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1

Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)  

E-print Network

Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus agricole, Ministère de l'Agriculture. Abstract We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus

Perreault, Jean-Pierre

2

Rapid screening of huanglongbing-infected citrus leaves by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The citrus disease Haunglongbing (HLB or citrus greening), is one of the more serious diseases of citrus. An infected tree produces fruit that is unsuitable for sale as fresh fruit or for juice. The only definitive method of diagnosis of trees suspected of infection by citrus greening pathogens is...

3

Factors affecting infection of citrus with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) causes citrus canker and is now considered endemic in Florida. Factors affecting dispersal and infection of the bacteria need to be understood to help optimize disease management strategies. Wind (0-18 m/sec) was simulated outdoors using a fan to study infection...

4

Infectivity of two biotypes of the citrus nematode on citrus and on some other hosts.  

PubMed

The infectivity and development of two biotypes of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) were compared on highly resistant Poncirus trifoliata selection 'Pomeroy,' moderately susceptible 'Troyer' citrange, and highly susceptible sweet orange selection 'Homosassa' small seedlings in a glasshouse. Biotype-1 was more infective on the above hosts and developed faster on sweet orange and on 'Troyer' citrange than Biotype-2. The differences in infectivity were interpreted to reflect differences in the ability of the nematodes to penetrate the epidermis and hypodermis and become established in host roots. Poncirus selections 'Pomeroy,' 'Webber-Fawcett,' and 'Rubidoux' seedlings were highly resistant to the citrus nematode in California, but seedlings of 'Pomeroy' and 'Rubidoux' were only moderately resistant in Japan. These differences in degree of infection may indicate different biotypes of the nematode. Host range tests with California Biotype-1 indicate that it differs from those occurring in Israel. PMID:19325669

Baines, R C; Miyakawa, T; Cameron, J W; Small, R H

1969-04-01

5

Identification of large masses of citrus fruit and rice fields in eastern Spain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS-1 imagery has been successfully used for the identification of large areas of citrus groves and rice fields in the Valencia region of Eastern Spain. Results are encouraging and will facilitate the elaboration of a land use map with a fair degree of definition once methods prove to be fully operational.

Desagredo, F. L.; Salinas, F. G.

1973-01-01

6

Quantitative Distribution of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Citrus Plants and Fruits Infected by Citrus Huanglongbing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is caused by any of three non culturable Gram-negative bacteria belonging to Candidatus Liberibacter spp. The pathogens are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial varieties of citrus. The diseases are lethal and have recently become widespr...

7

PURIFICATION OF VIRUS-LIKE PARTICLES FROM CITRUS CHLOROTIC DWARF INFECTED CITRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus chlorotic dwarf (CCD) is a new disease of citrus having been found in Turkey in the mid 1980s. Disease symptoms in the field consist of chlorotic leaf patterns, crinkling, leaf distortion, shoot malformation and stunting in young trees. CCD is vectored by the bayberry whitefly and is graft ...

8

Infection of Citrus Roots by Tylenchulus semipenetrans Reduces Root Infection by Phytophthora nicotianae.  

PubMed

Bioassays and whole-plant experiments were conducted to investigate the interaction between Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Phytophthora nicotianae. Both organisms are parasites of the citrus fibrous root cortex. Nematode-infected and non-infected root segments were excised from naturally infected field roots and placed on water agar in close proximity to agar plugs of P. nicotianae and then transferred to a Phytophthora-selective medium. At 10 and 12 days, 50% fewer nematode-infected segments were infected by P. nicotianae than non-infected segments. In whole-plant experiments in glass test tubes, sour orange seedlings were inoculated with two densities (8,000 or 80,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles) of T. semipenetrans, and after establishment of infection were inoculated with two densities (9,000 and 90,000 zoospores) of P. nicotianae. In the first experiment, fungal protein was 53% to 65% lower in the roots infected by both organisms than in roots infected by the fungus only. Compared to plants infected only by P. nicotianae, shoot weights were 33% to 50% greater (P infected by both parasites, regardless of inoculum density. Fibrous and tap root weights were 5% to 23% and 19% to 34% greater (P infected by the fungus, the nematode, both organisms, or neither organism. The soil mixture pH for 50% of the plants was adjusted from 4.5 to 7.0 to favor nematode infection. A higher rate of nematode infection of plants growing at pH 7.0 compared to pH 4.5 resulted in greater suppression of fungal development and greater inhibition of fungal damage to the plant. Compared to plants infected only by P. nicotianae, shoot and root weights were 37% and 33% greater (P infected by both parasites. These experiments have revealed antagonism between T. semipenetrans and P. nicotianae in citrus. PMID:19265961

El-Borai, F E; Duncan, L W; Graham, J H

2002-12-01

9

Infection of Citrus Roots by Tylenchulus semipenetrans Reduces Root Infection by Phytophthora nicotianae  

PubMed Central

Bioassays and whole-plant experiments were conducted to investigate the interaction between Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Phytophthora nicotianae. Both organisms are parasites of the citrus fibrous root cortex. Nematode-infected and non-infected root segments were excised from naturally infected field roots and placed on water agar in close proximity to agar plugs of P. nicotianae and then transferred to a Phytophthora-selective medium. At 10 and 12 days, 50% fewer nematode-infected segments were infected by P. nicotianae than non-infected segments. In whole-plant experiments in glass test tubes, sour orange seedlings were inoculated with two densities (8,000 or 80,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles) of T. semipenetrans, and after establishment of infection were inoculated with two densities (9,000 and 90,000 zoospores) of P. nicotianae. In the first experiment, fungal protein was 53% to 65% lower in the roots infected by both organisms than in roots infected by the fungus only. Compared to plants infected only by P. nicotianae, shoot weights were 33% to 50% greater (P ? 0.05) in plants infected by both parasites, regardless of inoculum density. Fibrous and tap root weights were 5% to 23% and 19% to 34% greater (P ? 0.05), respectively, in nematode-fungus combination treatments compared to the fungus alone. A second experiment was conducted, where plants were infected by the fungus, the nematode, both organisms, or neither organism. The soil mixture pH for 50% of the plants was adjusted from 4.5 to 7.0 to favor nematode infection. A higher rate of nematode infection of plants growing at pH 7.0 compared to pH 4.5 resulted in greater suppression of fungal development and greater inhibition of fungal damage to the plant. Compared to plants infected only by P. nicotianae, shoot and root weights were 37% and 33% greater (P ? 0.05), respectively, in plants infected by both parasites. These experiments have revealed antagonism between T. semipenetrans and P. nicotianae in citrus. PMID:19265961

El-Borai, F. E.; Duncan, L. W.; Graham, J. H.

2002-01-01

10

Effects of oxamyl on the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and on infection of sweet orange.  

PubMed

Foliar sprays of 4 microg/ml oxamyl on sweet orange trees in a greenhouse slightly depressed the number of Tylenchulus semipenetrans larvae obtained from roots and soil, but similar treatments were not effective in two orchards. Soil drench treatments decreased the number of citrus nematode larvae obtained from roots or soil of citrus plants grown itt a greenhouse and in orchards. Exposure to 5-10 microg/ml of oxamyl in water was lethal to only a few second-stage larvae treated 10 days, and many second-stage larvae in 2.0 microg/ml oxamyl recovered motility when transferred to fresh water. Aqueous solutions of 50 and 100 microg/ml of oxamyl were toxic to citrus nematode larvae. Additional observations indicate that oxamyl interfered with hatch of citrus nematode larvae and was nematistatic and/or protected sweet orange roots from infection. Oxamyl degraded at different rates in two soils. The number of citrus nematode larvae that infected and developed on sweet orange roots was increased by an undetermined product of the degradation of oxamyl in soil, water, and possibly within plants. This product apparently was translocated in roots. PMID:19308209

Baines, R C; Small, R H

1976-04-01

11

Infection and decontamination of citrus-canker-inoculated leaf surfaces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida and continues to spread. Personnel and equipment decontamination is practiced in both disease-endemic and disease-free areas to reduce the risk of bacterial spread by man or machinery. We used grapefruit leaf su...

12

The Influence of Glomus mosseae on Tylenchulus semipenetrans-Infected and Uninfected Citrus limon Seedlings.  

PubMed

Greenhouse studies have shown that when rough lemon (Citrus limon) seedlings infected with TyIenchulus semipenetrans were transplanted into soil infested with Glomus mosseae, the mycorrhizal fungus infection increased seedling growth compared to nonntycorrhizal seedlings. Tylenchulus semipenetrans significantly suppressed seedling growth below that of mycorrhizal seedlings. Histological observations of nematode-free mycorrhizal roots showed that hyphae penetrated the epidermis and invaded the cortex, giving rise to arbuscules and vesicles. Nematode infection sites in T. semipenetrans-infected roots grown in soil infested with G. mosseae did not show evidence of vesicle development in the cortex but did show arbuscule development. PMID:19300642

O'Bannon, J H; Inserra, R N; Nemec, S; Vovlas, N

1979-07-01

13

Infection of rice plants by rice black streaked dwarf virus improves an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), of rice planthoppers.  

PubMed

The effects of rice plants infected by rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) on the host preference, duration of immature stages, sex ratio, and adult longevity and parasitic capacity of an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang, of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, were evaluated. Tests of response to plant volatiles using an olfactometer showed that A. nilaparvatae preferred rice plants harboring rice brown planthopper eggs over plants free of rice brown planthopper eggs. However, both the response to plant volatiles and the host selectivity test showed no significant differences in host preference between RBSDV-infected plants and healthy plants when both contained rice brown planthopper eggs. The developmental duration at immature stage of the male A. nilaparvatae in rice brown planthopper eggs on RBSDV-infected rice plants was significantly prolonged, and the parasitic capacity of rice brown planthopper eggs was significantly increased in comparison with the A. nilaparvatae parasite in rice brown planthopper eggs on healthy rice plants. There were no significant differences between RBSDV-infected rice plants and healthy rice plants in other ecological fitness parameters, including the developmental duration of female adults, female percentage, and adult longevity of A. nilaparvatae. PMID:25199055

Xu, Hongxing; He, Xiaochan; Zheng, Xusong; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

2014-10-01

14

Transcriptional and Microscopic Analyses of Citrus Stem and Root Responses to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Infection  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease that affects citrus worldwide. The disease has been associated with Candidatus Liberibacter. HLB diseased citrus plants develop a multitude of symptoms including zinc and copper deficiencies, blotchy mottle, corky veins, stunting, and twig dieback. Ca. L. asiaticus infection also seriously affects the roots. Previous study focused on gene expression of leaves and fruit to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. In this study, we compared the gene expression levels of stems and roots of healthy plants with those in Ca. L. asiaticus infected plants using microarrays. Affymetrix microarray analysis showed a total of 988 genes were significantly altered in expression, of which 885 were in the stems, and 111 in the roots. Of these, 551 and 56 were up-regulated, while 334 and 55 were down-regulated in the stem and root samples of HLB diseased trees compared to healthy plants, respectively. Dramatic differences in the transcriptional responses were observed between citrus stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection, with only 8 genes affected in both the roots and stems. The affected genes are involved in diverse cellular functions, including carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, biotic and abiotic stress responses, signaling and transcriptional factors, transportation, cell organization, protein modification and degradation, development, hormone signaling, metal handling, and redox. Microscopy analysis showed the depletion of starch in the roots of the infected plants but not in healthy plants. Collapse and thickening of cell walls were observed in HLB affected roots, but not as severe as in the stems. This study provides insight into the host response of the stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. PMID:24058486

Aritua, Valente; Achor, Diann; Gmitter, Frederick G.; Albrigo, Gene; Wang, Nian

2013-01-01

15

Identification and molecular characterization of nuclear Citrus leprosis virus, a member of the proposed Dichorhavirus genus infecting multiple citrus species in Mexico.  

PubMed

Citrus leprosis is one of the most destructive diseases of Citrus spp., and is associated with two unrelated virus groupes that produce particles primarily in either the cytoplasm or nucleus of infected plant cells. Symptoms of leprosis, including chlorotic spots surrounded by yellow haloes on leaves and necrotic spots on twigs and fruits, were observed on leprosis-affected Mandarin and Navel navel sweet orange trees in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. Serological and molecular assays showed that the cytoplasmic types of citrus leprosis viruses (CiLV-Cs) often associated with leprosis symptomatic tissues were absent. However, using transmission electron microscopy bullet-shaped rhabdovirus-like virions were observed in the nuclei and cytoplasm of the citrus leprosis infected leaf tissues. An analysis of small RNA populations from symptomatic tissue was carried out to determine the genome sequence of the rhabdovirus-like particles observed in the citrus leprosis samples. The complete genome sequence showed that the nuclear type of CiLV (CiLV-N) present in the samples consisted of two negative sense RNAs, a 6268 nt long RNA1 and a 5847 nt long RNA2, excluding the poly(A) tails. CiLV-N had a genome organization identical to that of Orchid fleck virus (OFV) with the exception of shorter 5?-UTRs in RNA1 (53 vs 205 nt) and RNA2 (34 vs 182 nt). Phylogenetic trees constructed with the amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid (N) and glycoproteins (G) and the RNA polymerase (L protein) showed that CiLV-N clusters with OFV. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of N protein established CiLV-N as a member of the unassignedproposed genus Dichorhavirus. RT-PCR primers for the detection of CiLV-N were designed based on the sequence of the N-gene and the assay was optimized and tested to detect the presence of CiLV-N in both diseased and symptom-free plants. PMID:25423071

Roy, Avijit; Stone, Andrew L; Shao, Jonathan; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Wei, Gang; Choudhary, Nandlal; Achor, Diann; Levy, Laurene; Nakhla, Mark K; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William; Brlansky, Ronald H

2014-11-25

16

Osmolyte Allocation in Response to Tylenchulus semipenetrans Infection, Stem Girdling, and Root Pruning in Citrus.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicated that Tylenchulus semipenetrans infection reduced concentrations of inorganic osmolytes, (Na, Cl, K), in roots, along with leaf K in citrus. However, infection increased leaf Na and Cl, along with carbohydrates in roots. Pruning of roots also increased carbohydrates in intact roots, whereas shoot pruning increased carbohydrates in shoots. Carbohydrates are translocated as reducing sugars, which collectively form organic osmolytes. Because changes in concentrations of osmolytes regulate osmotic potential in plant cells, we hypothesize that increasing concentrations of organic osmolytes in an organ displaces inorganic osmolytes. We measured the osmotic potentials of young citrus trees under nematode infection, stem girdling, and root pruning at two salinity levels. All treatments reduced leaf osmotic potentials at four sampling times. At harvest, 16 days after pruning and girdling treatments, organs with higher carbohydrates had lower inorganic osmolytes and vice versa, regardless of the treatment. Pruning simulated effects of nematode infection, whereas girdling reduced the effects of nematodes. Results suggested that high organic osmolytes in roots displace inorganic osmolytes, thereby avoiding very low osmotic potentials. PMID:19265944

Mashela, P W; Nthangeni, M E

2002-09-01

17

Osmolyte Allocation in Response to Tylenchulus semipenetrans Infection, Stem Girdling, and Root Pruning in Citrus  

PubMed Central

Previous studies indicated that Tylenchulus semipenetrans infection reduced concentrations of inorganic osmolytes, (Na?, Cl?, K?), in roots, along with leaf K? in citrus. However, infection increased leaf Na? and Cl?, along with carbohydrates in roots. Pruning of roots also increased carbohydrates in intact roots, whereas shoot pruning increased carbohydrates in shoots. Carbohydrates are translocated as reducing sugars, which collectively form organic osmolytes. Because changes in concentrations of osmolytes regulate osmotic potential in plant cells, we hypothesize that increasing concentrations of organic osmolytes in an organ displaces inorganic osmolytes. We measured the osmotic potentials of young citrus trees under nematode infection, stem girdling, and root pruning at two salinity levels. All treatments reduced leaf osmotic potentials at four sampling times. At harvest, 16 days after pruning and girdling treatments, organs with higher carbohydrates had lower inorganic osmolytes and vice versa, regardless of the treatment. Pruning simulated effects of nematode infection, whereas girdling reduced the effects of nematodes. Results suggested that high organic osmolytes in roots displace inorganic osmolytes, thereby avoiding very low osmotic potentials. PMID:19265944

Mashela, P. W.; Nthangeni, M. E.

2002-01-01

18

A transcriptomic approach highlights induction of secondary metabolism in citrus fruit in response to Penicillium digitatum infection  

PubMed Central

Background Postharvest losses of citrus fruit due to green mold decay, caused by the fungus Penicillium digitaum, have a considerable economic impact. However, little is known about the molecular processes underlying the response of citrus fruit to P. digitatum. Results Here we describe the construction of a subtracted cDNA library enriched in citrus genes preferentially expressed in response to pathogen infection followed by cDNA macroarray hybridization to investigate gene expression during the early stages of colonization of the fruit's peel by P. digitatum. Sequence annotation of clones from the subtracted cDNA library revealed that induction of secondary and amino acid metabolisms constitutes the major response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. Macroarray hybridization analysis was conducted with RNA from either control, wounded, ethylene treated or P. digitatum infected fruit. Results indicate an extensive overlap in the response triggered by the three treatments, but also demonstrated specific patterns of gene expression in response to each stimulus. Collectively our data indicate a significant presence of isoprenoid, alkaloid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes in the transcriptomic response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. About half of the genes that are up-regulated in response to pathogen infection are also induced by ethylene, but many examples of ethylene-independent gene regulation were also found. Two notable examples of this regulation pattern are the genes showing homology to a caffeine synthase and a berberine bridge enzyme, two proteins involved in alkaloid biosynthesis, which are among the most induced genes upon P. digitatum infection but are not responsive to ethylene. Conclusions This study provided the first global picture of the gene expression changes in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, emphasizing differences and commonalities with those triggered by wounding or exogenous ethylene treatment. Interpretation of the differentially expressed genes revealed that metabolism is redirected to the synthesis of isoprenes, alkaloids and phenylpropanoids. PMID:20807411

2010-01-01

19

Splash dispersal of Phyllosticta citricarpa conidia from infected citrus fruit.  

PubMed

Rain-splash dispersal of Phyllosticta citricarpa (syn. Guignardia citricarpa) conidia (pycnidiospores) from infected oranges was studied in still air and combined with wind. High power microscopy demonstrated the presence of conidia in splash droplets from diseased oranges, which exuded conidia for over one hour during repeated wetting. The largest (5?mm) incident drops produced the highest splashes (up to 41.0?cm). A linear-by-quadratic surface model predicted highest splashes to be 41.91?cm at a horizontal distance of 25.97?cm from the target orange. Large splash droplets contained most conidia (4-5.5?mm splashes averaged 308 conidia), but were splashed <30?cm horizontal distance. Most (80-90%) splashes were <1?mm diameter but carried only 0-4 conidia per droplet. In multiple splash experiments, splashes combined to reach higher maxima (up to 61.7?cm; linear-by-quadratic surface model prediction, 62.1?cm) than in the single splash experiments. In combination with wind, higher wind speeds carried an increasing proportion of splashes downwind travelling horizontally at least 8?m at the highest wind speed tested (7?m/s), due to a small proportion of droplets (<1?mm) being aerosolised. These experiments suggest that P. citricarpa conidia can be dispersed from infected oranges by splashes of water in rainfall events. PMID:25298272

Perryman, S A M; Clark, S J; West, J S

2014-01-01

20

Microarray analysis of Etrog citron (Citrus medica L.) reveals changes in chloroplast, cell wall, peroxidase and symporter activities in response to viroid infection.  

PubMed

Viroids are small (246-401 nucleotides), single-stranded, circular RNA molecules that infect several crop plants and can cause diseases of economic importance. Citrus are the hosts in which the largest number of viroids have been identified. Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), the causal agent of citrus exocortis disease, induces considerable losses in citrus crops. Changes in the gene expression profile during the early (pre-symptomatic) and late (post-symptomatic) stages of Etrog citron infected with CEVd were investigated using a citrus cDNA microarray. MaSigPro analysis was performed and, on the basis of gene expression profiles as a function of the time after infection, the differentially expressed genes were classified into five clusters. FatiScan analysis revealed significant enrichment of functional categories for each cluster, indicating that viroid infection triggers important changes in chloroplast, cell wall, peroxidase and symporter activities. PMID:22420919

Rizza, Serena; Conesa, Ana; Juarez, José; Catara, Antonino; Navarro, Luis; Duran-Vila, Nuria; Ancillo, Gema

2012-10-01

21

Global gene expression of Poncirus trifoliata, Citrus sunki and their hybrids under infection of Phytophthora parasitica  

PubMed Central

Background Gummosis and root rot caused by Phytophthora are among the most economically important diseases in citrus. Four F1 resistant hybrids (Pool R), and four F1 susceptible hybrids (Pool S) to P. parasitica, were selected from a cross between susceptible Citrus sunki and resistant Poncirus trifoliata cv. Rubidoux. We investigated gene expression in pools of four resistant and four susceptible hybrids in comparison with their parents 48 hours after P. parasitica inoculation. We proposed that genes differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible parents and between their resistant and susceptible hybrids provide promising candidates for identifying transcripts involved in disease resistance. A microarray containing 62,876 UniGene transcripts selected from the CitEST database and prepared by NimbleGen Systems was used for analyzing global gene expression 48 hours after infection with P. parasitica. Results Three pairs of data comparisons (P. trifoliata/C. sunki, Pool R/C. sunki and Pool R/Pool S) were performed. With a filter of false-discovery rate less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 3.0, 21 UniGene transcripts common to the three pairwise comparative were found to be up-regulated, and 3 UniGene transcripts were down-regulated. Among them, our results indicated that the selected transcripts were probably involved in the whole process of plant defense responses to pathogen attack, including transcriptional regulation, signaling, activation of defense genes participating in HR, single dominant genes (R gene) such as TIR-NBS-LRR and RPS4 and switch of defense-related metabolism pathway. Differentially expressed genes were validated by RT-qPCR in susceptible and resistant plants and between inoculated and uninoculated control plants Conclusions Twenty four UniGene transcripts were identified as candidate genes for Citrus response to P. parasitica. UniGene transcripts were likely to be involved in disease resistance, such as genes potentially involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, intracellular osmotic adjustment, signal transduction pathways of cell death, oxidative burst and defense gene expression. Furthermore, our microarray data suggest another type of resistance in Citrus-Phytophthora interaction conferred by single dominant genes (R gene) since we encountered two previously reported R genes (TIR-NBS-LRR and RPS4) upregulated in the resistant genotypes relative to susceptible. We identified 7 transcripts with homology in other plants but yet unclear functional characterization which are an interesting pool for further analyses and 3 transcripts where no significant similarity was found. This is the first microarray study addressing an evaluation of transcriptional changes in response to P. parasitica in Citrus. PMID:21241495

2011-01-01

22

PHENYLACETALDEHYDE O-METHYLOXIME: A VOLATILE COMPOUND FROM PLANTS INFECTED WITH CITRUS CANKER PATHOGENIC BACTERIUM, XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. CITRI.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An aldehyde oxime o-methyl ether, phenylacetaldehyde o-methyloxime (PAAMO), was detected using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the headspace above grapefruit leaves infected with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the causal agent of citrus bacte...

23

Detection and diagnosis of rice-infecting viruses  

PubMed Central

Rice-infecting viruses have caused serious damage to rice production in Asian, American, and African countries, where about 30 rice viruses and diseases have been reported. To control these diseases, developing accurate, quick methods to detect and diagnose the viruses in the host plants and any insect vectors of the viruses is very important. Based on an antigen–antibody reaction, serological methods such as latex agglutination reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have advanced to detect viral particles or major proteins derived from viruses. They aid in forecasting disease and surveying disease spread and are widely used for virus detection at plant protection stations and research laboratories. From the early 2000s, based on sequence information for the target virus, several other methods such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification have been developed that are sensitive, rapid, and able to differentiate closely related viruses. Recent techniques such as real-time RT-PCR can be used to quantify the pathogen in target samples and monitor population dynamics of a virus, and metagenomic analyses using next-generation sequencing and microarrays show potential for use in the diagnosis of rice diseases. PMID:24130554

Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Shiba, Takuya; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Ueno, Takanori; Hirae, Masahiro; Sasaya, Takahide

2013-01-01

24

The genetic diversity of Citrus dwarfing viroid populations is mainly dependent on the infected host species.  

PubMed

As with viruses, viroids infect their hosts as polymorphic populations of variants. Identifying possible sources of genetic variability is significant in the case of the species Citrus dwarfing viroid (CDVd) which has been proposed as a dwarfing agent for high-density citrus plantings. Here, a natural CDVd isolate (CMC) was used as an inoculum source for long-term (25 years) and short-term (1 year) bioassays in different citrus host species. Characterization of progenies indicated that the genetic stability of CDVd populations was high in certain hosts (trifoliate orange, Troyer citrange, Etrog citron, Navelina sweet orange), which preserve viroid populations similar to the original CMC isolate even after 25 years. By contrast, CDVd variant populations in Interdonato lemon and Volkamer lemon were completely different to those in the inoculated sources, highlighting how influential the host is on the genetic variability of CDVd populations. Implications for risk assessment of CDVd as a dwarfing agent are discussed. The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers for the complete sequences of the Citrus dwarfing viroid variants are JF970266.1 forH2-2, JF970267.1 for H2-7, EU938647.1 for H6-2, EU938651.1 forH6-10, JF970268.1 for H10-7, EU938652.1 for H14-13, EU938653.1for H14-14, JF970269.1 for H14-16, EU938648.1 for H15-9,EU938649.1 for H16-2, JF970265.1 for H16-9, EU938654.1 forH16-13, EU938650.1 for H20-3, JF970270.1 for H20-7, EU938641.1for PR-1, EU938642.1 for PR-3, EU938643.1 for PR-7, EU938644.1for CR-1, EU938639.1 for VR-4, JF12070.1 for VR-15, JF812069.1LS-4, EU938640.1 for LS-10 and JF970264.1 for LS-11. PMID:23152366

Tessitori, Matilde; Rizza, Serena; Reina, Antonella; Causarano, Giovanni; Di Serio, Francesco

2013-03-01

25

First Report of Dodder Transmission of Huanglongbing from Naturally Infected Murraya paniculata to Citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) or “greening” disease of citrus is caused by phloem-limited, uncultured bacteria in the genus “Candidatus Liberibacter”. HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide and is considered so dangerous to a U.S. citrus production that the USDA has listed “Ca. Liberi...

26

Predisposition of citrus foliage to infection with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is a serious disease of susceptible citrus in Florida and other citrus-growing areas of the world. The effect of leaf preconditioning as a route for entry of the bacteria is poorly characterized. A series of experiments were designed to i...

27

Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing).  

PubMed

The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent. PMID:20492226

Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell

2010-03-01

28

Expression profiling of common and specific defense responses of rice to Magnaporthe oryzae infection using deep sequencing technologies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is a serious disease in rice production. Wild type Nipponbare and transgenic rice plants (carrying the Pi9 blast resistance gene) were challenged with the rice blast strain KJ201 to identify the early, mid and late host responses to M. oryzae infection at the ...

29

Rice-based oral antibody fragment prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infection.  

PubMed

Rotavirus-induced diarrhea is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals and in children in developing countries. We have developed a system for prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus disease using transgenic rice expressing the neutralizing variable domain of a rotavirus-specific llama heavy-chain antibody fragment (MucoRice-ARP1). MucoRice-ARP1 was produced at high levels in rice seeds using an overexpression system and RNAi technology to suppress the production of major rice endogenous storage proteins. Orally administered MucoRice-ARP1 markedly decreased the viral load in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. The antibody retained in vitro neutralizing activity after long-term storage (>1 yr) and boiling and conferred protection in mice even after heat treatment at 94°C for 30 minutes. High-yield, water-soluble, and purification-free MucoRice-ARP1 thus forms the basis for orally administered prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infections. PMID:23925294

Tokuhara, Daisuke; Álvarez, Beatriz; Mejima, Mio; Hiroiwa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Yuko; Kurokawa, Shiho; Kuroda, Masaharu; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Nochi, Tomonori; Sagara, Hiroshi; Aladin, Farah; Marcotte, Harold; Frenken, Leon G J; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Hammarström, Lennart; Yuki, Yoshikazu

2013-09-01

30

Global gene expression of Poncirus trifoliata, Citrus sunki and their hybrids under infection of Phytophthora parasitica  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gummosis and root rot caused by Phytophthora are among the most economically important diseases in citrus. Four F1 resistant hybrids (Pool R), and four F1 susceptible hybrids (Pool S) to P. parasitica, were selected from a cross between susceptible Citrus sunki and resistant Poncirus trifoliata cv. Rubidoux. We investigated gene expression in pools of four resistant and four susceptible

Leonardo P Boava; Mariângela Cristofani-Yaly; Valéria S Mafra; Karen Kubo; Luciano T Kishi; Marco A Takita; Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves; Marcos A Machado

2011-01-01

31

Germination and infectivity of microconidia in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a model for studying fungal–plant interactions. Although it produces two types of spores (microconidia and macroconidia), previous infection studies have exclusively dealt with macroconidia. Germination of microconidia has not been reported, and their role in plant infection is not defined. Here we show that approximately 10% of microconidia germinate on plant surfaces, and that colonies derived from germinated microconidia are normal in growth and pathogenesis. In infection assays with rice and barley seedlings, microconidia fail to infect intact plants, but they can colonize and develop necrotic lesions on wounded leaves and stems. Microconidia also cause disease symptoms on inoculated spikelets in infection assays with barley and Brachypodium heads. Furthermore, microconidia are detected inside rice plants that developed blast lesions under laboratory or field conditions. Therefore, microconidia can germinate and are infectious, and may be an important factor in the rice blast cycle. PMID:25082370

Zhang, Huili; Wu, Zhongshou; Wang, Chenfang; Li, Yang; Xu, Jin-Rong

2014-01-01

32

Study on Citrus Response to Huanglongbing Highlights a Down-Regulation of Defense-Related Proteins in Lemon Plants Upon ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ Infection  

PubMed Central

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive disease of citrus presumably caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), a gram-negative, insect-transmitted, phloem-limited ?-proteobacterium. Although almost all citrus plants are susceptible to HLB, reports have shown reduced susceptibility to Las infection in lemon (Citruslimon) plants. The aim of this study is to identify intra-species specific molecular mechanisms associated with Las-induced responses in lemon plants. To achieve this, comparative 2-DE and mass spectrometry, in addition to Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICPS) analyses, were applied to investigate differences in protein accumulation and the concentrations of cationic elements in leaves of healthy and Las-infected lemon plants. Results showed a differential accumulation of 27 proteins, including an increase in accumulation of starch synthase but decrease in the production of photosynthesis-related proteins in Las-infected lemon plants compared to healthy plants. Furthermore, there was a 6% increase (P > 0.05) in K concentration in leaves of lemon plants upon Las infection, which support results from previous studies and might represent a common response pattern of citrus plants to Las infection. Interestingly, contrary to reports from prior studies, this study showed a general reduction in the production of defense-related pathogen-response proteins but a 128% increase in Zn concentration in lemon plants in response to Las infection. Taken together, this study sheds light on general and intra-species specific responses associated with the response of citrus plants to Las. PMID:23922636

Nwugo, Chika C.; Duan, Yongping; Lin, Hong

2013-01-01

33

Possible Contribution of Blast Spores to the Oxidative Burst in the Infection Droplet on Rice Leaf  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The infection-induced overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in resistant plants is usually ascribed to the host. Here we tested the possible contribution of the parasite, the rice blast fungus to ROS production. Droplets of spore suspensions or water were kept on rice leaves or on plastic....

34

Infection of Ustilaginoidea virens intercepts rice seed formation but activates grain-filling-related genes.  

PubMed

Rice false smut has become an increasingly serious disease in rice production worldwide. The typical feature of this disease is that the fungal pathogen Ustilaginoidea virens (Uv) specifically infects rice flower and forms false smut balls, the ustiloxins-containing ball-like fungal colony, of which the size is usually several times larger than that of a mature rice seed. However, the underlying mechanisms of Uv-rice interaction are poorly understood. Here, we applied time-course microscopic and transcriptional approaches to investigate rice responses to Uv infection. The results demonstrated that flower-opening process and expression of associated transcription factors, including ARF6 and ARF8, were inhibited in Uv-infected spikelets. The ovaries in infected spikelets were interrupted in fertilization and thus were unable to set seeds. However, a number of grain-filling-related genes, including seed storage protein genes, starch anabolism genes and endosperm-specific transcription factors (RISBZ1 and RPBF), were highly transcribed as if the ovaries were fertilized. In addition, critical defense-related genes like NPR1 and PR1 were down-regulated by Uv infection. Our data imply that Uv might hijack host nutrient reservoir by activation of grain-filling network for the need of growth and formation of false smut balls. PMID:25319482

Fan, Jing; Guo, Xiao-Yi; Li, Liang; Huang, Fu; Sun, Wen-Xian; Li, Yan; Huang, Yan-Yan; Xu, Yong-Ju; Shi, Jun; Lei, Yang; Zheng, Ai-Ping; Wang, Wen-Ming

2014-10-16

35

Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.  

PubMed

The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0.05) in comparison with the control group. In addition, the consumption of the dehydrated citrus pulp from animals infected with H. contortus (Experiment 1) caused lower hatching rates after 42 days of consumption (p<0.05), suggesting a tendency to shed fewer eggs to the environment. PMID:25282048

Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

2014-10-15

36

RL-SAGE and microarray analysis of the rice transcriptome after Rhizoctonia solani infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheath blight caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is an emerging problem in rice production worldwide. To elucidate the molecular basis of rice defense to the pathogen, RNA\\u000a isolated from R. solani-infected leaves of Jasmine 85 was used for both RL-SAGE library construction and microarray hybridization. RL-SAGE sequence\\u000a analysis identified 20,233 and 24,049 distinct tags from the control and

R. C. Venu; Yulin Jia; Malali Gowda; Melissa H. Jia; Chatchawan Jantasuriyarat; Eric Stahlberg; Huameng Li; Andrew Rhineheart; Prashanth Boddhireddy; Pratibha Singh; Neil Rutger; David Kudrna; Rod Wing; James C. Nelson; Guo-Liang Wang

2007-01-01

37

Isolation and characterization of an Isaria fumosorosea isolate infecting the Asian citrus psyllid in Florida.  

PubMed

A fungal pathogen that killed adult Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Asian citrus psyllid) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Florida citrus groves during the fall of 2005 was identified and characterized. Investigation of this pathogen is important because D. citri vectors citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing), which was reported in Florida in 2005. The morphological and genetic data generated herein support identification of the fungus as Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Ifr) (=Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) from the Asian citrus psyllid (Ifr AsCP). Koch's postulates were fulfilled after the fungus was isolated in vitro and transmitted to healthy psyllids, which then exhibited a diseased-phenotype similar to that observed in the field. Both in vitro growth characteristics and two Ifr AsCP-specific molecular markers discriminated the psyllid pathogen from another local Ifr isolate, Ifr 97 Apopka. These molecular markers will be useful to track the dynamics of this disease in D. citri populations. The potential for utilizing Ifr to complement existing psyllid pest management strategies is discussed. PMID:18433768

Meyer, Jason M; Hoy, Marjorie A; Boucias, Drion G

2008-09-01

38

First report of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infecting citrus in the Dominican Republic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Real-time and conventional PCR were used to amplify sequences from the 16S rDNA and the outer membrane protein (omp) gene from nucleic acid extracts from 16 citrus samples from the Dominican Republic which displayed symptoms of the huanglungbing disease caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacte...

39

Penicillium digitatum suppresses production of hydrogen peroxide in host tissue during infection of citrus fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the development of green mold disease (Penicillium digitatum) on citrus fruit, there is little evidence of a host resistance response against the invading fungus. This suggests that P. digitatum has the ability to suppress host defenses. Current knowledge of plant-fungal interactions indica...

40

Secondary metabolite profiles of leaves of healthy and huanglongbing-infected orange (Citrus sinensis L.) seedlings measured by HPLC-fluorescence detection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaves of greenhouse-grown ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ orange (Citrus sinensis L.) seedlings were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography in a study of the progression of changes in secondary metabolite profiles resulting from infection by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the Huanglo...

41

Calcium\\/calmodulin-dependent signaling for prepenetration development in Cochliobolus miyabeanus infecting rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cochliobolus miyabeanus forms a specialized infection structure, an appressorium, to infect rice. Contacting a hard surface induces appressorium\\u000a formation in C. miyabeanus, while the hydrophobicity of the substratum does not affect this morphogenic infection event. To determine whether the calcium\\/calmodulin-dependent\\u000a signaling system is involved in prepenetration morphogenesis in C. miyabeanus, the effects of a calcium chelator (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid;

Il-Pyung Ahn; Seok-Cheol Suh

2007-01-01

42

Kernel infection of Bluebonnet 50 rice by Helminthosporium oryzae and its effect on yield and quality  

E-print Network

KERNEL INFECTION OF BLUEBONNET 50 RICE BY HELMINTHOSPORIUM ORYZAE AND ITS EFFECT ON YIELD AND QUALITY A Thesis By SYED FAZAL IMAM FAZLI Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1964 MaJor SubJect: Plant Pathology KERNEL INFECTION OF BLUEBONNET 50 RICE BY HELMINTHOSPORIUM ORYZAE AND ITS EFFECT ON YIELD AND QUALITY A Thesis By SYED IAZAL IMAM FAZLI Approved as to style and content by...

Fazli, Syed Fazal Imam

2012-06-07

43

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus alters insect vectors' host orientation preferences to enhance spread and increase rice ragged stunt virus co-infection.  

