epiotic. A horn cavity occurred within the horn. The fenestrae in the frontal wall were continuous in the horn cavity and showed elaborate channeling, and were, connected to the cranial cavity by soft tissue. We tentatively called this configuration the "otocornual connection" due to its anatomic and putative functional similarity to the otolateralic connection in clupeids and loricariids, which provide an indirect pathway to enhance perception of underwater sound signals. This study provides a functional morphology context for further histological and physiological investigations of such horn structures in Sinocyclocheilus cavefish, and we suggest that the horn might enhance acoustic perception to compensate for visual loss in subterranean life, which warrants future physiological examination as lab-reared S. hyalinus become available. PMID:24115670

  19. Effects of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide on physical and biochemical properties of the claw horn of Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kurumado, Hisatoshi; Mori, Maya; Degawa, Aiko; Fujisawa, Hideyo; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Nagahata, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide on the physical and biochemical properties of the claw horn of Holstein cows were evaluated. Significant (P < 0.05, 0.01) decreases in hardness and elasticity were found in claw horns soaked in ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) solutions compared with those that were soaked in water for 12, 24, and 48 h. Water absorption rate, as a indicator of permeability barrier function, increased significantly (P < 0.05) over time during the soaking period and was found to be dependent on the concentrations of NH3 and H2S in the solutions. The contents of ceramide, the main lipid component for the permeability barrier system of the stratum corneum, were significantly decreased in claw horns soaked in NH3 and H2S solutions compared with the values before soaking. Quantities of eluted protein released from claw horns treated with NH3 and H2S solutions were approximately 20 times and 30 to 40 times greater than those released from claw horns treated with water alone. Interestingly, the quantities of cytokeratin 10, the main cytoskeletal protein of the stratum corneum, eluted from claw horns treated with NH3 and H2S solutions were markedly greater than the quantity released from horns soaked in water. Our results suggest that abnormal changes in the physical property of claw horn caused by NH3 and H2S treatment are due to disruption of the biochemical property of the claw horn induced by these chemical agents derived from slurry. PMID:19337390

  20. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-08

    In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS

  1. Progress in integrated-circuit horn antennas for receiver applications. Part 2: A 90 GHz quasi-integrated horn antenna receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Eleftheriades, George V.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-01-01

    A receiver belonging to the family of integrated planar receivers has been developed at 90 GHz. It consists of a planar Schottky-diode placed at the feed of a dipole-probe suspended inside an integrated horn antenna. The measured planar mixer single-sideband conversion loss at 91.2 GHz (LO) with a 200 MHz IF frequency is 8.3dB plus or minus 0.3dB. The low cost of fabrication and simplicity of this design makes it ideal for millimeter and submillimeter-wave receivers.

  2. EST-based Gene Indices for the Cattle Fever Tick, the Horn Fly, and the Screwworm Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and the New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, are economically important parasites of cattle throughout the world. Understanding the biology and genomics of these pests is critical to developin...

  3. Unruptured term pregnancy with a live fetus with placenta percreta in a non-communicating rudimentary horn.

    PubMed

    Patra, Sharda; Puri, Manju; Trivedi, Shuba Sagar; Yadav, Reena; Bali, Jyoti

    2007-12-01

    Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is rare and such a pregnancy culminating in the delivery of a live fetus is even rarer. Despite advances in ultrasonography, the accuracy of ultrasound in diagnosing rudimentary horn pregnancy at advanced gestation remains elusive. Confirmatory diagnosis is made only at laparotomy. We report a multigravidae who presented at 37 weeks with transverse lie oligoamnios and decreased perception of fetal movement since quickening. Laparotomy for placenta accreta suspected on ultrasound revealed non-communicating unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy with a live fetus and placenta percreta. Successful extraction of a term live fetus weighing 2.7 kg with excision of the rudimentary horn was carried out. PMID:17988257

  4. EST-based gene indices for the cattle fever tick, the horn fly, and the screwworm fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and the New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, are economically important parasites of cattle throughout the world. Understanding the biology and genomics of these pests is critical to developin...

  5. Unruptured pregnancy in a noncommunicating rudimentary horn at 37 weeks with a live fetus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen; Tang, Weiwei; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Mei; Huang, Meihua; Wu, Xiuling; Wan, Guiping

    2015-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of an unruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn full-term pregnancy. A woman who had a uterine malformation was misdiagnosed as uterus didelphys and gave birth to a live, healthy fetus. The correct diagnosis was not made until cesarean section at 37 4/7 weeks. The case suggests that women who are pregnant in a rudimentary horn could obtain a full-term delivery and give birth to a live and healthy baby. PMID:25745480

  6. Testing the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality using observables with arbitrary spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketterer, A.; Keller, A.; Coudreau, T.; Milman, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality applies when measurements with binary outcomes are performed on physical systems under the assumption of local realism. Testing such inequalities in the quantum realm usually involves either measurements of two-valued quantum observables or predefining a context-dependent binning procedure. Here we establish the conditions to test the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality using any quantum observable. Our result applies to observables with an arbitrary spectrum, and no prior knowledge of their underlying Hilbert space's dimension is required. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed general measurement strategy, that can be seen as positive operator-valued measurements performed on the system, using the formalism of modular variables applied to the transverse degrees of freedom of single photons.

  7. Testing Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities using observables with arbitrary spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketterer, Andreas; Keller, Arne; Coudreau, Thomas; Milman, Pérola

    2015-03-01

    The Clauser-Horne-Shimony and Holt inequality applies when measurements with binary outcomes are performed on physical systems under the assumption of local realism. Testing such inequalities in the quantum realm involves either measurements of two-valued quantum observables or pre-defining a context dependent binning procedure. Here we establish the conditions to test the Clauser-Horne-Shimony and Holt inequality using any quantum observable. Our result applies to observables with an arbitrary spectrum and no prior knowledge of their Hilbert space's dimension is required. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed general measurement strategy, that can be seen as positive operator valued measurements performed on the system, using the formalism of modular variables applied to the transverse degrees of freedom of photon pairs.

  8. Detecting nonlocality of noisy multipartite states with the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Rafael; Acín, Antonio; Aolita, Leandro; Cavalcanti, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    The Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality was originally proposed as a Bell inequality to detect nonlocality in bipartite systems. However, it can also be used to certify the nonlocality of multipartite quantum states. We apply this to study the nonlocality of multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ), W, and graph states under local decoherence processes. We derive lower bounds on the critical local-noise strength tolerated by the states before becoming local. In addition, for the whole noisy dynamics, we derive lower bounds on the corresponding nonlocal content for the three classes of states. All the bounds presented can be calculated efficiently and, in some cases, provide significantly tighter estimates than with any other known method. For example, they reveal that N -qubit GHZ states undergoing local dephasing are, for all N , nonlocal throughout all the dephasing dynamics.

  9. Sarcocystis falcatula-associated encephalitis in a free-ranging great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Rejmanek, Daniel; Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Barr, Bradd C

    2009-03-01

    A great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was admitted to a rehabilitation clinic with severe neurologic signs that were unresponsive to supportive care. The animal was euthanatized because of a poor prognosis. Marked granulomatous encephalitis with focal brainstem malacia was detected microscopically. The brainstem was the most severely affected brain location and the only place in which schizonts and merozoites, morphologically compatible with Sarcocystis spp., were detected. Immunohistochemistry with the use of polyclonal antisera indicated the presence of Sarcocystis falcatula. The species identification of the protozoa as S. falcatula was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous S. falcatula-associated encephalitis in a great horned owl. PMID:19286517

  10. Rostral horn evolution among agamid lizards of the genus ceratophora endemic to Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte II, James A.; Macey, J. Robert; Pethiyagoda, Rohan; Larson, Allan

    2001-07-10

    The first phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sri Lankan agamid lizard genus Ceratophora is presented based on 1670 aligned base positions (472 parsimony informative) of mitochondrial DNA sequences, representing coding regions for eight tRNAs, ND2, and portions of ND1 and COI. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple origins and possibly losses of rostral horns in the evolutionary history of Ceratophora. Our data suggest a middle Miocene origin of Ceratophora with the most recent branching of recognized species occurring at the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Haplotype divergence suggests that an outgroup species, Lyriocephalus scutatus, dates at least to the Pliocene. These phylogenetic results provide a framework for comparative studies of the behavioral ecological importance of horn evolution in this group.

  11. Liposarcoma or invasive lipomatosis in flower horn fish, hybrid cichlid: clinical, radiological, ultrasonographical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Rahmati-Holasoo, H; Shokrpoor, S; Tavakkoli, A; Vajhi, A; Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, H

    2016-03-01

    Liposarcoma or invasive lipomatosis affecting three indoor aquarium fish (flower horn fish, hybrid cichlid) is characterized, by the presence of mature adipocytes of variable sizes and by an invasive behaviour, which affected internal organs and eyes of all cases. Detailed macroscopic, radiological, ultrasonographical and histopathological features are presented. All fish had bilateral exophthalmia with some masses around the eyes. Ultrasonography confirmed the presence of hyperechoic masses in the eyes. Histopathology of all cases described the presence of variable-sized adipose cells in the eyes. The suggested diagnosis is well-differentiated liposarcoma or invasive lipomatosis. This is the first report of liposarcoma or invasive lipomatosis in flower horn fish, hybrid cichlid. PMID:25753688

  12. A TEM-horn antenna with dielectric lens for fast impulse response

    SciTech Connect

    Aurand, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    We designed and constructed a pair of TEM-horn antennas specifically for the very fast time-domain boresight response. Two physical topologies were made. A printed-board configuration has much slower transient response, which we think is due to pulse-smearing of the antenna currents in the dielectric substrate of the printed wiring boards. The solid state version has a 20 ps transition duration response in the main beam endfire (boresight) direction, which is the fastest we have seen to date. And since the antenna has a round trip antenna current propagation time of 6 ns, it offers clean radiated electromagnetic field measurement capability with a clear time of several nanoseconds. The printed board version has resistive loading at the aperture end of the conductors, which should offer better low- frequency performance. The dielectric lens certainly does improve the transient performance of the TEM horn, and was simple to design.

  13. Progress in integrated-circuit horn antennas for receiver applications. Part 1: Antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eleftheriades, George V.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a systematic method for the design of multimode quasi-integrated horn antennas. The design methodology is based on the Gaussian beam approach and the structures are optimized for achieving maximum fundamental Gaussian coupling efficiency. For this purpose, a hybrid technique is employed in which the integrated part of the antennas is treated using full-wave analysis, whereas the machined part is treated using an approximate method. This results in a simple and efficient design process. The developed design procedure has been applied for the design of a 20, a 23, and a 25 dB quasi-integrated horn antennas, all with a Gaussian coupling efficiency exceeding 97 percent. The designed antennas have been tested and characterized using both full-wave analysis and 90 GHz/370 GHz measurements.

  14. European springtime temperature synchronises ibex horn growth across the eastern Swiss Alps

    PubMed Central

    Büntgen, Ulf; Liebhold, Andrew; Jenny, Hannes; Mysterud, Atle; Egli, Simon; Nievergelt, Daniel; Stenseth, Nils C; Bollmann, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Direct effects of climate change on animal physiology, and indirect impacts from disruption of seasonal synchrony and breakdown of trophic interactions are particularly severe in Arctic and Alpine ecosystems. Unravelling biotic from abiotic drivers, however, remains challenging because high-resolution animal population data are often limited in space and time. Here, we show that variation in annual horn growth (an indirect proxy for individual performance) of 8043 male Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) over the past four decades is well synchronised among eight disjunct colonies in the eastern Swiss Alps. Elevated March to May temperatures, causing premature melting of Alpine snowcover, earlier plant phenology and subsequent improvement of ibex food resources, fuelled annual horn growth. These results reveal dependency of local trophic interactions on large-scale climate dynamics, and provide evidence that declining herbivore performance is not a universal response to global warming even for high-altitude populations that are also harvested. PMID:24341995

  15. Differences in progesterone concentrations and mRNA expressions of progesterone receptors in bovine endometrial tissue between the uterine horns ipsilateral and contralateral to the corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Hiroto; HANEDA, Shingo; KAYANO, Mitsunori; MATSUI, Motozumi

    2016-01-01

    Because the establishment of pregnancy begins at the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum (ipsi-horn) in cattle, levels of progesterone (P4) and receptor expression in the endometrial tissue, which regulate the intrauterine environment for embryo development, may differ between the ipsi-horn and the uterine horn contralateral to corpus luteum (contra-horn). The aim of the present study was to determine the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR), progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and PGRMC2 mRNA expressions in the cranial and middle parts of the uterine horns during the luteal phase. The results showed higher endometrial tissue P4 concentrations in the cranial part of the ipsi-horn than in that of the contra-horn (P<0.01); however, no change in the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations was evident during the luteal phase. The PGR mRNA expression was higher during the early luteal phase (P<0.05), but no differences between the horns were evident. However, PGRMC1 mRNA expression during the early luteal phase was higher in the cranial part of the ipsi-horn than in that of the contra-horn (P<0.05). In the middle part, there were no changes in the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and P4 receptor expressions during the luteal phase. In conclusion, the differences in dynamics of endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and P4 receptor expressions between the uterine horns ipsilateral and contralateral to the ovary containing a corpus luteum may cause differences in the intrauterine environment for both the ipsi- and contra-horns. PMID:26782011

  16. Efficacy of Brahman breeding in the management of insecticide-resistant horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Steelman, C D; McNew, R W; Brown, M A; Tolley, G; Phillips, J M

    1994-02-01

    The efficacy of Brahman breeding used as an alternative tactic to manage insecticide-resistant populations of adult horn flies, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), was determined. Concentration-mortality bioassays done at Booneville and Hope, AR, in 1988 and 1989, respectively, showed that horn fly populations were resistant to diazinon, pirimiphos methyl, tetrachlorvinphos, and methoxychlor. Data showed loss of field efficacy for coumaphos and delnav. Mean horn fly counts on Braham cows were significantly lower than on Angus cows for all sampling dates in 1989 and 1990. Mean fly counts on Brahman x Angus cows were approximately intermediate to the two purebred mean fly counts. Brahman breeding caused significant reductions in the number of organophosphate-resistant horn flies, which had been equal to or greater than that obtained from continued spraying with organophosphate insecticides. The Brahman x Hereford cows, which have one-eighth greater Brahman breeding than the Brangus cows, had fewer horn flies on 48 of 56 sampling dates in 1988-1990 and significantly fewer flies on 37 sampling dates. The effectiveness of Brahman breeding in causing lower numbers of insecticide-resistant horn flies significantly increased as the percentage of Brahman breeding increased. PMID:8144749

