Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is a bacterial disease that is significantly impacting the citrus industry in Florida and poses a risk to the remaining citrus-producing regions of the United States. A mathematical model of a grove infected by citrus greening is developed. An equilibrium stability analysis is presented. The basic reproductive number and its relation to the persistence of the disease is discussed. A numerical study is performed to illustrate the theoretical findings. PMID:23906145
Jacobsen, Karly; Stupiansky, Jillian; Pilyugin, Sergei S
Summary \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a Small pinkish-white fungal areas ofColletotrichmu gloeosporioides Penz. were observed on trunks and main branches of orange plants. In certain localities mosambi plants were also infected.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a Water shoots and young twigs were always found free from the infection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a During summer months the mycelium of the fungus survives in the form of pink coloured stroma in small cracks
R. P. Asthana
Changes in gene expression of Mexican lime plants in response to infection with a severe (T305) or a mild (T385) isolate of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were analyzed using a cDNA microarray containing 12,672 probes to 6875 different citrus genes. Statistically significant (P<0.01) expression changes of 334 genes were detected in response to infection with isolate T305, whereas infection with
Mónica Gandía; Ana Conesa; Gema Ancillo; José Gadea; Javier Forment; Vicente Pallás; Ricardo Flores; Nuria Duran-Vila; Pedro Moreno; José Guerri
ERTS-1 imagery has been successfully used for the identification of large areas of citrus groves and rice fields in the Valencia region of Eastern Spain. Results are encouraging and will facilitate the elaboration of a land use map with a fair degree of definition once methods prove to be fully operational.
Desagredo, F. L.; Salinas, F. G.
Background The natural interactions between plant roots and their rhizospheric microbiome are vital to plant fitness, modulating both growth promotion and disease suppression. In rice (Oryza sativa), a globally important food crop, as much as 30% of yields are lost due to blast disease caused by fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Capitalizing on the abilities of naturally occurring rice soil bacteria to reduce M. oryzae infections could provide a sustainable solution to reduce the amount of crops lost to blast disease. Results Naturally occurring root-associated rhizospheric bacteria were isolated from California field grown rice plants (M-104), eleven of which were taxonomically identified by16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. Bacterial isolates were tested for biocontrol activity against the devastating foliar rice fungal pathogen, M. oryzae pathovar 70–15. In vitro, a Pseudomonas isolate, EA105, displayed antibiosis through reducing appressoria formation by nearly 90% as well as directly inhibiting fungal growth by 76%. Although hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a volatile commonly produced by biocontrol pseudomonads, the activity of EA105 seems to be independent of its HCN production. During in planta experiments, EA105 reduced the number of blast lesions formed by 33% and Pantoea agglomerans isolate, EA106 by 46%. Our data also show both EA105 and EA106 trigger jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) dependent induced systemic resistance (ISR) response in rice. Conclusions Out of 11 bacteria isolated from rice soil, pseudomonad EA105 most effectively inhibited the growth and appressoria formation of M. oryzae through a mechanism that is independent of cyanide production. In addition to direct antagonism, EA105 also appears to trigger ISR in rice plants through a mechanism that is dependent on JA and ET signaling, ultimately resulting in fewer blast lesions. The application of native bacteria as biocontrol agents in combination with current disease protection strategies could aid in global food security.
Since the initial reports on production of transgenic Citrus via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, significant progress has been made, and many steps of this procedure using the juvenile tissue explants have been improved. Abundant availability of starting material and relative simplicity make this procedure an attractive choice for many researchers despite transformation efficiency that is in the low range of about 1%. Variety of available Agrobacterium strains and reporter/selection genes further facilitate the work by allowing careful planning of experiments in which many steps can be adjusted towards a particular Citrus cultivar. With the use of this procedure, genetically transformed grapefruit, oranges, lime, and rootstock cultivars are routinely produced while some difficulties persist in efforts to transform lemon and especially mandarin cultivars. PMID:17033062
Orbovi?, Vladimir; Grosser, Jude W
High temperatures are not responsible for lack of infection of citrus roots by Phytophthora citrophthora during the summer, but suppressive soil microorganisms may inhibit infection by P. citrophthora
In regions with a mediterranean climate such as southern California, P. citrophthora infection of citrus does not normally occur during the summer. However, in this study, P. citrophthora was isolated abundantly from alternative hosts planted in an infested citrus grove, in the middle of the summer. Citrus root infection from P. citrophthora did occur in this study but it was
Monica F. Dirac; John A. Menge
Reversed-phase liquid chromatography followed by solvent extraction with hexamethyleneammonium hexamethylenedithiocarbamate (HMA-HMDC) was carried out to determine Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu in standard reference citrus leaves and rice flour. These samples (250 mg) were ashed with nitric acid and perchloric acid. The metals in the ash were extracted into chloroform as HMDC chelates which were then separated on a C 18 column and monitored at 260 nm. The microgram per gram levels of Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu in the standard biological materials were simultaneously determined within 25 min. 22 references, 3 figures, 1 table.
Ichinoki, S.; Yamazaki, M.
Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus (CMBV), a member of the Family Caulimoviridae, Genus Badnavirus is the causative agent of mosaic disease among Citrus species in southern India. Despite its reported prevalence in several citrus species, complete information on clear functional genomics or functional information of full-length genomes from all the CMBV isolates infecting citrus species are not available in publicly accessible databases. CMBV isolates from Rough Lemon and Sweet Orange collected from a nursery were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed high sequence homology of the two CMBV isolates with previously reported CMBV sequences implying that they represent new variants. Based on computational analysis of the predicted secondary structures, the possible functions of some CMBV proteins have been analyzed. PMID:22926812
Anthony Johnson, A M; Borah, B K; Sai Gopal, D V R; Dasgupta, I
Huanglongbing (HLB), considered the most serious citrus disease in the world, is associated with the nonculturable bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las). Infection of citrus by this pathogen leads to reduced plant vigor and productivity, ultimately resulting in death of the infected tree. It can take up to two years following initial infection before outward symptoms become apparent, making detection difficult. The existing knowledge gap in our understanding of Las and its pathogenesis leading to HLB has stymied development of treatments and methods to mitigate the pathogen's influence. To evaluate the influence of Las on fruit quality in both symptomatic and asymptomatic fruit, and gain further insight into the pathogenesis of the disease, a 1H NMR metabolomics investigation, complemented with physicochemical and analyte-specific analyses, was undertaken. Comparison of the juice obtained from oranges gathered from Las+ (symptomatic and asymptomatic) and Las- (healthy) trees revealed significant differences in the concentrations of sugars, amino and organic acids, limonin glucoside, and limonin. This study demonstrates differing metabolic profiles in the juice of oranges from Las+ and Las- and proposes how Las may be able to evade citrus defense responses. PMID:22698301
Slisz, Anne M; Breksa, Andrew P; Mishchuk, Darya O; McCollum, Greg; Slupsky, Carolyn M
Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. The three known causal agents of HLB are species of ?-proteobacteria: 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. L. africanus', and 'Ca. L. americanus'. Previous studies have found distinct variations in temperature sensitivity and tolerance among these species. Here, we describe the use of controlled heat treatments to cure HLB caused by 'Ca. L. asiaticus', the most prevalent and heat-tolerant species. Using temperature-controlled growth chambers, we evaluated the time duration and temperature required to suppress or eliminate the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium in citrus, using various temperature treatments for time periods ranging from 2 days to 4 months. Results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after treatment illustrate significant decreases in the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterial titer, combined with healthy vigorous growth by all surviving trees. Repeated qPCR testing confirmed that previously infected, heat-treated plants showed no detectable levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus', while untreated control plants remained highly infected. Continuous thermal exposure to 40 to 42°C for a minimum of 48 h was sufficient to significantly reduce titer or eliminate 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacteria entirely in HLB-affected citrus seedlings. This method may be useful for the control of 'Ca. Liberibacter'-infected plants in nursery and greenhouse settings. PMID:23035631
Hoffman, Michele T; Doud, Melissa S; Williams, Lisa; Zhang, Mu-Qing; Ding, Fang; Stover, Ed; Hall, David; Zhang, Shouan; Jones, Lisa; Gooch, Mark; Fleites, Laura; Dixon, Wayne; Gabriel, Dean; Duan, Yong-Ping
Over the last decade, the plant disease huanglongbing (HLB) has emerged as a primary threat to citrus production worldwide. HLB is associated with infection by phloem-limited bacteria ('Candidatus Liberibacter' spp.) that are transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Transmission efficiency varies with vector-related aspects (e.g., developmental stage and feeding periods) but there is no information on the effects of host-pathogen interactions. Here, acquisition efficiency of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by D. citri was evaluated in relation to temporal progression of infection and pathogen titer in citrus. We graft inoculated sweet orange trees with 'Ca. L. asiaticus'; then, at different times after inoculation, we inspected plants for HLB symptoms, measured bacterial infection levels (i.e., titer or concentration) in plants, and measured acquisition by psyllid adults that were confined on the trees. Plant infection levels increased rapidly over time, saturating at uniformly high levels (?10(8) copy number of 16S ribosomal DNA/g of plant tissue) near 200 days after inoculation-the same time at which all infected trees first showed disease symptoms. Pathogen acquisition by vectors was positively associated with plant infection level and time since inoculation, with acquisition occurring as early as the first measurement, at 60 days after inoculation. These results suggest that there is ample potential for psyllids to acquire the pathogen from trees during the asymptomatic phase of infection. If so, this could limit the effectiveness of tree rouging as a disease management tool and would likely explain the rapid spread observed for this disease in the field. PMID:24620723
Coletta-Filho, Helvecio D; Daugherty, Matthew P; Ferreira, Cléderson; Lopes, João R S
Gottwald, T. R., Bassanezi, R. B., Amorim, L., and Bergamin-Filho, A. 2007. Spatial pattern analysis of citrus canker-infected plantings in São Paulo, Brazil, and augmentation of infection elicited by the Asian leafminer. Phytopathology 97:674-683. Eradication of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) has become increasingly difficult over the last decade, following the introduction of the Asian leafminer into Brazil and Florida, which
T. R. Gottwald; R. B. Bassanezi; L. Amorim; A. Bergamin-Filho
Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is arguably the most destructive disease for the citrus industry. HLB is caused by infection of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter spp. Several citrus GeneChip studies have revealed thousands of genes that are up- or down-regulated by infection with Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus. However, whether and how these host genes act to protect against HLB remains poorly understood. Results As a first step towards a mechanistic view of citrus in response to the HLB bacterial infection, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and found that a total of 21 Probesets are commonly up-regulated by the HLB bacterial infection. In addition, a number of genes are likely regulated specifically at early, late or very late stages of the infection. Furthermore, using Pearson correlation coefficient-based gene coexpression analysis, we constructed a citrus HLB response network consisting of 3,507 Probesets and 56,287 interactions. Genes involved in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolic processes, transport, defense, signaling and hormone response were overrepresented in the HLB response network and the subnetworks for these processes were constructed. Analysis of the defense and hormone response subnetworks indicates that hormone response is interconnected with defense response. In addition, mapping the commonly up-regulated HLB responsive genes into the HLB response network resulted in a core subnetwork where transport plays a key role in the citrus response to the HLB bacterial infection. Moreover, analysis of a phloem protein subnetwork indicates a role for this protein and zinc transporters or zinc-binding proteins in the citrus HLB defense response. Conclusion Through integrating transcriptome comparison and gene coexpression network analysis, we have provided for the first time a systems view of citrus in response to the Ca. Liberibacter spp. infection causing HLB.
Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease that affects citrus worldwide. The disease has been associated with Candidatus Liberibacter. HLB diseased citrus plants develop a multitude of symptoms including zinc and copper deficiencies, blotchy mottle, corky veins, stunting, and twig dieback. Ca. L. asiaticus infection also seriously affects the roots. Previous study focused on gene expression of leaves and fruit to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. In this study, we compared the gene expression levels of stems and roots of healthy plants with those in Ca. L. asiaticus infected plants using microarrays. Affymetrix microarray analysis showed a total of 988 genes were significantly altered in expression, of which 885 were in the stems, and 111 in the roots. Of these, 551 and 56 were up-regulated, while 334 and 55 were down-regulated in the stem and root samples of HLB diseased trees compared to healthy plants, respectively. Dramatic differences in the transcriptional responses were observed between citrus stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection, with only 8 genes affected in both the roots and stems. The affected genes are involved in diverse cellular functions, including carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, biotic and abiotic stress responses, signaling and transcriptional factors, transportation, cell organization, protein modification and degradation, development, hormone signaling, metal handling, and redox. Microscopy analysis showed the depletion of starch in the roots of the infected plants but not in healthy plants. Collapse and thickening of cell walls were observed in HLB affected roots, but not as severe as in the stems. This study provides insight into the host response of the stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. PMID:24058486
Aritua, Valente; Achor, Diann; Gmitter, Frederick G; Albrigo, Gene; Wang, Nian
Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease that affects citrus worldwide. The disease has been associated with Candidatus Liberibacter. HLB diseased citrus plants develop a multitude of symptoms including zinc and copper deficiencies, blotchy mottle, corky veins, stunting, and twig dieback. Ca. L. asiaticus infection also seriously affects the roots. Previous study focused on gene expression of leaves and fruit to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. In this study, we compared the gene expression levels of stems and roots of healthy plants with those in Ca. L. asiaticus infected plants using microarrays. Affymetrix microarray analysis showed a total of 988 genes were significantly altered in expression, of which 885 were in the stems, and 111 in the roots. Of these, 551 and 56 were up-regulated, while 334 and 55 were down-regulated in the stem and root samples of HLB diseased trees compared to healthy plants, respectively. Dramatic differences in the transcriptional responses were observed between citrus stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection, with only 8 genes affected in both the roots and stems. The affected genes are involved in diverse cellular functions, including carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, biotic and abiotic stress responses, signaling and transcriptional factors, transportation, cell organization, protein modification and degradation, development, hormone signaling, metal handling, and redox. Microscopy analysis showed the depletion of starch in the roots of the infected plants but not in healthy plants. Collapse and thickening of cell walls were observed in HLB affected roots, but not as severe as in the stems. This study provides insight into the host response of the stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection.
Aritua, Valente; Achor, Diann; Gmitter, Frederick G.; Albrigo, Gene; Wang, Nian
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), a non-culturable phloem-limited bacterium, is the suspected causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) in Florida. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus and no resistant cultivars have been identified to date, though tolerance has been observed in the genus Poncirus and some of its hybrids. This study compares transcriptional changes in tolerant US-897 (Citrus reticulata Blanco×Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and susceptible 'Cleopatra' mandarin (C. reticulata) seedlings in response to infection with Las using the Affymetrix GeneChip citrus array, with the main objective of identifying genes associated with tolerance to HLB. Microarray analysis identified 326 genes which were significantly upregulated by at least 4-fold in the susceptible genotype, compared with only 17 genes in US-897. Exclusively upregulated in US-897 was a gene for a 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and Fe(II)-dependant oxygenase, an important enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites. More than eight hundred genes were expressed at much higher levels in US-897 independent of infection with Las. Among these, genes for a constitutive disease resistance protein (CDR1) were notable. The possible involvement of these and other detected genes in tolerance to HLB and their possible use for biotechnology are discussed. PMID:22325873
Albrecht, Ute; Bowman, Kim D
Background Gummosis and root rot caused by Phytophthora are among the most economically important diseases in citrus. Four F1 resistant hybrids (Pool R), and four F1 susceptible hybrids (Pool S) to P. parasitica, were selected from a cross between susceptible Citrus sunki and resistant Poncirus trifoliata cv. Rubidoux. We investigated gene expression in pools of four resistant and four susceptible hybrids in comparison with their parents 48 hours after P. parasitica inoculation. We proposed that genes differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible parents and between their resistant and susceptible hybrids provide promising candidates for identifying transcripts involved in disease resistance. A microarray containing 62,876 UniGene transcripts selected from the CitEST database and prepared by NimbleGen Systems was used for analyzing global gene expression 48 hours after infection with P. parasitica. Results Three pairs of data comparisons (P. trifoliata/C. sunki, Pool R/C. sunki and Pool R/Pool S) were performed. With a filter of false-discovery rate less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 3.0, 21 UniGene transcripts common to the three pairwise comparative were found to be up-regulated, and 3 UniGene transcripts were down-regulated. Among them, our results indicated that the selected transcripts were probably involved in the whole process of plant defense responses to pathogen attack, including transcriptional regulation, signaling, activation of defense genes participating in HR, single dominant genes (R gene) such as TIR-NBS-LRR and RPS4 and switch of defense-related metabolism pathway. Differentially expressed genes were validated by RT-qPCR in susceptible and resistant plants and between inoculated and uninoculated control plants Conclusions Twenty four UniGene transcripts were identified as candidate genes for Citrus response to P. parasitica. UniGene transcripts were likely to be involved in disease resistance, such as genes potentially involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, intracellular osmotic adjustment, signal transduction pathways of cell death, oxidative burst and defense gene expression. Furthermore, our microarray data suggest another type of resistance in Citrus-Phytophthora interaction conferred by single dominant genes (R gene) since we encountered two previously reported R genes (TIR-NBS-LRR and RPS4) upregulated in the resistant genotypes relative to susceptible. We identified 7 transcripts with homology in other plants but yet unclear functional characterization which are an interesting pool for further analyses and 3 transcripts where no significant similarity was found. This is the first microarray study addressing an evaluation of transcriptional changes in response to P. parasitica in Citrus.
Rice-infecting viruses have caused serious damage to rice production in Asian, American, and African countries, where about 30 rice viruses and diseases have been reported. To control these diseases, developing accurate, quick methods to detect and diagnose the viruses in the host plants and any insect vectors of the viruses is very important. Based on an antigen-antibody reaction, serological methods such as latex agglutination reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have advanced to detect viral particles or major proteins derived from viruses. They aid in forecasting disease and surveying disease spread and are widely used for virus detection at plant protection stations and research laboratories. From the early 2000s, based on sequence information for the target virus, several other methods such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification have been developed that are sensitive, rapid, and able to differentiate closely related viruses. Recent techniques such as real-time RT-PCR can be used to quantify the pathogen in target samples and monitor population dynamics of a virus, and metagenomic analyses using next-generation sequencing and microarrays show potential for use in the diagnosis of rice diseases. PMID:24130554
Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Shiba, Takuya; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Ueno, Takanori; Hirae, Masahiro; Sasaya, Takahide
Rhizobial endophytes infect and colonize not only leguminous plants, but several non-leguminous species as well. Using green fluorescent protein tagging technique, it has been shown that Rhizobia infect different varieties of rice species and migrate from plant roots to aerial tissues such as leaf sheaths and leaves. The interaction between them was found to promote the growth of rice. The growth promotion is the cumulative result of enhanced photosynthesis and stress resistance. In addition, indole-3-acetic acid also contributes to the promotion. Gel-based comparative proteomic approaches were applied to analyze the protein profiles of three different tissues (root, leaf sheath and leaf) of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 inoculated rice in order to get an understanding about the molecular mechanism. Upon the inoculation of rhizobia, proteins involved in nine different functional categories were either up-regulated or down-regulated. Photosynthesis related proteins were up-regulated only in leaf sheath and leaf, while the up-regulated proteins in root were exclusively defense related. The results implied that there might have been an increase in the import and transport of proteins involved in light and dark reactions to the chloroplast as well as more efficient distribution of nutrients, hence enhanced photosynthesis. Although the initiation of defensive reactions mainly occurred in roots, some different defense mechanisms were also evoked in the aerial tissues. PMID:20213677
Chi, Feng; Yang, Pingfang; Han, Feng; Jing, Yuxiang; Shen, Shihua
Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has become an issue of concern for a great many people and is an active area of research. Phytoplasmas, also known as mycoplasma-like organisms, are wall-less prokaryotes that are pathogens of many plant species throughout the world. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the changes of lipid peroxidation, content of H(2)O(2), proline, protein, and carbohydrates were investigated in leaves of two-year-old trees of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) infected by the Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifoliae. The healthy and infected plants were discontinuously exposed to a 10 KHz quadratic EMF with maximum power of 9 W for 5 days, each 5 h, at 25 °C. Fresh and dry weight of leaves, content of MDA, proline, and protein increased in both healthy and infected plants under electromagnetic fields, compared with those of the control plants. Electromagnetic fields decreased hydrogen peroxide and carbohydrates content in both healthy and infected plants compared to those of the controls. PMID:22649313
Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Niknam, Vahid; Ghanati, Faezeh; Masroor, Faribors; Noorbakhsh, Seyyed Nasr
Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has become an issue of concern for a great many people and is an active area of research. Phytoplasmas, also known as mycoplasma-like organisms, are wall-less prokaryotes that are pathogens of many plant species throughout the world. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the changes of lipid peroxidation, content of H2O2, proline, protein, and carbohydrates were investigated in leaves of two-year-old trees of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) infected by the Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifoliae. The healthy and infected plants were discontinuously exposed to a 10?KHz quadratic EMF with maximum power of 9?W for 5 days, each?5 h, at 25°C. Fresh and dry weight of leaves, content of MDA, proline, and protein increased in both healthy and infected plants under electromagnetic fields, compared with those of the control plants. Electromagnetic fields decreased hydrogen peroxide and carbohydrates content in both healthy and infected plants compared to those of the controls.
Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Niknam, Vahid; Ghanati, Faezeh; Masroor, Faribors; Noorbakhsh, Seyyed Nasr
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive disease of citrus presumably caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacterasiaticus' (Las), a gram-negative, insect-transmitted, phloem-limited ?-proteobacterium. Although almost all citrus plants are susceptible to HLB, reports have shown reduced susceptibility to Las infection in lemon (Citrus limon) plants. The aim of this study is to identify intra-species specific molecular mechanisms associated with Las-induced responses in lemon plants. To achieve this, comparative 2-DE and mass spectrometry, in addition to Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICPS) analyses, were applied to investigate differences in protein accumulation and the concentrations of cationic elements in leaves of healthy and Las-infected lemon plants. Results showed a differential accumulation of 27 proteins, including an increase in accumulation of starch synthase but decrease in the production of photosynthesis-related proteins in Las-infected lemon plants compared to healthy plants. Furthermore, there was a 6% increase (P > 0.05) in K concentration in leaves of lemon plants upon Las infection, which support results from previous studies and might represent a common response pattern of citrus plants to Las infection. Interestingly, contrary to reports from prior studies, this study showed a general reduction in the production of defense-related pathogen-response proteins but a 128% increase in Zn concentration in lemon plants in response to Las infection. Taken together, this study sheds light on general and intra-species specific responses associated with the response of citrus plants to Las. PMID:23922636
Nwugo, Chika C; Duan, Yongping; Lin, Hong
The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent. PMID:20492226
Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell
A handheld fluorescence sensor was tested as a sensing tool to identify Huanglongbing (HLB), a citrus disease, in both symptomatic and asymptomatic stages. Features such as yellow, red, and far-red fluorescence at UV, blue, green, and red excitations, and other fluorescence ratios were acquired from the healthy and HLB-infected leaves of different cultivars. The classification studies were performed with these features as well as selective fluorescence features. Results indicated that the bagged decision tree classifier yielded 97% classification accuracy in case of the healthy and symptomatic samples. Although the asymptomatic samples from the HLB-infected trees could not be classified based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis results, the Naïve-Bayes classifier grouped most of the asymptomatic samples as HLB. We found that a few fluorescence features such as yellow fluorescence (UV), far-red fluorescence (UV), yellow to far red fluorescence (UV), simple fluorescence ratio (green), and yellow fluorescence (green) could result in classification accuracies similar to those of the entire dataset. PMID:23601547
Sankaran, Sindhuja; Ehsani, Reza
The type IV secretion system (T4SS) is used by Gram-negative bacteria to translocate protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope and into target cells. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri contains two copies of the T4SS, one in the chromosome and the other is plasmid-encoded. To understand the conditions that induce expression of the T4SS in Xcc, we analyzed, in vitro and in planta, the expression of 18 ORFs from the T4SS and 7 hypothetical flanking genes by RT-qPCR. As a positive control, we also evaluated the expression of 29 ORFs from the type III secretion system (T3SS), since these genes are known to be expressed during plant infection condition, but not necessarily in standard culture medium. From the 29 T3SS genes analyzed by qPCR, only hrpA was downregulated at 72?h after inoculation. All genes associated with the T4SS were downregulated on Citrus leaves 72?h after inoculation. Our results showed that unlike the T3SS, the T4SS is not induced during the infection process. PMID:24707292
Jacob, Tiago Rinaldi; de Laia, Marcelo Luiz; Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Gonçalves, Janaína Fernandes; Carvalho, Flavia Maria de Souza; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido
The type IV secretion system (T4SS) is used by Gram-negative bacteria to translocate protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope and into target cells. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri contains two copies of the T4SS, one in the chromosome and the other is plasmid-encoded. To understand the conditions that induce expression of the T4SS in Xcc, we analyzed, in vitro and in planta, the expression of 18 ORFs from the T4SS and 7 hypothetical flanking genes by RT-qPCR. As a positive control, we also evaluated the expression of 29 ORFs from the type III secretion system (T3SS), since these genes are known to be expressed during plant infection condition, but not necessarily in standard culture medium. From the 29 T3SS genes analyzed by qPCR, only hrpA was downregulated at 72?h after inoculation. All genes associated with the T4SS were downregulated on Citrus leaves 72?h after inoculation. Our results showed that unlike the T3SS, the T4SS is not induced during the infection process.
Jacob, Tiago Rinaldi; de Laia, Marcelo Luiz; Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Goncalves, Janaina Fernandes; Carvalho, Flavia Maria de Souza; Ferro, Maria Ines Tiraboschi; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido
Rotavirus-induced diarrhea is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals and in children in developing countries. We have developed a system for prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus disease using transgenic rice expressing the neutralizing variable domain of a rotavirus-specific llama heavy-chain antibody fragment (MucoRice-ARP1). MucoRice-ARP1 was produced at high levels in rice seeds using an overexpression system and RNAi technology to suppress the production of major rice endogenous storage proteins. Orally administered MucoRice-ARP1 markedly decreased the viral load in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. The antibody retained in vitro neutralizing activity after long-term storage (>1 yr) and boiling and conferred protection in mice even after heat treatment at 94°C for 30 minutes. High-yield, water-soluble, and purification-free MucoRice-ARP1 thus forms the basis for orally administered prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infections. PMID:23925294
Tokuhara, Daisuke; Álvarez, Beatriz; Mejima, Mio; Hiroiwa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Yuko; Kurokawa, Shiho; Kuroda, Masaharu; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Nochi, Tomonori; Sagara, Hiroshi; Aladin, Farah; Marcotte, Harold; Frenken, Leon G J; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Hammarström, Lennart; Yuki, Yoshikazu
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive disease of citrus presumably caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), a gram-negative, insect-transmitted, phloem-limited ?-proteobacterium. Although almost all citrus plants are susceptible to HLB, reports have shown reduced susceptibility to Las infection in lemon (Citruslimon) plants. The aim of this study is to identify intra-species specific molecular mechanisms associated with Las-induced responses in lemon plants. To achieve this, comparative 2-DE and mass spectrometry, in addition to Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICPS) analyses, were applied to investigate differences in protein accumulation and the concentrations of cationic elements in leaves of healthy and Las-infected lemon plants. Results showed a differential accumulation of 27 proteins, including an increase in accumulation of starch synthase but decrease in the production of photosynthesis-related proteins in Las-infected lemon plants compared to healthy plants. Furthermore, there was a 6% increase (P > 0.05) in K concentration in leaves of lemon plants upon Las infection, which support results from previous studies and might represent a common response pattern of citrus plants to Las infection. Interestingly, contrary to reports from prior studies, this study showed a general reduction in the production of defense-related pathogen-response proteins but a 128% increase in Zn concentration in lemon plants in response to Las infection. Taken together, this study sheds light on general and intra-species specific responses associated with the response of citrus plants to Las.
Nwugo, Chika C.; Duan, Yongping; Lin, Hong
Rice body formation is an uncommon inflammatory disorder associated with systemic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculosis infection. The pathophysiology of rice bodies is poorly understood. We describe a case of rice body formation in a 51-year-old male who presented with pain and swelling of the left wrist. The patient had no previous history of rheumatic disease, joint trauma, or infectious disease. He underwent a radical tenosynovectomy and had immediate improvement of symptoms. Despite extensive evaluation, the etiology of the rice bodies could not be identified. An increasing number of case reports have described rice body formation without a known cause suggesting an alternative, unidentified method of pathogenesis. We describe a unique case of rice body formation and a review of the literature with emphasis on theories of pathogenesis, diagnostic methods, and treatment. PMID:22941257
Forse, Catherine L; Mucha, Bernardo L; Santos, M Lauren Zabala; Ongcapin, Emelie H
The bacterial microbiomes of citrus plants were characterized in response to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las)-infection and treatments with ampicillin (Amp) and gentamicin (Gm) by Phylochip-based metagenomics. The results revealed that 7,407 of over 50,000 known Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in 53 phyla were detected in citrus leaf midribs using the PhyloChip™ G3 array, of which five phyla were dominant, Proteobacteria (38.7%), Firmicutes (29.0%), Actinobacteria (16.1%), Bacteroidetes (6.2%) and Cyanobacteria (2.3%). The OTU62806, representing 'Candidatus Liberibacter', was present with a high titer in the plants graft-inoculated with Las-infected scions treated with Gm at 100 mg/L and in the water-treated control (CK1). However, the Las bacterium was not detected in the plants graft-inoculated with Las-infected scions treated with Amp at 1.0 g/L or in plants graft-inoculated with Las-free scions (CK2). The PhyloChip array demonstrated that more OTUs, at a higher abundance, were detected in the Gm-treated plants than in the other treatment and the controls. Pairwise comparisons indicated that 23 OTUs from the Achromobacter spp. and 12 OTUs from the Methylobacterium spp. were more abundant in CK2 and CK1, respectively. Ten abundant OTUs from the Stenotrophomonas spp. were detected only in the Amp-treatment. These results provide new insights into microbial communities that may be associated with the progression of citrus huanglongbing (HLB) and the potential effects of antibiotics on the disease and microbial ecology. PMID:24250784
Zhang, Muqing; Powell, Charles A; Benyon, Lesley S; Zhou, Hui; Duan, Yongping
The bacterial microbiomes of citrus plants were characterized in response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las)-infection and treatments with ampicillin (Amp) and gentamicin (Gm) by Phylochip-based metagenomics. The results revealed that 7,407 of over 50,000 known Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in 53 phyla were detected in citrus leaf midribs using the PhyloChip™ G3 array, of which five phyla were dominant, Proteobacteria (38.7%), Firmicutes (29.0%), Actinobacteria (16.1%), Bacteroidetes (6.2%) and Cyanobacteria (2.3%). The OTU62806, representing ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’, was present with a high titer in the plants graft-inoculated with Las-infected scions treated with Gm at 100 mg/L and in the water-treated control (CK1). However, the Las bacterium was not detected in the plants graft-inoculated with Las-infected scions treated with Amp at 1.0 g/L or in plants graft-inoculated with Las-free scions (CK2). The PhyloChip array demonstrated that more OTUs, at a higher abundance, were detected in the Gm-treated plants than in the other treatment and the controls. Pairwise comparisons indicated that 23 OTUs from the Achromobacter spp. and 12 OTUs from the Methylobacterium spp. were more abundant in CK2 and CK1, respectively. Ten abundant OTUs from the Stenotrophomonas spp. were detected only in the Amp-treatment. These results provide new insights into microbial communities that may be associated with the progression of citrus huanglongbing (HLB) and the potential effects of antibiotics on the disease and microbial ecology.
Zhang, Muqing; Powell, Charles A.; Benyon, Lesley S.; Zhou, Hui; Duan, Yongping
We have investigated the arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 184.108.40.206) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 220.127.116.11) activities and the levels of conjugated polyamines to explain the decrease of free putrescine level caused by citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) and ethephon treatment in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers) plants (J.M. Belles, J. Carbonell, V. Conejero  Plant Physiol 96: 1053-1059). This decrease correlates with a decrease in ODC activity in CEVd-infected or ethephon-treated plants; ADC activity was not altered. CEVd infection had no effect on polyamine conjugates, and ethephon produced a decrease in putrescine conjugates. Interference with ethylene action by silver ions prevented the decrease in ODC activity and in free and conjugated putrescine. It is suggested that changes in putrescine level after CEVd infection and ethephon treatment are regulated via ODC activity and that conjugation is not involved.
Belles, J. M.; Perez-Amador, M. A.; Carbonell, J.; Conejero, V.
Detecting plant health condition is an important step in controlling disease and insect stress in agricultural crops. In this study, we applied neural network and principal components analysis techniques for discriminating and classifying different fungal infection levels in rice (Oryza sativa L.) panicles. Four infection levels in rice panicles were used in the study: no infection condition, light and moderate
Zhan-Yu Liu; Hong-Feng Wu; Jing-Feng Huang
When exposed to light, the Sekiguchi lesion (sl) rice mutant has an enhanced resistance to Magnaporthe grisea infection responsible for Sekiguchi lesion formation and tryptamine accumulation. Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] pretreatment suppressed Sekiguchi lesion formation and tryptamine accumulation in the sl mutant after M. grisea infection even under light. This inhibition by glyphosate was blocked by the supply of exogenous tryptophan,
Atsuko Imaoka; Makoto Ueno; Junichi Kihara; Sakae Arase
An endophytic fungus was tested in rice (Oryza sativa L.) exposed to four levels of lead (Pb) stress (0, 50, 100 and 200 ?M) to assess effects on plant growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activity. Under Pb stress conditions, endophyte-infected seedlings had greater shoot length but lower root length compared to non-infected controls, and endophyte-infected seedlings had greater dry weight in the 50 and 100 ?M Pb treatments. Under Pb stress conditions, chlorophyll and carotenoid levels were significantly higher in the endophyte-infected seedlings. Net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were significantly higher in endophyte-infected seedlings in the 50 and 100 ?M Pb treatments. In addition, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo were higher in the infected seedlings compared to the non-infected seedlings under Pb stress. Malondialdehyde accumulation was induced by Pb stress, and it was present in higher concentration in non-infected seedlings under higher concentrations of Pb (100 and 200 ?M). Antioxidant activity was either higher or unchanged in the infected seedlings due to responses to the different Pb concentrations. These results suggest that the endophytic fungus improved rice growth under moderate Pb levels by enhancing photosynthesis and antioxidant activity relative to non-infected rice. PMID:22356744
Li, Xuemei; Bu, Ning; Li, Yueying; Ma, Lianju; Xin, Shigang; Zhang, Lihong
The foliar nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi causes white tip disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and floral malady in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). This nematode is widely distributed in the rice fields of many states of India, including West Bengal (WB), Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) and Gujarat (GT). In order to generate information on intraspecific variations of A. besseyi as well as to confirm the identity of the nematode species infecting these important crops, morphological observation was undertaken of A. besseyi isolated from tuberose and rice from WB and rice from AP, MP and GT. The molecular study was only done for rice and tuberose populations from AP and WB. The variations were observed among the populations in the tail, esophageal and anterior regions, including the occurrence of four as well as six lateral lines in the lateral fields. The morphometrics of observed populations showed variations and those could be regarded as a consequence of host-induced or geographical variations. PCR amplification of the rDNA ITS 1 and 2 region of rice (AP) and tuberose (WB) populations of A. besseyi generated one fragment of approximately 830 bp, and the size of the ITS region was 788 bp and 791 bp for tuberose and rice population, respectively. Alignment of the two sequences showed almost 100% similarity. Blast analysis revealed a very high level of similarity of both the Indian strains to a Russian population. The Indian and Russian strains could be differentiated using restriction enzyme Bccl. Host tests revealed that rice (cv. IET 4094), oat (cv. OS-6) and teosinte (cv. TL-1) showed a typical distortion due to the infection of A. besseyi. Five germplasm lines of oat showed no infection of the nematode under field conditions. Local cultivars of onion, maize, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, and Sorghum halepense were also not infected by A. besseyi.
Khan, Matiyar R.; Handoo, Zafar A.; Rao, Uma; Rao, S. B.; Prasad, J. S.
This resource is a review article about the Citrus Canker, an introduced plant disease. The article contains detailed background and overview and includes information on (1) Citrus Canker strain diversity, identification, diagnosis and characterization; (2) the symptoms and infection Process; (3) the epidemiology; (4) the management for prevention and control of Citrus Canker; (5) and the social, political, and legal ramifications of regulatory policy.
Tim R. Gottwald (USDA;); James H. Graham (University of Florida;); Tim S. Schubert (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services;)
We examined the population structure and genetic variation of four genomic regions within and between 30 Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from Spain and California. Our analyses showed that most isolates contained a population of sequence variants, with one being predominant. Four isolates showed two major sequence variants in some genomic regions. The two major variants of three of these isolates showed very low nucleotide identity to each other but were very similar to those of other isolates, suggesting the possibility of mixed infections with two divergent isolates. Incongruencies of phylogenetic relationships in the different genomic regions and statistical analyses suggested that the genomes of some CTV sequence variants originated by recombination events between diverged sequence variants. No correlation was observed between geographic origin and nucleotide distance, and thus from a genetic view, the Spanish and Californian isolates analyzed here could be considered members of the same population.
Rubio, Luis; Ayllon, Maria Angeles; Kong, Ping; Fernandez, Andres; Polek, MaryLou; Guerri, Jose; Moreno, Pedro; Falk, Bryce W.
When the effects of specific pathogen-produced elicitor compounds on plant cells are recognized by specific plant resistance (R) gene products, a local defense response called the hypersensitive response is triggered. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of defense genes are components of this response. In rice cultivars harboring null mutations in the G protein α subunit, RGA1, ROS production and defense gene induction by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea and its sphingolipid elicitors are reduced or delayed. These results implicate heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins) as important players in plant pathogen response.