PubMed

In recent years, Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a tentative species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae), has spread rapidly and caused serious rice losses in eastern and southeastern Asia. With this virus spread, Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV, genus Oryzavirus, family Reoviridae) became more common in southern China, usually in co-infection with the former. SRBSDV and RRSV are transmitted by two different species of planthoppers, white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) and brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens), respectively, in a persistent, circulative, propagative manner. In this study, using a Y-shape olfactometer-based device, we tested the host preference of three types of macropterous WBPH adults for healthy or SRBSDV-infected rice plants. The results showed that virus-free WBPHs significantly preferred infected rice plants to healthy plants, whereas both the viruliferous and nonviruliferous WBPHs preferred healthy plants to infected plants. In additional tests, we found that the BPHs significantly preferred healthy plants when they were virus free, whereas RRSV-carrying BPHs preferred SRBSDV-infected rice plants. From these findings, we propose that plant viruses may alter host selection preference of vectors to enhance their spread and that of insects vectoring another virus to result in co-infection with more than one virus. PMID:24047253

Wang, Han; Xu, Donglin; Pu, Lingling; Zhou, Guohui

2014-02-01

44

Transcriptome Analysis of Early Responsive Genes in Rice during Magnaporthe oryzae Infection.  

PubMed

Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in most rice-growing regions of the world. In order to investigate early response genes in rice, we utilized the transcriptome analysis approach using a 300 K tilling microarray to rice leaves infected with compatible and incompatible M. oryzae strains. Prior to the microarray experiment, total RNA was validated by measuring the differential expression of rice defense-related marker genes (chitinase 2, barwin, PBZ1, and PR-10) by RT-PCR, and phytoalexins (sakuranetin and momilactone A) with HPLC. Microarray analysis revealed that 231 genes were up-regulated (>2 fold change, p < 0.05) in the incompatible interaction compared to the compatible one. Highly expressed genes were functionally characterized into metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction categories. The oxidative stress response was induced in both early and later infection stages. Biotic stress overview from MapMan analysis revealed that the phytohormone ethylene as well as signaling molecules jasmonic acid and salicylic acid is important for defense gene regulation. WRKY and Myb transcription factors were also involved in signal transduction processes. Additionally, receptor-like kinases were more likely associated with the defense response, and their expression patterns were validated by RT-PCR. Our results suggest that candidate genes, including receptor-like protein kinases, may play a key role in disease resistance against M. oryzae attack. PMID:25506299

Wang, Yiming; Kwon, Soon Jae; Wu, Jingni; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Tamogami, Shigeru; Rakwal, Randeep; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Kim, Beom-Gi; Jung, Ki-Hong; Kang, Kyu Young; Kim, Sang Gon; Kim, Sun Tae

2014-12-01

45

Systemic Suppression of the Shoot Metabolism upon Rice Root Nematode Infection  

PubMed Central

Hirschmanniella oryzae is the most common plant-parasitic nematode in flooded rice cultivation systems. These migratory animals penetrate the plant roots and feed on the root cells, creating large cavities, extensive root necrosis and rotting. The objective of this study was to investigate the systemic response of the rice plant upon root infection by this nematode. RNA sequencing was applied on the above-ground parts of the rice plants at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. The data revealed significant modifications in the primary metabolism of the plant shoot, with a general suppression of for instance chlorophyll biosynthesis, the brassinosteroid pathway, and amino acid production. In the secondary metabolism, we detected a repression of the isoprenoid and shikimate pathways. These molecular changes can have dramatic consequences for the growth and yield of the rice plants, and could potentially change their susceptibility to above-ground pathogens and pests. PMID:25216177

Kyndt, Tina; Denil, Simon; Bauters, Lander; Van Criekinge, Wim; De Meyer, Tim

2014-01-01

46

G Protein Regulation of Disease Resistance During Infection of Rice with Rice Blast Fungus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When the effects of specific pathogen-produced elicitor compounds on plant cells are recognized by specific plant resistance (R) gene products, a local defense response called the hypersensitive response is triggered. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of defense genes are components of this response. In rice cultivars harboring null mutations in the G protein ? subunit, RGA1, ROS production and defense gene induction by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea and its sphingolipid elicitors are reduced or delayed. These results implicate heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins) as important players in plant pathogen response.

Sarah M. Assmann (Penn State University; Biology Department REV)

2005-11-15

47

Expressed Genes in Asian Citrus Psyllid adults feeding on citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We created and described the first genetic data set from the Asian citrus psyllid, AsCP, Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The AsCP spread the plant-infecting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is associated with the citrus disease Huanglongbing, HLB, known as Citru...

48

Herbivory by the insect diaphorina citri induces greater change in citrus plant volatile profile than does infection by the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus  

PubMed Central

The volatile organic compound (VOC) profile in plant leaves often changes after biotic and abiotic stresses. Monitoring changes in VOCs in plant leaves could provide valuable information about multitrophic interactions. In the current study, we investigated the effect of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) infestation, citrus greening pathogen (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus [CLas]) infection, and simultaneous attack by ACP and CLas on the VOC content of citrus leaves. Leaf volatiles were extracted using hexane and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Although ACP is a phloem-sucking insect that causes minimal damage to plant tissues, the relative amount of 21 out of the 27 VOCs increased 2- to 10-fold in ACP-infested plants. The relative amount of d-limonene, ?-phelandrene, citronellal, and undecanal were increased 4- to 20- fold in CLas-infected plants. A principle component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) showed that VOC patterns of ACP-infested and CLas-infected plants were different from each other and were also different from the controls, while the VOC pattern of double-attacked plants was more like that of the controls than that of ACP-infested or CLas-infected plants. VOC amounts from leaves were compromised when plants were attacked by ACP and CLas. The results of this study showed that a simple direct extraction of citrus leaf volatiles could be successfully used to discriminate between healthy and CLas-infected plants. Information about the effects of insect and pathogen attack on the VOC content profile of plants might contribute to a better understanding of biotic stress. PMID:23857364

Hijaz, Faraj; El-Shesheny, Ibrahim; Killiny, Nabil

2013-01-01

49

Transcriptional reprogramming by root knot and migratory nematode infection in rice.  

PubMed

Rice is one of the most important staple crops worldwide, but its yield is compromised by different pathogens, including plant-parasitic nematodes. In this study we have characterized specific and general responses of rice (Oryza sativa) roots challenged with two endoparasitic nematodes with very different modes of action. Local transcriptional changes in rice roots upon root knot (Meloidogyne graminicola) and root rot nematode (RRN, Hirschmanniella oryzae) infection were studied at two time points (3 and 7 d after infection, dai), using mRNA-seq. Our results confirm that root knot nematodes (RKNs), which feed as sedentary endoparasites, stimulate metabolic pathways in the root, and enhance nutrient transport towards the induced root gall. The migratory RRNs, on the other hand, induce programmed cell death and oxidative stress, and obstruct the normal metabolic activity of the root. While RRN infection causes up-regulation of biotic stress-related genes early in the infection, the sedentary RKNs suppress the local defense pathways (e.g. salicylic acid and ethylene pathways). Interestingly, hormone pathways mainly involved in plant development were strongly induced (gibberellin) or repressed (cytokinin) at 3 dai. These results uncover previously unrecognized nematode-induced expression profiles related to their specific infection strategy. PMID:22985291

Kyndt, Tina; Denil, Simon; Haegeman, Annelies; Trooskens, Geert; Bauters, Lander; Van Criekinge, Wim; De Meyer, Tim; Gheysen, Godelieve

2012-11-01

50

Effect of the nematode biocide Dbx-1003 in controlling citrus nematode infecting Mandarin, and interrelationship with the co-inhabitant fungi.  

PubMed

In a field experiment, the nematode-biocide, Dbx-1003, was evaluated against the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans infecting Mandarin, Citrus reticulata, Dbx-1003 20% G., was applied in October 2008 at the rate 1/2 kg/tree, and root and soil samples were collected monthly until the next October, 2009. Successive treatment of the same biocide was added in May 2009. For the comparison, Vydate 24% L, was applied as well as non-treated check trees were left. Data revealed that the biocide treatment greatly affected the citrus nematode numbers both in soil and roots, in comparing with those of Vydate or induced by Dbx-1003 was 97% and 70%; respectively in soil and roots. Rates of reproduction increase of the citrus nematode also reached 3% and 30% in both soil and roots; respectively. Vydate treatment resulted in a relatively lesser percentages. Growth of the concomitant fungus, Trichoderma sp. was increased specially in the last samples of October 2009, however those of fungi; Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp. and Rhizopus sp. were reduced, due to Dbx-1003 treatment. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. were not affected by the presence of the biocide. Vydate did not affect the co-inhabitant fungi to a great extent. PMID:25151818

Noweer, E M A

2013-01-01

51

Genome-wide functional analysis reveals that infection-associated fungal autophagy is necessary for rice blast disease.  

PubMed

To cause rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae elaborates specialized infection structures called appressoria, which use enormous turgor to rupture the tough outer cuticle of a rice leaf. Here, we report the generation of a set of 22 isogenic M. oryzae mutants each differing by a single component of the predicted autophagic machinery of the fungus. Analysis of this set of targeted deletion mutants demonstrated that loss of any of the 16 genes necessary for nonselective macroautophagy renders the fungus unable to cause rice blast disease, due to impairment of both conidial programmed cell death and appressorium maturation. In contrast, genes necessary only for selective forms of autophagy, such as pexophagy and mitophagy, are dispensable for appressorium-mediated plant infection. A genome-wide analysis therefore demonstrates the importance of infection-associated, nonselective autophagy for the establishment of rice blast disease. PMID:19717456

Kershaw, Michael J; Talbot, Nicholas J

2009-09-15

52

Citrus Genomics  

PubMed Central

Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The historical developments of linkage mapping, markers and breeding, EST projects, physical mapping, an international citrus genome sequencing project, and critical functional analysis are described. Despite the challenges of working with citrus, there has been substantial progress. Citrus researchers engaged in international collaborations provide optimism about future productivity and contributions to the benefit of citrus industries worldwide and to the human population who can rely on future widespread availability of this health-promoting and aesthetically pleasing fruit crop. PMID:18509486

Talon, Manuel; Gmitter Jr., Fred G.

2008-01-01

53

Visible/near-infrared spectroscopy for discrimination of HLB-infected citrus leaves from healthy leaves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Researchers have used various hyperspectral systems, covering several areas of the electromagnetic spectrum to investigate all types of disease/plant interactions. The purpose of this research was to investigate using visible and near-infrared (400-1100nm) spectroscopy to differentiate HLB infected...

54

Screening molecules for control of citrus huanglongbing using an optimized regeneration system for 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'-infected periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) cuttings.  

PubMed

Citrus huanglongbing is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is associated with three different species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter', of which 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is the most widely distributed. An optimized system using 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected periwinkle cuttings was developed to screen chemical compounds effective for controlling the bacterial population while simultaneously assessing their phytotoxicity. The optimal regeneration conditions were determined to be the use of vermiculite as a growth medium for the cuttings, and a fertilization routine using half-strength Murashige and Tucker medium supplemented with both naphthalene acetic acid (4 microg/ml) and indole-3-butyric acid (4 microg/ml). This system allowed a plant regeneration rate of 60.6% for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected cuttings in contrast to the <1% regeneration rate with water alone. Two chemical agents, penicillin G sodium and 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA), were found to be effective at eliminating or suppressing the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium in this periwinkle regeneration system. When treated with penicillin G sodium at 50 microg/ml, all plants regenerated from 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected cuttings were 'Ca. L. asiaticus' negative as determined by both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, DBNPA was also able to significantly reduce the percentage of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-positive plants and the titer of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium at 200 microl/liter. PMID:20128697

Zhang, Muqing; Duan, Yongping; Zhou, Lijuan; Turechek, William W; Stover, Ed; Powell, Charles A

2010-03-01

55

Leaf Gas Exchange and Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Imaging of Rice Leaves Infected with Monographella albescens.  

PubMed

This study was intended to analyze the photosynthetic performance of rice leaf blades infected with Monographella albescens by combining chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence images with gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment pools. The net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, total Chl and carotenoid pools, and Chl a/b ratio all decreased but the internal CO2 concentration increased in the inoculated plants compared with their noninoculated counterparts. The first detectable changes in the images of Chl a fluorescence from the leaves of inoculated plants were already evident at 24 h after inoculation (hai) and increased dramatically as the leaf scald lesions expanded. However, these changes were negligible for the photosystem II photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) at 24 hai, in contrast to other Chl fluorescence traits such as the photochemical quenching coefficient, yield of photochemistry, and yield for dissipation by downregulation; which, therefore, were much more sensitive than the Fv/Fm ratio in assessing the early stages of fungal infection. It was also demonstrated that M. albescens was able to impair the photosynthetic process in both symptomatic and asymptomatic leaf areas. Overall, it was proven that Chl a fluorescence imaging is an excellent tool to describe the loss of functionality of the photosynthetic apparatus occurring in rice leaves upon infection by M. albescens. PMID:25163009

Tatagiba, Sandro Dan; DaMatta, Fábio Murilo; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

2015-02-01

56

The epidemiological significance of post-packinghouse survival of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri for dissemination of Asiatic citrus canker via infected fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The risk of introduction of Xanthomonas citri spp. citri (Xcc) to new, unaffected citrus producing areas is a major concern for those citrus industries attempting to remain free of citrus canker. Citrus fruit, as a potential pathway for Xcc to enter and become established in these areas, is assumed...

57

The effect of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ infection on the proteomic profiles and nutritional status of pre-symptomatic and symptomatic grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) plants  

PubMed Central

Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive citrus disease which threatens citrus production worldwide and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), a non-culturable phloem-limited bacterium, is an associated causal agent of the disease. To better understand the physiological and molecular processes involved in host responses to Las, 2-DE and mass spectrometry analyses, as well as ICP spectroscopy analysis were employed to elucidate the global protein expression profiles and nutrient concentrations in leaves of Las-infected grapefruit plants at pre-symptomatic or symptomatic stages for HLB. Results This study identified 123 protein spots out of 191 spots that showed significant changes in the leaves of grapefruit plants in response to Las infection and all identified spots matched to 69 unique proteins/peptides. A down-regulation of 56 proteins including those associated with photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and metabolism was correlated with significant reductions in the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu in leaves of grapefruit plants in response to Las infection, particularly in symptomatic plants. Oxygen-evolving enhancer (OEE) proteins, a PSI 9 kDa protein, and a Btf3-like protein were among a small group of proteins that were down-regulated in both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic plants in response to Las infection. Furthermore, a Las-mediated up-regulation of 13 grapefruit proteins was detected, which included Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, chitinases, lectin-related proteins, miraculin-like proteins, peroxiredoxins and a CAP 160 protein. Interestingly, a Las-mediated up-regulation of granule-bound starch synthase was correlated with an increase in the K concentrations of pre-symptomatic and symptomatic plants. Conclusions This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the interrelationships between protein expression and nutritional status of Las-infected pre-symptomatic or symptomatic grapefruit plants and sheds light on the physiological and molecular mechanisms associated with HLB disease development. PMID:23578104

2013-01-01

58

NADPH oxidases regulate septin-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling during plant infection by the rice blast fungus  

PubMed Central

The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae infects plants with a specialized cell called an appressorium, which uses turgor to drive a rigid penetration peg through the rice leaf cuticle. Here, we show that NADPH oxidases (Nox) are necessary for septin-mediated reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton to facilitate cuticle rupture and plant cell invasion. We report that the Nox2–NoxR complex spatially organizes a heteroligomeric septin ring at the appressorium pore, required for assembly of a toroidal F-actin network at the point of penetration peg emergence. Maintenance of the cortical F-actin network during plant infection independently requires Nox1, a second NADPH oxidase, which is necessary for penetration hypha elongation. Organization of F-actin in appressoria is disrupted by application of antioxidants, whereas latrunculin-mediated depolymerization of appressorial F-actin is competitively inhibited by reactive oxygen species, providing evidence that regulated synthesis of reactive oxygen species by fungal NADPH oxidases directly controls septin and F-actin dynamics. PMID:23382235

Ryder, Lauren S.; Dagdas, Yasin F.; Mentlak, Thomas A.; Kershaw, Michael J.; Thornton, Christopher R.; Schuster, Martin; Chen, Jisheng; Wang, Zonghua; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

59

CURRENT EPIDEMIOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF CITRUS HUANGLONGBING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive citrus pathosystem worldwide. Previously known primarily from Asia and Africa it was introduced into the Western hemisphere in 2004. All infected commercial citrus industries continue to decline due to inadequate current control methods. HLB increase an...

60

Characterization of the microbial community structure in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-infected citrus plants treated with antibiotics in the field  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. There are no effective control measures for this newly emerging and century-old disease. Previously, we reported a combination of Penicillin G and Streptomycin were effective in eliminating or suppressing the HLB bacter...

61

INITIAL SURVEY FOR SPIROPLASMA CITRI, A LEAFHOPPER-TRANSMITTED PATHOGEN INFECTING CITRUS AND OTHER CROPS IN CENTRAL CALIFORNIA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited, Gram positive prokaryote lacking a true cell wall, is the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease. The vectors of S. citri in California are reported to be leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and includes the beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus, and Scaphytop...

62

Infection-Associated Nuclear Degeneration in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae Requires Non-Selective Macro-Autophagy  

PubMed Central

Background The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae elaborates a specialized infection structure called an appressorium to breach the rice leaf surface and gain access to plant tissue. Appressorium development is controlled by cell cycle progression, and a single round of nuclear division occurs prior to appressorium formation. Mitosis is always followed by programmed cell death of the spore from which the appressorium develops. Nuclear degeneration in the spore is known to be essential for plant infection, but the precise mechanism by which it occurs is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings In yeast, nuclear breakdown requires a specific form of autophagy, known as piecemeal microautophagy of the nucleus (PMN), and we therefore investigated whether this process occurs in the rice blast fungus. Here, we report that M. oryzae possesses two conserved components of a putative PMN pathway, MoVac8 and MoTsc13, but that both are dispensable for nuclear breakdown during plant infection. MoVAC8 encodes a vacuolar membrane protein and MoTSC13 a peri-nuclear and peripheral ER protein. Conclusions/Significance We show that MoVAC8 is necessary for caffeine resistance, but dispensable for pathogenicity of M. oryzae, while MoTSC13 is involved in cell wall stress responses and is an important virulence determinant. By functional analysis of ?Moatg1 and ?Moatg4 mutants, we demonstrate that infection-associated nuclear degeneration in M. oryzae instead occurs by non-selective macroautophagy, which is necessary for rice blast disease. PMID:22448240

He, Min; Kershaw, Michael J.; Soanes, Darren M.; Xia, Yuxian; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2012-01-01

63

Response of transgenic cucumber expressing a rice class I chitinase gene to two fungal pathogens with different infectivities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transgenic cucumber line (CR32) over-expressing the rice class I chitinase gene exhibited resistance to Phytophthora rot ( Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica) but not to Fusarium wilt ( Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum). The infection behavior of these fungi on CR32 and nontransgenic plants was examined with an optical microscope. In zoosporangia of P. nicotianae var. parasitica, the rates of

Kyutaro Kishimoto; Masami Nakajima; Yoko Nishizawa; Yutaka Tabei; Tadaaki Hibi; Katsumi Akutsu

2003-01-01

64

Characterization of the microbial community structure in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-infected citrus plants treated with antibiotics in the field  

PubMed Central

Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is a worldwide devastating disease of citrus. There are no effective control measures for this newly emerging but century-old disease. Previously, we reported a combination of Penicillin G and Streptomycin was effective in eliminating or suppressing the associated bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las). Results Here we report the bacterial composition and community structure in HLB-affected citrus plants during a growing season and while being treated with antibiotic combinations PS (Penicillin G and Streptomycin) and KO (Kasugamycin and Oxytetracycline) using the Phylochip™ G3 array. Both antibiotic treatments resulted in significantly lower Las bacterial titers (Pr<0.05) and hybridization scores. Of the 50,000+ available operational taxonomic units (OTUs) on PhyloChip™ G3, 7,028 known OTUs were present in citrus leaf midribs. These OTUs were from 58 phyla, of which five contained 100 or more OTUs, Proteobacteria (44.1%), Firmicutes (23.5%), Actinobacteria (12.4%), Bacteroidetes (6.6%) and Cyanobacteria (3.2%). In the antibiotic treated samples, the number of OTUs decreased to a total of 5,599. The over-all bacterial diversity decreased with the antibiotic treatments, as did the abundance of 11 OTUs within Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes. Within the Proteobacteria, ten OTUs representing the class ?-proteobacteria increased in abundance after four months of treatment, when the Las bacterium was at its lowest level in the HLB-affected citrus field plants. Conclusions Our data revealed that Proteobacteria was constantly the dominant bacterial phylum recovered from citrus leaf midribs, with the ?-proteobacterial and the ?-proteobacterial classes vying for prevalence. In addition, the level of bacterial diversity found in the leaf midribs of field citrus was greater than previously described. Bacterial cells in close proximity may be able to modify their microenvironment, making the composition of the microbial community an important factor in the ability of Las to cause HLB progression. A low Las level was seen as an annual fluctuation, part of the bacterial population dynamics, and as a response to the antibiotic treatments. PMID:23701743

2013-01-01

65

Characterization of rice black-streaked dwarf virus- and rice stripe virus-derived siRNAs in singly and doubly infected insect vector Laodelphax striatellus.  

PubMed

Replication of RNA viruses in insect cells triggers an antiviral defense that is mediated by RNA interference (RNAi) which generates viral-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). However, it is not known whether an antiviral RNAi response is also induced in insects by reoviruses, whose double-stranded RNA genome replication is thought to occur within core particles. Deep sequencing of small RNAs showed that when the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) was infected by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) (Reoviridae; Fijivirus), more viral-derived siRNAs accumulated than when the vector insect was infected by Rice stripe virus (RSV), a negative single-stranded RNA virus. RBSDV siRNAs were predominantly 21 and 22 nucleotides long and there were almost equal numbers of positive and negative sense. RBSDV siRNAs were frequently generated from hotspots in the 5'- and 3'-terminal regions of viral genome segments but these hotspots were not associated with any predicted RNA secondary structures. Under laboratory condition, L. striatellus can be infected simultaneously with RBSDV and RSV. Double infection enhanced the accumulation of particular genome segments but not viral coat protein of RBSDV and correlated with an increase in the abundance of siRNAs derived from RBSDV. The results of this study suggest that reovirus replication in its insect vector potentially induces an RNAi-mediated antiviral response. PMID:23776591

Li, Junmin; Andika, Ida Bagus; Shen, Jiangfeng; Lv, Yuanda; Ji, Yongqiang; Sun, Liying; Chen, Jianping

2013-01-01

66

Quantitative distribution of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in the aerial parts of the field grown HLB-infected citrus trees in Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayanna, one of the vectors for citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing (HLB) has been present in Texas for over a decade, but the detection of the disease is recent. HLB has been confirmed in only two adjacent commercial citrus groves of grapefruit and...

67

The decline in quantity of bacteria of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri dispersed from canker-infected citrus plants during wind/rain events  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background and objectives. Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, Xac) is an important disease of citrus in several tropical and sub-tropical citrus growing regions. Canker damaged trees produce less yield and the blemished fruit is unfit for fresh sale, so processing becomes the...

68

Citrus Inventory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerial color infrared (CIR) mapping system developed by Kennedy Space Center enables Florida's Charlotte County to accurately appraise its citrus groves while reducing appraisal costs. The technology was further advanced by development of a dual video system making it possible to simultaneously view images of the same area and detect changes. An image analysis system automatically surveys and photo interprets grove images as well as automatically counts trees and reports totals. The system, which saves both time and money, has potential beyond citrus grove valuation.

1994-01-01

69

Citrus Inventory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Florida's Charlotte County Property Appraiser is using an aerial color infrared mapping system for inventorying citrus trees for valuation purposes. The ACIR system has significantly reduced the time and manpower required for appraisal. Aerial photographs are taken and interpreted by a video system which makes it possible to detect changes from previous years. Potential problems can be identified. KSC's TU Office has awarded a contract to the Citrus Research and Education Center to adapt a prototype system which would automatically count trees and report totals.

1986-01-01

70

Citrus Orchard Management in Texas.  

E-print Network

Establishing the Young Citrus Orchard ........................ ti Location and Site Selection ..... .. ............................... I Commercial Orchard Varieties ............................... J Citrus Trees for Planting... ........................................ 1 Planting the Orchard ................................................ 5 Young Citrus Orchard Care Young Citrus Orchard Cultivation .................................... i j! ........................ Fertilization of Young Citrus Trees : I...

Hancock, Bluefford G.

1962-01-01

71

A novel jasmonic acid-inducible rice myb gene associates with fungal infection and host cell death.  

PubMed

Endogenous signal molecules such as jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play an important role in induced resistance against pathogen infection and insect herbivory. In rice seedlings, JA is an effective inducer of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against infection of blast fungus (Pyricularia grisea). To gain further insights into JA-mediated defense signaling pathways, we isolated and characterized a pathogen- and JA-induced rice gene (JAmyb) that encodes a Myb transcription factor. The JAmyb gene was induced within 1 day after fungal infection in resistant and susceptible interactions prior to lesion formation. Unlike most defense-related genes that are activated faster and stronger in resistant interactions, JAmyb induction by blast fungus is much higher in susceptible interactions, accompanied by large lesions and extensive tissue damage. Significant induction of JAmyb also was observed during cell death and lesion formation in certain lesion mimic mutants. Interestingly, JAmyb was activated rapidly by JA or wounding, independent of de novo protein synthesis, but not by other endogenous signal molecules such as SA and abscisic acid or SAR inducers such as benzothiadiazole and probenazole. We used SA-deficient transgenic plants to further demonstrate that depletion of SA in rice did not abolish but rather enhanced blast-induced JAmyb expression. These results suggest that JAmyb is related closely to host cell death and is involved in the JA-mediated, SA-independent signaling pathways in rice. PMID:11310740

Lee, M W; Qi, M; Yang, Y

2001-04-01

72

Analysis of the Structure of the AVR1-CO39 Avirulence Locus in Virulent Rice-Infecting Isolates of Magnaporthe grisea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The AVR1-CO39 gene that came from a Magnaporthe grisea isolate from weeping lovegrass controls avirulence on the rice cultivar CO39. AVR1-CO39 was not present in the genome of the rice-infecting M. grisea isolate Guy11 from French Guyana, suggesting that the gene had been deleted. Molecular analysis...

73

Suppression of cell wall-related genes associated with stunting of Oryza glaberrima infected with Rice tungro spherical virus  

PubMed Central

Rice tungro disease is a complex disease caused by the interaction between Rice tungro bacilliform virus and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). RTSV alone does not cause recognizable symptoms in most Asian rice (Oryza sativa) plants, whereas some African rice (O. glaberrima) plants were found to become stunted by RTSV. Stunting of rice plants by virus infections usually accompanies the suppression of various cell wall-related genes. The expression of cell wall-related genes was examined in O. glaberrima and O. sativa infected with RTSV to see the relationship between the severity of stunting and the suppression of cell wall-related genes by RTSV. The heights of four accessions of O. glaberrima were found to decline by 14–34% at 28 days post-inoculation (dpi) with RTSV, whereas the height reduction of O. sativa plants by RTSV was not significant. RTSV accumulated more in O. glaberrima plants than in O. sativa plants, but the level of RTSV accumulation was not correlated with the degree of height reduction among the four accessions of O. glaberrima. Examination for expression of genes for cellulose synthase A5 (CESA5) and A6 (CESA6), cellulose synthase-like A9 (CSLA9) and C7, and ?-expansin 1 (expansin 1) and 15 precursors in O. glaberrima and O. sativa plants between 7 and 28 dpi with RTSV showed that the genes such as those for CESA5, CESA6, CSLA9, and expansin 1were more significantly suppressed in stunted plants of O. glaberrima at 14 dpi with RTSV than in O. sativa, suggesting that stunting of O. glaberrima might be associated with these cell wall-related genes suppressed by RTSV. Examination for expression of these genes in O. sativa plants infected with other rice viruses in previous studies indicated that the suppression of the expansin 1 gene is likely to be a signature response commonly associated with virus-induced stunting of Oryza species. These results suggest that stunting of O. glaberrima by RTSV infection might be associated with the suppression of these cell wall-related genes at the early stage of infection with RTSV. PMID:24550897

Budot, Bernard O.; Encabo, Jaymee R.; Ambita, Israel Dave V.; Atienza-Grande, Genelou A.; Satoh, Kouji; Kondoh, Hiroaki; Ulat, Victor J.; Mauleon, Ramil; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Choi, Il-Ryong

2014-01-01

74

Evaluation of citrus somatic hybrids for tolerance to Phytophthora nicotianae and citrus tristeza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic hybridization is a biotechnology tool that can be used in citrus breeding programs to produce somatic hybrids with the complete genetic combination of both parents. The goal of this work was to test the reaction of citrus somatic hybrids that may be useful as rootstocks to trunk and root infections caused by Phytophthora nicotianae van Breda de Haan (P.

Francisco de Assis Alves Mourão Filho; Rafael Pio; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi Mendes; Fernando Alves de Azevedo; Evandro Henrique Schinor; Fábio Albuquerque Entelmann; André Siqueira Rodrigues Alves; Tatiana Eugenia Cantuarias-Avilés

2008-01-01

75

Asian citrus psyllid viral pathogen  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A newly discovered viral pathogen of Asian citrus psyllid, AsCP, Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama (Psyllidae: Hemiptera) was classified as a Reoviridae. This virus may serve as a biological control agent for AsCP. The AsCP is an efficient vector of the plant-infecting bacterium (Candidatus Liberibacter as...

76

Biology and epidemiology of rice viruses.  

PubMed

The 15 known viruses that occur in rice are rice black-streaked dwarf, rice bunchy stunt, rice dwarf, rice gall dwarf, rice giallume, rice grassy stunt, rice hoja blanca, rice necrosis mosaic, rice ragged stunt, rice stripe necrosis, rice stripe, rice transitory yellowing, rice tungro bacilliform, rice tungro spherical, and rice yellow mottle viruses. This paper describes their geographical distribution, relation to vectors, infection cycles, field dispersal, and development, and lists recorded outbreaks of the viruses. Many rice viruses have become serious problems since rice cultivation has been intensified. Double-cropping of rice using improved, photo-insensitive cultivars of short growth duration has significantly influenced the incidence of these viruses. PMID:15012543

Hibino, H

1996-01-01

77

Citrus aurantium  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Citrus aurantium has enjoyed a rich history of uses in food, cosmetics, and medicine Recent misuse of this product for weight loss, however,\\u000a is threatening to tarnish the holistic reputation of this fruit Manufacturers are isolating and concentrating the synephnne\\u000a content from the 0 33 mg\\/g contained in the pulp of whole fruit to 20 mg\\/g in some dietary supplements,

Anders Westanmo

78

Evaluation of Protocol for Assessing the Reaction of Rice and Wheat Germplasm to Infection by Meloidogyne graminicola  

PubMed Central

Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola), an important and widespread pathogen, causes high yield losses in rice with limited information on wheat and on efficient management. Absence of uniform screening protocols is contributing to slow progress of host resistance development. To develop an efficient screening protocol, several greenhouse studies were conducted, and effects of incubation period, inoculum level, inoculation method, seedling age, and their interactions on root-galling severity (RGS) ratings and reproductive factor (RF) values of M. graminicola were determined. At 2 eggs/cm3 soil, significantly lower RGS but higher RF values were observed at 60 days than at 45 days of incubation. Meloidogyne graminicola reproduced six times more on rice than on wheat where the RGS index in both crops increased steadily with increasing inoculum levels, but RF increased at lower levels and decreased beyond a maximum at medium inoculum levels. Inoculum level, container size, seedling age, inoculation method, and their interactions impacted nematode infection and reproduction. The protocol was verified on eleven rice germplasm lines and seven wheat cultivars using the resistance index (RI) calculated from RGS and RF, to screen rice and wheat germplasm. PMID:23481227

Pokharel, Ramesh R.; Duxbury, John M.; Abawai, George

2012-01-01

79

Evaluation of Protocol for Assessing the Reaction of Rice and Wheat Germplasm to Infection by Meloidogyne graminicola.  

PubMed

Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola), an important and widespread pathogen, causes high yield losses in rice with limited information on wheat and on efficient management. Absence of uniform screening protocols is contributing to slow progress of host resistance development. To develop an efficient screening protocol, several greenhouse studies were conducted, and effects of incubation period, inoculum level, inoculation method, seedling age, and their interactions on root-galling severity (RGS) ratings and reproductive factor (RF) values of M. graminicola were determined. At 2 eggs/cm(3) soil, significantly lower RGS but higher RF values were observed at 60 days than at 45 days of incubation. Meloidogyne graminicola reproduced six times more on rice than on wheat where the RGS index in both crops increased steadily with increasing inoculum levels, but RF increased at lower levels and decreased beyond a maximum at medium inoculum levels. Inoculum level, container size, seedling age, inoculation method, and their interactions impacted nematode infection and reproduction. The protocol was verified on eleven rice germplasm lines and seven wheat cultivars using the resistance index (RI) calculated from RGS and RF, to screen rice and wheat germplasm. PMID:23481227

Pokharel, Ramesh R; Duxbury, John M; Abawai, George

2012-09-01

80

Rice hull smoke extract inactivates Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory media and protects infected mice against mortality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A recently discovered and characterized rice hull liquid smoke extract was tested for bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium using the disc-agar method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of rice hull smoke extract was found to be 0.822% (v/v). The in vivo antibacterial a...

81

Observations on the foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, infecting tuberose and rice in India  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The foliar nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi causes white tip disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and floral malady in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). This nematode is widely distributed in the rice fields of many states of India, including West Bengal (WB), Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) a...

82

Host Status of Citrus and Citrus Relatives to Tylenchulus graminis.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted on the host suitability of four citrus rootstocks--rough lemon (Citrus limon), sour orange (C. aurantium), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata cv. Argentina), and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata)--to Tylenchulus graminis which was previously considered a "grass" race of T. semipenetrans. In an uncultivated field, sour orange seedlings grown with T. graminis-infected broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus) were not infected with this nematode after 18-month's exposure to T. graminis population densities ranging from < 0.01 to 0.4 second-stage juveniles (J2)/cm(3) soil. In a greenhouse test, two T. graminis populations from two Florida locations did not infect sour orange seedlings grown for 2 years in soil naturally infested with 0.3 and 1.3 J2/cm(3). Rough lemon, trifoliate orange, and Swingle citrumelo seedlings suppressed T. graminis initial population densities of 7 to final values of < 0.1 J2/cm(3) soil. Final values of > 70.0 J2/cm(3) occurred in soil with broomsedge. These findings provide conclusive evidence that T. graminis is a specific parasite of grasses and does not infect citrus. PMID:19287668

Inserra, R N; O'Bannon, J H; Keen, W M

1989-10-01

83

Citrus Stubborn Severity is Associated with Spiroplasma Citri Titer but Not with Bacterial Genotype.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of citrus stubborn disease (CSD), caused by Spiroplasma citri, on citrus production is associated with symptom severity of infected citrus trees. To assess whether symptom severity was associated with spiroplasma titer in the plant, 58 S. citri strains were cultivated from severely and mi...

84

Dramatic Change in Citrus tristeza virus populations in the Dominican Republic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most destructive viral pathogen of citrus and has been an important concern for the citrus industry in the Dominican Republic. Earlier studies documented widespread distribution of mild isolates of the T30 genotype, which caused no disease in the infected trees, an...

85

Interactions between Citrus Cachexia Viroid and Closely Related Sequence Variants May Impair Expression of Cachexia Symptoms  

E-print Network

lemon'. Cachexia can affect most tangelos, some mandarins, many mandarin hybrids, sweet lime and Citrus macrophylla. Infected rough lemon may also show mild symptoms. It is especially severe on Citrus macrophylla401 Interactions between Citrus Cachexia Viroid and Closely Related Sequence Variants May Impair

Perreault, Jean-Pierre

86

REPEATABILITY AND COMPARISION OF IMAGE ANALYSIS AND VISUAL ASSESSMENT FOR DISEASE ASSESSMENT OF CITRUS CANKER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker, a disease of several citrus species, is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac). The disease is of concern in several wet tropical and subtropical citrus growing regions as infection results in yield loss and severely blemished fruit unsuitable for the f...

87

Complete Genome sequence of citrus huanglongbing bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ obtained through metagenomics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. It is spread by the citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri and Trioza erytreae), and is associated with low-titer, phloem-limited infections by any of the three uncultured species of a-Proteobacteria: 'Candidatus Liberibact...

88

Increased tryptophan decarboxylase and monoamine oxidase activities induce Sekiguchi lesion formation in rice infected with Magnaporthe grisea.  

PubMed

Sekiguchi lesion (sl)-mutant rice infected with Magnaporthe grisea showed increased light-dependent tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities. TDC and MAO activities were observed before the penetration of M. grisea to rice cells and maintained high levels even after Sekiguchi lesion formation. Light-dependent expression of TDC gene was observed in leaves inoculated with M. grisea before Sekiguchi lesion formation. Spore germination fluid (SGF) of M. grisea also induced Sekiguchi lesion formation accompanied by increased enzymes activities and tryptamine accumulation. Sekiguchi lesion was also induced by treatments with tryptamine and beta-phenylethylamine, which are substrates for MAO, but was not induced by non-substrates such as indole-3-propionic acid, (+/-)-phenylethylamine and tryptophan under light. Light-dependent induction of Sekiguchi lesion by tryptamine was significantly inhibited in the presence of MAO inhibitors, metalaxyl and semicarbazide, and H2O2-scavengers, ascorbic acid and catalase. H2O2 in M. grisea-infected leaves with and without Sekiguchi lesions was demonstrated directly in situ by strong 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. On the other hand, H2O2 induced Sekiguchi lesions on leaves of cv. Sekiguchi-asahi under light, but not in darkness. This difference was associated with the decrease of catalase activity in infected leaves under light and the absence of decrease in darkness. We hypothesize that the H2O2-induced breakdown of cellular organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria in mesophyll cells may cause high TDC and MAO activities and the development of Sekiguchi lesion, and that the sl gene products in wild-type rice may function as a suppressor of organelle breakdown caused by chemical or environmental stress. PMID:14535886

Ueno, Makoto; Shibata, Hitoshi; Kihara, Junichi; Honda, Yuichi; Arase, Sakae

2003-10-01

89

Discovery of a viral pathogen in the Asian citrus psyllid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We used a Metagenomics approach and discovered an insect-infecting virus in adult Asian citrus psyllids in Florida. Though wide spread in nature, this is the first report of a Fijivirus in North America. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a small insect tha...