  17. Effects of biotin supplementation on serum biotin levels and physical properties of samples of solar horn of Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Effects of dietary biotin supplementation on serum biotin levels and physical properties of sole horn of 40 Holstein cows were evaluated. The mean serum biotin level in biotin-supplemented cows after 10 mo of biotin supplementation (1163.2 ± 76.2 pg/mL) was significantly higher (P = 0.007) than that in control cows (382.0 ± 76.2 pg/mL). The sole horn of biotin-supplemented cows was significantly harder (P = 0.026) and had a significantly lower moisture content (P = 0.021) than that of control cows. No morphologic differences in horn tubules or intertubular horn were found between the biotin-supplemented and control cows. The total lipid content of sole horn was significantly higher (P = 0.030) in the biotin-supplemented cows than in the control cows. These results suggest that dietary biotin supplementation causes increases in serum biotin levels and changes in physical properties and fat content of sole horn. PMID:15188952

  18. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Edrington, Thomas S; Loneragan, Guy H

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing candidates for transmitting Salmonella to cattle because they provide a route of entry when they breach the skin barrier during blood feeding. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain of Salmonella Montevideo (S. Montevideo-GFP), the current study demonstrated that horn fly grooming subsequent to tactile exposure to the bacteria resulted in acquisition of the bacteria on mouthparts as well as microbial ingestion. Consumption of a bloodmeal containing approximately 10(2), approximately 10(4), or 10(6) S. Montevideo-GFP resulted in horn fly colonization for up to 72 h postingestion (PI). Epifluorescent microscopy indicated that the bacteria were not localized to the crop but were observed within the endoperitrophic space, suggesting that regurgitation is not a primary route of transmission. S. Montevideo-GFP were cultured from excreta of 100% of flies beginning 6-7 h PI of a medium or high dose meal and > 12 h PI in excreta from 60% of flies fed the low-dose meal. Animal hides and manure pats are sources for horn flies to acquire the Salmonella and mechanically transmit them to an animal while feeding. Mean quantities of 5.65-67.5 x 10(2) CFU per fly were cultured from fly excreta passed within 1 d after feeding, suggesting the excreta can provide an additional microbial source on the animal's hide. PMID:25276929

  19. Ectopic Pregnancy in Uncommon Implantation Sites: Intramural Pregnancy and Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Fan; Zeng, Li-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is commonly located in the fallopian tube. Nevertheless, two unusual types of ectopic pregnancy, intramural pregnancy and rudimentary horn pregnancy, seriously threaten maternal life. The diagnosis and treatment of these unusual implantation sites present a clinical challenge. In this study, we illustrated the two unusual types of ectopic pregnancy and summarized the current data regarding diagnosis and optimal treatment from our experience. PMID:26819788

  20. Maximal violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for four-level systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Libin; Chen Jingling; Chen Shigang

    2004-03-01

    Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for bipartite systems of four dimensions is studied in detail by employing the unbiased eight-port beam splitters measurements. The uniform formulas for the maximum and minimum values of this inequality for such measurements are obtained. Based on these formulas, we show that an optimal nonmaximally entangled state is about 6% more resistant to noise than the maximally entangled one. We also give the optimal state and the optimal angles which are important for experimental realization.

  1. Primary closure of the corneas of two Great Horned owls after resection of nonhealing ulcers.

    PubMed

    Gionfriddo, Juliet R; Powell, Cynthia C

    2006-01-01

    Two Great Horned owls were presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of corneal lesions. Each bird had a corneal ulcer and bullous keratopathy. Following unsuccessful attempts at medical and surgical management, the corneal defects in each bird were treated with penetrating keratoplasties and conjunctival pedicle grafts. In each bird the cornea healed well and regained approximately its normal shape. Both birds fully recovered and have been released into the wild. PMID:16771761

  2. Columbid herpesvirus-1 mortality in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) from Calgary, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nicole; Warren, Amy L; Whiteside, Douglas; Bidulka, Julie; Robinson, John H; Illanes, Oscar; Brookfield, Caroline

    2012-03-01

    Four cases of Columbid herpesvirus-1 infection in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were identified in Calgary, Alberta. Necropsy findings included severe multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis, pharyngeal ulceration and necrosis, and gastrointestinal necrosis. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were associated with the foci of necrosis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed a diagnosis of herpesvirus-induced disease. The sequence of a PCR amplicon had 99.7% homology to Columbid herpesvirus-1. PMID:22942441

  3. Columbid herpesvirus-1 mortality in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) from Calgary, Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Nicole; Warren, Amy L.; Whiteside, Douglas; Bidulka, Julie; Robinson, John H.; Illanes, Oscar; Brookfield, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Four cases of Columbid herpesvirus-1 infection in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were identified in Calgary, Alberta. Necropsy findings included severe multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis, pharyngeal ulceration and necrosis, and gastrointestinal necrosis. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were associated with the foci of necrosis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed a diagnosis of herpesvirus-induced disease. The sequence of a PCR amplicon had 99.7% homology to Columbid herpesvirus-1. PMID:22942441

  4. [Rudimentary horn pregnancy: an unusual cause of spontaneous hemoperitoneum during the second-trimester of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Allouche, M; Tanguy le Gac, Y; Parant, O

    2011-02-01

    Spontaneous hemoperitoneum during pregnancy is an unusual but serious event. We report a case of profuse spontaneous hemoperitoneum resulting from the rupture of a non-communicating rudimentary uterine horn at 26 weeks of gestation. An emergency laparotomy was performed and a 900 g birth weight safe infant was delivered. We performed a hemi-hysterectomy in the same time. Fetal and maternal outcomes resulted without complication. Causes of spontaneous hemoperitoneum are discussed. PMID:21292527

  5. Ectopic Pregnancy in Uncommon Implantation Sites: Intramural Pregnancy and Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Fan; Zeng, Li-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is commonly located in the fallopian tube. Nevertheless, two unusual types of ectopic pregnancy, intramural pregnancy and rudimentary horn pregnancy, seriously threaten maternal life. The diagnosis and treatment of these unusual implantation sites present a clinical challenge. In this study, we illustrated the two unusual types of ectopic pregnancy and summarized the current data regarding diagnosis and optimal treatment from our experience. PMID:26819788

  6. Assessing Transmission of Salmonella to Bovine Peripheral Lymph Nodes upon Horn Fly Feeding.

    PubMed

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Brown, Tyson R; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J; Loneragan, Guy H; Edrington, Thomas S

    2016-07-01

    Biting arthropods are implicated in the transdermal transmission of Salmonella to bovine peripheral lymph nodes, and such contamination can contribute to increased Salmonella prevalence in processed beef. Since horn flies can acquire Salmonella and then excrete the bacteria in their feces, on-animal fly infestations were conducted in this study to assess whether horn flies have a role in this bacterial transmission. Three Salmonella serotypes were used to assess fly acquisition from and excretion onto cattle. The results indicated that flies can acquire Salmonella from the hide, as assessed by recovery from homogenates of surfacesterilized flies, and that Salmonella persists for at least 5 days in the fly. Fly fecal excreta serves as a bacterial contaminant on the hide, and the overall mean probable estimate of the quantity shed was ≈10(5) most probable number per fly cage area. In 5 days, no transmission of the bacteria to bovine peripheral lymph nodes was evident, prompting an assessment of the effects of prolonged horn fly feeding on transmission. Three groups of animals were infested with flies that had consumed a blood meal containing Salmonella Senftenberg. After 5 days, the study was either terminated or the flies were removed and the cages replenished with unfed flies either once or twice over the course of an 11- or 19-day fly exposure period, respectively. A microlancet-inoculated positive-control animal was included in each group for comparison. The impact of prolonged horn fly feeding was evident, as 8% of lymph nodes cultured were positive from the 5-day exposure, whereas 50 and 42% were positive from 11- and 19-day exposures, respectively. Higher concentrations of Salmonella were recovered from fly-infested animals than from the microlancet-inoculated control, likely a result of repeated inoculations over time by flies versus a single introduction. The data described provide new insights into the transmission dynamics of Salmonella in cattle

  7. Complete N-Photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger State Analysis Using Hyperentanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Xihan

    2016-03-01

    We present a scheme for N-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state analysis using hyperentanglement in polarization and time-bin degrees of freedom. The scheme only needs linear optics elements and single-photon detectors, which is feasible with current technology. The set of 2 N mutual orthogonal states can be unambiguously distinguished and the protocol is expected to find useful applications in quantum information processing.

  8. Noncommuting local common causes for correlations violating the Clauser-Horne inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer-Szabo, Gabor; Vecsernyes, Peter

    2012-12-15

    In the paper, the EPR-Bohm scenario will be reproduced in an algebraic quantum field theoretical setting with locally finite degrees of freedom. It will be shown that for a set of spatially separated correlating events (projections) maximally violating the Clauser-Horne inequality there can be given a common causal explanation if commutativity is abandoned between the common cause and the correlating events. Moreover, the noncommuting common cause will be local and supported in the common past of the correlating events.

  9. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. W.; Justice, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    A circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. This device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  10. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choon S.; Justice, D. W.; Lee, Shung-Wu

    1988-02-01

    It is shown that a circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. The device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  11. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. W.; Justice, D. W.

    1986-08-01

    A circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. This device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  12. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Choon S.; Justice, D. W.; Lee, Shung-Wu

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that a circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. The device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  13. Production of an X-band horn after a design of Dick Turrin, W2IMU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, Christian

    2015-08-01

    While looking for a nice, easy to perform and cheap students' project in 2009, we investigated X-band (8 to 12 GHz) microwave devices. A 5 m parabolic dish antenna and an X-band down-converter were already available, but we had no antenna feed in our tool box. A web search yielded a simple feed horn design and found sketches and descriptions by Dick Turrin (W2IMU) from 1991.

  14. Modeling cavitation in a rapidly changing pressure field - application to a small ultrasonic horn.

    PubMed

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e. below the acoustic driving frequency. The term "acoustic supercavitation" was proposed for this type of cavitation Žnidarčič et al. (2014) [1]. We tested several established hydrodynamic cavitation models on this problem, but none of them was able to correctly predict the flow features. As a specific characteristic of such acoustic cavitation problems lies in the rapidly changing driving pressures, we present an improved approach to cavitation modeling, which does not neglect the second derivatives in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Comparison with measurements of acoustic supercavitation at an ultrasonic horn of 20kHz frequency revealed a good agreement in terms of cavity dynamics, cavity volume and emitted pressure pulsations. The newly developed cavitation model is particularly suited for simulation of cavitating flow in highly fluctuating driving pressure fields. PMID:24889548

  15. 205 kA pulse power supply for neutrino focusing horns

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth R. Bourkland, Kevin Roon and David Tinsley

    2002-06-21

    A new underground beamline is being constructed at Fermilab to generate and focus a beam of neutrinos on a detector 450 miles away in Soudan, Minnesota. A compact modulator utilizing capacitive energy storage and SCRs as the switching element has been built and tested at Fermilab. The 0.9 F capacitor bank operates at less than 1 kV. It delivers its output of up to 240 kA directly to the two series connected focusing horns via a multi-layer radiation hard stripline [1]. Dual pulse width capability allows for ready selection of 5.2 ms, for slow beam spills, or 2.6 ms operation for reduced thermal stresses on the focusing horns during fast spill. Intended for installation in an underground equipment room, the design incorporates several novel features to facilitate transport, installation, and maintenance. Various designs were examined to arrive at the most economical approach for providing the high pulse currents to the horns located in the very high radiation field, up to 3 x 10{sup 7} kRads/yr absorbed dose of the beamline. These included charge recovery and electronic polarity reversal systems. The direct coupling approach was selected for its overall economy and compactness. The system has been operational for several months and results of those tests will be discussed. Controls and safety issues will also be discussed.

  16. Spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns.

    PubMed

    Chiwororo, Witness D H; Ojewole, John A O

    2009-02-01

    Globally, primary dysmenorrhoea is one of the most frequent gynaecological disorders in young women. It is associated with increased uterine tone, and exaggerated contractility of uterine smooth muscles. In many rural African communities, a number of medicinal plants, including Psidium guajava Linn. (family: Myrtaceae), are used traditionally for the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE) on isolated, spontaneously-contracting and oestrogen-dominated, quiescent uterine horns of healthy, young adult, female Wistar rats. Graded, escalated concentrations of PGE (0.5-4.0 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent and significant inhibitions of the amplitude of spontaneous phasic contractions of the isolated rat uterine horn preparations. In a concentration-related manner, PGE also significantly inhibited or abolished contractions produced by acetylcholine (ACh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml), oxytocin (0.5-4.0 microU), bradykinin (2.5-10 ng/ml), carbachol (CCh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml) or potassium chloride (K+, 10-80 mM) in quiescent uterine horn preparations isolated from the oestrogen-dominated rats. The spasmolytic effect of PGE observed in the present study lends pharmacological support to the traditional use of ;guava' leaves in the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in some rural African communities. PMID:19377271

  17. Prey snapping and visual distance estimation in Texas horned lizards, Phrynosoma cornutum.

    PubMed

    Ott, Matthias; Ostheim, Joachim; Sherbrooke, Wade C

    2004-08-01

    Captive Texas horned lizards were high-speed videotaped while feeding on ants in order to study the role of vision in facilitating tongue-protrusion capture of prey. Analysis of tongue movements revealed that prey snapping in these lizards is not a typical fixed-action pattern. By contrast, it is variable in performance and duration. Lizards adjusted head and tongue direction during the strike, within a few milliseconds, in response to movements of the prey. The duration of a typical tongue strike was 100-150 ms. The strike duration was prolonged after ophthalmic lenses were placed in front of one or both eyes. These lenses were used to investigate whether horned lizards use accommodation to judge prey distance. Focal changes of negatively powered ophthalmic lenses (employed monocularly) induced a clear underestimation of prey distance by the lizards, confirming the hypothesized expectation that accommodation is used for depth perception. The effect of the lenses was different in the two animals tested with monocular restriction. This, together with the lack of difference in responses by the lizards when untreated and when both eyes were lens covered (binocular treatment of equal power, -9 D), illustrates that horned lizards also use other visual parameters for depth perception. PMID:15277561

  18. Examination of the Ovarian Reserve after Generation of Unilateral Rudimentary Uterine Horns in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Toyganözü, Hasan; Nazik, Hakan; Narin, Raziye; Satar, Deniz; Narin, Mehmet Ali; Büyüknacar, Sinem; Api, Murat; Aytan, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this experimental rat model study is to evaluate the changes in the ovarian environment after excision of the rudimentary horn. Methods. Ten female Wistar albino rats were used in this study. One cm of right uterine horn length was excised in the first operation. Two months after the first operation, all animals were sacrificed to obtain ovaries for histological examination. Mann-Whitney U test and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis purposes. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.005. Results. The number of primordial follicles (P = 0.415), primary follicles (P = 0.959), preantral follicles (P = 0.645), antral follicles (P = 0.328), and Graafian follicles (P = 0.721) was decreased and the number of atretic follicles (P = 0.374) increased in the right ovarian side. Howeve,r this difference was not found to be statistically significant. Conclusion. The results of this experimental rat model study suggest that the excision of rudimentary horn could have negative effects on ipsilateral ovarian functions. PMID:24672393

  19. Hydrocarbon maturation in Laramide basins - constraints from evolution of northern Big Horn basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, E.S.; Furlong, K.P.; Surdam, R.C.