Sarah M. Assmann (Penn State University;Biology Department REV)
ABSTRACT Eradication of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) has become increasingly difficult over the last decade, following the introduction of the Asian leafminer into Brazil and Florida, which has led to changes in the eradication protocols. The present study, undertaken in Brazil, was aimed at characterizing the spatial patterns of ACC in commercial citrus plantings to gain better understanding of the dynamics of the disease subsequent to introduction of the leafminer. The spatial patterns of ACC were mapped in 326 commercial citrus plantings and statistically assessed at various spatial dimensions. The presence of "within-group" aggregation in each plot was examined via beta-binomial analysis for groups of trees parsed into three-by-three-tree quadrats. The relative intensity of aggregation was expressed as a binomial index of dispersion (D) and heterogeneity among plots expressed as the intracluster correlation coefficient, rho. The population of data sets was found to fall into three D categories, D < 1.3, 1.3 = D = 3.5, and D > 3.5. These categories then were related to other spatial characteristics. The binary form of Taylor's power law was used to assess the overdispersion of disease across plots and was highly significant. When the overall population of plots was parsed into D categories, the Taylor's R (2) improved in all cases. Although these methods assessed aggregation well, they do not give information on the number of foci or aggregations within each plot. Therefore, the number of foci per 1,000 trees was quantified and found to relate directly to the D categories. The lowest D category could be explained by a linear relationship of number of foci versus disease incidence, whereas the higher two categories were most easily explained by a generalized beta function for the same relationship. Spatial autocorrelation then was used to examine the spatial relationships "among groups" composed of three-by-three-tree quadrats and determine common distances between these groups of ACC-infected trees. Aggregation was found in >84% of cases at this spatial level and there was a direct relationship between increasing D category and increasing core cluster size, and aggregation at the among-group spatial hierarchy was generally stronger for the within-row than for the across-row orientation. Clusters of disease were estimated to average between 18 and 33 tree spaces apart, and the presence of multiple foci of infection was commonplace. The effectiveness of the eradication protocol of removing all "exposed" trees within 30 m surrounding each "ACC-infected tree" was examined, and the distance of subsequent infected trees beyond this 30-m zone from the original focal infected tree was measured for each plot. A frequency distribution was compiled over all plots to describe the distance that would have been needed to circumscribe all of these outliers as a theoretical alternative protocol to the 30-m eradication protocol. The frequency distribution was well described by a monomolecular model (R(2) = 0.98) and used to determine that 90, 95, and 99% of all newly infected trees occurred within 296, 396, and 623 m of prior-infected trees in commercial citrus plantings, respectively. These distances are very similar to previously reported distances determined for ACC in residential settings in Florida. PMID:18943598
Gottwald, T R; Bassanezi, R B; Amorim, L; Bergamin-Filho, A
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential regulatory roles in the development of eukaryotes. Methods based on deep-sequencing have provided a powerful high-throughput strategy for identifying novel miRNAs and have previously been used to identify over 100 novel miRNAs from rice. Most of these reports are related to studies of rice development, tissue differentiation, or abiotic stress, but novel rice miRNAs related to viral infection have rarely been identified. In previous work, we constructed and pyrosequenced the small RNA (sRNA) libraries of rice infected with Rice stripe virus and described the character of the small interfering RNAs (siRNA) derived from the RSV RNA genome. We now report the identification of novel miRNAs from the abundant sRNAs (with a minimum of 100 sequencing reads) in the sRNA library of RSV-infected rice. 7 putative novel miRNAs (pn-miRNAs) whose precursor sequences have not previously been described were identified and could be detected by Northern blot or RT-PCR, and were recognized as novel miRNAs (n-miRNAs). Further analysis showed that 5 of the 7 n-miRNAs were up-expressed while the other 2 n-miRNAs were down-expressed in RSV-infected rice. In addition, 23 pn-miRNAs that were newly produced from 19 known miRNA precursors were also identified. This is first report of novel rice miRNAs produced from new precursors related to RSV infection.
Yan, Fei; Lu, Yuwen; Zheng, Hongying; Lin, Lin; Chen, Hairu; Chen, Jianping
The volatile organic compound (VOC) profile in plant leaves often changes after biotic and abiotic stresses. Monitoring changes in VOCs in plant leaves could provide valuable information about multitrophic interactions. In the current study, we investigated the effect of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) infestation, citrus greening pathogen (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus [CLas]) infection, and simultaneous attack by ACP and CLas on the VOC content of citrus leaves. Leaf volatiles were extracted using hexane and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Although ACP is a phloem-sucking insect that causes minimal damage to plant tissues, the relative amount of 21 out of the 27 VOCs increased 2- to 10-fold in ACP-infested plants. The relative amount of d-limonene, ?-phelandrene, citronellal, and undecanal were increased 4- to 20- fold in CLas-infected plants. A principle component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) showed that VOC patterns of ACP-infested and CLas-infected plants were different from each other and were also different from the controls, while the VOC pattern of double-attacked plants was more like that of the controls than that of ACP-infested or CLas-infected plants. VOC amounts from leaves were compromised when plants were attacked by ACP and CLas. The results of this study showed that a simple direct extraction of citrus leaf volatiles could be successfully used to discriminate between healthy and CLas-infected plants. Information about the effects of insect and pathogen attack on the VOC content profile of plants might contribute to a better understanding of biotic stress.
Hijaz, Faraj; El-Shesheny, Ibrahim; Killiny, Nabil
Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The historical developments of linkage mapping, markers and breeding, EST projects, physical mapping, an international citrus genome sequencing project, and critical functional analysis are described. Despite the challenges of working with citrus, there has been substantial progress. Citrus researchers engaged in international collaborations provide optimism about future productivity and contributions to the benefit of citrus industries worldwide and to the human population who can rely on future widespread availability of this health-promoting and aesthetically pleasing fruit crop.
Talon, Manuel; Gmitter Jr., Fred G.
Rice is one of the most important staple crops worldwide, but its yield is compromised by different pathogens, including plant-parasitic nematodes. In this study we have characterized specific and general responses of rice (Oryza sativa) roots challenged with two endoparasitic nematodes with very different modes of action. Local transcriptional changes in rice roots upon root knot (Meloidogyne graminicola) and root rot nematode (RRN, Hirschmanniella oryzae) infection were studied at two time points (3 and 7 d after infection, dai), using mRNA-seq. Our results confirm that root knot nematodes (RKNs), which feed as sedentary endoparasites, stimulate metabolic pathways in the root, and enhance nutrient transport towards the induced root gall. The migratory RRNs, on the other hand, induce programmed cell death and oxidative stress, and obstruct the normal metabolic activity of the root. While RRN infection causes up-regulation of biotic stress-related genes early in the infection, the sedentary RKNs suppress the local defense pathways (e.g. salicylic acid and ethylene pathways). Interestingly, hormone pathways mainly involved in plant development were strongly induced (gibberellin) or repressed (cytokinin) at 3 dai. These results uncover previously unrecognized nematode-induced expression profiles related to their specific infection strategy. PMID:22985291
Kyndt, Tina; Denil, Simon; Haegeman, Annelies; Trooskens, Geert; Bauters, Lander; Van Criekinge, Wim; De Meyer, Tim; Gheysen, Godelieve
This study was done to assess the risk of helminth infection in association with wastewater-fed rice cultivation in an agricultural setting of Nam Dinh city, Vietnam. In a cross sectional survey data were collected for 202 households in a commune where wastewater was used for irrigation and for 201 households in a commune that used river water. Parasitological examination was conducted on single stool samples obtained from 1,088 individuals aged -15 years from the households. The irrigation water used in both communes was enumerated for helminth eggs and thermotolerant coliforms. The prevalence of infection with Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., and hookworm was 42.2%, 19.9% and 10.5% respectively, with an overall prevalence of infection with any helminth of 53.4%. Surprisingly, the prevalence of infection with Ascaris and Trichuris was lower among people exposed to wastewater (containing 40-200 helminth eggs/l and 10(4) thermotolerant coliforms/100 ml) compared to people exposed to river water that contained lower worm egg and bacterial numbers. Poor sanitation and hygiene practices and not using protective measures were important independent risk factors for helminth infection. For hookworm infection, no significant difference was observed between the wastewater exposed and unexposed groups. Children living in the wastewater use area had a significantly better nutritional status than those in the area using river water. This suggests a generally higher welfare level of the wastewater use area. In conclusion, this study showed no evidence that rice cultivation with wastewater poses a risk for helminth infection. More detailed studies are needed on the reduction of fecal indicators and helminth eggs in peri-urban wastewater-irrigated rice culture systems and on the relative importance of wastewater irrigation compared to other risk factors for human helminth infection such as poor sanitation and poverty. PMID:17036840
Trang, Do Thuy; van der Hoek, Wim; Cam, Phung Dac; Vinh, Khuong Thanh; Hoa, Nguyen Van; Dalsgaard, Anders
Background Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is one the most important citrus diseases, and affects all varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb). On the other hand, among the Citrus genus there are different sources of resistance against X. fastidiosa. For these species identifying these defense genes could be an important step towards obtaining sweet orange resistant varieties through breeding or genetic engineering. To assess these genes we made use of mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) that is known to be resistant to CVC and shares agronomical characteristics with sweet orange. Thus, we investigated the gene expression in Ponkan mandarin at one day after infection with X. fastidiosa, using RNA-seq. A set of genes considered key elements in the resistance was used to confirm its regulation in mandarin compared with the susceptible sweet orange. Results Gene expression analysis of mock inoculated and infected tissues of Ponkan mandarin identified 667 transcripts repressed and 724 significantly induced in the later. Among the induced transcripts, we identified genes encoding proteins similar to Pattern Recognition Receptors. Furthermore, many genes involved in secondary metabolism, biosynthesis and cell wall modification were upregulated as well as in synthesis of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and auxin. Conclusions This work demonstrated that the defense response to the perception of bacteria involves cell wall modification and activation of hormone pathways, which probably lead to the induction of other defense-related genes. We also hypothesized the induction of auxin-related genes indicates that resistant plants initially recognize X. fastidiosa as a necrotrophic pathogen.
To cause rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae breaches the tough outer cuticle of the rice leaf by using specialized infection structures called appressoria. These cells allow the fungus to invade the host plant and proliferate rapidly within leaf tissue. Here, we show that a unique NADPH-dependent genetic switch regulates plant infection in response to the changing nutritional and redox conditions encountered by the pathogen. The biosynthetic enzyme trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) integrates control of glucose-6-phosphate metabolism and nitrogen source utilization by regulating the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, the generation of NADPH, and the activity of nitrate reductase. We report that Tps1 directly binds to NADPH and, thereby, regulates a set of related transcriptional corepressors, comprising three proteins, Nmr1, Nmr2, and Nmr3, which can each bind NADP. Targeted deletion of any of the Nmr-encoding genes partially suppresses the nonpathogenic phenotype of a ?tps1 mutant. Tps1-dependent Nmr corepressors control the expression of a set of virulence-associated genes that are derepressed during appressorium-mediated plant infection. When considered together, these results suggest that initiation of rice blast disease by M. oryzae requires a regulatory mechanism involving an NADPH sensor protein, Tps1, a set of NADP-dependent transcriptional corepressors, and the nonconsuming interconversion of NADPH and NADP acting as signal transducer.
Wilson, Richard A.; Gibson, Robert P.; Quispe, Cristian F.; Littlechild, Jennifer A.; Talbot, Nicholas J.
The risk of introduction of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) to new, unaffected citrus producing areas is a major concern for those citrus industries attempting to remain free of citrus canker. Citrus fruit, as a potential pathway for Xcc to enter and become established in these areas, are assumed to be a risk. However, there is little information relative to
T. Gottwald; J. Graham; C. Bock; G. Bonn; E. Civerolo; M. Irey; R. Leite; G. McCollum; P. Parker; J. Ramallo; T. Riley; T. Schubert; B. Stein; E. Taylor
Changes in the activities of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase in rice in response to infection\\u000a by Rhizoctonia solani were studied. A significant increase in peroxidase activity was observed in R. solani-inoculated rice leaf sheaths 1 day after inoculation and the maximum enzyme activity was recorded 3 days after inoculation\\u000a at which period a 3-fold increase in peroxidase
V. Paranidharan; A. Palaniswami; P. Vidhyasekaran; R. Velazhahan
Citrus greening, or huanglongbing, is a bacterial disease that attacks the vascular system of plants. Once infected there is no cure for a tree with citrus greening disease. In areas of the world where citrus greening is endemic, citrus trees decline and ...
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes one of the most destructive viral diseases of citrus worldwide. Generation of resistant citrus genotypes through\\u000a genetic engineering could be a good alternative to control CTV. To study whether production of single-chain variable fragment\\u000a (scFv) antibodies in citrus could interfere and immunomodulate CTV infection, transgenic Mexican lime plants expressing two\\u000a different scFv constructs, separately and
Magdalena Cervera; Olga Esteban; Maite Gil; M. Teresa Gorris; M. Carmen Martínez; Leandro Peña; Mariano Cambra
BACKGROUND: Huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive citrus disease which threatens citrus production worldwide and 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las), a non-culturable phloem-limited bacterium, is an associated causal agent of the disease. To better understand the physiological and molecular processes involved in host responses to Las, 2-DE and mass spectrometry analyses, as well as ICP spectroscopy analysis were employed to elucidate the global protein expression profiles and nutrient concentrations in leaves of Las-infected grapefruit plants at pre-symptomatic or symptomatic stages for HLB. RESULTS: This study identified 123 protein spots out of 191 spots that showed significant changes in the leaves of grapefruit plants in response to Las infection and all identified spots matched to 69 unique proteins/peptides. A down-regulation of 56 proteins including those associated with photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and metabolism was correlated with significant reductions in the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu in leaves of grapefruit plants in response to Las infection, particularly in symptomatic plants. Oxygen-evolving enhancer (OEE) proteins, a PSI 9 kDa protein, and a Btf3-like protein were among a small group of proteins that were down-regulated in both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic plants in response to Las infection. Furthermore, a Las-mediated up-regulation of 13 grapefruit proteins was detected, which included Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, chitinases, lectin-related proteins, miraculin-like proteins, peroxiredoxins and a CAP 160 protein. Interestingly, a Las-mediated up-regulation of granule-bound starch synthase was correlated with an increase in the K concentrations of pre-symptomatic and symptomatic plants. CONCLUSIONS: This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the interrelationships between protein expression and nutritional status of Las-infected pre-symptomatic or symptomatic grapefruit plants and sheds light on the physiological and molecular mechanisms associated with HLB disease development. PMID:23578104
Nwugo, Chika C; Lin, Hong; Duan, Yongping; Civerolo, Edwin L
Florida's Charlotte County Property Appraiser is using an aerial color infrared mapping system for inventorying citrus trees for valuation purposes. The ACIR system has significantly reduced the time and manpower required for appraisal. Aerial photographs are taken and interpreted by a video system which makes it possible to detect changes from previous years. Potential problems can be identified. KSC's TU Office has awarded a contract to the Citrus Research and Education Center to adapt a prototype system which would automatically count trees and report totals.
An aerial color infrared (CIR) mapping system developed by Kennedy Space Center enables Florida's Charlotte County to accurately appraise its citrus groves while reducing appraisal costs. The technology was further advanced by development of a dual video system making it possible to simultaneously view images of the same area and detect changes. An image analysis system automatically surveys and photo interprets grove images as well as automatically counts trees and reports totals. The system, which saves both time and money, has potential beyond citrus grove valuation.
Background Rice dwarf virus (RDV) is the causal agent of rice dwarf disease, which limits rice production in many areas of south East Asia. Transcriptional changes of rice in response to RDV infection have been characterized by Shimizu et al. and Satoh et al.. Both studies found induction of defense related genes and correlations between transcriptional changes and symptom development in RDV-infected rice. However, the same rice cultivar, namely Nipponbare belonging to the Japonic subspecies of rice was used in both studies. Methods Gene expression changes of the indica subspecies of rice, namely Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica cv Yixiang2292 that show moderate resistance to RDV, in response to RDV infection were characterized using an Affymetrix Rice Genome Array. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were classified according to their Gene Ontology (GO) annotation. The effects of transient expression of Pns11 in Nicotiana benthaminana on the expression of nucleolar genes were studied using real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Results 856 genes involved in defense or other physiological processes were identified to be DEGs, most of which showed up-regulation. Ribosome- and nucleolus related genes were significantly enriched in the DEGs. Representative genes related to nucleolar function exhibited altered expression in N. benthaminana plants transiently expressing Pns11 of RDV. Conclusions Induction of defense related genes is common for rice infected with RDV. There is a co-relation between symptom severity and transcriptional alteration in RDV infected rice. Besides ribosome, RDV may also target nucleolus to manipulate the translation machinery of rice. Given the tight links between nucleolus and ribosome, it is intriguing to speculate that RDV may enhance expression of ribosomal genes by targeting nucleolus through Pns11.
The bacteria Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus canker. The disease symptoms are characterized by localized host cell hyperplasia followed by tissue necrosis at the infected area. An arsenal of bacterial pathogenicity- and virulence-related proteins is expressed to ensure a successful infection process. At the post-genomic stage of Xac, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the proteins that are displayed differentially over time when the pathogen attacks the host plant. Protein extracts were prepared from infectious Xac grown in inducing medium (XAM1) for 24 h or from host citrus plants for 3 or 5 days after infection, detached times to evaluate the adaptation and virulence of the pathogen. The protein extracts were proteolyzed, and the peptides derived from tryptic digestion were investigated using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Changes in the protein expression profile were compared with the Xac genome and the proteome recently described under non-infectious conditions. An analysis of the proteome of Xac under infectious conditions revealed proteins directly involved in virulence such as the type III secretion system (T3SS) and effector proteins (T3SS-e), the type IV pilus (Tfp), and xanthan gum biosynthesis. Moreover, four new mutants related to proteins detected in the proteome and with different functions exhibited reduced virulence relative to the wild-type proteins. The results of the proteome analysis of infectious Xac define the processes of adaptation to the host and demonstrate the induction of the virulence factors of Xac involved in plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:24676796
Facincani, Agda P; Moreira, Leandro M; Soares, Márcia R; Ferreira, Cristiano B; Ferreira, Rafael M; Ferro, Maria I T; Ferro, Jesus A; Gozzo, Fabio C; de Oliveira, Julio C F
Replication of RNA viruses in insect cells triggers an antiviral defense that is mediated by RNA interference (RNAi) which generates viral-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). However, it is not known whether an antiviral RNAi response is also induced in insects by reoviruses, whose double-stranded RNA genome replication is thought to occur within core particles. Deep sequencing of small RNAs showed that when the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) was infected by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) (Reoviridae; Fijivirus), more viral-derived siRNAs accumulated than when the vector insect was infected by Rice stripe virus (RSV), a negative single-stranded RNA virus. RBSDV siRNAs were predominantly 21 and 22 nucleotides long and there were almost equal numbers of positive and negative sense. RBSDV siRNAs were frequently generated from hotspots in the 5?- and 3?-terminal regions of viral genome segments but these hotspots were not associated with any predicted RNA secondary structures. Under laboratory condition, L. striatellus can be infected simultaneously with RBSDV and RSV. Double infection enhanced the accumulation of particular genome segments but not viral coat protein of RBSDV and correlated with an increase in the abundance of siRNAs derived from RBSDV. The results of this study suggest that reovirus replication in its insect vector potentially induces an RNAi-mediated antiviral response.
Shen, Jiangfeng; Lv, Yuanda; Ji, Yongqiang; Sun, Liying; Chen, Jianping
Rice tungro disease is a complex disease caused by the interaction between Rice tungro bacilliform virus and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). RTSV alone does not cause recognizable symptoms in most Asian rice (Oryza sativa) plants, whereas some African rice (O. glaberrima) plants were found to become stunted by RTSV. Stunting of rice plants by virus infections usually accompanies the suppression of various cell wall-related genes. The expression of cell wall-related genes was examined in O. glaberrima and O. sativa infected with RTSV to see the relationship between the severity of stunting and the suppression of cell wall-related genes by RTSV. The heights of four accessions of O. glaberrima were found to decline by 14-34% at 28 days post-inoculation (dpi) with RTSV, whereas the height reduction of O. sativa plants by RTSV was not significant. RTSV accumulated more in O. glaberrima plants than in O. sativa plants, but the level of RTSV accumulation was not correlated with the degree of height reduction among the four accessions of O. glaberrima. Examination for expression of genes for cellulose synthase A5 (CESA5) and A6 (CESA6), cellulose synthase-like A9 (CSLA9) and C7, and ?-expansin 1 (expansin 1) and 15 precursors in O. glaberrima and O. sativa plants between 7 and 28 dpi with RTSV showed that the genes such as those for CESA5, CESA6, CSLA9, and expansin 1were more significantly suppressed in stunted plants of O. glaberrima at 14 dpi with RTSV than in O. sativa, suggesting that stunting of O. glaberrima might be associated with these cell wall-related genes suppressed by RTSV. Examination for expression of these genes in O. sativa plants infected with other rice viruses in previous studies indicated that the suppression of the expansin 1 gene is likely to be a signature response commonly associated with virus-induced stunting of Oryza species. These results suggest that stunting of O. glaberrima by RTSV infection might be associated with the suppression of these cell wall-related genes at the early stage of infection with RTSV. PMID:24550897
Budot, Bernard O; Encabo, Jaymee R; Ambita, Israel Dave V; Atienza-Grande, Genelou A; Satoh, Kouji; Kondoh, Hiroaki; Ulat, Victor J; Mauleon, Ramil; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Choi, Il-Ryong
Rice tungro disease is a complex disease caused by the interaction between Rice tungro bacilliform virus and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). RTSV alone does not cause recognizable symptoms in most Asian rice (Oryza sativa) plants, whereas some African rice (O. glaberrima) plants were found to become stunted by RTSV. Stunting of rice plants by virus infections usually accompanies the suppression of various cell wall-related genes. The expression of cell wall-related genes was examined in O. glaberrima and O. sativa infected with RTSV to see the relationship between the severity of stunting and the suppression of cell wall-related genes by RTSV. The heights of four accessions of O. glaberrima were found to decline by 14–34% at 28 days post-inoculation (dpi) with RTSV, whereas the height reduction of O. sativa plants by RTSV was not significant. RTSV accumulated more in O. glaberrima plants than in O. sativa plants, but the level of RTSV accumulation was not correlated with the degree of height reduction among the four accessions of O. glaberrima. Examination for expression of genes for cellulose synthase A5 (CESA5) and A6 (CESA6), cellulose synthase-like A9 (CSLA9) and C7, and ?-expansin 1 (expansin 1) and 15 precursors in O. glaberrima and O. sativa plants between 7 and 28 dpi with RTSV showed that the genes such as those for CESA5, CESA6, CSLA9, and expansin 1were more significantly suppressed in stunted plants of O. glaberrima at 14 dpi with RTSV than in O. sativa, suggesting that stunting of O. glaberrima might be associated with these cell wall-related genes suppressed by RTSV. Examination for expression of these genes in O. sativa plants infected with other rice viruses in previous studies indicated that the suppression of the expansin 1 gene is likely to be a signature response commonly associated with virus-induced stunting of Oryza species. These results suggest that stunting of O. glaberrima by RTSV infection might be associated with the suppression of these cell wall-related genes at the early stage of infection with RTSV.
Budot, Bernard O.; Encabo, Jaymee R.; Ambita, Israel Dave V.; Atienza-Grande, Genelou A.; Satoh, Kouji; Kondoh, Hiroaki; Ulat, Victor J.; Mauleon, Ramil; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Choi, Il-Ryong
An indica rice cultivar IET8585 (Ajaya) resists diverse races of the Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae pathogen attack, and is often cultivated as bacterial leaf blight (blb) resistant check in India. Earlier we reported a recessive blb resistance gene mapped to the long arm of chromosome 5 in IET8585. Recessive gene-mediated blb resistance mechanism is not yet clearly understood. Here we analyzed the transcriptional profile of the blb infected resistant cultivar by rice 22K oligo array. Microarray analysis revealed differential expression of numerous genes at both early (6 h) and late (120 h) stages of infection in the resistant IET8585 cultivar over the susceptible IR24. Some of the differential gene expressions were validated by both RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Higher expression of ethylene response element binding protein (EREBP) transcription factor along with lower expression of alcohol dehydrogenase gene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system may be responsible for hypersensitive cell death in the resistant cultivar upon bacterial infection. Induction of glutathione-mediated detoxification and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways along with up-regulation of defense genes during infection may inhibit pathogen spread in the host tissues. In light of this and previous studies a mechanism of recessive gene-mediated bacterial blight resistance in indica rice is discussed. PMID:17870590
Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Rakwal, Randeep; Satoh, Kouji; Shibato, Junko; Kottapalli, Pratibha; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Shoshi
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily is a group of enzymes metabolizing endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. Using differential\\u000a display RT-PCR and cDNA library screening, a full-length aldehyde dehydrogenase cDNA (ALDH7B7) was isolated from rice leaves infected by incompatible race of blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 509 amino acid residues and shares 74?81% identity with those of
Chun-xia Wu; Sheng-chang Su; You-liang Peng
Young leaves of 62 citrus cultivars were inoculated with conidia of three Spanish isolates of Alternaria alternata pv. citri, the causal agent of brown spot of citrus. Hybrids with Dancy mandarin, King mandarin or their derivates as a parent, grapefruit cultivars and the mandarin cultivars Guillermina, Emperor, Clemenpons and Esbal were highly susceptible to the pathogen. Satsuma cultivar Clausellina and
A. Vicent; J. Badal; M. J. Asensi; N. Sanz; J. Armengol; J. García-Jiménez
The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillar- iidae), is an important world-wide pest of citrus. Larval mining within leaf flush impacts yield and predisposes trees to infection by citrus can- ker, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The present series of studies sought to identify factors affecting male P. citrella catch in pheromone-baited traps with the intent of developing effective monitoring.
L. L. Stelinski; M. E. Rogers
A process for the clarification of citrus juices is disclosed. Polygalacturonic acid is added to cloudy citrus juice. The resultant coagulated material is removed from solution leaving a clear liquid.
R. A. Baker J. H. Bruemmer
Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES). Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus fruits. Their structural elucidation is described on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including those from 2D NMR experiments. The analysis of the biomass sterols led to the identification of 8-12. Fungal infection on the natural substrates induced the release of citrus monoterpenes together with fungal volatiles. The host-pathogen interaction in nature and the possible biological role of citrus volatiles are also discussed. PMID:12381117
Ariza, Marta R; Larsen, Thomas O; Peterson, Bent O; Duus, Jens O; Barrero, Alejandro F
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) represents one of the major threats to citrus production worldwide. In the East Adriatic region, CTV symptoms are mostly\\u000a absent due to traditional citrus grafting on trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), a CTV-tolerant rootstock. Therefore, the virus has been continuously spreading by the propagation of infected material.\\u000a The genetic variability of CTV was studied on nineteen citrus
Silvija Cerni; Dijana Skoric; Jelena Ruscic; Mladen Krajacic; Tatjana Papic; Khaled Djelouah; Gustavo Nolasco
Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins have been used as markers of plant defense responses, and are classified into 17 families. However, precise information on the majority members in specific PR families is still limited. We were interested in the individual characteristics of rice PR1 family genes, and selected 12 putatively active genes using rice genome databases for expressed genes. All were upregulated upon compatible and/or incompatible rice-blast fungus interactions; three were upregulated in the early infection period and four in the late infection period. Upon compatible rice-bacterial blight interaction, four genes were upregulated, six were not affected, and one was downregulated. These results are in striking contrast to those among 22 Arabidopsis PR1 genes where only one gene was pathogen-inducible. The responses of individual genes to salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene induced defense signaling pathways in rice are likely to be different from those in dicot plants. Transcript levels in healthy leaves, roots, and flowers varied according to each gene. Analysis of the partially overlapping expression patterns of rice PR1 genes in healthy tissues and in response to pathogens and other stresses would be useful to understand their possible functions and for use as characteristic markers for defense-related studies in rice. PMID:18247056
Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Iwai, Takayoshi; Seo, Shigemi; Yanagawa, Yuki; Kawahigasi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Sakino; Ohkawa, Yasunobu; Ohashi, Yuko
In sub-Saharan Africa, lowlands developed for rice cultivation favour the development of Anopheles gambiae s. l. populations. However, the epidemiological impact is not clearly determined. The importance of malaria was compared in terms of prevalence and parasite density of infections as well as in terms of disease incidence between three agroecosystems: (i) uncultivated lowlands, 'R0', (ii) lowlands with one annual rice cultivation in the rainy season, 'R1' and (iii) developed lowlands with two annual rice cultivation cycles, 'R2'. We clinically monitored 2000 people of all age groups, selected randomly in each agroecosystem, for 40 days (in eight periods of five consecutive days scheduled every 6 weeks for 1 year). During each survey, a systematic blood sample was taken from every sick and asymptomatic person. The three agroecosystems presented a high endemic situation with a malaria transmission rate of 139-158 infective bites per person per year. The age-standardized annual malaria incidence reached 0.9 malaria episodes per person in R0, 0.6 in R1 and 0.8 in R2. Children from 0 to 9-year-old in R0 and R2 had two malarial attacks annually, but this was less in R1 (1.4 malaria episodes per child per year). Malaria incidence varied with season and agroecosystem. In parallel with transmission, a high malaria risk occurs temporarily at the beginning of the dry season in R2, but not in R0 and R1. Development of areas for rice cultivation does not modify the annual incidence of malarial attacks despite their seasonal influence on malaria risk. However, the lower malaria morbidity rate in R1 could be explained by socio-economic and cultural factors. PMID:12753641
Henry, M-C; Rogier, C; Nzeyimana, I; Assi, S B; Dossou-Yovo, J; Audibert, M; Mathonnat, J; Keundjian, A; Akodo, E; Teuscher, T; Carnevale, P
SUMMARY Citrus tristeza virus isolate YC (CTV-YC), a stem pit- ting-inducing strain, was graft-transmitted to seedlings of Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle), Pineapple sweet orange (C. sinensis (L.) Os- beck) and Arizona Etrog citron 861-SI (C. medica L.). Nodal stem segments from CTV-YC-infected and healthy seedlings of the three species were used as ex- plants for regeneration in vitro.
C. X. Wang; N. Hong; G. P. Wang; B. Jiang; X. D. Fan
Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV), a tenuivirus, is transmitted by the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), in a persistent-propagative manner. In this study, immunofluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the infection route of RGSV in the internal organs of BPH after acquiring the virus by feeding on RGSV-infected rice plants. The sequential infection study revealed that RGSV initially infected the midgut epithelium, then crossed the basal lamina into the midgut visceral muscles, from where RGSV apparently spread into the hemolymph, then into the salivary glands of its BPH vector. The mechanism underlying this infection route of RGSV in its BPH vector may confer an advantage for the direct spread of RGSV from the initially infected epithelium to the salivary glands in BPH, contributing to efficient transmission of RGSV by its insect vector. PMID:24768845
Zheng, Limin; Mao, Qianzhuo; Xie, Lianhui; Wei, Taiyun
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) play crucial roles in plant immunity. We previously identified a citrus MAPK (CsMAPK1) as a differentially expressed protein in response to infection by Xanthomonas aurantifolii, a bacterium that causes citrus canker in Mexican lime but a hypersensitive reaction in sweet oranges. Here, we confirm that, in sweet orange, CsMAPK1 is rapidly and preferentially induced by X. aurantifolii relative to Xanthomonas citri. To investigate the role of CsMAPK1 in citrus canker resistance, we expressed CsMAPK1 in citrus plants under the control of the PR5 gene promoter, which is induced by Xanthomonas infection and wounding. Increased expression of CsMAPK1 correlated with a reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth. Canker lesions in plants with higher CsMAPK1 levels were smaller and showed fewer signs of epidermal rupture. Transgenic plants also revealed higher transcript levels of defense-related genes and a significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in response to wounding or X. citri infection. Accordingly, nontransgenic sweet orange leaves accumulate both CsMAPK1 and hydrogen peroxide in response to X. aurantifolii but not X. citri infection. These data, thus, indicate that CsMAPK1 functions in the citrus canker defense response by inducing defense gene expression and reactive oxygen species accumulation during infection. PMID:23777433
de Oliveira, Maria Luiza Peixoto; de Lima Silva, Caio Cesar; Abe, Valéria Yukari; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso; Cernadas, Raúl Andrés; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo
Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV) has the potential to cause major losses to the Australian citrus industry if an infected clone is propagated, because\\u000a the predominant rootstocks are intolerant of CTLV infection. We have developed a robust and specific semi-nested reverse transcription—polymerase\\u000a chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay which detects CTLV in a range of citrus tissues. The sensitivity of the assay
D. L. Hailstones; K. L. Bryant; P. Broadbent; C. Zhou
Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves ('Hamlin' and 'Valencia') and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY 'Hamlin', HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY 'Valencia', the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY 'Valencia' JV than in SY 'Hamlin' JV. More genes were also affected in AS 'Valencia' FF and VT than in AS 'Valencia' JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation. PMID:22407645
Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K
The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling pathway plays a major role in regulating plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Here, we report the identification of two novel genes, MoSOM1 and MoCDTF1, which were discovered in an insertional mutagenesis screen for non-pathogenic mutants of M. oryzae. MoSOM1 or MoCDTF1 are both necessary for development of spores and appressoria by M. oryzae and play roles in cell wall differentiation, regulating melanin pigmentation and cell surface hydrophobicity during spore formation. MoSom1 strongly interacts with MoStu1 (Mstu1), an APSES transcription factor protein, and with MoCdtf1, while also interacting more weakly with the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (CpkA) in yeast two hybrid assays. Furthermore, the expression levels of MoSOM1 and MoCDTF1 were significantly reduced in both ?mac1 and ?cpkA mutants, consistent with regulation by the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. MoSom1-GFP and MoCdtf1-GFP fusion proteins localized to the nucleus of fungal cells. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that nuclear localization signal sequences in MoSom1 and MoCdtf1 are essential for their sub-cellular localization and biological functions. Transcriptional profiling revealed major changes in gene expression associated with loss of MoSOM1 during infection-related development. We conclude that MoSom1 and MoCdtf1 functions downstream of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and are novel transcriptional regulators associated with cellular differentiation during plant infection by the rice blast fungus.
Yan, Xia; Li, Ya; Yue, Xiaofeng; Wang, Congcong; Que, Yawei; Kong, Dandan; Ma, Zhonghua; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Wang, Zhengyi
The first barrier to infection encountered by foliar pathogens is the host cuticle. To traverse this obstacle, many fungi produce specialized infection cells called appressoria. MST12 is essential for appressorium-mediated penetration and infectious growth by the rice pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. In this study, we have characterized in detail the penetration defects of an mst12 deletion mutant. Appressoria formed by the mst12 mutant developed normal turgor pressure and ultrastructure but failed to form penetration pegs either on cellophane membranes or on plant epidermal cells. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis analyses indicated that both the homeodomain and zinc finger domains, but not the middle region, of MST12 are essential for appressorial penetration and plant infection. The mst12 mutant appeared to be defective in microtubule reorganization associated with penetration peg formation. In mature appressoria, the mutant lacked vertical microtubules observed in the wild type. The mst12 mutant also failed to elicit localized host defence responses, including papilla formation and autofluorescence. Our data indicate that generation of appressorium turgor pressure and formation of the penetration peg are two independent processes. MST12 may play important roles in regulating penetration peg formation and directing the physical forces exerted by the appressorium turgor in mature appressoria. PMID:15341648
Park, Gyungsoon; Bruno, Kenneth S; Staiger, Christopher J; Talbot, Nicholas J; Xu, Jin-Rong
14-3-3 proteins are found in all eukaryotes where they act as regulators of diverse signalling pathways associated with a wide range of biological processes. In this study the functional characterization of the ZmGF14-6 gene encoding a maize 14-3-3 protein is reported. Gene expression analyses indicated that ZmGF14-6 is up-regulated by fungal infection and salt treatment in maize plants, whereas its expression is down-regulated by drought stress. It is reported that rice plants constitutively expressing ZmGF14-6 displayed enhanced tolerance to drought stress which was accompanied by a stronger induction of drought-associated rice genes. However, rice plants expressing ZmGF14-6 either in a constitutive or under a pathogen-inducible regime showed a higher susceptibility to infection by the fungal pathogens Fusarium verticillioides and Magnaporthe oryzae. Under infection conditions, a lower intensity in the expression of defence-related genes occurred in ZmGF14-6 rice plants. These findings support that ZmGF14-6 positively regulates drought tolerance in transgenic rice while negatively modulating the plant defence response to pathogen infection. Transient expression assays of fluorescently labelled ZmGF14-6 protein in onion epidermal cells revealed a widespread distribution of ZmGF14-6 in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Additionally, colocalization experiments of fluorescently labelled ZmGF14-6 with organelle markers, in combination with cell labelling with the endocytic tracer FM4-64, revealed a subcellular localization of ZmGF14-6 in the early endosomes. Taken together, these results improve our understanding of the role of ZmGF14-6 in stress signalling pathways, while indicating that ZmGF14-6 inversely regulates the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:22016430
Campo, Sonia; Peris-Peris, Cristina; Montesinos, Laura; Peñas, Gisela; Messeguer, Joaquima; San Segundo, Blanca
14-3-3 proteins are found in all eukaryotes where they act as regulators of diverse signalling pathways associated with a wide range of biological processes. In this study the functional characterization of the ZmGF14-6 gene encoding a maize 14-3-3 protein is reported. Gene expression analyses indicated that ZmGF14-6 is up-regulated by fungal infection and salt treatment in maize plants, whereas its expression is down-regulated by drought stress. It is reported that rice plants constitutively expressing ZmGF14-6 displayed enhanced tolerance to drought stress which was accompanied by a stronger induction of drought-associated rice genes. However, rice plants expressing ZmGF14-6 either in a constitutive or under a pathogen-inducible regime showed a higher susceptibility to infection by the fungal pathogens Fusarium verticillioides and Magnaporthe oryzae. Under infection conditions, a lower intensity in the expression of defence-related genes occurred in ZmGF14-6 rice plants. These findings support that ZmGF14-6 positively regulates drought tolerance in transgenic rice while negatively modulating the plant defence response to pathogen infection. Transient expression assays of fluorescently labelled ZmGF14-6 protein in onion epidermal cells revealed a widespread distribution of ZmGF14-6 in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Additionally, colocalization experiments of fluorescently labelled ZmGF14-6 with organelle markers, in combination with cell labelling with the endocytic tracer FM4-64, revealed a subcellular localization of ZmGF14-6 in the early endosomes. Taken together, these results improve our understanding of the role of ZmGF14-6 in stress signalling pathways, while indicating that ZmGF14-6 inversely regulates the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses.
Campo, Sonia; Peris-Peris, Cristina; Montesinos, Laura; Penas, Gisela; Messeguer, Joaquima; San Segundo, Blanca
Summary. ?The genome of Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) consists of 6 ambisense RNA segments, among which RNAs 1, 2, 5 and 6 are equivalent to RNAs 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively,\\u000a of Rice stripe virus, the type species of the genus Tenuivirus. The RGSV 36-kDa nucleocapsid protein (N) is encoded on the complementary strand of RNA 5. Here, we
P. Chomchan; G. J. Miranda; Y. Shirako
Disruption and hypertrophy of cortical cells due to the migration and movement of larvae ofMeloidogyne graminicola partly contributed to the development of knots in rice roots. Hyperplasia of protophloem and abnormal xylem proliferation\\u000a caused swelling of stele at sites of nematode attack and establishment. In tolerant rice varieties, poor giant cell formation\\u000a caused delay in nematode development and in the
Rabindra Narayan Jena; Y Seshagiri Rao
Magnaporthe oryzae is the most important fungal pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa). Under laboratory conditions, it is able to colonize both aerial and underground plant organs using different mechanisms. Here, we characterize an infection-related development in M. oryzae produced on hydrophilic polystyrene (PHIL-PS) and on roots. We show that fungal spores develop preinvasive hyphae (pre-IH) from hyphopodia (root penetration structures) or germ tubes and that pre-IH also enter root cells. Changes in fungal cell wall structure accompanying pre-IH are seen on both artificial and root surfaces. Using characterized mutants, we show that the PMK1 (for pathogenicity mitogen-activated protein kinase 1) pathway is required for pre-IH development. Twenty mutants with altered pre-IH differentiation on PHIL-PS identified from an insertional library of 2885 M. oryzae T-DNA transformants were found to be defective in pathogenicity. The phenotypic analysis of these mutants revealed that appressorium, hyphopodium, and pre-IH formation are genetically linked fungal developmental processes. We further characterized one of these mutants, M1373, which lacked the M. oryzae ortholog of exportin-5/Msn5p (EXP5). Mutants lacking EXP5 were much less virulent on roots, suggesting an important involvement of proteins and/or RNAs transported by EXP5 during M. oryzae root infection.