90

Distribution of Geotrichum candidum citrus race in citrus groves and non-citrus fields in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence ofGeotrichum candidum citrus race, the citrus sour rot pathogen, was examined in soils of citrus groves and non-citrus fields of Japan. Soil samples were collected from 223 sites (118 sites in citrus groves, and 105 sites in fields cultivated with 33 species of non-citrus plants and in evergreen broad-leaved forest) in 11 main citrus-growing prefectures, and Hokkaido, a

Dewa Ngurah Suprapta; Kei Arai; Hisashi Iwai

1995-01-01

91

Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Cross-Talk between the Responses Induced by H2O2 and by Long-Term Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus Infection in Rice  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could be produced during the plant-virus compatible interaction. However, the cell responses regulated by the enhanced H2O2 in virus infected plant are largely unknown. To make clear the influence of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) infection on H2O2 accumulation, we measured the content of H2O2 and found the H2O2 level was increased in rice seedlings inoculated with RBSDV. To reveal the responses initiated by the enhanced H2O2 during plant-virus interaction, the present study investigated the global proteome changes of rice under long-term RBSDV infection. Approximately 1800 protein spots were detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels. Among them, 72 spots were found differently expressed, of which 69 spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Furthermore, the differentially expressed proteins induced by RBSDV infection were compared to that induced by H2O2. 19 proteins corresponding to 37 spots, which were differentially expressed under RBSDV infection, were observed differentially expressed under H2O2 stress as well. These overlapping responsive proteins are mainly related to photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, metabolism, energy pathway, and cell wall modification. The increased H2O2 in RBSDV infected plant may produce an oxidative stress, impair photosynthesis, disturb the metabolism, and eventually result in abnormal growth. The data provide a new understanding of the pivotal role of H2O2 in rice-RBSDV compatible interaction. PMID:24312331

Xu, Qiufang; Ni, Haiping; Chen, Qingqing; Sun, Feng; Zhou, Tong; Lan, Ying; Zhou, Yijun

2013-01-01

92

Bacterial Diversity Analysis of Huanglongbing Pathogen-Infected Citrus, Using PhyloChip Arrays and 16S rRNA Gene Clone Library Sequencing? †  

PubMed Central

The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized for citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarrays and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition for symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria in 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs, while 20 orders in 8 phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs than in asymptomatic midribs. “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis results were further verified by sequencing 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. PMID:19151177

Sagaram, Uma Shankar; DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Trivedi, Pankaj; Andersen, Gary L.; Lu, Shi-En; Wang, Nian

2009-01-01

93

Visual rating and the use of image analysis for assessing different symptoms of citrus canker on grapefruit leaves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) and infects several citrus species in wet tropical and subtropical citrus growing regions. Accurate, precise and reproducible disease assessment is needed for monitoring epidemics and disease response in breeding...

94

Transcriptome profiling of the rice blast fungus during invasive plant infection and in vitro stresses  

PubMed Central

Background Rice blast is the most threatening disease to cultivated rice. Magnaporthe oryzae, its causal agent, is likely to encounter environmental challenges during invasive growth in its host plants that require shifts in gene expression to establish a compatible interaction. Here, we tested the hypothesis that gene expression patterns during in planta invasive growth are similar to in vitro stress conditions, such as nutrient limitation, temperature up shift and oxidative stress, and determined which condition most closely mimicked that of in planta invasive growth. Gene expression data were collected from these in vitro experiments and compared to fungal gene expression during the invasive growth phase at 72 hours post-inoculation in compatible interactions on two grass hosts, rice and barley. Results We identified 4,973 genes that were differentially expressed in at least one of the in planta and in vitro stress conditions when compared to fungal mycelia grown in complete medium, which was used as reference. From those genes, 1,909 showed similar expression patterns between at least one of the in vitro stresses and rice and/or barley. Hierarchical clustering of these 1,909 genes showed three major clusters in which in planta conditions closely grouped with the nutrient starvation conditions. Out of these 1,909 genes, 55 genes and 129 genes were induced and repressed in all treatments, respectively. Functional categorization of the 55 induced genes revealed that most were either related to carbon metabolism, membrane proteins, or were involved in oxidoreduction reactions. The 129 repressed genes showed putative roles in vesicle trafficking, signal transduction, nitrogen metabolism, or molecular transport. Conclusions These findings suggest that M. oryzae is likely primarily coping with nutrient-limited environments at the invasive growth stage 72 hours post-inoculation, and not with oxidative or temperature stresses. PMID:21247492

2011-01-01

95

Citrus Waste Biomass Program  

SciTech Connect

Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

2007-01-30

96

SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS OF CITRUS CANKER INFECTED PLANTINGS IN SÃO PAULO BRAZIL AND IMPLICATION OF THE ASIAN LEAFMINER ON THE POTENTIAL DISPERSAL PROCESSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eradication of Asiatic Citrus Canker (ACC) has become increasingly difficult over the last decade following the introduction of the Asian leafminer into Brazil and Florida, which lead to changes in the eradication protocols. The present study, undertaken in Brazil, was aimed at characterizing the s...

97

An Inexpensive and Safe Experiment to Demonstrate Koch's Postulates Using Citrus Fruit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's postulates, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…

Jakobi, Steven

2010-01-01

98

Expression of the maize ZmGF14-6 gene in rice confers tolerance to drought stress while enhancing susceptibility to pathogen infection.  

PubMed

14-3-3 proteins are found in all eukaryotes where they act as regulators of diverse signalling pathways associated with a wide range of biological processes. In this study the functional characterization of the ZmGF14-6 gene encoding a maize 14-3-3 protein is reported. Gene expression analyses indicated that ZmGF14-6 is up-regulated by fungal infection and salt treatment in maize plants, whereas its expression is down-regulated by drought stress. It is reported that rice plants constitutively expressing ZmGF14-6 displayed enhanced tolerance to drought stress which was accompanied by a stronger induction of drought-associated rice genes. However, rice plants expressing ZmGF14-6 either in a constitutive or under a pathogen-inducible regime showed a higher susceptibility to infection by the fungal pathogens Fusarium verticillioides and Magnaporthe oryzae. Under infection conditions, a lower intensity in the expression of defence-related genes occurred in ZmGF14-6 rice plants. These findings support that ZmGF14-6 positively regulates drought tolerance in transgenic rice while negatively modulating the plant defence response to pathogen infection. Transient expression assays of fluorescently labelled ZmGF14-6 protein in onion epidermal cells revealed a widespread distribution of ZmGF14-6 in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Additionally, colocalization experiments of fluorescently labelled ZmGF14-6 with organelle markers, in combination with cell labelling with the endocytic tracer FM4-64, revealed a subcellular localization of ZmGF14-6 in the early endosomes. Taken together, these results improve our understanding of the role of ZmGF14-6 in stress signalling pathways, while indicating that ZmGF14-6 inversely regulates the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:22016430

Campo, Sonia; Peris-Peris, Cristina; Montesinos, Laura; Peñas, Gisela; Messeguer, Joaquima; San Segundo, Blanca

2012-01-01

99

Management of the Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans.  

PubMed

Of the many nematode species that parasitize citrus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans is the most important on a worldwide basis. Management of the citrus nematode remains problematic as no one tactic gives adequate control of the nematode. An overall management strategy must include such components as site selection, use of non-infected nursery stock, use of at lease one post-plant nematode control tactic, and careful management of other elements of the environment that may stress the trees. Nematicides continue to play a key role in management of this pest. Optimum results require careful attention to application techniques. PMID:19262822

Verdejo-Lucas, S; McKenry, M V

2004-12-01

100

Management of the Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans  

PubMed Central

Of the many nematode species that parasitize citrus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans is the most important on a worldwide basis. Management of the citrus nematode remains problematic as no one tactic gives adequate control of the nematode. An overall management strategy must include such components as site selection, use of non-infected nursery stock, use of at lease one post-plant nematode control tactic, and careful management of other elements of the environment that may stress the trees. Nematicides continue to play a key role in management of this pest. Optimum results require careful attention to application techniques. PMID:19262822

Verdejo-Lucas, S.; McKenry, M. V.

2004-01-01

101

Characterization of Citrus Rootstock Responses to Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Cobb).  

PubMed

Citrus rootstocks which significantly limited the reproduction of Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Cobb) "Citrus" and "Poncirus" biotypes responded to infection by producing a hypersensitive-type response in the root hypodermis, wound periderm and/or cavities in the root cortex, and/or abnormal vacuoles in nurse cell cytoplasm. Rootstocks which limited nematode reproduction also had significantly fewer nematodes in the rhizoplane within 8 d of inoculation than did rootstocks which did not limit reproduction. Germplasm sources of the cellular responses which limited citrus nematode reproduction were identified. PMID:19300795

Kaplan, D T

1981-10-01

102

A six-gene phylogeny reveals the evolution of mode of infection in the rice blast fungus and allied species.  

PubMed

The family Magnaporthaceae contains devastating fungal cereal and grass pathogens, such as Magnaporthe oryzae (rice blast fungus, formerly known as M. grisea), M. poae (summer patch pathogen of turf grasses) and Gaeumannomyces graminis (take-all fungus of various cereals and grasses), which are popular model organisms in fungal biology and host-pathogen interaction studies. Despite their ecological and economic importance, the phylogenetic relationships among the constituent species remain ambiguous due to the lack of convincing morphological characters and paucity of molecular data for the majority of the non-model species in the family. In this study our multilocus phylogeny suggests that both Magnaporthe and Gaeumannomyces are polyphyletic genera. The phylogeny also provides insights into fungal biology and pathogenesis. Magnaporthe oryzae formed a basal clade, while M. poae and M. rhizophila formed another well supported clade with G. incrustans and G. graminis. The basal species infect both root and aerial parts of the plant host, while the aerial infection capacity seems to be lost in the taxa of the latter clade. The phylogeny is corroborated by evolution of the anamorphs and a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CPKA) gene. Magnaporthe oryzae produces Pyricularia, while taxa in the latter clade all produce Phialophora-like anamorphs. CPKA is present in animals and many fungal lineages with various functions. In M. oryzae CPKA is essential for the formation of functional appressoria for leaf penetration. In root-infecting G. graminis var. tritici and M. poae however only non-functional CPKA homologous pseudogenes were found in their genomes. The study indicates that anamorphic and ecological features are more informative than the teleomorphic characters in defining monophyletic groups among these taxa. PMID:21642347

Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Shuang; Shen, Qirong

2011-01-01

103

RICE CRICKET CLUB Rice University  

E-print Network

RICE CRICKET CLUB Rice University 6100 Main St, Houston, TX-77005 www.ruf.rice.edu/~rcc Email: rcc@rice.edu MEMBERSHIP AGREEMENT I, ____________________________ desire to participate in activities conducted by RICE CRICKET CLUB which includes practice sessions, games and social gatherings conducted on and off the Rice

Mellor-Crummey, John

104

Molecular Marker Analysis of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from the Dominican Republic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Samples of citrus tissue infected with Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were collected from Persian lime, mandarin, Washington navel, Valencia or grapefruit trees from various locations in the Dominican Republic. Desiccated tissue samples were re-hydrated and virions extracted by grinding samples in buff...

105

Genome sequence of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the casual agent of citrus huanglongbing (greening)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is associated with three different species of Candidatus Liberibacter: Ca. L. asiaticus (Las), Ca. L. americanus and Ca. L. africanus. We first detected and identified Las bacterium from HLB-infected...

106

VARIABILITY IN TRANSMISSION OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS ISOLATES FROM FLORIDA BY TOXOPTERA CITRICIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is an aphid transmitted plant infecting virus that continues to pose serious problems in the citriculture industries. Fifteen Florida isolates of CTV were tested for their transmissibility by the brown citrus aphid (Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy) (BrCA). The BrCA is the ma...

107

Influence of metalaxyl on three nematodes of citrus.  

PubMed

Metalaxyl significantly reduced population of Pratylenchus coffeae, Radopholus similis, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans in roots of Citrus limon (rough lemon) under greenhouse conditions. Postinoculation treatment of rough lemon seedlings was not as effective i n reducing nematode populations as was treatment before inoculation. Fewer nematodes infected metalaxyl-treated roots than nontreated roots. However, incubation of nematodes in metalaxyl did not inhibit nematode motility or their ability to locate and infect roots. Cellular responses to nematode injection differed between treated and nontreated tissues. Metalaxyl appeared to confer nematode contraol by modifying citrus roots such that a normally susceptible rootstock became tolerant. PMID:19295833

Kaplan, D T

1983-07-01

108

Molecular cloning and differential expression of an ?-aminobutyrate transaminase gene, OsGABA-T , in rice ( Oryza sativa ) leaves infected with blast fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Aminobutyrate transaminase (GABA-T) catalyzes the conversion of GABA to succinic semialdehyde. Using differential display PCR and cDNA library screening, a full-length GABA-T cDNA (OsGABA-T) was isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) leaves infected with an incompatible race of Magnaporthe grisea. The deduced amino acid sequence comprises 483 amino acid residues and shares 85–69% identity with GABA-T sequences from other plants.\\u000a OsGABA-T

Chunxia Wu; Shanyue Zhou; Quan Zhang; Wensheng Zhao; Youliang Peng

2006-01-01

109

Annotation of gene function in citrus using gene expression information and co-expression networks  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Citrus encompasses major cultivated plants such as sweet orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit, among the world’s most economically important fruit crops. With increasing volumes of transcriptomics data available for these species, Gene Co-expression Network (GCN) analysis is a viable option for predicting gene function at a genome-wide scale. GCN analysis is based on a “guilt-by-association” principle whereby genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit similar expression patterns across diverse sets of experimental conditions. While bioinformatics resources such as GCN analysis are widely available for efficient gene function prediction in model plant species including Arabidopsis, soybean and rice, in citrus these tools are not yet developed. Results We have constructed a comprehensive GCN for citrus inferred from 297 publicly available Affymetrix Genechip Citrus Genome microarray datasets, providing gene co-expression relationships at a genome-wide scale (33,000 transcripts). The comprehensive citrus GCN consists of a global GCN (condition-independent) and four condition-dependent GCNs that survey the sweet orange species only, all citrus fruit tissues, all citrus leaf tissues, or stress-exposed plants. All of these GCNs are clustered using genome-wide, gene-centric (guide) and graph clustering algorithms for flexibility of gene function prediction. For each putative cluster, gene ontology (GO) enrichment and gene expression specificity analyses were performed to enhance gene function, expression and regulation pattern prediction. The guide-gene approach was used to infer novel roles of genes involved in disease susceptibility and vitamin C metabolism, and graph-clustering approaches were used to investigate isoprenoid/phenylpropanoid metabolism in citrus peel, and citric acid catabolism via the GABA shunt in citrus fruit. Conclusions Integration of citrus gene co-expression networks, functional enrichment analysis and gene expression information provide opportunities to infer gene function in citrus. We present a publicly accessible tool, Network Inference for Citrus Co-Expression (NICCE, http://citrus.adelaide.edu.au/nicce/home.aspx), for the gene co-expression analysis in citrus. PMID:25023870

2014-01-01

110

Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Hyun [National Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-100 (Korea, Republic of)] [National Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Boung-Jun [BioControl Center, Jeonnam 516-942 (Korea, Republic of)] [BioControl Center, Jeonnam 516-942 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ho Won, E-mail: hwjung@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Soo, E-mail: chungys@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-19

111

Citrus Leafminer Mating Disruption  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mating disruption targets a specific pest and has no negative impact on natural enemies, the environment, or agricultural workers. A flowable wax dispenser was tested for releasing the female sex pheromone of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella. These dispensers are biodegradable, inexpens...

112

Golden Rice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article offers basic knowledge about the origination of Golden Rice, including some basic concepts of rice physiology and genetic. This article is aimed at helping college students, rice growers or market managers who have some biology background to understand what Golden Rice is.

113

Ustilaginoidea virens infection of rice in Arkansas: Toxicity of false smut galls, their extracts and the Ustiloxin fraction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cool, wet conditions in the southern U.S. during the maturing stages of rice in 1998 contributed to outbreaks of false smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens. Water extracts of false smut galls in Asia have been reported to contain ustiloxin toxins, cyclic peptide antibiotics that interfered with mi...

114

MUTATION AT BETA-TUBULIN CODON 200 INDICATED THIABENDAZOLE RESISTANCE IN PENICILLIUM DIGITATUM COLLECTED FROM CALIFORNIA CITRUS PACKINGHOUSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Penicillium digitatum, cause of citrus green mold, was isolated from infected lemons and oranges from many diverse locations in California. Those from groves, with no history of fungicide use, were sensitive to thiabendazole (TBZ), while those collected from ten citrus packinghouses were often TBZ r...

115

Detection of a phytoplasma in citrus showing Huanglongbing (yellow shoot disease) symptoms in Guangdong, P. R. China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow shoot disease (ex. greening disease) is highly destructive to citrus production worldwide. Understanding the etiology of HLB is critical for managing the disease. HLB is currently known to be associated with infection by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in China...

116

Assembly of the viroplasm by viral non-structural protein Pns10 is essential for persistent infection of rice ragged stunt virus in its insect vector.  

PubMed

Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), an oryzavirus, is transmitted by brown planthopper in a persistent propagative manner. In this study, sequential infection of RRSV in the internal organs of its insect vector after ingestion of virus was investigated by immunofluorescence microscopy. RRSV was first detected in the epithelial cells of the midgut, from where it proceeded to the visceral muscles surrounding the midgut, then throughout the visceral muscles of the midgut and hindgut, and finally into the salivary glands. Viroplasms, the sites of virus replication and assembly of progeny virions, were formed in the midgut epithelium, visceral muscles and salivary glands of infected insects and contained the non-structural protein Pns10 of RRSV, which appeared to be the major constituent of the viroplasms. Viroplasm-like structures formed in non-host insect cells following expression of Pns10 in a baculovirus system, suggesting that the viroplasms observed in RRSV-infected cells were composed basically of Pns10. RNA interference induced by ingestion of dsRNA from the Pns10 gene of RRSV strongly inhibited such viroplasm formation, preventing efficient virus infection and spread in its insect vectors. These results show that Pns10 of RRSV is essential for viroplasm formation and virus replication in the vector insect. PMID:22837415

Jia, Dongsheng; Guo, Nianmei; Chen, Hongyan; Akita, Fusamichi; Xie, Lianhui; Omura, Toshihiro; Wei, Taiyun

2012-10-01

117

Rice Vinegars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice vinegar is a traditional seasoning condiment used in China, Japan and Korea. Rice vinegar is made from fermented rice\\u000a wine (sake in Japanese). Fermentation methods for rice vinegar include a traditional static method and recently developed continuous-culture\\u000a and batch-culture methods. Chinese and Japanese rice vinegars are slightly milder and sweeter than Western vinegars.

Yoshikatsu Murooka; Kumiko Nanda; Mitsuo Yamashita

118

Chemical Control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid and of Huanglongbing Disease in Citrus.  

PubMed

By 2014, Huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus growing regions of the world including the United States of America (USA), with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low-volume in large areas of citrus cultivation, has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. Since insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem. PMID:25491482

Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

2014-12-01

119

Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease.  

PubMed

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccA(w), induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations. PMID:24474801

Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B

2014-01-28

120

Agreement: Citrus College Faculty Association and Citrus Community College District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collective bargaining agreement between the Citrus Community College District Board of Trustees and the Citrus College Faculty/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1988 through June 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition and…

Citrus Community Coll. District, Glendora, CA.

121

Antagonists of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Florida Citrus.  

PubMed

In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare. PMID:19287759

Walter, D E; Kaplan, D T

1990-10-01

122

Differentially-expressed genes in rice infected by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae relative to a flagellin-deficient mutant reveal potential functions of flagellin in host–pathogen interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Plants have evolved a sensitive defense response system that detects and recognizes various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (e.g. flagellin) and induces immune responses to protect against invasion. Transcriptional responses in rice to PAMPs produced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the bacterial blight pathogen, have not yet been defined. Results We characterized transcriptomic responses in rice inoculated with the wildtype (WT) Xoo and flagellin-deficient mutant ?fliC through RNA-seq analysis. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis based on Solexa/Illumina sequencing was used to investigate transcriptomic responses in 30 day-old seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare). 1,680 genes were differentially-expressed (DEGs) in rice inoculated with WT relative to ?fliC; among which 1,159 genes were up-regulated and 521 were down-regulated. Expression patterns of 12 randomly-selected DEGs assayed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) were similar to those detected by DGE analyses, confirming reliability of the DGE data. Functional annotations revealed the up-regulated DEGs are involved in the cell wall, lipid and secondary metabolism, defense response and hormone signaling, whereas the down-regulated ones are associated with photosynthesis. Moreover, 57 and 21 specifically expressed genes were found after WT and ?fliC treatments, respectively. Conclusions DEGs were identified in rice inoculated with WT Xoo relative to ?fliC. These genes were predicted to function in multiple biological processes, including the defense response and photosynthesis in rice. This study provided additional insights into molecular basis of rice response to bacterial infection and revealed potential functions of bacterial flagellin in the rice-Xoo interactions. PMID:25187853

2014-01-01

123

Potential nutritional benefits of current citrus consumption  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus contains various nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are currently consumed. We then compared the amount of citrus and citrus-derived compounds that have been use...

124

Antifungal activity of lemon ( Citrus lemon L.), mandarin ( Citrus reticulata L.), grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi L.) and orange ( Citrus sinensis L.) essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to study the effect of the essential oils of lemon (Citrus lemon L.), mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi L.) and orange (Citrus sinensis L.) on the growth of moulds commonly associated with food spoilage: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium verrucosum, using the agar dilution method. All the oils showed

M. Viuda-Martos; Y. Ruiz-Navajas; J. Fernández-López; J. Pérez-Álvarez

2008-01-01

125

75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rutaceae known to be hosts of citrus greening and/or CVC from countries in which one or...importation of seed of host genera of citrus greening from those countries, as well...importation of seeds of hosts of CVC from those two countries into the...

2010-04-06

126

Novel delivery of the fungi Paecilomyces formosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for managing the Asian citrus psyllid (Psyllidae: Hemiptera)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method was developed to increase efficacy and reduce grower costs when using the biological control fungal agent Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to infect adult Asian citrus psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera). We analyzed the efficacy of this A...

127

High codon adaptation in citrus tristeza virus to its citrus host  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the genus Closterovirus within the family Closteroviridae, is the causal agent of citrus tristeza disease. Previous studies revealed that the negative selection, RNA recombination and gene flow were the most important forces that drove CTV evolution. However, the CTV codon usage was not studied and thus its role in CTV evolution remains unknown. Results A detailed comparative analysis of CTV codon usage pattern was done in this study. Results of the study show that although in general CTV does not have a high degree of codon usage bias, the codon usage of CTV has a high level of resemblance to its host codon usage. In addition, our data indicate that the codon usage resemblance is only observed for the woody plant-infecting closteroviruses but not the closteroviruses infecting the herbaceous host plants, suggesting the existence of different virus-host interactions between the herbaceous plant-infecting and woody plant-infecting closteroviruses. Conclusion Based on the results, we suggest that in addition to RNA recombination, negative selection and gene flow, host plant codon usage selection can also affect CTV evolution. PMID:22698086

2012-01-01

128

Physiological stressors and invasive plant infections alter the small RNA transcriptome of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

Background The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae is a destructive pathogen of rice and other related crops, causing significant yield losses worldwide. Endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs), including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical components of gene regulation in many eukaryotic organisms. Recently several new species of sRNAs have been identified in fungi. This fact along with the availability of genome sequence makes M. oryzae a compelling target for sRNA profiling. We have examined sRNA species and their biosynthetic genes in M. oryzae, and the degree to which these elements regulate fungal stress responses. To this end, we have characterized sRNAs under different physiological stress conditions, which had not yet been examined in this fungus. Results The resulting libraries are composed of more than 37 million total genome matched reads mapping to intergenic regions, coding sequences, retrotransposons, inverted, tandem, and other repeated regions of the genome with more than half of the small RNAs arising from intergenic regions. The 24 nucleotide (nt) size class of sRNAs was predominant. A comparison to transcriptional data of M. oryzae undergoing the same physiological stresses indicates that sRNAs play a role in transcriptional regulation for a small subset of genes. Support for this idea comes from generation and characterization of mutants putatively involved in sRNAs biogenesis; our results indicate that the deletion of Dicer-like genes and an RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase gene increases the transcriptional regulation of this subset of genes, including one involved in virulence. Conclusions Various physiological stressors and in planta conditions alter the small RNA profile of the rice blast fungus. Characterization of sRNA biosynthetic mutants helps to clarify the role of sRNAs in transcriptional control. PMID:23663523

2013-01-01

129

SCREENING CITRUS GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE TO XANTHOMONAS ANONOPODIS PV. CITRI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus bacterial canker (causal agent Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac)) is a serious threat to the citrus industry. Currently there are no effective means to control citrus canker. Our objective was to determine the resistance of selected Citrus species, citrus hybrids, and citrus relatives to...

130

Citrus Grove Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Citrus growers have long used aerial photography to inventory the number of groves in production. A new development at Kennedy Space Center, aerial mapping of groves with color infrared (CIR) film, affords an important advance in grove management by detecting and locating unhealthy trees long before they could be detected by ground survey methods. Aerial CIR photography picks up light reflected from foliage-- light not visible to the human eye--and enables differentiation between healthy and "stressed" (diseased) trees of a Florida orange/grapefruit grove. Computer aided photo interpretation techniques permit grading diseased trees lightly, moderately or severely stressed or dead. Method of grove mapping has offered advantage to growers in early disease warning, possible savings through water regulation and provision of a permanent record of grove growth patterns.

1980-01-01

131

Evaluation of the effects of light source and plant materials in psyllid trapping levels in the traps for citrus shipping containers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), the principle vector for Huanglongbing (HLB), has been reported to be transported in truckloads of oranges in Florida. Citrus, especially Key limes and lemons, are shipped to the U.S. from Mexican states that are heavily infested with HLB and live, infected psyllids c...

132

Control of virus diseases of citrus.  

PubMed

Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed. PMID:25591879

Lee, Richard F

2015-01-01

133

Citrus fruit recognition using color image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest

Huirong Xu; Yibin Ying

2004-01-01

134

Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

135

Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

136

Effective disinfection of rough rice using infrared radiation heating  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of infrared (IR) heating and tempering treatments on disinfection of Aspergillus flavus in freshly harvested rough rice and storage rice. Rice samples with initial moisture contents (IMCs) of 14.1 to 27.0% (wet basis) were infected with A. fl...

137

Comparison of five populations of Tylenchulus semipenetrans to Citrus, Poncirus, and their hybrids.  

PubMed

The infectivity of five populations of Tylenchulus semipenetrans were compared and differentiated on 10 hosts (5 Citrus spp., 1 Poncirus trifoliata, and 4 hybrids of Citrus spp. X P. trifoliata). Differences in levels of infection and development (P = 0.01) occurred between Citrus spp. and P. trifoliata cv. 'Pomeroy' and their three hybrids, C. paradisi X P. trifoliata cv. 'Swingle' citruntelo and C. sinensis, cv. 'Ruby' orange X P. trifoliata cv. 'Webber Fawcett 14-7', and '15-7'. Poncirus trifoliata cv. Pomeroy was susceptible to a California biotype 3 and highly resistant to the other citrus nematode populations. Low infection levels with California biotype 1, Arizona, and Florida populations on Swingle citrumelo, and the two Ruby orange hybrids indicated inherited resistance. Reproduction of the nematode population from Texas was greatest on the three hybrids, Swingle citrumelo, Ruby orange 14-7, and 15-7, from the California 1, Arizona, and Florida populations, but its comparable densities on P. trifoliata and Citrus spp. were not sufficiently different from these populations to consider it a separate biotype. California biotype 3 was sufficiently different from all other populations to be considered a different biotype, and it was named the "Poncirus biotype." PMID:19305585

O'Bannon, J H; Chew, V; Tomerlin, A T

1977-04-01

138

Florida Citrus Industry Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's so special about oranges? They are a major cash crop for Florida and other warm weather places, and this fascinating oral history project from the University of South Florida (USF) explores the very nature of this industry. Working together with the USF's Patel Center for Global Studies, oral historian William Mansfield conducted 20 interviews regarding the impact of globalization on the Florida citrus industry. Visitors can listen to or read the interviews, as well as look over the online exhibition, "Selling Sunshine: Florida's Citrus Industry." The exhibition details Florida's unique relationship with the citrus industry, incorporating documents, promotional material, and post cards with its information. The website hosts a remarkable collection that will be of interest to oral historians, folks with an interest in Florida, and many others.

139

A comparison of nitrogen use efficiency definitions in Citrus rootstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) definitions, commonly used in literature, are evaluated in response to nitrate availability in four citrus rootstocks, Rough Lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) (RL), Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) (SwO), Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort ex Tan.) (CM) and Sour Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) (SO). The application of diverse definitions determine different characterizations in N-efficiency among rootstocks.

Agostino Sorgonà; Maria Rosa Abenavoli; Pietro Giorgio Gringeri; Giovanni Cacco

2006-01-01

140

Study of the thermal degradation of citrus seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus seeds are one of the principal residues in the juice industry and their utilization can decrease significantly the problems of their final disposal. In this work the thermal degradation of three Mexican citrus seeds: orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus Limon) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere. The two components (embryo and husk) of the seeds

V. Hernández-Montoya; M. A. Montes-Morán; M. P. Elizalde-González

2009-01-01

141

Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Ear (Otitis Externa) Syphilis Tetanus Tonsillitis Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxic Synovitis Tuberculosis Urinary Tract Infections Vaginal Yeast Infections Warts West Nile Virus What Is "PANS"? Whooping Cough (Pertussis) ...

142

Genome-Wide Analysis of Citrus R2R3MYB Genes and Their Spatiotemporal Expression under Stresses and Hormone Treatments  

PubMed Central

The R2R3MYB proteins represent one of the largest families of transcription factors, which play important roles in plant growth and development. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been conducted in many species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in citrus, In this study, 101 R2R3MYB genes has been identified in the citrus (Citrus sinesis and Citrus clementina) genomes, which are almost equal to the number of rice. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be subdivided into 21 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intro-exon organizations were also analyzed, revealing strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the plant evolution. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 95 citrus R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one tissue and the other 6 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, suggesting that citrus R2R3MYB genes play important roles in the development of all citrus organs. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, drought and low temperature) identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or multiple treatments, which showed a promising for improving citrus adaptation to stresses. Our results provided an essential foundation for the future selection of the citrus R2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection with an aim of uncovering their roles in citrus growth and development. PMID:25473954

He, Shaolan; Zheng, Yongqiang; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Deng, Lie

2014-01-01

143

Huanglongbing, a Systemic Disease, Restructures the Bacterial Community Associated with Citrus Roots?  

PubMed Central

To examine the effect of pathogens on the diversity and structure of plant-associated bacterial communities, we carried out a molecular analysis using citrus and huanglongbing as a host-disease model. 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis of citrus roots revealed shifts in microbial diversity in response to pathogen infection. The clone library of the uninfected root samples has a majority of phylotypes showing similarity to well-known plant growth-promoting bacteria, including Caulobacter, Burkholderia, Lysobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. Infection by “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus roots and led to the loss of detection of most phylotypes while promoting the growth of bacteria such as Methylobacterium and Sphingobacterium. In pairwise comparisons, the clone library from uninfected roots contained significantly higher 16S rRNA gene diversity, as reflected in the higher Chao 1 richness estimation (P ? 0.01) of 237.13 versus 42.14 for the uninfected and infected clone libraries, respectively. Similarly, the Shannon index of the uninfected clone library (4.46) was significantly higher than that of the infected clone library (2.61). Comparison of the uninfected clone library with the infected clone library using LIBSHUFF statistics showed a significant difference (P ? 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the bacterial community changes not only qualitatively but also quantitatively. The relative proportions of different groups of bacteria changed significantly after infection with the pathogen. These data indicate that infection of citrus by “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” has a profound effect on the structure and composition of the bacterial community associated with citrus roots. PMID:20382817

Trivedi, Pankaj; Duan, Yongping; Wang, Nian

2010-01-01

144

Principles of Carbon Catabolite Repression in the Rice Blast Fungus: Tps1, Nmr1-3, and a MATE–Family Pump Regulate Glucose Metabolism during Infection  

PubMed Central

Understanding the genetic pathways that regulate how pathogenic fungi respond to their environment is paramount to developing effective mitigation strategies against disease. Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a global regulatory mechanism found in a wide range of microbial organisms that ensures the preferential utilization of glucose over less favourable carbon sources, but little is known about the components of CCR in filamentous fungi. Here we report three new mediators of CCR in the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae: the sugar sensor Tps1, the Nmr1-3 inhibitor proteins, and the multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE)–family pump, Mdt1. Using simple plate tests coupled with transcriptional analysis, we show that Tps1, in response to glucose-6-phosphate sensing, triggers CCR via the inactivation of Nmr1-3. In addition, by dissecting the CCR pathway using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated mutagenesis, we also show that Mdt1 is an additional and previously unknown regulator of glucose metabolism. Mdt1 regulates glucose assimilation downstream of Tps1 and is necessary for nutrient utilization, sporulation, and pathogenicity. This is the first functional characterization of a MATE–family protein in filamentous fungi and the first description of a MATE protein in genetic regulation or plant pathogenicity. Perturbing CCR in ?tps1 and MDT1 disruption strains thus results in physiological defects that impact pathogenesis, possibly through the early expression of cell wall–degrading enzymes. Taken together, the importance of discovering three new regulators of carbon metabolism lies in understanding how M. oryzae and other pathogenic fungi respond to nutrient availability and control development during infection. PMID:22570632

Hartline, David; Quispe, Cristian F.; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Wilson, Richard A.

2012-01-01

145

Different Chitin Synthase Genes Are Required for Various Developmental and Plant Infection Processes in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

Chitin is a major component of fungal cell wall and is synthesized by chitin synthases (Chs). Plant pathogenic fungi normally have multiple chitin synthase genes. To determine their roles in development and pathogenesis, we functionally characterized all seven CHS genes in Magnaporthe oryzae. Three of them, CHS1, CHS6, and CHS7, were found to be important for plant infection. While the chs6 mutant was non-pathogenic, the chs1 and chs7 mutants were significantly reduced in virulence. CHS1 plays a specific role in conidiogenesis, an essential step for natural infection cycle. Most of chs1 conidia had no septum and spore tip mucilage. The chs6 mutant was reduced in hyphal growth and conidiation. It failed to penetrate and grow invasively in plant cells. The two MMD-containing chitin synthase genes, CHS5 and CHS6, have a similar expression pattern. Although deletion of CHS5 had no detectable phenotype, the chs5 chs6 double mutant had more severe defects than the chs6 mutant, indicating that they may have overlapping functions in maintaining polarized growth in vegetative and invasive hyphae. Unlike the other CHS genes, CHS7 has a unique function in appressorium formation. Although it was blocked in appressorium formation by germ tubes on artificial hydrophobic surfaces, the chs7 mutant still produced melanized appressoria by hyphal tips or on plant surfaces, indicating that chitin synthase genes have distinct impacts on appressorium formation by hyphal tip and germ tube. The chs7 mutant also was defective in appressorium penetration and invasive growth. Overall, our results indicate that individual CHS genes play diverse roles in hyphal growth, conidiogenesis, appressorium development, and pathogenesis in M. oryzae, and provided potential new leads in the control of this devastating pathogen by targeting specific chitin synthases. PMID:22346755

Li, Guo-Tian; Qi, Lin-Lu; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Chen-Fang; Zhao, Wen-Sheng; Xu, Jin-Rong; Peng, You-Liang

2012-01-01

146

Stylet Morphometrics and Citrus Leaf Vein Structure in Relation to Feeding Behavior of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri, Vector of Citrus Huanglongbing Bacterium  

PubMed Central

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS) associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening), considered the world’s most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ACP nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified) feeding sites on Valencia orange leaves. ACP nymphs preferred to settle and feed on the lower (abaxial) side of young leaves either on secondary veins or on the sides of the midrib, whereas adults preferred to settle and feed on the upper (adaxial) or lower secondary veins of young or old leaves. Early instar nymphs can reach and probe the phloem probably because the distance to the phloem is considerably shorter in younger than in mature leaves, and is shorter from the sides of the midrib compared to that from the center. Additionally, the thick-walled ‘fibrous ring’ (sclerenchyma) around the phloem, which may act as a barrier to ACP stylet penetration into the phloem, is more prominent in older than in younger leaves and in the center than on the sides of the midrib. The majority (80–90%) of the salivary sheath termini produced by ACP nymphs and adults that reached a vascular bundle were associated with the phloem, whereas only 10–20% were associated with xylem vessels. Ultrastructural studies on ACP stylets and LAS-infected leaves suggested that the width of the maxillary food canal in first instar nymphs is wide enough for LAS bacteria to traverse during food ingestion (and LAS acquisition). However, the width of the maxillary salivary canal in these nymphs may not be wide enough to accommodate LAS bacteria during salivation (and LAS inoculation) into host plants. This may explain the inability of early instar nymphs to transmit LAS/HLB in earlier reports. PMID:23555830

Ammar, El-Desouky; Hall, David G.; Shatters, Robert G.

