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1

Natural rice rhizospheric microbes suppress rice blast infections  

PubMed Central

Background The natural interactions between plant roots and their rhizospheric microbiome are vital to plant fitness, modulating both growth promotion and disease suppression. In rice (Oryza sativa), a globally important food crop, as much as 30% of yields are lost due to blast disease caused by fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Capitalizing on the abilities of naturally occurring rice soil bacteria to reduce M. oryzae infections could provide a sustainable solution to reduce the amount of crops lost to blast disease. Results Naturally occurring root-associated rhizospheric bacteria were isolated from California field grown rice plants (M-104), eleven of which were taxonomically identified by16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. Bacterial isolates were tested for biocontrol activity against the devastating foliar rice fungal pathogen, M. oryzae pathovar 70–15. In vitro, a Pseudomonas isolate, EA105, displayed antibiosis through reducing appressoria formation by nearly 90% as well as directly inhibiting fungal growth by 76%. Although hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a volatile commonly produced by biocontrol pseudomonads, the activity of EA105 seems to be independent of its HCN production. During in planta experiments, EA105 reduced the number of blast lesions formed by 33% and Pantoea agglomerans isolate, EA106 by 46%. Our data also show both EA105 and EA106 trigger jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) dependent induced systemic resistance (ISR) response in rice. Conclusions Out of 11 bacteria isolated from rice soil, pseudomonad EA105 most effectively inhibited the growth and appressoria formation of M. oryzae through a mechanism that is independent of cyanide production. In addition to direct antagonism, EA105 also appears to trigger ISR in rice plants through a mechanism that is dependent on JA and ET signaling, ultimately resulting in fewer blast lesions. The application of native bacteria as biocontrol agents in combination with current disease protection strategies could aid in global food security. PMID:24884531

2014-01-01

2

New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia  

E-print Network

New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia M. Van Wyk a serious canker- stain disease on coffee as well as other fruit trees. Large collections of these isolates. The aim of this study was to compare representatives of these two groups of isolates from coffee, citrus

3

Infectivity of the multiple nucleoprotein and RNA components of citrus leaf rugose virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleoprotein components of citrus leaf rugose virus (CLRV) were separated by two cycles of density gradient centrifugation and designated, from slowest to most rapidly sedimenting, TZ, MZ, and BZ. Only the BZ component was infectious, but the addition of either TZ or MZ to BZ preparations increased infectivity. Ribonuclease, but not DNase, abolished infectivity of CLRV nucleic acid preparations.

D. GONSALVES; S. M. GARNSEY; Accepted June

1974-01-01

4

Water relations of rough lemon ( Citrus jambhiri Lush.) citrus seedlings infected with Fusarium solani  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Rough lemon citrus seedlings were inoculated withFusarium solani and evaluated for changes in water relations of leaves, stems, and roots. Inoculated seedlings had decreased leaf stomatal\\u000a conductance, lower leaf water potential, lower water content, and higher leaf osmotic values compared to healthy plants. Visible\\u000a wilt symptoms occurred as early as 24 h after inoculation. Transpiration and root conductivity were lower

S. Nemec; J. Syversten; Y. Levy

1986-01-01

5

Simultaneous determination of nickel, lead, zinc, and copper in citrus leaves and rice flour by liquid chromatography with hexamethylenedithiocarbamate extraction  

SciTech Connect

Reversed-phase liquid chromatography followed by solvent extraction with hexamethyleneammonium hexamethylenedithiocarbamate (HMA-HMDC) was carried out to determine Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu in standard reference citrus leaves and rice flour. These samples (250 mg) were ashed with nitric acid and perchloric acid. The metals in the ash were extracted into chloroform as HMDC chelates which were then separated on a C 18 column and monitored at 260 nm. The microgram per gram levels of Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu in the standard biological materials were simultaneously determined within 25 min. 22 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Ichinoki, S.; Yamazaki, M.

1985-10-01

6

Metabolite signature of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infection in two citrus varieties.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as Citrus Greening Disease, is caused by the bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) and is a serious threat to the citrus industry. To understand the effect of CLas infection on the citrus metabolome, juice from healthy (n = 18), HLB-asymptomatic (n = 18), and HLB-symptomatic Hamlin (n = 18), as well as from healthy (n = 18) and HLB-symptomatic (n = 18) Valencia sweet oranges (from southern and eastern Florida) were evaluated using (1)H NMR-based metabolomics. Differences in the concentration of several metabolites including phenylalanine, histidine, limonin, and synephrine between control or asymptomatic fruit and symptomatic fruit were observed regardless of the citrus variety or location. There were no clear differences between the metabolite profiles of Hamlin fruits classified by PCR as asymptomatic and control, suggesting that some of the control fruit may have been infected. Taken together, these data indicate that infection due to CLas presents a strong metabolic response that is observed across different cultivars and regions, suggesting the potential for generation of metabolite-based biomarkers of CLas infection. PMID:24959841

Chin, Elizabeth L; Mishchuk, Darya O; Breksa, Andrew P; Slupsky, Carolyn M

2014-07-16

7

Infection of Rice Plants by Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus Improves an Egg Parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), of Rice Planthoppers.  

PubMed

The effects of rice plants infected by rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) on the host preference, duration of immature stages, sex ratio, and adult longevity and parasitic capacity of an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang, of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, were evaluated. Tests of response to plant volatiles using an olfactometer showed that A. nilaparvatae preferred rice plants harboring rice brown planthopper eggs over plants free of rice brown planthopper eggs. However, both the response to plant volatiles and the host selectivity test showed no significant differences in host preference between RBSDV-infected plants and healthy plants when both contained rice brown planthopper eggs. The developmental duration at immature stage of the male A. nilaparvatae in rice brown planthopper eggs on RBSDV-infected rice plants was significantly prolonged, and the parasitic capacity of rice brown planthopper eggs was significantly increased in comparison with the A. nilaparvatae parasite in rice brown planthopper eggs on healthy rice plants. There were no significant differences between RBSDV-infected rice plants and healthy rice plants in other ecological fitness parameters, including the developmental duration of female adults, female percentage, and adult longevity of A. nilaparvatae. PMID:25199055

Xu, Hongxing; He, Xiaochan; Zheng, Xusong; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

2014-10-01

8

Penicillium digitatum Suppresses Production of Hydrogen Peroxide in Host Tissue During Infection of Citrus Fruit.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT During the infection of citrus fruit by Penicillium digitatum there is little evidence of a host defense response. This suggests that P. digitatum has the ability to suppress host defenses. The current study demonstrates that P. digitatum suppresses a defense-related hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) burst in host tissue. In contrast, the nonhost pathogen, Penicillium expansum, triggers production of a significant amount of H(2)O(2) in citrus fruit exocarp. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that P. digitatum suppressed an elevation in H(2)O(2) up to 42 h after inoculation. Nevertheless, H(2)O(2) levels around wounds inoculated with P. expansum increased by 63-fold above the control. P. digitatum continued to suppress H(2)O(2) production in citrus fruit exocarp up to 66 h postinoculation and H(2)O(2) levels were actually threefold below that of noninoculated controls. In contrast, the H(2)O(2) level was still about 11-fold above the control value in wound sites inoculated with P. expansum. Studies on the effect of organic acids (as pH modulators) on the response of citrus fruit to compatible and noncompatible pathogens indicated that pathogenicity was enhanced only when host-tissue acidification was accompanied by the suppression of H(2)O(2). Additionally, pathogenicity of both P. digitatum and P. expansum on citrus fruit was significantly enhanced by the H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzyme catalase. Based on our study and previous reports regarding the potential involvement of citric acid and catalase in green mold pathogenesis, we suggest that these compounds are strongly associated with the virulence of P. digitatum. PMID:18943520

Macarisin, D; Cohen, L; Eick, A; Rafael, G; Belausov, E; Wisniewski, M; Droby, S

2007-11-01

9

Transcriptional and Microscopic Analyses of Citrus Stem and Root Responses to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Infection  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease that affects citrus worldwide. The disease has been associated with Candidatus Liberibacter. HLB diseased citrus plants develop a multitude of symptoms including zinc and copper deficiencies, blotchy mottle, corky veins, stunting, and twig dieback. Ca. L. asiaticus infection also seriously affects the roots. Previous study focused on gene expression of leaves and fruit to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. In this study, we compared the gene expression levels of stems and roots of healthy plants with those in Ca. L. asiaticus infected plants using microarrays. Affymetrix microarray analysis showed a total of 988 genes were significantly altered in expression, of which 885 were in the stems, and 111 in the roots. Of these, 551 and 56 were up-regulated, while 334 and 55 were down-regulated in the stem and root samples of HLB diseased trees compared to healthy plants, respectively. Dramatic differences in the transcriptional responses were observed between citrus stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection, with only 8 genes affected in both the roots and stems. The affected genes are involved in diverse cellular functions, including carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, biotic and abiotic stress responses, signaling and transcriptional factors, transportation, cell organization, protein modification and degradation, development, hormone signaling, metal handling, and redox. Microscopy analysis showed the depletion of starch in the roots of the infected plants but not in healthy plants. Collapse and thickening of cell walls were observed in HLB affected roots, but not as severe as in the stems. This study provides insight into the host response of the stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. PMID:24058486

Aritua, Valente; Achor, Diann; Gmitter, Frederick G.; Albrigo, Gene; Wang, Nian

2013-01-01

10

Differential tropism in roots and shoots infected by Citrus tristeza virus.  

PubMed

Virus tropism is a result of interactions between virus, host and vector species, and determines the fate of an infection. In this study, we examined the infection process of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in susceptible and resistant species, and found that the tropism of CTV is not simply phloem limited, but tissue specific. In resistant species, virus infection was not prevented, but mostly restricted to the roots. This phenomenon was also observed after partial replacement of genes of one CTV strain from another, despite both parental strains being capable of systemic infection. Finally, the roots remained susceptible in the absence of viral gene products needed for systemic infection of shoots. Our results suggest that all phloem cells within a plant are not equally susceptible and that changes in host or virus may produce a novel tropism: restriction by the host to a location where further virus spread is prevented. PMID:25010274

Harper, S J; Cowell, S J; Robertson, C J; Dawson, W O

2014-07-01

11

Variation in flavonoid levels in Citrus benikoji Hort. ex. Tan. infected by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.  

PubMed

Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. Fruit peels infected with C. gloeosporioides and the peels of healthy fruit were analysed for flavonoids, using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, to evaluate variations in flavonoid levels in Citrus benikoji Hort. ex. Tan. Seventeen flavonoids were characterised from the fruit peels. The flavonoids were validated using structurally related standards and quantified. Among the 17 flavonoids, the concentration of component 3 was the highest and that of component 10 was the lowest. During 8 days after inoculation, the concentration of the seven flavonoids 1-3, 5, 6, 13, and 14 increased gradually up to day 8. Flavonoid 4 was detected from day 7. The seven minor flavonoid components, 8-12, 15, and 16 increased to day 5 and then decreased. However, flavonoids level variations were not significantly different from that of the non-infected fruits during the experimental period. The monitoring suggested that the constitutively formed seven polymethoxyflavones (8-12, 15, and 16) may act as phytoanticipins in the defence mechanism against the fungus, and that hespertin 7-O-glucoside (4), produced de novo on day 6 after infection, may function as a phytoalexin. PMID:24262558

Jeong, Sung Woo; Kim, Hae Gyeong; Park, Semin; Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Yun-Hi; Kim, Gon-Sup; Jin, Jong Sung; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Huh, Moo Ryong; Lee, Ji Eun; Song, Yi; Shin, Sung Chul

2014-04-01

12

Splash dispersal of Phyllosticta citricarpa conidia from infected citrus fruit.  

PubMed

Rain-splash dispersal of Phyllosticta citricarpa (syn. Guignardia citricarpa) conidia (pycnidiospores) from infected oranges was studied in still air and combined with wind. High power microscopy demonstrated the presence of conidia in splash droplets from diseased oranges, which exuded conidia for over one hour during repeated wetting. The largest (5?mm) incident drops produced the highest splashes (up to 41.0?cm). A linear-by-quadratic surface model predicted highest splashes to be 41.91?cm at a horizontal distance of 25.97?cm from the target orange. Large splash droplets contained most conidia (4-5.5?mm splashes averaged 308 conidia), but were splashed <30?cm horizontal distance. Most (80-90%) splashes were <1?mm diameter but carried only 0-4 conidia per droplet. In multiple splash experiments, splashes combined to reach higher maxima (up to 61.7?cm; linear-by-quadratic surface model prediction, 62.1?cm) than in the single splash experiments. In combination with wind, higher wind speeds carried an increasing proportion of splashes downwind travelling horizontally at least 8?m at the highest wind speed tested (7?m/s), due to a small proportion of droplets (<1?mm) being aerosolised. These experiments suggest that P. citricarpa conidia can be dispersed from infected oranges by splashes of water in rainfall events. PMID:25298272

Perryman, S A M; Clark, S J; West, J S

2014-01-01

13

Splash dispersal of Phyllosticta citricarpa conidia from infected citrus fruit  

PubMed Central

Rain-splash dispersal of Phyllosticta citricarpa (syn. Guignardia citricarpa) conidia (pycnidiospores) from infected oranges was studied in still air and combined with wind. High power microscopy demonstrated the presence of conidia in splash droplets from diseased oranges, which exuded conidia for over one hour during repeated wetting. The largest (5?mm) incident drops produced the highest splashes (up to 41.0?cm). A linear-by-quadratic surface model predicted highest splashes to be 41.91?cm at a horizontal distance of 25.97?cm from the target orange. Large splash droplets contained most conidia (4–5.5?mm splashes averaged 308 conidia), but were splashed <30?cm horizontal distance. Most (80–90%) splashes were <1?mm diameter but carried only 0–4 conidia per droplet. In multiple splash experiments, splashes combined to reach higher maxima (up to 61.7?cm; linear-by-quadratic surface model prediction, 62.1?cm) than in the single splash experiments. In combination with wind, higher wind speeds carried an increasing proportion of splashes downwind travelling horizontally at least 8?m at the highest wind speed tested (7?m/s), due to a small proportion of droplets (<1?mm) being aerosolised. These experiments suggest that P. citricarpa conidia can be dispersed from infected oranges by splashes of water in rainfall events. PMID:25298272

Perryman, S. A. M.; Clark, S. J.; West, J. S.