    1984-04-01

    Thermal and mechanical models were used to quantify the effects of Laramide uplifts and subsequent synorogenic deposition on the hydrocarbon maturation of Cretaceous source rocks in the Big Horn basin. Laramide deformation and resultant sedimentation has clearly affected hydrocarbon maturation of Cretaceous source rocks. (Thermopolis, Mowry, Frontier, Cody). Modified Lopatin-type reconstructions suggest that a significant region containing Cretaceous source rocks has been within the liquid hydrocarbon window. The earliest onset of hydrocarbon maturation in the northern Big Horn basin was latest Eocene, with some regions still containing immature Cretaceous source rocks as a consequence of Cenozoic erosion, uplift of the Pryor Mountains, and lack of burial. Regional geologic features indicate that the basin formed as a result of flexural compensation of an elastic lithosphere during emplacement of the Beartooth and Pryor Mountains, and possibly the Absaroka volcanics. This was determined by 2-dimensional models which predict sediment thickness caused by tectonic loading and subsequent sedimentation. Flexural rigidities of 10/sup 2/2exclamation-10/sup 22/ newton-meters adequately explain flexural subsidence in the northern Big Horn basin. The present basin configuration also was compared with a theoretical profile based on geologic constraints. Subsidence models for the present basin profile suggest the Paleocene thrusting of the Beartooth block contributes a majority of the tectonic loading and that Cenozoic erosion has drastically affected the resultant sedimentary sequence (Fort Union and Wasatch). These models, along with stratigraphic reconstructions, can be combined to pinpoint areas of potential hydrocarbon maturation within Laramide-type basins.

  20. Design and analysis of ultrasonic horn for USDC (ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2004-07-01

    In-situ sampling and analysis is one of the major objectives of future NASA exploration missions. Existing drilling techniques are limited by the need for large axial forces, holding torques, and high power consumption. Lightweight robots and rovers have difficulties accommodating these requirements. These requirements are becoming increasingly tougher to meet as the need for drilling techniques is expanding to reach deeper into the subsurface. To address these key challenges to the NASA objective of planetary in-situ rock sampling and analysis, a drilling technology called ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer (USDC) was developed. The USDC uses a novel driving mechanism, transferring ultrasonic vibration to sonic frequency impacts with the aid of a free-flying mass block (free-mass). The free mass then drives the drill bit. The actuator consists of a stack of piezoelectric disks with a horn that amplifies the induced vibration amplitudes. To meet the need for deep driller the USDC was modified to form the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher. Drilling to the depth of several meters in ice or hard rocks requires the optimization of the amplification of the vibration displacement and velocity that are generated by the piezoelectric materials. For this purpose, various horn designs were examined analytically. Conventional and new designs of the horn were analyzed using finite element modeling and the results allow for the determination of the control parameters that can enhance the tip displacement and velocity. The results of the modeling are described and discussed in this paper.

  1. Nonlinear effects contributing to hand-stopping tones in a horn.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Takayasu; Yoshikawa, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    Hand stopping is a technique for playing the French horn while closing the bell relatively tightly using the right hand. The resulting timbre is called "penetrating" and "metallic." The effect of hand stopping on the horn input impedance has been studied, but the tone quality has hardly ever been considered. In the present paper, the dominant physical cause of the stopped-tone quality is discussed in detail. Numerical calculations of the transmission function of the stopped-horn model and the measurements of both sound pressure and wall vibration in hand stopping are carried out. They strongly suggest that the metallicness of the stopped tone is characterized by the generation of higher harmonics extending over 10 kHz due to the rapidly corrugating waveform and that the associated wall vibration on the bell may be responsible for this higher harmonic generation. However, excitation experiments and immobilization experiments performed to elucidate the relationship between sound radiation and wall vibration deny their correlation. Instead, the measurement result of the mouthpiece pressure in hand stopping suggests that minute wave corrugations peculiar to the metallic stopped tones are probably formed by nonlinear sound propagation along the bore. PMID:23654412

  2. Developmental decoupling of alternative phenotypes: insights from the transcriptomes of horn-polyphenic beetles

    PubMed Central

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Cash, Amy; Han, Mira V.; Kijimoto, Teiya; Andrews, Justen; Moczek, Armin P.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental mechanisms play an important role in determining the costs, limits, and evolutionary consequences of phenotypic plasticity. One issue central to these claims is the hypothesis of developmental decoupling, where alternate morphs result from evolutionarily independent developmental pathways. We address this assumption through a microarray study that tests whether differences in gene expression between alternate morphs are as divergent as those between sexes, a classic example of developmental decoupling. We then examine whether genes with morph-biased expression are less conserved than genes with shared expression between morphs, as predicted if developmental decoupling relaxes pleiotropic constraints on divergence. We focus on the developing horns and brains of two species of horned beetles with spectacular sexual- and morph-dimorphism in the expression of horns and fighting behavior. We find that patterns of gene expression were as divergent between morphs as they were between sexes. However, overall patterns of gene expression were also highly correlated across morphs and sexes. Morph-biased genes were more evolutionarily divergent, suggesting a role of relaxed pleiotropic constraints or relaxed selection. Together these results suggest that alternate morphs are to some extent developmentally decoupled, and that this decoupling has significant evolutionary consequences. However, alternative morphs may not be as developmentally decoupled as sometimes assumed and such hypotheses of development should be revisited and refined. PMID:20731717

  3. The Centennial Trends Greater Horn of Africa precipitation dataset

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Chris; Nicholson, Sharon E.; Landsfeld, Martin; Klotter, Douglas; Peterson, Pete; Harrison, Laura

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a drought prone, food and water insecure region with a highly variable climate. This complexity makes rainfall estimation challenging, and this challenge is compounded by low rain gauge densities and inhomogeneous monitoring networks. The dearth of observations is particularly problematic over the past decade, since the number of records in globally accessible archives has fallen precipitously. This lack of data coincides with an increasing scientific and humanitarian need to place recent seasonal and multi-annual East African precipitation extremes in a deep historic context. To serve this need, scientists from the UC Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group and Florida State University have pooled their station archives and expertise to produce a high quality gridded ‘Centennial Trends’ precipitation dataset. Additional observations have been acquired from the national meteorological agencies and augmented with data provided by other universities. Extensive quality control of the data was carried out and seasonal anomalies interpolated using kriging. This paper documents the CenTrends methodology and data. PMID:26451250

  4. The Centennial Trends Greater Horn of Africa precipitation dataset.

    PubMed

    Funk, Chris; Nicholson, Sharon E; Landsfeld, Martin; Klotter, Douglas; Peterson, Pete; Harrison, Laura

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a drought prone, food and water insecure region with a highly variable climate. This complexity makes rainfall estimation challenging, and this challenge is compounded by low rain gauge densities and inhomogeneous monitoring networks. The dearth of observations is particularly problematic over the past decade, since the number of records in globally accessible archives has fallen precipitously. This lack of data coincides with an increasing scientific and humanitarian need to place recent seasonal and multi-annual East African precipitation extremes in a deep historic context. To serve this need, scientists from the UC Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group and Florida State University have pooled their station archives and expertise to produce a high quality gridded 'Centennial Trends' precipitation dataset. Additional observations have been acquired from the national meteorological agencies and augmented with data provided by other universities. Extensive quality control of the data was carried out and seasonal anomalies interpolated using kriging. This paper documents the CenTrends methodology and data. PMID:26451250

  5. Spatial selectivity and binaural responses in the inferior colliculus of the great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Volman, S F; Konishi, M

    1989-09-01

    In this study we have investigated the processing of auditory cues for sound localization in the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). Previous studies have shown that the barn owl, whose ears are asymmetrically oriented in the vertical plane, has a 2-dimensional, topographic representation of auditory space in the external division of the inferior colliculus (ICx). As in the barn owl, the great horned owl's ICx is anatomically distinct and projects to the optic tectum. Neurons in ICx respond over only a small range of azimuths (mean = 32 degrees), and azimuth is topographically mapped. In contrast to the barn owl, the great horned owl has bilaterally symmetrical ears and its receptive fields are not restricted in elevation. The binaural cues available for sound localization were measured both with cochlear microphonic recordings and with a microphone attached to a probe tube in the auditory canal. Interaural time disparity (ITD) varied monotonically with azimuth. Interaural intensity differences (IID) also changed with azimuth, but the largest IIDs were less than 15 dB, and the variation was not monotonic. Neither ITD nor IID varied systematically with changes in the vertical position of a sound source. We used dichotic stimulation to determine the sensitivity of ICx neurons to these binaural cues. Best ITD of ICx units was topographically mapped and strongly correlated with receptive-field azimuth. The width of ITD tuning curves, measured at 50% of the maximum response, averaged 72 microseconds. All ICx neurons responded only to binaural stimulation and had nonmonotonic IID tuning curves. Best IID was weakly, but significantly, correlated with best ITD (r = 0.39, p less than 0.05). The IID tuning curves, however, were broad (mean 50% width = 24 dB), and 67% of the units had best IIDs within 5 dB of 0 dB IID. ITD tuning was sensitive to variations in IID in the direction opposite to that expected for time-intensity trading, but the magnitude of this effect was only

  6. The effects of hair density of beef cattle on Haematobia irritans horn fly populations.

    PubMed

    Steelman, C D; Brown, M A; Gbur, E E; Tolley, G

    1997-07-01

    We show the relationships that exist between the amount of hair and quantity of sebum on cattle skin and the population density of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 2390 and 1587 hairs per cm2, respectively, significantly more than the mean number of hairs on Angus, Brahman x Angus Crossbred, Charolais, and Red Poll steers. The Chianina steers had > 30% more sebum present on their skin and hair (0.58g/929 cm2) than the Angus, Charolais, and Red Poll steers at the Beef Cattle Research Station Savoy, Arkansas. The Brahman steers had a significantly greater amount of sebum present on the skin (1.51 g/929 cm2) than the Crossbred and purebred Angus steers (0.55 and 0.25 g/929 cm2, respectively) at the South Central Family Farms Research Centre Booneville, Arkansas. The Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 61.9 and 17.0 horn flies per steer, respectively, during the fly season, whereas the Angus, Crossbred, Charolais and Red Poll steers had fly season means that ranged from 76.9 to 265.8 flies per steer. Regression analysis showed that an increase of 100 hairs per cm2, was associated with a reduction of 11 horn flies in the Angus II, 5 in Angus I, 20 in Charolais, 37 in Red Poll, and 0.4 in Chianina steers at the Savoy Station and a reduction of 6.6 horn flies for the Angus, Brahman, and Crossbred steers at the Booneville Centre. Regardless of cattle breed, an increase of 1.0 g of sebum per 929 cm2 output by the steer was associated with 478.5 additional hairs per cm2 on the animal. Each increase of 0.25 g of sebum per 929 cm2 resulted in a decrease of 9.2 horn flies per steer. We conclude that some of the factors responsible for fly-resistance in cattle are hair density and the corresponding amount of sebum present on cattle skin and hair. PMID:9330257

  7. [Preliminary study on substitution of Antelope Horn in Danqi Piantan capsule with artificial bezoar].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-bo; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yan-jun; Cui, Wei-li; Li, Jin

    2015-09-01

    To study the protective effect of Danqi Piantan capsule ( DPC) and its antelope horn substitution (DPCAS) on the cerebral ischemia, in order to preliminary study the possibility of replacing antelope horn with artificial bezoar. In this study, the left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was adopted. Totally 150 SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the sham operation group, the model group, the Danqi Piantan capsule (DPC) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)), the Danqi Piantan capsule without antelope horn (DPCRA) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)), the Danqi Piantan capsule without antelope horn and with double artificial bezoar (DPCDB) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)). The MCAO model was prepared 1 h later after the administration on the 5th day. At 24 h after the operation, the inner canthus blood was collected to determine the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the endothelin (ET) content. At 72 h after the operation, the cerebral infarct size and the cerebral index were determined by TTC-staining. The fluorescent quantitative PCR method was used to detect brain Bcl-2, Caspase-3, IL-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 mRNA expressions. The mmunohistochemical method was used to detect ICAM-1, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 expressions in ischemic penumbra. According to the results, compared with the model group, DPCDB and DPC groups showed almost consistent results, indicating both of the two group can significantly improved cerebral infarction index and cerebral index (P < 0.05), increase the serum SOD activity (P < 0.05), decrease the serum ET level and Caspase-3 expression, IL-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 mRNA expressions in brain tissues (P < 0.05) and expressions of ICAM-1, IL-1,6, TNF-α, IL-6 positive cells in ischemic penumbra (P < 0.05) and increase the Bcl-2 expression (P < 0.05). The DPCRA group showed much lower impacts on indexes than DPCDB and DPC groups. This suggests that DPCDB and DPC reveal similar efficacies and antelope horn in