2013-01-01

147

7 CFR 905.31 - Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee. 905.31...Administrative Bodies § 905.31 Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee. It shall be the duty of the Citrus Administrative Committee:...

2010-01-01

148

PHYTOSANITARY STATUS OF CALIFORNIA CITRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The certification/registration program for citrus nursery stock in California is one of the oldest in the world and has served as a model for other programs. Although this program functions efficiently in its present form, new challenges sometimes arise that force modifications or improvements to th...

149

Genetically Engineered Rice Resistant to Rice Stripe Virus, an Insect Transmitted Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coat protein (CP) gene of rice stripe virus was introduced into two japonica varieties of rice by electroporation of protoplasts. The resultant transgenic plants expressed the CP at high levels (up to 0.5% of total soluble protein) and exhibited a significant level of resistance to virus infection. Plants derived from selfed progeny of the primary transformants also expressed the

Takahiko Hayakawa; Yafeng Zhu; Kimiko Itoh; Yusuke Kimura; Takeshi Izawa; Ko Shimamoto; Shigemitsu Toriyama

1992-01-01

150

RL-SAGE ANALYSIS OF THE RICE DEFENSE TRANSCRIPTOME DURING RICE AND RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI INTERACTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheath blight caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is an emerging problem in rice production worldwide. To elucidate the molecular basis of rice defense to the pathogen, two RL-SAGE libraries were made from the R. solani infected and control plants of Jasmine 85, which is moderately resi...

151

Huanglongbing alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with citrus rhizosphere  

PubMed Central

The diversity and stability of bacterial communities present in the rhizosphere heavily influence soil and plant quality and ecosystem sustainability. The goal of this study is to understand how ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (known to cause Huanglongbing, HLB) influences the structure and functional potential of microbial communities associated with the citrus rhizosphere. Clone library sequencing and taxon/group-specific quantitative real-time PCR results showed that ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus rhizosphere. Within the bacterial community, phylum Proteobacteria with various genera typically known as successful rhizosphere colonizers were significantly greater in clone libraries from healthy samples, whereas phylum Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, typically more dominant in the bulk soil were higher in ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected samples. A comprehensive functional microarray GeoChip 3.0 was used to determine the effects of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on the functional diversity of rhizosphere microbial communities. GeoChip analysis showed that HLB disease has significant effects on various functional guilds of bacteria. Many genes involved in key ecological processes such as nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation, phosphorus utilization, metal homeostasis and resistance were significantly greater in healthy than in the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere. Our results showed that the microbial community of the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere has shifted away from using more easily degraded sources of carbon to the more recalcitrant forms. Overall, our study provides evidence that the change in plant physiology mediated by ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection could elicit shifts in the composition and functional potential of rhizosphere microbial communities. In the long term, these fluctuations might have important implications for the productivity and sustainability of citrus-producing agro-ecosystems. PMID:21796220

Trivedi, Pankaj; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Albrigo, Gene; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Nian

2012-01-01

152

76 FR 8603 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of citrus. Caused by a strain of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, CVC causes severe...researchers did note, however, that the bacterium causing HLB remained at a very low titer...disease. However, titer levels of the bacterium were low, and the plants remained...

2011-02-15

153

Extraction of Citrus Oil from Peel Slurry of Japanese Citrus Fruits with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peel slurry of some Japanese citrus fruits, such as lemon, shikuwasa and daidai, was used as an alternative source of citrus oil and the extraction was conducted by using supercritical carbon dioxide at 333 K and 20 MPa in order to compare the compositions and the extraction efficiency of oils extracted from these slurries. The peel slurry of citrus fruits

Bhupesh C. Roy; M. Sasaki; M. Goto

2005-01-01

154

Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector

Y. Hu; J. Zhang; H. Jia; D. Sosso; T. Li; W. B. Frommer; B. Yang; F. F. White; N. Wang; J. B. Jones

2014-01-01

155

Photographic Remote Sensing of Sick Citrus Trees  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing with infrared color aerial photography (Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film) for detecting citrus tree anomalies is described. Illustrations and discussions are given for detecting nutrient toxicity symptoms, for detecting foot rot and sooty mold fungal diseases, and for distinguishing among citrus species. Also, the influence of internal leaf structure on light reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are considered; and physiological and environmental factors that affect citrus leaf light reflectance are reviewed briefly and illustrated.

Gausman, H. W.

1971-01-01

156

Citrus Allergy from Pollen to Clinical Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 ? and ?) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade. PMID:23308273

Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

2013-01-01

157

Diphenylurea Derivatives Induce Somatic Embryogenesis in Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research investigates the possibility that three diphenylurea (DPU) derivatives, N-phenyl-N?-benzothiazol-6-ylurea (PBU), N,N?-bis-(2,3-methilendioxyphenyl)urea (2,3-MDPU) and N,N?-bis-(3,4-methilendioxyphenyl)urea (3,4-MDPU), stimulate the induction of somatic embryogenesis in three Citrus species. The hypothetical embryogenic activity was assessed using stigma and styles of Citrus myrtifolia Raf., Citrus madurensis Lour. and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. The three compounds influenced the production of somatic embryos differently

Angela Carra; Fabio De Pasquale; Ada Ricci; Francesco Carimi

2006-01-01

158

Rice University | Rice Facts Index Undergraduates Graduates Faculty & Researchers Staff Alumni  

E-print Network

Rice University | Rice Facts Index Undergraduates Graduates Faculty & Researchers Staff Alumni Rice Facts Rice Facts Index Rice Culture Academics Campus Features Rice Administration Resources Historical Facts Archives About OIR Rice News Feed Font Size Rice Facts Rice Culture Mission History

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

159

[Environmental regulation of Citrus photosynthesis].  

PubMed

Recent researches on the mechanisms of environmental regulation of citrus photosynthesis showed that the photoinhibition of photosynthesis induced by strong light or ultraviolet radiation was related to the inactiveness of PS II reaction center, and photorespiration and xanthophyll cycle played a pivotal role in protecting photosynthetic apparatus. Under temperature stress, lower CO2 assimilation was mainly due to the decrease of RuBPCase activity and the inactiveness of PS II reaction center, and species sensitivity existed. The decline of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation under high water stress was due to non-stomatal limitation, while that under low water stress was due to stomatal limitation. The citrus growth, yield and quality could be increased by increasing photosynthesis under elevated CO2 concentration. The mechanisms of photosynthesis regulation by minerals such as nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and iron, as well as the effects of salt stress on photosynthesis were discussed, and the directions for future research were suggested. PMID:16724758

Hu, Meijun; Guo, Yanping; Shen, Yungang; Zhang, Liangcheng

2006-03-01

160

Identification and characterization of the interaction between viroplasm-associated proteins from two different plant-infecting reoviruses and eEF-1A of rice.  

PubMed

A rice protein homologous to eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF-1A) was found to interact with the Pns6 of rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), the type member of the genus Oryzavirus, family Reoviridae, in yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction between the rice protein, designated OseEF-1A, and RRSV Pns6 was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Besides Pns6, OseEF-1A also interacted with the viroplasm matrix protein, Pns10, of RRSV. When expressed together, OseEF-1A co-localized with RRSV Pns10 in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana. Pns6 of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a newly reported member of the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae, was the only non-structural SRBSDV protein studied here that also interacted with OseEF-1A. Like Pns6 of rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), SRBSDV Pns6 interacted with itself and co-localized with Pns9-1 in N. benthamiana. In the presence of Pns6, OseEF-1A co-localized with Pns9-1, the putative viroplasm matrix protein of SRBSDV. PMID:23605590

Songbai, Zhang; Zhenguo, Du; Liang, Yang; Zhengjie, Yuan; Kangcheng, Wu; Guangpu, Li; Zujian, Wu; Lianhui, Xie

2013-10-01

161

Tylenchulus semipenetrans Alters the Microbial Community in the Citrus Rhizosphere  

PubMed Central

Infection of citrus seedlings by Tylenchulus semipenetrans was shown to reduce subsequent infection of roots by Phytophthora nicotianae and to increase plant growth compared to plants infected by only the fungus. Hypothetical mechanisms by which the nematode suppresses fungal development include nutrient competition, direct antibiosis, or alteration of the microbial community in the rhizosphere to favor microorganisms antagonistic to P. nicotianae. A test of the last hypothesis was conducted via surveys of five sites in each of three citrus orchards infested with both organisms. A total of 180 2-cm-long fibrous root segments, half with a female T. semipenetrans egg mass on the root surface and half without, were obtained from each orchard site. The samples were macerated in water, and fungi and bacteria in the suspensions were isolated, quantified, and identified. No differences were detected in the numbers of microorganism species isolated from nematode-infected and uninfected root segments. However, nematode-infected root segments had significantly more propagules of bacteria at all orchard sites. Bacillus megaterium and Burkholderia cepacia were the dominant bacterial species recovered. Bacteria belonging to the genera Arthrobacter and Stenotrophomonas were encountered less frequently. The fungus community was dominated by Fusarium solani, but Trichoderma, Verticillum, Phythophthora, and Penicillium spp. also were recovered. All isolated bacteria equally inhibited the growth of P. nicotianae in vitro. Experiments using selected bacteria, T. semipenetrans, and P. nicotianae, alone or in combination, were conducted in both the laboratory and greenhouse. Root and stem fresh weights of P. nicotianae-infected plants treated with T. semipenetrans, B. cepacia, or B. megaterium were greater than for plants treated only with the fungus. Phytophthora nicotianae protein in roots of fungus-infected plants was reduced by nematodes (P ? 0.001), either alone or in combination with either bacterium. However, treatment with bacteria did not affect P. nicotianae development in roots. The results suggest different mechanisms by which T. semipenetrans, B. cepacia, and B. megaterium may mitigate virulence of P. nicotianae. PMID:19265991

El-Borai, F. E.; Duncan, L. W.; Graham, J. H.; Dickstein, E.

2003-01-01

162

Tylenchulus semipenetrans Alters the Microbial Community in the Citrus Rhizosphere.  

PubMed

Infection of citrus seedlings by Tylenchulus semipenetrans was shown to reduce subsequent infection of roots by Phytophthora nicotianae and to increase plant growth compared to plants infected by only the fungus. Hypothetical mechanisms by which the nematode suppresses fungal development include nutrient competition, direct antibiosis, or alteration of the microbial community in the rhizosphere to favor microorganisms antagonistic to P. nicotianae. A test of the last hypothesis was conducted via surveys of five sites in each of three citrus orchards infested with both organisms. A total of 180 2-cm-long fibrous root segments, half with a female T. semipenetrans egg mass on the root surface and half without, were obtained from each orchard site. The samples were macerated in water, and fungi and bacteria in the suspensions were isolated, quantified, and identified. No differences were detected in the numbers of microorganism species isolated from nematode-infected and uninfected root segments. However, nematode-infected root segments had significantly more propagules of bacteria at all orchard sites. Bacillus megaterium and Burkholderia cepacia were the dominant bacterial species recovered. Bacteria belonging to the genera Arthrobacter and Stenotrophomonas were encountered less frequently. The fungus community was dominated by Fusarium solani, but Trichoderma, Verticillum, Phythophthora, and Penicillium spp. also were recovered. All isolated bacteria equally inhibited the growth of P. nicotianae in vitro. Experiments using selected bacteria, T. semipenetrans, and P. nicotianae, alone or in combination, were conducted in both the laboratory and greenhouse. Root and stem fresh weights of P. nicotianae-infected plants treated with T. semipenetrans, B. cepacia, or B. megaterium were greater than for plants treated only with the fungus. Phytophthora nicotianae protein in roots of fungus-infected plants was reduced by nematodes (P

El-Borai, F E; Duncan, L W; Graham, J H; Dickstein, E

2003-06-01

163

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

2013-02-01

164

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization.  

PubMed

This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications. PMID:23211617

Sujitha, Mohanan V; Kannan, Soundarapandian

2013-02-01

165

Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016

Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

2013-02-01

166

Prophage-mediated dynamics of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' populations, the destructive bacterial pathogens of citrus huanglongbing.  

PubMed

Prophages are highly dynamic components in the bacterial genome and play an important role in intraspecies variations. There are at least two prophages in the chromosomes of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las) Floridian isolates. Las is both unculturable and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB), a worldwide destructive disease of citrus. In this study, seven new prophage variants resulting from two hyper-variable regions were identified by screening clone libraries of infected citrus, periwinkle and psyllids. Among them, Types A and B share highly conserved sequences and localize within the two prophages, FP1 and FP2, respectively. Although Types B and C were abundant in all three libraries, Type A was much more abundant in the libraries from the Las-infected psyllids than from the Las-infected plants, and Type D was only identified in libraries from the infected host plants but not from the infected psyllids. Sequence analysis of these variants revealed that the variations may result from recombination and rearrangement events. Conventional PCR results using type-specific molecular markers indicated that A, B, C and D are the four most abundant types in Las-infected citrus and periwinkle. However, only three types, A, B and C are abundant in Las-infected psyllids. Typing results for Las-infected citrus field samples indicated that mixed populations of Las bacteria present in Floridian isolates, but only the Type D population was correlated with the blotchy mottle symptom. Extended cloning and sequencing of the Type D region revealed a third prophage/phage in the Las genome, which may derive from the recombination of FP1 and FP2. Dramatic variations in these prophage regions were also found among the global Las isolates. These results are the first to demonstrate the prophage/phage-mediated dynamics of Las populations in plant and insect hosts, and their correlation with insect transmission and disease development. PMID:24349235

Zhou, Lijuan; Powell, Charles A; Li, Wenbin; Irey, Mike; Duan, Yongping

2013-01-01

167

Prophage-Mediated Dynamics of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Populations, the Destructive Bacterial Pathogens of Citrus Huanglongbing  

PubMed Central

Prophages are highly dynamic components in the bacterial genome and play an important role in intraspecies variations. There are at least two prophages in the chromosomes of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) Floridian isolates. Las is both unculturable and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB), a worldwide destructive disease of citrus. In this study, seven new prophage variants resulting from two hyper-variable regions were identified by screening clone libraries of infected citrus, periwinkle and psyllids. Among them, Types A and B share highly conserved sequences and localize within the two prophages, FP1 and FP2, respectively. Although Types B and C were abundant in all three libraries, Type A was much more abundant in the libraries from the Las-infected psyllids than from the Las-infected plants, and Type D was only identified in libraries from the infected host plants but not from the infected psyllids. Sequence analysis of these variants revealed that the variations may result from recombination and rearrangement events. Conventional PCR results using type-specific molecular markers indicated that A, B, C and D are the four most abundant types in Las-infected citrus and periwinkle. However, only three types, A, B and C are abundant in Las-infected psyllids. Typing results for Las-infected citrus field samples indicated that mixed populations of Las bacteria present in Floridian isolates, but only the Type D population was correlated with the blotchy mottle symptom. Extended cloning and sequencing of the Type D region revealed a third prophage/phage in the Las genome, which may derive from the recombination of FP1 and FP2. Dramatic variations in these prophage regions were also found among the global Las isolates. These results are the first to demonstrate the prophage/phage-mediated dynamics of Las populations in plant and insect hosts, and their correlation with insect transmission and disease development. PMID:24349235

Zhou, Lijuan; Powell, Charles A.; Li, Wenbin; Irey, Mike; Duan, Yongping

2013-01-01

168

Changes in arginine, PAL activity, and nematode behavior in salinity-stressed citrus.  

PubMed

De novo arginine biosynthesis has been described as a response of citrus to a range of stresses. It is often noted that stress in plants enhances susceptibility to herbivory and pathogenic attack. Using a citrus and nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) system, the effects of salinity stress on nematode behavior, amino acids (particularly arginine), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity was investigated. The hypothesis was tested that under salinity stress, citrus grows more slowly and produces arginine in response to high levels of in vivo ammonia, resulting in lower PAL activity and increased susceptibility to nematode attack. After 30 days of high salinity (0.1 M NaCl), plants exhibited a 38% reduction in growth, 35% reduction in PAL activity, and had 54% higher infection rates. PAL activity was inversely correlated (P < or = 0.05) with salinity level and with increase in arginine concentration. PMID:9747539

Dunn, D C; Duncan, L W; Romeo, J T

1998-09-01

169

Purification and Properties of a New Carboxypeptidase from Citrus Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT has been found that a Carboxypeptidase (or a mixture of various carboxypeptidases) occurs in the peel of citrus fruit, for example, of the orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus medica), and grapefruit (Citrus maxima). This peptidase differs in specificity and in other properties from the known carboxypeptidases A (ref. 1) and B (ref. 2) of the pancreas and from the

H. Zuber

1964-01-01

170

Estimating citrus rust mite densities on fruit: Some sampling considerations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus rust mites continue to be key pests of citrus fruit in most Florida groves, particularly in fruit grown for the fresh market. There are two different species, the citrus rust mite and the pink citrus rust mite, and the currently the same scouting and management programs are used to manage bo...

171

Citrus Viruses in Guatemala: Application of Laboratory-Based Assays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In preparation for a citrus certification in Guatemala, there was an urgent need to determine which graft transmissible citrus pathogens were present. Because of the lack of biological indicator plants, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent for citrus variegated chlorosis...

172

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries Table A3. Citrus, melon, berries: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2

173

BIOAVAILABILITY OF CITRUS LIMONOIDS TO HUMANS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus limonoids occur in significant quantities in citrus fruit and juice as water-soluble limonoid glucosides. They have demonstrated significant anti-tumor activity in animal and cancer cell screens. In this study we examined the plasma of four groups of four healthy male and female subjects (n...

174

Extraction of phenolics from citrus peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic contents of five citrus peels (Yen Ben lemon, Meyer lemon, grapefruit, mandarin and orange) extracted by enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction were evaluated using the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The main parameters that affected the yield of phenolics include the condition of the peels, temperature of the extraction, types of enzymes, enzyme concentration and species of citrus. Generally, grapefruit peel had

B. B. Li; B. Smith

2006-01-01

175

Extraction of phenolics from citrus peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic contents of five citrus peels (Yen Ben lemon, Meyer lemon, grapefruit, mandarin and orange) extracted either by ethanol or by simple aqueous extraction were evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and compared. The main parameters that affected the yield of phenolics included the condition of the peels, temperature of the extraction, solvent concentration and species of citrus. Generally,

B. B. Li; B. Smith

2006-01-01

176

Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides

Didier Ortelli; Patrick Edder; Claude Corvi

2005-01-01

177

Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

178

Citrus Community College District Mentor Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Citrus College faculty and staff addressed the problem of lower career aspirations among women by establishing a support group, Citrus Women in Higher Education (CWHE). In addition to group meetings and special programs of interest, the CWHE has developed a mentor program to address the problem of blocked careers faced by women. The goals of…

Hinds, Diane; Sprague, Caroline

179

HUANGLONGBING, CITRUS GREENING: PREPARING FOR THE FUTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB), more commonly known as citrus greening disease, was found in Florida in August 2005; Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the Asian citrus psyllid and insect vector of HLB, was found in Florida in 1998. Since the initial discovery, the presence of HLB has been confirmed by polymerase cha...

180

Asian citrus psyllid, genetic basis of immunity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We successfully used a genomics approach to determine some of the genes which function in immunity, stress, and insecticide resistance in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). These psyllids are vectors of the devastating disease, Huanglongbing, now affecting citrus in F...

181

Four Biotypes of Tylenchulus semipenetrans in California Identified, and Their Importance in the Development of Resistant Citrus Rootstocks.  

PubMed

Four biotypes (pathotypes) of the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, occurring in California, U.S.A. were differentiated on the basis of differences of infectivity on 'Homosassa' sweet orange, 'Troyer' citrange, 'Pomeroy' and 'Rubidoux' Poncirus trifoliata, 'Thompson Seedless' grape, and 'Manzanillo' olive. A method for differentiating biotypes of T. semipenetrans is described. Field observations indicate that biotypes of this nematode are very stable. The importance of using highly infective biotypes in the development and selection of satisfactory citrus-nematode-resistant rootstocks is emphasized. PMID:19319369

Baines, R C; Cameron, J W; Soost, R K

1974-04-01

182

Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Results Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired plant fruits of family Rutaceae revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins. The fruits of C. sinensis and C. anrantifolia exhibited the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins, while the fruits of C. limonum indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, terpinedes, and tannins. The fruits of selected plants were also subjected to antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay against ascorbic acid at various concentrations. Among the tested plants, C. sinensis showed promising antiradical effect (84.81%) which was followed by C. Anrantifolia (80.05%) at 100 ?g/ml against ascorbic acid (96.36%). The C. limonum showed low antioxidant activity among the three selected plants of family Rutaceae. Conclusions The current finding is baseline information in the use of the fruits of selected plants as food supplement which may be due to the presence of antioxidant molecules in the family Rutaceae. Further research is needed in this area to isolate the phenolic constituents which possess ideal antiradical potential. PMID:25024932

2014-01-01

183

The plastome of Citrus . Physical map, variation among Citrus cultivars and species and comparison with related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physical plastome map was constructed for Citrus aurantium, and the plastomes of species and cultivars of Citrus and of two Citrus relatives were analysed by Southern blot-hybridisation of labelled total tobacco cpDNA to digests of total Citrus DNA. A resemblance was found between the plastomes of cultivars of C. limon (lemon), C. sinensis (orange), C. aurantium (sour orange), C.

R. M. Green; A. Vardi; E. Galun

1986-01-01

184

Effective antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-affected citrus plants identified via the graft-based evaluation.  

PubMed

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited 'Candidatus Liberibacter', is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application. PMID:25372135

Zhang, Muqing; Guo, Ying; Powell, Charles A; Doud, Melissa S; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

2014-01-01

185

Analysis on blast fungus-responsive characters of a flavonoid phytoalexin sakuranetin; accumulation in infected rice leaves, antifungal activity and detoxification by fungus.  

PubMed

To understand the role of the rice flavonoid phytoalexin (PA) sakuranetin for blast resistance, the fungus-responsive characteristics were studied. Young rice leaves in a resistant line exhibited hypersensitive reaction (HR) within 3 days post inoculation (dpi) of a spore suspension, and an increase in sakuranetin was detected at 3 dpi, increasing to 4-fold at 4 dpi. In the susceptible line, increased sakuranetin was detected at 4 dpi, but not at 3 dpi, by which a large fungus mass has accumulated without HR. Induced expression of a PA biosynthesis gene OsNOMT for naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase was found before accumulation of sakuranetin in both cultivars. The antifungal activity of sakuranetin was considerably higher than that of the major rice diterpenoid PA momilactone A in vitro and in vivo under similar experimental conditions. The decrease and detoxification of sakuranetin were detected in both solid and liquid mycelium cultures, and they took place slower than those of momilactone A. Estimated local concentration of sakuranetin at HR lesions was thought to be effective for fungus restriction, while that at enlarged lesions in susceptible rice was insufficient. These results indicate possible involvement of sakuranetin in blast resistance and its specific relation to blast fungus. PMID:25093982

Hasegawa, Morifumi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Seo, Shigemi; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Iwai, Takayoshi; Ohashi, Yuko

2014-01-01

186

Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

2012-01-01

187

7 CFR 93.5 - Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement...TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.5 Fees for citrus product...

2010-01-01

188

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2013-01-01

189

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2011-01-01

190

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2012-01-01

191

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2014-01-01

192

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2010-01-01

193

Citrus Leprosis Virus Vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on Citrus in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms\\u000a of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation,\\u000a and death of the twigs or

J. C. V. Rodrigues; E. W. Kitajima; C. C. Childers; C. M. Chagas

2003-01-01

194

Increasing herbicide selectivity between rice and red rice  

E-print Network

of red rice reduce grain yields through compe- tition with seeded rice for sunlight, nutrients, and moisture. Furthermore, red rice lowers the grade of milled rice. Because of its size and shape, it is dif- ficult to remove red rice from domestic... varieties during the milling process. Rice that contains red rice grains must 'be milled closely to remove the red bran coat. This frequently breaks the domestic rice grains. If the bran coat is not removed, the milled rice is unattractive end...

Koetz, Paul Howard

2012-06-07

195

Comprehensive analysis of CCCH-type zinc finger gene family in citrus (Clementine mandarin) by genome-wide characterization.  

PubMed

The CCCH-type zinc finger proteins comprise a large gene family of regulatory proteins and are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. The CCCH proteins have been implicated in multiple biological processes and environmental responses in plants. Little information is available, however, about CCCH genes in plants, especially in woody plants such as citrus. The release of the whole-genome sequence of citrus allowed us to perform a genome-wide analysis of CCCH genes and to compare the identified proteins with their orthologs in model plants. In this study, 62 CCCH genes and a total of 132 CCCH motifs were identified, and a comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, functional annotations, gene structures and conserved motifs was performed. Distribution mapping revealed that 54 of the 62 CCCH genes are unevenly dispersed on the nine citrus chromosomes. Based on phylogenetic analysis and gene structural features, we constructed 5 subfamilies of 62 CCCH members and integrative subfamilies from citrus, Arabidopsis, and rice, respectively. Importantly, large numbers of SNPs and InDels in 26 CCCH genes were identified from Poncirus trifoliata and Fortunella japonica using whole-genome deep re-sequencing. Furthermore, citrus CCCH genes showed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in different developmental processes and in response to various stress conditions. Our comprehensive analysis of CleC3Hs is a valuable resource that further elucidates the roles of CCCH family members in plant growth and development. In addition, variants and comparative genomics analyses deepen our understanding of the evolution of the CCCH gene family and will contribute to further genetics and genomics studies of citrus and other plant species. PMID:24820208

Liu, Shengrui; Khan, Muhammad Rehman Gul; Li, Yongping; Zhang, Jinzhi; Hu, Chungen

2014-10-01

196

Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome.  

PubMed

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447]. PMID:24511328

Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; Maccarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J; Steven V, Ready; Davis, Vincent M; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L; Shelby, Kent S; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Davis, Paul H; Hunter, Wayne B

2014-01-01

197

Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447]. PMID:24511328

Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L.; Shelby, Kent S.; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R.; Shatters, Robert G.; Hall, David G.; Davis, Paul H.; Hunter, Wayne B.

2014-01-01

198

Rice hull smoke extract protects mice against a salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice hulls accounting for 20% of the rice crop are a byproduct of post-harvest rice processing. Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent often fatal disease that results mainly from infection with Salmonella and other Gram-negative bacteria. The present study investigated the...

199

Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants.  

PubMed

Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by fatty-acid methyl ester analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium spp. (including Methylobacterium extorquens, M. fujisawaense, M. mesophilicum, M. radiotolerans, and M. zatmanii), Nocardia sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Xanthomonas campestris. We observed a relationship between CVC symptoms and the frequency of isolation of species of Methylobacterium, the genus that we most frequently isolated from symptomatic plants. In contrast, we isolated C. flaccumfaciens significantly more frequently from asymptomatic plants than from those with symptoms of CVC while P. agglomerans was frequently isolated from tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and sweet-orange (C. sinensis) plants, irrespective of whether the plants were symptomatic or asymptomatic or showed symptoms of CVC. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total plant DNA resulted in several bands that matched those from the bacterial isolates, indicating that DGGE profiles can be used to detect some endophytic bacteria of citrus plants. However, some bands had no match with any isolate, suggesting the occurrence of other, nonculturable or as yet uncultured, endophytic bacteria. A specific band with a high G+C ratio was observed only in asymptomatic plants. The higher frequency of C. flaccumfaciens in asymptomatic plants suggests a role for this organism in the resistance of plants to CVC. PMID:12324338

Araújo, Welington L; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Van Vuurde, Jim W L; Azevedo, João Lúcio

2002-10-01

200

Diversity of Endophytic Bacterial Populations and Their Interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in Citrus Plants  

PubMed Central

Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by fatty-acid methyl ester analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium spp. (including Methylobacterium extorquens, M. fujisawaense, M. mesophilicum, M. radiotolerans, and M. zatmanii), Nocardia sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Xanthomonas campestris. We observed a relationship between CVC symptoms and the frequency of isolation of species of Methylobacterium, the genus that we most frequently isolated from symptomatic plants. In contrast, we isolated C. flaccumfaciens significantly more frequently from asymptomatic plants than from those with symptoms of CVC while P. agglomerans was frequently isolated from tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and sweet-orange (C. sinensis) plants, irrespective of whether the plants were symptomatic or asymptomatic or showed symptoms of CVC. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total plant DNA resulted in several bands that matched those from the bacterial isolates, indicating that DGGE profiles can be used to detect some endophytic bacteria of citrus plants. However, some bands had no match with any isolate, suggesting the occurrence of other, nonculturable or as yet uncultured, endophytic bacteria. A specific band with a high G+C ratio was observed only in asymptomatic plants. The higher frequency of C. flaccumfaciens in asymptomatic plants suggests a role for this organism in the resistance of plants to CVC. PMID:12324338

Araújo, Welington L.; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Vuurde, Jim W. L.; Azevedo, João Lúcio

2002-01-01

201

Rice Young Alumni Information  

E-print Network

Rice Young Alumni Detailed Information: Houston Young Alumni Committee Programs 2011-2012 #12; Rice Young Alumni Information Alumni.rice.edu The Houston Young Alumni Committee Helps Shape Your Young Alumni Programs The Houston Young Alumni Committee represents the over 2,300 Rice undergrad

Palem, Krishna V.

202

Citrus fruit recognition using color image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest (ROI) tool. Several types of contrast color indices were designed and tested. In this study, the fruit image was enhanced using the (R-B) contrast color index because results show that the fruit have the highest color difference among the objects in the image. A dynamic threshold function was derived from this color model and used to distinguish citrus fruit from background. The results show that the algorithm worked well under frontlighting or backlighting condition. However, there are misclassifications when the fruit or the background is under a brighter sunlight.

Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin

2004-10-01

203

PESTICIDE POISONINGS REPORTED BY FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...

204

Symmetric and asymmetric hybridization in citrus spp.  

E-print Network

of ?Hamlin? sweet orange and 13 ?Singapura? pummelo with potential to be used as blight, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), and Phytophthora-induced disease tolerant rootstocks. Khan and Grosser (2004) fused C. micrantha, a progenitor of lime, with sweet...

Bona, Claudine M.

2009-05-15

205

Investigation of seedling yellows cross protection by mild components of the Dekopon strain of Citrus tristeza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Virulent strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) can be controlled by pre-infection by mild strains of CTV which is called cross protection. However, the mode of action of cross protection is unknown and its durability unpredictable. RNA silencing is a regulatory mechanism to maintain genome integri...

206

Effects of Pratylenchus coffeae-Tylenchulus semipenetrans Interactions on Nematode Population Dynamics in Citrus.  

PubMed

The distributions of Pratylenchus coffeae and Tylenchulus semipenetrans in a central Florida citrus grove were mutually exclusive. In a challenge experiment conducted in the grove, indigenous populations of either species did not prevlude infection by the other species. Inoculation with either T. semipenetrans or P. coffeae tended to reduce the population size of the other nematode species. In greenhouse tests, individual feeder roots were parasitized predominantly by one or the other of the two species. Host response to parasitism in dual infections did not differ from response to single infection by either species. PMID:19295723

Kaplan, D T; Timmer, L W

1982-07-01

207

Effects of Pratylenchus coffeae—Tylenchulus semipenetrans Interactions on Nematode Population Dynamics in Citrus  

PubMed Central

The distributions of Pratylenchus coffeae and Tylenchulus semipenetrans in a central Florida citrus grove were mutually exclusive. In a challenge experiment conducted in the grove, indigenous populations of either species did not prevlude infection by the other species. Inoculation with either T. semipenetrans or P. coffeae tended to reduce the population size of the other nematode species. In greenhouse tests, individual feeder roots were parasitized predominantly by one or the other of the two species. Host response to parasitism in dual infections did not differ from response to single infection by either species. PMID:19295723

Kaplan, D. T.; Timmer, L. W.

1982-01-01

208

Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins  

PubMed Central

Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

2014-01-01

209

Morphology based field rice density detection from rice transplant stage to rice jointing stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice yield estimation is an important aspect in the agriculture research field. For the rice yield estimation, rice density is one of its useful factors. In this paper, we propose a new method to automatically detect the rice density from the rice transplanting stage to rice jointing stage. It devotes to detect rice planting density by image low-level features of the rice image sequences taken in the fields. Moreover, a rice jointing stage automatic detection method is proposed so as to terminate the rice density detection algorithm. The validities of the proposed rice density detection method and the rice jointing stage automatic detection method are proved in the experiment.

Bai, X. D.; Cao, Z. G.; Wang, Y.; Ye, M. N.; Yu, Z. H.; Li, Y. N.

2013-10-01

210

Hang.Yu@rice.edu lzhong@rice.edu  

E-print Network

Hang Yu Hang.Yu@rice.edu Lin Zhong lzhong@rice.edu Ashutosh Sabharwal ashu@rice.edu Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 All current mobile devices are omni

Zhong, Lin

211

ASIAN CITRUS PSYLLID AND CITRUS GREENING - A CLOSER LOOK AT THE VECTOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Homoptera: Psyllidae), was first found in Florida during June 1998 and is now widespread throughout much of the state. This invasive psyllid vectors the bacterium responsible for huanglongbing (HLB) (greening disease), a serious citrus disease. HL...

212

Ecoport Slide Shows on the Internet Related to Citrus and Citrus Diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The EcoPort website was launched in 2000 to provide a knowledge database of biodiversity. As of September 2005, the EcoPort website contained over one half million references, over 42,000 pictures and over 200 slide shows, of which 59 pertain to citrus and citrus virus and virus-like diseases. As ...

213

Population changes of nematodes associated with Citrus reticulata and Citrus aurantifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two economically important species of Citrus fruits viz., orange, Citrus reliculata and lemon, C. aurantifolia were selected for studying the changes in the population of plant parasitic nematodes around their roots. The nematode population of Hoplolaimus indicus, Helicotylenchus indicus, Xiphinema americanum, Pratylenchus coffeae, Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Hemicriconemoides mangiferae was observed at 10?cm (upper layer) followed by 20?cm (middle) and 40?cm

Mansoor A Siddiqui

2005-01-01

214

Citrus County Schools Copyright Guidelines Recommended by the Citrus County Association of School Media Specialists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains copyright guidelines determined appropriate for the Citrus County School System (Florida) by the Citrus County Association of School Media Specialists in May, 1992. These guidelines are based on interpretation and understanding of current copyright law as applied to education and implemented in school districts in the United…

Citrus County School District, Inverness, FL.

215

Citrus huanglongbing shapes the structure of bacterial community associated with citrus roots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To examine the effect of pathogen on the diversity and structure of plant associated bacterial community, we carried out a molecular based analysis using citrus and huanglongbing as host-disease model. 16S rDNA clone library analysis of the citrus roots revealed shifts in the microbial diversity in ...

216

Preparation of an In-House Reference Material Containing Fumonisins in Thai Rice and Matrix Extension of the Analytical Method for Japanese Rice  

PubMed Central

Mycotoxin contamination in rice is less reported, compared to that in wheat or maize, however, some Fusarium fungi occasionally infect rice in the paddy field. Fumonisins are mycotoxins mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides, which often ruins maize. Rice adherent fungus Gibberella fujikuroi is taxonomically near to F. verticillioides, and there are sporadic reports of fumonisin contamination in rice from Asia, Europe and the United States. Therefore, there exists the potential risk of fumonisin contamination in rice as well as the need for the validated analytical method for fumonisins in rice. Although both natural and spiked reference materials are available for some Fusarium mycotoxins in matrices of wheat and maize, there are no reference materials for Fusarium mycotoxins in rice. In this study, we have developed a method for the preparation of a reference material containing fumonisins in Thai rice. A ShakeMaster grinding machine was used for the preparation of a mixed material of blank Thai rice and F. verticillioides-infected Thai rice. The homogeneity of the mixed material was confirmed by one-way analysis of variance, which led this material to serve as an in-house reference material. Using this reference material, several procedures to extract fumonisins from Thai rice were compared. Accordingly, we proved the applicability of an effective extraction procedure for the determination of fumonisins in Japanese rice. PMID:22069540

Awaludin, Norhafniza; Nagata, Reiko; Kawasaki, Tomomi; Kushiro, Masayo

2009-01-01

217

Anthelmintic effects of citrus peels ethanolic extracts against Ascaridia galli.  

PubMed

The use of phytogenic bioactive compounds to control poultry helminthes is increasing in different production systems. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of citrus peels against Ascaridia galli was investigated. Ethanolic extracts of three citrus peels species were suspended in 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to form an experimental composition (EC). EC was mainly composed of Limonene (96%), followed by ?-Pinene (1.5%), ?-Pinene (0.5%), and Sabinene (0.3%). For in vitro investigation, adult A. galli worms (n=225) were collected from naturally infected chickens and distributed to 3 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were exposed to Fenbendazole (0.5mg/ml), EC (50mg/ml), and 0.5% DMSO, respectively. For in vivo investigation, 200 Lohmann Selected Leghorns chicks were infected at 1-day old with 250 embryonated A. galli eggs. At 6 weeks of age, 150 A. galli infected birds were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were treated with 300, 600, and 1200 mg EC kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Group 4 was treated with Fenbendazole (50 mg kg(-1)). Group 5 was left as control. Birds were euthanized 2-weeks post-treatment, and all worms were collected from their intestines. EC possessed significant (P<0.001) in vitro anthelmintic properties on live worms. No significant (P>0.05) difference was quantified between number of motile worms exposed either to EC or Fenbendazole 7h post-exposure. A significant (P<0.0001) reduction in fecal egg count was observed 14 days post-treatment with 1200 mg kg(-1) EC. No significant differences were observed in worm burden of the 300 mg EC-treated group compared to the controls. In contrast, the 600 and 1200 mg EC-treated groups showed significant (P<0.0001) reduction in worm burden. Fenbendazole was the most effective in reducing A. galli burden (Efficacy=97%) followed by 1200 mg EC kg(-1) (68%), 600 mg EC kg(-1) (66%), and 300 mg EC kg(-1) (5%). It is concluded that citrus peels extracts have potential anthelmintic properties against A. galli. PMID:22463876

Abdelqader, Anas; Qarallah, Bassam; Al-Ramamneh, Diya; Da?, Gürbüz

2012-08-13

218

Leadership Rice Leadership Rice exists to encourage and equip Rice students to obtain significant  

E-print Network

206 Leadership Rice Leadership Rice exists to encourage and equip Rice students to obtain significant leadership roles at Rice and beyond. We provide leadership development opportunities capacity and strongest ambition for significant leadership. We seek to accomplish our mission through

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

219

Current Situation of Citrus Huanglongbing in Guangdong, P. R. China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Guangdong Province is an important citrus production region in China. Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) was observed in Guangdong probably in the late 1800’s and the disease was first studied there. Since the 1990’s, citrus production in Guangdong has gradually shifted from the coasta...