2014-01-01

14

Wolbachia infection density in populations of the asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: liviidae).  

PubMed

The symbiotic relationships between bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (order Rickettsiales) and their arthropod hosts are diverse and can range from mutualism to parasitism. Whereas effects of Wolbachia on host biology are well investigated, little is known about diversity and abundance of Wolbachia in their natural hosts. The phloem-feeding Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is naturally infected with Wolbachia (wDi). In the current study, we calculated the within-host density of Wolbachia in Florida D. citri populations using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for detection of the Wolbachia outer surface protein gene, wsp. Gene quantities were normalized to the D. citri wingless gene (Wg) to estimate Wolbachia abundance in individual D. citri. Using this method, significant geographic differences in Wolbachia densities were detected among Florida D. citri populations, with higher infection levels occurring in male versus female hosts. PMID:25259690

Hoffmann, M; Coy, M R; Gibbard, H N Kingdom; Pelz-Stelinski, K S

2014-10-01

15

The genetic diversity of Citrus dwarfing viroid populations is mainly dependent on the infected host species.  

PubMed

As with viruses, viroids infect their hosts as polymorphic populations of variants. Identifying possible sources of genetic variability is significant in the case of the species Citrus dwarfing viroid (CDVd) which has been proposed as a dwarfing agent for high-density citrus plantings. Here, a natural CDVd isolate (CMC) was used as an inoculum source for long-term (25 years) and short-term (1 year) bioassays in different citrus host species. Characterization of progenies indicated that the genetic stability of CDVd populations was high in certain hosts (trifoliate orange, Troyer citrange, Etrog citron, Navelina sweet orange), which preserve viroid populations similar to the original CMC isolate even after 25 years. By contrast, CDVd variant populations in Interdonato lemon and Volkamer lemon were completely different to those in the inoculated sources, highlighting how influential the host is on the genetic variability of CDVd populations. Implications for risk assessment of CDVd as a dwarfing agent are discussed. The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers for the complete sequences of the Citrus dwarfing viroid variants are JF970266.1 forH2-2, JF970267.1 for H2-7, EU938647.1 for H6-2, EU938651.1 forH6-10, JF970268.1 for H10-7, EU938652.1 for H14-13, EU938653.1for H14-14, JF970269.1 for H14-16, EU938648.1 for H15-9,EU938649.1 for H16-2, JF970265.1 for H16-9, EU938654.1 forH16-13, EU938650.1 for H20-3, JF970270.1 for H20-7, EU938641.1for PR-1, EU938642.1 for PR-3, EU938643.1 for PR-7, EU938644.1for CR-1, EU938639.1 for VR-4, JF12070.1 for VR-15, JF812069.1LS-4, EU938640.1 for LS-10 and JF970264.1 for LS-11. PMID:23152366

Tessitori, Matilde; Rizza, Serena; Reina, Antonella; Causarano, Giovanni; Di Serio, Francesco

2013-03-01

16

Effect of temperature on peroxidase activity, isozyme patterns and concentration of threadlike particles in tristeza—infected citrus plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxidase activity (PA) in various tristeza-infected citrus varieties was significantly higher than in healthy controls.\\u000a In leaves and bark of Egyptian sour lime and Palestine sweet lime, PA was correlated with symptom severity and content of\\u000a threadlike particles (TLP). In infected roots of Egyptian sour lime, there was an increase in PA but TLP content was minimal.\\u000a \\u000a Temperatures above 22°C

M. Bar-Joseph; G. Loebenstein

1973-01-01

17

Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Field on Healthy and Infected Lime (Citrus aurantifolia) Trees with Phytoplasma  

PubMed Central

Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has become an issue of concern for a great many people and is an active area of research. Phytoplasmas, also known as mycoplasma-like organisms, are wall-less prokaryotes that are pathogens of many plant species throughout the world. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the changes of lipid peroxidation, content of H2O2, proline, protein, and carbohydrates were investigated in leaves of two-year-old trees of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) infected by the Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifoliae. The healthy and infected plants were discontinuously exposed to a 10?KHz quadratic EMF with maximum power of 9?W for 5 days, each?5 h, at 25°C. Fresh and dry weight of leaves, content of MDA, proline, and protein increased in both healthy and infected plants under electromagnetic fields, compared with those of the control plants. Electromagnetic fields decreased hydrogen peroxide and carbohydrates content in both healthy and infected plants compared to those of the controls. PMID:22649313

Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Niknam, Vahid; Ghanati, Faezeh; Masroor, Faribors; Noorbakhsh, Seyyed Nasr

2012-01-01

18

Polyamines in Plants Infected by Citrus Exocortis Viroid or Treated with Silver Ions and Ethephon 1  

PubMed Central

The levels of polyamines in leaves of Gynura aurantiaca DC and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers, infected with citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) or treated with silver nitrate or ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) were measured by HPLC in relation to development of symptoms. Previously it had been demonstrated that treatment of G. aurantiaca plants with silver nitrate or ethephon closely mimicked the effects of viroid infection in the plants. In the studies reported here, a marked decrease in putrescine level was observed in plants infected by CEVd or treated with silver ions or ethephon. There was no significant change in either spermidine or spermine levels. Treatment of G. aurantiaca plants with specific inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis (aminoethoxyvinylglycine, Co2+) or ethylene action (norbornadiene) prevented the decrease of putrescine associated with silver nitrate treatment and had no effect on spermidine or spermine levels. The development of viroid-like symptoms, the production of associated pathogenesis-related proteins, and the rise in protease activity induced by silver nitrate, were all suppressed by exogenous application of putrescine. The decreased level of putrescine as an ethylene-mediated step in the transduction of the viroid and silver or ethephon signaling is discussed. ImagesFigure 3Figure 5 PMID:16668297

Bellés, José M.; Carbonell, Juan; Conejero, Vicente

1991-01-01

19

Type IV Secretion System Is Not Involved in Infection Process in Citrus  

PubMed Central

The type IV secretion system (T4SS) is used by Gram-negative bacteria to translocate protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope and into target cells. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri contains two copies of the T4SS, one in the chromosome and the other is plasmid-encoded. To understand the conditions that induce expression of the T4SS in Xcc, we analyzed, in vitro and in planta, the expression of 18 ORFs from the T4SS and 7 hypothetical flanking genes by RT-qPCR. As a positive control, we also evaluated the expression of 29 ORFs from the type III secretion system (T3SS), since these genes are known to be expressed during plant infection condition, but not necessarily in standard culture medium. From the 29 T3SS genes analyzed by qPCR, only hrpA was downregulated at 72?h after inoculation. All genes associated with the T4SS were downregulated on Citrus leaves 72?h after inoculation. Our results showed that unlike the T3SS, the T4SS is not induced during the infection process. PMID:24707292

Jacob, Tiago Rinaldi; de Laia, Marcelo Luiz; Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Goncalves, Janaina Fernandes; Carvalho, Flavia Maria de Souza; Ferro, Maria Ines Tiraboschi; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido

2014-01-01

20

Germination and infectivity of microconidia in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a model for studying fungal–plant interactions. Although it produces two types of spores (microconidia and macroconidia), previous infection studies have exclusively dealt with macroconidia. Germination of microconidia has not been reported, and their role in plant infection is not defined. Here we show that approximately 10% of microconidia germinate on plant surfaces, and that colonies derived from germinated microconidia are normal in growth and pathogenesis. In infection assays with rice and barley seedlings, microconidia fail to infect intact plants, but they can colonize and develop necrotic lesions on wounded leaves and stems. Microconidia also cause disease symptoms on inoculated spikelets in infection assays with barley and Brachypodium heads. Furthermore, microconidia are detected inside rice plants that developed blast lesions under laboratory or field conditions. Therefore, microconidia can germinate and are infectious, and may be an important factor in the rice blast cycle. PMID:25082370

Zhang, Huili; Wu, Zhongshou; Wang, Chenfang; Li, Yang; Xu, Jin-Rong

2014-01-01

21

Lack of effect of feeding citrus by-products in reducing salmonella in experimentally infected weanling pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of the current research was to determine if feeding the citrus by-products(D) -limonene (DL) and citrus molasses would reduce the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella in weanling pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Twenty crossbred weanling pigs (average body weight [BW], 19.9 kg) were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: control, low-dose DL (1.5 ml/kg of BW per day), high-dose DL (3.0 ml/kg of BW per day), and citrus molasses (0.05 kg/kg of BW per day). Treatments were administered in the feed (twice daily) for 7 days, with one-half of the dose administered at each feeding. Fecal samples were collected twice daily (prior to administration of treatment) and cultured for quantitative and qualitative determination of the challenge strain of Salmonella. Upon termination of the study, pigs were euthanized and tissues from the stomach, ileum, cecum, spiral colon, and rectum, as well as luminal contents, were collected. In addition, the popliteal and ileocecal lymph nodes and liver, spleen, and tonsil tissue were collected for qualitative Salmonella culture. No significant treatment differences (P > 0.05) were observed among treatments for fecal concentration or prevalence of Salmonella throughout the 7-day collection period. Likewise, no treatment differences (P > 0.05) were observed for any of the tissue or luminal content samples collected. Salmonella was not cultured from the muscle-bound popliteal lymph node but was cultured from the mesenteric ileocecal lymph nodes. While there were no effects in the current experiment, future research may examine the effect of a lower challenge dose and/or different administration (dose or duration) of the citrus by-products. PMID:22410233

Farrow, R L; Edrington, T S; Krueger, N A; Genovese, K J; Callaway, T R; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J

2012-03-01

22

Deciphering the Bacterial Microbiome of Citrus Plants in Response to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'-Infection and Antibiotic Treatments  

PubMed Central

The bacterial microbiomes of citrus plants were characterized in response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las)-infection and treatments with ampicillin (Amp) and gentamicin (Gm) by Phylochip-based metagenomics. The results revealed that 7,407 of over 50,000 known Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in 53 phyla were detected in citrus leaf midribs using the PhyloChip™ G3 array, of which five phyla were dominant, Proteobacteria (38.7%), Firmicutes (29.0%), Actinobacteria (16.1%), Bacteroidetes (6.2%) and Cyanobacteria (2.3%). The OTU62806, representing ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’, was present with a high titer in the plants graft-inoculated with Las-infected scions treated with Gm at 100 mg/L and in the water-treated control (CK1). However, the Las bacterium was not detected in the plants graft-inoculated with Las-infected scions treated with Amp at 1.0 g/L or in plants graft-inoculated with Las-free scions (CK2). The PhyloChip array demonstrated that more OTUs, at a higher abundance, were detected in the Gm-treated plants than in the other treatment and the controls. Pairwise comparisons indicated that 23 OTUs from the Achromobacter spp. and 12 OTUs from the Methylobacterium spp. were more abundant in CK2 and CK1, respectively. Ten abundant OTUs from the Stenotrophomonas spp. were detected only in the Amp-treatment. These results provide new insights into microbial communities that may be associated with the progression of citrus huanglongbing (HLB) and the potential effects of antibiotics on the disease and microbial ecology. PMID:24250784

Zhang, Muqing; Powell, Charles A.; Benyon, Lesley S.; Zhou, Hui; Duan, Yongping

2013-01-01

23

Isolation and characterization of an Isaria fumosorosea isolate infecting the Asian citrus psyllid in Florida.  