Tucker, Sara L.; Besi, Maria I.; Galhano, Rita; Franceschetti, Marina; Goetz, Stephan; Lenhert, Steven; Osbourn, Anne; Sesma, Ane
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the oldest citrus diseases and has been known for over a century. HLB is caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter' spp. that are phloem-limited, fastidious ?-proteobacteria and infect hosts in different Kingdoms (i.e., Animalia and Plantae). When compared with well-characterized, cultivatable plant-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the interactions of uncultured insect-vectored plant-pathogenic bacteria, including 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., with their hosts remain poorly understood. 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp. have been known to cause HLB, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide, resulting in dramatic economic losses. HLB presents an unprecedented challenge to citrus production. In this review, we focus on the most recent research on citrus, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', and psyllid interactions, specifically considering the following topics: evolutionary relationships among 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., genetic diversity, host range, genome analysis, transmission, virulence mechanisms, and the ecological importance of HLB. Currently, no efficient management strategy is available to control HLB, although some promising progress has been made. Further studies are needed to understand citrus, 'Ca. L. asiaticus', and psyllid interactions to design innovative management strategies. Although HLB has been problematic for over a century, we can only win the battle against HLB with a coordinated and deliberate effort by the citrus industry, citrus growers, researchers, legislatures, and governments. PMID:23441969
Wang, Nian; Trivedi, Pankaj
The citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB), associated with an uncultured bacterial pathogen, is threatening the citrus industry worldwide. A mathematical model of the transmission of HLB between its psyllid vector and citrus host has been developed to characterize the dynamics of the vector and disease development, focusing on the spread of the pathogen from flush to flush (a newly developing cluster of very young leaves on the expanding terminal end of a shoot) within a tree. This approach differs from that of prior models for vector-transmitted plant diseases where the entire plant is the unit of analysis. Dynamics of vector and host populations are simulated realistically as the flush population approaches complete infection. Model analysis indicates that vector activity is essential for initial infection but is not necessary for continued infection because infection can occur from flush to flush through internal movement in the tree. Flush production, within-tree spread, and latent period are the most important parameters influencing HLB development. The model shows that the effect of spraying of psyllids depends on time of initial spraying, frequency, and efficacy of the insecticides. Similarly, effects of removal of symptomatic flush depend on the frequency of removal and the time of initiation of this practice since the start of the epidemic. Within-tree resistance to spread, possibly affected by inherent or induced resistance, is a major factor affecting epidemic development, supporting the notion that alternate routes of transmission besides that by the vector can be important for epidemic development.
Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H.; Halbert, Susan E.; Morris, J. Glenn; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.
The citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB), associated with an uncultured bacterial pathogen, is threatening the citrus industry worldwide. A mathematical model of the transmission of HLB between its psyllid vector and citrus host has been developed to characterize the dynamics of the vector and disease development, focusing on the spread of the pathogen from flush to flush (a newly developing cluster of very young leaves on the expanding terminal end of a shoot) within a tree. This approach differs from that of prior models for vector-transmitted plant diseases where the entire plant is the unit of analysis. Dynamics of vector and host populations are simulated realistically as the flush population approaches complete infection. Model analysis indicates that vector activity is essential for initial infection but is not necessary for continued infection because infection can occur from flush to flush through internal movement in the tree. Flush production, within-tree spread, and latent period are the most important parameters influencing HLB development. The model shows that the effect of spraying of psyllids depends on time of initial spraying, frequency, and efficacy of the insecticides. Similarly, effects of removal of symptomatic flush depend on the frequency of removal and the time of initiation of this practice since the start of the epidemic. Within-tree resistance to spread, possibly affected by inherent or induced resistance, is a major factor affecting epidemic development, supporting the notion that alternate routes of transmission besides that by the vector can be important for epidemic development. PMID:22783015
Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H; Halbert, Susan E; Morris, J Glenn; van Bruggen, Ariena H C
Citrus is an economically important fruit crop that is severely afflicted by citrus canker, a disease caused by the bacterial phytopathogen, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). GenBank houses a large collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) enriched with transcripts generated during the defence response against this pathogen; however, there are currently no strategies in citrus to assess the function of candidate genes. This has greatly limited research as defence signalling genes are often involved in multiple pathways. In this study, we demonstrate the efficacy of RNA interference (RNAi) as a functional genomics tool to assess the function of candidate genes involved in the defence response of Citrus limon against the citrus canker pathogen. Double-stranded RNA expression vectors, encoding hairpin RNAs for citrus host genes, were delivered to lemon leaves by transient infiltration with transformed Agrobacterium. As proof of principle, we have established silencing of citrus phytoene desaturase (PDS) and callose synthase (CalS1) genes. Phenotypic and molecular analyses showed that silencing vectors were functional not only in lemon plants but also in other species of the Rutaceae family. Using silencing of CalS1, we have demonstrated that plant cell wall-associated defence is the principal initial barrier against Xanthomonas infection in citrus plants. Additionally, we present here results that suggest that H?O? accumulation, which is suppressed by xanthan from Xcc during pathogenesis, contributes to inhibition of xanthan-deficient Xcc mutant growth either in wild-type or CalS1-silenced plants. With this work, we have demonstrated that high-throughput reverse genetic analysis is feasible in citrus. PMID:20809929
Enrique, Ramón; Siciliano, Florencia; Favaro, María Alejandra; Gerhardt, Nadia; Roeschlin, Roxana; Rigano, Luciano; Sendin, Lorena; Castagnaro, Atilio; Vojnov, Adrian; Marano, María Rosa
Strigolactone exudation, as well as Striga hermonthica germination and attachment, was studied under different levels of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in two cultivars of rice (IAC 165 and TN 1). Exudation of strigolactones by rice was the highest under mineral-deficient conditions, whereas increasing N and P dose reduced the amount of strigolactones in the exudates. Deficiency of P led
M. Jamil; T. Charnikhova; C. Cardoso; T. Jamil; K. Ueno; F. W. A. Verstappen; T. Asami; H. J. Bouwmeester
The rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae has been widely used as a model pathogen to study plant infection-related fungal morphogenesis, such as penetration via appressorium and plant-microbe interactions at the molecular level. Previously, we identified a gene encoding peroxisomal alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) in M. oryzae and demonstrated that the AGT1 was indispensable for pathogenicity. The AGT1 knockout mutants were unable to penetrate the host plants, such as rice and barley, and therefore were non-pathogenic. The inability of ?Moagt1 mutants to penetrate the susceptible plants was likely due to the disruption in coordination of the ?-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle resulted from a blockage in lipid droplet mobilization and eventually utilization during conidial germination and appressorium morphogenesis, respectively. Here, we further demonstrate the role of AGT1 in lipid mobilization by in vitro germination assays and confocal microscopy. PMID:22899049
Bhadauria, Vijai; Banniza, Sabine; Vandenberg, Albert; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Wei, Yangdou
Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a very serious disease in rice-growing regions of the world. In spite of their economic importance, there are no effective ways of protecting rice plants from this disease. Bacteriophages infecting Xoo affect the population dynamics of the pathogen and consequently the occurrence of the disease. In this study, we investigated the diversity, host range, and infectivity of Xoo phages, and their use as a bicontrol agent on BLB was tested. Among the 34 phages that were isolated from floodwater in paddy fields, 29 belonged to the Myoviridae family, which suggests that the dominant phage in the ecosystem was Myoviridae. The isolated phages were classified into two groups based on plaque size produced on the lawn of Xoo. In general, there was a negative relationship between plaque size and host range, and interestingly the phages having a narrow host range had low efficiency of infectivity. The deduced protein sequence analysis of htf genes indicated that the gene was not a determinant of host specificity. Although the difference in host range and infectivity depending on morphotype needs to be addressed, the results revealed deeper understanding of the interaction between the phages and Xoo strains in floodwater and damp soil environments. The phage mixtures reduced the occurrence of BLB when they were treated with skim milk. The results indicate that the Xoo phages could be used as an alternative control method to increase the control efficacy and reduce the use of agrochemicals. PMID:24651644
Chae, Jong-Chan; Hung, Nguyen Bao; Yu, Sang-Mi; Lee, Ha Kyung; Lee, Yong Hoon
Background The genus Citrus encompasses major cultivated plants such as sweet orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit, among the world’s most economically important fruit crops. With increasing volumes of transcriptomics data available for these species, Gene Co-expression Network (GCN) analysis is a viable option for predicting gene function at a genome-wide scale. GCN analysis is based on a “guilt-by-association” principle whereby genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit similar expression patterns across diverse sets of experimental conditions. While bioinformatics resources such as GCN analysis are widely available for efficient gene function prediction in model plant species including Arabidopsis, soybean and rice, in citrus these tools are not yet developed. Results We have constructed a comprehensive GCN for citrus inferred from 297 publicly available Affymetrix Genechip Citrus Genome microarray datasets, providing gene co-expression relationships at a genome-wide scale (33,000 transcripts). The comprehensive citrus GCN consists of a global GCN (condition-independent) and four condition-dependent GCNs that survey the sweet orange species only, all citrus fruit tissues, all citrus leaf tissues, or stress-exposed plants. All of these GCNs are clustered using genome-wide, gene-centric (guide) and graph clustering algorithms for flexibility of gene function prediction. For each putative cluster, gene ontology (GO) enrichment and gene expression specificity analyses were performed to enhance gene function, expression and regulation pattern prediction. The guide-gene approach was used to infer novel roles of genes involved in disease susceptibility and vitamin C metabolism, and graph-clustering approaches were used to investigate isoprenoid/phenylpropanoid metabolism in citrus peel, and citric acid catabolism via the GABA shunt in citrus fruit. Conclusions Integration of citrus gene co-expression networks, functional enrichment analysis and gene expression information provide opportunities to infer gene function in citrus. We present a publicly accessible tool, Network Inference for Citrus Co-Expression (NICCE, http://citrus.adelaide.edu.au/nicce/home.aspx), for the gene co-expression analysis in citrus.
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting (SP) symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows (SY) symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in those mixtures interact with each other and cause diseases.
Dawson, W. O.; Garnsey, S. M.; Tatineni, S.; Folimonova, S. Y.; Harper, S. J.; Gowda, S.
Summary. ?Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is an aphid-transmitted closterovirus, which causes one of the most important citrus diseases worldwide. Isolates of\\u000a CTV differ widely in their biological properties. CTV-infected samples were collected from four locations in India: Bangalore\\u000a (CTV-B), Delhi (CTV-D), Nagpur (CTV-N), and Pune (CTV-P), and were maintained by grafting into Kagzi lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. Swing.). All isolates produced
A. Roy; P. Ramachandran; R. H. Brlansky
'Mexican' lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) was transformed with constructs that contained chimeric promoter-gus gene fusions of phloem-specific rolC promoter of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Arabidopsis thaliana sucrose-H(+) symporter (AtSUC2) gene promoter of Arabidopsis thaliana, rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) promoter and sucrose synthase l (RSs1) gene promoter of Oryza sativa (rice). Histochemical ?-glucuronidase (GUS) analysis revealed vascular-specific expression of the GUS protein in citrus. The RTBV promoter was the most efficient promoter in this study while the RSs1 promoter could drive low levels of gus gene expression in citrus. These results were further validated by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and northern blotting. Southern blot analysis confirmed stable transgene integration, which ranged from a single insertion to four copies per genome. The use of phloem-specific promoters in citrus will allow targeted transgene expression of antibacterial constructs designed to battle huanglongbing disease (HLB or citrus greening disease), associated with a phloem-limited Gram-negative bacterium. PMID:22228816
Dutt, M; Ananthakrishnan, G; Jaromin, M K; Brlansky, R H; Grosser, J W
Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccAw, induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations.
Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B.; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F.; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B.
Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the major diseases of rice. The pathogen infects rice plants directly through stomata or using lobate appressoria\\u000a and hyphal masses called infection cushions. The infection structures were normally found at 36 h post-inoculation. During\\u000a infection, the pathogenesis-related genes, PR1b and PBZ1 were induced in rice plants. To identify rice genes induced
Chang-Jiang Zhao; Ai-Rong Wang; Yu-Jun Shi; Liu-Qing Wang; Wen-De Liu; Zong-Hua Wang; Guo-Dong Lu
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.
Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Hyun [National Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-100 (Korea, Republic of)] [National Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Boung-Jun [BioControl Center, Jeonnam 516-942 (Korea, Republic of)] [BioControl Center, Jeonnam 516-942 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ho Won, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Soo, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)
Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach relies on a thorough understanding of defense mechanisms of citrus. Studies of Arabidopsis and other plants have provided a framework for us to better understand defense mechanisms of citrus. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule involved in basal defense and resistance (R) gene-mediated defense against broad-spectrum pathogens. The Arabidopsis gene NDR1 (NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1) is a positive regulator of SA accumulation and is specifically required for signaling mediated by a subset of R genes upon recognition of their cognate pathogen effectors. Our bioinformatic analysis identified an ortholog of NDR1 from citrus, CsNDR1. Overexpression of CsNDR1 complemented susceptibility conferred by the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 mutant to Pseudomonas syringae strains and also led to enhanced resistance to an oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Such heightened resistance is associated with increased SA production and expression of the defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1). In addition, we found that expression of PR1 and accumulation of SA were induced to modest levels in citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with HLB disease. Thus, our data suggest that CsNDR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NDR1. Since Ca. L. asiaticus infection only activates modest levels of defense responses in citrus, we propose that genetically increasing SA/NDR1-mediated pathways could potentially lead to enhanced resistance against HLB, citrus canker, and other destructive diseases challenging global citrus production.
Lu, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Albrecht, Ute; Shimizu, Rena; Wang, Guanfeng; Bowman, Kim D.
Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach relies on a thorough understanding of defense mechanisms of citrus. Studies of Arabidopsis and other plants have provided a framework for us to better understand defense mechanisms of citrus. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule involved in basal defense and resistance (R) gene-mediated defense against broad-spectrum pathogens. The Arabidopsis gene NDR1 (NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1) is a positive regulator of SA accumulation and is specifically required for signaling mediated by a subset of R genes upon recognition of their cognate pathogen effectors. Our bioinformatic analysis identified an ortholog of NDR1 from citrus, CsNDR1. Overexpression of CsNDR1 complemented susceptibility conferred by the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 mutant to Pseudomonas syringae strains and also led to enhanced resistance to an oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Such heightened resistance is associated with increased SA production and expression of the defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1). In addition, we found that expression of PR1 and accumulation of SA were induced to modest levels in citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with HLB disease. Thus, our data suggest that CsNDR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NDR1. Since Ca. L. asiaticus infection only activates modest levels of defense responses in citrus, we propose that genetically increasing SA/NDR1-mediated pathways could potentially lead to enhanced resistance against HLB, citrus canker, and other destructive diseases challenging global citrus production. PMID:23761797
Lu, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Albrecht, Ute; Shimizu, Rena; Wang, Guanfeng; Bowman, Kim D
In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare. PMID:19287759
Walter, D E; Kaplan, D T
In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare.
Walter, David Evans; Kaplan, David T.
Citrus yellow mosaic badnavirus (CMBV) is an important pathogen in southern India spread by infected citrus propagules. One of the measures to arrest the spread of CMBV is to develop methods to screen and certify citrus propagules as CMBV-free. The methods loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and SYBR green real-time PCR (SGRTPCR) have been developed for the efficient detection of CMBV in citrus propagules. This paper compares the sensitivities of LAMP and SGRTPCR with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of CMBV. Whereas PCR and LAMP were able to detect CMBV from a minimum of 10 ng of total DNA of infected leaf samples, SGRTPCR could detect the same from 1 ng of total DNA. Using SGRTPCR, the viral titres were estimated to be the highest in rough lemon and lowest in Nagpur Mandarin of the five naturally infected citrus species tested. The results will help in designing suitable strategies for the sensitive detection of CMBV from citrus propagules. PMID:24675064
Anthony Johnson, A M; Dasgupta, I; Sai Gopal, D V R
Virus-based vectors are important tools in plant molecular biology and plant genomics. A number of vectors based on viruses that infect herbaceous plants are in use for expression or silencing of genes in plants as well as screening unknown sequences for function. Yet there is a need for useful virus-based vectors for woody plants, which demand much greater stability because of the longer time required for systemic infection and analysis. We examined several strategies to develop a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)-based vector for transient expression of foreign genes in citrus trees using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These strategies included substitution of the p13 open reading frame (ORF) by the ORF of GFP, construction of a self-processing fusion of GFP in-frame with the major coat protein (CP), or expression of the GFP ORF as an extra gene from a subgenomic (sg) mRNA controlled either by a duplicated CTV CP sgRNA controller element (CE) or an introduced heterologous CE of Beet yellows virus. Engineered vector constructs were examined for replication, encapsidation, GFP expression during multiple passages in protoplasts, and for their ability to infect, move, express GFP, and be maintained in citrus plants. The most successful vectors based on the 'add-a-gene' strategy have been unusually stable, continuing to produce GFP fluorescence after more than 4 years in citrus trees.
Folimonov, Alexey S.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, FL 33850 (United States); Bar-Joseph, Moshe [The Volcani Center, Bet-Dagan 50259 (Israel); Dawson, William O. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, FL 33850 (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com
...plant disease that is caused by a complex of Xanthomonas spp. bacteria and that affects plants and plant parts of citrus and citrus...the protocol document are adhered to, there should be no bacterium within the nursery or compartment. In that same section...
Background This study aimed to determine the epidemiological impact of rice cultivation in inland valleys on malaria in the forest region of western Côte d’Ivoire. The importance of malaria was compared in terms of prevalence and parasite density of infections and also in terms of clinical malaria incidence between three agro-ecosystems: (i) uncultivated inland valleys, (R0), (ii) inland valleys with one annual rice cultivation in the rainy season, (R1) and (iii) developed inland valleys with two annual rice cultivation cycles, (R2). Methods Between May 1998 and March 1999, seven villages of each agro-ecosystem (R0, R1 and R2) were randomly selected among villages pooled by farming system. In these 21 villages, a total of 1,900 people of all age groups were randomly selected and clinically monitored during one year. Clinical and parasitological information was obtained by active case detection of malaria episodes carried out during eight periods of five consecutive days scheduled at six weekly intervals and by cross-sectional surveys. Results Plasmodium falciparum was the principal parasite observed in the three agro-ecosystems. A level of holoendemicity of malaria was observed in the three agro-ecosystems with more than 75% of children less than 12 months old infected. Geometric mean parasite density in asymptomatic persons varied between 180 and 206 P. falciparum asexual forms per ?L of blood and was associated with season and with age, but not with farming system. The mean annual malaria incidence rate reached 0.7 (95% IC 0.5-0.9) malaria episodes per person in R0, 0.7 (95% IC 0.6-0.9) in R1 and 0.6 (95% IC 0.5-0.7) in R2. The burden of malaria was the highest among children under two years of age, with at least four attacks by person-year. Then malaria incidence decreased by half in the two to four-year age group. From the age of five years, the incidence was lower than one attack by person-year. Malaria incidence varied with season with more cases in the rainy season than in the dry season but not with farming system. Conclusion In the forest area of western Côte d’Ivoire, inland valley rice cultivation was not significantly associated with malaria burden.
Pesticide contamination of rice prairie waterfowl habitat and acute pesticide poisoning of wintering and migrating waterfowl on the rice prairies has been reduced in recent years. Some problems still exist.
Hobaugh, W.C.; Stutzenbaker, C.D.; Flickinger, E.L.
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter bacterium, vectored by the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama and Trioza erytreae Del Guercio. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection. The aim of this study was to develop effective gene-specific primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction based method for quick screening of HLB disease. Thirty-two different gene-specific primer pairs, across the Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus genome, were successfully developed. The possibility of these primer pairs for cross-genome amplification across 'Ca. Liberibacter africanus' and 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus' were tested. The applicability of these primer pairs for detection and differentiation of Ca Liberibacter spp. is discussed. PMID:23660656
Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Irey, Mike; Garnsey, Stephen M; Gowda, Siddarame
We have investigated the detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants (Citrus limonia [L.] Osbeck) using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Due to its economic importance we have chosen to investigate the citrus canker disease, which is caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. Mechanical stress was also studied because it plays an important role in the plant's infection by such bacteria. A laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy system, composed of a spectrometer and a 532 nm 10 mW excitation laser was used to perform fluorescence spectroscopy. The ratio of two chlorophyll fluorescence bands allows us to detect and discriminate between mechanical and disease stresses. This ability to discriminate may have an important application in the field to detect citrus canker infected trees. PMID:18404192
Belasque, J; Gasparoto, M C G; Marcassa, L G
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) associated with huanglongbing, or citrus greening, the most devastating citrus (Citrus spp.) disease worldwide. Here, we developed a new "excised-leaf assay" that can speed up Las-inoculativity tests on Asian citrus psyllid from the current 3-12 mo (when using whole citrus seedlings for inoculation) to only 2-3 wk. Young adults of Asian citrus psyllid that had been reared on Las-infected plants were caged on excised healthy sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves for a 1-2-wk inoculation access periods (IAP), and then both psyllids and leaves were tested later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). When single adults were tested per leaf, percentages of Las-positive leaves averaged 2-6% by using HLBaspr primers and 10-20% by using the more sensitive LJ900 primers. Higher proportions of Las-positive leaves were obtained with 1) higher densities of inoculating psyllids (5-10 adults per leaf), 2) longer IAPs, and 3) incubation of leaves for 1 wk postinoculation before PCR. Logistic regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between Las titer in Asian citrus psyllid adults tested singly and the probability of detecting Las in the inoculated leaves, correlations that can be very useful in epidemiological studies. Comparison between excised leaves and whole seedlings, inoculated consecutively for 1 wk each by one or a group of psyllids, indicated no significant difference between Las detection in excised leaves or whole plants. This new excised-leaf assay method saves considerable time, materials, and greenhouse space, and it may enhance vector relation and epidemiological studies on Las and potentially other Liberibacter spp. associated with huanglongbing disease. PMID:23448011
Ammar, El-Desouky; Walter, Abigail J; Hall, David G
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) (genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) is the causal agent of devastating epidemics that changed the course of the citrus industry. Adapted to replicate in phloem cells of a few species within the family Rutaceae and to transmission by a few aphid species, CTV and citrus probably coevolved for centuries at the site of origin of citrus plants. CTV dispersal to other regions and its interaction with new scion varieties and rootstock combinations resulted in three distinct syndromes named tristeza, stem pitting and seedling yellows. The first, inciting decline of varieties propagated on sour orange, has forced the rebuilding of many citrus industries using tristeza-tolerant rootstocks. The second, inducing stunting, stem pitting and low bearing of some varieties, causes economic losses in an increasing number of countries. The third is usually observed by biological indexing, but rarely in the field. CTV polar virions are composed of two capsid proteins and a single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of approximately 20 kb, containing 12 open reading frames (ORFs) and two untranslated regions (UTRs). ORFs 1a and 1b, encoding proteins of the replicase complex, are directly translated from the gRNA, and together with the 5' and 3'UTRs are the only regions required for RNA replication. The remaining ORFs, expressed via 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs, encode proteins required for virion assembly and movement (p6, p65, p61, p27 and p25), asymmetrical accumulation of positive and negative strands during RNA replication (p23), or suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing (p25, p20 and p23), with the role of proteins p33, p18 and p13 as yet unknown. Analysis of genetic variation in CTV isolates revealed (1) conservation of genomes in distant geographical regions, with a limited repertoire of genotypes, (2) uneven distribution of variation along the gRNA, (3) frequent recombination events and (4) different selection pressures shaping CTV populations. Measures to control CTV damage include quarantine and budwood certification programmes, elimination of infected trees, use of tristeza-tolerant rootstocks, or cross protection with mild isolates, depending on CTV incidence and on the virus strains and host varieties predominant in each region. Incorporating resistance genes into commercial varieties by conventional breeding is presently unfeasible, whereas incorporation of pathogen-derived resistance by plant transformation has yielded variable results, indicating that the CTV-citrus interaction may be more specific and complex than initially thought. A deep understanding of the interactions between viral proteins and host and vector factors will be necessary to develop reliable and sound control measures. PMID:18705856
Moreno, Pedro; Ambrós, Silvia; Albiach-Martí, Maria R; Guerri, José; Peña, Leandro
Background Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the genus Closterovirus within the family Closteroviridae, is the causal agent of citrus tristeza disease. Previous studies revealed that the negative selection, RNA recombination and gene flow were the most important forces that drove CTV evolution. However, the CTV codon usage was not studied and thus its role in CTV evolution remains unknown. Results A detailed comparative analysis of CTV codon usage pattern was done in this study. Results of the study show that although in general CTV does not have a high degree of codon usage bias, the codon usage of CTV has a high level of resemblance to its host codon usage. In addition, our data indicate that the codon usage resemblance is only observed for the woody plant-infecting closteroviruses but not the closteroviruses infecting the herbaceous host plants, suggesting the existence of different virus-host interactions between the herbaceous plant-infecting and woody plant-infecting closteroviruses. Conclusion Based on the results, we suggest that in addition to RNA recombination, negative selection and gene flow, host plant codon usage selection can also affect CTV evolution.
Fruit development and ripening are key processes in the production of the phytonutrients that are essential for a balanced diet and for disease prevention. The pathways involved in these processes are unique to plants and vary between species. Climacteric fruit ripening, especially in tomato, has been extensively studied; yet, ripening of non-climacteric fruit is poorly understood. Although the different species share common pathways; developmental programs, physiological, anatomical, biochemical composition and structural differences must contribute to the operation of unique pathways, genes and proteins. Citrus has a non-climacteric fruit ripening behavior and has a unique anatomical fruit structure. For the last few years a citrus genome-wide ESTs project has been initiated and consists of 222,911 clones corresponding to 19,854 contigs and 37,138 singletons. Taking advantage of the citrus database we analyzed the citrus proteome. Using LC-MS/MS we analyzed soluble and enriched membrane fractions of mature citrus fruit to identify the proteome of fruit juice cells. We have identified ca. 1,400 proteins from these fractions by searching NCBI-nr (green plants) and citrus ESTs databases, classified these proteins according to their putative function and assigned function according to known biosynthetic pathways. PMID:17541628
Katz, E; Fon, M; Lee, Y J; Phinney, B S; Sadka, A; Blumwald, E
What do you do when county officials show up to cut down the orange trees in your backyard? What causes citrus canker and how is it spread? This plant pathogen was the first microbe to have its genome sequenced outside of the US. There is much to investigate before deciding on the best alternative for control. * examine international alternatives for the control of citrus canker
Linda Weinland (Edison College;Biology); Peter Woodruff (Champlain College;Biology); Margaret Waterman (Southeast Missouri State University;Biology); Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)
The germacrene composition of various citrus peel oils was investigated. Detection and quantification of the thermally sensitive germacrenes A and C was achieved by employing extremely gentle GC conditions with 100°C maximum in injector and GC-oven. Germacrene A was found in all analyzed citrus oils with values from trace level to 0.46% of the volatiles, depending on variety and provenance.
Wolfgang Feger; Herbert Brandauer; Herta Ziegler
Most of the plant regeneration processes in citrus, through tissue culture, involve somatic embryogenesis. The optimization of these processes is important for the development of in vitro plant improvement. Nodal segments and leaf discs of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) cv. Musambi and Lime (Citrus aurantifolia ) cv. Kaghzi Nimbu were used to obtain aseptically raised plantlets of Lime (Citrus
RASHAD MUKHTAR; M. MUMTAZ KHAN; RAMZAN RAFIQ; ADNAN SHAHID; FAROOQ AHMAD KHAN
Citrus growers have long used aerial photography to inventory the number of groves in production. A new development at Kennedy Space Center, aerial mapping of groves with color infrared (CIR) film, affords an important advance in grove management by detecting and locating unhealthy trees long before they could be detected by ground survey methods. Aerial CIR photography picks up light reflected from foliage-- light not visible to the human eye--and enables differentiation between healthy and "stressed" (diseased) trees of a Florida orange/grapefruit grove. Computer aided photo interpretation techniques permit grading diseased trees lightly, moderately or severely stressed or dead. Method of grove mapping has offered advantage to growers in early disease warning, possible savings through water regulation and provision of a permanent record of grove growth patterns.
Six Alabama Satsuma mandarin orchards (four conventionally sprayed and two unsprayed) were surveyed during 2005 and 2006 to determine the population dynamics of arthropod pests and their natural enemies. Twenty-eight arthropod pest species were encountered; the major foliage pests were citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead); purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman); Glover scale, L. gloveri (Packard); and citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor). Two distinct population peaks were recorded for citrus whitefly at most locations. The most important direct sources of citrus whitefly mortality were parasitism by Encarsia lahorensis (Howard) and infection by the pathogenic fungus, Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber. In general, all stages of both scale insects (purple scale and Glover scale) were present in the orchards year-round, indicative of overlapping generations; however, the highest densities were recorded during the early season. Citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale were more abundant on leaves collected from the interior of the tree canopy than in the exterior canopy. Citrus red mite densities were highest in the spring, with populations declining at the start of the summer, and were more abundant in the exterior canopy than in the interior canopy. The most important natural enemies of citrus red mite were predatory mites belonging to several families, of which Typhlodromalus peregrinus Muma (Phytoseiidae) was the predominant species. Major differences were recorded in the relative abundance of different arthropod pest species in the orchards: citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale predominated in the unsprayed orchards, whereas citrus red mite infestations were more severe in the sprayed orchards. The results are discussed in relation to the possible effect of orchard management practices on abundance of the major pests. PMID:18419929
Fadamiro, Henry Y; Xiao, Yingfang; Hargroder, Terry; Nesbitt, Monte; Umeh, Vincent; Childers, Carl C
NO detailed study has so far been made to find out the mechanism of the formation and accumulation of citric acid in citrus fruits even though studies on the change of acidity and pH during ripening have been reported1. Investigations are in progress in this laboratory to study the biosynthesis of citric acid in citrus fruit (Citrus acida), as a
T. N. Sekhara Varma; C. V. Ramakrishnan
Systemic invasion of plants by viruses is thought to involve two processes: cell-to-cell movement between adjacent cells and long-distance movement that allows the virus to rapidly move through sieve elements and unload at the growing parts of the plant. There is a continuum of proportions of these processes that determines the degrees of systemic infection of different plants by different viruses. We examined the systemic distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in citrus species with a range of susceptibilities. By using a “pure” culture of CTV from a cDNA clone and green fluorescent protein-labeled virus we show that both cell-to-cell and long-distance movement are unusually limited, and the degree of limitation varies depending on the citrus host. In the more-susceptible hosts CTV infected only a small portion of phloem-associated cells, and moreover, the number of infection sites in less-susceptible citrus species was substantially decreased further, indicating that long-distance movement was reduced in those hosts. Analysis of infection foci in the two most differential citrus species, Citrus macrophylla and sour orange, revealed that in the more-susceptible host the infection foci were composed of a cluster of multiple cells, while in the less-susceptible host infection foci were usually single cells, suggesting that essentially no cell-to-cell movement occurred in the latter host. Thus, CTV in sour orange represents a pattern of systemic infection in which the virus appears to function with only the long-distance movement mechanism, yet is able to survive in nature.
Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Folimonov, Alexey S.; Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Dawson, William O.
Plants, when exposed to certain pathogens, may display a form of genotype-independent resistance, known as non-host response. In this study, the response of Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) leaves to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv), a pepper and tomato pathogenic bacterium, was analyzed through biochemical assays and cDNA microarray hybridization and compared with Asiatic citrus canker infection caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. Citrus leaves exposed to the non-host bacterium Xcv showed hypersensitive response (HR) symptoms (cell death), a defense mechanism common in plants but poorly understood in citrus. The HR response was accompanied by differentially expressed genes that are associated with biotic stress and cell death. Moreover, 58 transcription factors (TFs) were differentially regulated by Xcv in citrus leaves, including 26 TFs from the stress-associated families AP2-EREBP, bZip, Myb and WRKY. Remarkably, in silico analysis of the distribution of expressed sequence tags revealed that 10 of the 58 TFs, belonging to C2C2-GATA, C2H2, CCAAT, HSF, NAC and WRKY gene families, were specifically over-represented in citrus stress cDNA libraries. This study identified candidate TF genes for the regulation of key steps during the citrus non-host HR. Furthermore, these TFs might be useful in future strategies of molecular breeding for citrus disease resistance. PMID:23453188
Daurelio, Lucas D; Romero, María S; Petrocelli, Silvana; Merelo, Paz; Cortadi, Adriana A; Talón, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco R; Orellano, Elena G
What's so special about oranges? They are a major cash crop for Florida and other warm weather places, and this fascinating oral history project from the University of South Florida (USF) explores the very nature of this industry. Working together with the USF's Patel Center for Global Studies, oral historian William Mansfield conducted 20 interviews regarding the impact of globalization on the Florida citrus industry. Visitors can listen to or read the interviews, as well as look over the online exhibition, "Selling Sunshine: Florida's Citrus Industry." The exhibition details Florida's unique relationship with the citrus industry, incorporating documents, promotional material, and post cards with its information. The website hosts a remarkable collection that will be of interest to oral historians, folks with an interest in Florida, and many others.
Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) definitions, commonly used in literature, are evaluated in response to nitrate availability in four citrus rootstocks, Rough Lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) (RL), Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) (SwO), Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort ex Tan.) (CM) and Sour Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) (SO). The application of diverse definitions determine different characterizations in N-efficiency among rootstocks.
Agostino Sorgonà; Maria Rosa Abenavoli; Pietro Giorgio Gringeri; Giovanni Cacco
To get an insight into the host RNA silencing defense induced by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and into the counter defensive reaction mediated by its three silencing suppressors (p25, p20 and p23), we have examined\\u000a by deep sequencing (Solexa-Illumina) the small RNAs (sRNAs) in three virus-host combinations. Our data show that CTV sRNAs:\\u000a (i) represent more than 50% of the
Susana Ruiz-RuizBeatriz; Beatriz Navarro; Andreas Gisel; Leandro Peña; Luis Navarro; Pedro Moreno; Francesco Di Serio; Ricardo Flores
Site Plan & Site Section of Citrus Landscape (Showing Relationship of Victoria Avenue to Citrus Groves) - Arlington Heights Citrus Landscape, Southwestern portion of city of Riverside, Riverside, Riverside County, CA
Non-productive citrus trees were chipped with a portable fly-wheel-type chipper powered by a 45 kW engine. Chips were air dried under an open shed to 14% (w.b.) moisture content. By weight, approximately 50% of the total tree could be made into usable chips. The root system averaged 36% of the total tree weight.
Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.
A series of multilocus sequence-based nuclear DNA markers was developed to infer the phylogeographical history of the Basidiomycetous fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infecting rice and soybean worldwide. The strategy was based on sequencing of cloned genomic DNA fragments (previously used as RFLP probes) and subsequent screening of fungal isolates to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ten primer pairs were designed based on these sequences, which resulted in PCR amplification of 200-320 bp size products and polymorphic sequences in all markers analyzed. By direct sequencing we identified both homokaryon and heterokaryon (i.e. dikaryon) isolates at each marker. Cloning the PCR products effectively estimated the allelic phase from heterokaryotic isolates. Information content varied among markers from 0.5 to 5.9 mutations per 100 bp. Thus, the former RFLP codominant probes were successfully converted into six distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers. Rather than discarding low polymorphism loci, the combination of these distinctively variable anonymous nuclear markers would constitute an asset for the unbiased estimate of the phylogeographical parameters such as population sizes and divergent times, providing a more reliable species history that shaped the current population structure of R. solani AG-1 IA.
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS) associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening), considered the world's most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ACP nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified) feeding sites on Valencia orange leaves. ACP nymphs preferred to settle and feed on the lower (abaxial) side of young leaves either on secondary veins or on the sides of the midrib, whereas adults preferred to settle and feed on the upper (adaxial) or lower secondary veins of young or old leaves. Early instar nymphs can reach and probe the phloem probably because the distance to the phloem is considerably shorter in younger than in mature leaves, and is shorter from the sides of the midrib compared to that from the center. Additionally, the thick-walled 'fibrous ring' (sclerenchyma) around the phloem, which may act as a barrier to ACP stylet penetration into the phloem, is more prominent in older than in younger leaves and in the center than on the sides of the midrib. The majority (80-90%) of the salivary sheath termini produced by ACP nymphs and adults that reached a vascular bundle were associated with the phloem, whereas only 10-20% were associated with xylem vessels. Ultrastructural studies on ACP stylets and LAS-infected leaves suggested that the width of the maxillary food canal in first instar nymphs is wide enough for LAS bacteria to traverse during food ingestion (and LAS acquisition). However, the width of the maxillary salivary canal in these nymphs may not be wide enough to accommodate LAS bacteria during salivation (and LAS inoculation) into host plants. This may explain the inability of early instar nymphs to transmit LAS/HLB in earlier reports. PMID:23555830
Ammar, El-Desouky; Hall, David G; Shatters, Robert G
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS) associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening), considered the world’s most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ACP nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified) feeding sites on Valencia orange leaves. ACP nymphs preferred to settle and feed on the lower (abaxial) side of young leaves either on secondary veins or on the sides of the midrib, whereas adults preferred to settle and feed on the upper (adaxial) or lower secondary veins of young or old leaves. Early instar nymphs can reach and probe the phloem probably because the distance to the phloem is considerably shorter in younger than in mature leaves, and is shorter from the sides of the midrib compared to that from the center. Additionally, the thick-walled ‘fibrous ring’ (sclerenchyma) around the phloem, which may act as a barrier to ACP stylet penetration into the phloem, is more prominent in older than in younger leaves and in the center than on the sides of the midrib. The majority (80–90%) of the salivary sheath termini produced by ACP nymphs and adults that reached a vascular bundle were associated with the phloem, whereas only 10–20% were associated with xylem vessels. Ultrastructural studies on ACP stylets and LAS-infected leaves suggested that the width of the maxillary food canal in first instar nymphs is wide enough for LAS bacteria to traverse during food ingestion (and LAS acquisition). However, the width of the maxillary salivary canal in these nymphs may not be wide enough to accommodate LAS bacteria during salivation (and LAS inoculation) into host plants. This may explain the inability of early instar nymphs to transmit LAS/HLB in earlier reports.
Ammar, El-Desouky; Hall, David G.; Shatters, Robert G.
The Nramp genes encode a class of metal transporters that universally exist in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In animals such as the mouse, the Nramp1 gene is important for natural host resistance to the infection of intracellular pathogens. To investigate the potential role of Nramp genes in plant defense response, we have conducted expression analysis of three OsNramp genes in
Xiangjun Zhou; Yinong Yang
Resistance to rice virus diseases is an important requirement in many Southeast Asian rice breeding programs. Inheritance\\u000a of resistance to rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) in TW5, a near-isogenic line derived from Indonesian rice cultivar Utri\\u000a Merah, was compared to that in TKM6, an Indian rice cultivar. Both TKM6 and Utri Merah are cultivars resistant to RTSV infections.\\u000a Crosses were
O. Azzam; T. Imbe; R. Ikeda; P. D. Nath; E. Coloquio
A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to detect six RNA and one DNA citrus virus: Citrus leaf rugose virus (CLRV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV), Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Citrus variegation virus (CVV), Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), and Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) from citrus plants. These seven viruses are classified in
Avijit Roy; Amer Fayad; G. Barthe; R. H. Brlansky
A pot experiment was conducted using a Candler fine sand (hyperthermic, uncoated, Typic Quartzipsamments) amended with either citrus leaves or compost, to measure the nitrogen (N) mineralization and its availability to two citrus rootstock seedlings. A rapid increase in NH4?N concentration was evident in the soil amended with citrus leaves as compared to compost during the initial 14 to 20
H. Dou; A. K. Alva
Citrus, especially Kinnow, fruit yield and quality in Pakistan is not competitive with other countries, which could be mainly attributed to a lack of good nutrient management for citrus orchards. Many of the soils under these orchards have been reported as deficient in potassium (K). Therefore, work was initiated for improving citrus fruit yield, size, and quality through K nutrition
M. Yasin Ashraf; Attiya Gul; F. Hussain; G. Ebert
Huanglongbing (HLB), previously known as citrus greening disease, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus and responsible for the decline of citrus orchards in Andhra Pradesh (AP) and other citrus growing areas in the country. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 1160 bp fragment of 16S rDNA of HLB was observed in mottling symptoms, yellow vein symptoms, symptoms
K. Gopal; V. Gopi; L. Kalyani; M. Sreelatha; B. Sreenivasulu
The inheritance of host plant resistance and its effect on the relative infection efficiency for leaf blast was studied in the crosses ‘IR36’\\/‘CO39’ (partially resistant × highly susceptible) and ‘IR36’\\/‘IR64’ (both partially resistant). On the natural scale, gene action appeared multiplicative. After log transformation, additive effects described most of the genetic variation in the cross ‘IR36’\\/‘CO39’, while additive and dominance
E. C. Roumen
Remote sensing with infrared color aerial photography (Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film) for detecting citrus tree anomalies is described. Illustrations and discussions are given for detecting nutrient toxicity symptoms, for detecting foot rot and sooty mold fungal diseases, and for distinguishing among citrus species. Also, the influence of internal leaf structure on light reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are considered; and physiological and environmental factors that affect citrus leaf light reflectance are reviewed briefly and illustrated.