  8. Efficient algorithms for optimising the optical performance of profiled smooth walled horns for future CMB and Far-IR missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Darragh; Trappe, Neil; Murphy, J. Anthony; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Gradziel, Marcin; Doherty, Stephen; Bracken, Colm; Tynan, Niall; Polegre, Arturo; Huggard, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Astronomical observations in the far-infrared are critical for investigation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation and the formation and evolution of planets, stars and galaxies. In the case of space telescope receivers, a strong heritage exists for corrugated horn antenna feeds to couple the far-infrared signals to the detectors mounted in a waveguide or cavity structure. Such antenna feeds have been utilized, for example, in the Planck satellite in both single-mode channels for the observation of the CMB and the multi-mode channels optimized for the detection of foreground sources. Looking to the demands of the future space missions, it is clear that the development of new technology solutions for the optimization and simplification of horn antenna structures will be required for large arrays. Horn antennas will continue to offer excellent control of beam and polarization properties for CMB polarisation experiments satisfying stringent requirements on low sidelobe levels, symmetry, and low cross polarization in large arrays. Similarly for far infrared systems, multi-mode horn and waveguide cavity structures are proposed to enhance optical coupling of weak signals for cavity coupled bolometers. In this paper we present a computationally efficient approach for modelling and optimising horn character-istics. We investigate smooth-walled horns that have an equivalent optical performance to that of corrugated horns traditionally used for CMB measurements. We discuss the horn optimisation process and the algorithms available to maximise performance of a merit parameter such as low cross polarisation or high Gaussicity. A single moded horn resulting from this design process has been constructed and experimentally verified in the W band. The results of the measurement campaign are presented in this paper and compared to the simulated results, showing a high level of agreement in co and cross polarisation radiation patterns, with low levels of integrated cross

  9. Evaluating vascular plant composition and species richness on Horn Island, Mississippi, using passive and active remote sensing in conjunction with ground based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Kelly Lynn

    Barrier island vegetation is subjected to chronic abiotic stressors combined with periodic storm events that favor species adapted to harsh environments. These islands are the first landforms to be affected by changes in coastal subsidence and sea-level rise. Evaluating changes in vegetation is important for understanding the impact of global climate change on coastal environments. This study assesses vegetation composition and plant species richness on Horn Island, Mississippi using ground data in conjunction with remotely sensed spectral and LIDAR data. The goals of this research are to: (1) classify and map vegetation composition on Horn Island using hyperspectral and LIDAR data, (2) evaluate changes in vegetation composition through comparison with a vegetation study and classification map from 1979, (3) determine the extent to which vascular plant species richness might be estimated using remotely sensed spectral reflectance indices and spatial variability within these indices, and (4) utilize the vertical distribution of airborne multiple-return LIDAR data to evaluate vascular plant species richness. The vegetation composition of habitat-types on Horn Island can be identified by indicator species that are consistent both over time and among other barrier islands. Additionally, combining airborne hyperspectral and LIDAR data improved the overall classification accuracy of habitats. Although only broad comparisons in vegetation changes could be made between this study and previous maps, these changes were linked with geomorphological changes. In simple linear regressions, various reflectance- and LIDAR-indices correlated significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with richness when habitat-types were considered individually. Regressions of richness with indices derived from within-transect means or spatial variability in reflectance, reflectance band ratios, as well as vertical distribution descriptors and height percentiles from LIDAR data produced estimation errors of 0

  10. Inhibitory coupling between inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Labrakakis, Charalampos; Lorenzo, Louis-Etienne; Bories, Cyril; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo; De Koninck, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Local inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn play an important role in the control of excitability at the segmental level and thus determine how nociceptive information is relayed to higher structures. Regulation of inhibitory interneuron activity may therefore have critical consequences on pain perception. Indeed, disinhibition of dorsal horn neuronal networks disrupts the balance between excitation and inhibition and is believed to be a key mechanism underlying different forms of pain hypersensitivity and chronic pain states. In this context, studying the source and the synaptic properties of the inhibitory inputs that the inhibitory interneurons receive is important in order to predict the impact of drug action at the network level. To address this, we studied inhibitory synaptic transmission in lamina II inhibitory interneurons identified under visual guidance in spinal slices taken from transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the GAD promoter. The majority of these cells fired tonically to a long depolarizing current pulse. Monosynaptically evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs) in these cells were mediated by both GABAA and glycine receptors. Consistent with this, both GABAA and glycine receptor-mediated miniature IPSCs were recorded in all of the cells. These inhibitory inputs originated at least in part from local lamina II interneurons as verified by simultaneous recordings from pairs of EGFP+ cells. These synapses appeared to have low release probability and displayed potentiation and asynchronous release upon repeated activation. In summary, we report on a previously unexamined component of the dorsal horn circuitry that likely constitutes an essential element of the fine tuning of nociception. PMID:19432997

  11. Dissociation of μ- and δ-opioid inhibition of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in superficial dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is anatomical and behavioural evidence that μ- and δ-opioid receptors modulate distinct nociceptive modalities within the superficial dorsal horn. The aim of the present study was to examine whether μ- and δ-opioid receptor activation differentially modulates TRP sensitive inputs to neurons within the superficial dorsal horn. To do this, whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from lamina I - II neurons in rat spinal cord slices in vitro to examine the effect of opioids on TRP agonist-enhanced glutamatergic spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Results Under basal conditions the μ-opioid agonist DAMGO (3 μM) reduced the rate of miniature EPSCs in 68% of neurons, while the δ- and κ-opioid agonists deltorphin-II (300 nM) and U69593 (300 nM) did so in 13 - 17% of neurons tested. The TRP agonists menthol (400 μM) and icilin (100 μM) both produced a Ca2+-dependent increase in miniature EPSC rate which was unaffected by the voltage dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blocker Cd2+. The proportion of neurons in which deltorphin-II reduced the miniature EPSC rate was enhanced in the presence of icilin (83%), but not menthol (0%). By contrast, the proportion of DAMGO and U69593 responders was unaltered in the presence of menthol (57%, 0%), or icilin (57%, 17%). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that δ-opioid receptor activation selectively inhibits inputs activated by icilin, whereas μ-opioid receptor activation has a more widespread effect on synaptic inputs to neurons in the superficial dorsal horn. These findings suggest that δ-opioids may provide a novel analgesic approach for specific, TRPA1-like mediated pain modalities. PMID:20977770

  12. A central role for spinal dorsal horn neurons that express neurokinin-1 receptors in chronic itch

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Tasuku; Nguyen, Tony; Curtis, Eric; Nishida, Katsuko; Devireddy, Jahnavi; Delahanty, Jeremy; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated roles for spinal neurons expressing the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and/or gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced chronic atopic dermatitis (AD). Mice receiving repeated topical application of OVA exhibited atopic-like skin lesions and behavioral signs of chronic itch including spontaneous scratching, touch-evoked scratching (alloknesis), and enhancement of chloroquine-evoked scratching (hyperknesis). Substance P-saporin (SP-SAP) and bombesin-saporin (BB-SAP) were intrathecally injected into OVA-sensitized mice to neurotoxically ablate NK1R- or GRPR-expressing spinal neurons, respectively. SP-SAP diminished the expression of NK1R in the superficial spinal dorsal horn, and significantly attenuated all behavioral signs of chronic itch. BB-SAP reduced the spinal dorsal horn expression of GRPR and significantly attenuated hyperknesis, with no effect on spontaneous scratching or alloknesis. To investigate whether NK1R-expressing spinal neurons project in ascending somatosensory pathways, we performed a double-label study. The retrograde tracer, Fluorogold (FG), was injected into either the somatosensory thalamus or lateral parabrachial nucleus. In the upper cervical (C1-2) spinal cord, most neurons retrogradely labeled with FG were located in the dorsomedial aspect of the superficial dorsal horn. Of FG-labeled spinal neurons, 89-94% were double-labeled for NK1R. These results indicate that NK1R-expressing spinal neurons play a major role in the expression of symptoms of chronic itch, and give rise to ascending somatosensory projections. GRPR-expressing spinal neurons contribute to hyperknesis but not alloknesis or ongoing itch. NK1R-expressing spinal neurons represent a potential target to treat chronic itch. PMID:25830923

  13. Variations of the ultrastructure of neuronal lipofuscin during childhood and adolescence in the human Ammon's horn.

    PubMed

    Boellaard, J W; Harzer, K; Schlote, W

    2006-01-01

    The ultrastructure of lipofuscin (Lf) was studied in hippocampal and neocortical neurons of children and youngsters between 3 months and 24 years of age. As a standard, regions CA1 and CA4 of Ammon's horn and the gyrus centralis anterior of the left hemisphere were examined, and the ratio of the two components of Lf, the pigment part, and the usually droplet-like lipid part was looked at. Few and small granules with typical linear structures in the pigment part and little lipid droplets were found as early as at the age of 3 months in all brain regions. There were no morphological differences of Lf in the areas of Ammon's horn up to 3 years, but the Lf ultrastructure in Ammon's horn differed clearly from that in the neocortical region. Differences of Lf between the areas CA1 and CA4 were found to appear at the age of 6-8 years, to have a rather variable pattern between age 11 and about 20 years, and to be relatively constant thereafter. The Lf pigment part consisted of irregularly arranged three laminar linear structures. Some varieties could be seen in the size and shape of the Lf granules and in the lipid/pigment ratio. As to the question of Lf being an "age pigment," the findings that the number of Lf granules did not further increase after the period of early adolescence was not consistent with the age pigment hypothesis. No regional or age-dependent differences were found in the Lf of astro- and oligodendroglia. PMID:17090518

  14. Purines released from astrocytes inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission in the ventral horn of the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Eva Meier; Perrier, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Spinal neuronal networks are essential for motor function. They are involved in the integration of sensory inputs and the generation of rhythmic motor outputs. They continuously adapt their activity to the internal state of the organism and to the environment. This plasticity can be provided by different neuromodulators. These substances are usually thought of being released by dedicated neurons. However, in other networks from the central nervous system synaptic transmission is also modulated by transmitters released from astrocytes. The star-shaped glial cell responds to neurotransmitters by releasing gliotransmitters, which in turn modulate synaptic transmission. Here we investigated if astrocytes present in the ventral horn of the spinal cord modulate synaptic transmission. We evoked synaptic inputs in ventral horn neurons recorded in a slice preparation from the spinal cord of neonatal mice. Neurons responded to electrical stimulation by monosynaptic EPSCs (excitatory monosynaptic postsynaptic currents). We used mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the glial fibrillary acidic protein to identify astrocytes. Chelating calcium with BAPTA in a single neighboring astrocyte increased the amplitude of synaptic currents. In contrast, when we selectively stimulated astrocytes by activating PAR-1 receptors with the peptide TFLLR, the amplitude of EPSCs evoked by a paired stimulation protocol was reduced. The paired-pulse ratio was increased, suggesting an inhibition occurring at the presynaptic side of synapses. In the presence of blockers for extracellular ectonucleotidases, TFLLR did not induce presynaptic inhibition. Puffing adenosine reproduced the effect of TFLLR and blocking adenosine A1 receptors with 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine prevented it. Altogether our results show that ventral horn astrocytes are responsible for a tonic and a phasic inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission by releasing ATP, which gets

  15. Interferon-gamma induced disruption of GABAergic inhibition in the spinal dorsal horn in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vikman, Kristina S; Duggan, Arthur W; Siddall, Philip J

    2007-12-15

    The proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which can be present in elevated levels in the central nervous system during pathological conditions, may be involved in the generation of persistent pain states by inducing neuronal hyperexcitability. The aim of the present study was to examine whether loss of dorsal horn GABAergic inhibition may underlie this IFN-gamma-mediated neuronal hyperexcitability. Repetitive intrathecal injections of recombinant rat IFN-gamma (1000 U) or control buffer were administered to rats every second day for eight days. Electrophysiological recordings from lumbar dorsal horn neurons (n=46) were performed under halothane anaesthesia. Cellular responses were recorded before, during and after microiontophoretic application of the GABA antagonist bicuculline. In control animals, all cellular responses studied were significantly enhanced in the presence of bicuculline, including increased spontaneous activity, enhanced responses to innocuous and noxious mechanical stimulation and reduced paired-pulse depression. In contrast, in IFN-gamma-treated animals, bicuculline ejection had little or no facilitating effect on neuronal responses and instead a significant proportion of neurons displayed reduced responses. Seventy-four percent of cells from IFN-gamma treated animals showed a reduction in the response to noxious stimulation and 47% of the cells showed increased rather than reduced paired-pulse depression in the presence of bicuculline, thus suggesting IFN-gamma-induced excitatory actions by GABA. These findings show that the prolonged presence of increased levels of IFN-gamma in the central nervous system may contribute to the generation of central sensitization and persistent pain by reducing inhibitory tone in the dorsal horn. This implies a potential link between disinhibition and cytokine action in the spinal cord. PMID:17407800

  16. Effect of horn fly and internal parasite control on growth of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Sanson, D W; DeRosa, A A; Oremus, G R; Foil, L D

    2003-11-28

    The effects of horn fly and gastrointestinal nematode control on body weight gain of yearling Angus-Brangus cross heifers were evaluated in three separate studies during the years 1999, 2000 and 2002. In each year, the studies started in late May and lasted for 150, 148 and 123 days, respectively. In all three studies, the tag treatment (10% lambdacyhalothrin+13% piperonyl butoxide impregnated ear tags) provided excellent horn fly control. In the three studies, the average weekly horn fly counts for tagged heifers were 1, 3, and 0 flies per side while the average on untreated heifers was 52, 163 and 90 flies per side. In studies 1 and 2, there was no difference (P>0.1) in weight gain between tagged and untreated heifers, but in study 3, tagged heifers gained 50% more weight (P<0.001) than the untreated heifers. For gastrointestinal nematode control, ivermectin (IVM) was administered on Day 0 in studies 1 and 3 using a sustained release bolus and on Day 0 and subsequent 56-day intervals in study 2 using either the injectable or pour-on formulation. Heifers treated with IVM in studies 1 and 3 had significantly lower (P<0.05) GI nematode fecal egg counts compared to control heifers. In study 2, IVM treated heifers also had significantly lower GI nematode fecal egg counts compared to control heifers, except for Day 90 when no differences in fecal egg counts were observed between IVM pour-on treated and control heifers. Weight gain of heifers that received IVM was significantly greater (P<0.005) than untreated heifers in each of the three studies. IVM treated heifers gained 45, 61 and 184% more weight than the untreated heifers during the three studies. There was no interaction (P>0.1) between the main treatment effects of fly control and gastrointestinal nematode control. PMID:14637031

  17. Geology and mammalian paleontology of the Horned Toad Hills, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, S.R.; Woodburne, M.O.; Lindsay, E.H.; Albright, L.B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Wan, E.; Wahl, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Horned Toad Formation includes five lithostratigraphic members that record alluvial fan, fluvial, lake margin, and lacustrine deposition within a relatively small basin just south of the active Garlock fault during the late Miocene to early Pliocene. These sediments experienced northwest-southeast contractional deformation during the Pliocene-Pleistocene associated with basement-involved reverse faults. Member Two of the Horned Toad Formation has yielded 24 taxa of fossil mammals, referred to as the Warren Local Fauna, including Cryptotis sp., cf. Scapanus, Hypolagus vetus, Hypolagus edensis,? Spermophilus sp., Prothomomys warrenensis n. gen., n. sp., Perognathus sp., Repomys gustelyi, Postcopemys valensis, Peromyscus sp. A, Peromyscus sp. B, Jacobsomys dailyi n. sp., Borophagus cf. B. secundus, cf. Agriotherium, Machairodus sp. cf. M. coloradensis, Rhynchotherium sp. cf. R. edensis, Pliomastodon vexillarius, Dinohippus edensis, Teleoceras sp. cf. T. fossiger, cf. Prosthennops, Megatylopus sp. cf. M. matthewi, Hemiauchenia vera, Camelidae gen. et. sp. indet., and the antilocaprid cf. Sphenophalos. The majority of fossil localities are confined to a 20 m thick stratigraphic interval within a reversed polarity magnetozone. The fauna demonstrates affinity with other late Hemphillian faunas from California, Nevada, Nebraska, Texas, and Mexico. The Lawlor Tuff, dated elsewhere in California at 4.83 ?? 0.04 Ma and geochemically identified in the Horned Toad Formation, overlies most of the fossil mammal localities. Magnetic polarity data are correlated with Chrons 3n.3r, 3n.3n, and 3n.2r, suggesting an age of approximately 5.0 - 4.6 Ma. These constraints indicate an age for the late Hemphillian Warren Local Fauna of 4.85 - 5.0 Ma. ?? Society of Vertebrate Paleontology November 2011.