220

Cryopreservation of Citrus shoot tips using micrografting for recovery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) and the University of California Citrus Variety Collection maintain more than 888 unique accessions representing 132 taxa of Citrus, Fortunella, and Citrus wild species relatives within field, screenhouse, and greenhouse collections. We have ident...

221

Endosymbiotic microbiota of Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The causes of huanglongbing may be induced by more than one microbial agent. Thus, we examined the microbial community in the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP) (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Citrus greening is one of the most severe diseases of citrus in Asia and Africa and is caused by an uncu...

222

Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most

Burhan Ozkan; Handan Akcaoz; Feyza Karadeniz

2004-01-01

223

Automating the assessment of citrus canker symptoms with image analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (CC, caused by Xanthomonas citri) is a serious disease of citrus in Florida and other citrus-growing regions. Severity of symptoms can be estimated by visual rating, but there is inter- and intra-rater variation. Automated image analysis (IA) may offer a way of reducing some of ...

224

Intercropping of citrus and guava trees for management of Huanglongbing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent studies conducted in Viet Nam by Vietnamese, Japanese and Australian scientists indicate that interplanting citrus with guava negated infestations of Asian citrus psyllid and consequently huanglongbing, a serious disease caused by a bacterium vectored by the psyllid. Young citrus interplanted...

225

Converting citrus waste to ethanol and other co-products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conversion of citrus processing waste (CPW) generated during juice production into value added co-products is an important aspect of the juice industry as it offers a solution to waste disposal issues. Currently the practice of drying citrus waste to produce citrus pulp pellets (CPP) for use as catt...

226

Indole derivatives produced by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum causing lime anthracnose and postbloom fruit drop of citrus.  

PubMed

Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) of citrus and Key lime anthracnose (KLA) are caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. Both fungal isolates can infect flower petals, induce young fruit abscission and result in severe yield loss on many citrus cultivars. Previous studies revealed that infection of citrus flowers by C. acutatum caused higher levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which could be synthesized from the host plant and/or the fungal pathogen. The ability for IAA production by C. acutatum isolates was investigated. Similar to many microorganisms, the production of indole compounds in the medium by C. acutatum was dependent solely on the presence of tryptophan (Trp). In total, 14 PFD and KLA fungal isolates were tested, and revealed that they all were capable of utilizing Trp as a precursor to synthesize IAA and other indole derivatives. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis and chromogenic stains after a fluorescence thin-layer chromatography separation unambiguously identified IAA, tryptophol (TOL), indole-acetaldehyde, indole-acetamide (IAM), indole-pyruvic acid, and indole-lactic acid (ILA) from cultures supplemented with Trp. The data suggest that C. acutatum may synthesize IAA using various pathways. Interestingly, increasing Trp concentrations drastically increased the levels of TOL and ILA, but not IAA and IAM. The ability of C. acutatum to produce IAA and related indole compounds may in part contribute to the increased IAA levels in citrus flowers after infection. PMID:13129603

Chung, Kuang Ren; Shilts, Turksen; Ertürk, Umran; Timmer, L W; Ueng, Peter P

2003-09-12

227

Incidence of invasive Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of Huanglongbing or citrus greening, a devastating disease of citrus. A eulophid parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterson, was imported ...

228

Identification of two chilling-regulated 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate synthase genes from citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diurnal change in the temperature below or above 12.5 °C hastens the degreening of citrus peel and elicits the phytohormone ethylene production in citrus fruit. Ethylene triggers the degradation of chlorophyll and synthesis of carotenoids in citrus peel. To investigate if ethylene is required for the degreening of citrus peel elicited by low temperatures, we studied the chilling-regulated gene expression of

Wai Shing Wong; Wen Ning; Pei Lin Xu; Shain Dow Kung; Shang Fa Yang; Ning Li

1999-01-01

229

Global efforts in managing rice blast disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major destructive disease threatening global food security. Resistance (R) genes to M. oryzae are effective in preventing infections by strains of M. oryzae carry the corresponding avirulence (AVR) genes. Effectiveness of genetic resist...

230

Texas Rice Production Guidelines  

E-print Network

This publication gives Texas rice farmers the latest research-based information about producing rice in Texas. Recommendations are based on research conducted by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA....

Way, M. O.; Cockrell, Jay

2008-03-11

231

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia  

PubMed Central

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector’s preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China. PMID:24058362

Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

2013-01-01

232

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia.  

PubMed

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice-virus-insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China. PMID:24058362

Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

2013-01-01

233

Molecular detection of nine rice viruses by a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.  

PubMed

A reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was established for the detection of nine viruses from infected rice plants, including rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), rice dwarf virus (RDV), rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV), rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), rice transitory yellowing virus (RTYV), rice stripe virus (RSV), rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV), rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), and rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV). Virus-specific primer sets were designed from the genome sequences of these viruses. By the combination of RNA rapid extraction and RT-LAMP, these nine viruses could be detected within 2h from infected rice plants. The sensitivities of the assays were either higher than (for RSV, RTBV, and RTYV) or similar (for RDV) to those of one-step RT-PCR. Furthermore, RTBV and RTSV were detected not only in infected rice plants but also in viruliferous insect vectors. The RT-LAMP assays may facilitate studies on rice disease epidemiology, outbreak surveillance, and molecular pathology. PMID:20837064

Le, Dung Tien; Netsu, Osamu; Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Shimizu, Takumi; Choi, Il-Ryong; Omura, Toshihiro; Sasaya, Takahide

2010-12-01

234

Noninvasive maturity detection of citrus with machine vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer vision system was established to explore a method for citrus maturity detection. The surface color information and the ratio of total soluble solid to titratable acid (TSS/TA) were used as maturity indexes of citrus. The spectral reflectance properties with different color were measured by UV-240 ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer. The biggest discrepancy of gray levels between citrus pixels and background pixels was in blue component image by image background segmentation. Dynamic threshold method for background segmentation had best result in blue component image. Methods for citrus image color description were studied. The citrus spectral reflectance experiments showed that green surface and saffron surface of citrus were of highest spectral reflectance at the wavelength of 700nm, the difference between them reached to maximum, about 53%, and the image acquired at this wavelength was of more color information for maturity detection. A triple-layer feed forward network was established to map citrus maturity from the hue frequency sequence by the mean of artificial neural network. After training, the network mapper was used to detect the maturity of the test sample set, which was composed of 252 Weizhang citrus with different maturity. The identification accuracy of mature citrus reached 79.1%, that of immature citrus was 63.6%, and the mean identification accuracy was 77.8%. This study suggested that it is feasible to detect citrus maturity non-invasively by using the computer vision system and hue frequency sequence method.

Ying, Yibin; Xu, Zhenggang; Fu, Xiaping; Liu, Yande

2004-03-01

235

Comparison of several plant nutrient elements in conventionally and organically grown citrus orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic citrus production has been increasing recently in Turkey. In this study, we compared several nutri-elements concentrations of organically (ORG) and conventionally (CON) grown citrus orchards in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The samples included Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu L.) and Washington navel and Valencia oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), which were grafted on sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.). In

Turan Hakan Demirkeser; Mustafa Kaplankiran; Celil Toplu; Necat Aca; Ercan Yildiz; Sedat Serçe

236

The Recursion . . . Extended Rice . . .  

E-print Network

The Recursion . . . Extended Rice . . . Creative and . . . Home Page Title Page Page 388 of 405 Go . . . Extended Rice . . . Creative and . . . Home Page Title Page Page 389 of 405 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Rice . . . Creative and . . . Home Page Title Page Page 390 of 405 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit

Gallier, Jean

237

RICE UNIVERSITY Houston, Texas  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY Houston, Texas Hierarchical Attribute Grammars: Dialects, Applications and Evaluation Algorithms by Alan Carle carle@cs.rice.edu A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy May, 1992 Rice University Department of Computer Science

Pentus, Mati

238

University of Florida Citrus Research and Education Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oranges and other citrus plants have been grown in Florida for well over a century, and there has always been a vital relationship between the universities in the state and the citrus industry. The University of Florida Citrus Research and Education Center (CREC) helps foster these valuable relationships, and they have a facility in Lake Alfred, Florida that includes 600 acres of groves, greenhouses, a fresh fruit packinghouse, and more than 40 laboratories. On their website, visitors can learn about their research into hurricane recovery, advanced citrus production, and plant cell physiology in the "Research" section. Over in the "Extension" area, visitors can learn about the diseases the affect citrus crops, read their free "Citrus Pest Management Guide", and also learn about various pesticides. The site also includes links for the media, along with their in-house "Citrus Leaves" newsletter.

239

Biogenic emissions from Citrus species in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from plants are the dominant source of reduced carbon chemicals to the atmosphere and are important precursors to the photochemical production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Considering the extensive land used for agriculture, cultivated Citrus plantations may play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere especially in regions such as the Central Valley of California. Moreover, the BVOC emissions from Citrus species have not been characterized in detail and more species-specific inputs for regional models of BVOC emissions are needed. In this study, we measured the physiological parameters and emissions of the most relevant BVOC (oxygenated compounds, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes) for four predominant Citrus species planted in California ( Citrus sinensis var. 'Parent Navel', Citrus limon var. 'Meyer', Citrus reticulata var. 'W. Murcott' and 'Clementine'). We used two analytical techniques to measure a full range of BVOC emitted: Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Methanol, followed by acetone and acetaldehyde, were the dominant BVOC emitted from lemon and mandarin trees (basal emission rates up to 300 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1), while oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were the main BVOC emitted from orange trees (basal emission rates up to = 2500 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1). Light and temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpenes for all the Citrus species. Whereas, temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of oxygenated monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. We observed that flowering increased emissions from orange trees by an order of magnitude with the bulk of BVOC emissions being comprised of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated monoterpenes. Chemical speciation of BVOC emissions show that the various classes of terpene emissions among all Citrus species are dominated by ocimenes, ?-caryophyllene, and linalool, respectively. In addition to utilizing our reported emission factors in BVOC emission models, we recommend that future BVOC emission models consider additional emissions from flowering and harvest, which occur seasonally and may have a significant impact on regional atmospheric chemistry.

Fares, Silvano; Gentner, Drew R.; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Ormeno, Elena; Karlik, John; Goldstein, Allen H.

2011-09-01

240

75 FR 34322 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...7701 et seq., referred to below as the PPA), the Secretary of Agriculture may prohibit...prior to movement. In accordance with the PPA, we are amending ``Domestic Quarantine...pursuant to APHIS' authority under the PPA.) Quarantined areas; citrus...

2010-06-17

241

The Effects of DBCP on Citrus Root Nematode and Citrus Growth and Yield in Iraq.  

PubMed

In lraq, treatment of producing citrus trees with a 75% emulsifiable formulation of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), applied in irrigation water at rates of 66-88 kg (a.i.)/hectare, gave excellent control of the citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) greatly improved tree vigor, and increased the fruit yield for at least 3 years after treatment. Applications made during the spring gave much better results than those made in the fall. PMID:19308170

Natour, R M; Allow, J M; Katcho, Z A

1975-07-01

242

Rice consumption in China  

E-print Network

annually. China. 's grain trade can be characterized as the exchange of high-priced Chinese rice for lower-priced foreign wheat (The world Bank ). Table 6. RURAL PER CAPITA GRAIN CONSUMPTION BY PROVINCE, CHINA Province 1982 Grain Type Rice Wheat.... s about 90 kg. of rice, which was quite high when compared with 3 or 4 kg. in the U. S. There is a trend in Asian rice consuming countries that with increasing income, people consume more substitutes for rice. This pattern also appeared in China...

Lan, Jin

2012-06-07

243

Alemow ( Citrus macrophylla Wester.), compared with six other rootstocks for nucellar ‘Minneola’ tangelo ( Citrus paradisi Macf. X Citrus reticulata Blanco)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alemow may cause dwarfing of old-line citrus trees when used as rootstock. However, during 18 years, nucellar trees budded on this rootstock were vigorous, with no signs of dwarfing or decline. Yields on this rootstock were outstanding, and exceeded the yields of all other rootstocks, with a cumulative yield 40% larger than the second best rootstock, which, under our conditions

Y. Levy; J. Lifshitz

1995-01-01

244

The ER Chaperone LHS1 Is Involved in Asexual Development and Rice Infection by the Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

In planta secretion of fungal pathogen proteins, including effectors destined for the plant cell cytoplasm, is critical for disease progression. However, little is known about the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) secretion mechanisms used by these pathogens. To determine if normal ER function is crucial for fungal pathogenicity, Magnaporthe oryzae genes encoding proteins homologous to yeast Lhs1p and Kar2p, members of the heat shock protein 70 family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were cloned and characterized. Like their yeast counterparts, both LHS1 and KAR2 proteins localized in the ER and functioned in an unfolded protein response (UPR) similar to the yeast UPR. Mutants produced by disruption of LHS1 were viable but showed a defect in the translocation of proteins across the ER membrane and reduced activities of extracellular enzymes. The ?lhs1 mutant was severely impaired not only in conidiation, but also in both penetration and biotrophic invasion in susceptible rice (Oryza sativa) plants. This mutant also had defects in the induction of the Pi-ta resistance gene–mediated hypersensitive response and in the accumulation of fluorescently-labeled secreted effector proteins in biotrophic interfacial complexes. Our results suggest that proper processing of secreted proteins, including effectors, by chaperones in the ER is requisite for successful disease development and for determining host-pathogen compatibility via the gene-for-gene interaction. PMID:19252083

Yi, Mihwa; Chi, Myoung-Hwan; Khang, Chang Hyun; Park, Sook-Young; Kang, Seogchan; Valent, Barbara; Lee, Yong-Hwan

2009-01-01

245

Research in Rice Fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between 1987 and 1999, 2.4-3 million acres of rice were planted annually nationwide. Rice fields are a major component of the contemporary landscapes in the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and Central Valley of California. In 1998, approximately 600,000 acres of rice were planted in Louisiana. In the Louisiana plant commodities report for 1998, total value for rice was over $350 million; sugarcane was the only plant commodity that exceeded this value. Louisiana has over 2,000 rice farmers supporting over 12,000 jobs in the state. Rice fields in the United States receive high use by wildlife, especially shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl. Waterbirds use rice fields for food, shelter, and breeding habitat.

U.S. Geological Survey

2000-01-01

246

7 CFR 457.121 - Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions...REGULATIONS § 457.121 Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions. The Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions...

2013-01-01

247

7 CFR 457.121 - Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions...REGULATIONS § 457.121 Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions. The Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions...

2012-01-01

248

7 CFR 457.121 - Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions...REGULATIONS § 457.121 Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions. The Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions...

2011-01-01

249

7 CFR 319.56-59 - Fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay.  

...Vegetables § 319.56-59 Fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay. Sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), lemons (C. limon (L.) Burm... (g) Treatment. (1) Citrus fruit other than lemons may be imported into the...

2014-01-01

250

78 FR 17606 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Arizona-California Citrus Crop Insurance Provisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Insurance Regulations; Arizona-California Citrus Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal...Insurance Regulations, Arizona-California Citrus Crop Insurance Provisions. The intended...revising Sec. 457.121 Arizona-California Citrus Crop Insurance Provisions, to be...

2013-03-22

251

7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock. 301.75-17 Section...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations...Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock. Subject to the...

2010-01-01

252

40 CFR 407.30 - Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory. 407.30 ...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.30 Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

253

78 FR 22411 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction...regulation pertains to the insurance of Florida Citrus Fruit. DATES: Effective April 16, 2013...these corrections revised the Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions that...

2013-04-16

254

7 CFR 905.114 - Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower...Regulations § 905.114 Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members. Pursuant to § 905.14, the citrus districts and membership allotted...

2010-01-01

255

78 FR 4305 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction...regulation pertains to the insurance of Florida Citrus Fruit. DATES: Effective Date: January...these corrections revised the Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions that...

2013-01-22

256

7 CFR 301.75-5 - Commercial citrus-producing areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301.75-5...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-5 Commercial citrus-producing areas. (a) The...

2010-01-01

257

A genetic system for Citrus Tristeza Virus using the non-natural host Nicotiana benthamiana: an update  

PubMed Central

In nature Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), genus Closterovirus, infects only the phloem cells of species of Citrus and related genera. Finding that the CTV T36 strain replicated in Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) protoplasts and produced normal virions allowed development of the first genetic system based on protoplast transfection with RNA transcribed from a full-genome cDNA clone, a laborious and uncertain system requiring several months for each experiment. We developed a more efficient system based on agroinfiltration of NB leaves with CTV-T36-based binary plasmids, which caused systemic infection in this non-natural host within a few weeks yielding in the upper leaves enough CTV virions to readily infect citrus by slash inoculation. Stem agroinoculation of citrus and NB plants with oncogenic strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying a CTV-T36 binary vector with a GUS marker, induced GUS positive galls in both species. However, while most NB tumors were CTV positive and many plants became systemically infected, no coat protein or viral RNA was detected in citrus tumors, even though CTV cDNA was readily detected by PCR in the same galls. This finding suggests (1) strong silencing or CTV RNA processing in transformed cells impairing infection progress, and (2) the need for using NB as an intermediate host in the genetic system. To maintain CTV-T36 in NB or assay other CTV genotypes in this host, we also tried to graft-transmit the virus from infected to healthy NB, or to mechanically inoculate NB leaves with virion extracts. While these trials were mostly unsuccessful on non-treated NB plants, agroinfiltration with silencing suppressors enabled for the first time infecting NB plants by side-grafting and by mechanical inoculation with virions, indicating that previous failure to infect NB was likely due to virus silencing in early infection steps. Using NB as a CTV host provides new possibilities to study virus-host interactions with a simple and reliable system. PMID:23847598

Ambrós, Silvia; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Peña, Leandro; Moreno, Pedro

2013-01-01

258

Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.  

PubMed

A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene). PMID:19807162

Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

2009-10-14

259

Carotenoids of the rind of citrus fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied in detail the composition of the carotenoids of the rinds of mandarins of the Unshiu shirokolistnyi variety and oranges of the Mestnyi variety, the large-scale harvesting of which amounts to 90% of the total crop of this citrus fruits. The sum of the carotenoids of these samples were separated by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography [2] into

G. M. Fishman; D. M. Chikovani

1987-01-01

260

Asian Citrus Psyllid, Genetic Basis of Immunity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We used a genomics approach to identify some of the genetic bases of D. citri immunity, identifying in particular genes associated with environmental and biological stresses. Only a few insecticides are being used to manage the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), to...

261

Advances in nitrogen fertigation of citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Advances in micro irrigation techniques, i.e. drip and under the tree sprinklers, have facilitated greater adoption of fertigation especially for perennial crops including citrus. It is generally believed that fertigation improves nutrient uptake efficiency, and increases the yield as well as crop q...

262

Synergism between southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus and rice ragged stunt virus enhances their insect vector acquisition.  

PubMed

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a tentative species in the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae, is a novel rice virus transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). Since its discovery in 2001, SRBSDV has spread rapidly throughout eastern and southeastern Asia and caused large rice losses in China and Vietnam. Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) (genus Oryzavirus, family Reoviridae) is a common rice virus vectored by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens). RRSV is also widely distributed in eastern and southeastern Asia but has not previously caused serious problems in China owing to its low incidence. With SRBSDV's spread, however, RRSV has become increasingly common in China, and is frequently found in co-infection with SRBSDV. In this study, we show that SRBSDV and RRSV interact synergistically, the first example of synergism between plant viruses in the family Reoviridae. Rice plants co-infected with both viruses displayed enhanced stunting, earlier symptoms, and higher virus titers compared with singly infected plants. Furthermore, white-backed and brown planthoppers acquired SRBSDV and RRSV, respectively, from co-infected plants at higher rates. We propose that increased RRSV incidence in Chinese fields is partly due to synergism between SRBSDV and RRSV. PMID:24915431

Li, Shu; Wang, Han; Zhou, Guohui

2014-07-01

263

POST-HURRICANE ANALYSIS OF CITRUS CANKER II: PREDICTIVE MODEL ESTIMATION OF DISEASE SPREAD AND AREA POTENTIALLY IMPACTED BY VARIOUS ERADICATION PROTOCOLS FOLLOWING CATASTROPHIC WEATHER EVENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The affect of 2005 Hurricane Wilma on the dissemination of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the cause of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC), and subsequent disease development was examined and predictions for the areas into which Xac was likely to have spread from known sources of infection was deve...

264

Functional Characterization of Citrus Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

  A cDNA encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein gene (SaiPGIPA) was identified from the citrus cultivar Sainumphung (Citrus sp.), one of the most popular cultivars in northern Thailand. SaiPGIPA was expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the functional properties of citrus PGIP were analyzed. The PGIP fusion protein inhibited by a maximum of about\\u000a 60% of the endopolygalacturonase activity, and a mixture

Sarunya NALUMPANG; Yukie GOTOH; Hiroyuki TSUBOI; Kenji GOMI; Hiroyuki YAMAMOTO; Kazuya AKIMITSU

2002-01-01

265

Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Star's captain used his vessel to ram the cutter after he was ordered to stop and submit to inspection by a boarding team. Citrus was not seriously damaged in the collision. U.S. Coast Guard personnel recovered a large amount of marijuana from the wreckage - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter CITRUS, Coos Bay, Coos County, OR

266

Development of Integrated Pest Management in Texas Citrus.  

E-print Network

to develop a more effective and less expensive pest management program. HISTORY OF PEST PROBLEMS California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), ",as the most destructive citrus pest in the LRGV until 1933 (7). Citrus spray oil was the principal... (mainly in dust form) as the controlling agent for citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ash mead). However, the continued use of sulfur resulted in increased populations of armored scales (6, 30). As far back as 1929, parasites and predators had...

Dean, H.A.; French, J. Victor; Meyerdirk, Dale

1983-01-01

267

Dynamics of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in rice and implication for virus acquisition.  

PubMed

A novel viral disease of rice caused by Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread throughout East and Southeast Asia since the mid-2000s. Outbreaks of this viral disease occur yearly in southern parts of Japan concurrently with overseas migration of the planthopper vector Sogatella furcifera from southern China during the rainy season (from late June to early July). We examined the dynamics (changes in titer and localization) of SRBSDV on rice using reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and determined the relationship between virus titer in plants and virus acquisition by S. furcifera. Under a constant temperature of 27°C, a substantial increase of SRBSDV titer in the leaf sheath together with typical symptoms (stunted growth and twisting of leaf tips) was observed at 20 days after the end of a 7-day exposure of viruliferous S. furcifera. Approximately 40% of S. furcifera acquired SRBSDV through feeding for 5 days on rice plants that were infected following exposure to viruliferous vectors for 10 to 15 days. These results suggest that rice infected by S. furcifera can be a source of SRBSDV before the next generation of S. furcifera emerges. PMID:23301813

Matsukura, Keiichiro; Towata, Tomomi; Sakai, Junichi; Onuki, Masatoshi; Okuda, Mitsuru; Matsumura, Masaya

2013-05-01

268

Cyclic Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS–S14 Elicit Defense-Related Gene Expression in Citrus Fruit  

PubMed Central

Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in “Valencia” fruit following infection. PMID:25329301

Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

2014-01-01

269

Cyclic LIPopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit.  

PubMed

Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in "Valencia" fruit following infection. PMID:25329301

Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

2014-01-01

270

Current Insights into Research on Rice stripe virus  

PubMed Central

Rice stripe virus (RSV) is one of the most destructive viruses of rice, and greatly reduces rice production in China, Japan, and Korea, where mostly japonica cultivars of rice are grown. RSV is transmitted by the small brown plant-hopper (SBPH) in a persistent and circulative-propagative manner. Several methods have been developed for detection of RSV, which is composed of four single-stranded RNAs that encode seven proteins. Genome sequence data and comparative phylogenetic analysis have been used to identify the origin and diversity of RSV isolates. Several rice varieties resistant to RSV have been selected and QTL analysis and fine mapping have been intensively performed to map RSV resistance loci or genes. RSV genes have been used to generate several genetically modified transgenic rice plants with RSV resistance. Recently, genome-wide transcriptome analyses and deep sequencing have been used to identify mRNAs and small RNAs involved in RSV infection; several rice host factors that interact with RSV proteins have also been identified. In this article, we review the current statues of RSV research and propose integrated approaches for the study of interactions among RSV, rice, and the SBPH. PMID:25288949

Cho, Won Kyong; Lian, Sen; Kim, Sang-Min; Park, Sang-Ho; Kim, Kook-Hyung

2013-01-01

271

Combination of multispectral remote sensing, variable rate technology and environmental modeling for citrus pest management.  

PubMed

The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of south Texas is an agriculturally rich area supporting intensive production of vegetables, fruits, grain sorghum, and cotton. Modern agricultural practices involve the combined use of irrigation with the application of large amounts of agrochemicals to maximize crop yields. Intensive agricultural activities in past decades might have caused potential contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater due to leaching of pesticides in the vadose zone. In an effort to promote precision farming in citrus production, this paper aims at developing an airborne multispectral technique for identifying tree health problems in a citrus grove that can be combined with variable rate technology (VRT) for required pesticide application and environmental modeling for assessment of pollution prevention. An unsupervised linear unmixing method was applied to classify the image for the grove and quantify the symptom severity for appropriate infection control. The PRZM-3 model was used to estimate environmental impacts that contribute to nonpoint source pollution with and without the use of multispectral remote sensing and VRT. Research findings using site-specific environmental assessment clearly indicate that combination of remote sensing and VRT may result in benefit to the environment by reducing the nonpoint source pollution by 92.15%. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of precision farming for citrus production in the nexus of industrial ecology and agricultural sustainability. PMID:17222960

Du, Qian; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Chenghai; Srilakshmi, Kanth R

2008-01-01

272

Candidatus Liberibacter americanus induces significant reprogramming of the transcriptome of the susceptible citrus genotype  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease is caused by endogenous, phloem-restricted, Gram negative, uncultured bacteria named Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (CaLaf), Ca. L. asiaticus (CaLas), and Ca. L. americanus (CaLam), depending on the continent where the bacteria were first detected. The Asian citrus psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri, transmits CaLas and CaLam and both Liberibacter species are present in Brazil. Several studies of the transcriptional response of citrus plants manifesting HLB symptoms have been reported, but only for CaLas infection. This study evaluated the transcriptional reprogramming of a susceptible genotype of sweet orange challenged with CaLam, using a customized 385K microarray containing approximately 32,000 unigene transcripts. We analyzed global changes in gene expression of CaLam-infected leaves of sweet orange during the symptomatic stage of infection and compared the results with previously published microarray studies that used CaLas-infected plants. Twenty candidate genes were selected to validate the expression profiles in symptomatic and asymptomatic PCR-positive leaves infected with CaLas or CaLam. Results The microarray analysis identified 633 differentially expressed genes during the symptomatic stage of CaLam infection. Among them, 418 (66%) were upregulated and 215 (34%) were down regulated. Five hundred and fourteen genes (81%) were orthologs of genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that several of the transcripts encoded transporters associated with the endomembrane system, especially zinc transport. Among the most biologically relevant gene transcripts in GSEA were those related to signaling, metabolism and/or stimulus to hormones, genes responding to stress and pathogenesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidative stress and transcription factors belonging to different families. Real time PCR of 20 candidate genes validated the expression pattern of some genes in symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves infected with CaLam or CaLas. Conclusions Many gene transcripts and biological processes are significantly altered upon CaLam infection. Some of them had been identified in response to CaLas infection, while others had not been previously reported. These data will be useful for selecting target genes for genetic engineering to control HLB. PMID:23586643

2013-01-01

273

RNAi suppression of rice endogenous storage proteins enhances the production of rice-based Botulinum neutrotoxin type A vaccine.  

PubMed

Mucosal vaccines based on rice (MucoRice) offer a highly practical and cost-effective strategy for vaccinating large populations against mucosal infections. However, the limitation of low expression and yield of vaccine antigens with high molecular weight remains to be overcome. Here, we introduced RNAi technology to advance the MucoRice system by co-introducing antisense sequences specific for genes encoding endogenous rice storage proteins to minimize storage protein production and allow more space for the accumulation of vaccine antigen in rice seed. When we used RNAi suppression of a combination of major rice endogenous storage proteins, 13 kDa prolamin and glutelin A in a T-DNA vector, we could highly express a vaccine comprising the 45 kDa C-terminal half of the heavy chain of botulinum type A neurotoxin (BoHc), at an average of 100 ?g per seed (MucoRice-BoHc). The MucoRice-Hc was water soluble, and was expressed in the cytoplasm but not in protein body I or II of rice seeds. Thus, our adaptation of the RNAi system improved the yield of a vaccine antigen with a high molecular weight. When the mucosal immunogenicity of the purified MucoRice-BoHc was examined, the vaccine induced protective immunity against a challenge with botulinum type A neurotoxin in mice. These findings demonstrate the efficiency and utility of the advanced MucoRice system as an innovative vaccine production system for generating highly immunogenic mucosal vaccines of high-molecular-weight antigens. PMID:22554467

Yuki, Yoshikazu; Mejima, Mio; Kurokawa, Shiho; Hiroiwa, Tomoko; Kong, Il Gyu; Kuroda, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoko; Nochi, Tomonori; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kohda, Tomoko; Kozaki, Shunji; Kiyono, Hiroshi

2012-06-13

274

Electron microscopic investigations and indexing studies of psorosis and citrus ringspot virus of citrus / by Margaret Atchison Barkley  

E-print Network

on the following pages follow the style of the Journal of the American Societ for Horticultural Science. disease affecting mature citrus trees in Texas (1) and Florida (35) (Figs. 1 and Z). The development of budwood certification programs and the in- creasing... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Horticulture ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATIONS AND INDEXING STUDIES OF PSOROSIS AND CITRUS RINGSPOT VIRUS OF CITRUS A Thesis by MARGARET ATCHISON BARKLEY Approved as to style and content...

Barkley, Margaret Atchison

2012-06-07

275

Citrus transformation using juvenile tissue explants.  

PubMed

The most frequently used method for production of citrus transgenic plants is via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tissues found on explants obtained from juvenile seedlings. Within the last decade and especially within the last 5-6 years, this robust method was employed to produce thousands of transgenic plants. With the newly applied screening methods that allow easier and faster detection of transgenic shoots, estimates of transformation rate for some cultivars have gone up making this approach even more attractive. Although adjustments have to be made regarding the (varietal) source of the starting material and Agrobacterium strain used in each experiment preformed, the major steps of this procedure have not changed significantly if at all. Transgenic citrus plants produced this way belong to cultivars of rootstocks, sweet oranges, grapefruits, mandarins, limes, and lemons. PMID:25416263

Orbovi?, Vladimir; Grosser, Jude W

2015-01-01

276

Citrus Canker: The Pathogen and Its Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, currently featured on the home page of the American Phytopathological Society, contains a research report regarding the Asiatic citrus canker that has had devastating effects on Florida's citrus industry. The report, in a journal article format, thoroughly relates the natural history and current status of the disease, as well as detailing the methods and results of the (primarily genetic) experiments conducted in this study. One of the most appealing features of this Web site is the quality of the photos within the report. These photos can be viewed separately from the report in a slide show. While navigating this site is relatively straightforward, the lack of a table of contents can make finding your place in the body of the text somewhat confusing.

2002-01-01

277

Chemical and biological comparison of the fruit extracts of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka and Citrus medica L.  

PubMed

Citri Fructus (CF), the mature fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka (CWT) or Citrus medica L. (CML), is an important citrus by-product with health promoting and nutritive properties. The present study compares the chemical and biological differences of CWT and CML. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry techniques, were employed to compare the chemical profiles of CWT and CML. A total of 25 compounds were identified and the results indicated that there were significant differences in chemical composition between the two CF species. The quantitative results obtained by HPLC coupled with diode array detector method demonstrated that naringin was present in the highest amounts in CWT, whilst nomilin was the most dominant constituent in CML. It was also found that CWT had significantly higher free radical-scavenging activity than CML. PMID:25465994

Zhao, Pan; Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Dong, Xin; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

2015-04-15

278

Comparison of evapotranspiration rates for flatwoods and ridge citrus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Florida citrus groves are typically grown in two regions of the state: flatwoods and ridge. The southern flatwoods citrus area has poorly drained fine textured sands with low organic matter in the shallow root zone. Ridge citrus is located in the northern ridge citrus zone and has fine to coarse textured sands with low water-holding capacity. Two commercial citrus groves, selected from each region, were studied from 15 July 2004 to 14 July 2005. The flatwoods citrus (FC) grove had a grass cover and used drainage ditches to remove excess water from the root zone. The ridge citrus (RC) grove had a bare soil surface with weeds periodically eliminated by tillage. Citrus crop evapotranspiration (ETc) rates at the two citrus groves were measured by the eddy correlation method, and components in the energy balance were also examined and compared. The study period had higher than average rainfall, and as a result, the two locations had similar annual ETc rates (1069 and 1044 mm for RC and FC, respectively). The ETc rates were 59% (RC) and 47% (FC) of the rainfall amounts during the study period. The annual reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) rates were 1180 mm for RC and 1419 mm for FC, estimated using the standardized reference evapotranspiration equation. The citrus crop coefficients (Kc, ratio of ETc to ET o) were different between the two locations because of differences in latitude, ground cover, and rainfall amounts. The Kc values ranged from 0.70 between December and March to 1.05 between July and November for RC, and from 0.65 between November and May to 0.85 between June and October for FC. The results are consistent with other Kc values reported from field studies on citrus in both Florida and elsewhere using these and alternate methods.

Jia, X.; Swancar, A.; Jacobs, J.M.; Dukes, M.D.; Morgan, K.

2007-01-01

279

EXIT INTERVIEW SUMMARY FORM Life after Rice...  

E-print Network

1 EXIT INTERVIEW SUMMARY FORM Life after Rice... Rice ID: _____________________ * Medical benefits - Your Rice medical benefits will end on: __________________________ * Vesting in the 401(a) Rice. * Rice retiree - If you qualify as a Rice retiree, in accordance with the Rice University Human Resources

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

280

Polyembryony in non-apomictic citrus genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Adventitious embryony from nucellar cells is the mechanism leading to apomixis in Citrus sp. However, singular cases of polyembryony have been reported in non-apomictic genotypes as a consequence of 2x × 4x hybridizations and in vitro culture of isolated nucelli. The origin of the plants arising from the aforementioned processes remains unclear. Methods The genetic structure (ploidy and allelic constitution with microsatellite markers) of plants obtained from polyembryonic seeds arising from 2x × 4x sexual hybridizations and those regenerated from nucellus culture in vitro was systematically analysed in different non-apomictic citrus genotypes. Histological studies were also conducted to try to identify the initiation process underlying polyembryony. Key Results All plants obtained from the same undeveloped seed in 2x × 4x hybridizations resulted from cleavage of the original zygotic embryo. Also, the plants obtained from in vitro nucellus culture were recovered by somatic embryogenesis from cells that shared the same genotype as the zygotic embryos of the same seed. Conclusions It appears that in non-apomictic citrus genotypes, proembryos or embryogenic cells are formed by cleavage of the zygotic embryos and that the development of these adventitious embryos, normally hampered, can take place in vivo or in vitro as a result of two different mechanisms that prevent the dominance of the initial zygotic embryo. PMID:20675656

Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

2010-01-01

281

Transgenic strategies to confer resistance against viruses in rice plants.  