PubMed

A fungal pathogen that killed adult Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Asian citrus psyllid) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Florida citrus groves during the fall of 2005 was identified and characterized. Investigation of this pathogen is important because D. citri vectors citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing), which was reported in Florida in 2005. The morphological and genetic data generated herein support identification of the fungus as Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Ifr) (=Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) from the Asian citrus psyllid (Ifr AsCP). Koch's postulates were fulfilled after the fungus was isolated in vitro and transmitted to healthy psyllids, which then exhibited a diseased-phenotype similar to that observed in the field. Both in vitro growth characteristics and two Ifr AsCP-specific molecular markers discriminated the psyllid pathogen from another local Ifr isolate, Ifr 97 Apopka. These molecular markers will be useful to track the dynamics of this disease in D. citri populations. The potential for utilizing Ifr to complement existing psyllid pest management strategies is discussed. PMID:18433768

Meyer, Jason M; Hoy, Marjorie A; Boucias, Drion G

2008-09-01

24

Bacterial diversity analysis of Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus, using PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing  

SciTech Connect

The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized 1 from citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rDNA microarray and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition of symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria from 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs while 20 orders from phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs compared to asymptomatic midribs. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants, but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis was further verified by sequencing 16S rDNA clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of Las in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate Las as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. Citrus is the most important commercial fruit crop in Florida. In recent years, citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also called citrus greening, has severely affected Florida's citrus production and hence has drawn an enormous amount of attention. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (6,13), characterized by blotchy mottling with green islands on leaves, as well as stunting, fruit decline, and small, lopsided fruits with poor coloration. The disease tends to be associated with a phloem-limited fastidious {alpha}-proteobacterium given a provisional Candidatus status (Candidatus Liberobacter spp. later changed to Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) in nomenclature (18,25,34). Previous studies indicate that HLB infection causes disorder in the phloem and severely impairs the translocation of assimilates in host plants (5,27,40). Tatineni and colleagues discovered that the HLB bacteria were unevenly distributed in phloem of bark tissue, vascular tissue of the leaf midrib, roots, and different floral and fruit parts (43). Unsuccessful attempts in culturing the pathogen are notably hampering efforts to understand its biology and pathogenesis mechanism. Using a modified Koch's Postulates approach, Jagoueix and colleagues were able to re-infect periwinkle plants from a mixed microbial community harvested from HLB diseased plants (25). Emergence of the disease in otherwise healthy plants led to the conclusion that HLB was associated with Candidatus Liberibacter sp. based on its 16S rDNA sequence (18,25). Currently, three species of the pathogen are recognized from trees with HLB disease based on 16S rDNA sequence: Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. Liberibacter africanus (Laf), and Ca. Liberibacter americanus (Lam); Las is the most prevalent species among HLB diseased trees (5,12,18,25,44). Las is naturally transmitted to citrus by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and can be artificially transmitted by grafting from citrus to citrus and dodder (Cuscuta campestris) to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Xanthi) (5). Based on current research regarding the associations of Liberibacter in planta there is not enough evidence to implicate Liberibacter as the definitive causal agent of HLB disease due to its resistance to cultivation in vitro. It is possible that HLB disease may be the result of complex etiology where Liberibacter interacts with other endophytic bacteria. However, there is not enough evidence regarding its association(s) in planta to make this conclusion, nor is it known whether associated microbial communities play a role in expression of pathogenic traits. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that other bacteria besides Ca. Liberibacter spp. are associated with citrus greening disease. The differences between the relative abundance, species richness and phylogenetic diversity of the microbial communitie

Shankar Sagaram, U.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Trivedi, P.; Andersen, G.L.; Lu, S.-E.; Wang, N.

2009-03-01

25

Morphological and molecular characterization of a Hirsutella species infecting the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Florida.  

PubMed

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an invasive pest that vectors citrus greening disease, which recently was detected in Florida. Mycosed adult D. citri were collected at four sites in central Florida between September 2005 and February 2006. Observation of the cadavers using scanning electron microscopy revealed that the pathogen had branched synnemata supporting monophiladic conidiogenous cells. A high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to amplify the 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and beta-tubulin genes of the pathogen for phylogenetic analysis. The morphological and genetic data indicated that the pathogen was a novel isolate related to Hirsutella citriformis Speare. PCR assays using isolate-specific primers designed from the unique putative intron region of the beta-tubulin sequence distinguished the psyllid pathogen from five related Hirsutella species. The pathogen was maintained in vivo by exposing healthy D. citri to the synnemata borne on field-collected cadavers. Infected psyllids had an abundance of septate hyphal bodies in their hemolymph and exhibited behavioral symptoms of disease. In vitro cultures of the pathogen were slow-growing and produced synnemata similar to those found on mycosed D. citri. In laboratory bioassays, high levels of mortality were observed in D. citri that were exposed to the conidia-bearing synnemata produced in vivo and in vitro. PMID:17382959

Meyer, Jason M; Hoy, Marjorie A; Boucias, Drion G

2007-06-01

26

Observations on the Foliar Nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, Infecting Tuberose and Rice in India  

PubMed Central

The foliar nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi causes white tip disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and floral malady in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). This nematode is widely distributed in the rice fields of many states of India, including West Bengal (WB), Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) and Gujarat (GT). In order to generate information on intraspecific variations of A. besseyi as well as to confirm the identity of the nematode species infecting these important crops, morphological observation was undertaken of A. besseyi isolated from tuberose and rice from WB and rice from AP, MP and GT. The molecular study was only done for rice and tuberose populations from AP and WB. The variations were observed among the populations in the tail, esophageal and anterior regions, including the occurrence of four as well as six lateral lines in the lateral fields. The morphometrics of observed populations showed variations and those could be regarded as a consequence of host-induced or geographical variations. PCR amplification of the rDNA ITS 1 and 2 region of rice (AP) and tuberose (WB) populations of A. besseyi generated one fragment of approximately 830 bp, and the size of the ITS region was 788 bp and 791 bp for tuberose and rice population, respectively. Alignment of the two sequences showed almost 100% similarity. Blast analysis revealed a very high level of similarity of both the Indian strains to a Russian population. The Indian and Russian strains could be differentiated using restriction enzyme Bccl. Host tests revealed that rice (cv. IET 4094), oat (cv. OS-6) and teosinte (cv. TL-1) showed a typical distortion due to the infection of A. besseyi. Five germplasm lines of oat showed no infection of the nematode under field conditions. Local cultivars of onion, maize, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, and Sorghum halepense were also not infected by A. besseyi. PMID:23482906

Khan, Matiyar R.; Handoo, Zafar A.; Rao, Uma; Rao, S. B.; Prasad, J. S.

2012-01-01

27

Protective effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens against infections of Citrus aurantium seedlings by Phoma tracheiphila.  

PubMed

Isolate TEB1 an antagonistic endophytic bacterium, obtained from citrus leaves and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by 16S rDNA sequencing, was used for the biological control of mal secco disease of Citrus aurantium seedlings caused by the mitosporic fungus Phoma tracheiphila. The isolate TEB1 exhibited a good in vitro activity against P. tracheiphila in dual cultures as well as with the well diffusion method. C. aurantium seedlings watered with a suspension of TEB1 cells showed a reduction of 53.61 and 48.63% in disease severity and incidence, respectively. A PCR test with specific primers was performed 365 days after inoculation and P. tracheiphila was detected along the whole stem in inoculated control plant while no amplification product was obtained in TEB1 treated seedlings. Molecular analysis of TEB1 revealed a positive amplification of fenD and ituC genes responsible of the biosynthesis of fengycin and iturin lipopeptides, respectively. Moreover, observations by optical microscope showed that TEB1 reduced by 55% the germination of P. tracheiphila conidia and exhibited a marked effect on mycelia structure. Data suggest that lipopeptides produced by the bacterium interact with the cytoplasmic membrane of the fungus causing pore formation. TEB1 appears a potential candidate for the biological control of citrus mal secco disease. PMID:23990072

Kalai-Grami, L; Ben Slimane, I; Mnari-Hattab, M; Rezgui, S; Aouani, M A; Hajlaoui, M R; Limam, F

2014-02-01

28

Citrus Canker: The Pathogen and Its Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a review article about the Citrus Canker, an introduced plant disease. The article contains detailed background and overview and includes information on (1) Citrus Canker strain diversity, identification, diagnosis and characterization; (2) the symptoms and infection Process; (3) the epidemiology; (4) the management for prevention and control of Citrus Canker; (5) and the social, political, and legal ramifications of regulatory policy.

Tim R. Gottwald (USDA;); James H. Graham (University of Florida;); Tim S. Schubert (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services;)

2002-08-12

29

Kernel infection of Bluebonnet 50 rice by Helminthosporium oryzae and its effect on yield and quality  

E-print Network

oryzae 2k CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Infection of' rice grains by Helminthos orium ~or zae reduces the market value by causing discolored hulls and kernels. Infected kernels are also a primary source of inoculum f' or the leaf spo+ disease of rice... raised in experimental field plots and in pots in a greenhouse at College Station, Texas, was utilized. Bluebonnet 50, a long-grain commercial ri e variety, was selected for the experiments. E~tI. g g k t 'ty d ptt d'ty t Helmir thos orium ~or zae...

Fazli, Syed Fazal Imam

2012-06-07

30

Citrus phenylpropanoids and defence against pathogens. Part II: gene expression and metabolite accumulation in the response of fruits to Penicillium digitatum infection.  

PubMed

The effect of infection of Citrus sinensis (var. Navelina) fruits with Penicillium digitatum was studied at gene expression and metabolite levels. In this study, expression of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway was studied in the flavedo (outer coloured part of the peel) and albedo (inner white part) in response to pathogen infection. Results of the time-course experiment showed that maximal expression of 10 out of 17 phenylpropanoid genes analysed occurred at 48h post-inoculation, when decay symptoms started to appear, and mRNA levels either kept constant or decreased after 72h post-inoculation. To further investigate the putative involvement of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the defence of citrus fruit, changes in the metabolic profile of both tissues infected with P. digitatum was studied by means of HPLC-PDA-FD. Metabolite accumulation levels along the time course suggest that flavanones, flavones, polymethoxylated flavones and scoparone are induced in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, although with different trends depending on the tissue. PMID:23017425

Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Teresa Lafuente, M; González-Candelas, Luis

2013-01-01

31

Identification of Novel Oryza sativa miRNAs in Deep Sequencing-Based Small RNA Libraries of Rice Infected with Rice Stripe Virus  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential regulatory roles in the development of eukaryotes. Methods based on deep-sequencing have provided a powerful high-throughput strategy for identifying novel miRNAs and have previously been used to identify over 100 novel miRNAs from rice. Most of these reports are related to studies of rice development, tissue differentiation, or abiotic stress, but novel rice miRNAs related to viral infection have rarely been identified. In previous work, we constructed and pyrosequenced the small RNA (sRNA) libraries of rice infected with Rice stripe virus and described the character of the small interfering RNAs (siRNA) derived from the RSV RNA genome. We now report the identification of novel miRNAs from the abundant sRNAs (with a minimum of 100 sequencing reads) in the sRNA library of RSV-infected rice. 7 putative novel miRNAs (pn-miRNAs) whose precursor sequences have not previously been described were identified and could be detected by Northern blot or RT-PCR, and were recognized as novel miRNAs (n-miRNAs). Further analysis showed that 5 of the 7 n-miRNAs were up-expressed while the other 2 n-miRNAs were down-expressed in RSV-infected rice. In addition, 23 pn-miRNAs that were newly produced from 19 known miRNA precursors were also identified. This is first report of novel rice miRNAs produced from new precursors related to RSV infection. PMID:23071571

Yan, Fei; Lu, Yuwen; Zheng, Hongying; Lin, Lin; Chen, Hairu; Chen, Jianping

2012-01-01

32

Citrus Genomics  

PubMed Central

Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The historical developments of linkage mapping, markers and breeding, EST projects, physical mapping, an international citrus genome sequencing project, and critical functional analysis are described. Despite the challenges of working with citrus, there has been substantial progress. Citrus researchers engaged in international collaborations provide optimism about future productivity and contributions to the benefit of citrus industries worldwide and to the human population who can rely on future widespread availability of this health-promoting and aesthetically pleasing fruit crop. PMID:18509486

Talon, Manuel; Gmitter Jr., Fred G.

2008-01-01

33

Increase and Patterns of Spread of Citrus Tristeza Virus Infections in Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic in the Presence of the Brown Citrus Aphid, Toxoptera citricida.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was monitored for 4 years by monoclonal antibody probes via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in four citrus orchards in northern Costa Rica and four orchards in the Dominican Republic following the introduction of the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida. The Gompertz nonlinear model was selected as the most appropriate in most cases to describe temporal increase of CTV. Ordinary runs analysis for association of CTV-positive trees failed to show a spatial relationship of virus status among immediately adjacent trees within or across rows. The beta-binomial index of dispersion for various quadrat sizes suggested aggregations of CTV-positive trees for all plots within the quadrat sizes tested. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of proximity patterns suggested that aggregation often existed among quadrats of various sizes up to four lag distances; however, significant lag positions discontinuous from the main proximity pattern were rare. Some asymmetry was also detected for some spatial autocorrelation proximity patterns. These results were interpreted to mean that, although CTV-positive trees did not often influence immediately adjacent trees, virus transmission was common within a local area of influence that extended two to eight trees in all directions. Where asymmetry was indicated, this area of influence was somewhat elliptical. The spatial and temporal analyses gave some insight into possible underlying processes of CTV spread in the presence of T. citricida and suggested CTV spread was predominantly to trees within a local area. Patterns of longer-distance spread were not detected within the confines of the plot sizes tested. Longer-distance spread probably exists, but may well be of a complexity beyond the detection ability of the spatial analysis methods employed, or perhaps is on a scale larger than the dimensions of the plots studied. PMID:18944934

Gottwald, T R; Garnsey, S M; Borbón, J

1998-07-01

34

Contribution of Ethylene Biosynthesis for Resistance to Blast Fungus Infection in Young Rice Plants1[OA  

PubMed Central

The role of ethylene (ET) in resistance to infection with blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) in rice (Oryza sativa) is poorly understood. To study it, we quantified ET levels after inoculation, using young rice plants at the four-leaf stage of rice cv Nipponbare (wild type) and its isogenic plant (IL7), which contains the Pi-i resistance gene to blast fungus race 003. Small necrotic lesions by hypersensitive reaction (HR) were formed at 42 to 72 h postinoculation (hpi) in resistant IL7 leaves, and whitish expanding lesions at 96 hpi in susceptible wild-type leaves. Notable was the enhanced ET emission at 48 hpi accompanied by increased 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) levels and highly elevated ACC oxidase (ACO) activity in IL7 leaves, whereas only an enhanced ACC increase at 96 hpi in wild-type leaves. Among six ACC synthase (ACS) and seven ACO genes found in the rice genome, OsACS2 was transiently expressed at 48 hpi in IL7 and at 96 hpi in wild type, and OsACO7 was expressed at 48 hpi in IL7. Treatment with an inhibitor for ACS, aminooxyacetic acid, suppressed enhanced ET emission at 48 hpi in IL7, resulting in expanding lesions instead of HR lesions. Exogenously supplied ACC compromised the aminooxyacetic acid-induced breakdown of resistance in IL7, and treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene and silver thiosulfate, inhibitors of ET action, did not suppress resistance. These findings suggest the importance of ET biosynthesis and, consequently, the coproduct, cyanide, for HR-accompanied resistance to blast fungus in young rice plants and the contribution of induced OsACS2 and OsACO7 gene expression to it. PMID:17012402

Iwai, Takayoshi; Miyasaka, Atsushi; Seo, Shigemi; Ohashi, Yuko

2006-01-01

35

Plant-parasitic nematode infections in rice: molecular and cellular insights.  