  18. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae) populations

    PubMed Central

    Forneris, Natalia S.; Otero, Gabriel; Pereyra, Ana; Repetto, Gustavo; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A.; Basso, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobia irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobia irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes). In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of Haematobia irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B). All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination. PMID:25893073

  19. Synaptic modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in spinal ventral horn neurons.

    PubMed

    Mine, N; Taniguchi, W; Nishio, N; Izumi, N; Miyazaki, N; Yamada, H; Nakatsuka, T; Yoshida, M

    2015-04-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are distributed widely in the central nervous system and play important roles in higher brain functions, including learning, memory, and recognition. However, functions of the cholinergic system in spinal motoneurons remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the actions of presynaptic and postsynaptic nAChRs in spinal ventral horn neurons by performing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on lumbar slices from male rats. The application of nicotine or acetylcholine generated slow inward currents and increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Slow inward currents by acetylcholine or nicotine were not inhibited by tetrodotoxin (TTX) or glutamate receptor antagonists. In the presence of TTX, the frequency and amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) were also increased by acetylcholine or nicotine. A selective α4β2 nicotinic receptor antagonist, dihydro-β-erythroidine hydrobromide (DhβE), significantly decreased nicotine-induced inward currents without affecting the enhancement of sEPSCs and mEPSCs. In addition, a selective α7 nicotinic receptor antagonist, methyllycaconitine, did not affect either nicotine-induced inward currents or the enhancement of sEPSCs and mEPSCs. These results suggest that α4β2 AChRs are localized at postsynaptic sites in the spinal ventral horn, non-α4β2 and non-α7 nAChRs are located presynaptically, and nAChRs enhance excitatory synaptic transmission in the spinal ventral horn. PMID:25613686

  20. Entanglement and discord of the superposition of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, Preeti; Rana, Swapan

    2011-03-15

    We calculate the analytic expression for geometric measure of entanglement for arbitrary superposition of two N-qubit canonical orthonormal Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and the same for two W states. In the course of characterizing all kinds of nonclassical correlations, an explicit formula for quantum discord (via relative entropy) for the former class of states has been presented. Contrary to the GHZ state, the closest separable state to the W state is not classical. Therefore, in this case, the discord is different from the relative entropy of entanglement. We conjecture that the discord for the N-qubit W state is log{sub 2}N.

  1. Endometrial adenocarcinoma in one horn of a didelphic uterus with vaginal duplication

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez Vicente, Daniel; Di Fiore, Hugo Ariel; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesús; Plaza Arranz, Javier

    2014-01-01

    A 59-year-old female patient presented with vaginal bleeding. A didelphic uterus with vaginal duplication was diagnosed on the basis of physical examination and radiology tests. Biopsy revealed an endometrial cancer in the left horn, while the right was atrophic. Laparoscopic hysterectomy, bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy were performed. According to Federation International of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging the tumour was classified Ib. The adjuvant therapy was vaginal cuff brachytherapy. After 6 months, she has no evidence of the disease. PMID:24842355

  2. Generation of high-power ultrawideband electromagnetic pulses in a system with a coaxial tem horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubanov, V. P.; Korovin, S. D.; Pegel', I. V.; Rostov, V. V.; Stepchenko, A. S.; Tarakanov, V. P.

    1996-12-01

    A coaxial TEM horn was designed on the basis of results from nonstationary computer modeling using code KARAT. With its high dielectric strength, this antenna is capable of radiating high-power ultrawideband nanosecond pulses. The pulse source used was a compact generator built around a coaxial forming line with a built-in Tesla transformer, which shapes pulses up to 1 GW high at repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. The amplitude of the pulses on a matched load was 20 kV at a duration of 4 nsec. Returns of ultrawideband signals from objects with simple geometric shapes were studied in laboratory experiments using this radiator.

  3. [Substitution of antelope horn in Danqi Piantan capsule with artificial bezoar in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-bo; Li, Zheng; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Yan-jun; Cui, Wei-li; Li, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The in vitro cell culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of Danqi Piantan capsule (DPC) and DPC dislodge the antelope horn with artificial bezoar double (DPCBD) on nerve regeneration and blood vessel regeneration and preliminarily investigate the possibility of substituting antelope horn in DPC with artificial bezoar. In this experiment, rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the blank serum control group, the model group, DPC groups (0.306 g x kg(-1) x d(-1), the same below), DPC remove of antelope horn (DPCRA) groups and DPCBD groups. Brain microvascular endothelial cells cultured in vitro (BMEC), astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSC) were co-cultured to simulate neurovascular unit, label neurons with microtubule associated protein III (β-tubulin III) antibody and lable astrocytes with glial fibrillary acidicprotein (GFAP). ELISA was used for the detection of the content of BMEC lactate dehydrogenase instrument method (LDH), the inverted phase contrastmicroscope was adopted to observe the formation of BMEC tube like structure, the number of leukocytes and leukocytes adherent to BMEC were counted under the microscope, the expression levels of β-tubulin III and the ratio of GFAP positive cells was detected with inimmunofluorescence, and RT-PCR method was used to detect NGF, BDNF, VEGF and VEGFr-2 mRNA. According to the result, compared with the model group, both DPC and DPCBD can reduce LDH leakage, promote the formation of BMEC tube like structure, inhibit leukocytes and their adhesion to BMEC, increase the β-tubulin III positive cell differentiation proportion (P < 0. 01), reduce the proportion of GFAP positive cells (P < 0.01), increase the expressions of co-cultured NGF, VEGF, BDNF and VEGFr-2 mRNA to a certain extent, with the most significant difference on NGF and VEGF mRNA expressions (P < 0.05) and the same efficacy in both groups. DPCRA groups showed less impact on all indexes than that of DPCBD and DPC groups. The same efficacy of

  4. Disseminated lymphoma of presumptive T-cell origin in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Malka, Shachar; Crabbs, Torrie; Mitchell, Elizabeth B; Zehnder, Ashley; Kent, Michael S; Lowenstine, Linda J; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2008-09-01

    A geriatric male great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) that was a resident at a raptor center was presented for examination because of stridor and weight loss. Results of physical examination, diagnostic imaging, and biopsy were consistent with disseminated lymphoma involving the oropharynx, neck region (including thyroid and parathyroid glands), keel, spleen, and liver. Attempts to treat the owl with chlorambucil failed, and the owl was euthanatized 5 months later. Neoplastic cells from this owl were immunoreactive to CD-3 antibody, suggesting the lymphoma was of T-cell origin. PMID:19014096

  5. Design and Measurements of Dual-Polarized Wideband Constant-Beamwidth Quadruple-Ridged Flared Horn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akgiray, Ahmed; Weinreb, Sander; Imbriale, William

    2011-01-01

    A quad-ridged, flared horn achieving nearly constant beamwidth and excellent return loss over a 6:1 frequency bandwidth is presented. Radiation pattern measurements show excellent beamwidth stability from 2 to 12 GHz. Measured return loss is > 10 dB over the entire band and > 15 dB from 2.5 to 11 GHz. Using a custom physical optics code, system performance of a radio telescope is computed and predicted performance is average 70% aperture efficiency and 10 Kelvin of antenna noise temperature.

  6. Male Texas Horned Lizards increase daily movements and area covered in spring: A mate searching strategy?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, Richard C.; Fox, S. F.; David, M.L., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Texas Horned Lizards, Phrynosoma cornutum, were tracked using fluorescent powder to determine exact daily movements. Daily linear movements and daily space use were compared between adult males and females. Lizards that traveled the greatest linear distances also covered the largest areas. In Oklahoma, adults emerge from hibernation in late April and early May and mate soon afterward. Males traveled significantly greater distances (and covered significantly larger areas in a day) than females in May but not after May. We propose that males move more and cover more area than females early in the mating season to intercept receptive females. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  7. Severe meningeal fibrinoid vasculitis associated with Theileria taurotragi infection in two short-horned Zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Biasibetti, Elena; Sferra, Chiara; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2016-08-01

    The Authors describe a severe vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis of the meningeal arteries observed in two brains of indigenous short-horn zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, with bovine cerebral theileriosis (BCT) caused by a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan, Theileria taurotragi, from Northern Tanzania. In the Author's opinion, the role of T. taurotragi infection in the angiocentric and angiodestructive detected features remains to be evaluated. A possible immunopathologic cancerous mechanism, secondary to the lymphoid deregulation, could be involved. This report suggests further studies to better characterize the lymphoid cell involvement in the pathogenesis of the meningeal vascular lesions by T. taurotragi. PMID:27145963

  8. Phase Center Stabilization of a Horn Antenna and its Application in a Luneburg Lens Feed Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakauskas, Brian H.

    With any reflecting or refracting structure, such as a parabolic reflector or lens antenna, the knowledge of the focal point is critical in the design as it determines the point at which a feeding signal should originate for proper operation. Spherically symmetrical lenses have a distinct advantage over other structure types in that there exists an infinite number of focal points surrounding the lens. Due to this feature, a spherical lens can remain in a fixed position while a beam can be steered to any direction by movement of the feed only. Unlike phased arrays that beam-steer electronically, a spherical lens exhibits no beam deterioration at wide angles. The lens that accomplishes this is in practice called the Luneburg lens which has been studied since the 1940s. Due to the electromechanical properties of the horn antenna, it is often used to feed the above mentioned configurations. In the focusing of any feed antenna, its phase center is an approximate point in space that should be coincident with a reflector or lens's focal point to minimize phase error over the radiating aperture. Although this is often easily accomplished over a narrow bandwidth, over wide bandwidths some antennas have phase centers that vary significantly, making their focusing a challenge. This thesis seeks to explain the problem with focusing a Luneburg lens with a canonical horn antenna and offers a modified horn design that remains nearly focused over a frequency band of 18 -- 45 GHz. In addition to simulating the feed / lens configurations, the lens and feed horn will be fabricated and mounted for far field measurements to be taken in an anechoic antenna range. A final feed design will be implemented in an array configuration with the Luneburg lens, capable of transmitting and receiving multiple beams without requiring any moving parts or complex electronic beam-forming networks. As a tradeoff, a separate receiver or switching network is required to accommodate each feed antenna. This

  9. A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approximately 7 degrees full width at half maximum (FWHM) is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A return loss better than -28 dB was measured across the band.

  10. Near-field analysis of a thick lens and horn combination: Theory and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuovinen, J.; Hirvonen, T.; Raeisaenen, A.

    1991-04-01

    At millimeter waves quasi-optical systems are commonly designed based on the Gaussian beam and thin lens approximation. The accuracy of the Gaussian beam and thin lens approximation was studied in the case of a corrugated horn and lens combination at 87 giga-Hz. A special near field measurement system was constructed. Large disagreement between the measured and theoretical values were obtained with the approximative method. A more accurate theoretical model was developed based on ray tracing and use of Huygens' principle. The theoretical values obtained with the method agree well with the measurements.

  11. Near-field analysis of a thick lens and horn combination - Theory and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuovinen, Jussi; Hirvonen, Taavi M.; Raisanen, Antti V.

    1992-06-01

    At millimeter waves quasi-optical systems are commonly designed based on the Gaussian beam and thin lens approximation. The accuracy of the Gaussian beam and thin lens approximation was studied in the case of a corrugated horn and lens combination at 87 giga-Hz. A special near field measurement system was constructed. Large disagreement between the measured and theoretical values were obtained with the approximative method. A more accurate theoretical model was developed based on ray tracing and use of Huygens' principle. The theoretical values obtained with the method agree well with the measurements.

  12. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, D; Ito, N; Nagayama, Y; Yoshinaga, T; Yamaguchi, S; Yoshikawa, M; Kohagura, J; Sugito, S; Kogi, Y; Mase, A

    2014-11-01

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array. PMID:25430218

  13. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Sugito, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.

    2014-11-15

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array.

  14. Relativistic quantum nonlocality for the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Shahpoor

    2008-02-15

    Lorentz transformation of the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is studied. Also we obtain the relativistic spin joint measurement for the transformed state. Using these results it is shown that Bell's inequality is maximally violated for the three-qubit GHZ state in the relativistic regime. For ultrarelativistic particles we obtain the critical value for boost speed, which Bell's inequality is not violated for velocities smaller than this value. We also show that in the ultrarelativistic limit Bell's inequality is maximally violated for the GHZ state.

  15. Avulsion of the brachial plexus in a great horned owl (Bubo virginaus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.P.; Stauber, E.; Thomas, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Avulsion of the brachial plexus was documented in a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). A fractured scapula was also present. Cause of these injuries was not known but was thought to be due to trauma. Differentiation of musculoskeletal injury from peripheral nerve damage can be difficult in raptors. Use of electromyography and motor nerve conduction velocity was helpful in demonstrating peripheral nerve involvement. A brachial plexus avulsion was suspected on the basis of clinical signs, presence of electromyographic abnormalities in all muscles supplied by the nerves of the brachial plexus and absence of median-ulnar motor nerve conduction velocities.