Gausman, H. W.
Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 ? and ?) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade.
Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo
This paper reviews the pharmacological properties of Mediterranean-grown citrus species (Citrus L., Rutaceae), including citron (Citrus medica L.), lime (Citrus ×auantiifolia [Christm.] Swingle), lemon (Citrus ×limon [L.] Osbeck), bitter orange (Citrus ×aurantium L.) and pomelo (Citrus maxima [Burm.] Merr.), as referred to in ancient, medieval and 16th century sources. The virtues of the species reported in these texts were compared
Beatriz Álvarez Arias; Luis Ramón-Laca
Citrus stubborn disease (CSD), first identified in California, is a widespread bacterial disease found in most arid citrus-producing regions in the United States and the Mediterranean Region. The disease is caused by Spiroplasma citri, an insect-transmitted and phloem-colonizing bacterium. CSD causes significant tree damage resulting in loss of fruit production and quality. Detection of CSD is challenging due to low and fluctuating titer and sporadic distribution of the pathogen in infected trees. In this study, we report the development of a novel diagnostic method for CSD using an S. citri-secreted protein as the detection marker. Microbial pathogens secrete a variety of proteins during infection that can potentially disperse systemically in infected plants with the vascular flow. Therefore, their distribution may not be restricted to the pathogen infection sites and could be used as a biological marker for infection. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we identified a unique secreted protein from S. citri that is highly expressed in the presence of citrus phloem extract. ScCCPP1, an antibody generated against this protein, was able to distinguish S. citri-infected citrus and periwinkle from healthy plants. In addition, the antiserum could be used to detect CSD using a simple direct tissue print assay without the need for sample processing or specialized lab equipment and may be suitable for field surveys. This study provides proof of a novel concept of using pathogen-secreted protein as a marker for diagnosis of a citrus bacterial disease and can probably be applied to other plant diseases. PMID:23931112
Shi, Jinxia; Pagliaccia, Deborah; Morgan, Robyn; Qiao, Yongli; Pan, Songqin; Vidalakis, Georgios; Ma, Wenbo
The diversity and stability of bacterial communities present in the rhizosphere heavily influence soil and plant quality and ecosystem sustainability. The goal of this study is to understand how 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (known to cause Huanglongbing, HLB) influences the structure and functional potential of microbial communities associated with the citrus rhizosphere. Clone library sequencing and taxon/group-specific quantitative real-time PCR results showed that 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus rhizosphere. Within the bacterial community, phylum Proteobacteria with various genera typically known as successful rhizosphere colonizers were significantly greater in clone libraries from healthy samples, whereas phylum Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, typically more dominant in the bulk soil were higher in 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected samples. A comprehensive functional microarray GeoChip 3.0 was used to determine the effects of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on the functional diversity of rhizosphere microbial communities. GeoChip analysis showed that HLB disease has significant effects on various functional guilds of bacteria. Many genes involved in key ecological processes such as nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation, phosphorus utilization, metal homeostasis and resistance were significantly greater in healthy than in the 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere. Our results showed that the microbial community of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere has shifted away from using more easily degraded sources of carbon to the more recalcitrant forms. Overall, our study provides evidence that the change in plant physiology mediated by 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection could elicit shifts in the composition and functional potential of rhizosphere microbial communities. In the long term, these fluctuations might have important implications for the productivity and sustainability of citrus-producing agro-ecosystems. PMID:21796220
Trivedi, Pankaj; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Albrigo, Gene; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Nian
...was based on their apparent resistance to citrus canker infection...regarding the strong biological resistance of calamondins and kumquats...displayed on a plastic or metal tag attached to the outside...high degree of biological resistance to Xcc that the...
This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.
Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian
The distribution of citrus viroids – Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd), Citrus viroid (CVd)-I-LSS, Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Citrus viroid III (CVd-III), Citrus viroid IV (CVd-IV), and Citrus viroid OS (CVd-OS) – and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV; synonym: Citrus tatter leaf virus) were investigated using the multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction\\u000a on samples from
Takao Ito; Nobuyuki Namba; Tsutae Ito
We developed a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect six citrus viroids: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Citrus viroid III (CVd-III), Citrus viroid IV (CVd-IV) and Citrus viroid OS (CVd-OS) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV, synonym: Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV)) from citrus plants. The multiplex RT-PCR was
Takao Ito; Hiroyuki Ieki; Katsumi Ozaki
By applying the theories of ecological suitability and the methods of fuzzy mathematics, this paper established a climatic suitability model for citrus, calculated and evaluated the climatic suitability and its spatiotemporal differences for citrus production in subtropical China, and analyzed the climatic suitability of citrus at its different growth stages and the mean climatic suitability of citrus in different regions of subtropical China. The results showed that the citrus in subtropical China had a lower climatic suitability and a higher risk at its flower bud differentiation stage, budding stage, and fruit maturity stage, but a higher climatic suitability and a lower risk at other growth stages. Cold damage and summer drought were the key issues affecting the citrus production in subtropical China. The citrus temperature suitability represented a latitudinal zonal pattern, i. e., decreased with increasing latitude; its precipitation suitability was high in the line of "Sheyang-Napo", medium in the southeast of the line, low in the northwest of the line, and non in high mountainous area; while the sunlight suitability was in line with the actual duration of sunshine, namely, higher in high-latitude areas than in low-latitude areas, and higher in high-altitude areas than in plain areas. Limited by temperature factor, the climatic suitability was in accordance with temperature suitability, i. e., south parts had a higher suitability than north parts, basically representing latitudinal zonal pattern. From the analysis of the inter-annual changes of citrus climatic suitability, it could be seen that the citrus climatic suitability in subtropical China was decreasing, and had obvious regional differences, suggesting that climate change could bring about the changes in the regions suitable for citrus production and in the key stages of citrus growth. PMID:21043095
Duan, Hai-Lai; Qian, Huai-Sui; Li, Ming-Xia; Du, Yao-Dong
Chitin is a major component of fungal cell wall and is synthesized by chitin synthases (Chs). Plant pathogenic fungi normally have multiple chitin synthase genes. To determine their roles in development and pathogenesis, we functionally characterized all seven CHS genes in Magnaporthe oryzae. Three of them, CHS1, CHS6, and CHS7, were found to be important for plant infection. While the chs6 mutant was non-pathogenic, the chs1 and chs7 mutants were significantly reduced in virulence. CHS1 plays a specific role in conidiogenesis, an essential step for natural infection cycle. Most of chs1 conidia had no septum and spore tip mucilage. The chs6 mutant was reduced in hyphal growth and conidiation. It failed to penetrate and grow invasively in plant cells. The two MMD-containing chitin synthase genes, CHS5 and CHS6, have a similar expression pattern. Although deletion of CHS5 had no detectable phenotype, the chs5 chs6 double mutant had more severe defects than the chs6 mutant, indicating that they may have overlapping functions in maintaining polarized growth in vegetative and invasive hyphae. Unlike the other CHS genes, CHS7 has a unique function in appressorium formation. Although it was blocked in appressorium formation by germ tubes on artificial hydrophobic surfaces, the chs7 mutant still produced melanized appressoria by hyphal tips or on plant surfaces, indicating that chitin synthase genes have distinct impacts on appressorium formation by hyphal tip and germ tube. The chs7 mutant also was defective in appressorium penetration and invasive growth. Overall, our results indicate that individual CHS genes play diverse roles in hyphal growth, conidiogenesis, appressorium development, and pathogenesis in M. oryzae, and provided potential new leads in the control of this devastating pathogen by targeting specific chitin synthases.
Li, Guo-Tian; Qi, Lin-Lu; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Chen-Fang; Zhao, Wen-Sheng; Xu, Jin-Rong; Peng, You-Liang
The invention comprises adventitious citrus juice vesicles having the unique characteristic that they branch out of pre-existing citrus juice vesicles. This is in contrast to tree-produced citrus juice vesicles which arise from the endocarp of the citrus ...
... 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38...Vegetables Â§ 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata ...be imported into the United States from Chile, and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi...
Soils in central Florida citrus production region are very sandy, hence are vulnerable to leaching of soluble nutrients and chemicals. The objective of this study was to develop nitrogen (N) and irrigation best management practices for citrus in sandy soils to maintain optimal crop yield and quality, and to minimize N leaching below the rootzone. A replicated plot experiment was
A. K. Alva; S. Paramasivam; A. Fares; T. A. Obreza; A. W. Schumann
Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016
Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G
Eukaryotic A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) play an important role in the regulation of immune and stress response. After elucidation of the role of first such protein, OsSAP1, in abiotic stress tolerance, 18 rice stress associated protein (SAP) genes have been shown to be regulated by multiple abiotic stresses. In the present study, expression pattern of all the 18 OsSAP genes have been analysed in response to different biotic stress simulators, in order to get insights into their possible involvement in biotic stress tolerance. Our results showed the upregulation of OsSAP1 and OsSAP11 by all biotic stress simulator treatments. Furthermore, the functional role of OsSAP1 in plant defence responses has been explored through overexpression in transgenic plants. Constitutive expression of OsSAP1 in transgenic tobacco resulted into enhanced disease resistance against virulent bacterial pathogen, together with the upregulation of known defence-related genes. Present investigation suggests that rice SAPs are responsive to multiple biotic stresses and OsSAP1 plays a key role in basal resistance against pathogen infection. This strongly supports the involvement of rice SAPs in cross-talk between biotic and abiotic stress signalling pathways, which makes them ideal candidate to design strategies for protecting crop plants against multiple stresses. PMID:25017161
Tyagi, Himani; Jha, Shweta; Sharma, Meenakshi; Giri, Jitender; Tyagi, Akhilesh K
Background The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Results Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired plant fruits of family Rutaceae revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins. The fruits of C. sinensis and C. anrantifolia exhibited the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins, while the fruits of C. limonum indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, terpinedes, and tannins. The fruits of selected plants were also subjected to antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay against ascorbic acid at various concentrations. Among the tested plants, C. sinensis showed promising antiradical effect (84.81%) which was followed by C. Anrantifolia (80.05%) at 100 ?g/ml against ascorbic acid (96.36%). The C. limonum showed low antioxidant activity among the three selected plants of family Rutaceae. Conclusions The current finding is baseline information in the use of the fruits of selected plants as food supplement which may be due to the presence of antioxidant molecules in the family Rutaceae. Further research is needed in this area to isolate the phenolic constituents which possess ideal antiradical potential.
Lemon, lime and sudachi juices were tested for antibacterial activity against seven strains of Vibrio species. All juices were effective in inhibiting the growth of the Vibrio strains. Citric acid, the major organic acid in these juices, was found to be responsible for inhibiting the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Sauce prepared from sudachi juice showed a strong bactericidal activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, whereas the sauce adjusted to higher pH values had no bacterial activity. Diluted sudachi juice or citric acid solution also had antibacterial activity independently. These results suggest that citrus fruit juices are effective in preventing infection with Vibrio species. PMID:16802698
Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Koga, Tetsuro; Yamato, Masayuki; Kassu, Afework; Ota, Fusao
Prophages are highly dynamic components in the bacterial genome and play an important role in intraspecies variations. There are at least two prophages in the chromosomes of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las) Floridian isolates. Las is both unculturable and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB), a worldwide destructive disease of citrus. In this study, seven new prophage variants resulting from two hyper-variable regions were identified by screening clone libraries of infected citrus, periwinkle and psyllids. Among them, Types A and B share highly conserved sequences and localize within the two prophages, FP1 and FP2, respectively. Although Types B and C were abundant in all three libraries, Type A was much more abundant in the libraries from the Las-infected psyllids than from the Las-infected plants, and Type D was only identified in libraries from the infected host plants but not from the infected psyllids. Sequence analysis of these variants revealed that the variations may result from recombination and rearrangement events. Conventional PCR results using type-specific molecular markers indicated that A, B, C and D are the four most abundant types in Las-infected citrus and periwinkle. However, only three types, A, B and C are abundant in Las-infected psyllids. Typing results for Las-infected citrus field samples indicated that mixed populations of Las bacteria present in Floridian isolates, but only the Type D population was correlated with the blotchy mottle symptom. Extended cloning and sequencing of the Type D region revealed a third prophage/phage in the Las genome, which may derive from the recombination of FP1 and FP2. Dramatic variations in these prophage regions were also found among the global Las isolates. These results are the first to demonstrate the prophage/phage-mediated dynamics of Las populations in plant and insect hosts, and their correlation with insect transmission and disease development. PMID:24349235
Zhou, Lijuan; Powell, Charles A; Li, Wenbin; Irey, Mike; Duan, Yongping
Prophages are highly dynamic components in the bacterial genome and play an important role in intraspecies variations. There are at least two prophages in the chromosomes of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) Floridian isolates. Las is both unculturable and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB), a worldwide destructive disease of citrus. In this study, seven new prophage variants resulting from two hyper-variable regions were identified by screening clone libraries of infected citrus, periwinkle and psyllids. Among them, Types A and B share highly conserved sequences and localize within the two prophages, FP1 and FP2, respectively. Although Types B and C were abundant in all three libraries, Type A was much more abundant in the libraries from the Las-infected psyllids than from the Las-infected plants, and Type D was only identified in libraries from the infected host plants but not from the infected psyllids. Sequence analysis of these variants revealed that the variations may result from recombination and rearrangement events. Conventional PCR results using type-specific molecular markers indicated that A, B, C and D are the four most abundant types in Las-infected citrus and periwinkle. However, only three types, A, B and C are abundant in Las-infected psyllids. Typing results for Las-infected citrus field samples indicated that mixed populations of Las bacteria present in Floridian isolates, but only the Type D population was correlated with the blotchy mottle symptom. Extended cloning and sequencing of the Type D region revealed a third prophage/phage in the Las genome, which may derive from the recombination of FP1 and FP2. Dramatic variations in these prophage regions were also found among the global Las isolates. These results are the first to demonstrate the prophage/phage-mediated dynamics of Las populations in plant and insect hosts, and their correlation with insect transmission and disease development.
Zhou, Lijuan; Powell, Charles A.; Li, Wenbin; Irey, Mike; Duan, Yongping
... Infections Warts West Nile Virus What Is "PANS"? Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Yersiniosis Ear Infections Can Chronic Ear Infections Cause ... Immunizations: Chickenpox Vaccine Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) Your Child's Immunizations: Hepatitis A Vaccine ( ...
The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed. PMID:24221735
Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating citrus disease that is associated with bacteria of the genus ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ (Ca. L.). Powerful diagnostic tools and management strategies are desired to control HLB. Host small RNAs (sRNA) play a vital role in regulating host responses to pathogen infection and are used as early diagnostic markers for many human diseases, including cancers. To determine whether citrus sRNAs regulate host responses to HLB, sRNAs were profiled from Citrus sinensis 10 and 14 weeks post grafting with Ca. L. asiaticus (Las)-positive or healthy tissue. Ten new microRNAs (miRNAs), 76 conserved miRNAs, and many small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were discovered. Several miRNAs and siRNAs were highly induced by Las infection, and can be potentially developed into early diagnosis markers of HLB. miR399, which is induced by phosphorus starvation in other plant species, was induced specifically by infection of Las but not Spiroplasma citri that causes citrus stubborn—a disease with symptoms similar to HLB. We found a 35% reduction of phosphorus in Las-positive citrus trees compared to healthy trees. Applying phosphorus oxyanion solutions to HLB-positive sweet orange trees reduced HLB symptom severity and significantly improved fruit production during a 3-year field trial in south-west Florida. Our molecular, physiological, and field data suggest that phosphorus deficiency is linked to HLB disease symptomology.
Zhao, Hongwei; Sun, Ruobai; Jin, Hailing
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating citrus disease that is associated with bacteria of the genus 'Candidatus Liberibacter' (Ca. L.). Powerful diagnostic tools and management strategies are desired to control HLB. Host small RNAs (sRNA) play a vital role in regulating host responses to pathogen infection and are used as early diagnostic markers for many human diseases, including cancers. To determine whether citrus sRNAs regulate host responses to HLB, sRNAs were profiled from Citrus sinensis 10 and 14 weeks post grafting with Ca. L. asiaticus (Las)-positive or healthy tissue. Ten new microRNAs (miRNAs), 76 conserved miRNAs, and many small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were discovered. Several miRNAs and siRNAs were highly induced by Las infection, and can be potentially developed into early diagnosis markers of HLB. miR399, which is induced by phosphorus starvation in other plant species, was induced specifically by infection of Las but not Spiroplasma citri that causes citrus stubborn-a disease with symptoms similar to HLB. We found a 35% reduction of phosphorus in Las-positive citrus trees compared to healthy trees. Applying phosphorus oxyanion solutions to HLB-positive sweet orange trees reduced HLB symptom severity and significantly improved fruit production during a 3-year field trial in south-west Florida. Our molecular, physiological, and field data suggest that phosphorus deficiency is linked to HLB disease symptomology. PMID:23292880
Zhao, Hongwei; Sun, Ruobai; Albrecht, Ute; Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Wang, Airong; Coffey, Michael D; Girke, Thomas; Wang, Zonghua; Close, Timothy J; Roose, Mikeal; Yokomi, Raymond K; Folimonova, Svetlana; Vidalakis, Georgios; Rouse, Robert; Bowman, Kim D; Jin, Hailing
Huanglongbing (HLB) or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433
Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L; Phu, My L; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E; Bowman, Kim D; Dandekar, Abhaya M
Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production.
Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.
Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. The rapid identification of tolerant varieties is considered a critical step towards controlling HLB. GC-MS metabolite profiles were used to differentiate HLB-tolerant citrus varieties 'Poncirus trifoliata' (TR) and 'Carrizo citrange' (CAR) from HLB-sensitive varieties 'Madam Vinous sweet orange' (MV) and 'Duncan' grapefruit (DG). PCR analyses revealed that MV was the most sensitive variety followed by DG and the tolerant varieties CAR and TR. Metabolomic multivariate analysis allowed classification of the cultivars in apparent agreement with PCR results. Higher levels of the amino acids l-proline, l-serine, and l-aspartic acid, as well as the organic acids butanedioic and tetradecanoic acid, and accumulation of galactose in healthy plants were characteristic of the most sensitive variety MV when compared to all other varieties. Only galactose was significantly higher in DG when compared to the tolerant varieties TR and CAR. The tolerant varieties showed higher levels of l-glycine and mannose when compared to sensitive varieties MV and DG. Profiling of the sensitive varieties MV and DG over a 20-week period after inoculation of those with the HLB-containing material revealed strong responses of metabolites to HLB infection that differed from the response of the tolerant varieties. Significant changes of l-threonine level in the leaves from old mature flushes and l-serine, l-threonine, scyllo-inositol, hexadecanoic acid, and mannose in the leaves from young developing flushes were observed in MV. Significant changes in myo-inositol in old flushes and l-proline, indole, and xylose in new flushes were observed in DG. PMID:22326359
Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Futch, David B; Shilts, Turksen; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José I
Aphid species were counted on citrus trees in orchards in Valencia, Spain, in the spring and autumn of 1997, 1998 and 1999. Moericke yellow water traps, the 'sticky shoot' method and counts of established colonies were used in extensive surveys in which 29,502 aphids were recorded and identified. Aphis spiraecola and Aphis gossypii were the most abundant aphid species. The numbers of aphid species landing on mature trees of grapefruit, sweet orange, lemon and clementine and satsuma mandarins, were estimated by counting the numbers of young shoots/tree and aphids trapped on sticky shoots. The proportions of the different aphid species captured were: A. gossypii (53%), A. spiraecola (32%), Toxoptera aurantii (11%), Myzus persicae (1%), Aphis craccivora (1%) and other species (2%). Clementine was the most visited species with 266,700 aphids landing/tree in spring 2000, followed by lemon (147,000), sweet orange (129,150), grapefruit (103,200), and satsuma (92,400). The numbers and relative percentages of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were assessed by nested RT-PCR in single closed tubes and analysed by extraction of RNA-CTV targets from trapped aphids. An average of 37,190 CTV-carrying aphids visited each tree in spring 2000 (29 per shoot). The percentage detection of viral RNA in the aphid species that landed were 27% for A. gossypii, 23% for A. spiraecola and 19% for T. aurantii. This high incidence of aphids carrying CTV is consistent with the high prevalence and rapid spread of CTV in sweet orange, clementine, and satsuma mandarins in recent years in the region. The infection rate was proportional to the number of aphids landing/tree. PMID:15036840
Marroquín, Carlos; Olmos, Antonio; Teresa Gorris, María; Bertolini, Edson; Carmen Martínez, M; Carbonell, Emilio A; Hermoso de Mendoza, Alfonso; Cambra, Mariano
The essential oil composition of new Citrus hybrids obtained from the Citrus genetic improvement programs at the CRA-Centro di Ricerche per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee of Acireale, Italy (CRA-ACM), were used to evaluate the fruit quality and to identify new valuable flavor components. The common objective of genetic improvement programs is to generate Citrus cultivars with a higher resistance
Simona Fabroni; Giuseppe Ruberto; Paolo Rapisarda
Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms\\u000a of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation,\\u000a and death of the twigs or
J. C. V. Rodrigues; E. W. Kitajima; C. C. Childers; C. M. Chagas
SUMMARY Recovery of highly purified citrus cachexia viroid (CCaV) was accomplished by serial elution following CF-11 cellulose chromatography of a 2 i-LiCl-soluble nucleic acid preparation. The alternative herbaceous host, cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Suyo), yielded greater quantities of the viroid than the highest yielding citrus host, citron (Citrus medica cv. Etrog). A randomly primed cDNA probe to CCaV purified from
J. S. Semancik; C. N. Roistacher; R. Rivera-Bustamante; N. Duran-Vila
Many of the world's most important citrus cultivars ("Washington Navel", satsumas, clementines) have arisen through somatic mutation. This phenomenon occurs fairly often in the various species and varieties of the genus.The presence of copia-like retrotransposons has been investigated in fruit trees, especially citrus, by using a PCR assay designed to detect copia-like reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences. Amplification products from a genotype of each the following species Citrus sinensis, Citrus grandis, Citrus clementina, Prunus armeniaca and Prunus amygdalus, were cloned and some of them sequenced. Southern-blot hybridization using RT clones as probes showed that multiple copies are integrated throughout the citrus genome, while only 1-3 copies are detected in the P. armeniaca genome, which is in accordance with the Citrus and Prunus genome sizes. Sequence analysis of RT clones allowed a search for homologous sequences within three gene banks. The most similar ones correspond to RT domains of copia-like retrotransposons from unrelated plant species. Cluster analysis of these sequences has shown a great heterogeneity among RT domains cloned from the same genotype. This finding supports the hypothesis that horizontal transmission of retrotransposons has occurred in the past. The species presenting a RT sequence most similar to citrus RT clones is Gnetum montanum, a gymnosperm whose distribution area coincides with two of the main centers of origin of Citrus spp. A new C-methylated restriction DNA fragment containing a RT sequence is present in navel sweet oranges, but not in Valencia oranges from which the former originated suggesting, that retrotransposon activity might be, at least in part, involved in the genetic variability among sweet orange cultivars. Given that retrotransposons are quite abundant throughout the citrus genome, their activity should be investigated thoroughly before commercializing any transgenic citrus plant where the transgene(s) is part of a viral genome in order to avoid its possible recombination with an active retroelement. Focusing on other strategies to control virus diseases is recommended in citrus. PMID:22665184
Asíns, M J; Monforte, A J; Mestre, P F; Carbonell, E A
Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:22799453
Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan
The brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), is considered the primary vector of citrus tristeza virus, a severe pathogen which causes losses to citrus industries worldwide. The alate (winged) form of this aphid can readily fly long distances with the wind, thus spreading citrus tristeza virus in citrus growing regions. To better understand the biology of the brown citrus aphid
W. B. Hunter; P. M. Dang; M. G. Bausher; J. X. Chaparro; W. McKendree; R. G. Shatters; C. L. McKenzie; X. H. Sinisterra
Fungicides for use against the bacterial leaf blight of the rice plant are still in the experimental stage of development, and it is important that the effectiveness of these chemicals be tested under as near real conditions as possible. From this standpo...
T. Mizukami M. Seki
?-Ionone, a stimulatory compound in the microbiological production of ?-carotene by mated cultures of Blakeslea trispora, could be replaced with low-cost agricultural by-products (citrus oils, citrus pulp, or citrus molasses) with as good or better carotene yields. Peak yields (81 to 129 mg of carotene per g of dry solids) were achieved in 5 days. The various citrus products tested did not change the pigments produced; all trans-?-carotene remained the pre-dominant pigment. The acid-hydrolyzed soybean meal and corn used in previous production media could be replaced with unhydrolyzed cottonseed embryo meal and corn in a medium that also contained a natural lipid, deodorized kerosene, nonionic detergent, and a precursor.
Ciegler, Alex; Nelson, George E. N.; Hall, Harlow H.
A method based on the hybridisation of tissue imprints was developed for routine indexing of citrus viroids. For maximum sensitivity and reliability, the inoculation of Citrus medica (Etrog citron) as a viroid amplification host is required. Hybridisation against Digoxigenin-labelled RNA- or DNA-probes followed by detection of viroid-probe hybrids using anti-DIG-alkaline phosphate conjugate and the chemiluminescence substrate CSPD was suitable for
A. Palacio-Bielsa; X. Foissac; N. Duran-Vila
Populations of apomictic seedlings of clones ofCitrus species,Citrus hybrids, andPoncirus in the sub-family Aurantioideae were examined for spontaneous tetraploids as a source of materials for use in breeding experiments.\\u000a Diagnostic features found useful in identifying nucellar tetraploids were leaf shape, petiole blade shape, leaf blade thickness,\\u000a leaf color, comparative size differences in leaf venation, oil glands, and stomata, stem thickness,
H. C. Barrett; D. J. Hutchison
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food for more than 50% of the world's population, including regions of high population density and rapid growth. Rice is produced under both upland and lowland ecosystems with about 76% of the global rice produced from irrigated lowland rice systems. The objective of this article is to discuss growth and formation of yield
N. K. Fageria
Two economically important species of Citrus fruits viz., orange, Citrus reliculata and lemon, C. aurantifolia were selected for studying the changes in the population of plant parasitic nematodes around their roots. The nematode population of Hoplolaimus indicus, Helicotylenchus indicus, Xiphinema americanum, Pratylenchus coffeae, Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Hemicriconemoides mangiferae was observed at 10?cm (upper layer) followed by 20?cm (middle) and 40?cm
Mansoor A Siddiqui
This study is concerned with an agricultural residue, rice straw, and its potential as a feedstock for ethanol production. Disposal of the rice straw is required to control the fungal infection called stem rot. The objective of this research was aimed at ...
S. A. Wald C. R. Wilke H. W. Blanch
Site Plan & Site Section of Citrus Landscape (Showing Relationship of Groves & Irrigation System to Grove Canal) - Arlington Heights Citrus Landscape, Southwestern portion of city of Riverside, Riverside, Riverside County, CA
Experiments were conducted on chick broilers and hens to determine the metabolizable energy of citrus sludge. A determination of metabolizable energy values showed that the values decreased as the level of citrus sludge in the diet increased. A series of ...
B. L. Damron D. M. Janky R. H. Harms M. F. Hall
Citrus gummosis, caused byPhytophthora spp., is an important citrus disease in Brazil. Almost all citrus rootstock varieties are susceptible to it to some degree,\\u000a whereas resistance is present inPoncirus trifoliata, a closely related species. The objective of this study was to detect QTLs linked to citrusPhytophthora gummosis resistance. Eighty individuals of the F1 progeny, obtained by controlled crosses between Sunki
Amauri Siviero; Mariângela Cristofani; Edson L. Furtado; Antonio A. F. Garcia; Alexandre S. G. Coelho; Marcos A. Machado
ABSTRACT The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants. PMID:24502208
Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano
Aspects of the incidence and spread of the citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB) in relation to the vector Diaphorina citri population fluctuation were studied from January 1999 to December 2001 seasons in a 0.8 ha citrus orchard at Jemukan (1° 33'N, 110° 41'E), Southwest Sarawak in Malaysia. In relation to insecticide and horticultural mineral oils (HMOs) use, levels of HLB infection rose quite rapidly over the next 3 years in the unsprayed control and less rapidly in the other treatments such as imidacloprid, nC24HMO, and triazophos/cypermethrin/chlorpyrifos. Levels of HLB as determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were 42.2%, 9.4%, 11.4%, and 22.7%, respectively. The effects of nC(24)HMO and conventional pesticides on the citrus psyllid population and parasitoids in citrus orchard were also determined. PMID:22629178
Leong, Stephen Chan Teck; Abang, Fatimah; Beattie, Andrew; Kueh, Roland Jui Heng; Wong, Sing King
Aspects of the incidence and spread of the citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB) in relation to the vector Diaphorina citri population fluctuation were studied from January 1999 to December 2001 seasons in a 0.8?ha citrus orchard at Jemukan (1° 33?N, 110° 41?E), Southwest Sarawak in Malaysia. In relation to insecticide and horticultural mineral oils (HMOs) use, levels of HLB infection rose quite rapidly over the next 3 years in the unsprayed control and less rapidly in the other treatments such as imidacloprid, nC24HMO, and triazophos/cypermethrin/chlorpyrifos. Levels of HLB as determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were 42.2%, 9.4%, 11.4%, and 22.7%, respectively. The effects of nC24HMO and conventional pesticides on the citrus psyllid population and parasitoids in citrus orchard were also determined.
Leong, Stephen Chan Teck; Abang, Fatimah; Beattie, Andrew; Kueh, Roland Jui Heng; Wong, Sing King
Boron (B) deficiency is widespread in Brazilian citrus orchards and has been considered an important soil constraint to citrus yield. The aim of this work was to study B uptake and its mobility in young citrus trees, under different B statuses, in two rootstocks. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with ‘Valencia’ sweet orange trees budded on Rangpur
Rodrigo Marcelli Boaretto; José Antonio Quaggio; Francisco de Assis Alves Mourão Filho; Maria Fernanda Giné; Antonio Enedi Boaretto
... 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41...Vegetables Â§ 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi ...be imported into the United States from Peru under the following conditions:...
... 2009-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41...Vegetables Â§ 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi ...be imported into the United States from Peru under the following conditions:...
The report contains a study of an outbreak of bacterial leaf blight of rice plants. An investigation of the primary source was made. Knowledge of the distribution of infective agent on rice plants, when the primary infection occurs and before the appearan...
T. Mizukami M. Seki
Diurnal change in the temperature below or above 12.5 °C hastens the degreening of citrus peel and elicits the phytohormone ethylene production in citrus fruit. Ethylene triggers the degradation of chlorophyll and synthesis of carotenoids in citrus peel. To investigate if ethylene is required for the degreening of citrus peel elicited by low temperatures, we studied the chilling-regulated gene expression of
Wai Shing Wong; Wen Ning; Pei Lin Xu; Shain Dow Kung; Shang Fa Yang; Ning Li
Most commercial citrus fruit species and cultivars are inter- and intra-specific hybrids. Conventional hybridization in citrus is largely handicapped by apomixis and long juvenility. As an alternative, somatic hybridization via protoplast fusion has been employed to create novel citrus germplasm. Witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL) emerged in Oman during the 1970s, which has been spreading to the neighboring countries.
Iqrar A. Khan; Jude W. Grosser
Wolbachia is a symbiont intensively studied due to its ability to interfere with their host's reproduction, and it has been recently proposed as an alternative tool to control insect pests or vectors of diseases. The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri is an important pest of citrus since it vectors the bacterium that causes the "Huanglongbing" disease in citrus. The frequency and diversity of Wolbachia associated with D. citri is unknown, limiting the utilization of Wolbachia as an alternative strategy for insect management. Thus, we aimed to determine the natural rate of infection, to characterize the Wolbachia strains associated with this psyllid by "multilocus sequencing typing" (MLST) and wsp analysis, and to verify the association of the symbiont to particular genotypes of the host. Analysis indicated Wolbachia infects 100 % of all specimens tested from all 15 sampled populations. MLST revealed the occurrence of five new sequence types (STs) of Wolbachia, while analysis based on the wsp sequences indicated only four different types of Wolbachia. ST-173 was predominant, while the remaining STs were population specific. Analysis of the host-symbiont relationship did not reveal any particular association of Wolbachia and haplotypes or a decrease in nucleotide diversity of D. citri in populations in which more than one ST was recorded. The consequences of the diversity of STs reported are still unknown, but the fact that Wolbachia infection is fixed and that there is one ST with a broad distribution highlights the use of this symbiont as an alternative strategy to control D. citri. PMID:23269454
Guidolin, A S; Cônsoli, F L
Numerous compounds, many of them osmolytes, were quantified in natural juices and in frozen concentrate juices from fruits of plants of the Citrus genus. L-proline, N-methyl-L-proline (hygric acid), N,N-dimethyl-L-proline (stachydrine), 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine (betonicine), 4-hydroxy-L-proline, ?-aminobutyric acid (Gaba), 3-carboxypropyltrimethylammonium (GabaBet), N-methylnicotinic acid (trigonelline), and choline in the fruit juices of yellow orange, blood orange, lemon, mandarin, bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia), and grapefruit were analyzed by sensitive HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry procedure. It was found that the most represented osmolytes in the juices, that is, L-proline, stachydrine, and betonicine, can be quantified with minimal sample preparation and short analysis time (about 1 min) also by flow injection analysis (FIA) ESI-MS/MS with the same results as obtained by HPLC ESI-MS/MS. In all of the juices, discrete amounts of choline and trigonelline were present. Conversely, GabaBet was always below detection limits. Notably, N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine, which were discovered for the first time in the juice of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit), are also present in all of the citrus juices examined. PMID:21838291
Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Bata-Csere, Andrea; Cautela, Domenico; Castaldo, Domenico
Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) of citrus and Key lime anthracnose (KLA) are caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. Both fungal isolates can infect flower petals, induce young fruit abscission and result in severe yield loss on many citrus cultivars. Previous studies revealed that infection of citrus flowers by C. acutatum caused higher levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which could be synthesized from the host plant and/or the fungal pathogen. The ability for IAA production by C. acutatum isolates was investigated. Similar to many microorganisms, the production of indole compounds in the medium by C. acutatum was dependent solely on the presence of tryptophan (Trp). In total, 14 PFD and KLA fungal isolates were tested, and revealed that they all were capable of utilizing Trp as a precursor to synthesize IAA and other indole derivatives. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis and chromogenic stains after a fluorescence thin-layer chromatography separation unambiguously identified IAA, tryptophol (TOL), indole-acetaldehyde, indole-acetamide (IAM), indole-pyruvic acid, and indole-lactic acid (ILA) from cultures supplemented with Trp. The data suggest that C. acutatum may synthesize IAA using various pathways. Interestingly, increasing Trp concentrations drastically increased the levels of TOL and ILA, but not IAA and IAM. The ability of C. acutatum to produce IAA and related indole compounds may in part contribute to the increased IAA levels in citrus flowers after infection. PMID:13129603
Chung, Kuang Ren; Shilts, Turksen; Ertürk, Umran; Timmer, L W; Ueng, Peter P
Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) is an economically important plant pathogen, which infects a broad range of hosts. In order to investigate complex interactions among viroid, host-growing conditions, and plant secondary metabolism, we setup an in vitro system for the cultivation of CEVd-infected and viroid-free Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) DC. shoots. Both basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and MS medium supplemented
Silvija ?erni; Mirna ?urkovi?-Perica; Gordana Rusak; Dijana Škori?
Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) is an economically important plant pathogen, which infects a broad range of hosts. In order to investigate complex interactions among viroid, host-growing conditions, and plant secondary metabolism, we setup an in vitro system for the cultivation of CEVd-infected and viroid-free Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) DC. shoots. Both basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and MS medium supplemented
Silvija ?erni; Mirna ?urkovi?-Perica; Gordana Rusak; Dijana Škori?
The antioxidant properties of freeze-dried citrus fruit peels (orange, lemon, grapefruit) and methanolic extracts from the peel were studied. Freeze-dried orange peel showed the highest, lemon peel somewhat less and grapefruit peel the lowest but still remarkable antioxidant activity. This could be significantly improved by preparing methanolic extracts of the peels. Comparative examinations and autoxidation studies with the flavanon glycosides hesperidin and naringin as well as with their aglycones hesperetin and naringenin showed that the former are mainly responsible for the antioxidative activity of the citrus peel and extracts. In order to compare their antioxidative activity with that of the commercially available natural antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and ascorbylpalmitate, the freeze-dried citrus peels and their methanolic extracts should be used in higher concentrations, in consideration of their peculiar properties and complex natural composition. Furthermore, aspects of the correlation between antioxidant activity and molecular structure of the flavanones were discussed. PMID:3727631
Rice is ordinarily harvested at moisture contents above safe storage levels, so additional drying is usually necessary. The purpose of the research discussed in this report was to determine the factors which affect rice drying rates. The basic approach us...
J. F. Robayo H. B. Pfost
Oranges and other citrus plants have been grown in Florida for well over a century, and there has always been a vital relationship between the universities in the state and the citrus industry. The University of Florida Citrus Research and Education Center (CREC) helps foster these valuable relationships, and they have a facility in Lake Alfred, Florida that includes 600 acres of groves, greenhouses, a fresh fruit packinghouse, and more than 40 laboratories. On their website, visitors can learn about their research into hurricane recovery, advanced citrus production, and plant cell physiology in the "Research" section. Over in the "Extension" area, visitors can learn about the diseases the affect citrus crops, read their free "Citrus Pest Management Guide", and also learn about various pesticides. The site also includes links for the media, along with their in-house "Citrus Leaves" newsletter.
Background Citrus sudden death (CSD), a disease that rapidly kills orange trees, is an emerging threat to the Brazilian citrus industry. Although the causal agent of CSD has not been definitively determined, based on the disease's distribution and symptomatology it is suspected that the agent may be a new strain of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). CTV genetic variation was therefore assessed in two Brazilian orange trees displaying CSD symptoms and a third with more conventional CTV symptoms. Results A total of 286 RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp) and 284 heat shock protein 70 homolog (HSP70h) gene fragments were determined for CTV variants infecting the three trees. It was discovered that, despite differences in symptomatology, the trees were all apparently coinfected with similar populations of divergent CTV variants. While mixed CTV infections are common, the genetic distance between the most divergent population members observed (24.1% for RdRp and 11.0% for HSP70h) was far greater than that in previously described mixed infections. Recombinants of five distinct RdRp lineages and three distinct HSP70h lineages were easily detectable but respectively accounted for only 5.9 and 11.9% of the RdRp and HSP70h gene fragments analysed and there was no evidence of an association between particular recombinant mosaics and CSD. Also, comparisons of CTV population structures indicated that the two most similar CTV populations were those of one of the trees with CSD and the tree without CSD. Conclusion We suggest that if CTV is the causal agent of CSD, it is most likely a subtle feature of population structures within mixed infections and not merely the presence (or absence) of a single CTV variant within these populations that triggers the disease.