PubMed

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated in more than 100 countries and supports nearly half of the world's population. Developing efficient methods to control rice viruses is thus an urgent necessity because viruses cause serious losses in rice yield. Most rice viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, notably planthoppers and leafhoppers. Viruliferous insect vectors can disperse their viruses over relatively long distances, and eradication of the viruses is very difficult once they become widespread. Exploitation of natural genetic sources of resistance is one of the most effective approaches to protect crops from virus infection; however, only a few naturally occurring rice genes confer resistance against rice viruses. Many investigators are using genetic engineering of rice plants as a potential strategy to control viral diseases. Using viral genes to confer pathogen-derived resistance against crops is a well-established procedure, and the expression of various viral gene products has proved to be effective in preventing or reducing infection by various plant viruses since the 1990s. RNA interference (RNAi), also known as RNA silencing, is one of the most efficient methods to confer resistance against plant viruses on their respective crops. In this article, we review the recent progress, mainly conducted by our research group, in transgenic strategies to confer resistance against tenuiviruses and reoviruses in rice plants. Our findings also illustrate that not all RNAi constructs against viral RNAs are equally effective in preventing virus infection and that it is important to identify the viral "Achilles' heel" gene to target for RNAi attack when engineering plants. PMID:24454308

Sasaya, Takahide; Nakazono-Nagaoka, Eiko; Saika, Hiroaki; Aoki, Hideyuki; Hiraguri, Akihiro; Netsu, Osamu; Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Onuki, Masatoshi; Toki, Seichi; Saito, Koji; Yatou, Osamu

2014-01-13

282

Transgenic strategies to confer resistance against viruses in rice plants  

PubMed Central

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated in more than 100 countries and supports nearly half of the world’s population. Developing efficient methods to control rice viruses is thus an urgent necessity because viruses cause serious losses in rice yield. Most rice viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, notably planthoppers and leafhoppers. Viruliferous insect vectors can disperse their viruses over relatively long distances, and eradication of the viruses is very difficult once they become widespread. Exploitation of natural genetic sources of resistance is one of the most effective approaches to protect crops from virus infection; however, only a few naturally occurring rice genes confer resistance against rice viruses. Many investigators are using genetic engineering of rice plants as a potential strategy to control viral diseases. Using viral genes to confer pathogen-derived resistance against crops is a well-established procedure, and the expression of various viral gene products has proved to be effective in preventing or reducing infection by various plant viruses since the 1990s. RNA interference (RNAi), also known as RNA silencing, is one of the most efficient methods to confer resistance against plant viruses on their respective crops. In this article, we review the recent progress, mainly conducted by our research group, in transgenic strategies to confer resistance against tenuiviruses and reoviruses in rice plants. Our findings also illustrate that not all RNAi constructs against viral RNAs are equally effective in preventing virus infection and that it is important to identify the viral “Achilles’ heel” gene to target for RNAi attack when engineering plants. PMID:24454308

Sasaya, Takahide; Nakazono-Nagaoka, Eiko; Saika, Hiroaki; Aoki, Hideyuki; Hiraguri, Akihiro; Netsu, Osamu; Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Onuki, Masatoshi; Toki, Seichi; Saito, Koji; Yatou, Osamu

2014-01-01

283

Spanish Rice Ingredients  

E-print Network

Spanish Rice Ingredients: 2 cups brown rice, cooked Vegetable oil spray 1 onion 1 cup salsa skillet to medium. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across

Liskiewicz, Maciej

284

Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) infection and dissemination of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae)under laboratory conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method was developed to increase efficacy and reduce grower costs when using the biological control fungal agent Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to infect adult Asian citrus psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera). We analyzed the efficacy of this ‘...

285

DISTRIBUTION OF BLAST RESISTANCE GENE PI-TA IN THE USDA RICE CORE COLLECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Pi-ta gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) prevents the infection by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea (causal organism of rice blast) isolates containing the corresponding avirulence gene AVR-Pita in a gene-for-gene manner. Pi-ta has been effectively used for blast control over decades in the U...

286

Kernel elongation in rice.  

PubMed

Kernel elongation after cooking is an important character of fine rice and most rice consumers prefer length-wise elongation. Although improvement of aromatic rice began early in the 1970s, until now the mechanisms and genetics of kernel elongation has remained unrevealed. Kernel elongation is considered as a physical phenomenon and is influenced by several physicochemical and genetic factors, including genotypes, aging temperature, aging time, water uptake, amylose content and gelatinization temperature. Recently the complete genetic map of fine rice has been created and the gene responsible for kernel length identified; moreover, this gene is tightly linked with the cooked kernel elongation trait. Several molecular markers linked with cooked kernel elongation have been developed. These tools will be helpful for the improvement of this important trait. For the proper study of cooked kernel elongation of rice, this review paper will provide the basis and directional materials for further studies. PMID:23238771

Golam, Faruq; Prodhan, Zakaria H

2013-02-01

287

Bioengineering nitrogen acquisition in rice  

E-print Network

Bioengineering nitrogen acquisition in rice: can novel initiatives in rice genomics and physiology contribute to global food security? Dev T. Britto and Herbert J. Kronzucker* Summary Rice is the most and expansion of arable land have massively increased global rice production, enabling crop scientists

Britto, Dev T.

288

First New World Documentation of an Old World Citrus Pest, the Lime Swallowtail  

E-print Network

demoleus, invasive species, citrus pest. P apilio demoleus L., commonly known as the lemon, lime, citrusFirst New World Documentation of an Old World Citrus Pest, the Lime Swallowtail Papilio demoleus Boyce, and Brian D. Farrell Abstract. Papilio demoleus L., a well-known citrus pest in the Old World

Farrell, Brian D.

289

Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Peel Essential Oils on the Microbial Growth of Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of citrus peel essential oils on the microbial growth and sensory characteristics of bread. Citrus peel essential oils extracted by cold expression from malta (Citrus sinensis) and mossumbi (Citrus sinensis) were applied in different forms (treatments) separately. The essential oils significantly affected sensory characteristics such as symmetry of form, character

Sarfraz Hussain; Haq Nawaz; Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad; Mian Anjum Murtaza; Ali Jaffar Rizvi

2007-01-01

290

Rice oxalate oxidase gene driven by green tissue-specific promoter increases tolerance to sheath blight pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) in transgenic rice.  

PubMed

Rice sheath blight, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating and intractable diseases of rice, leading to a significant reduction in rice productivity worldwide. In this article, in order to examine sheath blight resistance, we report the generation of transgenic rice lines overexpressing the rice oxalate oxidase 4 (Osoxo4) gene in a green tissue-specific manner which breaks down oxalic acid (OA), the pathogenesis factor secreted by R.?solani. Transgenic plants showed higher enzyme activity of oxalate oxidase (OxO) than nontransgenic control plants, which was visualized by histochemical assays and sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Transgenic rice leaves were more tolerant than control rice leaves to exogenous OA. Transgenic plants showed a higher level of expression of other defence-related genes in response to pathogen infection. More importantly, transgenic plants exhibited significantly enhanced durable resistance to R.?solani. The overexpression of Osoxo4 in rice did not show any detrimental phenotypic or agronomic effect. Our findings indicate that rice OxO can be utilized effectively in plant genetic manipulation for sheath blight resistance, and possibly for resistance to other diseases caused by necrotrophic fungi, especially those that secrete OA. This is the first report of the expression of defence genes in rice in a green tissue-specific manner for sheath blight resistance. PMID:23809026

Molla, Kutubuddin A; Karmakar, Subhasis; Chanda, Palas K; Ghosh, Satabdi; Sarkar, Sailendra N; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

2013-12-01

291

Growth inhibitory effect of peel extract from Citrus junos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract from yuzu fruit peel (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) strongly suppressed the germination of lettuce seeds while that from the peel of other citrus fruits such as navel orange (C. sinensis) and lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) had very little or no effect. The highest inhibitory activity was located in the peel followed by the segment but no significant

Shinsuke Fujihara; Tokurou Shimizu

2003-01-01

292

Ethanol and other products from citrus processing waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Greater than 80 percent of citrus produced in Florida is processed for juice production. The bulk of this waste material is dried as citrus pulp and sold as a cattle feed by-product, often at a price lower than the cost of production. While not profitable, this does solve the problem of waste dispos...

293

Establishment of Asian citrus psllid (Diaphorina citri) primary cultures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new cell line was developed from the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), as a novel approach to culture the bacteria associated with huanglongbing disease (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease. Methods to culture the phloem-inhabiting bacterium Candidatus L...

294

EVALUATION OF WASTE CITRUS ACTIVATED SLUDGE IN POULTRY FEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were conducted on chick broilers and hens to determine the metabolizable energy of citrus sludge. A determination of metabolizable energy values showed that the values decreased as the level of citrus sludge in the diet increased. A series of protein levels were fed t...

295

Synephrine Content of Juice from Satsuma Mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Synephrine, the main protoalkaloid in Citrus species, is commonly analyzed as the active component in citrus peel-containing herbal supplements, but the edible parts of mandarins have been largely ignored. We determined the synephrine concentration in the juices of C. unshiu mandarins harvested fro...

296

Application of functional citrus by-products to meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers are increasingly aware of diet related health problems and therefore demanding natural ingredients which are expected to be safe and health-promoting. By-products of citrus fruits processing industries represent a serious problem, but they are also promising sources of materials which may be used in the food industry because of their valuable technological and nutritional properties. Two types of citrus

J. Fernández-López; J. M. Fernández-Ginés; L. Aleson-Carbonell; E. Sendra; E. Sayas-Barberá; J. A. Pérez-Alvarez

2004-01-01

297

New enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation of citrus waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The expense involved to dry citrus processing waste into citrus pulp pellets (CPP) for use as a cattle feed continues to increase with rising fuel costs. While there have also been recent increases in the value of CPP, this value fluctuates considerably and does not always cover processing costs. Th...

298

GROWER REPORTED PESTICIDE POISONINGS AMONG FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 436 Florida citrus growers, 27 pesticide related poisoning incidents were reported that were to have taken place within one year of the interview date. From these reports it is possible to estimate that there are 376 citrus fieldworker poisonings per year in F...

299

Application and evaluation of entomopathogens for citrus pest control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus is an important crop that harbors various insect pests. A number or these pests may be amenable to microbial control agents particularly nematodes, fungi and viruses. This chapter summarizes techniques used to evaluate field efficacy of microbial control agents in citrus. Insect pests that...

300

Transgenic Resistance to Citrus tristeza virus in Grapefruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) transgenic plants transformed with a variety of constructs derived from the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome were tested for their resistance to the virus. Most transgenic lines were susceptible (27 lines), a few were partially resistant (6 lines) and only one line, tr...

301

AN ASSESSMENT OF METHODS TO CLEAN CITRUS FRUIT SURFACES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A move away from harsh chemicals towards more natural or organic postharvest treatments for citrus has prompted interest in alternate sanitizers for cleaning citrus in packinghouses. In this study we compare the efficiency of sanitizing methods on oranges. The oranges were collected from the field...

302

21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD...SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a...more than 10 parts per million. Arsenic (as As), not more than 1...

2010-04-01

303

Molecular Characterization of Citrus tristeza virus Isolates from Panama  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were collected from the main citrus growing regions in Panama and characterized at the molecular level. The CTV coat protein gene (CPG) was amplified by RT-PCR, and the amplified PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The sequences analyses showed the ...

304

Virus-mediated chemical changes in rice plants impact the relationship between non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.  

PubMed

In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae. PMID:25141278

He, Xiaochan; Xu, Hongxing; Gao, Guanchun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zheng, Xusong; Sun, Yujian; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

2014-01-01

305

Leadership Rice Leadership Rice exists to encourage and equip Rice students to obtain  

E-print Network

Leadership Rice Leadership Rice exists to encourage and equip Rice students to obtain leadership roles at Rice and beyond. We provide leadership development opportunities to undergraduates from every ambition for leadership. We seek to accomplish our mission through a blend of curricular and co

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

306

Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership Rice is to help Rice University undergraduates from  

E-print Network

189 Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership Rice is to help Rice University undergraduates from all disciplines build their leadership capacities to create and manage change ef- fectively. Leadership Rice explores how heart and mind, theory and practice, and ideas and actions come together

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

307

Transmission of Citrus leprosis virus C by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) to Alternative Host Plants Found in Citrus Orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The equivalent of US$ 75 million is spent each year in Brazil to control Brevipalpus phoenicis, a mite vector of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C). In this study we investigated the possibility that hedgerows, windbreaks, and weeds normally found in citrus orchards could host CiLV-C. Mites reared on ...

308

Antennal response of the Asian citrus psyllid to citrus volatiles and their degradation product  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asian citrus psyllid antennae reacted strongly when stimulated with citral and ocimene stimulus tubes that had been aged for 3-5 days. When 20 µl of neat ocimene or citral were aged on filter paper strips in sealed Pasteur pipette stimulus tubes for 6 days on the laboratory bench, voltage changes we...

309

Estimation of Citrus Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus Groves by real-time PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A rapid and sensitive method is needed to detect Spiroplasma citri, the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease (CSD), for epidemiology studies and implementation of CSD management strategies. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for detection of S. citri using the DNA binding fl...

310

Citrus canker detection using hyperspectral reflectance imaging and PCA-based image classification method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus canker is one of the most devastating diseases that threaten marketability of citrus crops. Technologies that can efficiently\\u000a identify citrus canker would assure fruit quality and safety and enhance the competitiveness and profitability of the citrus\\u000a industry. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of using hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting canker\\u000a lesions on citrus fruit. A portable

Jianwei Qin; Thomas F. Burks; Moon S. Kim; Kuanglin Chao; Mark A. Ritenour

2008-01-01

311

Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: Grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus×aurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)

Rafaela Guimarães; Lillian Barros; João C. M. Barreira; Ana Maria Carvalho; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

2010-01-01

312

Surface a-1,3-Glucan Facilitates Fungal Stealth Infection by Interfering with Innate Immunity in Plants  

E-print Network

infection. Furthermore, rice plants secreting bacterial a-1,3-glucanase (AGL-rice) showed strong resistance,3-glucanase in vitro caused fragmentation of infectious hyphae in R. solani but not in M. oryzae or C

Gleeson, Joseph G.

313

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Citrus essences on honeybee bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae , the causal agent of American foulbrood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial properties and chemical composition of four citrus fruit essential oils to control Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood disease (AFB) were determined. This honeybee larvae disease occurs throughout the\\u000a world and is found in many beekeeping areas of Argentina. Citrus fruit essential oils tested were those from grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus nobilis)

Sandra R. Fuselli; Susana B. García de la Rosa; Martín J. Eguaras; Rosalía Fritz

2008-01-01

314

Overexpression of rice chitinase gene: Evaluation of chitinase ability as a bio-antifungal agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven local fungal isolates of Pyricularia grisea w ere purified from infected rice leaves. The total proteins were extracted and SDS-PAGE was carr ied out to differentiate between the expression of proteins in infected and healthy plan ts. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the accumulation of ~35-kDa chitinase after 16, 20, 24 and 48 hr (hours post inoculation). Rice chitinase gene (1.023

N. Sharaf; Hayam S. Abdelkader; Abd El-Hadi

315

Postplant Fumigation with DBCP for Citrus Nematode Control in Florida.  

PubMed

Eleven citrus groves of diverse varieties and ages infected with Tylenchulus semipenetrans growing in differing soils in Florida were treated with three rates of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) applied by various means. Yield, fruit size, and T. semipenetrans populations in the roots were compared between DBCP-treated and untreated trees over a period of I-3 yr. Maximum fruit size and yield were obtained by applying DBCP at 38-58 kg/hectare (ha) (34-52 lb/acre); whereas best nematode control was with a rate of 77 kg/ha (69 lb/acre). Application of chemical emulsion with a special, drilled, low-profile sprinkler irrigation ground pipe was the most suitable method. Effect of DBCP treatment generally lasted for 3 yr. A mean annual I. 1% increase in fruit diameter, 15.2% increase in fruit yield and a 55.7% decrease incitrus nematode populations was found for D BC P-treated trees in contrast to untreated trees. PMID:19319363

Tarjan, A C; O'Bannon, J H

1974-01-01

316

Multispectral sensing of citrus young tree decline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer processing of MSS data to identify and map citrus trees affected by young tree decline is analyzed. The data were obtained at 1500-feet altitude in six discrete spectral bands covering regions from 0.53 to 1.3 millimicrons as well as from instrumental ground truths of tree crowns. Measurable spectral reflectance intensity differences are observed in the leaves of healthy and diseased trees, especially at wavelengths of 500 to 600 nm and 700 to 800 nm. The overall accuracy of the method is found to be 89%.

Edwards, G. J.; Ducharme, E. P.; Schehl, T.

1975-01-01

317

Innate immunity in rice  

PubMed Central

Advances in studies of rice innate immunity have led to the identification and characterization of host sensors encoding receptor kinases that perceive conserved microbial signatures. The non-RD domain, a newly recognized hallmark of these receptor kinases is highly expanded in rice (Oryza sativa) compared with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Researchers have also identified a diverse array of microbial effectors from bacterial and fungal pathogens that triggers immune responses upon perception. These include both, effectors that indirectly target host Nucleotide binding site/Leucine rice repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins and transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors that directly bind promoters of host genes. Here we review the recognition and signaling events that govern rice innate immunity. PMID:21602092

Chen, Xuewei; Ronald, Pamela C.

2011-01-01

318

Comparative genomic characterization of citrus-associated Xylella fastidiosa strains  

PubMed Central

Background The xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) in vineyards and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) in orange trees. Both of these economically-devastating diseases are caused by distinct strains of this complex group of microorganisms, which has motivated researchers to conduct extensive genomic sequencing projects with Xf strains. This sequence information, along with other molecular tools, have been used to estimate the evolutionary history of the group and provide clues to understand the capacity of Xf to infect different hosts, causing a variety of symptoms. Nonetheless, although significant amounts of information have been generated from Xf strains, a large proportion of these efforts has concentrated on the study of North American strains, limiting our understanding about the genomic composition of South American strains – which is particularly important for CVC-associated strains. Results This paper describes the first genome-wide comparison among South American Xf strains, involving 6 distinct citrus-associated bacteria. Comparative analyses performed through a microarray-based approach allowed identification and characterization of large mobile genetic elements that seem to be exclusive to South American strains. Moreover, a large-scale sequencing effort, based on Suppressive Subtraction Hybridization (SSH), identified 290 new ORFs, distributed in 135 Groups of Orthologous Elements, throughout the genomes of these bacteria. Conclusion Results from microarray-based comparisons provide further evidence concerning activity of horizontally transferred elements, reinforcing their importance as major mediators in the evolution of Xf. Moreover, the microarray-based genomic profiles showed similarity between Xf strains 9a5c and Fb7, which is unexpected, given the geographical and chronological differences associated with the isolation of these microorganisms. The newly identified ORFs, obtained by SSH, represent an approximately 10% increase in our current knowledge of the South American Xf gene pool and include new putative virulence factors, as well as novel potential markers for strain identification. Surprisingly, this list of novel elements include sequences previously believed to be unique to North American strains, pointing to the necessity of revising the list of specific markers that may be used for identification of distinct Xf strains. PMID:18154652

da Silva, Vivian S; Shida, Cláudio S; Rodrigues, Fabiana B; Ribeiro, Diógenes CD; de Souza, Alessandra A; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Machado, Marcos A; Nunes, Luiz R; de Oliveira, Regina Costa

2007-01-01

319

Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership RiceistohelpRiceUniversityundergraduates  

E-print Network

189 Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership RiceistohelpRiceUniversityundergraduates fromalldisciplinesbuildtheirleadershipcapacitiestocreateandmanage changeeffectively.LeadershipRiceexploreshowheartandmind,theoryand practice,andideasandactionscometogethertofacilitatechange. Theintroductorycourse,LEAD309Leadership: Theory to Practice (formerly UNIV309),isrequiredtoapplyforparticipationinthe

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

320

Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.  

PubMed

Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter. PMID:23751544

Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

2014-06-01

321

DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RICE MUTANTS ALTERED IN THE RICE BLAST RESISTANT GENE PI-TA-MEDIATED DISEASE RESISTANCE PATHWAY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Pi-ta gene in rice prevents the infection of the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae races containing the corresponding avirulence gene AVR-Pita. The Pi-ta gene encodes a putative cytoplasmic protein with a centrally localized nucleotide binding site and a leucine rich domain. AVR-Pita is a met...

322

Novel approaches for postharvest preservation of fresh citrus fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus are nonclimacteric fruits that are harvested when their commercial maturity index has already been reached. The maturity index expresses the relationship between two important internal quality parameters, solid soluble concentration and titratable acidity, that determine the fruit consumer ac...

323

WORKER REENTRY IN FLORIDA CITRUS PESTICIDES IN THE AGRICULTURAL ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The environmental behavior of five organophospate insecticides in Florida citrus are reported. Parathion disappearance rate from fruit, leaf, and soil surfaces was the same. Potential worker exposure to parathion was leaf surface, soil surface, fruit surface, and a minor componen...

324

Modulation of Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis by Citrus Polymethoxylated Favones  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus polymethoxylated flavones modulate the biosynthesis of cholesterol and triacylglycerols via multiple mechanisms. Tangeretin was shown to inhibit the activities of diacylglycerol acyltransferase and of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein as well as activate the membrane peroxisome prolif...

325

Machine vision system for inspecting characteristics of hybrid rice seed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining clear images advantaged of improving the classification accuracy involves many factors, light source, lens extender and background were discussed in this paper. The analysis of rice seed reflectance curves showed that the wavelength of light source for discrimination of the diseased seeds from normal rice seeds in the monochromic image recognition mode was about 815nm for jinyou402 and shanyou10. To determine optimizing conditions for acquiring digital images of rice seed using a computer vision system, an adjustable color machine vision system was developed. The machine vision system with 20mm to 25mm lens extender produce close-up images which made it easy to object recognition of characteristics in hybrid rice seeds. White background was proved to be better than black background for inspecting rice seeds infected by disease and using the algorithms based on shape. Experimental results indicated good classification for most of the characteristics with the machine vision system. The same algorithm yielded better results in optimizing condition for quality inspection of rice seed. Specifically, the image processing can correct for details such as fine fissure with the machine vision system.

Cheng, Fang; Ying, Yibin

2004-03-01

326

Citrus tristeza virus p23: a unique protein mediating key virus–host interactions  

PubMed Central

The large RNA genome of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; ca. 20 kb) contains 12 open reading frames, with the 3?-terminal one corresponding to a protein of 209 amino acids (p23) that is expressed from an abundant subgenomic RNA. p23, an RNA-binding protein with a putative zinc-finger domain and some basic motifs, is unique to CTV because no homologs have been found in other closteroviruses, including the type species of the genus Beet yellows virus (despite both viruses having many homologous genes). Consequently, p23 might have evolved for the specific interaction of CTV with its citrus hosts. From a functional perspective p23 has been involved in many roles: (i) regulation of the asymmetrical accumulation of CTV RNA strands, (ii) induction of the seedling yellows syndrome in sour orange and grapefruit, (iii) intracellular suppression of RNA silencing, (iv) elicitation of CTV-like symptoms when expressed ectopically as a transgene in several Citrus spp., and (v) enhancement of systemic infection (and virus accumulation) in sour orange and CTV release from the phloem in p23-expressing transgenic sweet and sour orange. Moreover, transformation of Mexican lime with intron-hairpin constructs designed for the co-inactivation of p23 and the two other CTV silencing suppressors results in complete resistance against the homologous virus. From a cellular point of view, recent data indicate that p23 accumulates preferentially in the nucleolus, being the first closterovirus protein with such a subcellular localization, as well as in plasmodesmata. These major accumulation sites most likely determine some of the functional roles of p23. PMID:23653624

Flores, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús; Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

2013-01-01

327

Mould and yeast flora in fresh berries, grapes and citrus fruits.  

PubMed

Fresh fruits are prone to fungal contamination in the field, during harvest, transport, marketing, and with the consumer. It is important to identify fungal contaminants in fresh fruits because some moulds can grow and produce mycotoxins on these commodities while certain yeasts and moulds can cause infections or allergies. In this study, 251 fresh fruit samples including several varieties of grapes, strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, and various citrus fruits were surface-disinfected, incubated at room temperature for up to 14 days without supplemental media, and subsequently examined for mould and yeast growth. The level of contamination (percent of contaminated items/sample) varied depending on the type of fruit. All raspberry and blackberry samples were contaminated at levels ranging from 33% to 100%, whereas 95% of the blueberry samples supported mould growth at levels between 10% and 100% of the tested berries, and 97% of strawberry samples showed fungal growth on 33-100% of tested berries. The most common moulds isolated from these commodities were Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus (in strawberries), Alternaria, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium followed by yeasts, Trichoderma and Aureobasidium. Thirty-five percent of the grape samples tested were contaminated and supported fungal growth; the levels of contamination ranged from 9% to 80%. The most common fungi spoiling grapes were Alternaria, B. cinerea and Cladosporium. Eighty-three percent of the citrus fruit samples showed fungal growth at levels ranging from 25% to 100% of tested fruits. The most common fungi in citrus fruits were Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Fusarium and yeasts. Less common were Trichoderma, Geotrichum and Rhizopus. PMID:16023239

Tournas, V H; Katsoudas, Eugenia

2005-11-15

328

Guide for Citrus Production in the Lower Rio Grande Valley.  

E-print Network

Citrus 14 Rootstocks-Their Tolerance and Commercic Value 15 NURSERY TREES 15 Diseases and Insects 15 Tree Size and Form 16 GROVE ESTABLISHMENT 16 Tree Spacing 16 Planting and Initial Care 16 Fertilizing and Watering Trees 17 Pruning and Training... Trees CARE OF BEARING TREES Fertilization Mechanical Cultivation Diseases from Fungus and Virus Physiological Disorders Nematodes Citrus Mites and Insects Mites Armored Scales Unarmored Scales Miscellaneous Insects Water Requirements...

Maxwell, Norman P. (Norman Paul); Bailey, Morris A.

1963-01-01

329

Chlorophyllase activity in chlorophyll-free citrus chromoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromoplast fractions from mature, chlorophyll-less ‘Valencia’ orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) flavedo (= the outer coloured layer of citrus peel) showed considerable chlorophyllase activity. Acetone powders prepared from chromoplast fractions had 2.5× higher specific activity than those prepared from whole flavedo. Exposure of mature, chlorophyll-less fruit to ethylene caused a 2.5 to 4.0 fold increase in chlorophyllase activity. Juice chromoplasts

K. R. Hirschfeld; E. E. Goldschmidt

1983-01-01

330

Methods and Cost of Handling Texas Citrus, 1946-51.  

E-print Network

10 percent to 32 percent for oranges. Introduction of special bag- handling equipment in some packing houses accompanied the increase in use of these bags. Truck movement of fresh citrus from the Lower Rio Grande Valley increased from 20 percent... expansion in the western half of the United States indicates opportunities for new markets for Texas citrus in that area. Costs of packing oranges and grapefruit in 1-3/5 wirebound boxes increased about 36 percent dur- ing the postwar period, Volume...

Sorensen, H. B.; Baker, C. K.

1953-01-01

331

Modeling moisture movement in rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice is one of the leading food crops in the world. At harvest, rice normally has higher moisture content than the moisture content considered safe for its storage, which creates the necessity for a drying process before its storage. In addition to drying, moisture movement within the rice kernels a...

332

Red Rice Research and Control.  

E-print Network

Physiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Baldwin, Ford L., University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, Little Rock. Bourgeois, W. J., Department of Plant Pathology and Crop Physiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Cox... ...................................... 10 E. A. Sonnier RED RICE CONTROL IN ALTERNATE CROPS ................................ 16 F. L. Baldwin ..# RED RICE CONTROL ..................................................lg B. A. Huey and F. L. Baldwin RED RICE HERBICIDE SCREENING TESTS...

Baker, John B.; Baldwin, Ford L.; Bourgeois, W.J.; Cox, Clodis H.; Craigmiles, Julian P.; Dishman, William D.; Eastin, E. Ford; Helpert, Charles W.; Hill, Lewis C.; Huey, Bobby A.; Klosterboer, Arlen D.; Sonnier, Earl A.

1980-01-01

333

Huajian Gao James R. Rice  

E-print Network

Huajian Gao James R. Rice Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 is based on the perturbation technique developed by Rice (1985) for solving the elastic field of a crack is suppressed and configurationally unstable if there is no such restraint. Introduction Rice (1985) developed

334

Rice Boulevard Track/Soccer  

E-print Network

Rice Boulevard Track/Soccer Stadium Reckling Park Founder's Court Sunset Boulevard Main Street University Boulevard Entrance 1 Entrance 2 Entrance 8 Entrance 20Entrance 18 Rice Stadium Vistor Parking Vistor Parking Vistor Parking L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L Rice University Centennial

Mellor-Crummey, John

335

Huajian Gao James R. Rice  

E-print Network

Huajian Gao James R. Rice Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 02138 Shear Stress Intensity Factors for a Planar Crack With Slightly Curved Front Recent work (Rice, 1985a be found. Rice (1985a) showed how the knowledge of such solutions enables one to calculate the changes

336

Dietary citrus pulp reduces lipid oxidation in lamb meat.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of replacing cereal concentrates with high levels of dried citrus pulp in the diet on lamb meat oxidative stability. Over 56 days, lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (Control) or concentrates in which 24% and 35% dried citrus pulp were included to partially replace barley (Citrus 24% and Citrus 35%, respectively). Meat was aged under vacuum for 4 days and subsequently stored aerobically at 4 °C. The Control diet increased the redness, yellowness and saturation of meat after blooming (P<0.01). Regardless of the level of supplementation, dietary dried citrus pulp strongly reduced meat lipid oxidation over 6 days of aerobic storage (P<0.001), while colour parameters did not change noticeably over storage and their variation rate was not affected by the diet. In conclusion, replacing cereals with dried citrus pulp in concentrate-based diets might represent a feasible strategy to naturally improve meat oxidative stability and to promote the exploitation of this by-product. PMID:24440744

Inserra, L; Priolo, A; Biondi, L; Lanza, M; Bognanno, M; Gravador, R; Luciano, G

2014-04-01

337

Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3%) is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3%) and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4%) are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54?meg/kg and 0.77?mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province) and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil. PMID:25136460

Reazai, Mohammad; Mohammadpourfard, Issa; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Jahanbakhsh, Mahdi; Shiri, Leila

2014-01-01

338

Molecular evolution and strong selective sweep at the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta during crop domestication  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively deployed worldwide to prevent the infection by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in a gene for gene specificity. The genomic region spanning Pi-ta and six flanking genes in 157 rice accessions composed of seven Oryza species including US and Asian culti...

339

EFFECT OF CHEMICALS, NITROGEN, TIME OF SOWING AND PANICLE BROWN SPOT EPIDEMICS ON RICE GRAIN DISCOLOURATION IN ITALY  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Rice grain discolouration has a complex etiology and cannot be diagnosed prior to harvest. In Italy, the disease was thought to be associated with fungal infections, how- ever several studies contradicted this hypothesis. We re- port the distribution of grain discolouration, the most sus- ceptible Italian rice varieties, and the effects of epidemics of brown spot, induced by Cochliobolus

C. Pizzatti; P. Cortesi

340

Improvement of nitrogen accumulation and metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by the endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari.  

PubMed

The fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari can enhance nitrogen (N) uptake and metabolism of rice plants under hydroponic conditions. To investigate the effects of P. liquidambari on N accumulation and metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under field conditions during the entire growing season (S1, the seedling stage; S2, the tillering stage; S3, the heading stage; S4, the ripening stage), we utilized pot experiments to examine metabolic and physiological levels in both shoot and root tissues of rice, with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-), in response to three different N levels. We found that under low-N treatment, P. liquidambari symbiosis increased the rice yield and N use efficiency by 12% and by 11.59%, respectively; that the total N contents in E+ rice plants at the four growth stages were separately increased by 29.05%, 14.65%, 21.06% and 18.38%, respectively; and that the activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in E+ rice roots and shoots were significantly increased by fungal infection during the S1 to S3 stages. Moreover, P. liquidambari significantly increased the free NH4(+), NO3(-), amino acid and soluble protein contents in infected rice tissues under low-N treatment during the S1 to S3 stages. The obtained results offer novel data concerning the systemic changes induced by P. liquidambari in rice during the entire growth period and confirm the hypothesis that the rice-P. liquidambari interaction improved the N accumulation and metabolism of rice plants, consequently increasing rice N utilization in nutrient-limited soil. PMID:24972305

Yang, Bo; Ma, Hai-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Mi; Jia, Yong; Hu, Jing; Li, Xia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

2014-09-01

341

Sodium carbonate treatment induces scoparone accumulation, structural changes, and alkalinization in the albedo of wounded citrus fruits.  

PubMed

Following sodium carbonate treatment, accumulation of scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) but not scopoletin (6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin) was found in the albedo of wounded fruit from different Citrus sp. and cultivars. Treating wounded mandarin fruit cv. Fairchild with 5% Na(2)CO(3) (SC) lead to a scoparone accumulation in the albedo of 310, 361, and 382 microg g(-1) fresh weight after 7, 10, and 15 days, respectively. Scoparone accumulation was associated with a decrease in decay severity. When oranges cv. Biondo comune wounded and treated with 5% SC were inoculated with Penicillium digitatum or Penicillium italicum conidia 3 days posttreatment, the decay percentage as compared to untreated wounds was reduced by 97.2 and 93.9%, respectively. Observations by scanning electron microscopy of wounded Citrus fruits treated at 20 degrees C with 2, 3, 4, or 5% (w/v) solutions of sodium carbonate showed structural modifications to the albedo as well as damage to 24-48 h old mycelia of P. digitatum, the cause of citrus green mold. Modifications were more evident in orange, lemon, and grapefruit as compared to mandarin fruit. The efficacy of the treatment was strictly related to the SC interaction with the albedo tissue that, in addition to structural changes, significantly increased tissue pH, affecting P. digitatum pathogenicity. The SC remaining as a film on unwounded flavedo had no effect in preventing contact infection by the Penicillia. PMID:15853395

Venditti, Tullio; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Dore, Antonio; Agabbio, Mario; D'hallewin, Guy

2005-05-01

342

Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership Rice is to help Rice University undergraduates  

E-print Network

194 Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership Rice is to help Rice University undergraduates from all disciplines build their leadership capacities to create and manage change effectively. Leadership to facilitate change. The introductory course, LEAD 309 Leadership: Theory to Practice (formerly UNIV 309

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

343

MONITORING STUDY OF URINARY METABOLITES AND SELECTED SYMPTOMATOLOGY AMONG FLORIDA CITRUS WORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A cross-sectional monitoring study was made of citrus fieldworkers employed during an entire citrus growing season in Florida. A survey questionnaire was administered to 1811 fieldworkers employed as applicators, mixers, loaders, tractor drivers, general combination workers, and ...

344

THE OCCURRENCE OF PARASITOIDS ATTACKING CITRUS WEEVIL EGGS ON ST. LUCIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three species of hymenopteran egg parasitoid were found attacking citrus weevil eggs on the island of St. Lucia including Haeckeliania sperata Pinto (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), Baryscapus fennahi Schauff, and Quadrastichus haitiensis Gahan (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Overall, 12% of citrus weev...

345

Citrus phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus phylogeny was investigated using RAPD, SCAR and cpDNA markers. The genotypes analyzed included 36 accessions belonging\\u000a to Citrus together with 1 accession from each of the related genera Poncirus, Fortunella, Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Phylogenetic analysis with 262 RAPDs and 14 SCARs indicated that Fortunella is phylogenetically close to Citrus while the other three related genera are distant from Citrus

E. Nicolosi; Z. N. Deng; A. Gentile; S. La Malfa; G. Continella; E. Tribulato

2000-01-01

346

Retrogradation properties of high amylose rice flour and rice starch by physical modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new physical modification applied to prevent the retrogradation of rice flour and rice starch was investigated. This study examined the retrogradation properties of treated rice flour or rice starch paste by three stirring or heating–stirring, or without. The results proved that the retrogradations of rice flour and rice starch were both not substantially affected by three stirring modifications. However,

Yue Wu; Zhengxing Chen; Xiaoxuan Li; Zhenjiong Wang

2010-01-01

347

Effect of amylose content and rice type on dynamic viscoelasticity of a composite rice starch gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylose content is an important indicator to determine the utility of raw milled rice. Indica type rice with high amylose content is usually used for manufacturing rice noodles, while Japonica rice may be mixed partially to adjust the noodle texture. The effect of amylose and rice type on dynamic viscoelasticity of rice starch gel was investigated using a model starch

Zhan-Hui Lu; Tomoko Sasaki; Yong-Yu Li; Tadashi Yoshihashi; Li-Te Li; Kaoru Kohyama

2009-01-01

348

Hyperspectral reflectance imaging for detecting citrus canker based on dual-band ratio image classification method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus are one of the major fruit produced in China. Most of this production is exported to Europe for fresh consumption, where consumers increasingly demand best quality. Citrus canker is one of the most devastating diseases that threaten peel of most commercial citrus varieties. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of using hyperspectral imaging technique for

Jiangbo Li; Xiuqin Rao; Junxian Guo; Yibin Ying

2010-01-01

349

Chemical compounds effective against the citrus huanglongbing bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in planta  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide, and is threatening the survival of the Floridian citrus industry. Currently, there is no established cure for this century-old and emerging disease. The new antibiotic combination of penicillin and streptomycin (...

350

Investigations of the feasibility for managing the Asian citrus pysllid using Isaria fumosorosea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri, transmits one of the most devastating diseases of citrus, the plant pathogenic bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is strongly associated with the occurrence of huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease. In Florida, g...

351

DYNAMICS OF NUTRIENT UPTAKE DURING ROOT AND SHOOT GROWTH IN THREE DIVERSE CITRUS ROOTSTOCK CULTIVARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To reduce the risk of nutrient contamination of surface and groundwater in citrus production fields, research was initiated to better define nutrient requirements of citrus and the relationship between method of fertilization (i.e., soil vs. foliar applied) and citrus growth. Nutrient uptake patter...

352

Vigour and behaviour of fifteen citrus varieties against tristeza in the forest zone of Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen varieties or combinations of citrus (lime, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, mandarin and hybrids) were characterized in the forest zone of Cameroon. Characterization was carried out based on the behaviour of these citrus varieties against citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Foliar and cortical symptoms were evaluated. Six years old plants did not show any immune reaction against the disease. Unusual mild symptoms

Ndongo Bekolo; Belibi Messanga Louis; Ongono Yvette

353

Citrus essential oils and four enantiomeric pinenes against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of pinenes (entantiomers of ?- and ?-) and essential oils from Greek plants of the Rutaceae family against the mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from fruit peel of orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon L.), and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.).