  16. A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennette, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approx. 14deg FWHM beam is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A power reflection below -28 dB was measured across the band.

  17. From innervation density to tactile acuity 2: embryonic and adult pre- and postsynaptic somatotopy in the dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul B; Millecchia, Ronald; Lawson, Jeffrey J; Brown, Alan G; Koerber, H Richard; Culberson, James; Stephens, Stephanie

    2005-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dorsal horn laminae III-IV cell receptive fields (RFs) are initially established in three steps: cutaneous axons penetrate the dorsal horn near their rostrocaudal (RC) levels of entry into the spinal cord. Their terminal branches distribute mediolaterally (ML) according to their relative distoproximal RF locations on the leg, and form nonselective synapses with nearby dorsal horn cell dendrites, establishing the initial dorsal horn cell RFs. Rootlet axon RFs in adult cats were used to approximate the RC entry levels of hindlimb skin input. Cord dorsum recordings of monosynaptic field potentials evoked by electrical skin stimulation provided the RC distributions of synaptic input. These were in close agreement. Simulated projections of all 22,000 hindlimb axons were similar to projections predicted from EPSP distributions, and with the observed projections of dorsal roots, cutaneous nerves, and individual axons. The simulated terminals were connected nonselectively to nearby dendrites of 135,000 simulated lamina III-IV cells whose dendritic surface area distributions were based on intracellularly stained cells. There was an overall similarity among pre- and postsynaptic embryonic and adult somatotopies, with a progressive transformation of RF angular location as a function of RC, ML dorsal horn location from an initial embryonic presynaptic concentric pattern to an adult postsynaptic radial one. The initial embryonic dorsal horn cell RF assembly hypothesis was supported by the simulations, as was the additional hypothesis that further refinement of connections would be necessary to establish sufficient selectivity to account for observed adult RFs and somatotopy. PMID:16125155

  18. Reliability Improvement of Ground Fault Protection System Using an S-Type Horn Attachment Gap in AC Feeding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajiki, Kohji; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Shimokawa, Fumiyuki; Sakai, Shinya; Sasaki, Kazuomi; Sato, Ryogo

    Contact wires used in feeding system for electric railroad are insulated by insulators. However, insulation of an insulator sometimes breaks down by surface dirt of an insulator and contact with a bird. The insulator breakdown derives a ground fault in feeding system. Ground fault will cause a human electric shock and a destruction of low voltage electric equipment. In order to prevent the damage by ground fault, an S-type horn has been applicable as equipped on insulators of negative feeder and protective wire until present. However, a concrete pole breaks down at the time of the ground fault because a spark-over voltage of the S-type horn is higher than a breakdown voltage of a concrete pole. Farther, the S-type horn installed in the steel tube pole does not discharge a case, because the earth resistance of a steel tube pole is very small. We assumed that we could solve these troubles by changing the power frequency spark-over voltage of the S-type horn from 12kV to 3kV. Accordingly, we developed an attachment gap that should be used to change the power frequency spark-over voltage of the S-type horn from 12kV to 3kV. The attachment gap consists of a gas gap arrester and a zinc oxide element. By the dynamic current test and the artificial ground fault test, we confirmed that the attachment gap in the S-type horn could prevent a trouble at the time of the ground fault.

  19. Use of insecticide-impregnated ear tags for the control of face flies and horn-flies on pastured cattle.

    PubMed

    Williams, R E; Westby, E J; Hendrix, K S; Lemenager, R P

    1981-11-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of insecticide-impregnated ear tags in controlling face flies, Musca autumnalis DeGeer, and horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linn.), on pastured beef cattle. In one 16-week trial, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ear tags treated with stirofos (Rabon) insecticide reduced horn fly numbers by 79% (P less than .05) and face fly numbers by 30% (P less than .05). Coumaphos (Co-Ral) insecticide dust bags used in a separate herd produced an 86% (P less than .05) reduction in horn flies and an 18% (P less than .05) reduction in face flies. In the second study, 5 and 10% permethrin (Atroban), PVC-treated ear tags in a one-piece design were tested. In this 11 week trial, horn fly control averaged 95% (P less than .05) with the 10% tag and 77% (P less than .05) with the 5% tag. Face fly control averaged 49% (P less than .05) for 8 weeks with the 10% permethrin tag. No significant face fly control was achieved with the 5% permethrin tag. In a herd treated with coumaphos dust bags, horn fly control averaged 93% (P less than .05) and face fly control averaged 34% (P less than .05). The third study tested 5 and 10% permethrin, PVC-treated ear tags in a two-piece design and two-piece 5% permethrin-treated ear tags in a polyurethane matrix. Fourteen-week horn fly control averaged 88% (P less than .05) with the 10% PVC-treated tag, 83% (P less than .05) with the 5% PVC-treated tag, 71% (P less than .05) with the 5% polyurethane-treated tag and 74% (P less than .05) with coumaphos dust bags. Face fly control averaged less than 50% (P greater than .05) throughout the trial with all treatments. PMID:7319964

  20. Sensitization of dorsal horn neurons in a two-compartment cell culture model: wind-up and long-term potentiation-like responses.

    PubMed

    Vikman, K S; Kristensson, K; Hill, R H

    2001-10-01

    One of the main characteristics of central sensitization associated with postinjury pain and chronic pain is increased excitability of the dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord. Two electrophysiological features associated with the origin and modulation of central sensitization are wind-up of action potential frequency and long-term potentiation (LTP), which have been demonstrated previously in the intact dorsal horn. Here we present evidence for electrically evoked sensitization of dorsal horn neurons in a two-compartment cell culture system of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and dorsal horn neurons. Whole-cell recordings of dorsal horn neurons showed that repetitive low-frequency stimulation of DRG axons induced a frequency-dependent cumulative depolarization of the membrane potential with a concomitant increase in action potential frequency in a subset of neurons (41%). The characteristics presented here for dissociated cells are in accordance with those ascribed to classical wind-up in the intact dorsal horn. In addition, tetanic stimulation of DRG axons resulted in a significant increase in the number of action potentials in response to test stimuli in 42% of the cells tested. This prolonged potentiation of neuronal excitability in the dorsal horn lasted throughout the recording period (>1 hr) and tended to be voltage dependent in an LTP-like manner. To our knowledge, this is the first time that wind-up and LTP-like responses are reported for dorsal horn neurons in cell culture. PMID:11567080

  1. It ain't What You Say, but the Way that You Say It: Jazz Articulation for Horns in the Big Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmundson, Jon

    2006-01-01

    A big-band horn section can play the correct rhythms, pitches, and dynamics with good tone and still be unintelligible. If the horns articulate together, however, the improvement will be dramatic. They will much more successfully convey the meaning of the music, and they will sound like a section rather than four or five individuals. In this…

  2. The post-natal development of cutaneous afferent fibre input and receptive field organization in the rat dorsal horn.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, M

    1985-01-01

    The responses evoked in lumbar dorsal horn cells by both natural and electrical hind-limb skin stimulation were recorded in the spinal cord of rat pups aged 0-15 days under urethane anaesthesia. The input volley was recorded on the L4 dorsal root and consisted of two separate waves from birth. Latency and threshold measurements were consistent with these two waves being immature A (myelinated fibre) waves and C (non-myelinated fibre) waves. On the first 3 days of life background activity of cells in the dorsal horn was low and evoked discharges were sluggish. On electrical stimulation of the skin, neonatal dorsal horn cells frequently responded with only 1 or 2 impulses per input volley with long central delays of up to 20 ms. Synaptic linkage appeared weak and many cells failed to follow stimulation rates of 5 Hz. Natural skin stimulation showed that the majority of cells at days 0-3 responded to pinching the skin only. The development of responses evoked by C fibres in the dorsal horn was delayed compared to that of responses evoked by A fibres. Short and long latency responses corresponding to the early A and late C afferent input volleys could be recorded in the superficial laminae (I, II and III) of the dorsal horn from day 0, but in the deeper laminae only early short latency A responses were evoked until the age of day 7-8. After this time, a long latency C response also appeared and increased in strength with age. Convergence of low and high threshold inputs onto dorsal horn cells was rare at birth but increased gradually over the following two weeks. Receptive field areas, mapped by natural mechanical stimulation of skin, were large at birth and decreased in size with age. At birth the mean receptive field area was 14.2% of the total hind-limb area whereas at day 15 it was 3.6%. This fall in size was particularly marked in cells of the deep dorsal horn. Pinching or brushing the receptive field of many neonatal dorsal horn cells resulted in long

  3. Unruptured pregnancy in a noncommunicating rudimentary horn at 37 weeks with a live fetus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chen; Tang, Weiwei; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Mei; Huang, Meihua; Wu, Xiuling; Wan, Guiping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report an extremely rare case of an unruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn full-term pregnancy. A woman who had a uterine malformation was misdiagnosed as uterus didelphys and gave birth to a live, healthy fetus. The correct diagnosis was not made until cesarean section at 37 4/7 weeks. The case suggests that women who are pregnant in a rudimentary horn could obtain a full-term delivery and give birth to a live and healthy baby. PMID:25745480

  4. Reduction of provisioning effort in response to experimental manipulation of chick nutritional status in the Horned Puffin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Piatt, J.F.; Kitaysky, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Using a supplemental feeding experiment, we investigated the ability of adult Horned Puffins to decrease provisioning effort in response to reduced nutritional requirements of chicks. We found no difference between experimental and control groups in parental provisioning before supplementary feeding was initiated. After receiving supplemental food for seven days, experimental chicks grew faster, gained more mass and received 87% less food from their parents than did control chicks. These results demonstrate that Horned Puffin parents can decrease food provisioning in response to a decrease in their chick nutritional requirements. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  5. Modelling of horn antennas and detector cavities for the SAFARI instrument at THz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, S.; Trappe, N.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, J. A.; Curran, G.; Mauskopf, P.; Zhang, J.; Withington, S.; Goldie, D.; Glowaka, D.; Khosropanah, P.; Ridder, M.; Brujin, M.; Gao, J. R.; Griffin, D.; Swinyard, B.; Ferlot, M.

    2011-02-01

    Future Far-IR space telescopes, such as the SAFARI instrument of the proposed JAXA/ESA SPICA mission, will use horn antennas to couple to cavity bolometers to achieve high levels of sensitivity for Mid-IR astronomy. In the case of the SAFARI instrument the bolometric detectors susceptibility to currents coupling into the detector system and dissipating power within the bolometers is a particular concern of the class of detector technology considered.1 The simulation of such structures can prove challenging. At THz frequencies ray tracing no longer proves completely accurate for these partially coherent large electrical structures, which also present significant computational difficulties for the more generic EM approaches applied at longer microwave wavelengths. The Finite Difference Time Domain method and other similar commercially viable approaches result in excessive computational requirements, especially when a large number of modes propagate. Work being carried out at NUI-Maynooth is utilising a mode matching approach to the simulation of such devices. This approach is based on the already proven waveguide mode scattering code "Scatter"2 developed at NUI-Maynooth, which is a piece of mode matching code that operates by cascading a Smatrice while conserving power at each waveguide junction. This paper outlines various approaches to simulating such Antenna Horns and Cavities at THz frequencies, focusing primarily on the waveguide modal Scatter approach. Recently the code has been adapted to incorporate a rectangular waveguide basis mode set instead of the already established circular basis set.

  6. Intraguild predation by shore crabs affects mortality, behavior, growth, and densities of California horn snails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorda, J.; Hechinger, R.F.; Cooper, S. D.; Kuris, A. M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    The California horn snail, Cerithideopsis californica, and the shore crabs, Pachygrapsus crassipesand Hemigrapsus oregonensis, compete for epibenthic microalgae, but the crabs also eat snails. Such intraguild predation is common in nature, despite models predicting instability. Using a series of manipulations and field surveys, we examined intraguild predation from several angles, including the effects of stage-dependent predation along with direct consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects on intraguild prey. In the laboratory, we found that crabs fed on macroalgae, snail eggs, and snails, and the size of consumed snails increased with predator crab size. In field experiments, snails grew less in the presence of crabs partially because snails behaved differently and were buried in the sediment (nonconsumptive effects). Consistent with these results, crab and snail abundances were negatively correlated in three field surveys conducted at three different spatial scales in estuaries of California, Baja California, and Baja California Sur: (1) among 61 sites spanning multiple habitat types in three estuaries, (2) among the habitats of 13 estuaries, and (3) among 34 tidal creek sites in one estuary. These results indicate that shore crabs are intraguild predators on California horn snails that affect snail populations via predation and by influencing snail behavior and performance.