Gomes, Clarissa PC; Nagata, Tatsuya; de Jesus, Waldir C; Neto, Carlos R Borges; Pappas, Georgios J; Martin, Darren P
Commercial distilled oils produced from Citrus aurantifolia Swingle and Citrus latifolia Tanaka were analyzed by GC\\/MS. The oils shows remarkable differences, large engough to explain those found in odor and flavor. In both oils, limonene (40.4% and 55.6%), ?-terpinene (9.5% and 11.8%), terpinolene (8.7% and 5.2%) and ?-terpineol (12.7% and 6.6%) were the major constituents, respectively
Jorge A. Pino; Arístides Rosado
The essential oil profiles of peel and leaf oils of a new Citrus hybrid and its parents, the triploid seedless lime and the diploid Kagzi lime, were established after resolving the oil using capillary GC. The chemical composition of hybrid oil was discussed in comparison with that of its parents. The analytical properties of hybrid peel oil were found to
Y. Selvaraj; M. B. N. V. Prasad; G. Venkateshwarlu
Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to study the effects of compound fertilizers on their yields and quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg contents in leaves but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N in soil compared with the urea treatment. Application of compound fertilizers could improve the quality of citrus and tea, increase their yields and enhance their economical profits significantly. Compared with the control, application of compound fertilizers increased citrus yields by 6.31, 12.94 and 17.69 t/ha, and those of tea by 0.51, 0.86 and 1.30 t/ha, respectively. Correspondingly, profits were increased by 21.4% to 61.1% for citrus and by 10.0% to 15.7% for tea. Optimal rates of compound fertilizers were recommended for both crops.
Wang, Rui; Shi, Xue-gen; Wei, You-zhang; Yang, Xiao-e; Uoti, Juhani
Volatiles of a wild mandarin, Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro), were characterized by GC-MS, and their aroma active compounds were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The volatile profile of Mangshanyegan was compared with those of other four citrus species, Kaopan pummelo (Citrus grandis), Eureka lemon (Citrus limon), Huangyanbendizao tangerine (Citrus reticulata), and Seike navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in Mangshanyegan, in particular d-limonene and ?-myrcene, which accounted for 85.75 and 10.89% of total volatiles, respectively. Among the 12 compounds with flavor dilution factors (FD) = 27, 8 oxygenated compounds, including (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides, were present only in Mangshanyegan. The combined results of GC-O, quantitative analysis, odor activity values (OAVs), and omission tests revealed that ?-myrcene and (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides were the characteristic aroma compounds of Mangshanyegan, contributing to the balsamic and floral notes of its aroma. PMID:22352344
Liu, Cuihua; Cheng, Yunjiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Juan
Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice-virus-insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China. PMID:24058362
Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin
Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector’s preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.
Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin
The asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) is a detrimental pest to citrus (Citrus spp.) crops when it serves as a vector of the pathogen that causes greening (huanglongbing). Transmission of this disease causes mottling, chloro...
B. Fritz C. Hoffmann D. Martin R. Atwood T. Hurner
Protoplast fusion in higher plants is a useful technique for production of novel plants which cannot be obtained by conventional breeding methods. For more than a decade, successful somatic hybridization was limited to herbaceous plants. In Citrus, the use of nucellar callus obtained from ovules, possessing high regeneration ability, made it possible to regenerate whole plants from protoplasts. Then, somatic
T. Ohgawara; S. Kobayashi
Increasing realization of the ill effects of long sustained, exclusive use of chemical fertilizers, and consistent growing demand from the consumers for fruit quality, coupled with unsustainable productivity of citrus, have fostered experimentation with some alternative cultural practices. Organic culture is claimed to be the most benign alternative. Use of organic materials such as farmyard manure, cakes of plant origin,
A. K. Srivastava; Shyam Singh; R. A. Marathe
Leaf and root samples from 120 citrus trees, representing four species from each of six different locations in Egypt, were assayed for mineral elements with an emission spectrograph. The areas represented newly reclaimed lands as well as established orchards in the Nile River Delta. There were symptoms of Zn, Mn, and Fe deficiencies at some, but not all, of the
A. Wallace; M. Naguib; E. M. Romney; G. V. Alexander
The use of ozone for postharvest sanitation and decay control of fruits, vegetables and their products during handling, processing and storage has been investigated for commercial applications. Due to their significant contribution to world trade and human nutrition, citrus fruits are thought to be important commodities. Decay can be observed in these products because of microbial activity and ethylene accumulation
This activity from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series is a board game in which kids learn how germs spread and infections take hold. The online activity begins with an overview of the many ways germs can enter your body and the body's first and second lines of defense. Kids then go to a page of directions for playing the online game, where they are also asked to select a microbe playing piece. As they move through the playing board, kids gain insight into how the body fights infection.
This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from
John C. de Leon
Citrus being a number one fruit of the world due to its high nutritional value, huge production of fruits and fruit products, the citrus industry may be considered a major fruit industry. Though citrus orchard area in India is comparable to USA, the produce is far less, while its export is nil. Biotechnology has played an outstanding role in boosting the citrus industry, e.g., in Spain, which is now the biggest exporter of citrus fruit with the application of micrografting. Amongst the fruit trees, perhaps the maximum tissue culture research has been done in citrus during the past four decades, however, the results of practical value are meagre. The shortfalls in citrus tissue culture research and some advancements made in this direction along with bright prospects are highlighted, restricting the review to vegetative explants only. Whilst utilization of nucellar embryogenesis is limited to rootstocks, the other aspects, like, regeneration and proliferation of shoot meristems measuring 200 microm in length--a global breakthrough--of two commercially important scion species, Citrus aurantifolia and C. sinensis and an important rootstock, C. limonia, improvement of micrografting technique, cloning of the same two scion species as well as some Indian rootstock species, employing nodal stem segments of mature trees, of immense practical value have been elaborated. A rare phenomenon of shift in the morphogenetic pattern of differentiation from shoot bud differentiation to embryoid formation occurred during the long-term culture of stem callus of C. grandis. Stem callus-regenerated plants of C. aurantifolia, C. sinensis and C. grandis showed variation in their ploidy levels and a somaclonal variant of C. sinensis, which produced seedless fruits was isolated. Tailoring of rooting in microshoots to a tap root-like system by changing the inorganic salt composition of the rooting medium, resulting in 100% transplant success, and germplasm preservation through normal growth culture of shoots of C grandis without loss of regeneration capacity during 31 years, observed so far, are some other significant results. Plants of C. aurantifolia and C. sinensis raised from shoot meristem and micrografting were grown in a nethouse and those from nodal stem segments in the field along with the in vitro-raised plants of rootstocks, namely, C. jambhiri, C. karna and C. limonia. All the plants showed normal healthy growth. Significantly enough, the meristem regenerated plants of C. aurantifolia attained the reproductive phase just in 1 year of transplantation to soil similar to those raised from nodal stem segments of mature trees, which also produced normal fruits in the subsequent year while growing under field conditions. Thus, a significant fundamental concept of a maturity factor, carried over through as small a shoot meristem as 200 microm in length to cloned plants has been demonstrated. The concept is of far-reaching significance in citrus industry besides production of pathogen-free orchards. PMID:11906099
Chaturvedi, H C; Singh, S K; Sharma, A K; Agnihotri, S
Polymethoxyflavones (PMF’s) are a sub class of flavonoids, present in citrus species. Due to their potential use as a chemopreventive agent based on in vitro studies, a rapid reproducible method for the purification of PMF’s is critical. In the present study, a rapid separation method of PMF’s from Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) and Marrs sweet orange (Citrus
Ram M. Uckoo; Guddadarangavvanahally K. Jayaprakasha; Bhimanagouda S. Patil
This paper summarized the research advance on the physiological foundation of citrus fruit's major quality factors such as color formation and organic acid and sugar accumulation, and analyzed the effects of main ecological factors such as temperature, sunshine, water, soil, terrain and landforms on them. The existing problems and the research prospects of citrus ecology were expounded, and a useful proposal on the quality sub-distribution of citrus in China was put forward. PMID:15574012
Bao, Jiangfeng; Xia, Renxue; Peng, Shu'ang
The spatial distribution of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), was studied in citrus groves in northeastern Spain. Constant precision sampling plans were designed for all developmental stages of citrus mealybug under the fruit calyx, for late stages on fruit, and for females on trunks and main branches; more than 66, 286, and 101 data sets, respectively, were collected from nine commercial fields during 1992-1998. Dispersion parameters were determined using Taylor's power law, giving aggregated spatial patterns for citrus mealybug populations in three locations of the tree sampled. A significant relationship between the number of insects per organ and the percentage of occupied organs was established using either Wilson and Room's binomial model or Kono and Sugino's empirical formula. Constant precision (E = 0.25) sampling plans (i.e., enumerative plans) for estimating mean densities were developed using Green's equation and the two binomial models. For making management decisions, enumerative counts may be less labor-intensive than binomial sampling. Therefore, we recommend enumerative sampling plans for the use in an integrated pest management program in citrus. Required sample sizes for the range of population densities near current management thresholds, in the three plant locations calyx, fruit, and trunk were 50, 110-330, and 30, respectively. Binomial sampling, especially the empirical model, required a higher sample size to achieve equivalent levels of precision. PMID:16813342
Martínez-Ferrer, María Teresa; Ripollés, José Luís; Garcia-Marí, Ferran
Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA
ABSTRACT Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a tentative species in the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae, is a novel rice virus transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). Since its discovery in 2001, SRBSDV has spread rapidly throughout eastern and southeastern Asia and caused large rice losses in China and Vietnam. Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) (genus Oryzavirus, family Reoviridae) is a common rice virus vectored by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens). RRSV is also widely distributed in eastern and southeastern Asia but has not previously caused serious problems in China owing to its low incidence. With SRBSDV's spread, however, RRSV has become increasingly common in China, and is frequently found in co-infection with SRBSDV. In this study, we show that SRBSDV and RRSV interact synergistically, the first example of synergism between plant viruses in the family Reoviridae. Rice plants co-infected with both viruses displayed enhanced stunting, earlier symptoms, and higher virus titers compared with singly infected plants. Furthermore, white-backed and brown planthoppers acquired SRBSDV and RRSV, respectively, from co-infected plants at higher rates. We propose that increased RRSV incidence in Chinese fields is partly due to synergism between SRBSDV and RRSV. PMID:24915431
Li, Shu; Wang, Han; Zhou, Guohui
In planta secretion of fungal pathogen proteins, including effectors destined for the plant cell cytoplasm, is critical for disease progression. However, little is known about the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) secretion mechanisms used by these pathogens. To determine if normal ER function is crucial for fungal pathogenicity, Magnaporthe oryzae genes encoding proteins homologous to yeast Lhs1p and Kar2p, members of the heat shock protein 70 family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were cloned and characterized. Like their yeast counterparts, both LHS1 and KAR2 proteins localized in the ER and functioned in an unfolded protein response (UPR) similar to the yeast UPR. Mutants produced by disruption of LHS1 were viable but showed a defect in the translocation of proteins across the ER membrane and reduced activities of extracellular enzymes. The ?lhs1 mutant was severely impaired not only in conidiation, but also in both penetration and biotrophic invasion in susceptible rice (Oryza sativa) plants. This mutant also had defects in the induction of the Pi-ta resistance gene–mediated hypersensitive response and in the accumulation of fluorescently-labeled secreted effector proteins in biotrophic interfacial complexes. Our results suggest that proper processing of secreted proteins, including effectors, by chaperones in the ER is requisite for successful disease development and for determining host-pathogen compatibility via the gene-for-gene interaction.
Yi, Mihwa; Chi, Myoung-Hwan; Khang, Chang Hyun; Park, Sook-Young; Kang, Seogchan; Valent, Barbara; Lee, Yong-Hwan
Background Transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors, formerly known as the AvrBs3/PthA protein family, are DNA-binding effectors broadly found in Xanthomonas spp. that transactivate host genes upon injection via the bacterial type three-secretion system. Biologically relevant targets of TAL effectors, i.e. host genes whose induction is vital to establish a compatible interaction, have been reported for xanthomonads that colonize rice and pepper; however, citrus genes modulated by the TAL effectors PthA“s” and PthC“s” of the citrus canker bacteria Xanthomonas citri (Xc) and Xanthomonas aurantifolii pathotype C (XaC), respectively, are poorly characterized. Of particular interest, XaC causes canker disease in its host lemon (Citrus aurantifolia), but triggers a defense response in sweet orange. Results Based on, 1) the TAL effector-DNA binding code, 2) gene expression data of Xc and XaC-infiltrated sweet orange leaves, and 3) citrus hypocotyls transformed with PthA2, PthA4 or PthC1, we have identified a collection of Citrus sinensis genes potentially targeted by Xc and XaC TAL effectors. Our results suggest that similar with other strains of Xanthomonas TAL effectors, PthA2 and PthA4, and PthC1 to some extent, functionally converge. In particular, towards induction of genes involved in the auxin and gibberellin synthesis and response, cell division, and defense response. We also present evidence indicating that the TAL effectors act as transcriptional repressors and that the best scoring predicted DNA targets of PthA“s” and PthC“s” in citrus promoters predominantly overlap with or localize near to TATA boxes of core promoters, supporting the idea that TAL effectors interact with the host basal transcriptional machinery to recruit the RNA pol II and start transcription. Conclusions The identification of PthA“s” and PthC“s” targets, such as the LOB (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY) and CCNBS genes that we report here, is key for the understanding of the canker symptoms development during host susceptibility, or the defenses of sweet orange against the canker bacteria. We have narrowed down candidate targets to a few, which pointed out the host metabolic pathways explored by the pathogens.
Citrus greening disease is caused by "Candidatus Liberibacter spp.," including "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las)." For detecting this disease, we designed new primers from the Las 16S rDNA and used a very small DNA template for PCR. More Las-infected tissues were detected with our primers than with the common primers. PMID:22728344
Fujikawa, Takashi; Iwanami, Toru
Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is associated with infection by the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Infection with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is incurable; therefore, knowledge regarding 'Ca. L. asiaticus' biology and pathogenesis is essential to develop a treatment. However, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' cannot currently be successfully cultured, limiting its study. To gain insight into the conditions conducive for growth of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in vitro, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inoculum obtained from seed of fruit from infected pomelo trees (Citrus maxima 'Mato Buntan') was added to different media, and cell viability was monitored for up to 2 months using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with ethidium monoazide. Media tested included one-third King's B (K), K with 50% juice from the infected fruit, K with 50% commercially available grapefruit juice, and 100% commercially available grapefruit juice. Results show that juice-containing media dramatically prolong viability compared with K in experiments reproduced during 2 years using different juice sources. Furthermore, biofilm formed at the air-liquid interface of juice cultures contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' cells, though next-generation sequencing indicated that other bacterial genera were predominant. Chemical characterization of the media was conducted to discuss possible factors sustaining 'Ca. L. asiaticus' viability in vitro, which will contribute to future development of a culture medium for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. PMID:23883155
Parker, Jennifer K; Wisotsky, Sarah R; Johnson, Evan G; Hijaz, Faraj M; Killiny, Nabil; Hilf, Mark E; De La Fuente, Leonardo
For selecting potential biological agents to control Dialeurodes citri, a major insect pest in China's citrus orchards, 75 native Aschersonia isolates were selected from infected whiteflies in citrus orchards and were evaluated for virulence to third instar nymphs of D. citri at a concentration of 1 × 10(6)conidia/ml. The mortality rates of D. citri varied from 0% to 72.70%. Among the 75 Aschersonia isolates, three (HB10, HB12 and ZJ9) were the most virulent and pathogenic to D. citri and caused more than 69% mortality. The 50% lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of them were 1.86 × 10(6), 3.40 × 10(6) and 6.81 × 10(6)conidia/ml, respectively. The three isolates also produced conidia abundantly on potato dextrose agar medium (3.95 × 10(6), 6.19 × 10(6) and 7.34 × 10(6)conidia/cm(2), respectively). They were identified to be Aschersonia placenta based on their morphological analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these three highly virulent Aschersonia isolates belong to a strongly supported clade that includes two other A. placenta isolates obtained from Vietnam and Thailand. In summary, these results indicate the possibility of developing the three most virulent A. placenta isolates as microbiological control agents against citrus whitefly. PMID:23160084
Wang, Pingping; Song, Xuhong; Zhang, Hongyu
A phloem-limited bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is a major pathogen of citrus greening (huanglongbing), one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. The rapid identification and culling of infected trees and budwoods in quarantine are the most important control measures. DNA amplification including conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has commonly been used for rapid detection and identification. However, long and laborious procedures for DNA extraction have greatly reduced the applicability of this method. In this study, we found that the Las bacterial cells in the midribs of infected leaves were extracted rapidly and easily by pulverization and centrifugation with mini homogenization tubes. We also found that the Las bacterial cells in the midrib extract were suitable for highly sensitive direct PCR. The performance of direct PCR using this extraction method was not inferior to that of conventional PCR. Thus, the direct PCR method described herein is characterized by its simplicity, sensitivity, and robustness, and is applicable to quarantine testing.
Fujikawa, Takashi; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Iwanami, Toru
Elevated levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) in the surficial aquifer above the drinking water quality standard, i.e. maximum contaminant limit (MCL; 10mgL?1), have been reported in some part of central Florida citrus production regions. Soils in this region are very sandy (sand content >95%), hence are vulnerable to leaching of soluble nutrients and chemicals below the rooting depth of the trees.
A. K. Alva; S. Paramasivam; T. A. Obreza; A. W. Schumann
In this work, variations in endogenous levels of several hormones were measured in citrus under conditions of continuous flooding\\u000a following a time-course design. The use of three genotypes differing in their ability to tolerate waterlogging has allowed\\u000a the discrimination between common and specific hormonal responses. Data suggest an essential involvement of the aerial part\\u000a in the regulation of tolerance to
Vicent Arbona; Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas
Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis-(LINN.) OSBECK locally known as malta orange; mandarin and tangerines (C. reticulata BLANCO var. mandarin and var. tangerine); lemon (C. limon (LINN.)BURM. f.); Grapefruit (C. paradisi MACFAYDEN); Shaddock (C. decumana MURR.) vern. Chokotra; lime (C. auranti\\/olia SWIGLE); sour or bitter orange (C. aurantium LIN1;. sub. sp. amara LINN.) Sweet lime (C. auranti\\/olia SWtNGLE (= C. limetta RlSSO)
Abdul Hamid Khan
Tolerance to drought-stress (DS) of the citrus rootstock Forner–Alcaide no. 5 (FA-5) was tested and compared with that of its parents, Cleopatra mandarin (CM) and Poncirus trifoliata (PT). Nine-month-old seedlings of CM, PT and FA-5 and 15-month-old grafted trees of ‘Valencia’ orange scions on these three rootstocks were cultivated in sand under glasshouse conditions and irrigated with a nutrient solution.
Juan Rodríguez-Gamir; Eduardo Primo-Millo; Juan B. Forner; M. Angeles Forner-Giner
A novel viral disease of rice caused by Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread throughout East and Southeast Asia since the mid-2000s. Outbreaks of this viral disease occur yearly in southern parts of Japan concurrently with overseas migration of the planthopper vector Sogatella furcifera from southern China during the rainy season (from late June to early July). We examined the dynamics (changes in titer and localization) of SRBSDV on rice using reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and determined the relationship between virus titer in plants and virus acquisition by S. furcifera. Under a constant temperature of 27°C, a substantial increase of SRBSDV titer in the leaf sheath together with typical symptoms (stunted growth and twisting of leaf tips) was observed at 20 days after the end of a 7-day exposure of viruliferous S. furcifera. Approximately 40% of S. furcifera acquired SRBSDV through feeding for 5 days on rice plants that were infected following exposure to viruliferous vectors for 10 to 15 days. These results suggest that rice infected by S. furcifera can be a source of SRBSDV before the next generation of S. furcifera emerges. PMID:23301813
Matsukura, Keiichiro; Towata, Tomomi; Sakai, Junichi; Onuki, Masatoshi; Okuda, Mitsuru; Matsumura, Masaya
Florida citrus groves are typically grown in two regions of the state: flatwoods and ridge. The southern flatwoods citrus area has poorly drained fine textured sands with low organic matter in the shallow root zone. Ridge citrus is located in the northern ridge citrus zone and has fine to coarse textured sands with low water-holding capacity. Two commercial citrus groves, selected from each region, were studied from 15 July 2004 to 14 July 2005. The flatwoods citrus (FC) grove had a grass cover and used drainage ditches to remove excess water from the root zone. The ridge citrus (RC) grove had a bare soil surface with weeds periodically eliminated by tillage. Citrus crop evapotranspiration (ETc) rates at the two citrus groves were measured by the eddy correlation method, and components in the energy balance were also examined and compared. The study period had higher than average rainfall, and as a result, the two locations had similar annual ETc rates (1069 and 1044 mm for RC and FC, respectively). The ETc rates were 59% (RC) and 47% (FC) of the rainfall amounts during the study period. The annual reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) rates were 1180 mm for RC and 1419 mm for FC, estimated using the standardized reference evapotranspiration equation. The citrus crop coefficients (Kc, ratio of ETc to ET o) were different between the two locations because of differences in latitude, ground cover, and rainfall amounts. The Kc values ranged from 0.70 between December and March to 1.05 between July and November for RC, and from 0.65 between November and May to 0.85 between June and October for FC. The results are consistent with other Kc values reported from field studies on citrus in both Florida and elsewhere using these and alternate methods.
Jia, X.; Swancar, A.; Jacobs, J. M.; Dukes, M. D.; Morgan, K.
Background and Aims Adventitious embryony from nucellar cells is the mechanism leading to apomixis in Citrus sp. However, singular cases of polyembryony have been reported in non-apomictic genotypes as a consequence of 2x × 4x hybridizations and in vitro culture of isolated nucelli. The origin of the plants arising from the aforementioned processes remains unclear. Methods The genetic structure (ploidy and allelic constitution with microsatellite markers) of plants obtained from polyembryonic seeds arising from 2x × 4x sexual hybridizations and those regenerated from nucellus culture in vitro was systematically analysed in different non-apomictic citrus genotypes. Histological studies were also conducted to try to identify the initiation process underlying polyembryony. Key Results All plants obtained from the same undeveloped seed in 2x × 4x hybridizations resulted from cleavage of the original zygotic embryo. Also, the plants obtained from in vitro nucellus culture were recovered by somatic embryogenesis from cells that shared the same genotype as the zygotic embryos of the same seed. Conclusions It appears that in non-apomictic citrus genotypes, proembryos or embryogenic cells are formed by cleavage of the zygotic embryos and that the development of these adventitious embryos, normally hampered, can take place in vivo or in vitro as a result of two different mechanisms that prevent the dominance of the initial zygotic embryo.
Aleza, Pablo; Juarez, Jose; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis
Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) has emerged as an accurate and widely used technique for expression profiling of selected genes. However, obtaining reliable measurements depends on the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization. The aim of this work was to assess the expression stability of 15 candidate genes to determine which set of reference genes is best suited for transcript normalization in citrus in different tissues and organs and leaves challenged with five pathogens (Alternaria alternata, Phytophthora parasitica, Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus). We tested traditional genes used for transcript normalization in citrus and orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes described as superior reference genes based on transcriptome data. geNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to find the best reference genes to normalize all samples and conditions tested. Additionally, each biotic stress was individually analyzed by geNorm. In general, FBOX (encoding a member of the F-box family) and GAPC2 (GAPDH) was the most stable candidate gene set assessed under the different conditions and subsets tested, while CYP (cyclophilin), TUB (tubulin) and CtP (cathepsin) were the least stably expressed genes found. Validation of the best suitable reference genes for normalizing the expression level of the WRKY70 transcription factor in leaves infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus showed that arbitrary use of reference genes without previous testing could lead to misinterpretation of data. Our results revealed FBOX, SAND (a SAND family protein), GAPC2 and UPL7 (ubiquitin protein ligase 7) to be superior reference genes, and we recommend their use in studies of gene expression in citrus species and relatives. This work constitutes the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for transcript normalization in different citrus organs and under biotic stress.
Mafra, Valeria; Kubo, Karen S.; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Stuart, Rodrigo M.; Boava, Leonardo P.; Rodrigues, Carolina M.; Machado, Marcos A.
Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) has emerged as an accurate and widely used technique for expression profiling of selected genes. However, obtaining reliable measurements depends on the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization. The aim of this work was to assess the expression stability of 15 candidate genes to determine which set of reference genes is best suited for transcript normalization in citrus in different tissues and organs and leaves challenged with five pathogens (Alternaria alternata, Phytophthora parasitica, Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus). We tested traditional genes used for transcript normalization in citrus and orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes described as superior reference genes based on transcriptome data. geNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to find the best reference genes to normalize all samples and conditions tested. Additionally, each biotic stress was individually analyzed by geNorm. In general, FBOX (encoding a member of the F-box family) and GAPC2 (GAPDH) was the most stable candidate gene set assessed under the different conditions and subsets tested, while CYP (cyclophilin), TUB (tubulin) and CtP (cathepsin) were the least stably expressed genes found. Validation of the best suitable reference genes for normalizing the expression level of the WRKY70 transcription factor in leaves infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus showed that arbitrary use of reference genes without previous testing could lead to misinterpretation of data. Our results revealed FBOX, SAND (a SAND family protein), GAPC2 and UPL7 (ubiquitin protein ligase 7) to be superior reference genes, and we recommend their use in studies of gene expression in citrus species and relatives. This work constitutes the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for transcript normalization in different citrus organs and under biotic stress. PMID:22347455
Mafra, Valéria; Kubo, Karen S; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Stuart, Rodrigo M; Boava, Leonardo P; Rodrigues, Carolina M; Machado, Marcos A
Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in post-transcriptional gene regulation and have been shown to control many genes involved in various biological and metabolic processes. There have been extensive studies to discover miRNAs and analyze their functions in model plant species, such as Arabidopsis and rice. Deep sequencing technologies have facilitated identification of species-specific or lowly expressed as well as conserved or highly expressed miRNAs in plants. Results In this research, we used Solexa sequencing to discover new microRNAs in trifoliate orange (Citrus trifoliata) which is an important rootstock of citrus. A total of 13,106,753 reads representing 4,876,395 distinct sequences were obtained from a short RNA library generated from small RNA extracted from C. trifoliata flower and fruit tissues. Based on sequence similarity and hairpin structure prediction, we found that 156,639 reads representing 63 sequences from 42 highly conserved miRNA families, have perfect matches to known miRNAs. We also identified 10 novel miRNA candidates whose precursors were all potentially generated from citrus ESTs. In addition, five miRNA* sequences were also sequenced. These sequences had not been earlier described in other plant species and accumulation of the 10 novel miRNAs were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. Potential target genes were predicted for most conserved and novel miRNAs. Moreover, four target genes including one encoding IRX12 copper ion binding/oxidoreductase and three genes encoding NB-LRR disease resistance protein have been experimentally verified by detection of the miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage in C. trifoliata. Conclusion Deep sequencing of short RNAs from C. trifoliata flowers and fruits identified 10 new potential miRNAs and 42 highly conserved miRNA families, indicating that specific miRNAs exist in C. trifoliata. These results show that regulatory miRNAs exist in agronomically important trifoliate orange and may play an important role in citrus growth, development, and response to disease.
Summary. ?An active replication complex of citrus exocortis viroid (CEV) was isolated as a chromatin-enriched fraction of infected\\u000a tomato leaf with CEV RNA synthesis activity. This activity was solubilised from the chromatin with ammonium sulphate, but\\u000a not with sarkosyl. Nucleoprotein complexes in the soluble fraction which bound to a monoclonal antibody to the carboxy terminal\\u000a domain of the largest subunit of
D. Warrilow; R. H. Symons
Rice is one of the world's most important cereal crops and rice ratooning is one of the potential technologies to increase rice production. Based on land and water management, rice ecosystem is mainly divided into lowland, upland and deep water or floating rice. Rice ratooning is mainly practiced on lowland rice ecosystem. Ratooning provides higher resource use efficiency per unit
A. B. Santos; N. K. Fageria; A. S. Prabhu
Strains of fluorescent and nonfluorescent bacteria that were isolated from rice rhizospheres of Southern India and showed\\u000a antagonism towardsRhizoctonia solani were evaluated for biological control of rice sheath-blight (ShB). Efficient strains of bacteria inhibited mycelial growth\\u000a ofR. solani, affected sclerotial viabilityin vitro and protected IR 20 and TKM 9 rice seedlings from infection byR. solani in greenhouse tests. Pretreatment of
T. Vasantha Devi; R. Malar Vizhi; N. Sakthivel; S. S. Gnanamanickam
The objective of this study was to evaluate the nitrogen (N) nutrition in lemon tree rootstocks “Cravo” (Citrus limonia Osbeck) and “Volkameriano” (Citrus volkameriana Ten. e Pasq.) and mandarin tree rootstocks “Cleopatra” (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) and “Sunki” (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan.), using the chlorophyll concentration in the rootstock leaves, grown in 3.0 dm capacity container in a greenhouse.
Marlon Dutra Degli Esposti; Dalmo Lopes de Siqueira; Paulo Roberto Gomes Pereira; Victor Hugo Alvarez Venegas; Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomão; José Altino Machado Filho
This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] and characterize the antioxidant properties. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics\\u000a were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Free phenolic extracts had
G. Oboh; A. O. Ademosun
The citrus cultivar Carrizo is the single most important rootstock to the US citrus industry and has resistance or tolerance to a number of major citrus diseases, including citrus tristeza virus, foot rot, and Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). A Carrizo genomic sequence database providing approximately 3.5×genome coverage (haploid genome size approximately 367 Mb) was populated through 454 GS FLX shotgun sequencing. Analysis of the repetitive DNA fraction indicated a total interspersed repeat fraction of 36.5%. Assembly and characterization of abundant citrus Ty3/gypsy elements revealed a novel type of element containing open reading frames encoding a viral RNA-silencing suppressor protein (RNA binding protein, rbp) and a plant cytokinin riboside 5?-monophosphate phosphoribohydrolase-related protein (LONELY GUY, log). Similar gypsy elements were identified in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Gene-coding region analysis indicated that 24.4% of the nonrepetitive reads contained genic regions. The depth of genome coverage was sufficient to allow accurate assembly of constituent genes, including a putative phloem-expressed gene. The development of the Carrizo database (http://citrus.pw.usda.gov/) will contribute to characterization of agronomically significant loci and provide a publicly available genomic resource to the citrus research community. PMID:22133378
Belknap, William R; Wang, Yi; Huo, Naxin; Wu, Jiajie; Rockhold, David R; Gu, Yong Q; Stover, Ed
Triploid hybrid Citrus plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis in vitro from endosperm derived calli. A sequence of media formulations was used to induce and support proliferation of primary callus from endosperm, to induce embryogenesis from primary callus, and to allow embryo development leading to viable plantlets. Calli were induced from cellular endosperm of Citrus sinensis (sweet orange), C. Xparadisi
F. G. Gmitter; X. B. Ling; X. X. Deng
A procedure for increased efficiency of production of transgenic citrus plants was developed by extending the exposure of the explants to the selection agent and by grafting in vitro the regenerated shoot apices onto seedling rootstocks. Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) stem segments from in vitro grown seedlings were cocultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA
Leandro Pena; Magdalena Cervera; José Juárez; Carmen Ortega; José A. Pina; Nuria Durán-Vila; Luis Navarro
A rapid and efficient method for the extraction and isolation of naringin and narirutin from citrus molasses is described. Naringin and narirutin are structurally similar glucosides present in citrus molasses. The common problem in purification of plant extracts is the large number of constituents present that are similar in nature. A flash chromatographic technique has been developed for the separation
Girija Raman; G. K. Jayaprakasha; Jennifer Brodbelt; Minhee Cho; Bhimanagouda S. Patil
Micropropagated plantlets lack mycorrhizal symbionts and therefore present some physiological hindrances when transferred from axenic to ex vitro conditions. The purpose of the present study was to research the effects of Glomus mosseae and G. versiforme on growth, photosynthesis, and nutrient uptake of micropropagated citrus plantlets at the acclimatization stage. The two mycorrhizal fungi successfully colonized the roots of citrus
Qiang-Sheng Wu; Ying-Ning Zou; Gui-Yuan Wang
Extract from yuzu fruit peel (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) strongly suppressed the germination of lettuce seeds while that from the peel of other citrus fruits such as navel orange (C. sinensis) and lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) had very little or no effect. The highest inhibitory activity was located in the peel followed by the segment but no significant
Shinsuke Fujihara; Tokurou Shimizu
Experiments were conducted on chick broilers and hens to determine the metabolizable energy of citrus sludge. A determination of metabolizable energy values showed that the values decreased as the level of citrus sludge in the diet increased. A series of protein levels were fed t...
In a 1981 survey of 436 Florida citrus growers, 27 pesticide related poisoning incidents were reported that were to have taken place within one year of the interview date. From these reports it is possible to estimate that there are 376 citrus fieldworker poisonings per year in F...
THE organic acids in citrus juices are chiefly citric and malic, although tartaric and oxalic acids also have been reported in grapefruit1. In our laboratory, succinic acid was found in frozen mature oranges. Wolf2 isolated citric, malic and an unidentified acid from citrus fruit. Sinclair and Eny3 reported that in the peel malic acid predominates while citric and oxalic acids
S. V. Ting; E. J. Deszyck
A conference on weed control in rice held at Los Banos, the Philippines, underscored the importance of the advance of weed science as a major factor in improving rice production. Proceedings of the conference, herein presented, consist of 33 studies in su...
Citrus juices are perceived as healthy foods by consumers due to their richness in antioxidant compounds. Despite the large number of papers about the antioxidant activity of citrus juices, less is known about the relationship with physicochemical properties. This paper shows that the overall antioxidant activity of citrus juices is underestimated with the standard methodologies, being up to 10-times higher with the GAR method (including an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion). 70% of the antioxidant activity was found in the soluble fraction and citrus juices contributed up to 12% of the overall antioxidant intake within the Spanish diet. Physicochemical parameters, such as colour, fluorescence, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural contents, were correlated with nutritional parameters in some samples. The intake of HMF was negligible from commercial citrus juices and was absent in freshly squeezed ones. Finally, a mathematical model is developed to classify juices depending on their nature or storage conditions. PMID:24996350
Alvarez, J; Pastoriza, S; Alonso-Olalla, R; Delgado-Andrade, C; Rufián-Henares, J A
Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) is a serious threat to rice production in Southeast Asia. RGSV is a member of the genus Tenuivirus, and it induces leaf yellowing, stunting, and excess tillering on rice plants. Here we examined gene responses of rice to RGSV infection to gain insight into the gene responses which might be associated with the disease symptoms. The results indicated that (1) many genes related to cell wall synthesis and chlorophyll synthesis were predominantly suppressed by RGSV infection; (2) RGSV infection induced genes associated with tillering process; (3) RGSV activated genes involved in inactivation of gibberellic acid and indole-3-acetic acid; and (4) the genes for strigolactone signaling were suppressed by RGSV. These results suggest that these gene responses to RGSV infection account for the excess tillering specific to RGSV infection as well as other symptoms by RGSV, such as stunting and leaf chlorosis.
Satoh, Kouji; Yoneyama, Kaori; Kondoh, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Takumi; Sasaya, Takahide; Choi, Il-Ryong; Yoneyama, Koichi; Omura, Toshihiro; Kikuchi, Shoshi
Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) is a serious threat to rice production in Southeast Asia. RGSV is a member of the genus Tenuivirus, and it induces leaf yellowing, stunting, and excess tillering on rice plants. Here we examined gene responses of rice to RGSV infection to gain insight into the gene responses which might be associated with the disease symptoms. The results indicated that (1) many genes related to cell wall synthesis and chlorophyll synthesis were predominantly suppressed by RGSV infection; (2) RGSV infection induced genes associated with tillering process; (3) RGSV activated genes involved in inactivation of gibberellic acid and indole-3-acetic acid; and (4) the genes for strigolactone signaling were suppressed by RGSV. These results suggest that these gene responses to RGSV infection account for the excess tillering specific to RGSV infection as well as other symptoms by RGSV, such as stunting and leaf chlorosis. PMID:24151491
Satoh, Kouji; Yoneyama, Kaori; Kondoh, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Takumi; Sasaya, Takahide; Choi, Il-Ryong; Yoneyama, Koichi; Omura, Toshihiro; Kikuchi, Shoshi
Leaf extracts of 27 ‘Yuzu’ and related acid citrus cultivars were analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for isozyme variation of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH). SDH yielded 12 different isozyme phenotypes and six cultivars were discriminated by this enzyme alone. GOT produced 10 different isozyme phenotypes and four cultivars were separated. When both enzyme systems were taken
Mohammad Mizanur Rahman; Nobumasa Nito; Shiro Isshiki
This study was designed to analyze the chemical composition of Citrus obovoides (Geumgamja) and Citrus natsudaidai (Cheonyahagyul) oils and to test their biological activities. These citrus essential oils were obtained by steam distillation of fruits collected from Jeju Island, Korea, and were analyzed using gas chromatograph (GC)-flame ionization detectors (FID) and GC-MS. Limonene and gamma-terpinene were the major components of the two citrus species. To evaluate in vitro anti-acne activity, they were tested against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, which are involved in acne. The Geumgamja and Cheonyahagyul oils exhibited antibacterial activity against both P. acnes and S. epidermidis. Their effects on DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, and nitric oxide radical were also assessed. Cheonyahagyul and Geumgamja exhibited only superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity. To assess their potential usefulness in future cosmetic product applications, the cytotoxic effects of the two oils were determined by colorimetric MTT assays using two animal cell lines: normal human fibroblasts and HaCaT cells. They exhibited low cytotoxicity at 0.1 microl/ml in both cell lines. In addition, they reduced P. acnes-induced secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in THP-1 cells, an indication of anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, based on these results, we suggest that Geumgamja and Cheonyahagyul essential oils are attractive acne-mitigating candidates for topical application. PMID:18838824
Kim, Sang-Suk; Baik, Jong Seok; Oh, Tae-Heon; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated in more than 100 countries and supports nearly half of the world’s population. Developing efficient methods to control rice viruses is thus an urgent necessity because viruses cause serious losses in rice yield. Most rice viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, notably planthoppers and leafhoppers. Viruliferous insect vectors can disperse their viruses over relatively long distances, and eradication of the viruses is very difficult once they become widespread. Exploitation of natural genetic sources of resistance is one of the most effective approaches to protect crops from virus infection; however, only a few naturally occurring rice genes confer resistance against rice viruses. Many investigators are using genetic engineering of rice plants as a potential strategy to control viral diseases. Using viral genes to confer pathogen-derived resistance against crops is a well-established procedure, and the expression of various viral gene products has proved to be effective in preventing or reducing infection by various plant viruses since the 1990s. RNA interference (RNAi), also known as RNA silencing, is one of the most efficient methods to confer resistance against plant viruses on their respective crops. In this article, we review the recent progress, mainly conducted by our research group, in transgenic strategies to confer resistance against tenuiviruses and reoviruses in rice plants. Our findings also illustrate that not all RNAi constructs against viral RNAs are equally effective in preventing virus infection and that it is important to identify the viral “Achilles’ heel” gene to target for RNAi attack when engineering plants.