PubMed

Being one of the major staple foods in the world, and an interesting model monocot plant, rice (Oryza sativa L.) has recently received attention from molecular nematologists studying the cellular and molecular aspects of the interaction between this crop and plant-parasitic nematodes. In this review, we highlight recent advances in this field, with a focus on the best-studied root-knot nematodes. Histological studies have revealed the cellular changes inside root-knot nematode-induced feeding sites, both in the compatible interaction with Oryza sativa and the incompatible interaction with the related species Oryza glaberrima. After comparing the published data from transcriptome analyses, mutant studies, and exogenous hormone applications, we provide a comprehensive model showing the role and interaction of plant hormone pathways in defense of this monocot crop against root nematodes, where jasmonate seems to play a key role. Finally, recent evidence indicates that effectors secreted from rice-infecting nematodes can suppress plant defense. PMID:24906129

Kyndt, Tina; Fernandez, Diana; Gheysen, Godelieve

2014-01-01

36

Heat shock protein 70 is necessary for Rice stripe virus infection in plants.  

PubMed

Heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70s) are a highly conserved family of genes in eukaryotes, and are involved in a remarkable variety of cellular processes. In many plant positive-stranded RNA viruses, HSP70 participates in the construction of a viral replication complex and plays various roles during viral infection. Here, we found increased expression of HSP70 following infection by Rice stripe virus (RSV), a negative-stranded RNA virus, in both rice (the natural host) and Nicotiana benthamiana (an experimental host). Heat treatment of N.?benthamiana (Nb) plants enhanced viral infection, whereas RSV infection was retarded and viral RNAs accumulated at a low level when HSP70 was silenced. In both bimolecular fluorescence complement and in?vitro pull-down assays, the N-terminus of RSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) interacted and co-localized with the HSP70s of both plants (OsHSP70 and NbHSP70). The localization of the N-terminus of RdRp when expressed alone was not obviously different from when it was co-expressed with OsHSP or NbHSP, and vice versa. RSV infection also had no effect on the localization of host HSP70. These results demonstrate that host HSP70 is necessary for RSV infection and probably plays a role in viral replication by interacting with viral RdRp, which provides the first evidence of an interacting host protein related to RSV replication, which has been little studied to date. PMID:24823923

Jiang, Shanshan; Lu, Yuwen; Li, Kunfeng; Lin, Lin; Zheng, Hongying; Yan, Fei; Chen, Jianping

2014-12-01

37

Characterization of the microbial community structure in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-infected citrus plants treated with antibiotics in the field  

PubMed Central

Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is a worldwide devastating disease of citrus. There are no effective control measures for this newly emerging but century-old disease. Previously, we reported a combination of Penicillin G and Streptomycin was effective in eliminating or suppressing the associated bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las). Results Here we report the bacterial composition and community structure in HLB-affected citrus plants during a growing season and while being treated with antibiotic combinations PS (Penicillin G and Streptomycin) and KO (Kasugamycin and Oxytetracycline) using the Phylochip™ G3 array. Both antibiotic treatments resulted in significantly lower Las bacterial titers (Pr<0.05) and hybridization scores. Of the 50,000+ available operational taxonomic units (OTUs) on PhyloChip™ G3, 7,028 known OTUs were present in citrus leaf midribs. These OTUs were from 58 phyla, of which five contained 100 or more OTUs, Proteobacteria (44.1%), Firmicutes (23.5%), Actinobacteria (12.4%), Bacteroidetes (6.6%) and Cyanobacteria (3.2%). In the antibiotic treated samples, the number of OTUs decreased to a total of 5,599. The over-all bacterial diversity decreased with the antibiotic treatments, as did the abundance of 11 OTUs within Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes. Within the Proteobacteria, ten OTUs representing the class ?-proteobacteria increased in abundance after four months of treatment, when the Las bacterium was at its lowest level in the HLB-affected citrus field plants. Conclusions Our data revealed that Proteobacteria was constantly the dominant bacterial phylum recovered from citrus leaf midribs, with the ?-proteobacterial and the ?-proteobacterial classes vying for prevalence. In addition, the level of bacterial diversity found in the leaf midribs of field citrus was greater than previously described. Bacterial cells in close proximity may be able to modify their microenvironment, making the composition of the microbial community an important factor in the ability of Las to cause HLB progression. A low Las level was seen as an annual fluctuation, part of the bacterial population dynamics, and as a response to the antibiotic treatments. PMID:23701743

2013-01-01

38

Comparative proteomic analysis reveals that T3SS, Tfp, and xanthan gum are key factors in initial stages of Citrus sinensis infection by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.  

PubMed

The bacteria Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus canker. The disease symptoms are characterized by localized host cell hyperplasia followed by tissue necrosis at the infected area. An arsenal of bacterial pathogenicity- and virulence-related proteins is expressed to ensure a successful infection process. At the post-genomic stage of Xac, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the proteins that are displayed differentially over time when the pathogen attacks the host plant. Protein extracts were prepared from infectious Xac grown in inducing medium (XAM1) for 24 h or from host citrus plants for 3 or 5 days after infection, detached times to evaluate the adaptation and virulence of the pathogen. The protein extracts were proteolyzed, and the peptides derived from tryptic digestion were investigated using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Changes in the protein expression profile were compared with the Xac genome and the proteome recently described under non-infectious conditions. An analysis of the proteome of Xac under infectious conditions revealed proteins directly involved in virulence such as the type III secretion system (T3SS) and effector proteins (T3SS-e), the type IV pilus (Tfp), and xanthan gum biosynthesis. Moreover, four new mutants related to proteins detected in the proteome and with different functions exhibited reduced virulence relative to the wild-type proteins. The results of the proteome analysis of infectious Xac define the processes of adaptation to the host and demonstrate the induction of the virulence factors of Xac involved in plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:24676796

Facincani, Agda P; Moreira, Leandro M; Soares, Márcia R; Ferreira, Cristiano B; Ferreira, Rafael M; Ferro, Maria I T; Ferro, Jesus A; Gozzo, Fabio C; de Oliveira, Julio C F

2014-03-01

39

Infection-Associated Nuclear Degeneration in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae Requires Non-Selective Macro-Autophagy  

PubMed Central

Background The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae elaborates a specialized infection structure called an appressorium to breach the rice leaf surface and gain access to plant tissue. Appressorium development is controlled by cell cycle progression, and a single round of nuclear division occurs prior to appressorium formation. Mitosis is always followed by programmed cell death of the spore from which the appressorium develops. Nuclear degeneration in the spore is known to be essential for plant infection, but the precise mechanism by which it occurs is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings In yeast, nuclear breakdown requires a specific form of autophagy, known as piecemeal microautophagy of the nucleus (PMN), and we therefore investigated whether this process occurs in the rice blast fungus. Here, we report that M. oryzae possesses two conserved components of a putative PMN pathway, MoVac8 and MoTsc13, but that both are dispensable for nuclear breakdown during plant infection. MoVAC8 encodes a vacuolar membrane protein and MoTSC13 a peri-nuclear and peripheral ER protein. Conclusions/Significance We show that MoVAC8 is necessary for caffeine resistance, but dispensable for pathogenicity of M. oryzae, while MoTSC13 is involved in cell wall stress responses and is an important virulence determinant. By functional analysis of ?Moatg1 and ?Moatg4 mutants, we demonstrate that infection-associated nuclear degeneration in M. oryzae instead occurs by non-selective macroautophagy, which is necessary for rice blast disease. PMID:22448240

He, Min; Kershaw, Michael J.; Soanes, Darren M.; Xia, Yuxian; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2012-01-01

40

Evaluation of Protocol for Assessing the Reaction of Rice and Wheat Germplasm to Infection by Meloidogyne graminicola  

PubMed Central

Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola), an important and widespread pathogen, causes high yield losses in rice with limited information on wheat and on efficient management. Absence of uniform screening protocols is contributing to slow progress of host resistance development. To develop an efficient screening protocol, several greenhouse studies were conducted, and effects of incubation period, inoculum level, inoculation method, seedling age, and their interactions on root-galling severity (RGS) ratings and reproductive factor (RF) values of M. graminicola were determined. At 2 eggs/cm3 soil, significantly lower RGS but higher RF values were observed at 60 days than at 45 days of incubation. Meloidogyne graminicola reproduced six times more on rice than on wheat where the RGS index in both crops increased steadily with increasing inoculum levels, but RF increased at lower levels and decreased beyond a maximum at medium inoculum levels. Inoculum level, container size, seedling age, inoculation method, and their interactions impacted nematode infection and reproduction. The protocol was verified on eleven rice germplasm lines and seven wheat cultivars using the resistance index (RI) calculated from RGS and RF, to screen rice and wheat germplasm. PMID:23481227

Pokharel, Ramesh R.; Duxbury, John M.; Abawai, George

2012-01-01

41

Factors affecting captures of male citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, in pheromone-baited traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillar- iidae), is an important world-wide pest of citrus. Larval mining within leaf flush impacts yield and predisposes trees to infection by citrus can- ker, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The present series of studies sought to identify factors affecting male P. citrella catch in pheromone-baited traps with the intent of developing effective monitoring.

L. L. Stelinski; M. E. Rogers

2008-01-01

42

Genetic transformation in citrus.  

PubMed

Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species. PMID:23983635

Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Kacar, Yildiz Aka; Mendi, Yesim Yalcin

2013-01-01

43

Genetic Transformation in Citrus  

PubMed Central

Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species. PMID:23983635

Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Aka Kacar, Yildiz; Yalcin Mendi, Yesim

2013-01-01

44

Carotenoid inhibitors reduce strigolactone production and Striga hermonthica infection in rice.  

PubMed

The strigolactones are internal and rhizosphere signalling molecules in plants that are biosynthesised through carotenoid cleavage. They are secreted by host roots into the rhizosphere where they signal host-presence to the symbiotic arbuscular mycrorrhizal (AM) fungi and the parasitic plants of the Orobanche, Phelipanche and Striga genera. The seeds of these parasitic plants germinate after perceiving these signalling molecules. After attachment to the host root, the parasite negatively affects the host plant by withdrawing water, nutrients and assimilates through a direct connection with the host xylem. In many areas of the world these parasites are a threat to agriculture but so far very limited success has been achieved to minimize losses due to these parasitic weeds. Considering the carotenoid origin of the strigolactones, in the present study we investigated the possibilities to reduce strigolactone production in the roots of plants by blocking carotenoid biosynthesis using carotenoid inhibitors. Hereto the carotenoid inhibitors fluridone, norflurazon, clomazone and amitrole were applied to rice either through irrigation or through foliar spray. Irrigation application of all carotenoid inhibitors and spray application of amitrole significantly decreased strigolactone production, Striga hermonthica germination and Striga infection, also in concentrations too low to affect growth and development of the host plant. Hence, we demonstrate that the application of carotenoid inhibitors to plants can affect S. hermonthica germination and attachment indirectly by reducing the strigolactone concentration in the rhizosphere. This finding is useful for further studies on the relevance of the strigolactones in rhizosphere signalling. Since these inhibitors are available and accessible, they may represent an efficient technology for farmers, including poor subsistence farmers in the African continent, to control these harmful parasitic weeds. PMID:20732294

Jamil, Muhammad; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

2010-12-01

45

Morphological and molecular characterization of Magnaporthe oryzae (fungus) from infected rice leaf samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnaporthe oryzae is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a serious disease affecting rice called rice blast. Outbreaks of rice blast have been a threat to the global production of rice. This fungal disease is estimated to cause production losses of US55 million each year in South and Southeast Asia. It has been used as a primary model for elucidating various aspects of the host-pathogen interaction with its host. We have isolated five isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae from diseased leaf samples obtained from the field at Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah, Malaysia. We have identified the isolates using morphological and microscopic studies on the fungal spores and the lesions on the diseased leaves. Amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was carried out with universal primers ITS1 and ITS4. The sequence of each isolates showed at least 99% nucleotide identity with the corresponding sequence in GenBank for Magnaporthe oryzae.