Antonios Michaelakis; Dimitrios Papachristos; Athanasios Kimbaris; George Koliopoulos; Athanasios Giatropoulos; Moschos G. Polissiou

2009-01-01

354

Reducing chilling injury and decay of stored citrus fruit by hot water dips  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hot water dips (53 °C, 2–3 min) on chilling injury (CI) and decay of various citrus fruits was compared with the effect of curing (36 °C, 72 h). Experiments were conducted with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., cv. Marsh), lemon (Citrus limon. Burm., cv. Eureka), oroblanco (C. grandis Osb. × C. paradisi, cv. Oroblanco, syn. Sweety) and kumquat

V. Rodov; S. Ben-Yehoshua; R. Albagli; D. Q. Fang

1995-01-01

355

76 FR 17617 - Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...APHIS-2008-0140] Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia AGENCY: Animal and...Treatment Manual for certain species of citrus fruit imported from Australia into the...sweet cherries and certain species of citrus fruit imported from Australia into...

2011-03-30

356

Dispersion patterns and sampling plans for Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The abundance and spatial dispersion of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, were studied in thirty-four grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) and six sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) orchards from March to August 2006 when the pest is more abundant in southern Texas. Although flush shoot inf...

357

Descriptions of new varieties recently distributed from the Citrus Clonal Protection Program  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) is operated through the Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology at University of California (UC) Riverside and is funded in large part by The California Citrus Research Board (CRB). The CCPP processes citrus propagative material in two phases. First...

358

Lack of Evidence of Transmission of 'Candidatus' Liberibacter Asiaticus Through Citrus Seed Taken From Affected Fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing disease, putatively caused by the associated bacterium Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus is the greatest threat to the world citrus industry today. The bacterium is spread locally and regionally by the citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and can also be disseminated by grafting...

359

Copper Sprays and Windbreaks for Control of Citrus Canker on Young Orange Trees in Southern Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The benefit of windbreaks and copper sprays for control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri was investigated in a commercial citrus orchard located in a citrus canker endemic area in southern Brazil. Control of canker was evaluated as incidence and severity of lesions on foli...

360

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated...receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of...

2011-01-01

361

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated...receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of...

2014-01-01

362

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated...receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of...

2012-01-01

363

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated...receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of...

2010-01-01

364

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated...receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of...

2013-01-01

365

Update on packing line protocols for citrus canker and their effects on bacterial survival  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Markets for Florida citrus are severely restricted by regulations in place to minimize the spread of citrus canker to citrus producing areas. Included in these regulations are accepted protocols for sanitation and coating of fruit. However, these measures do not eradicate all the living bacterial ce...

366

Digestibility by Dairy Cows of Monosaccharide Constituents in Total Mixed Rations Containing Citrus Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten lactating cows were divided into two groups and individually fed ad libitum one of two experimental total mixed rations (TMR) as follows: 1) a TMR con- taining 20% corn grain and 10% dry citrus pulp (high corn); and 2) a TMR containing 21% citrus pulp and 9% corn grain (high citrus pulp). Both TMR also con- tained corn silage

J. Miron; E. Yosef; D. Ben-Ghedalia; L. E. Chase; D. E. Bauman; R. Solomon

2002-01-01

367

Phylogenetic analysis of Citrus based on sequences of six nuclear genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus has a long history of cultivation. The phylogenetic relationships between the different cultivars of citrus are not clearly understood because of hybridization, nucellar embryony and somatic mutations. Earlier studies on citrus taxonomy and phylogeny were based on isozymes analyses, microsate...

368

HISTOLOGY OF SWEET ORANGE STEM PITTING CAUSED BY AN AUSTRALIAN ISOLATE OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some strains of the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) cause stem pitting in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). This abnormality causes tree decline and reduction in fruit size and yield of affected citrus trees. Stem-pitting symptoms can occur on trunks, on all sizes of limbs, and on the twigs ...

369

Exploring Japan through Rice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the role of rice in Japanese culture by presenting historical background and teaching activities in a variety of categories, such as language, sociology, history, and contemporary politics. Suggests teachers create cross-cultural comparisons; for example, the role of corn in the United States. Provides a list of teacher resources. (CMK)

Wojtan, Linda S.

1998-01-01

370

Rice University Description  

E-print Network

", and that the US would reach the moon by the end of the decade. Rice's student body is engaged in the campus the SWAP office will provide you with. Return the application form, together with all supporting documents, to the UoB SWAP office by 15th February 2013. Please refer to the International Programs website for further

Bristol, University of

371

Direct Seeding of Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple food for more than half of the world population, is commonly grown by transplanting seedlings into puddled soil (wet tillage) in Asia. This production system is labor-, water-, and energy-intensive and is becoming less profitable as these resources are becoming increasingly scarce. It also deteriorates the physical properties of soil, adversely affects the performance

Virender Kumar; Jagdish K. Ladha

2011-01-01

372

Rice: chemistry and technology.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice has taken center stage this last decade, not only as an important provider of nourishment for the world’s population, but as a grain now recognized as having many unique nutritional and functional attributes with potential to be captured in a multitude of value-added food and non-food applicati...

373

RICE MICROSTRUCTURE - COMPARING CULTIVARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The microstructures of short, medium, long and waxy grain rices were compared for microstructural characteristics using scanning electron and light microscopies. The cultivars in this study included three short grain (Akitakamachi, Koshihikari and S102); three medium grain (Bengal, M202 and M401); f...

374

Rice Glycosyltransferase (GT) Phylogenomic Database  

DOE Data Explorer

The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.

Ronald, Pamela

375

Diurnal patterns in flight activity and effects of light on host finding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an invasive pest of citrus in the United States. The psyllid feeds and reproduces primarily on new flush growth of citrus and other rutaceous plants. Because it vectors the bacterial causal agents of the deadly citrus green...

376

Chemical composition of commercial citrus fruit essential oils and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity acting alone or in combined processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation reports on the chemical composition of three commercial citrus fruit essential oils (orange [Citrus sinensis], lemon [Citrus lemon] and Mandarin [Citrus reticulata]) from Spain, and examines their antimicrobial activity against spoiling and pathogenic microorganisms, as well as possible synergistic lethal effects in combination with mild heat. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis allowed for the identification of 65 compounds

Laura Espina; María Somolinos; Susana Lorán; Pilar Conchello; Diego García; Rafael Pagán

2011-01-01

377

A phytoplasma related to 'Candidatus phytoplasma asteri' detected in citrus showing Huanglongbing (yellow shoot disease) symptoms in Guangdong, P. R. China.  

PubMed

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow shoot disease (i.e., greening disease) is highly destructive to citrus production worldwide. Understanding the etiology of HLB is critical for managing the disease. HLB is currently associated with infection by 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' around the world, including China. However, Koch's postulates have not been fulfilled. In addition, other plant pathogens also may be involved in HLB. In a survey performed in Guangdong Province, P. R. China in 2006 and 2007, 141 citrus samples showing typical symptoms of HLB from 11 different cities were collected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using phytoplasma-specific primer sets fU5/rU3 nested with primer set P1/P7 identified 110 (78.0%) positive samples. A 1,785-bp amplicon was obtained with primer set P1/P7. Analysis showed a 100% identity of this sequence in the region of 16S rDNA and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer to three strains of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteri' (onion yellows [Japan], aster yellows 'watercress' [Hawaii], and valeriana yellows [Lithuania]). Of the 141 samples, 89 (63.1%) samples were positive for 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus'. When mixed infection was considered, 69 (48.9%) samples were positive for both 'Ca. P. asteri' and 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed low titers of both walled and wall-less bodies in the phloem sieve tubes of HLB citrus. When transmission from symptomatic citrus to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) via dodder (Cuscuta campestris) was conducted, both phytoplasma and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' were detected from the affected periwinkle. In addition to yellowing/mottling, the infected periwinkle showed symptoms of virescence and phyllody which are commonly associated with phytoplasmal diseases. TEM analysis of affected periwinkle revealed pleomorphic and wall-less organisms, characteristic of phytoplasmas, filling some phloem sieve tubes. In contrast, walled bacteria were at low titer. This study showed that in addition to 'Ca. L. asiaticus', a phytoplasma related to 'Ca. P. asteri' could also be detected in citrus showing HLB symptoms in Guangdong. PMID:19203275

Chen, J; Pu, X; Deng, X; Liu, S; Li, H; Civerolo, E

2009-03-01

378

Citrus MAF1, a Repressor of RNA Polymerase III, Binds the Xanthomonas citri Canker Elicitor PthA4 and Suppresses Citrus Canker Development1  

PubMed Central

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Xanthomonas species pathogens act as transcription factors in plant cells; however, how TAL effectors activate host transcription is unknown. We found previously that TAL effectors of the citrus canker pathogen Xanthomonas citri, known as PthAs, bind the carboxyl-terminal domain of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and inhibit the activity of CsCYP, a cyclophilin associated with the carboxyl-terminal domain of the citrus RNA Pol II that functions as a negative regulator of cell growth. Here, we show that PthA4 specifically interacted with the sweet orange MAF1 (CsMAF1) protein, an RNA polymerase III (Pol III) repressor that controls ribosome biogenesis and cell growth in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human. CsMAF1 bound the human RNA Pol III and rescued the yeast maf1 mutant by repressing tRNAHis transcription. The expression of PthA4 in the maf1 mutant slightly restored tRNAHis synthesis, indicating that PthA4 counteracts CsMAF1 activity. In addition, we show that sweet orange RNA interference plants with reduced CsMAF1 levels displayed a dramatic increase in tRNA transcription and a marked phenotype of cell proliferation during canker formation. Conversely, CsMAF1 overexpression was detrimental to seedling growth, inhibited tRNA synthesis, and attenuated canker development. Furthermore, we found that PthA4 is required to elicit cankers in sweet orange leaves and that depletion of CsMAF1 in X. citri-infected tissues correlates with the development of hyperplastic lesions and the presence of PthA4. Considering that CsMAF1 and CsCYP function as canker suppressors in sweet orange, our data indicate that TAL effectors from X. citri target negative regulators of RNA Pol II and Pol III to coordinately increase the transcription of host genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. PMID:23898043

Soprano, Adriana Santos; Abe, Valeria Yukari; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

2013-01-01

379

Establishment of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) primary cultures.  

PubMed

The Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a highly competent vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus associated with the citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). Commonly referred to as citrus greening disease in the USA, HLB causes reduced fruit yields, quality, and ultimately tree death and is considered the most serious citrus disease. HLB has become a major limiting factor to the production of citrus worldwide. Studies of HLB have been impeded by the fact that C. Liberibacter has not yet been cultured on artificial nutrient media. After being acquired by a psyllid, C. Liberibacter asiaticus is reported to replicate within the psyllid and is retained by the psyllid throughout its life span. We therefore hypothesized that C. Liberibacter asiaticus could be cultured in vitro using psyllid cell cultures as the medium and investigated the establishment of a pure culture for AsCP cells. Several commercially available insect cell culture media along with some media we developed were screened for viability to culture cells from AsCP embryos. Cells from psyllid tissues adhered to the plate and migration was observed within 24 h. Cells were maintained at 20 degrees C. We successfully established primary psyllid cell cultures, referred to as DcHH-1, for D. citri Hert-Hunter-1, with a new media, Hert-Hunter-70. PMID:19440802

Marutani-Hert, Mizuri; Hunter, Wayne B; Hall, David G

2009-01-01

380

The use of straw mulch as a strategy to prevent extreme soil erosion rates in citrus orchard. A Rainfall simulation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not only the Sahel (Haregeweyn et al., 2013), the deforested land (Borelli et al., 2013) the chinese Plateau are affected by intense soil erosion rates (Zhao et al., 2013). Soil erosion affect agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009), and citrus orchards are being seeing as one of the crops with the highest erosion rates due to the managements that avoid the catch crops, weeds or litter. Example of the research carried out on citrus orchards is found in the Mediterranean (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) and in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012), and they confirm the non sustainable soil losses measured. The land management in citrus plantations results in soil degradation too (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012). The use of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel has been found successful. There is a need to find new plants or residues to protect the soils on citrus orchards. Agriculture produces a high amount of residues. The pruning can contribute with a valuable source of nutrients and a good soil protection. The leaves of the trees, and some parts of the plants, once harvest can contribute to reduce the soil losses. Due to the mechanization of the agriculture, and the reduction of the draft animals (mainly horses, mules, donkeys and oxen) the straw is being a residue instead of a resource. The Valencia region is the largest producer of citrus in Europe, and the largest exporter in the world. This citrus production region is located in the eastern cost of Spain where we can find the rice production area of the l'Albufera Lagoon paddy fields, the third largest production region in Spain. This means, a rice production region surrounded by the huge citrus production region. There, the rice straw is not used in the paddy fields after harvesting and the straw is being as a residue that damages the air quality when burnt, the water quality due to the decomposition and the methane production, and is not accepted in the field by the farmers. This is a new problem as few years ago the rice straw was use for animal feeding. Many attempts were developed in the last decade to remove and use the straw to avoid fires and water pollution (Iranzo et al., 2004; Silvestre et al., 2013). Our goal is to test if a residue such as the rice straw can be transformed as a resource: soil erosion control. Straw has been seen as a very efficient to reduce the water losses in agriculture land (García Moreno et al., 2013), the soil losses in fire affected land (Robichaud et al., 2013a; 2013b; Fernandez and Vega, 2014), and soil properties (García Orenes et al., 2009; 2010; Jordán et al., 2010; García Orenes 2012). Rainfall simulations under 55 mm h-1 rainfall intensity during one hour on 0,25 m2 plots were carried out on plots paired plots: bare and covered with straw. The plots covered with straw had different straw mulch cover: from 10 to 100 % cover and from 0,005 g m2 to 300 g m2. The results show a positive effect of the straw cover that show an exponential relation between the straw cover and weight with the sediment yield. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE supported this research. References Bombino, G., Denisi, P., Fortugno, D., Tamburino, V., Zema, D.A., Zimbone, S.M. 2010. Land spreading of solar-dried citrus peel to control runoff and soil erosion. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment 140,145-154. Borrelli, P., Märker, M., Schütt, B. 2013. Modelling post-tree-haversting soil erosion and sediment deposition potential in the Turano River Basin (Italian Central Apennine). Land Degradation & Development, DOI 10.1002/ldr.2214 Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 200

Cerdà, Artemi; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

2014-05-01

381

Weedy hosts and prevalence of potential leafhopper vectors (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) of a phytoplasma (16SrIX group) associated with Huanglongbing symptoms in citrus groves.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a severe citrus (Citrus spp.) disease associated with the bacteria genus Candidatus Liberibacter, detected in Brazil in 2004. Another bacterium was found in association with HLB symptoms and characterized as a phytoplasma belonging to the 16SrIX group. The objectives of this study were to identify potential leafhopper vectors of the HLB-associated phytoplasma and their host plants. Leafhoppers were sampled every other week for 12 mo with sticky yellow cards placed at two heights (0.3 and 1.5 m) in the citrus tree canopy and by using a sweep net in the ground vegetation of two sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, groves infected by the HLB-phytoplasma in São Paulo state. Faunistic analyses indicated one Agalliinae (Agallia albidula Uhler) and three Deltocephalinae [Balclutha hebe (Kirkaldy), Planicephalus flavicosta (Stål), and Scaphytopius (Convelinus) marginelineatus (Stål)] species, as the most abundant and frequent leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Visual observations indicated an association of leafhopper species with some weeds and the influence of weed species composition on leafhopper abundance in low-lying vegetation. S. marginelineatus and P. flavicosta were more frequent on Sida rhombifolia L. and Althernantera tenella Colla, respectively, whereas A. albidula was observed more often on Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. and B. hebe only occurred on grasses. DNA samples of field-collected S. marginelineatus were positive by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing tests for the presence of the HLB-phytoplasma group, indicating it as a potential vector. The association of leafhoppers with their hosts may be used in deciding which management strategies to adopt against weeds and diseases in citrus orchards. PMID:22606800

Marques, R N; Teixeira, D C; Yamamoto, P T; Lopes, J R S

2012-04-01

382

Induced resistance against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, by ?-aminobutyric acid in citrus.  

PubMed

?-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to induce resistance to microbial pathogens, nematodes and insects in several host plant/pest systems. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect of BABA occurred against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in citrus. A 25 mM drench application of BABA significantly reduced the number of eggs/plant as compared with a water control, whereas 200 and 100 mM applications of BABA reduced the numbers of nymphs/plant and adults/plants, respectively. A 5 mM foliar application of BABA significantly reduced the number of adults but not eggs or nymphs when compared with a water control treatment. In addition, leaf-dip bioassays using various concentrations (25–500 mM) of BABA indicated no direct toxic effect on 2nd and 5th instar nymphs or adult D. citri. BABA-treated plants were characterized by significantly lower levels of iron, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur and zinc as compared with control plants. The expression level of the PR-2 gene (?-1,3-glucanase) in BABA-treated plants that were also damaged by D. citri adult feeding was significantly higher than in plants exposed to BABA, D. citri feeding alone or control plants. Our results indicate the potential for using BABA as a systemic acquired resistance management tool for D. citri. PMID:23590847

Tiwari, Siddharth; Meyer, Wendy L; Stelinski, Lukasz L

2013-10-01

383

RICE UNIVERSITY The Barbara and David Gibbs  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY The Barbara and David Gibbs RECREATION CENTER MEMBERSHIP CANCELLATION FORM Date for Cancellation:____________________________________________________ I authorize Rice University to terminate my

Alvarez, Pedro J.

384

False-positive results with amylase testing of citrus fruits.  

PubMed

In a case of robbery in which the criminals passed through the garden adorned with calamondin trees (Citrus madurensis), the investigators found in the grass six calamondin fruits, some undamaged, while others apparently bitten. The fruits were collected and sent to the laboratory for DNA analysis to verify the presence of saliva and robbers' DNA profile. A specific immunochromatographic strip test for saliva confirmed the presence of human salivary ?-amylase, but similar positive results were also observed for intact calamondin and other citrus fruits. Further analysis with a specific automated amylase test confirmed the absence of amylase activity. DNA quantification and typing using a specific forensic kit revealed no human DNA presence in any fruits. This case report demonstrates for the first time the occurrence of false positives when human saliva is sought on citrus fruits. PMID:24502328

Ricci, Ugo; Carboni, Ilaria; Torricelli, Francesca

2014-09-01

385

Citrus transformation using mature tissue explants.  

PubMed

Mature tissue protocol for production of transgenic Citrus plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation uses explants derived from branches of mature, fruit-bearing trees. Through the multiple cleaning steps consisting of grafting of apical tip meristems on rootstock plants grown under sanitary conditions, "mother" plants are produced that will serve as a source of budding material. These buds are grafted onto rootstock plants grown under the same, highly sanitary conditions. Newly obtained, one meter tall, young grafted plants serve as a source of explants for co-incubation experiments with Agrobacterium. Following successful transformation with Agrobacterium, selected transgenic shoots are micrografted onto rootstock plants in vitro where they are allowed to grow for a couple of months. Grafted transgenic plantlet together with the associated rootstock plant is taken out of culture tubes, severed from the root, and regrafted in terra on a 1-year-old rootstock plant. With the application of proper horticultural techniques, such a plant will yield first fruit about 12-15 months later. PMID:25416264

Orbovi?, Vladimir; Shankar, Alka; Peeples, Michael E; Hubbard, Calvin; Zale, Janice

2015-01-01

386

Developmental Toxicity of Citrus aurantium in Rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Ephedra was commonly used in herbal products marketed for weight loss until safety concerns forced its removal from products. Even before the ban, manufacturers had begun to replace ephedra with other compounds, including Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange. The major component in the bitter orange extract is synephrine which is chemically similar to ephedrine. The purpose of this study was to determine if relatively pure synephrine or synephrine present as a constituent of a bitter orange extract produced developmental toxicity in rats. METHOD Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage with one of several different doses of synephrine from one of two different extracts. Caffeine was added to some doses. Animals were sacrificed on GD 21, and fetuses were examined for the presence of various developmental toxic endpoints. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION At doses up to 100 mg synephrine/kg body weight, there were no adverse effects on embryolethality, fetal weight or incidences of gross, visceral or skeletal abnormalities. There was a decrease in maternal weight at 50 mg synephrine/kg body weight when given as the 6% synephrine extract with 25 mg caffeine/kg body weight; there was also a decrease in maternal weight in the caffeine only group. This decrease in body weight may have been due to decreased food consumption which was also observed in these two groups. Overall, doses of up to 100 mg synephrine/kg body weight did not produce developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:21594979

Hansen, Deborah K.; Juliar, Beth E.; White, Gene E.; Pellicore, Linda S.

2011-01-01

387

Sampling Citrus Fibrous Roots and Tylenchulus semipenetrans.  

PubMed

Sampling precision was investigated for Tylenchulus semipenetrans juveniles and males in soil and females from roots and for citrus fibrous root mass density. For the case of two composite samples of 15 cores each, counts of juvenile and male nematodes were estimated to be within 40% of mu, at P < 0.06 (alpha) in orchards where x > 1,500 nematodes/100 cm(3) soil. A similar level of alpha was estimated for measurements of fibrous root mass density, but at a precision level of 25% of mu. Densities of female nematodes were estimated with less precision than juveniles and males. Precision estimates from a general sample plan derived from Taylor's Power Law were in good agreement with estimates from individual orchards. Two aspects involved in deriving sampling plans for management advisory purposes were investigated. A minimum of five to six preliminary samples were required to appreciably reduce bias toward underestimation of sigma. The use of a Student's t value rather than a standard normal deviate in formulae to estimate sample size increased the estimates by an average of three units. Cases in which the use of z rather than Student's t is appropriate for these formulae are discussed. PMID:19279914

Duncan, L W; El-Morshedy, M M; McSorley, R

1994-12-01

388

An ergonomics approach to citrus harvest mechanization.  

PubMed

Due to the increase of production costs in manual harvesting, strategies must be developed in order to overcome these effects, such as the attempts in implementing agricultural machines in harvest activities, whether being totally or partially mechanized. This study brings a qualitative and quantitative comparison on the impacts in work conditions and productivity in Brazilian orchards caused by the use of semi-mechanized harvesting systems, such as multiplatforms. The results come from the application of Ergonomic Work Analysis method, which focuses in the activity, quantifying and analyzing times and frequencies of the harvesting cycle, as well as the amount of movements. To achieve this, footage, interviews and a stopwatch were used in the observation 12 pickers' work cycles, six for each method of harvesting. The data interpretation pointed to improvement in working conditions with a reduction in the amount of movements performed by the picker, and increase of up to 60% in productivity with the use of semi-mechanized harvesting. Thus, the found results indicate the viability of this harvesting method. However, other variables must be observed in future studies in order to complete the guidelines for a healthy progress in the area of citrus harvesting in Brazil. PMID:22317498

Costa, Simone Emmanuelle Alves; Camarotto, João Alberto

2012-01-01

389

Tissue-Adapted Invasion Strategies of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae[W  

PubMed Central

Magnaporthe oryzae causes rice blast, the most serious foliar fungal disease of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). During hemibiotrophic leaf infection, the pathogen simultaneously combines biotrophic and necrotrophic growth. Here, we provide cytological and molecular evidence that, in contrast to leaf tissue infection, the fungus adopts a uniquely biotrophic infection strategy in roots for a prolonged period and spreads without causing a loss of host cell viability. Consistent with a biotrophic lifestyle, intracellularly growing hyphae of M. oryzae are surrounded by a plant-derived membrane. Global, temporal gene expression analysis used to monitor rice responses to progressive root infection revealed a rapid but transient induction of basal defense-related gene transcripts, indicating perception of the pathogen by the rice root. Early defense gene induction was followed by suppression at the onset of intracellular fungal growth, consistent with the biotrophic nature of root invasion. By contrast, during foliar infection, the vast majority of these transcripts continued to accumulate or increased in abundance. Furthermore, induction of necrotrophy-associated genes during early tissue penetration, previously observed in infected leaves, was not seen in roots. Collectively, our results not only report a global characterization of transcriptional root responses to a biotrophic fungal pathogen but also provide initial evidence for tissue-adapted fungal infection strategies. PMID:20858844

Marcel, Sylvain; Sawers, Ruairidh; Oakeley, Edward; Angliker, Herbert; Paszkowski, Uta

2010-01-01

390

Rice Bran for Fattening Hogs.  

E-print Network

, 9 hard; U. S., 6 hard. Lots 2 and 8. Rice bran 90 per cent., tankage 10 per cent.: Swift, 9 soft; U. S., 4 hard, 2 slightly soft. Lots 3 and 9. Corn chops 45 per cent., rice bran 45 per cent., tank- ' age 10 per cent. : Swift, 8 hard, 1 soft; U.... s., 6 hard. Lots 4 and 10. Self-fed, corn chops, rice bran, and tankage: Swift, 9 hard; U. S., 6 hard. Lots 5 and 11. Corn chops 30 per cent., rice bran 60 per cent., and tankage 10 per cent.: Swift, 4 hard, 2 soft; U. S., 6 hard. Lots 6 and 12...

McConnell, O. E.; Williams, D. W. (David Willard)

1922-01-01

391

Freezing Tolerance of Citrus, Spinach, and Petunia Leaf Tissue 1  

PubMed Central

Seasonal variations in freezing tolerance, water content, water and osmotic potential, and levels of soluble sugars of leaves of field-grown Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) trees were studied to determine the ability of citrus trees to cold acclimate under natural conditions. Controlled environmental studies of young potted citrus trees, spinach (Spinacia pleracea), and petunia (Petunia hybrids) were carried out to study the water relations during cold acclimation under less variable conditions. During the coolest weeks of the winter, leaf water content and osmotic potential of field-grown trees decreased about 20 to 25%, while soluble sugars increased by 100%. At the same time, freezing tolerance increased from lethal temperature for 50% (LT50) of ?2.8 to ?3.8°C. In contrast, citrus leaves cold acclimated at a constant 10°C in growth chambers were freezing tolerant to about ?6°C. The calculated freezing induced cellular dehydration at the LT50 remained relatively constant for field-grown leaves throughout the year, but increased for leaves of plants cold acclimated at 10°C in a controlled environment. Spinach leaves cold acclimated at 5°C tolerated increased cellular dehydration compared to nonacclimated leaves. Cold acclimated petunia leaves increased in freezing tolerance by decreasing osmotic potential, but had no capacity to change cellular dehydration sensitivity. The result suggest that two cold acclimation mechanisms are involved in both citrus and spinach leaves and only one in petunia leaves. The common mechanism in all three species tested was a minor increase in tolerance (about ?1°C) resulting from low temperature induced osmotic adjustment, and the second in citrus and spinach was a noncolligative mechanism that increased the cellular resistance to freeze hydration. PMID:16666563

Yelenosky, George; Guy, Charles L.

1989-01-01

392

Anticancer and health protective properties of citrus fruit components.  

PubMed

Accumulated evidence from experimental and epidemiological studies indicates that there is a low risk of degenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cataract, stroke and, in particular, cancers in people with a high intake of fruit and vegetables. This protective effect is assumed to be associated mainly with the antioxidant activities of either individual or interacting bioactive components present in the fruits and vegetables, and with other biochemical and physical characteristics of the identified and unknown bioactive components. The implicated bioactive components present in citrus fruits include vitamin C, beta-carotene, flavonoids, limonoids, folic acid, and dietary fibre. A high intake of citrus fruits may reduce the risk of degenerative diseases. PMID:11890643

Silalahi, Jansen

2002-01-01

393

Efficient Procedure for Extracting Tylenchulus semipenetrans from Citrus Roots.  

PubMed

Investigations were undertaken to determine the suitability of sucrose and magnesium sulphate solutions and a silica colloidal suspension with centrifugation for extracting Tylenchulus semipenetrans from citrus roots. The efficiency of incubation, sodium hypochlorite, centrifugation, and maceration methods was also compared. Numbers of females recovered by centrifugation with colloidal silica were greater than those from sucrose or magnesium sulphate. Incubation, sodium hypochlorite, and centrifugation methods were satisfactory for extracting eggs, second-stage juveniles, and males, whereas the maceration-sieving method was less efficient. Combining the sodium hypochlorite method with a 15-second maceration followed by centrifugation in colloidal silica reduced the recovery of T. semipenetrans females from citrus roots. PMID:19287763

Greco, N; D'Addabbo, T

1990-10-01

394

Chlorophyllase activity in chlorophyll-free citrus chromoplasts.  

PubMed

Chromoplast fractions from mature, chlorophyll-less 'Valencia' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) flavedo (= the outer coloured layer of citrus peel) showed considerable chlorophyllase activity. Acetone powders prepared from chromoplast fractions had 2.5× higher specific activity than those prepared from whole flavedo. Exposure of mature, chlorophyll-less fruit to ethylene caused a 2.5 to 4.0 fold increase in chlorophyllase activity. Juice chromoplasts showed negligible chlorophyllase activity. The results suggest that chlorophyllase activity as well as its induction by ethylene are not dependent upon the presence of chlorophyll in the tissue. PMID:24257977

Hirschfeld, K R; Goldschmidt, E E

1983-06-01

395

Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering Learn more at cmc.rice.edu  

E-print Network

Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering Wireless Learn more at cmc.rice.edu or ece.rice in either orthogonal time-slots (TDD) or frequency bands (FDD). In 2010, Rice re-purposed off-the-shelf MIMO Wireless project directed by Prof. Edward Knightly at Rice University aims to develop fundamental

396

Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) Detection Using Visible, Near Infrared and Thermal Imaging Techniques  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrates the applicability of visible-near infrared and thermal imaging for detection of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease in citrus trees. Visible-near infrared (440–900 nm) and thermal infrared spectral reflectance data were collected from individual healthy and HLB-infected trees. Data analysis revealed that the average reflectance values of the healthy trees in the visible region were lower than those in the near infrared region, while the opposite was the case for HLB-infected trees. Moreover, 560 nm, 710 nm, and thermal band showed maximum class separability between healthy and HLB-infected groups among the evaluated visible-infrared bands. Similarly, analysis of several vegetation indices indicated that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), Vogelmann red-edge index (VOG) and modified red-edge simple ratio (mSR) demonstrated good class separability between the two groups. Classification studies using average spectral reflectance values from the visible, near infrared, and thermal bands (13 spectral features) as input features indicated that an average overall classification accuracy of about 87%, with 89% specificity and 85% sensitivity could be achieved with classification models such as support vector machine for trees with symptomatic leaves. PMID:23389343

Sankaran, Sindhuja; Maja, Joe Mari; Buchanon, Sherrie; Ehsani, Reza

2013-01-01

397

Advances in Transgenic Rice Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is the most amenable crop plant for genetic manipulation amongst monocots due to its small genome size, enriched genetic map, availability of entire genome sequence, and relative ease of transformation. Improvement in agronomic traits of rice is bound to affect a sizeable population since it is a primary source of sustenance. Recent advances like use of ‘clean gene’ technology

Hitesh Kathuria; Jitender Giri; Himani Tyagi; Akhilesh K. Tyagi

2007-01-01

398

Amy Katherine Rice Doctoral Student  

E-print Network

. ProQuest/UMI. March 2010. Rice, Amy. Optimal Sensor Location: Comparison of Soil Textural sensors and/or networks. PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS In preparation: Oostrom, M., Rice, A.K., Wietsma Response: Comparison of Textural and Response Clustering Approaches to Soil Classification. Master's Thesis

399

Update on organic rice research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic products command a premium in the marketplace and bring greater farmgate value to growers and processors. Although total rice acreage has decreased in Texas over the last ten years, there has been an increase in rice acreage produced under organic management. USDA ARS has conducted research ...

400

SOLID MECHANICS James R. Rice  

E-print Network

1 SOLID MECHANICS James R. Rice School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Department of Earth: February 2010 Downloadable at: http://esag.harvard.edu/rice/e0_Solid_Mechanics_94_10.pdf TABLE OF CONTENTS well below those of the application or phenomenon of interest. Solid mechanics is concerned

401

RICE: Rapid interconnect circuit evaluator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes RICE, an RLC interconnect evaluation tool based upon the moment-matching teehnique of Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE). The RLC circuit moments are calculated by a path-tracing algorithm which enables the analysis of large interconnect models several thousand times faster than a circuit simulation while requiring 5 to 10 times less memory. RICE also includes anew approach for determining

Curtis L. Ratzlaff; Nanda Gopal; Lawrence T. Pillage

1991-01-01

402

Transgenic plant production mediated by Agrobacterium in Indica rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reproducible system has been developed for the production of transgenic plants in indica rice using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Three-week-old scutella calli served as an excellent starting material. These were infected with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying a plasmid pIG121Hm containing genes for ß-glucuronidase (GUS) and hygromycin resistnace (HygR). Hygromycin (50 mg\\/l) was used as a selectable agent. Inclusion

Hamid Rashid; Shuuji Yokoi; Kinya Toriyama; Kokichi Hinata

1996-01-01

403

Analysis of genetic and molecular identity among field isolates of the rice blast fungus with an international differential system, rep-PCR and DNA sequencing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Pi-ta gene deployed in the Southern US rice germplasm is effective in preventing the infection by strains of Magnaporthe oryzae isolates that carry the avirulence gene AVR-Pita1. In the present study, a total of 169 isolates from rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars, with and without Pi-ta, were analyz...

404

Structural and functional analysis of the avirulence gene AVR-Pita1 of the rice blast fungus in isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae worldwide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The avirulence gene AVR-Pita1 of the rice blast fungus triggers race-specific resistance when races of Magnaporthe oryzae that contain AVR-Pita1 infect rice cultivars that contain the resistance gene Pi-ta. In the present study, a panel of 221 isolates from the US, China, Colombia, Egypt, India and ...

405

Effect of Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae) on the brown citrus aphid: Preliminary assessment of a compatibility study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricidus Kirkaldy (=T. citricida) is a serious pest of citrus as the vector which spreads Citrus Tristeza virus. Recently, an entomopathogenic strain of fungi, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Ifr) (= Paecilomyces fumosoroseus), (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) was discove...

406

Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.  

PubMed

Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production. PMID:24003656

Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

2013-01-01

407

Revised 7/10 1 RICE UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

ID: Contact #: Your employment end date with Rice is Timesheet and/or Time & Attendance Reports in your time and attendance report to your supervisor. Outstanding amounts due - In order to receive your-348-4791. * Rice benefits - Contact the Rice Benefits Hotline at benefits@rice.edu or 713-348-2363 for more

408

of Flours Prepared from Cooked Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of amylose on cooked rice texture has been studied more than any other parameter that affects the rheoiogical properties of rice. Amylose content of rice influences cooked grain texture and the resistance of the starch to overcooking, The relationship between amylose and texture is well known: the higher the amylose content of rice the higher the resistance to

A. B. Blakeney; L. A. Welsh; M. Martin; R. I. Booth; N. E. Turner

409

MOLECULAR CONTROL OF THE RICE BLAST DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea is a major constraint to rice production worldwide. The rice blast system is one of the best-characterized monocot model systems. The goal of this project is to understand molecular mechanisms of disease resistance using rice blast as a model system....

410

Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering Neuroengineering  

E-print Network

Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering Neuroengineering Learn more at ece.rice function. At Rice, we develop technologies to understand, repair, replace, enhance, or treat the diseases, the university has established the Rice Center for Neuroengineering (RCNE). The center's goal is to integrate

411

RICE SEQUENCES OF RELATIONS ANTONIO MONTALBAN  

E-print Network

RICE SEQUENCES OF RELATIONS ANTONIO MONTALB´AN Abstract. We propose a framework to study computational ways of measuring the complexity of relations. The key notion of this paper is the one of rice sequence of relations, where rice stands for relatively intrinsically computably enumerable. A rice

Montalbán, Antonio

412

Citrus stubborn disease incidence determined by quantitative real time PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantitative real-time (q) PCR was developed for detection of Spiroplasma citri, the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease (CSD), using the DNA binding fluorophore SYBR Green I. The primer pair, P58-3f/4r, developed based on sequences from the P58 putative adhesin multigene of the pathogen result...

413

Evaluation of citrus fibers as a tablet excipient.  

PubMed

The consumption of fibers is associated with many health benefits, such as a reduction of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, control of body weight, and prevention of diabetes. Despite the widespread use of fiber supplements such as capsules or tablets, there is an almost complete lack of information concerning the technological properties of functional fibers used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to characterize the technological properties of citrus fibers necessary for their use as a processing aid in tableting. The results obtained showed that citrus fibers share many properties of other polysaccharides used as tableting excipients, such as thermal behavior and compaction mechanism, together with an appreciable tabletability. However, the most interesting properties resulted from their disintegration power. Citrus fibers behaved in a similar manner to the well-known super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium and resulted to be little susceptible to their concentration, to lubricant type, and lubricant concentration. Thus, this work supports the idea of a potential use of citrus fibers as "active" substances and processing aid in the tableting of nutraceutical products and also as functional excipient in pharmaceutical tablets formulation. PMID:24306677

Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Roberts, Matthew; Hanson, Samuel; Jones, Stephen; Makevica, Elina; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo

2014-04-01

414

Characteristics of Multi-rater Estimates of Citrus Canker Severity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (CC, caused by Xanthomonas citri) was under eradication for 10 y in Florida. A total of 28 CC surveyors and plant pathologists rated severity of CC symptoms on 200 images to investigate the range of abilities and some factors that influence canker severity estimation. Actual dis...

415

Efficacy of Cankerguard® Sprays for Effective Decontamination of Citrus Canker  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is endemic in Florida. We used grapefruit leaf surfaces to explore the efficacy of the personnel decontaminant Cankerguard® to kill inoculum. In three experiments plants in flush (leaves 3/4 expanded) were sprayed with inoculum (2x104-9x105 CFU/ml)...

416

Psyllid biology: Expressed genes in Asian citrus psyllid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Functional genomics provides new insights into psyllid biology. We created and described the first genetic data set from the Asian citrus psyllid, AsCP, ‘Diaphorina citri’, Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The identification of these genes and proteins advances the field in understanding of the ge...

417

Chemical constituents from the peels of Citrus sudachi.  