Sasaya, Takahide; Nakazono-Nagaoka, Eiko; Saika, Hiroaki; Aoki, Hideyuki; Hiraguri, Akihiro; Netsu, Osamu; Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Onuki, Masatoshi; Toki, Seichi; Saito, Koji; Yatou, Osamu
Eleven RAPD markers linked to a gene region conferring resistance to citrus nematodes in an intergen-eric backcross family\\u000a were identified. Two sequence- characterized amplified region markers linked to a citrus tristeza virus resistance gene and\\u000a one selected resistance gene candidate marker were evaluated for their association with citrus nematode resistance. A nematode-susceptible\\u000a citrus hybrid, LB6-2 [Clementine mandarin (Citrus reticulata)?Hamlin orange
P. Ling; L. W. Duncan; Z. Deng; D. Dunn; X. Hu; S. Huang; F. G. Gmitter Jr
The peel essential oils from four selected Tunisian Citrus species: sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco); sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck), cultivated under the same pedoclimatic and cultural conditions have been analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The essential oils content ranged from 1.06% to 4.62% (w\\/w) in
Karim Hosni; Nesrine Zahed; Raouf Chrif; Ines Abid; Wafa Medfei; Monem Kallel; Nadia Ben Brahim; Houcine Sebei
Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH), has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979) and the susceptible (Fengjin) varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.
Zheng, Wenjing; Ma, Li; Zhao, Jiaming; Li, Zhiqiang; Sun, Fuyu; Lu, Xiaochun
Antimicrobial properties and chemical composition of four citrus fruit essential oils to control Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood disease (AFB) were determined. This honeybee larvae disease occurs throughout the\\u000a world and is found in many beekeeping areas of Argentina. Citrus fruit essential oils tested were those from grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus nobilis)
Sandra R. Fuselli; Susana B. García de la Rosa; Martín J. Eguaras; Rosalía Fritz
Background Dietary rice bran consists of many bioactive components with disease fighting properties; including the capacity to modulate the gut microbiota. Studies point to the important roles of the gut microbiota and the mucosal epithelium in the establishment of protection against enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella. The ability of rice bran to reduce the susceptibility of mice to a Salmonella infection has not been previously investigated. Therefore, we hypothesized that the incorporation of rice bran into the diet would inhibit the colonization of Salmonella in mice through the induction of protective mucosal responses. Results Mice were fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% rice bran for one week prior to being orally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We found that mice consuming the 10 and 20% rice bran diets exhibited a reduction in Salmonella fecal shedding for up to nine days post-infection as compared to control diet fed animals (p?0.05). In addition, we observed decreased concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-12 (p?0.05) as well as increased colonization of native Lactobacillus spp. in rice bran fed mice (p?0.05). Furthermore, in vitro experiments revealed the ability of rice bran extracts to reduce Salmonella entry into mouse small intestinal epithelial cells. Conclusions Increasing rice bran consumption represents a novel dietary means for reducing susceptibility to enteric infection with Salmonella and potentially via induction of native Lactobacillus spp.
A field mini-plot experiment was conducted on clay loamy oxisol using 32P trace technique when P fertilizer was applied in three depth soil (15, 35 and 55 cm soil layer) to compare P absorption, distribution and translocation in plant organ and soil profile under soybean and citrus monoculture and intercropping at Taoyuan Experimental Station of Agroecosystem Research of Chinese Academy of Science. Total P uptake (PT) and P accumulation in different parts (PA) of soybean were remarkably decreased under intercropping. When 32P was applied in topsoil (15 cm soil layer), 32P uptake (32PT) by soybean was significantly lower in intercropping than in monoculture. Whereas 32PT uptake by soybean was significantly greater in intercropping than in monoculture when 32P was applied in deep soil layer (35 cm or 55 cm soil layer). However, considerable difference was not observed for 32P translocation and distribution among soybean organs. 32PT uptake by citrus was much lower under intercropping than under monoculture. The P uptake by citrus newly could be transferred rapidly to aboveground and prior to active growing organ. Intercropping did not affect 32P distribution in citrus organ, but when P was applied in deep soil layer, the speed of 32P transferred to aboveground and active organ was slowed down. P mobility was strengthened in soil profile, and P of deep soil layer was promoted to move to topsoil in intercropping. The experimental results showed the optimal depth of applied P should be within 20 cm soil layer in soybean-citrus intercropping system. PMID:15146626
Zhou, Weijun; Wang, Kairong; Li, Hesong
Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C) causes damage in citrus production in the South and Central America. Since closely related types of citrus viruses have recently been described monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are needed for accurate and sensitive diagnosis of CiLV-C. In this study, MAbs to the expressed coat protein of CiLV-C were produced for serological detection of CiLV-C in crude extracts of infected tissues in double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA), dot blot immunosorbent assays (DBIA) and immuonocapture-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) procedures. Monoclonal antibodies were developed in mice to the purified expressed coat protein of CiLV-C. The published standard protocols of DAS-ELISA, DBIA and IC-RT-PCR were followed for the detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C in the crude extracts of CiLV-C infected tissues. Two monoclonal antibodies, designated G10 and C11, were identified from four potential candidates for the specific and sensitive detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C in the crude citrus extracts of CiLV-C infected tissues in DAS-ELISA, whereas G10 was also selected based on performance for use in the DBIA and IC-RT-PCR diagnostic assays. Sensitivity analysis comparing the three methods for detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C determined that IC-RT-PCR was more sensitive than DAS-ELISA and DBIA. The creation of MAbs to CiLV-C allows for the sensitive and accurate detection of the virus from CiLV-C infected citrus leaf tissues. Successful detection of the virus in three diagnostic assays formats provides flexibility to diagnosticians who can use either ELISA or DBIA for screening large numbers of samples, and IC-RT-PCR for rapid, sensitive confirmation testing. PMID:24956418
Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Govindarajulu, A; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H
Rice-duck farming was a traditional farming system in China and reintroduced to China's agricultural practice in recent years. We conducted an experiment to investigate whether rice-duck farming without pesticides can reduce pest damages on rice by comparing “without pesticide” and “with pesticide” in mono rice farming. The results showed that the leaves of rice damaged by pests or rice plants
Jiaen Zhang; Benliang Zhao; Xin Chen; Shiming Luo
Citrus tristeza virus, CTV, is one of the most important citrus pathogens. Although CTV-resistant citrus rootstocks derived from Poncirus trifoliata are common, useful genetic resistance within the genus Citrus for scion improvement is very limited and no CTV-resistant sweet orange cultivar is yet available. Quantitative trait locus\\u000a (QTL) analysis of the accumulation and distribution of CTV was carried out in
Maria J. Asins; Jorge Fernández-Ribacoba; Guillermo P. Bernet; José Gadea; Mariano Cambra; María T. Gorris; Emilio A. Carbonell
The prevalence of sour orange rootstock in the southern and eastern part of the Mediterranean Basin is presently threatened by the spread of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) and its main vector Toxoptera citricida, combined with abiotic constraints such as drought, salinity and alkalinity. The search for alternative CTV-resistant rootstocks that also withstand the other constraints is now considered an urgent priority for a sustainable citrus industry in the area. Complementary progenitors can be found in citrus germplasm to combine the desired traits, particularly between Poncirus and Citrus genera. The production of somatic hybrids allows cumulating all dominant traits irrespective of their heterozygosity level, and would appear to be an effective way to solve the rootstock challenge facing the Mediterranean citrus industry. This paper presents the results obtained during a regional collaborative effort between five countries, to develop new rootstocks by somatic hybridization. New embryogenic callus lines to be used for somatic hybridization have been created. Protoplast fusions have been performed at CIRAD and IVIA laboratories, focusing on intergeneric combinations. Analysis of ploidy level by flow cytometry and molecular markers confirmed the acquisition of new interesting tetraploid somatic hybrids for six combinations. Diploid cybrids with intergeneric (Citrus × Poncirus) nucleus and C. reticulata or C. aurantifolia mitochondria were also identified for four combinations. The agronomical performance of a pre-existing somatic hybrid between Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata was validated in calcareous soils in Morocco. Somatic hybridization is now integrated into the breeding programs of the five Mediterranean countries. PMID:21225429
Dambier, Dominique; Benyahia, Hamid; Pensabene-Bellavia, Giovanni; Aka Kaçar, Yildiz; Froelicher, Yann; Belfalah, Zina; Lhou, Beniken; Handaji, Najat; Printz, Bruno; Morillon, Raphael; Yesiloglu, Turgut; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick
...Collection; Importation of Citrus From Peru AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...regulations for the importation of citrus from Peru. DATES: We will consider all comments...regulations for the importation of citrus from Peru, contact Mr. Tony...
Citriculture in São Paulo State, Brazil, is threatened by Asiatic citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri). The introduction of the Asian citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella [CLM]) has resulted in an increase in the number of disease foci and has changed the spatial pattern of citrus canker symptomatic trees from strong aggregation to intermediate aggregation and random patterns. We evaluated
R. S. C. Christiano; M. Dalla Pria; W. C. Jesus Junior; J. R. P. Parra; L. Amorim; A. Bergamin Filho
Citrus plants are natural hosts of five viroid species and large numbers of sequence variants. In this paper a simple and\\u000a sensitive one step multiplex RT-PCR protocol with an internal control was utilised to simultaneously detect and differentiate\\u000a five citrus viroids: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) and Citrus viroid-IV
Xuefeng Wang; Changyong Zhou; Kezhi Tang; Yan Zhou; Zhongan Li
Rice is a model system for crop genomics studies. Much of the early work on rice genomics focused on analyzing genome-wide genetic variation to further understand rice gene functions in agronomic traits and to generate data and resources for rice research. The advent of next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies and the completion of high-quality reference genome sequences have enabled the development of sequencing-based genotyping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that have significantly advanced rice genetics research. This has led to the emergence of a new era of rice genomics aimed at bridging the knowledge gap between genotype and phenotype in rice. These technologies have also led to pyramid breeding through genomics-assisted selection, which will be useful in breeding elite varieties suitable for sustainable agriculture. Here, we review the recent advances in rice genomics and discuss the future of this line of research. PMID:23295340
Huang, Xuehui; Lu, Tingting; Han, Bin
The physico-chemical characteristics of the seeds and seed oils of four citrus species, Mitha (Citrus limetta), Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), Mussami (Citrus sinensis), and Kinnow (Citrus reticulata) were investigated. The hexane-extracted oil content of citrus seeds ranged from 27.0 to 36.5%. The protein, fiber and ash\\u000a contents were found to be 3.9–9.6%, 5.0–8.5%, and 4.6–5.6%, respectively. The extracted oils exhibited an
Farooq Anwar; Rehana Naseer; M. I. Bhanger; Samia Ashraf; Farah Naz Talpur; Felix Adekunle Aladedunye
Fungal hydrophobins are secreted proteins that self-assemble at hydrophobic:hydrophilic interfaces. They are essential for a variety of processes in the fungal life cycle, including mediating interactions with surfaces and infection of hosts. The fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative agent of rice blast, relies on the unique properties of hydrophobins to infect cultivated rice as well as over 50 different grass species. The hydrophobin MPG1 is highly expressed during rice blast pathogenesis and has been implicated during host infection. Here we report the backbone and sidechain assignments for the class I hydrophobin MPG1 from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. PMID:22610311
Rey, Anthony A; Hocher, Antoine; Kwan, Ann H; Sunde, Margaret
9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: unknown. No date - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ
beta-Ionone, a stimulatory compound in the microbiological production of beta-carotene by mated cultures of Blakeslea trispora, could be replaced with low-cost agricultural by-products (citrus oils, citrus pulp, or citrus molasses) with as good or better carotene yields. Peak yields (81 to 129 mg of carotene per g of dry solids) were achieved in 5 days. The various citrus products tested did not change the pigments produced; all trans-beta-carotene remained the pre-dominant pigment. The acid-hydrolyzed soybean meal and corn used in previous production media could be replaced with unhydrolyzed cottonseed embryo meal and corn in a medium that also contained a natural lipid, deodorized kerosene, nonionic detergent, and a precursor. PMID:14021337
CIEGLER, A; NELSON, G E; HALL, H H
The report presents an evaluation of the potential of using waste activated sludge as a poultry feed supplement. The sludge used in this study was obtained from an activated sludge process treating concentrated citrus waste containing no sanitary wastewat...
B. L. Damron J. T. White R. H. Jones
Citrus rootstocks i.e. Jatti khatti (Citrus jambhiri), Jambheri khatti (C. jambhiri), Gada dehi (C. aurantium), Kharna khatta (C. karna), Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni) and Yuma citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis) were evaluated for salinity tolerance by transplanting their six months old seedlings in an artificially salinized soil. Four salinity levels i.e. 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1, were
MUHAMMAD AKBAR ANJUM; MUHAMMAD ABID; FARRUKH NAVEED
Citrus is susceptible to a number of fungal pathogens causing incalculable losses to the crop. Occurrence of a particular\\u000a pathogen, its ability to cause disease, survival and subsequent spread to cross threshold level in order to damage the crop\\u000a are governed by agro-climatic conditions, varietal susceptibility, soil type etc. Among fungal diseases, the soil borne diseases\\u000a of Citrus are widespread
S. A. M. H. Naqvi
Ploidy manipulation in Citrus is a major issue of current breeding programs aiming to develop triploid seedless mandarins\\u000a to address consumer demands for seedless fruits. The most effective method to obtain triploid hybrids is to pollinate tetraploid\\u000a non apomictic cultivars with pollen of diploid varieties. Such non apomictic tetraploid lines are not found in the citrus\\u000a germplasm and need to
Pablo Aleza; José Juárez; Patrick Ollitrault; Luis Navarro
Citrus produced in the southwestern United States is often irrigated with perchlorate-contaminated water. This irrigation water includes Colorado River water which is contaminated with perchlorate from a manufacturing plant previously located near the Las Vegas Wash, and ground water from wells in Riverside and San Bernardino counties of California which are affected by a perchlorate plume associated with an aerospace facility once located near Redlands, California. Studies were conducted to evaluate the uptake and distribution of perchlorate in citrus irrigated with contaminated water, and estimate potential human exposure to perchlorate from the various citrus types including lemon (Citrus limon), grapefruit (Citrus paradise), and orange (Citrus sinensis) produced in the region. Perchlorate concentrations ranged from less than 2-9 microg/L for Colorado River water and from below detection to approximately 18 microg/L for water samples from wells used to irrigate citrus. Destructive sampling of lemon trees produced with Colorado River water show perchlorate concentrations larger in the leaves (1835 microg/kg dry weight (dw)) followed by the fruit (128 microg/kg dw). Mean perchlorate concentrations in roots, trunk, and branches were all less than 30 microg/kg dw. Fruit pulp analyzed in the survey show perchlorate concentrations ranged from below detection limit to 38 microg/kg fresh weight (fw), and were related to the perchlorate concentration of irrigation water. Mean hypothetical exposures (mug/person/day) of children and adults from lemons (0.005 and 0.009), grapefruit (0.03 and 0.24), and oranges (0.51 and 1.20) were estimated. These data show that potential perchlorate exposures from citrus in the southwestern United States are negligible relative to the reference dose recommended by the National Academy of Sciences. PMID:17723376
Sanchez, C A; Krieger, R I; Khandaker, N R; Valentin-Blasini, L; Blount, B C
A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372
Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame
The plant nuclear genome is largely composed of mobile DNA, which can rearrange genomes and other individual gene structure and also affect gene regulation through various promoted activities: transposition, insertion, excision, chromosome breakage, and ectopic recombination. Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon is a widespread class of transposable elements in the plant kingdom, representing a large part of the total DNA content. Here, a novel retrotransposon-like sequence was isolated and identified as the Ty1-copia-like reverse transcriptase domain (named here CLCoy1), based on the homology of known elements. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, revealed that CLCoy1 was mainly located in telomeric and sub-telomeric regions along the Citrus chromosomes. CLCoy1 composes 3.6% of the genome and, interestingly, while transposons are mostly specific to a species, this element was identified in other Citrus species such as Citrus aurantium, Fortunella margarita and Citrus paradisi, but undetected in Poncirus trifoliata. We also determined that wounding, salt and cell culture stress produced transcriptional activation of this novel retroelement in Citrus limon. The novel Ty1-copia-like element CLCoy1 may have played a major role in shaping genome structure and size during Citrus species evolution. PMID:19115051
De Felice, Bruna; Wilson, Robert R; Argenziano, Carolina; Kafantaris, Ioanis; Conicella, Clara
The large RNA genome of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; ca. 20 kb) contains 12 open reading frames, with the 3?-terminal one corresponding to a protein of 209 amino acids (p23) that is expressed from an abundant subgenomic RNA. p23, an RNA-binding protein with a putative zinc-finger domain and some basic motifs, is unique to CTV because no homologs have been found in other closteroviruses, including the type species of the genus Beet yellows virus (despite both viruses having many homologous genes). Consequently, p23 might have evolved for the specific interaction of CTV with its citrus hosts. From a functional perspective p23 has been involved in many roles: (i) regulation of the asymmetrical accumulation of CTV RNA strands, (ii) induction of the seedling yellows syndrome in sour orange and grapefruit, (iii) intracellular suppression of RNA silencing, (iv) elicitation of CTV-like symptoms when expressed ectopically as a transgene in several Citrus spp., and (v) enhancement of systemic infection (and virus accumulation) in sour orange and CTV release from the phloem in p23-expressing transgenic sweet and sour orange. Moreover, transformation of Mexican lime with intron-hairpin constructs designed for the co-inactivation of p23 and the two other CTV silencing suppressors results in complete resistance against the homologous virus. From a cellular point of view, recent data indicate that p23 accumulates preferentially in the nucleolus, being the first closterovirus protein with such a subcellular localization, as well as in plasmodesmata. These major accumulation sites most likely determine some of the functional roles of p23.
Flores, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesus; Fagoaga, Carmen; Lopez, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Pena, Leandro
Protein and RNA-mediated forms of pathogen-derived resistance (PDR) have been developed against many viruses in different plants. However, no resistance has been reported against Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a closterovirus, in Citrus species transformed with coat protein genes or other sequences of CTV. The successful use of replication-associated genes in RNA-mediated resistance in other crops prompted the use of the
Richard F. LEE; Charles L. NIBLETT
Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes-a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes-and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277
Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel
Agricultural solid residues are a potential renewable energy source. Rice harvesting and production in Sancti Spíritus province, Cuba, currently generates residues without an environmentally sustainable disposal route. Rice residues (rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process) are potentially an important carbon source for anaerobic digestion. For this paper, rice residues were placed for 36 days retention time in anaerobic batch reactor environments at both mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Biogas and methane yield were determined as well as biogas composition. The results showed that rice straw as well as rice residues from the drying process had the highest biogas and methane yield. Temperature played an important role in determining both biogas yield and kinetics. In all cases, rice straw produced the highest yields; under mesophilic conditions the biogas yield was 0.43 m(3) kg(VS)(-1), under thermophilic conditions biogas yield reached 0.52 m(3) kg(VS)(-1). In the case of the rice husk, the biodegradability was very low. Methane content in all batches was kept above 55% vol. All digested material had a high carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio, even though significant biodegradation was recorded with the exception of rice husk. A first-order model can be used to describe the rice crop residues fermentation effectively. PMID:22378015
Contreras, L M; Schelle, H; Sebrango, C R; Pereda, I
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is an aphid-transmitted closterovirus, which causes one of the most important citrus diseases worldwide. Isolates of CTV differ widely in their biological properties. CTV-infected samples were collected from four locations in India: Bangalore (CTV-B), Delhi (CTV-D), Nagpur (CTV-N), and Pune (CTV-P), and were maintained by grafting into Kagzi lime ( Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. Swing.). All isolates produced typical vein clearing and flecking symptoms 6-8 weeks after grafting. In addition, CTV-B and CTV-P isolates produced stem-pitting symptoms after 8-10 months. The CTV coat protein gene (CPG) was amplified by RT-PCR using CPG specific primers, yielding an amplicon of 672 bp for all the isolates. Sequence analysis of the CPG amplicon of all the four Indian isolates showed 93-94% nucleotide sequence homology to the Californian CTV severe stem pitting isolate SY568 and 92-93% homology to the Japanese seedling yellows isolate NUagA and Israeli VT p346 isolates. In phylogenetic tree analysis, Indian CTV isolates appeared far different from other isolates as they formed a separate branch. Comparison among the Indian isolates was carried out by restriction analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Specific primers to various genome segments of well-characterized CTV isolates were used to further classify the Indian CTV isolates. PMID:12664295
Roy, A; Ramachandran, P; Brlansky, R H
The fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari can enhance nitrogen (N) uptake and metabolism of rice plants under hydroponic conditions. To investigate the effects of P. liquidambari on N accumulation and metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under field conditions during the entire growing season (S1, the seedling stage; S2, the tillering stage; S3, the heading stage; S4, the ripening stage), we utilized pot experiments to examine metabolic and physiological levels in both shoot and root tissues of rice, with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-), in response to three different N levels. We found that under low-N treatment, P. liquidambari symbiosis increased the rice yield and N use efficiency by 12% and by 11.59%, respectively; that the total N contents in E+ rice plants at the four growth stages were separately increased by 29.05%, 14.65%, 21.06% and 18.38%, respectively; and that the activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in E+ rice roots and shoots were significantly increased by fungal infection during the S1 to S3 stages. Moreover, P. liquidambari significantly increased the free NH4(+), NO3(-), amino acid and soluble protein contents in infected rice tissues under low-N treatment during the S1 to S3 stages. The obtained results offer novel data concerning the systemic changes induced by P. liquidambari in rice during the entire growth period and confirm the hypothesis that the rice-P. liquidambari interaction improved the N accumulation and metabolism of rice plants, consequently increasing rice N utilization in nutrient-limited soil. PMID:24972305
Yang, Bo; Ma, Hai-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Mi; Jia, Yong; Hu, Jing; Li, Xia; Dai, Chuan-Chao
Sagee, O., Raviv, M., Medina, Sh., Becker, D. and Cosse, A., 1992. Involvement of rooting factors and free IAA in the rootability of citrus species stem cuttings. Scientia Hortic., 51: 187-195. Two-year-old trees of cultivar 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus fimonia Osb. ) and of cultivar 'Oroblanco', a triploid pummelo-grapefruit hybrid (Citrus grandis Osb. X Citrus paradisi Macf.), which had not reached
O. Sagee; M. Raviv; D. Beckeff; A. Cosse
Citrus, a cold-sensitive plant, often suffers from low temperature, which seriously affects citrus productivity. The objective of the study was to elevate the roles of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae, in growth, photosynthesis, root morphology and nutrient uptake of citrus (Citrus tangerine) seedlings under temperature stress conditions. Three-month-old seedlings with or without G. mosseae were grown for 55 days
Qiang-Sheng Wu; Ying-Ning Zou
Summary Citrus somatic hybridization and cybridization via protoplast fusion has become an integral part of citrus variety improvement programs worldwide. Citrus somatic hybrid plants\\u000a have been regenerated from more than 200 parental combinations, and several cybrid combinations have also been produced. Applications\\u000a of somatic hybridization to citrus scion improvement include the production of quality tetraploid breeding parents that can\\u000a be used
J. W. Grosser; P. Ollitrault; O. Olivares-Fuster
Rice, as a widely and intensively cultivated crop, should be a target for parasite host shifts and a source for shifts to co-occurring weeds. Magnaporthe oryzae, of the M. grisea species complex, is the most important fungal pathogen of rice, with a high degree of host specificity. On the basis of 10 loci from six of its seven linkage groups, 37 multilocus haplotypes among 497 isolates of M. oryzae from rice and other grasses were identified. Phylogenetic relationships among isolates from rice (Oryza sativa), millet (Setaria spp.), cutgrass (Leersia hexandra), and torpedo grass (Panicum repens) were predominantly tree like, consistent with a lack of recombination, but from other hosts were reticulate, consistent with recombination. The single origin of rice-infecting M. oryzae followed a host shift from a Setaria millet and was closely followed by additional shifts to weeds of rice, cutgrass, and torpedo grass. Two independent estimators of divergence time indicate that these host shifts predate the Green Revolution and could be associated with rice domestication. The rice-infecting lineage is characterized by high copy number of the transposable element MGR586 (Pot3) and, except in two haplotypes, by a loss of AVR-Co39. Both mating types have been retained in ancestral, well-distributed rice-infecting haplotypes 10 (mainly temperate) and 14 (mainly tropical), but only one mating type was recovered from several derived, geographically restricted haplotypes. There is evidence of a common origin of both ACE1 virulence genotypes in haplotype 14. Host-haplotype association is evidenced by low pathogenicity on hosts associated with other haplotypes.
Couch, Brett C.; Fudal, Isabelle; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Tharreau, Didier; Valent, Barbara; van Kim, Pham; Notteghem, Jean-Loup; Kohn, Linda M.
Citrus bacterial canker is an important disease of Citrus species in China. The disease severely occurs especially in the coastal area. Integrated control system has been used for the control of the disease, in which chemotherapy plays an important role at present. The chemotherapy-dominant control system brought many problems to the environment, such as chemical residua in the products and induction of resistance to fungicide(s) by the pathogen. To solve these problems, an intensive study on biocontrol of citrus bacterial canker is needed. Isolations and characterizations of biocontrol agents are the basis for biocontrol of the disease. A bacterial strain Bt8 with strong inhibiting ability against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin, was isolated from citrus orchard soil in Nanning, China. The isolated bacterial strain was identified and characterized as Acinetobacter baumannii Bouvet et Grimont on the base of its morphology and 16S rDNA sequence analysis as well as physiological and biochemical characters. The inhibiting activity of the bacterium suspension against the pathogen was significantly influenced by environmental factors, such as temperatures, pHs and media. At temperatures of 18 degrees C to 33 degrees C, both the inhibiting activity of the bacterium suspension and the biomass of the bacterium increased with the increases of temperatures, suggesting that the influence of temperature on inhibiting activity of the bacterium suspension was in dependence on the bacterial biomass. In NA liquid medium of pH 10, the bacterium suspension showed the highest inhibiting activity against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, which was not in dependence on biomass of the bacterium. The bacterium suspension provided 55.2% inhibition against bacterial canker under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that Acinetobacter baumannii has potential as biocontrol agent against bacterial canker disease. Acinetobacter baumannii was reported as the pathogens infecting human and animals. The present study enriched the understanding on biological diversity in Acinetobacter baumannii to sciences. This is the first report on the isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii with strong inhibiting ability against plant pathogen. PMID:16736594
Tan, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Si-Liang; Ren, Jian-Guo; Yan, Wei-Hong; Cen, Zhen-Lu
Glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus (GRE) is an important healthcare-acquired infection (HCAI) which costs the healthcare service many millions of pounds worldwide. In this study, lemon (Citrus limon), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) or bergamot (Citrus bergamia) essential oils (EO) and their vapours, alone and in combination, are tested for their antimicrobial activity against vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-sensitive strains of E. faecium and E. faecalis. A blend of 1:1 (v/v) orange and bergamot EO was the most effective of the oils and/or blends tested with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), at 25 degrees C and pH 5.5, of 0.25-0.5% (v/v) and a minimum inhibitory dose (MID) of 50 mg/L, at 50 degrees C at pH 7.5, when viable counts reduced by 5.5-10 log10 colony forming units (cfu)/mL, suggesting that this blend of citrus oils is effective under a range of conditions for inhibiting the growth and survival of E. faecalis, E. faecium and VRE. PMID:20095125
Fisher, K; Phillips, C
The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the main grapevine pest in vineyards in some countries, such as Spain and Brazil. In Galician vineyards (northwestern Spain), mealybug population levels are low because the accumulated degree-days are lower than in other grapevine-growing areas. The main problem caused by mealybugs is the transmission of viruses, even at low infestation levels. The active period of citrus mealybug in the study vineyard lasted from July until December, with an important movement peak at the end of July and August and a lower peak in November. The mealybug mainly moved upward along arbor-trained plants, and there were no important downward movements at the end of the season as has been described for other grapevine mealybugs. The mealybugs were normally restricted to the woody organs and were only present on leaves, branches, and green canes (always close to woody parts) in plants with high infestations. The movement of mealybugs between plants does not seem to take place by contact between green organs. Passive aerial transport and movement of pruning remains may play an important role in mealybug movement and thus in spread of the virus. The number of mealybugs carrying Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) was found to represent approximately 75% of mealybugs caught in a GLRaV-3 infected vineyard. PMID:20568606
Cid, M; Pereiro, S; Cabaleiro, C; Segura, A
Plant abiotic and biotic stress is related to unfavorable and environmental constraints. As a warm climate tree fruit crop, citrus (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.) is adapted to a wide variety of soil types and growth conditions. However, when waterlogging, soil acidity and root weevil infestation occur simultaneously, citrus roots can be injured from anaerobic disturbance, oxygen deprivation and root injury,
The production system for certified citrus nursery trees in São Paulo State, Brazil, stipulates the use of screenhouses, rigorous selection of rootstocks, and the production of budwood under high standards in order to prevent diseases such as sudden death, Citrus Var, and foot rot (Phytophthora spp.). The establishment of adequate nutritional levels for citrus nursery trees also leads to higher
E. A. Girardi; F. A. A. Mourão Filho; C. C. D. Graf; F. B. Olic
We have developed an efficient protoplast-fusion method to produce somatic hybrid allopolyploid plants that combine Citrus with seven related genera, including four that are sexually incompatible. In this paper we report the creation of 18 new allotetraploid hybrids of Citrus, including ten among sexually incompatible related genera, that may have direct cultivar potential as improved citrus rootstocks. All hybrids were
J. W. Grosser; F. A. A. Mourao-Fo; F. G. Gmitter Jr; E. S. Louzada; J. Jiang; K. Baergen; A. Quiros; C. Cabasson; J. L. Schell; J. L. Chandler
Citrus exocortis viroid (CEV) is widespread in citrus production areas where trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] is used as rootstock. Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Red tangerine, a different rootstock, is tolerant to CEV. Embryogenic protoplasts of C. reticulata cv. Red tangerine were electrically fused with mesophyll protoplasts from P. trifoliata, and five embryoids were regenerated after 40 days of
W. W. Guo; Y. J. Cheng; X. X. Deng
Tolerance and avoidance mechanisms to drought stress were studied in 6-month-old plants of Newhall orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and Ellendale tangor (orange × mandarin hybrid) (Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck × Citrus reticulata Blanco) during a drought\\/rewatering cycle under controlled conditions. Drought stress did not promote osmotic adjustment, while elastic adjustment (tissue elasticity increase) was noted in stressed orange and
Robert Savé; Carme Biel; Rafael Domingo; M. Carmen Ruiz-Sánchez; Arturo Torrecillas
Summary Two acceptability trials with eight mature horses were used to compare coarse grain con- centrates containing 0 or 30% dried citrus pulp in place of oats. All of the horses consumed the control concentrate readily and two of the eight horses consumed the concentrate contain- ing dried citrus pulp. Six horses refused the citrus pulp concentrate, consuming only 8.6%
E. A. Ott; J. P. Feaster; Sandi Lieb
‘Swingle’ citrumelo [Citrus paradisi MacFaden×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] has been extensively used as a rootstock in several citrus growing regions of the World, including Southern Brazil where ‘Rangpur’ lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) is still the predominant variety despite being affected by several important pathogens. In this case, ‘Swingle’ citrumelo is used to produce nursery trees to establish new orchards or
Francisco de Assis Alves Mourão Filho; Eduardo Augusto Girardi; Hilton Thadeu Zarate do Couto
. Flavonoids-enriched tissues of citrus such as peel, immature fruit and flower are consumed as culinary seasonings, tea ingredients in China for centuries. This HPLC quantitative study on the five citrus flavonoids, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, sinensetin and nobiletin on a wide range of Chinese citrus fruits and several Traditional Chinese Medicinal food ingredients in East China, revealed a great diversity in
Yanhua Lu; Chongwei Zhang; Peter Bucheli; Dongzhi Wei
Citrus orchards in Catalonia, Spain were surveyed to identify microbial parasites of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and their distribution and density. Of 62 orchards, 48 were positively infested with the citrus nematode. Fungal strains were isolated from single eggs, females or second-stage juveniles of the citrus nematode in 69% of the infested orchards. The fungi identified in order of occurrence were Paecilomyces
J. Gené; S. Verdejo-Lucas; A. M. Stchigel; F. J. Sorribas; J. Guarro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of pinenes (entantiomers of ?- and ?-) and essential oils from Greek plants of the Rutaceae family against the mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from fruit peel of orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon L.), and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.).
Antonios Michaelakis; Dimitrios Papachristos; Athanasios Kimbaris; George Koliopoulos; Athanasios Giatropoulos; Moschos G. Polissiou
Casual observers of the impacts associated with four recent freezes in Florida's citrus producing areas might be inclined to agree with an assessment by Miami Herald reporters that these freezes had caused the ‘king of citrus’ to be toppled from its throne, enabling Brazil to take its place. Research on the citrus industry, however, reveals that the impacts of these
Kathleen A. Miller; Michael H. Glantz
Pathogens interaction with a host plant starts a set of immune responses that result in complex changes in gene expression and plant physiology. Light is an important modulator of plant defense response and recent studies have evidenced the novel influence of this environmental stimulus in the virulence of several bacterial pathogens. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the bacterium responsible for citrus canker disease, which affects most citrus cultivars. The ability of this bacterium to colonize host plants is influenced by bacterial blue-light sensing through a LOV-domain protein and disease symptoms are considerably altered upon deletion of this protein. In this work we aimed to unravel the role of this photoreceptor during the bacterial counteraction of plant immune responses leading to citrus canker development. We performed a transcriptomic analysis in Citrus sinensis leaves inoculated with the wild type X. citri subsp. citri and with a mutant strain lacking the LOV protein by a cDNA microarray and evaluated the differentially regulated genes corresponding to specific biological processes. A down-regulation of photosynthesis-related genes (together with a corresponding decrease in photosynthesis rates) was observed upon bacterial infection, this effect being more pronounced in plants infected with the lov-mutant bacterial strain. Infection with this strain was also accompanied with the up-regulation of several secondary metabolism- and defense response-related genes. Moreover, we found that relevant plant physiological alterations triggered by pathogen attack such as cell wall fortification and tissue disruption were amplified during the lov-mutant strain infection. These results suggest the participation of the LOV-domain protein from X. citri subsp. citri in the bacterial counteraction of host plant defense response, contributing in this way to disease development.
Kraiselburd, Ivana; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Tondo, Maria Laura; Merelo, Paz; Cortadi, Adriana A.; Talon, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Orellano, Elena G.
Flowering and flower formation are defining features of angiosperms and the control of these developmental processes involves a common repertoire of genes which are shared among different species of flowering plants. These genes were first identified using various homeotic and flowering time mutants of Arabidopsis and snapdragon, and homologous genes have subsequently been isolated from a wide range of different plant species based on the conservation of protein sequence and function. Using degenerate reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, we have isolated one APETALA3-like (CitMADS8) and two SOC1 (SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1)-like (CsSL1 and CsSL2) homologues from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.). Although the translated amino acid sequence of CitMADS8 shares many similarities with other higher plant APETALA3 proteins, CitMADS8 fails to complement the floral organ identity defects of the Arabidopsis ap3-3 mutant. By contrast, the two citrus SOC1-like genes, particularly CsSL1, are able to shorten the time taken to flower in the Arabidopsis wild-type ecotypes Columbia and C24, and functionally complement the late flowering phenotype of the soc1 mutant, essentially performing the endogenous function of Arabidopsis SOC1. Once flowering has commenced, interactions between specific flowering genes and a gene required for meristem maintenance, WUSCHEL, ensure that the Arabidopsis flower is a determinate structure with four whorls. We have isolated a citrus WUSCHEL homologue (CsWUS) that is capable of restoring most of the meristem function to the shoots and flowers of the Arabidopsis wus-1 mutant, implying that CsWUS is the functional equivalent of Arabidopsis WUSCHEL. PMID:18251886
Tan, Fui-Ching; Swain, Stephen M
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a phloem-restricted closterovirus infecting citrus, encodes three different silencing suppressors (p25, p20 and p23), one of which (p23) is a pathogenicity determinant that induces aberrations resembling CTV symptoms when expressed ectopically in transgenic citrus hosts. In this article, the effect of p23 ectopic expression on virus infection was examined in sweet orange (SwO), a highly susceptible host, and sour orange (SO), which severely restricts CTV cell-to-cell movement. Transgenic plants of both species ectopically expressing p23, or transformed with an empty vector, were graft inoculated with the mild CTV isolate T385 or with CTV-BC1/GFP, a clonal strain derived from the severe isolate T36 carrying the gene for the green fluorescent protein (GFP). CTV distribution in infected tissues was assessed by direct tissue blot immunoassay and fluorescence emission, and virus accumulation was estimated by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. CTV accumulation in p23-expressing and control SwO plants was similar, whereas the viral load in transgenic SO expressing p23 was 10-10(5) times higher than in the cognate control plants. Although few infection foci composed of a single cell were observed in the phloem of CTV-infected control SO, the number of foci in p23-expressing plants was higher and usually comprised two to six cells, indicating viral cell-to-cell movement. CTV was detected in mesophyll protoplasts and cells from infected SO and SwO expressing p23, but not in similar protoplasts and cells from infected control plants. Our results show that the ectopic expression of p23 enables CTV to escape from the phloem and, in addition, facilitates systemic infection of the resistant SO host. This is the first report of a viral-encoded protein that enhances virus accumulation and distribution in woody hosts. PMID:21726389
Fagoaga, Carmen; Pensabene-Bellavia, Giovanni; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luís; Flores, Ricardo; Peña, Leandro
Huanglongbing is an economically damaging disease of citrus associated with infection by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Transmission of the organism via infection of seeds has not been demonstrated but is a concern since some citrus varieties, particularly those used as rootstocks in commercial plantings are propagated from seed. We compared the incidence of detection of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' DNA in individual fruit peduncles, seed coats, seeds, and in germinated seedlings from 'Sanguenelli' sweet orange and 'Conners' grapefruit fruits sampled from infected trees. Using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) we detected pathogen DNA in nucleic acid extracts of 36 and 100% of peduncles from 'Sanguenelli' and from 'Conners' fruits, respectively. We also detected pathogen DNA in extracts of 37 and 98% of seed coats and in 1.6 and 4% of extracts from the corresponding seeds of 'Sanguenelli' and 'Conners', respectively. Small amounts of pathogen DNA were detected in 10% of 'Sanguenelli' seedlings grown in the greenhouse, but in none of 204 extracts from 'Conners' seedlings. Pathogen DNA was detected in 4.9% and in 89% of seed coats peeled from seeds of 'Sanguenelli' and 'Conners' which were germinated on agar, and in 5% of 'Sanguenelli' but in none of 164 'Conners' seedlings which grew from these seeds on agar. No pathogen DNA was detected in 'Ridge Pineapple' tissue at 3 months post-grafting onto 'Sanguenelli' seedlings, even when pathogen DNA had been detected initially in the 'Sanguenelli' seedling. Though the apparent colonization of 'Conners' seeds was more extensive and nearly uniform compared with 'Sanguenelli' seeds, no pathogen DNA was detected in 'Conners' seedlings grown from these seeds. For either variety, no association was established between the presence of pathogen DNA in fruit peduncles and seed coats and in seedlings. PMID:21714779
Hilf, Mark E
The combined effects of O3 and acid rain on freeze resistance, growth, and mineral nutrition were studied using broadleaf-evergreen citrus and avocado trees. Using a factorial design, 'Ruby red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi L.) trees on either Volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.) or sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) rootstocks and 'Pancho' avocado trees (Persea americana Mill.) on 'Waldin' rootstock
David M. Eissenstat; James P. Syvertsen; Thomas J. Dean; Jon D. Johnson; George Yelenosky
Explores the role of rice in Japanese culture by presenting historical background and teaching activities in a variety of categories, such as language, sociology, history, and contemporary politics. Suggests teachers create cross-cultural comparisons; for example, the role of corn in the United States. Provides a list of teacher resources. (CMK)
Wojtan, Linda S.