Muni, Nurulhidayah Mat; Nadarajah, Kalaivani

2014-09-01

46

Current epidemiological understanding of citrus Huanglongbing .  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive citrus pathosystem worldwide. Previously known primarily from Asia and Africa, it was introduced into the Western Hemisphere in 2004. All infected commercial citrus industries continue to decline owing to inadequate current control methods. HLB increase and regional spatial spread, related to vector populations, are rapid compared with other arboreal pathosystems. Disease dynamics result from multiple simultaneous spatial processes, suggesting that psyllid vector transmission is a continuum from local area to very long distance. Evolutionarily, HLB appears to have originated as an insect endosymbiont that has moved into plants. Lack of exposure of citrus to the pathogen prior to approximately 100 years ago did not provide sufficient time for development of resistance. A prolonged incubation period and regional dispersal make eradication nonviable. Multiple asymptomatic infections per symptomatic tree, incomplete systemic distribution within trees, and prolonged incubation period make detection difficult and greatly complicate disease control. PMID:20415578

Gottwald, Tim R

2010-01-01

47

Citrus Waste Biomass Program  

SciTech Connect

Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

2007-01-30

48

Towards Defining Nutrient Conditions Encountered by the Rice Blast Fungus during Host Infection  

PubMed Central

Fungal diseases cause enormous crop losses, but defining the nutrient conditions encountered by the pathogen remains elusive. Here, we generated a mutant strain of the devastating rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae impaired for de novo methionine biosynthesis. The resulting methionine-requiring strain grew strongly on synthetic minimal media supplemented with methionine, aspartate or complex mixtures of partially digested proteins, but could not establish disease in rice leaves. Live-cell-imaging showed the mutant could produce normal appressoria and enter host cells but failed to develop, indicating the availability or accessibility of aspartate and methionine is limited in the plant. This is the first report to demonstrate the utility of combining biochemical genetics, plate growth tests and live-cell-imaging to indicate what nutrients might not be readily available to the fungal pathogen in rice host cells. PMID:23071797

Wilson, Richard A.; Fernandez, Jessie; Quispe, Cristian F.; Gradnigo, Julien; Seng, Anya; Moriyama, Etsuko; Wright, Janet D.

2012-01-01

49

Silicon enhances photochemical efficiency and adjusts mineral nutrient absorption in Magnaporthe oryzae infected rice plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon (Si) has been verified to play an important role in enhancing plant resistance against pathogens, but the exact mechanisms\\u000a remain unclear. Two near-isogenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.), CO39 (blast susceptible), and C101LAC (Pi-1) (blast resistant), were hydroponically grown to study the effects of exogenous silicon application on the changes of disease\\u000a incidence, mineral nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll content,

Dan Gao; Kunzheng Cai; Jining Chen; Shiming Luo; Rensen Zeng; Jianyuan Yang; Xiaoyuan Zhu

2011-01-01

50

Expression of the maize ZmGF14-6 gene in rice confers tolerance to drought stress while enhancing susceptibility to pathogen infection  

PubMed Central

14-3-3 proteins are found in all eukaryotes where they act as regulators of diverse signalling pathways associated with a wide range of biological processes. In this study the functional characterization of the ZmGF14-6 gene encoding a maize 14-3-3 protein is reported. Gene expression analyses indicated that ZmGF14-6 is up-regulated by fungal infection and salt treatment in maize plants, whereas its expression is down-regulated by drought stress. It is reported that rice plants constitutively expressing ZmGF14-6 displayed enhanced tolerance to drought stress which was accompanied by a stronger induction of drought-associated rice genes. However, rice plants expressing ZmGF14-6 either in a constitutive or under a pathogen-inducible regime showed a higher susceptibility to infection by the fungal pathogens Fusarium verticillioides and Magnaporthe oryzae. Under infection conditions, a lower intensity in the expression of defence-related genes occurred in ZmGF14-6 rice plants. These findings support that ZmGF14-6 positively regulates drought tolerance in transgenic rice while negatively modulating the plant defence response to pathogen infection. Transient expression assays of fluorescently labelled ZmGF14-6 protein in onion epidermal cells revealed a widespread distribution of ZmGF14-6 in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Additionally, colocalization experiments of fluorescently labelled ZmGF14-6 with organelle markers, in combination with cell labelling with the endocytic tracer FM4-64, revealed a subcellular localization of ZmGF14-6 in the early endosomes. Taken together, these results improve our understanding of the role of ZmGF14-6 in stress signalling pathways, while indicating that ZmGF14-6 inversely regulates the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:22016430

Campo, Sonia; Peris-Peris, Cristina; Montesinos, Laura; Peñas, Gisela; Messeguer, Joaquima; San Segundo, Blanca

2012-01-01

51

Common Genetic Pathways Regulate Organ-Specific Infection-Related Development in the Rice Blast Fungus[W  

PubMed Central

Magnaporthe oryzae is the most important fungal pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa). Under laboratory conditions, it is able to colonize both aerial and underground plant organs using different mechanisms. Here, we characterize an infection-related development in M. oryzae produced on hydrophilic polystyrene (PHIL-PS) and on roots. We show that fungal spores develop preinvasive hyphae (pre-IH) from hyphopodia (root penetration structures) or germ tubes and that pre-IH also enter root cells. Changes in fungal cell wall structure accompanying pre-IH are seen on both artificial and root surfaces. Using characterized mutants, we show that the PMK1 (for pathogenicity mitogen-activated protein kinase 1) pathway is required for pre-IH development. Twenty mutants with altered pre-IH differentiation on PHIL-PS identified from an insertional library of 2885 M. oryzae T-DNA transformants were found to be defective in pathogenicity. The phenotypic analysis of these mutants revealed that appressorium, hyphopodium, and pre-IH formation are genetically linked fungal developmental processes. We further characterized one of these mutants, M1373, which lacked the M. oryzae ortholog of exportin-5/Msn5p (EXP5). Mutants lacking EXP5 were much less virulent on roots, suggesting an important involvement of proteins and/or RNAs transported by EXP5 during M. oryzae root infection. PMID:20348434

Tucker, Sara L.; Besi, Maria I.; Galhano, Rita; Franceschetti, Marina; Goetz, Stephan; Lenhert, Steven; Osbourn, Anne; Sesma, Ane

2010-01-01

52

Modeling huanglongbing transmission within a citrus tree  

PubMed Central

The citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB), associated with an uncultured bacterial pathogen, is threatening the citrus industry worldwide. A mathematical model of the transmission of HLB between its psyllid vector and citrus host has been developed to characterize the dynamics of the vector and disease development, focusing on the spread of the pathogen from flush to flush (a newly developing cluster of very young leaves on the expanding terminal end of a shoot) within a tree. This approach differs from that of prior models for vector-transmitted plant diseases where the entire plant is the unit of analysis. Dynamics of vector and host populations are simulated realistically as the flush population approaches complete infection. Model analysis indicates that vector activity is essential for initial infection but is not necessary for continued infection because infection can occur from flush to flush through internal movement in the tree. Flush production, within-tree spread, and latent period are the most important parameters influencing HLB development. The model shows that the effect of spraying of psyllids depends on time of initial spraying, frequency, and efficacy of the insecticides. Similarly, effects of removal of symptomatic flush depend on the frequency of removal and the time of initiation of this practice since the start of the epidemic. Within-tree resistance to spread, possibly affected by inherent or induced resistance, is a major factor affecting epidemic development, supporting the notion that alternate routes of transmission besides that by the vector can be important for epidemic development. PMID:22783015

Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H.; Halbert, Susan E.; Morris, J. Glenn; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

2012-01-01

53

Citrus huanglongbing: a newly relevant disease presents unprecedented challenges.  

PubMed

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the oldest citrus diseases and has been known for over a century. HLB is caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter' spp. that are phloem-limited, fastidious ?-proteobacteria and infect hosts in different Kingdoms (i.e., Animalia and Plantae). When compared with well-characterized, cultivatable plant-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the interactions of uncultured insect-vectored plant-pathogenic bacteria, including 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., with their hosts remain poorly understood. 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp. have been known to cause HLB, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide, resulting in dramatic economic losses. HLB presents an unprecedented challenge to citrus production. In this review, we focus on the most recent research on citrus, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', and psyllid interactions, specifically considering the following topics: evolutionary relationships among 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., genetic diversity, host range, genome analysis, transmission, virulence mechanisms, and the ecological importance of HLB. Currently, no efficient management strategy is available to control HLB, although some promising progress has been made. Further studies are needed to understand citrus, 'Ca. L. asiaticus', and psyllid interactions to design innovative management strategies. Although HLB has been problematic for over a century, we can only win the battle against HLB with a coordinated and deliberate effort by the citrus industry, citrus growers, researchers, legislatures, and governments. PMID:23441969

Wang, Nian; Trivedi, Pankaj

2013-07-01

54

Citrus food containing a cyclodextrin  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A citrus food, which is prepared by incorporating 0.005 to 1.0 weight percent of cyclodextrin into natural citrus fruit in the course of the production of said food, thereby removing or reducing the bitterness as well as in preventing the formation of cloudiness in the citrus food.

1982-06-01

55

75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the detection of citrus greening in Argentina and Jamaica after the October 6, 2009...Toddalia, Triphasia, and Vepris from Argentina, Bangladesh, Belize, Bhutan, Brazil...greening and CVC are known to exist in Argentina and Brazil. Some citrus species...

2010-04-06

56

7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...citrus psyllid in which an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been detected...which citrus greening or an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been...

2011-01-01

57

7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.  

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...citrus psyllid in which an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been detected...which citrus greening or an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been...

2014-01-01

58

7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...citrus psyllid in which an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been detected...which citrus greening or an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been...

2013-01-01

59

7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...citrus psyllid in which an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been detected...which citrus greening or an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been...

2012-01-01

60

Transgenic expression of coat protein gene of Rice tungro bacilliform virus in rice reduces the accumulation of viral DNA in inoculated plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice tungro, a devastating disease of rice in south and southeast Asia, is caused by the joint infection of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). In order to obtain transgenic resistance against RTBV, indica rice cultivar Pusa Basmati-1 was transformed to express the coat protein (CP) gene of an Indian isolate of RTBV. Rice plants

Uma Ganesan; Sarabjeet Singh Suri; Shanmugam Rajasubramaniam; Manchikatla Venkat Rajam; Indranil Dasgupta

2009-01-01

61

Diversity of bacteriophages infecting Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in paddy fields and its potential to control bacterial leaf blight of rice.  

PubMed

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a very serious disease in rice-growing regions of the world. In spite of their economic importance, there are no effective ways of protecting rice plants from this disease. Bacteriophages infecting Xoo affect the population dynamics of the pathogen and consequently the occurrence of the disease. In this study, we investigated the diversity, host range, and infectivity of Xoo phages, and their use as a bicontrol agent on BLB was tested. Among the 34 phages that were isolated from floodwater in paddy fields, 29 belonged to the Myoviridae family, which suggests that the dominant phage in the ecosystem was Myoviridae. The isolated phages were classified into two groups based on plaque size produced on the lawn of Xoo. In general, there was a negative relationship between plaque size and host range, and interestingly the phages having a narrow host range had low efficiency of infectivity. The deduced protein sequence analysis of htf genes indicated that the gene was not a determinant of host specificity. Although the difference in host range and infectivity depending on morphotype needs to be addressed, the results revealed deeper understanding of the interaction between the phages and Xoo strains in floodwater and damp soil environments. The phage mixtures reduced the occurrence of BLB when they were treated with skim milk. The results indicate that the Xoo phages could be used as an alternative control method to increase the control efficacy and reduce the use of agrochemicals. PMID:24651644

Chae, Jong-Chan; Hung, Nguyen Bao; Yu, Sang-Mi; Lee, Ha Kyung; Lee, Yong Hoon

2014-06-28

62

Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting (SP) symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows (SY) symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in those mixtures interact with each other and cause diseases. PMID:23717303

Dawson, W. O.; Garnsey, S. M.; Tatineni, S.; Folimonova, S. Y.; Harper, S. J.; Gowda, S.

2013-01-01

63

Annotation of gene function in citrus using gene expression information and co-expression networks  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Citrus encompasses major cultivated plants such as sweet orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit, among the world’s most economically important fruit crops. With increasing volumes of transcriptomics data available for these species, Gene Co-expression Network (GCN) analysis is a viable option for predicting gene function at a genome-wide scale. GCN analysis is based on a “guilt-by-association” principle whereby genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit similar expression patterns across diverse sets of experimental conditions. While bioinformatics resources such as GCN analysis are widely available for efficient gene function prediction in model plant species including Arabidopsis, soybean and rice, in citrus these tools are not yet developed. Results We have constructed a comprehensive GCN for citrus inferred from 297 publicly available Affymetrix Genechip Citrus Genome microarray datasets, providing gene co-expression relationships at a genome-wide scale (33,000 transcripts). The comprehensive citrus GCN consists of a global GCN (condition-independent) and four condition-dependent GCNs that survey the sweet orange species only, all citrus fruit tissues, all citrus leaf tissues, or stress-exposed plants. All of these GCNs are clustered using genome-wide, gene-centric (guide) and graph clustering algorithms for flexibility of gene function prediction. For each putative cluster, gene ontology (GO) enrichment and gene expression specificity analyses were performed to enhance gene function, expression and regulation pattern prediction. The guide-gene approach was used to infer novel roles of genes involved in disease susceptibility and vitamin C metabolism, and graph-clustering approaches were used to investigate isoprenoid/phenylpropanoid metabolism in citrus peel, and citric acid catabolism via the GABA shunt in citrus fruit. Conclusions Integration of citrus gene co-expression networks, functional enrichment analysis and gene expression information provide opportunities to infer gene function in citrus. We present a publicly accessible tool, Network Inference for Citrus Co-Expression (NICCE, http://citrus.adelaide.edu.au/nicce/home.aspx), for the gene co-expression analysis in citrus. PMID:25023870

2014-01-01

64

Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease.  