PubMed

A methanol extract of the peels of Citrus sudachi gave five new compounds (1-5) and 27 known compounds. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Several of these compounds were assayed for antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori, and sudachitin (6) and 3'-demethoxysudachitin (7) were the most active. PMID:16933871

Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Naonobu; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Shibata, Hirofumi; Higuti, Tomihiko

2006-08-01

418

Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography of limonoid glucosides from citrus seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an investigation into the application of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) for the analysis of limonoid glucosides in a citrus seed extract. MECC based on sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used to provide highly efficient separations of the closely related structures. A phosphate-borate buffer containing SDS was used to optimize the separation conditions for

Vinayagum E. Moodley; Dulcie A. Mulholland; Mark W. Raynor

1995-01-01

419

Study of pulsed electric field treated citrus juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment, applied in a continuous system, on physical and chemical properties of freshly squeezed citrus juices (grapefruit, lemon, orange, tangerine) was studied. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of PEF technology on pH, Brix°, electric conductivity, viscosity, nonenzymatic browning index (NEBI), hydroxymethylfurfurol (HMF), color, organic acid content, and

Zs. Cserhalmi; Á. Sass-Kiss; M. Tóth-Markus; N. Lechner

2006-01-01

420

The Chemical Composition of Some Mediterranean Citrus Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the regional variations of the quantitative chemical composition, some Mediterranean citrus oils (lemon, sweet orange, bitter orange, and mandarin) from Italy and Spain have been studied. Over 100 constituents were identified in the various oils, from which 80 components could be quantified.No significant differences were found in the concentrations of the main constituents of sweet orange oils from

Mans H. Boelens; Rafael Jimenez

1989-01-01

421

Potential perchlorate exposure from Citrus sp. irrigated with contaminated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus produced in the southwestern United States is often irrigated with perchlorate-contaminated water. This irrigation water includes Colorado River water which is contaminated with perchlorate from a manufacturing plant previously located near the Las Vegas Wash, and ground water from wells in Riverside and San Bernardino counties of California which are affected by a perchlorate plume associated with an aerospace

C. A. Sanchez; R. I. Krieger; N. R. Khandaker; L. Valentin-Blasini; B. C. Blount

2006-01-01

422

Citrus County Professional Orientation Program, 1992-93.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Citrus County (Florida) Professional Orientation Program is designed to increase student learning by providing a set of supervised support services for teachers in the first year(s) of teaching that will assist them in their continuing professional development. The program provides for the development, demonstration, and documentation of…

Citrus County Board of Public Instruction, Inverness, FL.

423

HEALTHY PRODUCTS FROM CITRUS JUICE PROCESSING WASTE STREAMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus waste streams contain significant amounts of simple sugars, flavonoids and dietary fiber as cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. A process has been developed to convert sugars and cellulose (after enzyme hydrolysis) into ethanol through fermentation for use as a biofuel. Pectin is hydrolyz...

424

Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae  

PubMed Central

Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppress mosquito larval population. Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used. Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis) was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm), % mortality (97%) and LT50 (18.49 hours) then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate) with LC50 (377.4 ppm), % mortality (88%) and LT50 (31 hours), While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm) than limonin (382.22 ppm) after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 ?g/ml and 21.19 ?g/ml) than freutrall early (5.29 ?g/ml and 3.89 ?g/ml) respectively. Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required. PMID:23378967

Bilal, Hazrat; Akram, Waseem; Ali-Hassan, Soaib

2012-01-01

425

Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events. PMID:23818960

Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

2013-01-01

426

Longevity of radiofrequency identification device microchips in citrus trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term identification of individual plants in the field is an important part of many types of botanical and horticultural research. In a previous report, we described methods for using implanted radiofrequency (RFID) microchips to tag citrus trees for field research. This report provides an upd...

427

Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Citrus Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit of instruction on citrus production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients…

Olson, Jeanne A.; Becker, William J.

428

Chemical constituents of Citrus sinensis var. Shukri from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variety ‘Shukri’ is a new hybrid of Citrus sinensis and is frequently grown for its sweet edible fruits in the southern part of Pakistan. The leaves of this hybrid variety have been investigated in search of secondary metabolites for the first time. As a result of chromatographic analysis of the methanolic extract, a new ceramide along with a flavonone

Muhammad Saleem; Ariba Farooq; Shabir Ahmad; Nusrat Shafiq; Naheed Riaz; Abdul Jabbar; Muhammad Arshad; Abdul Malik

2010-01-01

429

Cytokinin activity in Citrus seedlings colonized by mycorrhizal fungi  

E-print Network

Cytokinin activity in Citrus seedlings colonized by mycorrhizal fungi R.K. Dixon* School of roots by vesicular-arbus- cular mycorrhizal fungi or the result of improved mineral nutrition (Van fungi; and 2) isolate cytokinins with demon- strated biological activity. Materials and Methods Five

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3-4 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practices, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability could be greatly improved if this amount of peel can be used to produce high...

431

OXIDANT AIR POLLUTION AND WORK PERFORMANCE OF CITRUS HARVEST LABOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The project assesses the effect of photochemical oxidants on the work performance of twelve individual citrus pickers in the South Coast Air Basin of southern California. A model of the picker's decision problem is constructed in which oxidants influence the individual's picking ...

432

Quantitative real-time PCR for detection and identification of Candidatus Liberibacter species associated with citrus huanglongbing.  

PubMed

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB, ex greening) is one of the most serious diseases of citrus. Different forms of the disease are caused by different Candidatus Liberobacter species, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. L. africanus (Laf) and Ca. L. americanus (Lam). The pathogen is transmitted by psyllid insects and by budding with contaminated plant materials. The vector psyllid Diaphorina citri can transmit both Las and Lam. Establishment of this vector into Florida, reports of Lam and Las in Brazil in 2004, and recent confirmation of HLB in Florida in September 2005 is of great concern to the citrus industry. Research on HLB has been hampered by the unculturable nature of the causal bacterium in artificial media. It has also been difficult to detect and identify the pathogens, possibly because of low concentration and uneven distribution in host plants and vector psyllids. In this study, we developed quantitative TaqMan PCR using 16S rDNA-based TaqMan primer-probe sets specific to the different Ca. Liberobacter spp. An additional primer-probe set based on plant cytochrome oxidase (COX) was used as a positive internal control to assess the quality of the DNA extracts. The assays do not cross-react with other pathogens or endophytes commonly resident in citrus plants, and are very sensitive. HLB pathogen DNA was successfully amplified from the equivalent of 20 ng of midrib tissue from symptomatic leaves. The consistent results of the assays with DNA extracted from plants infected by various Ca. Liberibacter species grown in greenhouses and in the field demonstrated a degree of reproducibility for these TaqMan assays. Inhibitors of the PCR that are frequently present in plant extracts did not affect the assay results. The population of the pathogens was estimated to be 5 x 10(7) and 2 x 10(6) cells/g of fresh midribs of symptomatic sweet orange leaves infected by Las and Lam, respectively. The ratio of pathogen DNA to host plant DNA was estimated by to be 1:13,000 (w/w) and 1:1000 (c/c: target copy/target copy) in DNA extracts obtained by a standard CTAB method. Our rapid, sensitive and specific TaqMan PCR assay for the detection, identification and quantification of Ca. Liberibacter species has been successfully used in the confirmation of HLB caused by Las in Florida, and will be very useful for a broad range of research programs as well as the regulatory response and management of HLB disease. PMID:16414133

Li, Wenbin; Hartung, John S; Levy, Laurene

2006-07-01

433

Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots to Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 2 February 2005\\/Accepted 6 June 2005 Rhizobia, the root-nodule endosymbionts of leguminous plants, also form natural endophytic associations with roots of important cereal plants. Despite its widespread occurrence, much remains unknown about colonization of cereals by rhizobia. We examined the infection, dissemination, and colonization of healthy rice plant tissues by four species of gfp-tagged rhizobia and their influence on

Feng Chi; Shi-Hua Shen; Hai-Ping Cheng; Yu-Xiang Jing; Youssef G. Yanni; Frank B. Dazzo

2005-01-01

434

Citrus orchards management and soil water repellency in Eastern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (< 15 % angle slope). Measurement were conducted in four experimental plots located in the Canyoles River watershed to assess the soil water repellency in citrus orchards under different managements: annual addition of plant residues and manure with no tilling and no fertilizer (MNT), annual addition of plant residues with no tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no tilling (HNT) and conventional tillage in June (CT). The period for each type of management ranged from 2 and 27 (MNT), 1 and 25 (NT), 2 and 27 (HNT) and 3 and 29 years (CT). At each plot, a ten points were selected every 10 cm along inter-rows and water drop penetration time test (WDTP; DeBano, 1981) was performed. The results show that the MNT treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT treatments (mean WDTP 4 ± 4 s and 2 ± 2 s, respectively), which may be regarded as subcritical soil water repellency. Slight water repellency observed in soils under MNT treatment may be attributed to the input of hydrophobic organic compounds as a consequence of the addition of plant residues and organic manure. A further issue to be achieved is the study of geomorphological processes associated to sub-critical soil water repellency. The experimental setup within the citrus plantation is being supported by the research project CGL2008-02879/BTE

Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

2012-04-01

435

Production of cecropin A antimicrobial peptide in rice seed endosperm  

PubMed Central

Background Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits rapid, potent and long-lasting lytic activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens, thus having great biotechnological potential. Here, we report a system for producing bioactive cecropin A in rice seeds. Results Transgenic rice plants expressing a codon-optimized synthetic cecropin A gene drived by an endosperm-specific promoter, either the glutelin B1 or glutelin B4 promoter, were generated. The signal peptide sequence from either the glutelin B1 or the glutelin B4 were N-terminally fused to the coding sequence of the cecropin A. We also studied whether the presence of the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal at the C-terminal has an effect on cecropin A subcellular localization and accumulation. The transgenic rice plants showed stable transgene integration and inheritance. We show that cecropin A accumulates in protein storage bodies in the rice endosperm, particularly in type II protein bodies, supporting that the glutelin N-terminal signal peptides play a crucial role in directing the cecropin A to this organelle, independently of being tagged with the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. The production of cecropin A in transgenic rice seeds did not affect seed viability or seedling growth. Furthermore, transgenic cecropin A seeds exhibited resistance to infection by fungal and bacterial pathogens (Fusarium verticillioides and Dickeya dadantii, respectively) indicating that the in planta-produced cecropin A is biologically active. Conclusions Rice seeds can sustain bioactive cecropin A production and accumulation in protein bodies. The system might benefit the production of this antimicrobial agent for subsequent applications in crop protection and food preservation. PMID:24755305

2014-01-01

436

Role of imidacloprid in integrated pest management of California citrus.  

PubMed

Portions of three commercial citrus orchards were treated for 1 yr with foliar imidacloprid or for 2 yr with a systemic formulation in a replicated plot design to determine the impact of this neonicotinoid on the San Joaquin Valley California citrus integrated pest management (IPM) program. Foliar-applied imidacloprid had little effect on California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell; or citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), populations. Short-term suppression of the parasitoids Aphytis melinus DeBach and Comperiella bifasciata Howard; vedalia, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant); and the predacious mite Euseius tularensis (Congdon) were observed. Suppression of natural enemies allowed scales and mites to maintain higher populations in the treated areas compared with the nontreated areas. Thus, foliar imidacloprid did not exhibit control of these citrus pest species, and it disrupted biological control. Systemically applied imidacloprid suppressed California red scale and citricola scale populations 2-3 mo after treatment. Suppression of parasitoids of the California red scale also was observed. Thus, treatments of systemic imidacloprid applied in areawide management programs for invasive pests would provide a benefit of California red scale and citricola scale suppression. However, this treatment provided only single-season control of citricola scale, it was somewhat disruptive of biological control, and it did not suppress densities of either scale as low as a treatment of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos for citricola scale or the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen for California red scale. Insecticides with longer periods of efficacy and greater IPM compatibility than imidacloprid should be used for a sustainable IPM approach in California citrus. PMID:18459411

Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Robillard, S M; Gorden, J M

2008-04-01

437

Transferability of the EST-SSRs developed on Nules clementine (Citrus clementina Hort ex Tan) to other Citrus species and their effectiveness for genetic mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: During the last decade, numerous microsatellite markers were developed for genotyping and to identify closely related plant genotypes. In citrus, previously developed microsatellite markers were arisen from genomic libraries and more often located in non coding DNA sequences. To optimize the use of these EST-SSRs as genetic markers in genome mapping programs and citrus systematic analysis, we have investigated

François L Luro; Gilles Costantino; Javier Terol; Xavier Argout; Thierry Allario; Patrick Wincker; Manuel Talon; Patrick Ollitrault; Raphael Morillon

2008-01-01

438

In Vitro Fermentation of Cellulose, Beet Pulp, Citrus Pulp, and Citrus Pectin Using Fecal Inoculum from Cats, Dogs, Horses, Humans, and Pigs and Ruminal Fluid from Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the influence of gas- trointestinal tract microflora from several species on fiber fermentation characteristics in vitro. Selected fibrous substrates (cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp, and citrus pectin) were incubated for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h with ruminal fluid from cattle or feces from dogs, cats, pigs, horses, or humans. When data were pooled across all substrates and

G. D. Sunvold; H. S. Hussein; G. C. Fahey; N. R. Merchen; G. A. Reinhart

2010-01-01

439

One Grain of Rice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning with the famous story of the village girl trying to feed her people, the lesson involves students in the mathematics of exponential growth. Students work collaboratively to come up with a bargaining plan to trick a raja into feeding the village using algebra and estimation. The complete activity includes the development of an exponential equation, but just following the growth of the number of rice grains throughout the story gives a good introduction to exponential growth. Questions for students and ideas for assessment are provided.

Simon, Christy

2000-01-01

440

Gene expression in Asian citrus psyllid adults feeding from Florida citrus: Application to biology and vector control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We used a genomics approach to identify some of the genetic basis of D. citri biology, identifying in particular genes associated with feeding, reproduction, pathology, and insecticide resistance. The Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a highly competent vector ...

441

"EFFECT OF SUCROSE OCTANOATE ON SURVIVAL OF ASIATIC CITRUS PSYLLID, BROWN CITRUS APHID AND SWEETPOTATO WHITEFLY B BIOTYPE".  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We determined the insecticidal activity of a synthetic analogue of natural sugar esters (sucrose octanoate (SO) found in leaf trichomes of wild tobacco to egg, nymph and adult Asiatic citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Laboratory bioassays, greenhouse and field trial tests are presen...

442

Comparative analysis of three Australian finger lime (Citrus australasica) cultivars: identification of unique citrus chemotypes and new volatile molecules.  

PubMed

The volatile constituents of the peel of three cultivars of Australian finger lime (Citrus australasica) were investigated: Alstonville, Judy's Everbearing and Durham's Emerald. Both qualitative and quantitative GC-MS analyses were performed on their peel solvent extract. The results showed that the unique phenotypes of finger lime are also correlated to unique molecular compositions. Each cultivar revealed a different chemotype: limonene/sabinene for cv. Alstonville, limonene/citronellal/isomenthone for cv. Judy's Everbearing, and limonene/citronellal/ citronellol for cv. Durham's Emerald. To the best of our knowledge, these chemotypes have never been reported in any other citrus species. Furthermore, the amounts of some volatile constituents (?-terpinene, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, citral), which are generally the major constituents besides limonene in lime species, were surprisingly low in the three cultivars. Comparative GC-MS analysis also showed that some volatile molecules tended to be specific to one cultivar and could therefore be considered as markers. Moreover six molecules were reported for the first time in a citrus extract and confirmed by synthesis. Heart-cutting enantioselective two-dimensional GC-MS was performed to determine the enantiomeric distribution of the major chiral constituents. The combined data on three finger lime cultivars gives evidence of their divergence from other citrus species. PMID:25468539

Delort, Estelle; Jaquier, Alain; Decorzant, Erik; Chapuis, Christian; Casilli, Alessandro; Frérot, Eric

2015-01-01

443

Genetic Transformation of Citrus Paradisi with Antisense and untranslatable RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Genes of Citrus Tristeza Closterovirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Expression of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied in vivo and in vitro using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant CTV-RdRp protein. Although 56 kDa CTV-RdRp is thought to be expressed by a +1 translational frameshift at the carboxyl te...

444

Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector for citrus greening disease Huanglongbing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from microsatellite-enriched DNA libraries and mined from an EST library of Diaphorina citri, the vector of the devastating citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing). Analysis of 288 individuals from Florida, Texas, and Brazil showed allelic di...

445

Red rice control in rice using herbicides plus safeners  

E-print Network

. Chapter II LITERATURE REVIEW According to Sonnier, as reported by Smith (13), and Constantin (3) there are two recognized varieties of red rice, a strawhull type and a blackhull type, but many variations of these types may be found. Red rice differs...:292-295. 2. Chang, F. Yfs G. R. Stephenson, and J. D. Bandeen. 1974. Control of wild oats in oats with barban plus antidote. Weed Science 22:546-548. 3. Constantin, Milton. 1960. Characteristics of red rice in Louisiana. Ph. D. Dissertation. Louisiana...

Price, James Bain

1977-01-01

446

Distribution and genetic diversity of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in China  

PubMed Central

Background Rice and maize dwarf diseases caused by the newly introduced Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) have led to severe economic losses in South China in recent years. The distribution and diversity of SRBSDV have not been investigated in the main rice and maize growing areas in China. In this study, the distribution of SRBSDV in China was determined by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Between 2009 and 2010, 2404 plant samples (2294 rice, 110 maize samples, and more than 300 cultivars) with dwarf symptoms were collected from fields in 194 counties of 17 provinces in China and SRBSDV was detected. The results indicated that 1545 (64.27%) of samples (both rice and maize) were infected with SRBSDV. SRBSDV was detected widely in Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces, which suggests SRBSDV is an important pathogen causing rice dwarfing diseases in South China. Phylogenetic analysis of 15 representative virus isolates revealed that SRBSDV isolates in China had high levels of nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities (>97.8%). Conclusions SRBSDV spreads naturally in Yangtze River basin and south region, the location of the major rice production areas. In comparison, the virus rarely spreads north of Yangtze River in North China. Distribution of SRBSDV is consistent with the migrating and existing ranges of its vector WBPH, suggesting that SRBSDV might be introduced into South China along with the migration of viruliferous WBPH. PMID:24131521

2013-01-01

447

Influence of rice black streaked dwarf virus on the ecological fitness of non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).  

PubMed

Rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV) is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallen). Non-vector rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), shares the same host rice plants with SBPH in paddy fields. The changes in nutritional composition of rice plants infected by RBSDV and the ecological fitness of BPH feeding on the infected plants were studied under both artificial climate chamber and field conditions. Contents of 16 detected amino acids and soluble sugar in RBSDV infected rice plants were higher than those in the healthy ones. On the diseased plants BPH had significantly higher nymphal survival rates, nymphal duration of the males, weight of the female adults, as well as egg hatchability compared to BPH being fed on healthy plants. However, there was no obvious difference in female nymph duration, longevity and fecundity. Defense enzymes (superoxidase dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) and detoxifying enzymes (carboxylesterase, CAE and glutathione S-transferase, GST) in BPH adults fed on diseased plants had markedly higher activities. The results indicate rice plants infected by RBSDV improved the ecological fitness of the brown planthopper, a serious pest but not a transmitter of the RBSDV virus. PMID:23956237

Xu, Hong-Xing; He, Xiao-Chan; Zheng, Xu-Song; Yang, Ya-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Xian

2014-08-01

448

RICE PI-TA GENE IS CLOSELY LINKED WITH RESISTANCE TO THE MAJOR PATHOTYPES OF THE RICE BLAST FUNGUS IN THE U.S.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Pi-ta gene, allelic to Pi-ta2, in rice is effective in preventing the infection of Magnaporthe grisea isolates containing the corresponding avirulence gene AVR-Pita. Pi-ta encodes a putative cytoplasmic receptor that appears to bind to a predicted processed AVR-Pita to elicit a defense response...

449

International Year of Rice 2004  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The importance of rice as a basic foodstuff to over half of the world's populations can not be underestimated, and it was with this fact in mind that the International Rice Research Institute first developed the idea for the International Year of Rice in 1999. Working in tandem with the United Nations General Assembly, the Institute set up a number of partnerships, conferences, lectures, and research agendas to take place throughout the year 2004 and beyond. The site contains links to numerous important papers, such as the collection available here from the recent conference titled Rice in Global Markets and Sustainable Production Systems, which was held in Rome. Beyond various scholarly and policy-oriented resources, visitors can learn about the rice photography contest, submit recipes to a forthcoming rice-themed cookbook, and explore a kids section that offers some basic facts about rice, along with a short quiz. The site is available in a number of different languages, including Italian, Spanish, French, Arabic, and Japanese.

450

Genome Similarity Implies that Citrus-Parasitic Burrowing Nematodes do not Represent a Unique Species.  

PubMed

Burrowing nematodes from Central America, Dominican Republic, Florida, Guadeloupe, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were characterized for their ability to parasitize citrus, but citrus parasites were found only in Florida. Sequence tag sites originally amplified from a citrus-parasitic burrowing nematode were polymorphic among 37 burrowing nematode isolates and were not correlated with citrus parasitism, nematode isolate collection site, or amplification of a 2.4-kb sequence tag site (DK#1). Results of a RAPD analysis and characterization of the isozymes phosphoglucose isomerase, lactate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase indicated that the burrowing nematode isolates were highly similar. Citrus parasitism in Florida appears to be associated with limited changes in the burrowing nematode genome. Findings did not substantiate a previous report that R. citrophilus was present in Hawaii. Overall, these data do not support assignment of sibling species status to burrowing nematodes that differ with respect to citrus parasitism. PMID:19274179

Kaplan, D T; Opperman, C H

1997-12-01

451

Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Sunkist Citrus Plant in Ontario, California, processes about 6 million pounds of citrus fruit per day to make products which include frozen concentrated juice; chilled, pasteurized, natural strength juice; molasses from peel; dried meal from peel; pectin; citrus oil; and bioflavonoids. The energy intensive operations at the plant include concentration, drying, and refrigeration. The objective of the two-year two-phase project is to identify an economically viable alternative to the existing method of meeting energy requirements. Progress on the technical work of Phase I is reported. The following are summarized: requirements (energy price projection, atmospheric emission requirements, citrus juice quality constraints, economic evaluations); characterization (basic citrus processing operations, energy consumption and fruit processed vs time, identification and measurement of energy uses, energy balance for a typical citrus juice evaporator); and thermodynamic analysis (heat pump model, thermal evaporator, and co-generation model).

Not Available

1980-06-15

452

Citrus extract or natamycin treatments on "Tzatziki" - a traditional Greek salad.  

PubMed

The effect of packaging (aerobic and vacuum) either with citrus extract, natamycin individually added, or the combination of two, was studied on the shelf-life of a Greek traditional deli salad "Tzatziki" during storage under refrigeration (4°C). Irrespective of the packaging conditions and treatments, yeasts populations of approximately 4.0-6.5logcfu/g were recorded in the microflora of the salad, whereas the Pseudomonas spp. populations were lower (2-3logcfu/g). Tzatziki's overall flavour was better under vacuum, and of all the treatments examined, the addition of citrus extract, and to a letter extent the combination with natamycin, improved the taste and odour (fruity, pleasant, refreshing with reduced garlic typical flavour) of Tzatziki salad. The shelf-life of Tzatziki was extended by ca. >10days (citrus extract, citrus-natamycin) and 5-6days (natamycin, citrus and citrus-natamycin) under aerobic or vacuum, respectively, as compared to the control sample. PMID:24001860

Tsiraki, Maria I; Savvaidis, Ioannis N

2014-01-01

453

Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.  

PubMed

Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. PMID:25081855

Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

2014-11-01

454

Laboratory evaluation of the effectiveness of the entomopathogen; Isaria farinosa, on citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is one of the main pests on citrus trees. Biological control of the pest is based on\\u000a the release of hymenopterous parasitoids and coccinellid predators at present. The effectiveness of entomopathogen fungus\\u000a Isaria farinosa (Holmsk.) Fries ([Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales] (Syn: Paecilomyces farinosus), as an alternative biological control agent on citrus mealybug, was investigated using

Fikret Demirci; Murat Mu?tu; M. Bora Kaydan; Selma Ülgentürk

455

Allelochemicals and their transformations in the Ageratum conyzoides intercropped citrus orchard soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercropping Ageratum conyzoides in citrus orchards may effectively suppress weeds and control other pests. Investigations showed that the inhibition of major\\u000a weeds and soil pathogenic fungi in citrus orchards was significantly correlated with the allelochemicals released into the\\u000a soil by intercropped A. conyzoides. Three flavones, ageratochromene, and its two dimers were isolated and identified from the A. conyzoides intercropped citrus orchard soil.

Chuihua Kong; Wenju Liang; Fei Hu; Xiaohua Xu; Peng Wang; Yong Jiang; Baoshan Xing

2004-01-01

456

7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice...

2011-01-01

457

7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

2010-01-01

458

7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

2011-01-01

459

7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice...

2012-01-01

460

7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.  

...2014-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice...

2014-01-01

461

7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

2013-01-01

462

7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice...

2013-01-01

463

7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

2012-01-01

464

7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.  

...2014-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

2014-01-01

465

Rice University | Faculty/Researchers Office of Institutional  

E-print Network

Rice University | Faculty/Researchers Office of Institutional Research Quick Facts Rice Facts Historical Facts Archives About OIR The Office of Institutional Research (OIR) serves Rice University of information to Rice about itself. This organizational intelligence function reflects the demand

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

466

OsNAC111, a blast disease-responsive transcription factor in rice, positively regulates the expression of defense-related genes.  

PubMed

Plants respond to pathogen attack by transcriptionally regulating defense-related genes via various types of transcription factors. We identified a transcription factor in rice, OsNAC111, belonging to the TERN subgroup of the NAC family that was transcriptionally upregulated after rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae) inoculation. OsNAC111 was localized in the nucleus of rice cells and had transcriptional activation activity in yeast and rice cells. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsNAC111 showed increased resistance to the rice blast fungus. In OsNAC111-overexpressing plants, the expression of several defense-related genes, including pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, was constitutively high compared with the control. These genes all showed blast disease-responsive expression in leaves. Among them, two chitinase genes and one ?-1,3-glucanase gene showed reduced expression in transgenic rice plants in which OsNAC111 function was suppressed by a chimeric repressor (OsNAC111-SRDX). OsNAC111 activated transcription from the promoters of the chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase genes in rice cells. In addition, brown pigmentation at the infection sites, a defense response of rice cells to the blast fungus, was lowered in OsNAC111-SRDX plants at the early infection stage. These results indicate that OsNAC111 positively regulates the expression of a specific set of PR genes in the disease response and contributes to disease resistance. PMID:25014590

Yokotani, Naoki; Tsuchida-Mayama, Tomoko; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Kaku, Hisatoshi; Minami, Eiichi; Nishizawa, Yoko

2014-10-01

467

Rice-Map: a new-generation rice genome browser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The concurrent release of rice genome sequences for two subspecies (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) facilitates rice studies at the whole genome level. Since the advent of high-throughput analysis, huge amounts of functional\\u000a genomics data have been delivered rapidly, making an integrated online genome browser indispensable for scientists to visualize\\u000a and analyze these data.

Jun Wang; Lei Kong; Shuqi Zhao; He Zhang; Liang Tang; Zhe Li; Xiaocheng Gu; Jingchu Luo; Ge Gao

2011-01-01

468

Efficacy of the combined application of chitosan and Locust Bean Gum with different citrus essential oils to control postharvest spoilage caused by Aspergillus flavus in dates.  

PubMed

This study reports the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CH) and Locust Bean Gum (LBG) in combination with different citrus essential oils (EOs) to inhibit Aspergillus flavus in vitro and on artificially infected dates for a storage period of 12 days. The effect of these treatments on the fruits' sensory characteristics was evaluated to verify the complete absence of off-odours and off-flavours. Bergamot EO was the most effective in reducing mycelial growth, followed by bitter orange EO. Both bergamot and bitter orange oils significantly reduced conidial germination and a complete inhibition was obtained at concentrations higher than 2%. The mixtures based on CH-2% (v/v) bergamot EO or CH-2% (v/v) bitter orange EO proved to be the most effective coatings to reduce conidial germination resulting in an 87-90% inhibition compared with the control. In fruit decay assays coatings based on CH incorporating citrus oils were able to reduce fungal decay in the range of 52-62% at day 12. The study results and the complete absence of off-flavours and off-odours demonstrate the potential of CH coatings carrying citrus EOs at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control postharvest growth of A. flavus in dates. PMID:24291176

Aloui, Hajer; Khwaldia, Khaoula; Licciardello, Fabio; Mazzaglia, Agata; Muratore, Giuseppe; Hamdi, Moktar; Restuccia, Cristina

2014-01-17

469

Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots to Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology  

PubMed Central

Rhizobia, the root-nodule endosymbionts of leguminous plants, also form natural endophytic associations with roots of important cereal plants. Despite its widespread occurrence, much remains unknown about colonization of cereals by rhizobia. We examined the infection, dissemination, and colonization of healthy rice plant tissues by four species of gfp-tagged rhizobia and their influence on the growth physiology of rice. The results indicated a dynamic infection process beginning with surface colonization of the rhizoplane (especially at lateral root emergence), followed by endophytic colonization within roots, and then ascending endophytic migration into the stem base, leaf sheath, and leaves where they developed high populations. In situ CMEIAS image analysis indicated local endophytic population densities reaching as high as 9 × 1010 rhizobia per cm3 of infected host tissues, whereas plating experiments indicated rapid, transient or persistent growth depending on the rhizobial strain and rice tissue examined. Rice plants inoculated with certain test strains of gfp-tagged rhizobia produced significantly higher root and shoot biomass; increased their photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration velocity, water utilization efficiency, and flag leaf area (considered to possess the highest photosynthetic activity); and accumulated higher levels of indoleacetic acid and gibberellin growth-regulating phytohormones. Considered collectively, the results indicate that this endophytic plant-bacterium association is far more inclusive, invasive, and dynamic than previously thought, including dissemination in both below-ground and above-ground tissues and enhancement of growth physiology by several rhizobial species, therefore heightening its interest and potential value as a biofertilizer strategy for sustainable agriculture to produce the world's most important cereal crops. PMID:16269768

Chi, Feng; Shen, Shi-Hua; Cheng, Hai-Ping; Jing, Yu-Xiang; Yanni, Youssef G.; Dazzo, Frank B.

2005-01-01

470

Ascending migration of endophytic rhizobia, from roots to leaves, inside rice plants and assessment of benefits to rice growth physiology.  

PubMed

Rhizobia, the root-nodule endosymbionts of leguminous plants, also form natural endophytic associations with roots of important cereal plants. Despite its widespread occurrence, much remains unknown about colonization of cereals by rhizobia. We examined the infection, dissemination, and colonization of healthy rice plant tissues by four species of gfp-tagged rhizobia and their influence on the growth physiology of rice. The results indicated a dynamic infection process beginning with surface colonization of the rhizoplane (especially at lateral root emergence), followed by endophytic colonization within roots, and then ascending endophytic migration into the stem base, leaf sheath, and leaves where they developed high populations. In situ CMEIAS image analysis indicated local endophytic population densities reaching as high as 9 x 10(10) rhizobia per cm3 of infected host tissues, whereas plating experiments indicated rapid, transient or persistent growth depending on the rhizobial strain and rice tissue examined. Rice plants inoculated with certain test strains of gfp-tagged rhizobia produced significantly higher root and shoot biomass; increased their photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration velocity, water utilization efficiency, and flag leaf area (considered to possess the highest photosynthetic activity); and accumulated higher levels of indoleacetic acid and gibberellin growth-regulating phytohormones. Considered collectively, the results indicate that this endophytic plant-bacterium association is far more inclusive, invasive, and dynamic than previously thought, including dissemination in both below-ground and above-ground tissues and enhancement of growth physiology by several rhizobial species, therefore heightening its interest and potential value as a biofertilizer strategy for sustainable agriculture to produce the world's most important cereal crops. PMID:16269768

Chi, Feng; Shen, Shi-Hua; Cheng, Hai-Ping; Jing, Yu-Xiang; Yanni, Youssef G; Dazzo, Frank B

2005-11-01

471

RNAi-directed down-regulation of RSV results in increased resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

Rice stripe disease (RSD), caused by rice stripe virus (RSV), is a serious disease in temperate rice-growing areas. We have created an RNAi construct containing coat protein gene (CP) and disease specific protein gene (SP) sequences from RSV. The RNAi construct was transformed into two susceptible japonica varieties, Suyunuo and Guanglingxiangjing, to develop resistance against RSD. The homozygous progeny of rice plants in the T(5) and T(7) generations containing RNAi constructs, after self-fertilization were strongly resistant to viral infection. RT-PCR indicated that viral replication of SP and CP in the transgenic plants was significantly inhibited. There were no obvious morphological or developmental differences between the transgenic and wild-type plants from seedling stage to maturity. The excellent agronomic traits of these two varieties, such as high yield and good quality were maintained. Suppression of virus genes using RNAi is therefore a practical and effective strategy for controlling viral infection in crops. PMID:22261864

Zhou, Yong; Yuan, Yuan; Yuan, Fuhai; Wang, Man; Zhong, Huan; Gu, Minghong; Liang, Guohua

2012-05-01

472

Application of Taylor's Power Law to Sample Statistics of Tylenchulus semipenetrans in Florida Citrus.  

PubMed

Taylor's Power Law was fit to Tylenchulus semipenetrans population data obtained from individual trees in a survey of 50 Florida citrus orchards (geographic survey) and to data from individual trees within a single orchard collected at regular intervals for 2 years (temporal survey). No significant differences were detected between slope or intercept values when log variance was regressed against log mean for the geographic and temporal data sets. The geographic survey was divided into two subsets of data according to the perceived size of patches of T. semipenetrans. Subsets consisted of orchards which appeared to have numerous small patches of trees infected by the nematode (small patch) and orchards in which most of the trees were infected (large patch). The slope value for the orchards with smaller patches of nematodes was different (P

Duncan, L W; Ferguson, J J; Dunn, R A; Noling, J W

1989-10-01

473

7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...Chalky kernels 1,2 In long grain rice (percent) In medium or short grain rice (percent) Broken kernels...percent) Other types 4 Whole kernels (percent)...

2010-01-01

474

RICE UNIVERSITY BEAMSWITCH: DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY BEAMSWITCH: DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION Directional Transmission for Energy-Efficient Wireless Communication on Mobile Sys- tems Hasan Huseyin Dumanli Directional communication has the potential to improve both the energy efficiency of wireless communication

Zhong, Lin

475

Rice scene radiation research plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data requirements, tasks to be accomplished, and the technical approaches to be used in identifying the characteristics of rice for crop inventories are listed as well as methods for estimating crop development and assessing its conditions.

Heilman, J.

1982-01-01

476

Consumption of Rice Bran Increases Mucosal Immunoglobulin A Concentrations and Numbers of Intestinal Lactobacillus spp.  

PubMed Central

Abstract Gut-associated lymphoid tissue maintains mucosal homeostasis by combating pathogens and inducing a state of hyporesponsiveness to food antigens and commensal bacteria. Dietary modulation of the intestinal immune environment represents a novel approach for enhancing protective responses against pathogens and inflammatory diseases. Dietary rice bran consists of bioactive components with disease-fighting properties. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the effects of whole dietary rice bran intake on mucosal immune responses and beneficial gut microbes. Mice were fed a 10% rice bran diet for 28 days. Serum and fecal samples were collected throughout the study to assess total immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations. Tissue samples were collected for cellular immune phenotype analysis, and concentrations of native gut Lactobacillus spp. were enumerated in the fecal samples. We found that dietary rice bran induced an increase in total IgA locally and systemically. In addition, B lymphocytes in the Peyer's patches of mice fed rice bran displayed increased surface IgA expression compared with lymphocytes from control mice. Antigen-presenting cells were also influenced by rice bran, with a significant increase in myeloid dendritic cells residing in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. Increased colonization of native Lactobacillus was observed in rice bran–fed mice compared with control mice. These findings suggest that rice bran–induced microbial changes may contribute to enhanced mucosal IgA responses, and we conclude that increased rice bran consumption represents a promising dietary intervention to modulate mucosal immunity for protection against enteric infections and induction of beneficial gut bacteria. PMID:22248178

Henderson, Angela J.; Kumar, Ajay; Barnett, Brittany; Dow, Steven W.

2012-01-01

477

ANALYSIS OF FLAVONOIDS AND HYROXYCINNAMATES IN CITRUS PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Electrospray ionization-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ESI-HPLC-MS) greatly facilitates analyses of the complex phenolic constituents of citrus peel and associated citrus processing byproducts. The numerous flavonoid glycosides and polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) in thes...

478

79 FR 51273 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From the Republic of South Africa Into the Continental United...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Citrus Fruit From the Republic of South Africa Into the Continental United States...States from areas in the Republic of South Africa where citrus black spot has been...organization of the Republic of South Africa with an additional...

2014-08-28

479

Differentiation of weedy traits in ALS-resistant red rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red rice is a weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with rice in the southern U.S., reduces yields and contaminates rice grains. The introduction of ClearfieldTM rice, a nontransgenic, herbicide-resistant rice cultivar a decade ago has led to increased use of imazet...

480

Rice Young Alumni 6100 Main Street MS 520  

E-print Network

Rice Young Alumni 6100 Main Street MS 520 Houston, Texas 77005 Phone: 713-348-4057 alumni.rice.edu Rice Houston Young Alumni on Facebook Rice Young Alumni Handbook How to Access Your Rice Young Alumni Resources and Programs Step 1 Create an alumni profile on alumni.rice.edu Step 2 Join your favorite ARA

Palem, Krishna V.