  7. Mechanoreceptors in the Anterior Horn of the Equine Medial Meniscus: an Immunohistochemical Approach.

    PubMed

    Nemery, E; Gabriel, A; Grulke, S; Piret, J; Toppets, V; Antoine, N

    2016-04-01

    Lameness due to stifle and especially meniscal lesions is frequent in equine species. In humans, mechanoreceptors involved in proprioceptive function are well studied. Given the high incidence of meniscal injuries in horses, and the lack of information concerning them in equine menisci, our objective was to study these corpuscles in six healthy anterior horns of the equine medial meniscus, which is the most common localisation reported for equine meniscal injuries. Immunohistochemical stainings were performed using antibodies against high molecular weight neurofilaments and glial fibrillary acidic proteins. From a purely fundamental point of view, our work highlights for the first time the presence of Ruffini, Pacini and Golgi corpuscles in equine meniscus. They were found, isolated or in clusters and always located at the vicinity of blood vessels, at the level of the anterior horn of the equine medial meniscus. This morphological approach could serve as a basis for clinical studies, to evaluate the impact of these corpuscles on the poor sportive prognosis in equine meniscal tears. PMID:25904399

  8. Comprehensive transcriptome profiling of squamous cell carcinoma of horn in Bos indicus.

    PubMed

    Koringa, P G; Jakhesara, S J; Bhatt, V D; Meshram, C P; Patel, A K; Fefar, D T; Joshi, C G

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of horn is frequently observed in Bos indicus affecting 1% of cattle population and accounting 83.34% of total tumours found. The transcriptome profile of horn cancer (HC) tissue and the matched normal (HN) tissue were analysed by RNA-seq using Roche 454 sequencing. A total of 1 504 900 reads comprising of 612 MB data were used to identify differentially expressed genes using CLC Genomic Workbench. These include up-regulation of KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT6C, KRT14, SFN, KRT84, PI3, COL17A1, ANLN, SERPINB5 and down-regulation of BOLA, SCGB1A1, CXCL17, KRT19, BPIFB1, NR4A1 and TFF3 in HC, which are involved in regulation of gene transcription, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell survival and metabolic pathways. The qPCR analysis of several targets suggested concordance of gene expression profile with RNA-seq analysis. The present findings would provide basis for further screening of genes and identification of markers for early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of HC. PMID:24314272

  9. Abrupt shifts in Horn of Africa hydroclimate and the influence of the Indian Ocean (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, J. E.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The timing and abruptness with which Northeast Africa transitioned into and out of the Early Holocene African Humid Period is a subject of ongoing debate, with direct consequences for our understanding of climate stability and paleoenvironments. Here we present a new proxy record of regional hydroclimate, based on the hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf waxes, from a marine core in the Gulf of Aden that documents rapid, century-scale transitions into and out of the African Humid Period across the Horn of Africa. The Gulf of Aden record also documents large drying events during the last deglacial, synchronous with Heinrich Event 1 and the Younger Dryas. Similar and generally synchronous abrupt transitions at other East African sites suggest that rapid shifts in hydroclimate are regionally coherent. In addition, the termination of the African Humid Period in East Africa is synchronous with the termination along the western Saharan margin. A probabilistic analysis of the abruptness of the transitions in East Africa suggests that they likely occurred within centuries, underscoring the sensitivity of northeast African hydroclimate to external forcings. We speculate that the non-linear behavior of hydroclimate in the Horn of Africa is related to convection thresholds in the western Indian Ocean, and test this hypothesis with preliminary SST proxy data.

  10. Baseline assessment of ophthalmic parameters in the greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis).

    PubMed

    Bapodra, Priya; Wolfe, Barbara A

    2014-12-01

    Five healthy captive greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) were evaluated with standing sedation (detomidine hydrochloride 20-30 mg and butorphanol tartrate 50-60 mg per animal) to determine baseline values for tear production, intraocular pressure (IOP), conjunctival flora, and ocular anatomy using brightness mode transpalpebral ultrasonography with a 4- to 7-MHz broadband curvilinear transducer. The mean Schirmer tear test I value was 18.2 ± 3.49 mm/min. The mean IOP measured using applantation tonometry was 31.2 ± 6.62 mm Hg. Ocular biometry measurements were the following: axial length 2.61 ± 0.11 cm; corneal thickness 0.13 ± 0.01 cm; anterior segment depth 0.28 ± 0.06 cm; lens depth 0.70 ± 0.11 cm; and posterior segment depth 1.46 ± 0.13 cm. These values indicate that the globe is smaller than that of the domestic horse. All eight conjunctival swabs cultured bacterial and fungal microorganisms, with the most common being Staphylococcus spp. (57%). All bacterial isolates were considered to be commensal organisms due to the presence of mixed bacterial populations and lack of clinical signs of ocular disease. The data collected in this study should provide veterinarians with baseline information to assist in the diagnosis of ophthalmic conditions in the greater one-horned rhinoceros. PMID:25632674

  11. Preparation of briquettes from the Golden Horn bottom sediments by hydro-thermal agglomeration process.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ozlem; Elbeyli, iffet Yakar

    2004-04-01

    The Golden Horn (GH) sediments, which consist mainly of clay, organic substances and heavy metals, are formed with the contribution of industrial and domestic wastes released in the Golden Horn Estuary. On account of their mineralogical and chemical composition, these sediments may be regarded as a suitable raw material for briquette production. In this study, the utilization of GH dredged bottom sediments was investigated for preparation of briquettes. Dried GH sediments were mixed with lime and sand in different percentages, moulded at various squeezing pressures and hardened under several steam pressure values by autoclaving. The briquettes produced through these different process conditions were tested for compressive strength according to the Turkish standards (TS705). It was found that variations in compressive strength were dependent on the amount of lime (Ca(OH)2) and sand (SiO2) added. Results show that the compressive strength increased with increasing lime and decreasing sand in the mixtures prepared for briquettes. It is concluded that briquettes with a compressive strength value of 294 kgf cm(-2) can be produced. This allows the GH sediments to be taken into account as a raw material in brick production, as far as compressive strength requirements are concerned. This possibility may represent an important way either for reducing environmental pollution or for recycling waste materials in industrial applications. PMID:15206521

  12. Reduction of the "horns" observed on the beam profiles of a 6-MV linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, C; Sternick, E S

    1984-01-01

    The presence of large "horns" was found while plotting beam profiles during acceptance testing of a 6-MV linear accelerator. The in-phantom off-axis ratio (OAR), measured at 22 cm off the central axis along the diagonal of a 40 X 40 cm field at dmax was found to be 1.19, while beam uniformity was within specifications at 10-cm depth. A change in the gun injection voltage and the replacement of the magnet surrounding the magnetron with one of greater strength resulted in a reduction of the OAR to 1.085. The beam uniformity at depth was maintained within specifications. An alternative solution of adding a modifying filter in the primary beam was considered undesirable because of the 20%-25% reduction in dose rate caused by such filters. The relationship between the energy, the intensity distribution of the beam, and the magnitude of the horns is discussed, and the beam profiles, isodoses, and central axis depth doses before and after the changes are compared. PMID:6439993

  13. Metabolomics of the Antipyretic Effects of Bubali Cornu (Water Buffalo Horn) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Huang, Qiong; Shan, Jinjun; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhu, Zhenhua; Liu, Pei; Bian, Yong; Shang, Er-Xin; Qian, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Bubali Cornu (water buffalo horn, WBH) has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as an effective treatment for heat. In the present study, we have carried out a metabolomics profiling study on plasma and urine samples to explore potential biomarkers and determine how WBH exerts its antipyretic effects in yeast-induced pyrexia at a metabolomic level. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), together with multivariate statistical analysis, was used to detect and identify potential biomarkers associated with pyrexia and with WBH treatment. In total, sixteen endogenous metabolites were identified in plasma samples and twenty-one metabolites were detected in urine samples. The biomarkers identified in this study, using metabolic pathway analysis (MetPA), are involved in glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid, amino acid, sphingolipid, and purine metabolism, all of which are disturbed in rats with pyrexia. As a result, WBH affect arachidonic acid metabolism and oxidative stress in yeast-induced pyrexia rats chiefly. The present study determines the important substances underlying the antipyretic efficacy of WBH at a metabolic level. It might pave the way for further investigations into the mechanisms of action of other animal horn-derived traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). PMID:27384078

  14. Independent uterine contractions in simultaneous twin pregnancy in each horn of the uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yohei; Furukawa, Seishi; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism of synchronizing uterine contractions is not fully understood. We present a case of twin pregnancy in a uterus didelphys and objectively analyze the synchrony of bilateral uterine contractions. A 32-year-old woman, with a history of vaginal septal resection during her previous vaginal delivery, became pregnant with twins in a uterus didelphys in which each uterine horn had one fetus. At 37 weeks and 6 days, the first baby was delivered vaginally. The second baby was delivered by cesarean section due to recurrent late decelerations. Operative findings confirmed the didelphys uterus. We retrospectively reviewed the timing of contractions of both uteruses. The timing was determined by visual analysis as synchronous if both uteruses contracted within 5 s. Otherwise, contractions were considered solitary. Both uterine horns contracted independently in 90% of the incidence throughout labor and delivery. From this rare case of an 'experiment by nature', we speculated that the myometrium must be histologically connected in order to synchronize uterine contractions. PMID:24245492

  15. Improving multimodel medium range forecasts over the Greater Horn of Africa using the FSU superensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipkogei, O.; Bhardwaj, A.; Kumar, V.; Ogallo, L. A.; Opijah, F. J.; Mutemi, J. N.; Krishnamurti, T. N.

    2016-08-01

    This study makes use of the WMO's multimodel data set called THORPEX integrated grand global ensemble (TIGGE) towards the construction of multimodel superensemble forecasts covering a period of 10 days. The goal of this study is to explore the forecast skill for precipitation forecasts over the Greater Horn of Africa (this is a consortium of 11 countries). The multimodels include forecast data set from a suite of models that include: The European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the Center for Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies (CPTEC) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO). After performing a training phase for the superensemble weights covering the previous 450 days of October, November and December months of 2008-2012, forecasts of precipitation were prepared for the multimodel superensemble. These covered day 1 to day 10 of forecasts over the region. Various skill metrics were prepared to validate the forecast rainfall against the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) observed rainfall data. This study shows that the construction of the multimodel superensemble was a worthwhile effort since it provided the best overall skills for the RMS errors, the spatial correlations and the equitable threat scores and their bias errors for precipitation forecasts from day 1 to day 10 over all of the countries covered by the Greater Horn of Africa. The best among the member model was the UKMO model. This study strongly suggests the usefulness of a product such as the multimodel superensemble for improved precipitation forecasts over East Africa.

  16. PHARMACOKINETIC PROPERTIES OF A SINGLE ADMINISTRATION OF ORAL GABAPENTIN IN THE GREAT HORNED OWL (BUBO VIRGINIANUS).

    PubMed

    Yaw, Taylor J; Zaffarano, Bianca A; Gall, Andrew; Olds, June E; Wulf, Larry; Papastavros, Efthimia; Coetzee, Johann F

    2015-09-01

    Gabapentin (1-[aminomethyl] cyclohexane acetic acid) is a γ-aminobutyric acid analogue that has been shown to be efficacious for neuropathic pain control in humans. Plasma gabapentin concentrations >2 μg/ml are considered effective in treating epilepsy in humans and are suggested to provide analgesia for neuropathic pain. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of gabapentin suspension (11 mg/kg) in great horned owls ( Bubo virginianus ). Plasma gabapentin concentrations were determined in six healthy birds for 48 hr using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Plasma gabapentin concentrations were estimated by noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The harmonic mean (±SD) maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and elimination half-life (tv2λZ) for gabapentin (11 mg/kg) were 6.17±0.83 μg/ml, 51.43±5.66 min, and 264.60±69.35 min, respectively. In this study, plasma gabapentin concentrations were maintained above 2 μg/ml for 528 min (8.8 hr), suggesting that gabapentin administered orally every 8 hr may be appropriate in great horned owls. PMID:26352959

  17. Male ruff colour as a rank signal in a monomorphic-horned mammal: behavioural correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovari, S.; Fattorini, N.; Boesi, R.; Bocci, A.

    2015-08-01

    Coexistence of individuals within a social group is possible through the establishment of a hierarchy. Social dominance is achieved through aggressive interactions, and, in wild sheep and goats, it is related mainly to age, body size and weapon size as rank signals. Adult male Himalayan tahr are much larger than females and subadult males. They have a prominent neck ruff, ranging in colour from yellow (5.5-9.5 years old, i.e. young adults, golden males) to brown (7.5-14.5 years old, i.e. older individuals, pale and dark brown males), with golden males being the most dominant. We investigated the social behaviour of male tahr and analysed the relationships between ruff colour, courtship and agonistic behaviour patterns during the rut. Colour classes varied in their use of several behaviour patterns (male dominance: approach, stare, horning vegetation; courtship: low stretch, naso- genital contact, rush). Golden-ruffed males used more threats than darker ones. Pale brown and dark brown males addressed threats significantly more often to males of lower or their own colour classes, respectively, whereas golden ones addressed threats to all colour classes, including their own. The courtship of dominant males was characterised by the assertive rush, whereas that of subordinates did not. Ruff colour of male Himalayan tahr may have evolved as a rank signal, homologous to horn size in wild sheep and goats.

  18. Improving multimodel medium range forecasts over the Greater Horn of Africa using the FSU superensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipkogei, O.; Bhardwaj, A.; Kumar, V.; Ogallo, L. A.; Opijah, F. J.; Mutemi, J. N.; Krishnamurti, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    This study makes use of the WMO's multimodel data set called THORPEX integrated grand global ensemble (TIGGE) towards the construction of multimodel superensemble forecasts covering a period of 10 days. The goal of this study is to explore the forecast skill for precipitation forecasts over the Greater Horn of Africa (this is a consortium of 11 countries). The multimodels include forecast data set from a suite of models that include: The European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the Center for Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies (CPTEC) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO). After performing a training phase for the superensemble weights covering the previous 450 days of October, November and December months of 2008-2012, forecasts of precipitation were prepared for the multimodel superensemble. These covered day 1 to day 10 of forecasts over the region. Various skill metrics were prepared to validate the forecast rainfall against the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) observed rainfall data. This study shows that the construction of the multimodel superensemble was a worthwhile effort since it provided the best overall skills for the RMS errors, the spatial correlations and the equitable threat scores and their bias errors for precipitation forecasts from day 1 to day 10 over all of the countries covered by the Greater Horn of Africa. The best among the member model was the UKMO model. This study strongly suggests the usefulness of a product such as the multimodel superensemble for improved precipitation forecasts over East Africa.