PubMed

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccA(w), induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations. PMID:24474801

Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B

2014-01-28

65

Overexpression of a citrus NDR1 ortholog increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach relies on a thorough understanding of defense mechanisms of citrus. Studies of Arabidopsis and other plants have provided a framework for us to better understand defense mechanisms of citrus. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule involved in basal defense and resistance (R) gene-mediated defense against broad-spectrum pathogens. The Arabidopsis gene NDR1 (NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1) is a positive regulator of SA accumulation and is specifically required for signaling mediated by a subset of R genes upon recognition of their cognate pathogen effectors. Our bioinformatic analysis identified an ortholog of NDR1 from citrus, CsNDR1. Overexpression of CsNDR1 complemented susceptibility conferred by the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 mutant to Pseudomonas syringae strains and also led to enhanced resistance to an oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Such heightened resistance is associated with increased SA production and expression of the defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1). In addition, we found that expression of PR1 and accumulation of SA were induced to modest levels in citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with HLB disease. Thus, our data suggest that CsNDR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NDR1. Since Ca. L. asiaticus infection only activates modest levels of defense responses in citrus, we propose that genetically increasing SA/NDR1-mediated pathways could potentially lead to enhanced resistance against HLB, citrus canker, and other destructive diseases challenging global citrus production. PMID:23761797

Lu, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Albrecht, Ute; Shimizu, Rena; Wang, Guanfeng; Bowman, Kim D.

2013-01-01

66

Inland valley rice production systems and malaria infection and disease in the forest region of western C?te d'Ivoire  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to determine the epidemiological impact of rice cultivation in inland valleys on malaria in the forest region of western Côte d’Ivoire. The importance of malaria was compared in terms of prevalence and parasite density of infections and also in terms of clinical malaria incidence between three agro-ecosystems: (i) uncultivated inland valleys, (R0), (ii) inland valleys with one annual rice cultivation in the rainy season, (R1) and (iii) developed inland valleys with two annual rice cultivation cycles, (R2). Methods Between May 1998 and March 1999, seven villages of each agro-ecosystem (R0, R1 and R2) were randomly selected among villages pooled by farming system. In these 21 villages, a total of 1,900 people of all age groups were randomly selected and clinically monitored during one year. Clinical and parasitological information was obtained by active case detection of malaria episodes carried out during eight periods of five consecutive days scheduled at six weekly intervals and by cross-sectional surveys. Results Plasmodium falciparum was the principal parasite observed in the three agro-ecosystems. A level of holoendemicity of malaria was observed in the three agro-ecosystems with more than 75% of children less than 12 months old infected. Geometric mean parasite density in asymptomatic persons varied between 180 and 206 P. falciparum asexual forms per ?L of blood and was associated with season and with age, but not with farming system. The mean annual malaria incidence rate reached 0.7 (95% IC 0.5-0.9) malaria episodes per person in R0, 0.7 (95% IC 0.6-0.9) in R1 and 0.6 (95% IC 0.5-0.7) in R2. The burden of malaria was the highest among children under two years of age, with at least four attacks by person-year. Then malaria incidence decreased by half in the two to four-year age group. From the age of five years, the incidence was lower than one attack by person-year. Malaria incidence varied with season with more cases in the rainy season than in the dry season but not with farming system. Conclusion In the forest area of western Côte d’Ivoire, inland valley rice cultivation was not significantly associated with malaria burden. PMID:23841911

2013-01-01

67

Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in artificially inoculated and naturally infected rice seeds and plants by molecular techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was developed for detecting the presence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial leaf blight (BLB) pathogen in rice seed and for studying the transmission of this bacterium from seed to plant. Primers TXT and TXT4R from an insertion sequence (IS1113) of the pathogen were used to amplify a 964-bp DNA fragment. A combined

N. Sakthivel; C. N. Mortensen; S. B. Mathur

2001-01-01

68

Potential of botanicals and biocontrol agents on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus infecting rice grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of certain plant extracts and biocontrol agents for the reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in stored rice was investigated. Among the plant extracts tested, Syzigiumaromaticum (5g\\/kg) showed complete inhibition of Aspergillusflavus growth and AFB1 production. Curcumalonga, Alliumsativum and Ocimumsanctum also effectively inhibited the A.flavus growth (65–78%) and AFB1 production (72.2–85.7%) at 5g\\/kg concentration. Among the biocontrol agents, culture

K. R. N. Reddy; C. S. Reddy; K. Muralidharan

2009-01-01

69

PDE1 Encodes a P-Type ATPase Involved in Appressorium-Mediated Plant Infection by the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe grisea  

PubMed Central

Plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea is brought about by the action of specialized infection cells called appressoria. These infection cells generate enormous turgor pressure, which is translated into an invasive force that allows a narrow penetration hypha to breach the plant cuticle. The Magnaporthe pde1 mutant was identified previously by restriction enzyme–mediated DNA integration mutagenesis and is impaired in its ability to elaborate penetration hyphae. Here we report that the pde1 mutation is the result of an insertion into the promoter of a P-type ATPase-encoding gene. Targeted gene disruption confirmed the role of PDE1 in penetration hypha development and pathogenicity but highlighted potential differences in PDE1 regulation in different Magnaporthe strains. The predicted PDE1 gene product was most similar to members of the aminophospholipid translocase group of P-type ATPases and was shown to be a functional homolog of the yeast ATPase gene ATC8. Spatial expression studies showed that PDE1 is expressed in germinating conidia and developing appressoria. These findings implicate the action of aminophospholipid translocases in the development of penetration hyphae and the proliferation of the fungus beyond colonization of the first epidermal cell. PMID:11549759

Balhadère, Pascale V.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2001-01-01

70

Producing And Marketing Texas Citrus.  

E-print Network

, Texas WILLIAM G. HART, Research Leader, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agri cultural Research Service, Weslaco, Texas 3. TEXAS CITRUS - DISEASES JOSE M. AMADOR, Area Plant Pathologist, Texas Agricultural Extension Ser vice, Weslaco, Texas 4. TEXAS..., Texas WILLIAM G. HART, Research Leader, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agri cultural Research Service, Weslaco, Texas 3. TEXAS CITRUS - DISEASES JOSE M. AMADOR, Area Plant Pathologist, Texas Agricultural Extension Ser vice, Weslaco, Texas 4. TEXAS...

Lyons, Calvin G. Jr; Maxwell, Norman P.; Dean, Herbert; Deer, James A.; Hart, William G.; Amador, Jose M.; Powell, Gordon

1978-01-01

71

Citrus Grove Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Citrus growers have long used aerial photography to inventory the number of groves in production. A new development at Kennedy Space Center, aerial mapping of groves with color infrared (CIR) film, affords an important advance in grove management by detecting and locating unhealthy trees long before they could be detected by ground survey methods. Aerial CIR photography picks up light reflected from foliage-- light not visible to the human eye--and enables differentiation between healthy and "stressed" (diseased) trees of a Florida orange/grapefruit grove. Computer aided photo interpretation techniques permit grading diseased trees lightly, moderately or severely stressed or dead. Method of grove mapping has offered advantage to growers in early disease warning, possible savings through water regulation and provision of a permanent record of grove growth patterns.

1980-01-01

72

Physiological stressors and invasive plant infections alter the small RNA transcriptome of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

Background The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae is a destructive pathogen of rice and other related crops, causing significant yield losses worldwide. Endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs), including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical components of gene regulation in many eukaryotic organisms. Recently several new species of sRNAs have been identified in fungi. This fact along with the availability of genome sequence makes M. oryzae a compelling target for sRNA profiling. We have examined sRNA species and their biosynthetic genes in M. oryzae, and the degree to which these elements regulate fungal stress responses. To this end, we have characterized sRNAs under different physiological stress conditions, which had not yet been examined in this fungus. Results The resulting libraries are composed of more than 37 million total genome matched reads mapping to intergenic regions, coding sequences, retrotransposons, inverted, tandem, and other repeated regions of the genome with more than half of the small RNAs arising from intergenic regions. The 24 nucleotide (nt) size class of sRNAs was predominant. A comparison to transcriptional data of M. oryzae undergoing the same physiological stresses indicates that sRNAs play a role in transcriptional regulation for a small subset of genes. Support for this idea comes from generation and characterization of mutants putatively involved in sRNAs biogenesis; our results indicate that the deletion of Dicer-like genes and an RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase gene increases the transcriptional regulation of this subset of genes, including one involved in virulence. Conclusions Various physiological stressors and in planta conditions alter the small RNA profile of the rice blast fungus. Characterization of sRNA biosynthetic mutants helps to clarify the role of sRNAs in transcriptional control. PMID:23663523

2013-01-01

73

The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing

Javier Terol; Guillermo Soler; Manuel Talon; Manuel Cercos

2010-01-01

74

Neuroprotective effects of citrus flavonoids.  

PubMed

Recent attention has been given to the influence of dietary factors on health and mental well-being. Oxidative stress is associated with many diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. Dietary flavonoids exert cardioprotective, chemopreventive, and neuroprotective effects. The biological activities of flavonoids have been attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and signaling properties. A clear understanding of the mechanisms of action, as either antioxidants or signaling molecules, is crucial for the application of flavonoids as interventions in neurodegeneration and as brain foods. Citrus flavonoids exert little adverse effect and have low or no cytotoxicity to healthy, normal cells. The main citrus flavonoids can also traverse the blood-brain barrier; hence, they are promising candidates for intervention in neurodegeneration and as constituents in brain foods. In this review, we discuss the bioactivity, multiple neuroprotection mechanisms, and antioxidant and signaling properties of citrus flavonoids. Receptor-mediated neuroprotective actions and parallel signaling pathways are also explored. Finally, the induction of cellular defense proteins against oxidative stress and neurotoxicity by hesperetin, a main and widespread citrus flavonoid, are also discussed. It is suggested that citrus fruits, which are rich in abundant sources of hesperetin and other flavonoids, are promising for the development of general food-based neuroprotection and brain foods. PMID:22224368

Hwang, Sam-Long; Shih, Ping-Hsiao; Yen, Gow-Chin

2012-02-01

75

Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Externa) Eye Infections Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Styes Fungal Infections (Ringworm, Yeast, etc.) Diaper Rash Infections That Pets Carry Pneumocystis Pneumonia Tinea (Ringworm, Jock Itch, Athlete's Foot) Immunizations Flu Center ...

76

Quantification of Xylella fastidiosa from Citrus Trees by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a destructive disease of sweet orange cultivars in Brazil. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays constitute the principal diagnostic method for detection of these bacteria. In this work, we established a real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay to quantify X. fastidiosa in naturally and artificially infected citrus. The X. fastidiosa cell number detected in the leaves increased according to the age of the leaf, and bacteria were not detected in the upper midrib section in young leaves, indicating temporal and spatial distribution patterns of bacteria, respectively. In addition, the X. fastidiosa cell number quantified in leaves of 'Pera' orange and 'Murcott' tangor reflected the susceptible and resistant status of these citrus cultivars. None of the 12 endophytic citrus bacteria or the four strains of X. fastidiosa nonpathogenic to citrus that were tested showed an increase in the fluorescence signal during QPCR. In contrast, all 10 CVC-causing strains exhibited an increase in fluorescence signal, thus indicating the specificity of this QPCR assay. Our QPCR provides a powerful tool for studies of different aspects of the Xylella-citrus interactions, and can be incorporated into breeding programs in order to select CVC-resistant plants more quickly. PMID:18944214

Oliveira, Antonio C; Vallim, Marcelo A; Semighini, Camile P; Araújo, Welington L; Goldman, Gustavo H; Machado, Marcos A

2002-10-01

77

Distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers for multilocus phylogeography of the soybean- and rice-infecting fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA  

PubMed Central

A series of multilocus sequence-based nuclear DNA markers was developed to infer the phylogeographical history of the Basidiomycetous fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infecting rice and soybean worldwide. The strategy was based on sequencing of cloned genomic DNA fragments (previously used as RFLP probes) and subsequent screening of fungal isolates to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ten primer pairs were designed based on these sequences, which resulted in PCR amplification of 200-320 bp size products and polymorphic sequences in all markers analyzed. By direct sequencing we identified both homokaryon and heterokaryon (i.e. dikaryon) isolates at each marker. Cloning the PCR products effectively estimated the allelic phase from heterokaryotic isolates. Information content varied among markers from 0.5 to 5.9 mutations per 100 bp. Thus, the former RFLP codominant probes were successfully converted into six distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers. Rather than discarding low polymorphism loci, the combination of these distinctively variable anonymous nuclear markers would constitute an asset for the unbiased estimate of the phylogeographical parameters such as population sizes and divergent times, providing a more reliable species history that shaped the current population structure of R. solani AG-1 IA. PMID:21637462

2009-01-01

78

Detection of Citrus Leaf Blotch Virus Using Digoxigenin-Labeled cDNA Probes and RT–PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV) was detected by dot-blot hybridization (DBH), and tissue print hybridization (TPH) and by one-step RT–PCR in citrus plants growing both in the greenhouse and in the field. DBH with digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probes allowed CLBV detection in dsRNA-rich and total RNA preparations equivalent to 5 and 0.1?mg of infected tissue, respectively. DBH gave intense signals with

Luis Galipienso; M Carmen Vives; Luis Navarro; Pedro Moreno; José Guerri

2004-01-01

79

Current status of research on rice yellow mottle Sobemovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice yellow mottle genus Sobemovirus is an important disease of rice worldwide. Although the virus attacks both upland and lowland rice cultivars, the latter are worse infected. The disease is spread by insect vectors belonging to the families Chrysomelidae, Coccinelidae, and Tettigonidae. It is also transmitted by domestic cattle (Bos spp.), donkeys (Asinus spp.), grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus), weed species

Muhammadu T. Salaudeen; Olalekan O. Banwo; Boniface D. Kashina; Matthew D. Alegbejo

2010-01-01

80

Over-expression of the Arabidopsis NPR1 gene in citrus increases resistance to citrus canker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus canker, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is a serious leaf and fruit spotting disease affecting many important citrus cultivars including grapefruit and certain\\u000a sweet oranges. Currently, efficacious and economical disease control measures for highly susceptible citrus cultivars are\\u000a lacking. Development of commercial cultivars with greater field resistance to citrus canker is the optimum strategy

Xudong Zhang; Marta I. Francis; William O. Dawson; James H. Graham; Vladimir Orbovi?; Eric W. Triplett; Zhonglin Mou

2010-01-01

81

Huanglongbing, a Systemic Disease, Restructures the Bacterial Community Associated with Citrus Roots?  