Forecasts for both 2007/08 total supply and total use were raised this month. On the supply side, the rough rice production forecast was raised 7.0 million cwt to 190.0 million cwt. Forecasts for both long- and medium-short-grain production were increased...
There were no supply-side revisions this month to the 2008/09 U.S. rough-rice balance sheet. On the use side, the U.S. export forecast was lowered 4.0 million cwt to 94.0 million, partly based on a slower-than-expected shipment pace through late February....
The development and reproduction of the citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, were evaluated in six citrus genotypes in order to identify genotypes with resistance traits that could be applied in a program for the development of citrus varieties resistant to the citrus leafminer. Tests were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and 14h photophase). Seedlings of each genotype tested were infested with eggs obtained from a stock colony of CLM maintained on 'Cravo' lemon (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck), and the duration and survival of the eggs, larval and pupal stages, pupal size and weight, fecundity and longevity of adults, and sex ratio were evaluated. No influence was observed on the duration and survival of eggs, larvae and pupae of P. citrella. However, pupae obtained in the hybrid C x R(4) were significantly smaller and lighter than pupae from the remaining treatments. Adult females from the hybrids C x R(4) and C x R(315) were the least fecund. However, the lowest value for the corrected reproductive potential (CRP) was recorded in the hybrid C x R(315), suggesting that this genotype is the least favorable for the development and reproduction of CLM. On the other hand, the highest CRP value obtained in the 'Rugoso' lemon confirms the susceptibility of this genotype, indicating it as the most suitable for CLM. PMID:21952967
Santos, M S; Vendramim, J D; Lourenção, A L; Pitta, R M; Martins, E S
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel's flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p < 0.05). Tangerine's peel showed the highest magnesium and carotenoid content, while highest ascorbic acid and carotenoid content was found in the grapefruit's peel. Dietary fiber content presented significant high value in the tangerine peel. All samples presented high content of extractable polyphenols (4.33; 7.6 and 5.1 g/100g). The highest antiradical efficiency was shown by the tangerine's peel, value which correlates with the polyphenol content. These results suggest that tangerine peel should be the most suitable, to reduce risk of some diseases such as cardiovascular and some associated to lipid oxidation. Studied samples are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, whose use could be useful in the formulation of functional foods, taking advantage of the presence of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds in only one ingredient. PMID:16454058
Rincón, Alicia M; Vásquez, A Marina; Padilla, Fanny C
Not only the Sahel (Haregeweyn et al., 2013), the deforested land (Borelli et al., 2013) the chinese Plateau are affected by intense soil erosion rates (Zhao et al., 2013). Soil erosion affect agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009), and citrus orchards are being seeing as one of the crops with the highest erosion rates due to the managements that avoid the catch crops, weeds or litter. Example of the research carried out on citrus orchards is found in the Mediterranean (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) and in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012), and they confirm the non sustainable soil losses measured. The land management in citrus plantations results in soil degradation too (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012). The use of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel has been found successful. There is a need to find new plants or residues to protect the soils on citrus orchards. Agriculture produces a high amount of residues. The pruning can contribute with a valuable source of nutrients and a good soil protection. The leaves of the trees, and some parts of the plants, once harvest can contribute to reduce the soil losses. Due to the mechanization of the agriculture, and the reduction of the draft animals (mainly horses, mules, donkeys and oxen) the straw is being a residue instead of a resource. The Valencia region is the largest producer of citrus in Europe, and the largest exporter in the world. This citrus production region is located in the eastern cost of Spain where we can find the rice production area of the l'Albufera Lagoon paddy fields, the third largest production region in Spain. This means, a rice production region surrounded by the huge citrus production region. There, the rice straw is not used in the paddy fields after harvesting and the straw is being as a residue that damages the air quality when burnt, the water quality due to the decomposition and the methane production, and is not accepted in the field by the farmers. This is a new problem as few years ago the rice straw was use for animal feeding. Many attempts were developed in the last decade to remove and use the straw to avoid fires and water pollution (Iranzo et al., 2004; Silvestre et al., 2013). Our goal is to test if a residue such as the rice straw can be transformed as a resource: soil erosion control. Straw has been seen as a very efficient to reduce the water losses in agriculture land (García Moreno et al., 2013), the soil losses in fire affected land (Robichaud et al., 2013a; 2013b; Fernandez and Vega, 2014), and soil properties (García Orenes et al., 2009; 2010; Jordán et al., 2010; García Orenes 2012). Rainfall simulations under 55 mm h-1 rainfall intensity during one hour on 0,25 m2 plots were carried out on plots paired plots: bare and covered with straw. The plots covered with straw had different straw mulch cover: from 10 to 100 % cover and from 0,005 g m2 to 300 g m2. The results show a positive effect of the straw cover that show an exponential relation between the straw cover and weight with the sediment yield. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE supported this research. References Bombino, G., Denisi, P., Fortugno, D., Tamburino, V., Zema, D.A., Zimbone, S.M. 2010. Land spreading of solar-dried citrus peel to control runoff and soil erosion. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment 140,145-154. Borrelli, P., Märker, M., Schütt, B. 2013. Modelling post-tree-haversting soil erosion and sediment deposition potential in the Turano River Basin (Italian Central Apennine). Land Degradation & Development, DOI 10.1002/ldr.2214 Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 200
Cerdà, Artemi; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta
The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.
Isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (the clover root-nodule endosymbiont) from the Nile River delta have been found to infect rice roots and colonize the intercellular spaces of the rice roots. Some of these isolates inhibit rice seedling growth but one in particular, R4, has been found in rice roots which develop and grow normally. We present evidence that the induced growth inhibition is due to a toxic accumulation of nitric oxide (NO), from the reduction of nitrate, and suggest that the reason that R4 does not inhibit rice root growth is because it is capable of completing the reduction of NO through to nitrogen gas. Thus, strain R4 is a candidate for engineering into a future biological nitrogen fixation system within these roots. PMID:17378431
Perrine-Walker, Francine M; Gartner, Elena; Hocart, Charles H; Becker, Anke; Rolfe, Barry G
The invention is drawn to a highly advantageous and unobvious process for stabilizing unmilled brown rice comprising, contacting unmilled brown rice with ethanol under conditions providing extraction of 15% or less of brown rice oil from the unmilled brow...
E. T. Champagne R. J. Hron G. Abraham
The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils. PMID:16332132
Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi
?-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to induce resistance to microbial pathogens, nematodes and insects in several host plant/pest systems. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect of BABA occurred against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in citrus. A 25 mM drench application of BABA significantly reduced the number of eggs/plant as compared with a water control, whereas 200 and 100 mM applications of BABA reduced the numbers of nymphs/plant and adults/plants, respectively. A 5 mM foliar application of BABA significantly reduced the number of adults but not eggs or nymphs when compared with a water control treatment. In addition, leaf-dip bioassays using various concentrations (25–500 mM) of BABA indicated no direct toxic effect on 2nd and 5th instar nymphs or adult D. citri. BABA-treated plants were characterized by significantly lower levels of iron, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur and zinc as compared with control plants. The expression level of the PR-2 gene (?-1,3-glucanase) in BABA-treated plants that were also damaged by D. citri adult feeding was significantly higher than in plants exposed to BABA, D. citri feeding alone or control plants. Our results indicate the potential for using BABA as a systemic acquired resistance management tool for D. citri. PMID:23590847
Tiwari, Siddharth; Meyer, Wendy L; Stelinski, Lukasz L
The cell DNA content of forty-eight Citrus calli of different genotype were measured by using the Ploidy Analyser. The results showed that 93.8% out of forty-eight Citrus calli had double DNA content except that Ruby. Weizhang and Kinnow had little varied cells and did not show second peak. Moreover, Pineapple, Meiwa kumquat, Changsha, Russ navel, Guoqing No. 4 and Carter had DNA varied cells including triploids and aneuploids based on the DPAC software analyse. Among the forty-eight Citrus calli, Pineapple had the highest of the DNA varied cells, which was up to 18.57%, Anliucheng had the lowest, 4.07%. There existed significant difference in the variation among genotypes by Duncan Analyse. At the same subcultured medium and at the same subcultured period, the effect of cultural duration on the variation of calli was not significant. PMID:12776606
Zhang, Jun-E; Liu, Ji-Hong; Deng, Xiu-Xin
Citrus genus is the most important fruit tree crop in the world and lemon is the third most important Citrus species. Several studies highlighted lemon as an important health-promoting fruit rich in phenolic compounds as well as vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, essential oils and carotenoids. Lemon fruit has a strong commercial value for the fresh products market and food industry. Moreover, lemon productive networks generate high amounts of wastes and by-products that constitute an important source of bioactive compounds with potential for animal feed, manufactured foods, and health care. This review focuses on the phytochemistry and the analytical aspects of lemon compounds as well as on the importance for food industry and the relevance of Citrus limon for nutrition and health, bringing an overview of what is published on the bioactive compounds of this fruit. PMID:19748198
González-Molina, E; Domínguez-Perles, R; Moreno, D A; García-Viguera, C
Seasonal variations in freezing tolerance, water content, water and osmotic potential, and levels of soluble sugars of leaves of field-grown Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) trees were studied to determine the ability of citrus trees to cold acclimate under natural conditions. Controlled environmental studies of young potted citrus trees, spinach (Spinacia pleracea), and petunia (Petunia hybrids) were carried out to study the water relations during cold acclimation under less variable conditions. During the coolest weeks of the winter, leaf water content and osmotic potential of field-grown trees decreased about 20 to 25%, while soluble sugars increased by 100%. At the same time, freezing tolerance increased from lethal temperature for 50% (LT50) of ?2.8 to ?3.8°C. In contrast, citrus leaves cold acclimated at a constant 10°C in growth chambers were freezing tolerant to about ?6°C. The calculated freezing induced cellular dehydration at the LT50 remained relatively constant for field-grown leaves throughout the year, but increased for leaves of plants cold acclimated at 10°C in a controlled environment. Spinach leaves cold acclimated at 5°C tolerated increased cellular dehydration compared to nonacclimated leaves. Cold acclimated petunia leaves increased in freezing tolerance by decreasing osmotic potential, but had no capacity to change cellular dehydration sensitivity. The result suggest that two cold acclimation mechanisms are involved in both citrus and spinach leaves and only one in petunia leaves. The common mechanism in all three species tested was a minor increase in tolerance (about ?1°C) resulting from low temperature induced osmotic adjustment, and the second in citrus and spinach was a noncolligative mechanism that increased the cellular resistance to freeze hydration.
Yelenosky, George; Guy, Charles L.
Basic research and case-control studies have suggested that citrus consumption may protect against cancer. However, the protective effect has been observed from few prospective studies. This study investigated the association of citrus consumption with cancer incidence among 42,470 Japanese adults in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort, which covered an age range of 40-79 years, and was followed up from 1995 to 2003 for all-cancer and individual cancer incidence. Citrus consumption was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The Cox proportional hazard model was applied to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs. During the 323,204 person-years of follow-up, 3,398 cases were identified totally. Citrus consumption, especially daily consumption, was correlated with reduced all-cancer incidence, the RRs were 0.89 (95% CI = 0.80-0.98) for total participants, 0.86 (0.76-0.98) for males and 0.93 (0.79-1.09) for females, as well as multiple cancers at individual sites, especially pancreatic (RR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.38-1.00) and prostate cancer (RR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.41-0.97). Joint effect analysis showed a reduced risk of overall cancer existed only for subjects who consumed >or=1 cup green tea/day (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.73-0.93) as well as for males (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71-0.97) or females (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.99). These findings suggest that citrus consumption is associated with reduced all-cancer incidence, especially for subjects having simultaneously high green tea consumption. Further work on the specific citrus constituents is warranted, and clinical trials are ultimately necessary to confirm the protective effect. PMID:20104526
Li, Wen-Qing; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Li, Qiang; Nagai, Masato; Hozawa, Atsushi; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a severe citrus (Citrus spp.) disease associated with the bacteria genus Candidatus Liberibacter, detected in Brazil in 2004. Another bacterium was found in association with HLB symptoms and characterized as a phytoplasma belonging to the 16SrIX group. The objectives of this study were to identify potential leafhopper vectors of the HLB-associated phytoplasma and their host plants. Leafhoppers were sampled every other week for 12 mo with sticky yellow cards placed at two heights (0.3 and 1.5 m) in the citrus tree canopy and by using a sweep net in the ground vegetation of two sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, groves infected by the HLB-phytoplasma in São Paulo state. Faunistic analyses indicated one Agalliinae (Agallia albidula Uhler) and three Deltocephalinae [Balclutha hebe (Kirkaldy), Planicephalus flavicosta (Stål), and Scaphytopius (Convelinus) marginelineatus (Stål)] species, as the most abundant and frequent leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Visual observations indicated an association of leafhopper species with some weeds and the influence of weed species composition on leafhopper abundance in low-lying vegetation. S. marginelineatus and P. flavicosta were more frequent on Sida rhombifolia L. and Althernantera tenella Colla, respectively, whereas A. albidula was observed more often on Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. and B. hebe only occurred on grasses. DNA samples of field-collected S. marginelineatus were positive by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing tests for the presence of the HLB-phytoplasma group, indicating it as a potential vector. The association of leafhoppers with their hosts may be used in deciding which management strategies to adopt against weeds and diseases in citrus orchards. PMID:22606800
Marques, R N; Teixeira, D C; Yamamoto, P T; Lopes, J R S
High-throughput functional genomic procedures depend on the quality of the RNA used. Copurifying molecules can negatively impact the functionality of some plant RNA preparations employed in these procedures. We present a simplified, rapid, and scalable SDS/phenol-based method that provides the high-quantity and -quality RNA required by the newly emerging biotechnology applications. The method is applied to isolating RNA from tissues of two biotechnologically important crop plants, sugarcane and citrus, which provide a challenge due to the presence of fiber, polysaccharides, or secondary metabolites. The RNA isolated by this method is suitable for several downstream applications including northern blot hybridization, microarray analysis, and quantitative RT-PCR. This method has been used in a diverse range of projects ranging from screening plant lines overexpressing mammalian genes to analyzing plant responses to viral infection and defense signaling molecules.
Damaj, Mona B.; Beremand, Phillip D.; Buenrostro-Nava, Marco T.; Riedel, Beth; Molina, Joe J.; Kumpatla, Siva P.; Thomas, Terry L.; Mirkov, T. Erik
The effects of an extract from Citrus bergamia (BSext) and those of two products purified from the same extract, that is, nomilin and limonin, and reference compounds, towards HTLV-1 have been reported. Moreover, they were also compared with those obtained towards HIV-1. Results showed that the efficacy of both BSext and limonin in inhibiting HTLV-1 as well as HIV-1 expression in infected cells, as evaluated by comparable quantitative assays, was close to that of the effective, reference compounds, respectively. The protective effect of BSext and of the purified products was associated with the inhibition of both HTLV-1 and HIV-1 RT activities in conceptually similar, cell-free assays. The cytotoxicity of the assayed compounds of natural origin was substantially less pronounced than that of the reference compounds, thus showing a favourable selectivity index for the novel BSext product. PMID:21334901
Balestrieri, Emanuela; Pizzimenti, Francesco; Ferlazzo, Angelo; Giofrè, Salvatore V; Iannazzo, Daniela; Piperno, Anna; Romeo, Roberto; Chiacchio, Maria Assunta; Mastino, Antonio; Macchi, Beatrice
The mosquitoes Aedes vexans, Psorophora columbiae and Psorophora howardii have recently extended their habitat distribution into citrus irrigation furrows in coastal southeastern Florida. Oviposition site selection was examined by correlating species abundances with water depths due to rainfall or flood irrigation. Psorophora columbiae and Ps. howardii oviposited low in furrows, shared similar distributional relationships to water depths and were hatched by rainfall or irrigation. Aedes vexans oviposted higher in the citrus furrow, showed a different relationship to water depth and were hatched only by flood irrigation. PMID:2906662
Curtis, G A
The S-methylmethionine sulfonium (MMS) concentrations in fruits of citrus hybrids were measured, and found to increase during ripening of the fruit. However, there of eleven hybrids of 'Seto unshiu' crossed with 'Morita ponkan' and four of 9 hybrids of 'Murcott' tangor crossed with 'Seto unshiu' had low MMS concentrations even at late harvest stage. Crossbreeding is useful in producing new citrus fruits that have juices with the desirable characteristics of their parents without formation of dimethyl sulfide which is an off-flavor. PMID:8987599
Sakamoto, K; Inoue, A; Nakatani, M; Kozuka, H; Ohta, H; Osajima, Y
Alternative energy conserving systems for use in citrus processing plants were synthesized and evaluated in terms of energy savings and economic return. The energy intensive operations that are carried out in citrus processing plants include conveying and extraction, concentration, peel drying, refrigeration, and pasteurization. The alternative energy conserving systems are synthesized from components and subsystems that are arranged to make use of energy cascading and thermodynamic regeneration to reduce the overall energy usage. System requirements such as air pollution rules and plant processing load cycles, a characterization of major operations, description of alternative system concepts, and the evaluation of alternative systems in terms of economic parameters and energy usage are identified.
Leo, M.A.; Lari, R.I.; Moore, N.R.; Broussard, M.R.; Gyamfi, M.
Background Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) threatens rice production in China and Vietnam. The virus is vectored by the migrating white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a circulative, propagative, and persistent manner. A persistently-transmitted plant virus might affect its vector’s development and fecundity directly by infecting the vector itself and/or indirectly altering the host plant. This study evaluated the direct and indirect effects of SRBSDV on WBPH performance to better understand the virus–vector–host plant relationship in terms of its effects on the biological parameters of the vector. Methods Three experimental WBPH populations were established. Viruliferous and non-viruliferous populations were fed on SRBSDV-infected rice seedlings for 48 h as first-instar nymphs; infection status was confirmed by RT–PCR after they died. The control population was fed on healthy rice. Each insect was individually transferred to a healthy rice plant grown in a glass tube at 20°C, 25°C, or 28°C. Life parameters, including nymphal duration, survival rate, adult sex ratio, macropterous proportion, longevity, and oviposition amounts, of each population were measured at each temperature. Results The life parameter data indicated that SRBSDV and infected rice plants adversely influenced WBPH; the effects were temperature dependent. Compared with the control population, viruliferous populations showed significant changes, including prolonged nymphal stages and reduced survival rates at 20°C, while the non-viruliferous population had higher survival rates at 20°C and lower rates at 28°C compared with the control. Both populations had significantly shorter adult life spans at 25°C and lower oviposition amounts at 28°C relative to the control. Conclusions Both SRBSDV-infection and feeding on infected rice plants affected vector performance. Although a longer nymphal period benefits viral acquisition and transmission by nymphs and might increase rice infection rate, in general, SRBSDV infection of the vectors and host plants was unfavorable to WBPH population expansion.
Liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) infection is a health concern throughout Thailand. Liver flukes use the Bithynia spp. snails, which inhabit rice paddy fields, as first intermediate hosts in their life cycle. Water quality and environmental factors could have an effect on snail distribution and their incidence of parasitic infection. Another area of health concern is the presence of Escherichia coli
Amy M. Krueger; Kim N. Irvine
Planococcus citri, the citrus mealybug, is the most important species of mealybug known to infest citrus in South Africa. Various laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes to control P. citri. Adult female P. citri were screened for susceptibility to six indigenous nematode species. P. citri was found to be most susceptible to Steinernema yirgalemense and Heterorhabditis zealandica, causing 97% and 91% mortality, respectively. The development of nematodes after infecting adult female P. citri showed both H. zealandica and S. yirgalemense were able to complete their life cycles inside the host. Further bioassays illustrated a linear relationship between mealybug mortality and the concentration of nematodes applied, with the highest level of control using a concentration of 80 infective juveniles (IJs)/insect. As nematodes would be used as an above-ground application to control P. citri in citrus orchards, available water is a major limiting factor. Insecticidal activity proved to be dependent on the available surface moisture after nematode application. The water activity (a(w)) bioassay indicated that S. yirgalemense to be two times more tolerant to lower levels of free water, with a(w50)=0.96 and a(w90)=0.99, compared to H. zealandica with a(w50)=0.98 and a(w)90=1.0. After application, nematodes have a limited time frame in which to locate and infect hosts, as the level of available free water gradually decreases, as trees dry out. S. yirgalemense proved able to locate and infect P. citri quicker than H. zealandica. Nematode activity was not significantly affected when exposed to 15°C, 20°C and 25°C. IJs were able to infect P. citri at an exposure time as short as half an hour. Results also showed that the first 2-4h post application is the most decisive time for establishing successful infection of mealybugs. This is the first report on the potential use of nematodes for the control of P. citri. PMID:22884676
van Niekerk, Sonnica; Malan, Antoinette P
Summary. ?The outer capsid protein (P8) heterogeneity of rice dwarf virus (RDV) exists not only in purified virus particles, but also\\u000a in RDV-infected rice, transgenic rice expressing P8, E. coli expression of P8 product and the in vitro translation products of S8. N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that P8 is\\u000a a cleavage product of P8?. The cleavage occurs specifically at the
Z. J. Mao; Y. Li; H. Xu; H. H. Zheng; J. Schiemann; R. Casper; Z. L. Chen
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events.
Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis
The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of some citrus fruits. The contents of dietary fibre, total polyphenols, essential phenolics, ascorbic acid and some trace elements of lemons, oranges and grapefruits were determined and compared with their total radical-trapping antioxidative potential (TRAP). There were no significant differences in the contents of total, soluble and insoluble dietary
Shela Gorinstein; Olga Mart??n-Belloso; Yong-Seo Park; Ratiporn Haruenkit; Antonin Lojek; Milan ???ž; Abraham Caspi; Imanuel Libman; Simon Trakhtenberg
Dehydrins are hydrophilic proteins that are responsive to osmotic stress, such as drought, cold, and salinity in plants. Although they have been hypothesized to stabi- lize macromolecules in stressed cells, their functions are not fully understood. Citrus dehydrin, which accu- mulates mainly in response to cold stress, enhances cold tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing lipid peroxidation. It has been
Masakazu Hara; Masataka Fujinaga; Toru Kuboi
Enzymatic treatment during the industrial extraction of lemon-peel oil allows the aqueous discharges from centrifuges to be recycled towards the extractors. Emulsions with stabilized and reduced viscosity are essential for centrifuges to work efficiently. In citrus processing plants, enzyme is added in a manual operation with no viscosity control. However, the correct measurement of this parameter makes it possible to
L. Coll; D. Saura; M. P. Ruiz; J. M. Ros; J. A. Cánovas; J. Laencina
Physical parameters of various citrus peel essential oils were determined in this study. Essential oils from the peels of Kinnow (C. reticulata, var. mandarin), Fewtrell's early (C. reticulata, var. tangerine), Malta (C. sinensis var. malta), Mousami (C. sinensis var. mousami), grape fruit (C. paradisi) and eureka lemon (C. limon) were extracted by applying cold expressing method. Eureka lemon had the
MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ AHMAD; FAQIR MUHAMMAD ANJUM; EHSAN ELAHI BAJWA
This unit of instruction on citrus production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients…
Olson, Jeanne A.; Becker, William J.
The effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment, applied in a continuous system, on physical and chemical properties of freshly squeezed citrus juices (grapefruit, lemon, orange, tangerine) was studied. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of PEF technology on pH, Brix°, electric conductivity, viscosity, nonenzymatic browning index (NEBI), hydroxymethylfurfurol (HMF), color, organic acid content, and
Zs. Cserhalmi; Á. Sass-Kiss; M. Tóth-Markus; N. Lechner
A full-scale, complete mixed activated sludge treatment system effectively treats concentrated citrus process wastes. This process has a BOD reduction capability of 99 percent; but it produces 0.5 to 0.6 pounds of waste sludge per pound of influent BOD. T...
Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppress mosquito larval population. Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used. Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis) was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm), % mortality (97%) and LT50 (18.49 hours) then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate) with LC50 (377.4 ppm), % mortality (88%) and LT50 (31 hours), While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm) than limonin (382.22 ppm) after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 ?g/ml and 21.19 ?g/ml) than freutrall early (5.29 ?g/ml and 3.89 ?g/ml) respectively. Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.
Bilal, Hazrat; Akram, Waseem; Ali-Hassan, Soaib
Following the withdrawal of ephedrine from the dietary supplement marketplace sales of products containing Citrus aurantium (CA) (bitter orange) for weight loss are believed to have increased dramatically. CA contains a number of constituents speculated to lead to weight loss, of which the most frequently cited constituent is synephrine. Concerns have been raised about the safety of products containing synephrine.
D B Allison; G Cutter; E T Poehlman; D R Moore; S Barnes
We report the case of a 52 year old woman that had an adverse reaction after taking a dry herbal extract of an unripe fruit of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara, as dietary supplement for weight loosing. The fruit is also known as zhi shi (in traditional Chinese Medicine) or bitter orange in other parts of the world.
F. Firenzuoli; L. Gori; C. Galapai
To compare the regional variations of the quantitative chemical composition, some Mediterranean citrus oils (lemon, sweet orange, bitter orange, and mandarin) from Italy and Spain have been studied. Over 100 constituents were identified in the various oils, from which 80 components could be quantified.No significant differences were found in the concentrations of the main constituents of sweet orange oils from
Mans H. Boelens; Rafael Jimenez
The occurrence of oxygen heterocyclic compounds in the peel oils from different Citrus species has been investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. The use of a photodiode array detector has facilitated the identification and quantification of the individual coumarins, psoralens and polymethoxyflavones present. Certain oxygen heterocyclic compounds are unique to a particular species, but the majority occur widely in the
David McHale; John B. Sheridan
The consumption of fibers is associated with many health benefits, such as a reduction of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, control of body weight, and prevention of diabetes. Despite the widespread use of fiber supplements such as capsules or tablets, there is an almost complete lack of information concerning the technological properties of functional fibers used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to characterize the technological properties of citrus fibers necessary for their use as a processing aid in tableting. The results obtained showed that citrus fibers share many properties of other polysaccharides used as tableting excipients, such as thermal behavior and compaction mechanism, together with an appreciable tabletability. However, the most interesting properties resulted from their disintegration power. Citrus fibers behaved in a similar manner to the well-known super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium and resulted to be little susceptible to their concentration, to lubricant type, and lubricant concentration. Thus, this work supports the idea of a potential use of citrus fibers as "active" substances and processing aid in the tableting of nutraceutical products and also as functional excipient in pharmaceutical tablets formulation. PMID:24306677
Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Roberts, Matthew; Hanson, Samuel; Jones, Stephen; Makevica, Elina; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo
A new acridone, named citruscridone (1) together with five known compounds were isolated from the wood of Citrus reticulata Blanco. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic evidence. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the wood extracts and pure compounds were evaluated. PMID:23697332
Phetkul, Uraiwan; Wanlaso, Nutthakran; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Carroll, Anthony R
The hydro-distilled volatile oils of fresh and dehydrated lime [Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle] fruit were subjected to GC and GC–MS. A total of 32 compounds, constituting > 98% of the volatiles of fresh lime fruit, were identified. Five sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and two sesquiterpene alcohols were found and identified for the first time in lime fruit. The volatiles from the dehydrated
A. Ramesh Yadav; A. S. Chauhan; M. N. Rekha; L. J. M. Rao; R. S. Ramteke
The present study analyzes the productive structure and the yield of the companies extractors of derivatives of the mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) in Mexico, by means of the generation of quantitative indicators. The margins of commercialization of different products elaborated by the industry calculated; also they were studied the enterprises profitability. The study is referred to the analysis of
Felipe de Jesus Gonzalez Razo; Rolando Rojo Rubio; Orsohe Ramirez Abarca; Jose Miguel Omana Silvestre; Jaime Arturo Matus Gardea; Samuel Rebollar Rebollar
Five plant extracts of Hibiscus subdariffa Linn., Psidium guajava Linn., Punica granatum Linn., Spondias pinnata (Linn.f.)Kurz, and Tamarindus indica Linn. were evaluated for control of canker disease on Citrus aurantifolia (lime) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (XC) (synonym X. campestris pv. citri ) under greenhouse condition. Aqueous extracts of H. subdariffa, P. granatum, S. pinnata, and T. indica exhibited
Chalida Leksomboon; Niphone Thaveechai; Wichai Kositratana
The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production. PMID:24617532
Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A
Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future. PMID:23179022
Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun
The project assesses the effect of photochemical oxidants on the work performance of twelve individual citrus pickers in the South Coast Air Basin of southern California. A model of the picker's decision problem is constructed in which oxidants influence the individual's picking ...
ABSTRACT This study,was,conducted,to determine the relative cholesterol-lowering,effects of several levels of full-fat rice bran in hamsters. In addition, the separate effects of defatted,rice bran,and\\/or crude,rice bran,oil were,investigated,at levels equivalent,to those present,in 43.7% full-fat rice bran. Diets containing 10.9, 21.8, 32.8 or 43.7% full-fat rice bran, 35% defatted rice bran and\\/or 9% rice bran oil were,fed to 4-wk-old male,ham sters. All
Nutrient Metabolism; Talwinder S. Kahlon; Faye I. Chow; Robert Y. Sayre; Antoinette A. Betschart
Plant fungal pathogens change their cell wall components during the infection process to avoid degradation by host lytic enzymes, and conversion of the cell wall chitin to chitosan is likely to be one infection strategy of pathogens. Thus, introduction of chitosan-degradation activity into plants is expected to improve fungal disease resistance. Chitosanase has been found in bacteria and fungi, but not in higher plants. Here, we demonstrate that chitosanase, Cho1, from Bacillus circulans MH-K1 has antifungal activity against the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Introduction of the cho1 gene conferred chitosanase activity to rice cells. Transgenic rice plants expressing Cho1 designed to be localized in the apoplast showed increased resistance to M. oryzae accompanied by increased generation of hydrogen peroxide in the infected epidermal cells. These results strongly suggest that chitosan exists in the enzyme-accessible surface of M. oryzae during the infection process and that the enhancement of disease resistance is attributable to the antifungal activity of the secreted Cho1 and to increased elicitation of the host defense response. PMID:22044963
Kouzai, Yusuke; Mochizuki, Susumu; Saito, Akihiro; Ando, Akikazu; Minami, Eiichi; Nishizawa, Yoko
Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (< 15 % angle slope). Measurement were conducted in four experimental plots located in the Canyoles River watershed to assess the soil water repellency in citrus orchards under different managements: annual addition of plant residues and manure with no tilling and no fertilizer (MNT), annual addition of plant residues with no tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no tilling (HNT) and conventional tillage in June (CT). The period for each type of management ranged from 2 and 27 (MNT), 1 and 25 (NT), 2 and 27 (HNT) and 3 and 29 years (CT). At each plot, a ten points were selected every 10 cm along inter-rows and water drop penetration time test (WDTP; DeBano, 1981) was performed. The results show that the MNT treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT treatments (mean WDTP 4 ± 4 s and 2 ± 2 s, respectively), which may be regarded as subcritical soil water repellency. Slight water repellency observed in soils under MNT treatment may be attributed to the input of hydrophobic organic compounds as a consequence of the addition of plant residues and organic manure. A further issue to be achieved is the study of geomorphological processes associated to sub-critical soil water repellency. The experimental setup within the citrus plantation is being supported by the research project CGL2008-02879/BTE
Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.
A phloem-limited bacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las) is a major pathogen of citrus greening (huanglongbing), one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. The rapid identification and culling of infected trees and budwoods in quarantine are the most important control measures. DNA amplification including conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has commonly been used for rapid detection and identification. However, long and laborious procedures for DNA extraction have greatly reduced the applicability of this method. In this study, we found that the Las bacterial cells in the midribs of infected leaves were extracted rapidly and easily by pulverization and centrifugation with mini homogenization tubes. We also found that the Las bacterial cells in the midrib extract were suitable for highly sensitive direct PCR. The performance of direct PCR using this extraction method was not inferior to that of conventional PCR. Thus, the direct PCR method described herein is characterized by its simplicity, sensitivity, and robustness, and is applicable to quarantine testing. PMID:23437295
Fujikawa, Takashi; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Iwanami, Toru
Rice is the most amenable crop plant for genetic manipulation amongst monocots due to its small genome size, enriched genetic map, availability of entire genome sequence, and relative ease of transformation. Improvement in agronomic traits of rice is bound to affect a sizeable population since it is a primary source of sustenance. Recent advances like use of ‘clean gene’ technology
Hitesh Kathuria; Jitender Giri; Himani Tyagi; Akhilesh K. Tyagi
These studies were conducted at Oilseeds Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad during 2004-05. Rice bran was taken from the Pattoki Rice Mills, Jaranwala and was stabilized to inactivate lipase activity. The oil was extracted through solvent extraction. The extracted oil was subjected to refining process. Different physico-chemical parameters were characterized. The refractive index, peroxide value, iodine value, and free fatty acid
Tahira R; Muhammad Anwar Butt
Magnaporthe oryzae causes rice blast, the most serious foliar fungal disease of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). During hemibiotrophic leaf infection, the pathogen simultaneously combines biotrophic and necrotrophic growth. Here, we provide cytological and molecular evidence that, in contrast to leaf tissue infection, the fungus adopts a uniquely biotrophic infection strategy in roots for a prolonged period and spreads without causing a loss of host cell viability. Consistent with a biotrophic lifestyle, intracellularly growing hyphae of M. oryzae are surrounded by a plant-derived membrane. Global, temporal gene expression analysis used to monitor rice responses to progressive root infection revealed a rapid but transient induction of basal defense-related gene transcripts, indicating perception of the pathogen by the rice root. Early defense gene induction was followed by suppression at the onset of intracellular fungal growth, consistent with the biotrophic nature of root invasion. By contrast, during foliar infection, the vast majority of these transcripts continued to accumulate or increased in abundance. Furthermore, induction of necrotrophy-associated genes during early tissue penetration, previously observed in infected leaves, was not seen in roots. Collectively, our results not only report a global characterization of transcriptional root responses to a biotrophic fungal pathogen but also provide initial evidence for tissue-adapted fungal infection strategies.
Marcel, Sylvain; Sawers, Ruairidh; Oakeley, Edward; Angliker, Herbert; Paszkowski, Uta
Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production. PMID:24003656
Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H
Rice dwarf virus (RDV) causes Rice dwarf disease, which leads to considerable losses in rice production in Asia. Purified RDV virions were used as the immunogen to prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Three murine mAbs against RDV were prepared. Plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA), dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) and immunocapture-RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR) were then developed for sensitive, specific, and rapid detection of RDV in rice and leafhopper samples obtained in the field using the mAbs. The PTA-ELISA, dot-ELISA and IC-RT-PCR detected the virus in infected tissue crude extracts diluted at 1:81,920, 1:10,240 and 1:655,360 (w/v, g mL(-1)), in individual viruliferous rice green leafhopper crude extracts diluted at 1:25,600, 1:6400 and 1:3,276,800 (individual leafhopper/?L), respectively. 878 rice field samples and 531 leafhopper field samples from ten provinces of China were screened for the presence of RDV using the two serological assays and the IC-RT-PCR and the results indicated that 37 of the 878 rice samples and 22 of the 531 leafhopper samples were infected by RDV. All positive samples were from Yunnan Province, indicating that RDV is prevalent in this province, but not in the other nine provinces. The dot-ELISA is suitable for routine detection of large-scale rice and leafhopper samples in field surveys. PMID:24121134
Wu, Jianxiang; Ni, Yuequn; Liu, Huan; Ding, Ming; Zhou, Xueping
We evaluated the influence of gas- trointestinal tract microflora from several species on fiber fermentation characteristics in vitro. Selected fibrous substrates (cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp, and citrus pectin) were incubated for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h with ruminal fluid from cattle or feces from dogs, cats, pigs, horses, or humans. When data were pooled across all substrates and
G. D. Sunvold; H. S. Hussein; G. C. Fahey; N. R. Merchen; G. A. Reinhart
On citrus in Zimbabwe, Swaziland and South Africa, predacious mites of the subfamily Amblyseiinae are more common and found in greater numbers than phytoseiids of the subfamily Phytosciinae. The author's survey and other collection data indicated that within the Amblyseiinae the genus Euseius Wainstein is the most widely distributed. Seven Euseius spp. have been recorded on citrus in the above
T. G. Grout
Background The diseases caused by Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) have been occurring epidemically in China and southeastern Asia in recent years. A sensitive, reliable and quantitative method is required to detect and distinguish for RBSDV and SRBSDV in rice and vector insects. Results We developed a sensitive and lineage-specific duplex real time RT-qPCR for detection of RBSDV and SRBSDV in a single or/and double infection in rice samples. The duplex RT-qPCR was optimized using standard samples transcribed by T7 Large Scale RNA Production System in vitro. We developed a reliable system for duplex RT-qPCR, in which its co-efficiency of RBSDV and SRBSDV, were 91.6% and 90.7%, respectively. The coefficient of determination was more than 0.990; the slope of linear equation was ?3.542, and ?3.567, respectively. Out of 30 samples collected in North and Central China, which were suspected to be infected with these two viruses, 10 samples were detected RBSDV positive by RT-PCR and 12 samples by RT-qPCR. No mixed infections were found. Simultaneously, out of total 60 samples collected from Southern China, which were also suspected to be infected with these two viruses, 41 samples were determined SRBSDV positive by RT-PCR and 47 samples by RT-qPCR. Also in this case no mixed infections were found. The rice genes eEF-1a and UBQ5 were selected as internal controls for quantification assay also performed as good expression stability. Conclusion The duplex RT-qPCR assay provided as a sufficiently sensitive, specific, accurate, reproducible and rapid tool for the detection and differentiation of RBSDV and SRBSDV. The RT-qPCR assay can be used in routine diagnostic of these two viruses in order to study the disease epidemiology in rice crops.
The consumption of ten different varieties of citrus plantation by butterfly Papilio demoleus and its effects on its larval and postlarval development were studied at Tando Mohammad Khan, Lower Sindh. Different type of food showed significant effects on growth rate, food utilization and reproductive potential of this pest. It was revealed that the growth index value was highest being 13.84
Arshad Munir; Nikliat Yasmin; M. Ather Rafi
This study demonstrates the applicability of visible-near infrared and thermal imaging for detection of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease in citrus trees. Visible-near infrared (440–900 nm) and thermal infrared spectral reflectance data were collected from individual healthy and HLB-infected trees. Data analysis revealed that the average reflectance values of the healthy trees in the visible region were lower than those in the near infrared region, while the opposite was the case for HLB-infected trees. Moreover, 560 nm, 710 nm, and thermal band showed maximum class separability between healthy and HLB-infected groups among the evaluated visible-infrared bands. Similarly, analysis of several vegetation indices indicated that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), Vogelmann red-edge index (VOG) and modified red-edge simple ratio (mSR) demonstrated good class separability between the two groups. Classification studies using average spectral reflectance values from the visible, near infrared, and thermal bands (13 spectral features) as input features indicated that an average overall classification accuracy of about 87%, with 89% specificity and 85% sensitivity could be achieved with classification models such as support vector machine for trees with symptomatic leaves.