  19. Increased ability to induce long-term potentiation of spinal dorsal horn neurones in monoarthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Vikman, Kristina S; Duggan, Arthur W; Siddall, Philip J

    2003-11-14

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of transmission of impulses in unmyelinated (C-fibre) primary afferents by prior tetanic conditioning stimulation has been demonstrated in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Since this potentiation has been proposed to be relevant to the increased responsiveness of spinal neurones associated with peripheral inflammation (central sensitisation), the present experiments compared the induction of LTP in normal rats and rats with monoarthritis. Monoarthritis was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the left ankle joint of 12 rats. All animals showed behavioural signs of thermal hyperalgesia and were used for electrophysiological experiments after 4-8 days. In each animal, extracellular recordings were obtained from a single, wide dynamic range (WDR) dorsal horn neurone. High frequency tetanic conditioning stimulation of the sciatic nerve gave varying effects on the C-fibre-evoked responses of neurones in the normal rats, with potentiation in two, no change in five and a depression in five. By contrast, conditioning stimulation in rats with inflammation produced a long-lasting potentiation of C-fibre-evoked responses in 11 out of 12 neurones, with no effect in one. The ease with which LTP was induced in animals with inflammation supports the proposal that the underlying mechanisms of LTP are similar to those of the central sensitisation associated with peripheral inflammation. PMID:14568329

  20. Metabolomics of the Antipyretic Effects of Bubali Cornu (Water Buffalo Horn) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jinjun; Duan, Jin-ao; Zhu, Zhenhua; Liu, Pei; Bian, Yong; Shang, Er-xin; Qian, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Bubali Cornu (water buffalo horn, WBH) has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as an effective treatment for heat. In the present study, we have carried out a metabolomics profiling study on plasma and urine samples to explore potential biomarkers and determine how WBH exerts its antipyretic effects in yeast-induced pyrexia at a metabolomic level. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), together with multivariate statistical analysis, was used to detect and identify potential biomarkers associated with pyrexia and with WBH treatment. In total, sixteen endogenous metabolites were identified in plasma samples and twenty-one metabolites were detected in urine samples. The biomarkers identified in this study, using metabolic pathway analysis (MetPA), are involved in glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid, amino acid, sphingolipid, and purine metabolism, all of which are disturbed in rats with pyrexia. As a result, WBH affect arachidonic acid metabolism and oxidative stress in yeast-induced pyrexia rats chiefly. The present study determines the important substances underlying the antipyretic efficacy of WBH at a metabolic level. It might pave the way for further investigations into the mechanisms of action of other animal horn-derived traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). PMID:27384078

  1. Pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous enrofloxacin dose in scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Gamble, K C; Boothe, D M; Jensen, J M; Heatley, J J; Helmick, K E

    1997-03-01

    Based on a 1.3 mg/kg mean dosage determined by metabolic energy scaling, enrofloxacin pharmacokinetics of a single i.v. dose of enrofloxacin in five adult scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) were determined. Drug concentration versus time curves were best fit by residual analysis to a one-compartment open model with a maximum (mean +/- SD) serum concentration after distribution of 1.887 +/- 0.632 micrograms/ml and an elimination half-life of 41.2 +/- 27.5 min. Model-independent parameters were area under the curve (173.63 +/- 147.5 micrograms.min/ml), mean volume of distribution (steady state) (0.80 +/- 0.30 L/kg), clearance (12.07 +/- 7.12 ml/min/kg), and residence time (77.22 +/- 72.8 min). Mean serum enrofloxacin concentrations reached the recommended minimum inhibitory concentration (1.0 micrograms/ml). Drug concentrations remained above the minimum inhibitory concentration of most sensitive bacteria (0.5 micrograms/ml) consistently for 90 min. Based on this study, enrofloxacin would have to be administered parenterally to scimitar-horned oryx at 1.6 mg/kg every 6-8 hr (minimally) to maintain appropriate serum concentrations against susceptible bacteria. The metabolic energy scaled dosed regiment from this study appeared to be too low for the oryx. PMID:9226614

  2. Home range and habitat use by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.R.; Bloom, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) are a common, widespread species that can be found in a variety of habitats across most of North America, but little is known about their space and habitat requirements. Using radiotelemetry, location data were collected on nine male and five female Great Horned Owls to determine home range and habitat use in southern California. Owls were tracked between January 1997 and September 1998 for periods ranging from 5-17 mo. Seven owls were also followed during 13 all-night observation periods. The mean 95% adaptive kernel home-range size for females was 180 ha (range = 88-282, SE = 36) and that for males was 425 ha (range = 147-1115 ha, SE = 105). Core areas estimated by the 50% adaptive kernel averaged 27 ha (range = 7-44, SE = 7) for females and 61 ha (range = 15-187, SE = 18) for males. Owls were located in areas with varying degrees of human disturbance ranging from almost entirely urban to native oak (Quercus agrifolia) woodland. Oak/sycamore (Quercus agrifolia/Platanus racemosa) woodland and ruderal grassland (Bromus spp., Avena spp., and various other non-native invasives), were used more often than expected based on availability, but we found no correlation between home-range size and any single habitat type or habitat groups. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  3. Efficiency of partial treatment of cattle infested with horn fly using 40% diazinon.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Fabiana Alves; Alari, Fernando de Oliveira; Seno, Maria Conceição Zocoller; de Lima, Marco Monteiro; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Chiquitelli Neto, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of partial treatment of animals infested with horn flies. Forty-five Guzerat cows between 4 and 7 years of age were divided into three groups (15 cows per group). The treatments were as follows: in groups G33 and G100, 33.3 and 100% of the cows were treated with one insecticide-impregnated ear tag/animal (40% diazinon), respectively, while in the group GC, the cows were not treated (control). The flies on the cervico-dorsal-lumbar region of the cows, in all three groups, were counted every 14 days. The experiment lasted from September 2006 to September 2009. Over this period, six four-month ear tag treatments, with intervals of one to two months, were conducted on both treated groups. The animals of group G33 had a higher infection than those of group G100, and the number of flies ranged from 12 to 27 (group G33) and from 3 to 11 (group G100). However, groups G33 and G100 had lower infection levels than group GC, which presented from 45 to 87 flies. Partial treatment of cattle infested with horn flies using 40% diazinon insecticide is an efficient alternative for controlling this ectoparasite. PMID:24473881

  4. Adenosine-mediated modulation of ventral horn interneurons and spinal motoneurons in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Witts, Emily C; Nascimento, Filipe; Miles, Gareth B

    2015-10-01

    Neuromodulation allows neural networks to adapt to varying environmental and biomechanical demands. Purinergic signaling is known to be an important modulatory system in many parts of the CNS, including motor control circuitry. We have recently shown that adenosine modulates the output of mammalian spinal locomotor control circuitry (Witts EC, Panetta KM, Miles GB. J Neurophysiol 107: 1925-1934, 2012). Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying this adenosine-mediated modulation. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on ventral horn interneurons and motoneurons within in vitro mouse spinal cord slice preparations. We found that adenosine hyperpolarized interneurons and reduced the frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to interneurons. Both effects were blocked by the A1-type adenosine receptor antagonist DPCPX. Analysis of miniature postsynaptic currents recorded from interneurons revealed that adenosine reduced their frequency but not amplitude, suggesting that adenosine acts on presynaptic receptors to modulate synaptic transmission. In contrast to interneurons, recordings from motoneurons revealed an adenosine-mediated depolarization. The frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to motoneurons were again reduced by adenosine, but we saw no effect on miniature postsynaptic currents. Again these effects on motoneurons were blocked by DPCPX. Taken together, these results demonstrate differential effects of adenosine, acting via A1 receptors, in the mouse spinal cord. Adenosine has a general inhibitory action on ventral horn interneurons while potentially maintaining motoneuron excitability. This may allow for adaptation of the locomotor pattern generated by interneuronal networks while helping to ensure the maintenance of overall motor output. PMID:26311185

  5. [Rupture of non-communicating rudimentary pregnant uterine horn in a pseudo-unicornuate uterus at 23 weeks of amenorrhea. Case report].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, F; Guillot, E; Cordier, A-G; Chis, C; Raynal, P; Panel, P

    2008-04-01

    Pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus is an extremely rare form of ectopic gestation associated with a high risk of uterine rupture. We report the case of a pregnancy developed in a non communicating rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus complicated by horn rupture at 23 weeks of amenorrhea showing as an acute abdominal pain and massive hemoperitoneum. This patient's uterine abnormality was known before, as this woman has delivered two years before at term a healthy boy by cesarean section. This past pregnancy was located in the normal horn and the non communicating rudimentary horn seemed at this time normal. This uterine malformation is presented with its gynecological and obstetrical entailments as well as methods that could prevent such outcome. PMID:18424217

  6. General and Specific Effects on Cattell-Horn-Carroll Broad Ability Composites: Analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson III Normative Update Cattell-Horn-Carroll Factor Clusters across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Barry, Amberly; Rafael, Fawziya; Rogers, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Many school psychologists focus their interpretation on composite scores from intelligence test batteries designed to measure the broad abilities from the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory. The purpose of this study was to investigate the general factor loadings and specificity of the broad ability composite scores from one such intelligence test…

  7. Dynamics and mechanisms of permethrin resistance in a field population of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted at the Pressler ranch, near Kerrville, Texas, between 2002 and 2006 to determine the dynamics and mechanisms of resistance to permethrin in a field population of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.). Changes of resistance to pyrethroid insecticide associated with u...

  8. Research into Practice: Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Assessment in Practice--Eligibility and Program Development Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorello, Catherine A.; Primerano, Diane

    2005-01-01

    In this article we explore the application of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC)-based cognitive assessment to school psychology practice. We review the theoretical literature to address both identification practices, with a focus on learning disabilities and mental retardation eligibility, and program development, with a focus on linking assessment to…

  9. A Quantum Protocol for ( t, n)-Threshold Identity Authentication Based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Wang, Hong-Yang; Jia, Xin; Zhang, Hua

    2013-02-01

    A quantum protocol for ( t, n)-threshold identity authentication based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states is presented. A trusted third party (TTP) can authenticate the users simultaneously when and only when t or more users among n apply for authentication. Compared with the previous multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication (MSQIA) protocols, the proposed scheme is more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  10. A Natural Cattle Immune Response Against Horn Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Salivary Antigens May Regulate Parasite Blood Intake.

    PubMed

    Breijo, M; Pastro, L; Rocha, S; Ures, X; Alonzo, P; Santos, M; Bolatto, C; Fernández, C; Meikle, A

    2016-08-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), is a blood-sucking ectoparasite that is responsible for sizeable economic losses in livestock. The salivary gland products facilitate blood intake. Taking advantage of the identification of novel H. irritans salivary antigens (Hematobin, HTB and Irritans 5, IT5), we investigated the parasite loads, H. irritans blood intake, and antibody response of naturally infected bovines during the fly season. Fly loads and fly hemoglobin content fluctuated during the trial. Each time horn fly loads exceeded 200 flies per cattle, a reduction in horn fly blood intake was observed three weeks later. All of the cattle elicited an antibody response against HTB and IT5 that declined once the fly season was over. Cattle anti-IT5 titers were positively correlated with parasite loads and negatively correlated with fly blood intake. These results suggest that the natural changes in the H. irritans blood intake observed in this study were associated with a natural host response against horn fly salivary antigens. PMID:27329632

  11. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Abilities and Cognitive Tests: What We've Learned from 20 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews factor-analytic research on individually administered intelligence tests from a Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) perspective. Although most new and revised tests of intelligence are based, at least in part, on CHC theory, earlier versions generally were not. Our review suggests that whether or not they were based on CHC theory, the…

  12. The Relationships between Internet Usage and Acculturation of the Horn of Africa Immigrants in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldeab, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Internet usage and its relationship with the acculturation of the Horn of Africa immigrants residing in urban Minnesota. Technology has and continues to be a cultural amplifier; in just two decades from its initial availability to the general public, the Internet has made geographical differences…

  13. Relations between Measures of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities and Mathematics Achievement across the School-Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Evans, Jeffrey J.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive clusters from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Cognitive Abilities that measure select Cattell-Horn-Carroll broad and narrow cognitive abilities were shown to be significantly related to mathematics achievement in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. Multiple regression analyses were used to…

  14. The efficacy of a hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose membrane in prevention of postoperative adhesion in a rat uterine horn model.

    PubMed

    Kelekci, Sefa; Yilmaz, Bulent; Oguz, Serdar; Zergeroğlu, Sema; Inan, Ismet; Tokucoğlu, Selma

    2004-11-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the efficacy of a hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose membrane for the prevention of post-operative adhesion in a rat uterine horn model. This is a prospective double-blinded controlled study. Nineteen injured uterine horns were treated with a hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose membrane as a barrier and 19 injured uterine horns without any treatment served as a control group. Two weeks later, second look laparotomies were performed in order to assess the degree of the adhesion. Total adhesion scores, histopathological analysis of inflammation process and vascularization of adhesions were compared with control group. P values of 5% or less were considered statistically significant. Animals treated with a hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose membrane had significantly reduced post-surgical adhesion scores when compared with control group. In histopathological examination, there was less vascularization in the treatment group. The types and extent of inflammation were similar in two groups. Clinically and histopathologically, a hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose membrane is effective in reducing postoperative adhesion formation in the rat uterine horn model. PMID:15502417

  15. Detection of target site resistance to pyrethroids and organophosphates in the horn fly using multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans L., is an obligate blood-feeding fly and the primary insect pest parasitizing cattle in the United States. Pesticide resistance has become a huge problem for cattle producers and although several mechanisms of resistance are possible, target site resistance is the m...

  16. A Study of Music Students' Tempo Changes of a Soloist's Performance of Mozart's 1st Horn Concerto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to investigate music students' tempo changes of a soloist's performance in an excerpt from Mozart's "Concerto No. 1 in D Major for Horn and Orchestra." We then compared the composite rubato pattern to tendencies found in a previous investigation using Mozart's "Concerto No. 2 in E[flat] Major for Horn…

  17. Effect of aggregation of horn fly populations within cattle herds and consequences for sampling to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance.

    PubMed

    Lysyk, T J; Steelman, C D

    2004-07-01

    Reanalysis of counts of horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), obtained from a variety of cattle herds indicated that aggregation of the flies within herds decreased as mean fly density increased. Aggregation was also related to the proportion of fly-resistant and fly-susceptible cattle in a herd. Herds were grouped according to their degree of horn fly aggregation. Low aggregation herds included larger framed Angus, Horned Hereford, Polled Hereford, and Red Poll breeds. Moderate aggregation occurred with Brahman, Charolais, small-framed Angus, mixed cows, and Hereford x Charolais cross. High aggregation occurred with Chianina and mixed herds. Relationships between the sample means and variances varied among aggregation groups. A resampling approach was used to determine the influence of random sampling of a herd on the proportion of horn fly population estimates within fixed percentages of the true mean. The proportion of sample means within +/- 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the true means varied with the proportion of the herd sampled, the mean and variance of fly density, and herd size. Recommendations for obtaining sample size to estimate fly density within a fixed percentage of the true mean are given. PMID:15311450

  18. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive-Achievement Relations: What We Have Learned from the Past 20 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Kevin S.; Wendling, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has evolved over the past 20 years and serves as the theoretical foundation for a number of current cognitive ability assessments. CHC theory provides a means by which we can better understand the relationships between cognitive abilities and academic achievement, an important…

  19. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat; handling of blood and scalding vat water; general cleanup and disinfection. 310.9 Section 310.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  20. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; handling of blood and scalding vat water; general cleanup and disinfection. 310.9 Section 310.9 Animals and...; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat; handling of blood and scalding vat water... scalding vat water through which hog carcasses affected with anthrax have passed shall be...