PubMed Central

To examine the effect of pathogens on the diversity and structure of plant-associated bacterial communities, we carried out a molecular analysis using citrus and huanglongbing as a host-disease model. 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis of citrus roots revealed shifts in microbial diversity in response to pathogen infection. The clone library of the uninfected root samples has a majority of phylotypes showing similarity to well-known plant growth-promoting bacteria, including Caulobacter, Burkholderia, Lysobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. Infection by “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus roots and led to the loss of detection of most phylotypes while promoting the growth of bacteria such as Methylobacterium and Sphingobacterium. In pairwise comparisons, the clone library from uninfected roots contained significantly higher 16S rRNA gene diversity, as reflected in the higher Chao 1 richness estimation (P ? 0.01) of 237.13 versus 42.14 for the uninfected and infected clone libraries, respectively. Similarly, the Shannon index of the uninfected clone library (4.46) was significantly higher than that of the infected clone library (2.61). Comparison of the uninfected clone library with the infected clone library using LIBSHUFF statistics showed a significant difference (P ? 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the bacterial community changes not only qualitatively but also quantitatively. The relative proportions of different groups of bacteria changed significantly after infection with the pathogen. These data indicate that infection of citrus by “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” has a profound effect on the structure and composition of the bacterial community associated with citrus roots. PMID:20382817

Trivedi, Pankaj; Duan, Yongping; Wang, Nian

2010-01-01

82

Citrus Allergy from Pollen to Clinical Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 ? and ?) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade. PMID:23308273

Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

2013-01-01

83

Huanglongbing alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with citrus rhizosphere  

PubMed Central

The diversity and stability of bacterial communities present in the rhizosphere heavily influence soil and plant quality and ecosystem sustainability. The goal of this study is to understand how ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (known to cause Huanglongbing, HLB) influences the structure and functional potential of microbial communities associated with the citrus rhizosphere. Clone library sequencing and taxon/group-specific quantitative real-time PCR results showed that ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus rhizosphere. Within the bacterial community, phylum Proteobacteria with various genera typically known as successful rhizosphere colonizers were significantly greater in clone libraries from healthy samples, whereas phylum Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, typically more dominant in the bulk soil were higher in ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected samples. A comprehensive functional microarray GeoChip 3.0 was used to determine the effects of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on the functional diversity of rhizosphere microbial communities. GeoChip analysis showed that HLB disease has significant effects on various functional guilds of bacteria. Many genes involved in key ecological processes such as nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation, phosphorus utilization, metal homeostasis and resistance were significantly greater in healthy than in the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere. Our results showed that the microbial community of the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere has shifted away from using more easily degraded sources of carbon to the more recalcitrant forms. Overall, our study provides evidence that the change in plant physiology mediated by ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection could elicit shifts in the composition and functional potential of rhizosphere microbial communities. In the long term, these fluctuations might have important implications for the productivity and sustainability of citrus-producing agro-ecosystems. PMID:21796220

Trivedi, Pankaj; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Albrigo, Gene; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Nian

2012-01-01

84

Black Kernel and White Tip of Rice.  

E-print Network

that black kernel can be reduced by preventing heating of rice in stacks and in storage, and by the elimination of old rice straw and other organic material upon which the fungus lives from season to season. White tip appears to be due to a lack... ......................................... 5 Black Kernel Caused by a Fungus ............................. 6 Infection Takes Place in Flower ............................... 8 Infected Kernels May Become Black Only Under Certain Con- ditions...

Martin, Alan L. (Alan La Mott); Altstatt, G. E. (George E.)

1940-01-01

85

Principles of Carbon Catabolite Repression in the Rice Blast Fungus: Tps1, Nmr1-3, and a MATE-Family Pump Regulate Glucose Metabolism during Infection  

PubMed Central

Understanding the genetic pathways that regulate how pathogenic fungi respond to their environment is paramount to developing effective mitigation strategies against disease. Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a global regulatory mechanism found in a wide range of microbial organisms that ensures the preferential utilization of glucose over less favourable carbon sources, but little is known about the components of CCR in filamentous fungi. Here we report three new mediators of CCR in the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae: the sugar sensor Tps1, the Nmr1-3 inhibitor proteins, and the multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE)–family pump, Mdt1. Using simple plate tests coupled with transcriptional analysis, we show that Tps1, in response to glucose-6-phosphate sensing, triggers CCR via the inactivation of Nmr1-3. In addition, by dissecting the CCR pathway using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated mutagenesis, we also show that Mdt1 is an additional and previously unknown regulator of glucose metabolism. Mdt1 regulates glucose assimilation downstream of Tps1 and is necessary for nutrient utilization, sporulation, and pathogenicity. This is the first functional characterization of a MATE–family protein in filamentous fungi and the first description of a MATE protein in genetic regulation or plant pathogenicity. Perturbing CCR in ?tps1 and MDT1 disruption strains thus results in physiological defects that impact pathogenesis, possibly through the early expression of cell wall–degrading enzymes. Taken together, the importance of discovering three new regulators of carbon metabolism lies in understanding how M. oryzae and other pathogenic fungi respond to nutrient availability and control development during infection. PMID:22570632

Hartline, David; Quispe, Cristian F.; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Wilson, Richard A.

2012-01-01

86

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries Table A3. Citrus, melon, berries: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2

87

Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016

Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

2013-02-01

88

Genetically Engineered Rice Resistant to Rice Stripe Virus, an Insect Transmitted Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coat protein (CP) gene of rice stripe virus was introduced into two japonica varieties of rice by electroporation of protoplasts. The resultant transgenic plants expressed the CP at high levels (up to 0.5% of total soluble protein) and exhibited a significant level of resistance to virus infection. Plants derived from selfed progeny of the primary transformants also expressed the

Takahiko Hayakawa; Yafeng Zhu; Kimiko Itoh; Yusuke Kimura; Takeshi Izawa; Ko Shimamoto; Shigemitsu Toriyama

1992-01-01

89

Rice MAPKs.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are evolutionary conserved from unicellular to complex eukaryotic organisms, and constitute one of the major signalling pathways involved in regulating a wide range of cellular activities from growth and development to cell death. MAPKs of rice (Oryza sativa L.), the most important of all food crops and an established monocot plant research model, have seen considerable progress mainly on their identification and characterization during the past one year alone. These studies have provided new information on the response and regulation of rice MAPKs, in particular on their possible role/function in the rice self-defense pathways. It is believed that further work on MAPK cascades in rice will widen our understanding of the MAPK signalling pathways, and may lead to the establishment of a biological model on this critical early signalling event in monocots. In this review, we bring together all the recent developments in rice MAPKs and discuss their significance and future direction in light of the present data and the progress made in dicot model plants. PMID:12604328

Agrawal, Ganesh K; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

2003-03-01

90

Prophage-Mediated Dynamics of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' Populations, the Destructive Bacterial Pathogens of Citrus Huanglongbing  

PubMed Central

Prophages are highly dynamic components in the bacterial genome and play an important role in intraspecies variations. There are at least two prophages in the chromosomes of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) Floridian isolates. Las is both unculturable and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB), a worldwide destructive disease of citrus. In this study, seven new prophage variants resulting from two hyper-variable regions were identified by screening clone libraries of infected citrus, periwinkle and psyllids. Among them, Types A and B share highly conserved sequences and localize within the two prophages, FP1 and FP2, respectively. Although Types B and C were abundant in all three libraries, Type A was much more abundant in the libraries from the Las-infected psyllids than from the Las-infected plants, and Type D was only identified in libraries from the infected host plants but not from the infected psyllids. Sequence analysis of these variants revealed that the variations may result from recombination and rearrangement events. Conventional PCR results using type-specific molecular markers indicated that A, B, C and D are the four most abundant types in Las-infected citrus and periwinkle. However, only three types, A, B and C are abundant in Las-infected psyllids. Typing results for Las-infected citrus field samples indicated that mixed populations of Las bacteria present in Floridian isolates, but only the Type D population was correlated with the blotchy mottle symptom. Extended cloning and sequencing of the Type D region revealed a third prophage/phage in the Las genome, which may derive from the recombination of FP1 and FP2. Dramatic variations in these prophage regions were also found among the global Las isolates. These results are the first to demonstrate the prophage/phage-mediated dynamics of Las populations in plant and insect hosts, and their correlation with insect transmission and disease development. PMID:24349235

Zhou, Lijuan; Powell, Charles A.; Li, Wenbin; Irey, Mike; Duan, Yongping

2013-01-01

91

Effective Antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-Affected Citrus Plants Identified via the Graft-Based Evaluation.  

PubMed

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited 'Candidatus Liberibacter', is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application. PMID:25372135

Zhang, Muqing; Guo, Ying; Powell, Charles A; Doud, Melissa S; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

2014-01-01

92

Effective Antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-Affected Citrus Plants Identified via the Graft-Based Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application. PMID:25372135

Powell, Charles A.; Doud, Melissa S.; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

2014-01-01

93

Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

2012-01-01

94

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2012-01-01

95

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2011-01-01

96

Citrus Leprosis Virus Vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on Citrus in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms\\u000a of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation,\\u000a and death of the twigs or

J. C. V. Rodrigues; E. W. Kitajima; C. C. Childers; C. M. Chagas

2003-01-01

97

Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447]. PMID:24511328

Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L.; Shelby, Kent S.; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R.; Shatters, Robert G.; Hall, David G.; Davis, Paul H.; Hunter, Wayne B.

2014-01-01

98

Comprehensive analysis of CCCH-type zinc finger gene family in citrus (Clementine mandarin) by genome-wide characterization.  

PubMed

The CCCH-type zinc finger proteins comprise a large gene family of regulatory proteins and are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. The CCCH proteins have been implicated in multiple biological processes and environmental responses in plants. Little information is available, however, about CCCH genes in plants, especially in woody plants such as citrus. The release of the whole-genome sequence of citrus allowed us to perform a genome-wide analysis of CCCH genes and to compare the identified proteins with their orthologs in model plants. In this study, 62 CCCH genes and a total of 132 CCCH motifs were identified, and a comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, functional annotations, gene structures and conserved motifs was performed. Distribution mapping revealed that 54 of the 62 CCCH genes are unevenly dispersed on the nine citrus chromosomes. Based on phylogenetic analysis and gene structural features, we constructed 5 subfamilies of 62 CCCH members and integrative subfamilies from citrus, Arabidopsis, and rice, respectively. Importantly, large numbers of SNPs and InDels in 26 CCCH genes were identified from Poncirus trifoliata and Fortunella japonica using whole-genome deep re-sequencing. Furthermore, citrus CCCH genes showed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in different developmental processes and in response to various stress conditions. Our comprehensive analysis of CleC3Hs is a valuable resource that further elucidates the roles of CCCH family members in plant growth and development. In addition, variants and comparative genomics analyses deepen our understanding of the evolution of the CCCH gene family and will contribute to further genetics and genomics studies of citrus and other plant species. PMID:24820208

Liu, Shengrui; Khan, Muhammad Rehman Gul; Li, Yongping; Zhang, Jinzhi; Hu, Chungen

2014-10-01

99

Diversity of Endophytic Bacterial Populations and Their Interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in Citrus Plants  

PubMed Central

Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by fatty-acid methyl ester analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium spp. (including Methylobacterium extorquens, M. fujisawaense, M. mesophilicum, M. radiotolerans, and M. zatmanii), Nocardia sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Xanthomonas campestris. We observed a relationship between CVC symptoms and the frequency of isolation of species of Methylobacterium, the genus that we most frequently isolated from symptomatic plants. In contrast, we isolated C. flaccumfaciens significantly more frequently from asymptomatic plants than from those with symptoms of CVC while P. agglomerans was frequently isolated from tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and sweet-orange (C. sinensis) plants, irrespective of whether the plants were symptomatic or asymptomatic or showed symptoms of CVC. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total plant DNA resulted in several bands that matched those from the bacterial isolates, indicating that DGGE profiles can be used to detect some endophytic bacteria of citrus plants. However, some bands had no match with any isolate, suggesting the occurrence of other, nonculturable or as yet uncultured, endophytic bacteria. A specific band with a high G+C ratio was observed only in asymptomatic plants. The higher frequency of C. flaccumfaciens in asymptomatic plants suggests a role for this organism in the resistance of plants to CVC. PMID:12324338

Araújo, Welington L.; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Vuurde, Jim W. L.; Azevedo, João Lúcio

2002-01-01

100

Infection!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play Infection! the game where you're the germ. And while you play, learn about the way your body fights infections.The game works best in Netscape 4 and Internet Explorer 4 or later. You will need to download Shockwave, but don't worry, you can do that right from the site.