Sankaran, Sindhuja; Maja, Joe Mari; Buchanon, Sherrie; Ehsani, Reza
In October 1999, the authors received fixed specimens of a species of Longidorus from Howard Ferris found about the roots of a citrus tree in Oakville, Napa County, CA. After determining it to be new a species, we requested additional specimens. The samples contained roughly equal numbers of males and females. Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. is most similar to L. elongatus, but can be distinguished by a greater c-ratio (111-187 vs 73-141), a lesser c´ (0.7-1.1 vs 1.0-1.3), a more offset head, a more posterior guide ring (35-40 vs 30-33 ?m), the presence of sperm in the uterus in mature females, and the approximate 1:1 ratio of females to males. Other similar species include L. artemisiae, L. crassus, L. glycines, and L. milanis. Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. differs from L. artemisiae by a lesser a-ratio (74-102 vs 109-155), a lesser c´ value (0.7-1.1 vs 1.0-1.6), a more posterior guide ring (35-40 vs 27-34 ?m), a longer odontostyle (91-108 vs 84-98 ?m), a wider lip region (16-19 vs 14-17 ?m), wider mid-body (53-69 vs 41-52 ?m), and longer spicules (57-65 vs 39-49 ?m). The new species differs substantially from L. crassus by its lip shape and the presence of males, and differs from L. glycines by a shorter body (4.33-5.97 vs 6.14-8.31 mm), a lesser c´ value (0.7-1.1 vs 0.9-1.4), a narrower lip region (16-19 vs 20-23 ?m), wider mid-body (53-69 vs 39-57 ?m), longer spicules (53-69 vs 45-53 ?m), and fewer supplements (7-11 vs 11-17). Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. differs from L. milanis by a longer body (4.33-5.97vs 3.00-4.90 mm), a greater c value (111-187 vs 86-130), a wider mid-body (53-69 vs 43-56 ?m), a different head shape, and longer spicules (53-69 vs 41-54 ?m). The nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA sequence of this species revealed that this species is unique with respect to all sequenced Longidorus species.
Ye, Weimin; Pedram, Majid
The fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a serious pathogen of rice and other grasses. Telomeric restriction fragments in Magnaporthe isolates that infect perennial ryegrass (prg) are hotspots for genomic rearrangement and undergo frequent, spontaneous alterations during fungal culture. The telomeres of rice-infecting isolates are very stable by comparison. Sequencing of chromosome ends from a number of prg-infecting isolates revealed two related non-LTR retrotransposons (M. oryzae Telomeric Retrotransposons or MoTeRs) inserted in the telomere repeats. This contrasts with rice pathogen telomeres that are uninterrupted by other sequences. Genetic evidence indicates that the MoTeR elements are responsible for the observed instability. MoTeRs represent a new family of telomere-targeted transposons whose members are found exclusively in fungi.
Starnes, John H.; Thornbury, David W.; Novikova, Olga S.; Rehmeyer, Cathryn J.; Farman, Mark L.
Considerable progress has been made on the genetic engineering of rice for improved nutritional content involving micronutrients\\u000a and carotenoid content. Golden Rice, developed by genetic engineering (Agrobacterium and biolistic transformation) was used in rice breeding for the transfer of high-nutritional value to the local rice cultivars.\\u000a Simultaneously, commercial Asian indica rice cultivars were also developed with expression of high-carotenoid levels.
Swapan K. Datta; Karabi Datta; Vilas Parkhi; Mayank Rai; Niranjan Baisakh; Gayatri Sahoo; Sayeda Rehana; Anindya Bandyopadhyay; Editha Abrigo; Norman Oliva; Lina Torrizo
Diurnal change in the temperature below or above 12.5 degrees C hastens the degreening of citrus peel and elicits the phytohormone ethylene production in citrus fruit. Ethylene triggers the degradation of chlorophyll and synthesis of carotenoids in citrus peel. To investigate if ethylene is required for the degreening of citrus peel elicited by low temperatures, we studied the chilling-regulated gene expression of ACC synthase, one of the key enzymes catalyzing ethylene biosynthesis. We isolated and characterized a chilling-inducible 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase) gene, CS-ACS1, and a chilling-repressible gene, CS-ACS2, from citrus peel. The CS-ACS1 transcript 1.7 kb in length encodes a polypeptide of 483 amino acids (Mr 54,115, pI 6.63), whereas the CS-ACS2 transcript of 1.8 kb encodes a polypeptide of 477 amino acids (Mr 53,291, pI 6.72). Both genes showed a rapid but transient induction (within 2.4 h) of transcripts upon rewarming after the chilling (4 degrees C) treatment. After 24 h of incubation at room temperature, CS-ACS1 mRNA diminished to an undetectable level, whereas the CS-ACS2 mRNA regained its basal level of expression attained prior to the chilling treatment. Chilling-induced ethylene production and ACC accumulation were also observed upon rewarming. Both genes were also induced by the wound stress (excision). The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide super-enhances the accumulation of both ACS transcripts at room temperature. Molecular analysis of the 3.3 kb genomic DNA of CS-ACS1 revealed that this gene consists of three introns and four exons. The intron 3 is exceptionally large ( 1.2 kb) and shares significant homology with mitochondrial DNA, supporting the intron-late theory. PMID:10645719
Wong, W S; Ning, W; Xu, P L; Kung, S D; Yang, S F; Li, N
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus (Lam), the presumed causal agents of huanglongbing. D. citri generally rely on olfaction and vision for detection of host cues. Plant volatiles from Allium spp. (Alliaceae) are known to repel several arthropod species. We examined the effect of garlic chive (A. tuberosum Rottl.) and wild onion (A. canadense L.) volatiles on D. citri behaviour in a two-port divided T-olfactometer. Citrus leaf volatiles attracted significantly more D. citri adults than clean air. Volatiles from crushed garlic chive leaves, garlic chive essential oil, garlic chive plants, wild onion plants and crushed wild onion leaves all repelled D. citri adults when compared with clean air, with the first two being significantly more repellent than the others. However, when tested with citrus volatiles, only crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil were repellent, and crushed wild onions leaves were not. Analysis of the headspace components of crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that monosulfides, disulfides and trisulfides were the primary sulfur volatiles present. In general, trisulfides (dimethyl trisulfide) inhibited the response of D. citri to citrus volatiles more than disulfides (dimethyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide, allyl disulfide). Monosulfides did not affect the behaviour of D. citri adults. A blend of dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl disulfide in 1:1 ratio showed an additive effect on inhibition of D. citri response to citrus volatiles. The plant volatiles from Allium spp. did not affect the behaviour of the D. citri ecto-parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). Thus, Allium spp. or the tri- and di-sulphides could be integrated into management programmes for D. citri without affecting natural enemies. PMID:20609277
Mann, R S; Rouseff, R L; Smoot, J M; Castle, W S; Stelinski, L L
The effect of packaging (aerobic and vacuum) either with citrus extract, natamycin individually added, or the combination of two, was studied on the shelf-life of a Greek traditional deli salad "Tzatziki" during storage under refrigeration (4°C). Irrespective of the packaging conditions and treatments, yeasts populations of approximately 4.0-6.5logcfu/g were recorded in the microflora of the salad, whereas the Pseudomonas spp. populations were lower (2-3logcfu/g). Tzatziki's overall flavour was better under vacuum, and of all the treatments examined, the addition of citrus extract, and to a letter extent the combination with natamycin, improved the taste and odour (fruity, pleasant, refreshing with reduced garlic typical flavour) of Tzatziki salad. The shelf-life of Tzatziki was extended by ca. >10days (citrus extract, citrus-natamycin) and 5-6days (natamycin, citrus and citrus-natamycin) under aerobic or vacuum, respectively, as compared to the control sample. PMID:24001860
Tsiraki, Maria I; Savvaidis, Ioannis N
The Sunkist Citrus Plant in Ontario, California, processes about 6 million pounds of citrus fruit per day to make products which include frozen concentrated juice; chilled, pasteurized, natural strength juice; molasses from peel; dried meal from peel; pectin; citrus oil; and bioflavonoids. The energy intensive operations at the plant include concentration, drying, and refrigeration. The objective of the two-year two-phase project is to identify an economically viable alternative to the existing method of meeting energy requirements. Progress on the technical work of Phase I is reported. The following are summarized: requirements (energy price projection, atmospheric emission requirements, citrus juice quality constraints, economic evaluations); characterization (basic citrus processing operations, energy consumption and fruit processed vs time, identification and measurement of energy uses, energy balance for a typical citrus juice evaporator); and thermodynamic analysis (heat pump model, thermal evaporator, and co-generation model).
Abstract Ten Citrus (Linnaeus, 1753) species of North-East India have been karyo-morphologically analysed. All studied species had 2n=18 chromosomes without any evidence of numerical variation. All the chromosomes were found to be of metacentric and sub-metacentric in all the species; the morphology of the chromosomes showing size difference only. Symmetrical karyotype which does not have much difference in the ratio of longest to shortest chromosome in all the species was observed. Three species, Citrus grandis (Osbeck, 1757), Citrus reticulata (Blanco, 1837) and Citrus medica (Linnaeus, 1753) are identified as true basic species from asymmetry studies of karyotypes as they reflect on the primitive nature of their genomes. Citrus indica (Tanaka, 1937)occupies a special taxonomic position within the genus Citrus as a progenitor for other cultivated species.
Hynniewta, Marlykynti; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Rao, Satyawada Rama
Beginning with the famous story of the village girl trying to feed her people, the lesson involves students in the mathematics of exponential growth. Students work collaboratively to come up with a bargaining plan to trick a raja into feeding the village using algebra and estimation. The complete activity includes the development of an exponential equation, but just following the growth of the number of rice grains throughout the story gives a good introduction to exponential growth. Questions for students and ideas for assessment are provided.
Amended final report on the safety assessment of Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Oil, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Oil, Rice Bran Acid,Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Wax, Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax, Oryza Sativa (rice)Bran Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Powder, Oryza Sativa (rice) Starch, Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein, Hydrolyzed Rice Extract, and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein.
This report addresses the safety of cosmetic ingredients derived from rice, Oryza sativa. Oils, Fatty Acids, and Waxes: Rice Bran Oil functions in cosmetics as a conditioning agent--occlusive in 39 formulations across a wide range of product types. Rice Germ Oil is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in six formulations in only four product categories. Rice Bran Acid is described as a surfactant-cleansing agent, but was not in current use. Rice Bran Wax is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in eight formulations in five product categories. Industry did not directly report any use of Rice Bran Wax. Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax is a binder, skin-conditioning agent--occlusive, and viscosity-increasing agent--nonaqueous in 11 formulations in six product categories. Rice Bran Oil had an oral LD50 of > 5 g/kg in white rats and Rice Wax had an oral LD50 of > 24 g/kg in male mice. A three-generation oral dosing study reported no toxic or teratologic effects in albino rats fed 10% Rice Bran Oil compared to a control group fed Peanut Oil. Undiluted Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were not irritants in animal skin tests. Rice Bran Oil was not a sensitizer. Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, Rice Wax, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were negative in ocular toxicity assays. A mixture of Rice Bran Oil and Rice Germ Oil had a ultraviolet (UV) absorption maximum at 315 nm, but was not phototoxic in a dermal exposure assay. Rice Bran Oil was negative in an Ames assay, and a component, gamma-oryzanol, was negative in bacterial and mammalian mutagenicity assays. Rice oils, fatty acids, and waxes were, at most, mildly irritating in clinical studies. Extracts: Rice Bran Extract is used in six formulations in four product categories. Rice Extract is a hair-conditioning agent, but was not in current use. Hydrolyzed Rice Extract is used in four formulations and current concentration of use data were provided for other uses. Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, described as a skin-conditioning agent--miscellaneous, is used in two product categories. Use concentrations are in the 1% to 2% range. Rice Bran Extract is comprised of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, mineral ash, and water. The content includes palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. Other components include antioxidants such as tocopherols. Rice Extract reduced the cytotoxicity of sodium chloride in male rats. Bran, Starch and Powder: Rice Bran (identified as rice hulls) is an abrasive and bulking agent in one formulation. Rice Starch is an absorbent and bulking agent in 51 formulations across a wide range of product categories. Rice Germ Powder is an abrasive and one manufacturer described an exfoliant use, but it was not reported to be used in 2002. Oral carcinogenicity studies done on components of Rice Bran (phytic acid and gamma-oryzanol) were negative. Rice Bran did not have an anticarcinogenic effect on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced large bowel tumors. In cocarcinogenicity studies done using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and other agents, with Rice Bran Oil and Rice Bran-derived hemicellulose and saccharide, tumor inhibition was observed; gamma-oryzanol did not inhibit the development of neoplasms. A decrease in cutaneous lesions in atopic dermatitis patients was reported following bathing with a Rice Bran preparation. Proteins: Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein function as conditioning agents (hair or skin), but only the latter was reported to be used in a few products. An in vitro phototoxicity assay using UVA light found no photochemical toxicity. Rice bran protein hydrolysates are not acutely toxic, are not skin or ocular irritants in animals, are not skin sensitizers in guinea pig maximization tests, and are not irritating or sensitizing in clinical tests. Isolated cases of allergy to raw rice have been reported, but rice, in general, is considered non allergenic. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel considered that safety test data available on certain of these ingredients could be extrapolated to the entire group.
Background Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits rapid, potent and long-lasting lytic activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens, thus having great biotechnological potential. Here, we report a system for producing bioactive cecropin A in rice seeds. Results Transgenic rice plants expressing a codon-optimized synthetic cecropin A gene drived by an endosperm-specific promoter, either the glutelin B1 or glutelin B4 promoter, were generated. The signal peptide sequence from either the glutelin B1 or the glutelin B4 were N-terminally fused to the coding sequence of the cecropin A. We also studied whether the presence of the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal at the C-terminal has an effect on cecropin A subcellular localization and accumulation. The transgenic rice plants showed stable transgene integration and inheritance. We show that cecropin A accumulates in protein storage bodies in the rice endosperm, particularly in type II protein bodies, supporting that the glutelin N-terminal signal peptides play a crucial role in directing the cecropin A to this organelle, independently of being tagged with the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. The production of cecropin A in transgenic rice seeds did not affect seed viability or seedling growth. Furthermore, transgenic cecropin A seeds exhibited resistance to infection by fungal and bacterial pathogens (Fusarium verticillioides and Dickeya dadantii, respectively) indicating that the in planta-produced cecropin A is biologically active. Conclusions Rice seeds can sustain bioactive cecropin A production and accumulation in protein bodies. The system might benefit the production of this antimicrobial agent for subsequent applications in crop protection and food preservation.
Higher nutrient and water use efficiency are possible with microsprinkler- irrigated citrus compared to flood-irrigated citrus. Therefore, new N and P fertilizer recommendations are needed for microsprinkler-irrigated citrus. The objectives of these experiments were to i) determine the effects of N applications on tree growth, fruit yield, fruit and juice quality, and N and P removal in fruit for microsprinkler-irrigated
Thomas L. Thompson; Scott A. White; Ayako Kusakabe
Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of a tetraploid “tetrazyg” citrus rootstock selection ‘Orange #16’ [Nova mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)+Hirado Buntan pummelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck)]×[Cleopatra mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco)+Argentine trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.)] was performed. Juvenile epicotyl segments were transformed with a construct containing a bifunctional egfp–nptII fusion gene under the control of an enhanced double CaMV 35S promoter. Our
M. Dutt; J. Madhavaraj; J. W. Grosser
Boron (B) is an essential microelement for higher plants and has important physiological functions in plant growth and development. Citrus plants are frequently exposed to B-deficiency, but knowledge regarding the effects of B-deficiency on rootstock growth, root morphology and genotypic variations in citrus is limited. To evaluate the variations in plant-growth parameters in response to B-deficiency, five citrus rootstocks seedlings
Li Mei; Ou Sheng; Shu-ang Peng; Gao-feng Zhou; Qing-jiang Wei; Qiao-hong Li
Higher nutrient and water use efficiency are possible with microsprinkler- irrigated citrus compared to flood-irrigated citrus. Therefore, new N and P fertilizer recommendations are needed for microsprinkler-irrigated citrus. The objectives of these experiments were to i) determine the effects of N applications on tree growth, fruit yield, fruit and juice quality, and N and P removal in fruit for microsprinkler-irrigated
Thomas L. Thompson; Scott A. White
Due to their theoretically identical genetic background, citrus callus and other plant tissues may share some mechanisms in\\u000a the regulation of carotenogenesis. Thus, in order to gain further information on light regulation of carotenoids biosynthesis\\u000a in citrus, the carotenoids and expression profiles of carotenogenesis in calluses of four citrus genotypes treated with light\\u000a or dark were investigated. As a response
Huijun GaoJuan; Juan Xu; Xi Liu; Baozhen Liu; Xiuxin Deng
Citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is one of the main pests on citrus trees. Biological control of the pest is based on\\u000a the release of hymenopterous parasitoids and coccinellid predators at present. The effectiveness of entomopathogen fungus\\u000a Isaria farinosa (Holmsk.) Fries ([Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales] (Syn: Paecilomyces farinosus), as an alternative biological control agent on citrus mealybug, was investigated using
Fikret Demirci; Murat Mu?tu; M. Bora Kaydan; Selma Ülgentürk
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding small RNAs. Considering the conservation of many miRNA genes in different plant genomes, the identification of miRNAs from non-model organisms is both practicable and instrumental in addressing miRNA-guided gene regulation. Citrus is an important staple fruit tree, and publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST) database for citrus are increasing. However, until now, little has been known about miRNA in citrus. In this study, 27 known miRNAs from Arabidopsis were searched against citrus EST databases for miRNA precursors, of which 13 searched precursor sequences could form fold-back structures similar with those of Arabidopsis. The ubiquitous expression of those 13 citrus microRNAs and other 13 potential citrus miRNAs could be detected in citrus leaf, young shoot, flower, fruit and root by northern blotting, and some of them showed differential expression in different tissues. Based on the fact that miRNAs exhibit perfect or nearly perfect complementarity with their target sequences, a total of 41 potential targets were identified for 15 citrus miRNAs. The majority of the targets are transcription factors that play important roles in citrus development, including leaf, shoot, and root development. Additionally, some other target genes appear to play roles in diverse physiological processes. Four target genes have been experimentally verified by detection of the miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage in Poncirus trifoliate. Overall, this study in the identification and characterization of miRNAs in citrus can initiate further study on citrus miRNA regulation mechanisms, and it can help us to know more about the important roles of miRNAs in citrus. PMID:19585144
Song, Changnian; Fang, Jinggui; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Hong; Thomas Chao, C
The importance of rice as a basic foodstuff to over half of the world's populations can not be underestimated, and it was with this fact in mind that the International Rice Research Institute first developed the idea for the International Year of Rice in 1999. Working in tandem with the United Nations General Assembly, the Institute set up a number of partnerships, conferences, lectures, and research agendas to take place throughout the year 2004 and beyond. The site contains links to numerous important papers, such as the collection available here from the recent conference titled Rice in Global Markets and Sustainable Production Systems, which was held in Rome. Beyond various scholarly and policy-oriented resources, visitors can learn about the rice photography contest, submit recipes to a forthcoming rice-themed cookbook, and explore a kids section that offers some basic facts about rice, along with a short quiz. The site is available in a number of different languages, including Italian, Spanish, French, Arabic, and Japanese.
Seedlings of the hybrid citrus rootstock, Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata) do not uniformly limit development of the citrus burrowing nematode, Radopholus citrophilus. Variation in nematode population densities in roots of seedlings germinating from the same seed suggests that factors responsible for nematode incompatibility are not functional or are not inherited uniformly among progeny. Seeds which produced a single seedling were more likely to produce plants which suppressed citrus burrowing nematode population increase than were seeds which produced two or three seedlings. PMID:19294135
Kaplan, D T
The fermentation products of Monascus, especially those produced by solid-state fermentation of rice, have been used as food and health remedies for over 1000 years in China. Monascus rice products (MRPs) are currently being used as health foods in the United States and many Asian countries such as Japan, Taiwan, China, Korea, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Many studies have shown that Monascus spp. produce commercially viable metabolites, including food colorants, cholesterol-lowering agents, and antibiotics. The most important bioactive compound isolated from Monascus is monacolin K, which is identical to the potent cholesterol-lowering, antiatherosclerotic drug lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor. Several species of the genus Monascus also produce citrinin, a mycotoxin harmful to the hepatic and renal systems. Monacolin K and citrinin are polyketide fungal metabolites. The biosynthetic pathways leading to the formation of polyketides, including monacolin K and citrinin, have been elucidated in Aspergillus and Monascus. The concern for safety is, therefore, high for the development of MRPs as health foods. Other attractive applications for MRPs are likely, as supported by recent studies that indicate that MRPs contain other substances (flavonoids, polyunsaturated fats, phytosterols, pyrrolinic compounds, and others) with a wide variety of biological activities and pharmacological potentials. Their effects in lowering blood sugar and triacylglycerol while raising HDL-C are more pronounced than those of monacolin K alone. Beyond cholesterol lowering, MRP may also be an ideal candidate for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. PMID:17900498
Wang, Tseng-Hsing; Lin, Tzann-Feng
Background Rice and maize dwarf diseases caused by the newly introduced Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) have led to severe economic losses in South China in recent years. The distribution and diversity of SRBSDV have not been investigated in the main rice and maize growing areas in China. In this study, the distribution of SRBSDV in China was determined by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Between 2009 and 2010, 2404 plant samples (2294 rice, 110 maize samples, and more than 300 cultivars) with dwarf symptoms were collected from fields in 194 counties of 17 provinces in China and SRBSDV was detected. The results indicated that 1545 (64.27%) of samples (both rice and maize) were infected with SRBSDV. SRBSDV was detected widely in Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces, which suggests SRBSDV is an important pathogen causing rice dwarfing diseases in South China. Phylogenetic analysis of 15 representative virus isolates revealed that SRBSDV isolates in China had high levels of nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities (>97.8%). Conclusions SRBSDV spreads naturally in Yangtze River basin and south region, the location of the major rice production areas. In comparison, the virus rarely spreads north of Yangtze River in North China. Distribution of SRBSDV is consistent with the migrating and existing ranges of its vector WBPH, suggesting that SRBSDV might be introduced into South China along with the migration of viruliferous WBPH.
Next to yield, grain quality is the major objective of rice breeding programs. This report describes the quality characteristics of milled rice as assessed by IRRI's Chemistry Department since 1962. Rice samples were obtained from government rice breeding...
B. O. Juliano C. G. Pascual
This study reports the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CH) and Locust Bean Gum (LBG) in combination with different citrus essential oils (EOs) to inhibit Aspergillus flavus in vitro and on artificially infected dates for a storage period of 12 days. The effect of these treatments on the fruits' sensory characteristics was evaluated to verify the complete absence of off-odours and off-flavours. Bergamot EO was the most effective in reducing mycelial growth, followed by bitter orange EO. Both bergamot and bitter orange oils significantly reduced conidial germination and a complete inhibition was obtained at concentrations higher than 2%. The mixtures based on CH-2% (v/v) bergamot EO or CH-2% (v/v) bitter orange EO proved to be the most effective coatings to reduce conidial germination resulting in an 87-90% inhibition compared with the control. In fruit decay assays coatings based on CH incorporating citrus oils were able to reduce fungal decay in the range of 52-62% at day 12. The study results and the complete absence of off-flavours and off-odours demonstrate the potential of CH coatings carrying citrus EOs at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control postharvest growth of A. flavus in dates. PMID:24291176
Aloui, Hajer; Khwaldia, Khaoula; Licciardello, Fabio; Mazzaglia, Agata; Muratore, Giuseppe; Hamdi, Moktar; Restuccia, Cristina
The volatile components of Hyuganatsu (Citrus tamurana Hort. ex Tanaka) peel oil, isolated by cold-pressing, were investigated by chemical and sensory analyses. According to chemical analysis by GC and GC-MS, limonene (84.0%) was the most abundant compound, followed by gamma-terpinene (6.9%), myrcene (2.2%), alpha-pinene (1.2%), and linalool (1.0%). Monoterpene hydrocarbons were predominant in Hyuganatsu peel oil. The odor-active volatiles in Hyuganatsu flavor were studied by GC-olfactometry and omission tests. The characteristic flavor was present in the oxygenated fraction. Flavor dilution (FD) factors of the volatile flavor components of the Hyuganatsu cold-pressed oil were determined by aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). Furthermore, relative flavor activity was investigated by means of FD factor and weight percent. Ten kinds of odor compounds having Hyuganatsu-like aroma were detected by AEDA: limonene, linalool, octanol, neral, neryl acetate, tridecanal, trans-carveol, cis-nerolidol, trans,trans-farnesyl acetate, and trans,trans-farnesol. Linalool and octanol were regarded as the most odor-active or key compounds of Hyuganatsu aroma. Diluted solutions of linalool and octanol of approximately 2 ppm gave a fresh and fruity aroma note similar to Hyuganatsu flavor. PMID:11368611
Choi, H S; Kondo, Y; Sawamura, M
Data requirements, tasks to be accomplished, and the technical approaches to be used in identifying the characteristics of rice for crop inventories are listed as well as methods for estimating crop development and assessing its conditions.
The origin recognition complex (ORC) is composed of six subunits and plays an important role in DNA replication in all eukaryotes. The ORC subunits OsORC6 as well as the other five ORC subunits in rice were experimentally isolated and sequenced. It indicated that there also exist six ORC subunits in rice. Results of RT-PCR indicated that expression of all the rice ORC genes are no significant difference under 26°C and 34°C. Yeast two hybridization indicated that OsORC2, -3, -5 interact with each other. OsORC5 can then bind OsORC4 to form the OsORC2, -3,-4,-5 core complex. It suggested that the basic interactions have been conserved through evolution. No binding of OsORC1 and OsORC6 with the other subunits were observed. A model of ORC complex in rice is proposed. PMID:23733064
Tan, Deyong; Lv, Qundan; Chen, Xinai; Shi, Jianghua; Ren, Meiyan; Wu, Ping; Mao, Chuanzao
The origin recognition complex (ORC) is composed of six subunits and plays an important role in DNA replication in all eukaryotes. The ORC subunits OsORC6 as well as the other five ORC subunits in rice were experimentally isolated and sequenced. It indicated that there also exist six ORC subunits in rice. Results of RT-PCR indicated that expression of all the rice ORC genes are no significant difference under 26°C and 34°C. Yeast two hybridization indicated that OsORC2, -3, -5 interact with each other. OsORC5 can then bind OsORC4 to form the OsORC2, -3,-4,-5 core complex. It suggested that the basic interactions have been conserved through evolution. No binding of OsORC1 and OsORC6 with the other subunits were observed. A model of ORC complex in rice is proposed.
Tan, Deyong; Lv, Qundan; Chen, Xinai; shi, Jianghua; Ren, Meiyan; Wu, Ping; Mao, Chuanzao
Farm mechanization can directly relieve labor shortages during tilling, transplanting, harvesting, and threshing; indirect benefits accruing to mechanization may also be substantial. This paper makes a case for the increased mechanization of rice farming ...
R. C. Fischer
Citrus is a cold-sensitive genus and most commercially important varieties of citrus are susceptible to freezes. On the other hand, Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. is an interfertile Citrus relative that can tolerate temperatures as low as ?26C when fully cold acclimated. Therefore, it has been used for improving cold tolerance in cold-sensitive commercial citrus rootstock varieties and in attempts to
Gloria A. Moore
The volatile compounds of Citrus juices have been extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). This work deals with the analysis of 65 cross pollinated hybrid fruits and their parents: mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Willow Leaf) and clementine (Citrus reticulata×Citrus sinensis var. Commune). Among the 44 components identified which
Toussaint Barboni; François Luro; Nathalie Chiaramonti; Jean-Marie Desjobert; Alain Muselli; Jean Costa
Seven species of phytoseiid mites were collected from citrus trees in the Mediterranean region during a survey in 1971.Amblyseius stipulatus\\u000a Athias-Henriot was the most abundant and widespread species in all countries surveyed (Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain).A. californicus (McGregor) was collected only in Spain;A. potentillae (Garman) andPhytoseiulus persimilis. A.-H. only in Italy.Typhlodromus talbii A.-H. was collected in Greece and Spain,T. athiasae
J. A. McMurtry
This article describes the implementation and applications of computational-statistical surveillance system for the Citrus Sudden Death Disease. The data is stored in a spatio-temporal TerraLib database and statistical analysis are performed using functions written as a add-on pack- age for the R language called Rcitrus which implements some specialized statistical methods and also interfaces with other packages such as geoR,
Elias Teixeira Krainski; Paulo Justiniano Ribeiro Jr.; Pedro Ribeiro De Andrade Neto; Renato Beozzo Bassanezi
The production of cybrids, combining nucleus of a species with alien cytoplasmic organelles, is a valuable method used for\\u000a improvement of various crops. Several citrus cybrids have been created by somatic hybridization. These genotypes are interesting\\u000a models to analyze the impact of cytoplasmic genome change on nuclear genome expression. Herein, we report genome-wide gene\\u000a expression analysis in leaves of a
Jean-Baptiste Bassene; Yann Froelicher; Luis Navarro; Patrick Ollitrault; Gema Ancillo
Mineral deficiencies are well-established causal factor(s) for sub-optimum production in citrus. Identifying nutrient constraints based on morphological symptoms or in combination with leaf\\/soil analysis is often misleading, especially with reference to remediating the nutritional problems of a standing crop. The task becomes further confounded by other co-factors under the conditions favoring the occurrence of multi-nutrient deficiency. Important biochemical markers for
A. K. Srivastava; Shyam Singh
The aim of this study was to find an alternative to the chemical fungicides currently used in the control of postharvest citrus\\u000a fruit diseases. Here we screened twenty-one medicinal and aromatic plants used in southern Moroccan traditional medicine for\\u000a their activity against Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum and Geotrichum candidum. The antifungal efficacy of powders, essential oils and solvent extracts of
N. Ameziane; H. Boubaker; H. Boudyach; F. Msanda; A. Jilal; A. Ait Benaoumar
Aim of the studyA Chinese herbal formula, Hu-qi-yin possessed an anti-pulmonary fibrosis effect. Pericarp of Citrus reticulata, one of the herbal drugs contained in this formula showed the most potent inhibitory activity on the proliferation of human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF). The present study was designed to clarify the active principles responsible for the activity and further explore the anti-pulmonary
Xian-Mei Zhou; Min-Min Huang; Cui-Cui He; Jian-Xin Li
Mixer-loaders and applicators of the pesticide dicofol in Florida citrus groves were monitored for exposure. Alpha-cellulose pads were placed inside and outside regular work clothing. When protective suits were in use, pads were also placed outside the suit. Dicofol accumulation rates were measured when gloves and\\/or facemasks were worn. Hand rinses were collected. Results showed that an ungloved, normally attired
H. N. Nigg; J. H. Stamper; R. M. Queen
A new limonoid, named Citriolide-A (1), along with the known structurally related compounds 2-5, was isolated from the liposoluble extract of the seeds of Citrus reticulata Blanco. The structure of Citriolide-A (1) was elucidated by means of EI, 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 exhibited medium cytotoxicity against P-388 and A-549 cell lines. PMID:21834637
Liao, Jun; Xu, Teng; Liu, Yun-Hai; Wang, Shi-Zhong
. The involvement of gibberellins (GAs) and ethylene in the process of root radial expansion was studied in young seedlings\\u000a of Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.?×?Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.]. The GA inhibitors cycocel, paclobutrazol, and tetcyclacis enhanced radial expansion of the root tip (up to 2.3-fold)\\u000a as a result of increases in stele diameter and inner cortex width. The
F. R. Tadeo; A. Gómez-Cadenas; W. Ben-Cheikh; E. Primo-Millo; M. Talón
We report the construction of an RFLP genetic map of rice (Oryza sativa) chromosomes. The map is comprised of 135 loci corresponding to clones selected from a PstI genomic library. This molecular map covers 1,389 cM of the rice genome and exceeds the current classical maps by more than 20%. The map was generated from F2 segregation data (50 individuals)
S. R. McCouch; G. Kochert; Z. H. Yu; Z. Y. Wang; G. S. Khush; W. R. Coffman; S. D. Tanksley
The RICE experiment (Radio Ice Cherenkov Experiment) at South Pole consists of an array of dipole antennas designed to detect the coherent radio frequency radiation produced by neutrino-induced showers in the Antarctic ice. We report updated limits on the ultra-high energy neutrino flux, based on RICE data taken between 2000 an 2005. These limits also reflect improvements in Monte Carlo simulations and detector modeling.
Besson, Dave Z.
This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden. PMID:16410968
Hamed, Manal A; Hetta, Mona H
Seasonal transformations between chloroplasts and chromoplasts, as measured by changes in chlorophyll content, in the epicarp of degreening and regreening Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv Valencia fruit closely parallelled the accumulation and later loss of soluble sugars. At any stage of development, reversing the relative soluble sugar content in the epicarp by culturing pericarp segments on agar media with low (15 millimolar) or high (150 millimolar) sucrose concentrations reversed the direction of change in chlorophyll content. Fruit of C. madurensis Lour., which mature year around and do not regreen, also accumulated soluble sugars in the pericarp as degreening was initiated.The epicarp of C. sinensis fruit accumulated nitrogen, but total nitrogen concentrations and amino acid concentrations changed little, during degreening and regreening of C. sinensis fruit. Cessation of nitrogen fertilization reduced the tendency of pericarp segments to regreen in vitro during subsequent years, but regreening tendency was restored by inclusion of KNO(3) in the media.It is concluded that chloroplasts become chromoplasts and citrus fruit degreen partially in response to the accumulation of sugars in the epicarp and that the reverse transformation accompanying regreening of certain citrus species occurs when accumulated sugars disappear. Change in nitrogen flux to the fruit is probably not a factor in regulating seasonal transformations, but an abundance of nitrogen in the epicarp diminishes the effects of high sugar concentrations in inducing transformation of chloroplasts to chromoplasts, thereby retarding degreening and promoting regreening. PMID:16663837
Triploid hybrid Citrus plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis in vitro from endosperm derived calli. A sequence of media formulations was used to induce and support proliferation of primary callus from endosperm, to induce embryogenesis from primary callus, and to allow embryo development leading to viable plantlets. Calli were induced from cellular endosperm of Citrus sinensis (sweet orange), C. Xparadisi (grapefruit), and C. grandis (pummelo) excised 12-14 weeks post-anthesis. Induction of embryogenesis from sweet orange and pummelo primary calli required gibberellic acid and double mineral nutrient concentrations. Embryogenesis was not induced from grapefruit calli in these experiments. Only sweet orange embryos developed sufficiently to allow plant regeneration. Triploid axillary buds were minigrafted onto etiolated diploid rootstock seedlings in vitro in order to transfer triploid regenerants to soil and the external environment. Triploidy (2n = 3x = 27) was observed consistently in all phases of regeneration and in recovered plants. These results demonstrate that triploid hybrid plant recovery from Citrus endosperm can overcome barriers to sexual hybridization resulting from apomixis. PMID:24221109
Gmitter, F G; Ling, X B; Deng, X X
Wound ethylene formation induced in flavede tissue of citrus fruit (Citrus paradisi MacFad. cv. Ruby Red) by slicing was almost completely inhibited by exogenous ethylene. The inhibition lasted for at least 6 hours after removal of exogenous ethylene and was then gradually relieved. The extent of inhibition was dependent upon the concentration of ethylene (1 to 10 microliters/liter) and the duration of treatment. The increase in wound ethylene production in control discs was paralleled by an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (AAC) content, whereas in ethylene-treated discs there was little increase in ACC content. Application of ACC completely restored ethylene production in ethylene-pretreated discs, indicating that the conversion of ACC to ethylene is not impaired by the presence of ethylene. Thus, autoinhibition of ethylene synthesis was exerted by reducing the availability of ACC. Ethylene treatment resulted in a decrease in extractable ACC synthase activity, but this decrease was too small to account for the marked inhibition of ACC formation. The data indicate that autoinhibition of ethylene production in citrus flavede discs results from suppression of ACC formation through repression of the synthesis of ACC synthase and inhibition of its activity.
Riov, Joseph; Yang, Shang Fa
Severe Florida citrus freezes since 1880 are identified and described in terms of the horticultural damage, overall frequency of occurrence, and association with polar anticyclone outbreaks in the plains of southern Canada and the United States. The most severe `advective' freezes are associated with strong cold anticyclones having tracks southward across the plains to Texas with subsequent northeastward movement. Other anticyclones move in a track somewhat east of this and ultimately pass over Florida or the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Over 80% of the worst Florida citrus freezes are associated with anticyclones with central pressures in excess of 1045 mb moving along these paths. However, anticyclones of similar intensity with more zonally oriented paths across higher latitudes are associated with minor citrus damage. The major freezes tend to be clustered in time in the 1890s and since 1977. On interdecadal time scales, the recent freezes are not linked to higher winter mean pressure in the northern plains, and there has not been an unusually high frequency of strong anticyclones in recent decades, compared to earlier this century. Compared to the freeze-free period of 1948-57, the winters of 1977-86 are characterized by a more amplified 500-mb mean standing wave pattern across North America. This is linked to changes in the Pacific/North American upper-air teleconnection pattern, the index for which had much lower values (characterized by zonal flow) prior to 1958.
Rogers, Jeffrey C.; Rohli, Robert V.
ABSTRACT The genetic inheritance of resistance to leprosis, the most important viral disease of citrus in Brazil, was characterized through the phenotypic assessment of 143 hybrids resulting from crosses between tangor 'Murcott' (Citrus sinensis x C. reticulata) and sweet orange 'Pêra' (C. sinensis), considered to be resistant and susceptible to the disease, respectively. All plants were grafted onto Rangpur lime (C. limonia) and inoculated with Citrus leprosis virus, cytoplasmic type through the infestation with viruliferous mites, Brevipalpus phoenicis. The experiments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with 10 replicates. Incidence and severity of the disease in leaves and stems as well as plant growth parameters (plant height and stem diameter) were recorded for 3 years after the infestation with the viruliferous mites. The average values of all variables were analyzed using principal component analysis, discriminant factorial analysis, estimation of the clonal repeatability coefficients, and frequency of the distributions of the average values for each measured variable. The principal component analysis resulted in the identification of at least two groups with resistance and susceptibility to leprosis, respectively. About 99% of all hybrids were correctly classified according to the discriminant factorial analysis. The broad-sense heritability coefficients for characteristics associated with incidence and severity of leprosis ranged from 0.88 to 0.96. The data suggest that the inheritance of resistance to leprosis may be controlled by only a few genes. PMID:18943497
Bastianel, Marinês; de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Cristofani, Mariângela; Filho, Oliveiro Guerreiro; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Rodrigues, Vandeclei; Astúa-Monge, Gustavo; Machado, Marcos Antônio
We investigated 151 non-redundant NAC genes in rice and 117 in Arabidopsis. A complete overview of this gene family in rice is presented, including gene structures, phylogenies, genome localizations, and expression profiles. We also performed a comparative analysis of these genes in rice and Arabidopsis. Conserved amino acid residues and phylogeny construction using the NAC conserved domain sequence suggest that OsNAC gene family was classified broadly into two major groups (A and B) and sixteen subgroups in rice. We presented more specific phylogenetic analysis of OsNAC proteins based on the DNA-binding domain and known gene function, respectively. Loss of introns was observed in the segmental duplication. Homologous, paralogous, and orthologous searches of rice and Arabidopsis revealed that the major functional diversification within the NAC gene family predated the divergence of monocots and dicots. The chromosomal localizations of OsNAC genes indicated nine segmental duplication events involving 18 genes; 32 non-redundant OsNAC genes were involved in tandem duplications. Expression levels of this gene family were checked under various abiotic stresses (cold, drought, submergence, laid-down submergence, osmot