York, Amercian M.

101

Rice Varieties.  

E-print Network

and family Gramineae. Most cultivated varieties are the species Oryza sativa L., although varieties of the species O. glaberrima are cultivated in Africa. O. sativa is an annual but when moisture and temperature are optimum and diseases are absent..., plants have survived and produced grain for 20 years or more. All rice varieties grown in the United States are in the species O. sativa L. Commercial varieties are classified according to length of growing season, size and shape of grain...

Hodges, R. J.; Bollich, C. N.; Marchetti, M. A.; Webb, B. D.

1979-01-01

102

The complete nucleotide sequence of RNA 3 of citrus leaf rugose and citrus variegation ilarviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete sequence data for the RNA 3 of both citrus leaf rugose (CiLRV) and citrus variegation (CVV) ilarviruses have been determined. The RNAs are 2289 nt (CiLRV) and 2309 nt (CVV) in length and both contain the typical Bromoviridae arrangement of two open reading frames (ORFs) which, when translated, code for proteins that correspond to the M r 32 000

S. W. Scott; X. Ge

1995-01-01

103

Characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy.  

PubMed

The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants. PMID:24502208

Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano

2014-08-01

104

Regeneration of transgenic citrus plants from the trimmed shoot\\/root region of etiolated seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation and high efficient regeneration of transgenic plants from the trimmed etiolated shoot\\/root region (TESRR) of\\u000a Anliucheng sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] seedling was reported. A visual green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker gene was introduced to evaluate transformation\\u000a efficiency by using the explants from TESRR and epicotyls. The transformation protocol was: infection 20 min, co-culture 3\\u000a d, selection culture

D. L. Li; B. Tan; Y. X. Duan; W. W. Guo

2009-01-01

105

Synephrine Content of Juice from Satsuma Mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synephrine, the main protoalkaloid in Citrus species, is commonly analyzed as the active component in citrus peel-containing herbal supplements, but the edible parts of mandarins have been largely ignored. The synephrine concentration has been determined in the juices of Citrus unshiu mandarins harvested from 10 different groves located in a major growing region in California. For comparison, the physicochemical properties

Klaus Dragull; Andrew P. Breksa III; Brian Cain

2008-01-01

106

Rice Diseases.  

E-print Network

for different disease-causing organisms. Sclerotia of Rhizoctonia solani (the fungus that causes sheath blight) survive an average of 12 to 18 months in the soil. Kernel smut fungus spores (Neouossia horrida) can remain alive more than 10 years. As a result... chart (table 1) for specific recommendations. SOUTHERN BLIGHT (fungus - Sclerotium ro lIs ii) Southern blight can attack rice in the one- to three leaf stage and may kill large numbers of plants when weather is warm and moist. A white cottony mold...

Jones, Roger K.

1987-01-01

107

Electron microscopic investigations and indexing studies of psorosis and citrus ringspot virus of citrus / by Margaret Atchison Barkley  

E-print Network

ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATIONS AND INDEXING STUDIES OF PSOROSIS AND CITRUS RINGSPOT VIRUS OF CITRUS A Thesis by MARGARET ATCHISON BARKLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Horticulture ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATIONS AND INDEXING STUDIES OF PSOROSIS AND CITRUS RINGSPOT VIRUS OF CITRUS A Thesis by MARGARET ATCHISON BARKLEY Approved as to style and content...

Barkley, Margaret Atchison

2012-06-07

108

RNA-interference in rice against Rice tungro bacilliform virus results in its decreased accumulation in inoculated rice plants  

PubMed Central

Rice tungro is a viral disease seriously affecting rice production in South and Southeast Asia. Tungro is caused by the simultaneous infection in rice of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), a double-stranded DNA virus and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), a single-stranded RNA virus. To apply the concept of RNA-interference (RNAi) for the control of RTBV infection, transgenic rice plants expressing DNA encoding ORF IV of RTBV, both in sense as well as in anti-sense orientation, resulting in the formation of double-stranded (ds) RNA, were raised. RNA blot analysis of two representative lines indicated specific degradation of the transgene transcripts and the accumulation of small molecular weight RNA, a hallmark for RNA-interference. In the two transgenic lines expressing ds-RNA, different resistance responses were observed against RTBV. In one of the above lines (RTBV-O-Ds1), there was an initial rapid buildup of RTBV levels following inoculation, comparable to that of untransformed controls, followed by a sharp reduction, resulting in approximately 50-fold lower viral titers, whereas the untransformed controls maintained high levels of the virus till 40 days post-inoculation (dpi). In RTBV-O-Ds2, RTBV DNA levels gradually rose from an initial low to almost 60% levels of the control by 40 dpi. Line RTBV-O-Ds1 showed symptoms of tungro similar to the untransformed control lines, whereas line RTBV-O-Ds2 showed extremely mild symptoms. PMID:18306054

Tyagi, Himani; Rajasubramaniam, Shanmugam; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

2008-01-01

109

Morphology based field rice density detection from rice transplant stage to rice jointing stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice yield estimation is an important aspect in the agriculture research field. For the rice yield estimation, rice density is one of its useful factors. In this paper, we propose a new method to automatically detect the rice density from the rice transplanting stage to rice jointing stage. It devotes to detect rice planting density by image low-level features of the rice image sequences taken in the fields. Moreover, a rice jointing stage automatic detection method is proposed so as to terminate the rice density detection algorithm. The validities of the proposed rice density detection method and the rice jointing stage automatic detection method are proved in the experiment.

Bai, X. D.; Cao, Z. G.; Wang, Y.; Ye, M. N.; Yu, Z. H.; Li, Y. N.

2013-10-01

110

Infection!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series is a board game in which kids learn how germs spread and infections take hold. The online activity begins with an overview of the many ways germs can enter your body and the body's first and second lines of defense. Kids then go to a page of directions for playing the online game, where they are also asked to select a microbe playing piece. As they move through the playing board, kids gain insight into how the body fights infection.

111

Rapid and sensitive detection of Citrus Bacterial Canker by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with simple visual evaluation methods  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC) is a major, highly contagious disease of citrus plants present in many countries in Asia, Africa and America, but not in the Mediterranean area. There are three types of Citrus Bacterial Canker, named A, B, and C that have different genotypes and posses variation in host range within citrus species. The causative agent for type A CBC is Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, while Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii, strain B causes type B CBC and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain C causes CBC type C. The early and accurate identification of those bacteria is essential for the protection of the citrus industry. Detection methods based on bacterial isolation, antibodies or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been developed previously; however, these approaches may be time consuming, laborious and, in the case of PCR, it requires expensive laboratory equipment. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which is a novel isothermal DNA amplification technique, is sensitive, specific, fast and requires no specialized laboratory equipment. Results A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the diagnosis of Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC-LAMP) was developed and evaluated. DNA samples were obtained from infected plants or cultured bacteria. A typical ladder-like pattern on gel electrophoresis was observed in all positive samples in contrast to the negative controls. In addition, amplification products were detected by visual inspection using SYBRGreen and using a lateral flow dipstick, eliminating the need for gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were evaluated in different conditions and using several sample sources which included purified DNA, bacterium culture and infected plant tissue. The sensitivity of the CBC-LAMP was 10 fg of pure Xcc DNA, 5 CFU in culture samples and 18 CFU in samples of infected plant tissue. No cross reaction was observed with DNA of other phytopathogenic bacteria. The assay was capable of detecting CBC-causing strains from several geographical origins and pathotypes. Conclusions The CBC-LAMP technique is a simple, fast, sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of Citrus Bacterial Canker. This method can be useful in the phytosanitary programs of the citrus industry worldwide. PMID:20565886

2010-01-01

112

Preparation of an In-House Reference Material Containing Fumonisins in Thai Rice and Matrix Extension of the Analytical Method for Japanese Rice  

PubMed Central

Mycotoxin contamination in rice is less reported, compared to that in wheat or maize, however, some Fusarium fungi occasionally infect rice in the paddy field. Fumonisins are mycotoxins mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides, which often ruins maize. Rice adherent fungus Gibberella fujikuroi is taxonomically near to F. verticillioides, and there are sporadic reports of fumonisin contamination in rice from Asia, Europe and the United States. Therefore, there exists the potential risk of fumonisin contamination in rice as well as the need for the validated analytical method for fumonisins in rice. Although both natural and spiked reference materials are available for some Fusarium mycotoxins in matrices of wheat and maize, there are no reference materials for Fusarium mycotoxins in rice. In this study, we have developed a method for the preparation of a reference material containing fumonisins in Thai rice. A ShakeMaster grinding machine was used for the preparation of a mixed material of blank Thai rice and F. verticillioides-infected Thai rice. The homogeneity of the mixed material was confirmed by one-way analysis of variance, which led this material to serve as an in-house reference material. Using this reference material, several procedures to extract fumonisins from Thai rice were compared. Accordingly, we proved the applicability of an effective extraction procedure for the determination of fumonisins in Japanese rice. PMID:22069540

Awaludin, Norhafniza; Nagata, Reiko; Kawasaki, Tomomi; Kushiro, Masayo

2009-01-01

113

Volatile constituents of wild citrus Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro) peel oil.  

PubMed

Volatiles of a wild mandarin, Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro), were characterized by GC-MS, and their aroma active compounds were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The volatile profile of Mangshanyegan was compared with those of other four citrus species, Kaopan pummelo (Citrus grandis), Eureka lemon (Citrus limon), Huangyanbendizao tangerine (Citrus reticulata), and Seike navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in Mangshanyegan, in particular d-limonene and ?-myrcene, which accounted for 85.75 and 10.89% of total volatiles, respectively. Among the 12 compounds with flavor dilution factors (FD) = 27, 8 oxygenated compounds, including (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides, were present only in Mangshanyegan. The combined results of GC-O, quantitative analysis, odor activity values (OAVs), and omission tests revealed that ?-myrcene and (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides were the characteristic aroma compounds of Mangshanyegan, contributing to the balsamic and floral notes of its aroma. PMID:22352344

Liu, Cuihua; Cheng, Yunjiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Juan

2012-03-14

114

Use of Ozone in the Citrus Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ozone for postharvest sanitation and decay control of fruits, vegetables and their products during handling, processing and storage has been investigated for commercial applications. Due to their significant contribution to world trade and human nutrition, citrus fruits are thought to be important commodities. Decay can be observed in these products because of microbial activity and ethylene accumulation

Hakan Karaca

2010-01-01

115

Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for bacterial enumeration and allelic discrimination to differentiate xanthomonas strains on citrus.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was developed for identification and enumeration of bacteria in citrus plant samples infected with Xanthomonas axonopodis pvs. citri and citrumelo, the cause of citrus bacterial canker (CBC) and citrus bacterial spot (CBS), respectively. Three sets of primers based on the pathogenicity gene (pth) in X. axonopodis pv. citri, a ribosomal gene in X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo, and the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (lrp) in both pathovars were combined with TaqMan probes and applied for specific strain detection and quantification. Calibration curves for bacterial abundance in plant samples obtained with the three primer-probe combinations were congruent with colony counts on plates of semiselective medium in most of the cases. However, apparent overestimation of bacterial cells by QRT-PCR indicated the presence of nonculturable or nonviable cells in some samples. In addition to quantification, the lrp primers and probes permitted differentiation by allelic discrimination of Xanthomonas strains infecting citrus tissues. This technique is based on the utilization of two probes that detect a single nucleotide difference in the target sequence between different strains and was validated with a collection of cultured Xanthomonas strains as well as tissue with CBC and CBS lesions. Allelic discrimination is demonstrated to be a more specific and sensitive protocol than previously developed PCR-based methods for strain identification and quantification. PMID:18943365

Cubero, J; Graham, J H

2005-11-01

116

7 CFR 301.75-5 - Commercial citrus-producing areas.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301...and Regulations § 301.75-5 Commercial citrus-producing areas. (a) The following are designated as commercial citrus-producing areas:...

2014-01-01

117

Transformation of rice mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been routinely utilized in gene transfer to dicotyledonous plants, but monocotyledonous plants including important cereals were thought to be recalcitrant to this technology as they were outside the host range of crown gall. Various challenges to infect monocotyledons including rice with Agrobacterium had been made in many laboratories, but the results were not conclusive until recently. Efficient

Yukoh Hiei; Toshihiko Komari; Tomoaki Kubo

1997-01-01

118

The Recursion . . . Extended Rice . . .  

E-print Network

application, we get a very short proof of Rice's Theorem. Let C be such that PC = and PC = N, and let j PCThe Recursion . . . Extended Rice . . . Creative and . . . Home Page Title Page Page 388 of 405 Go . . . Extended Rice . . . Creative and . . . Home Page Title Page Page 389 of 405 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit

Gallier, Jean

119

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia  

PubMed Central

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector’s preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China. PMID:24058362

Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

2013-01-01

120

Molecular detection of nine rice viruses by a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.  

PubMed

A reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was established for the detection of nine viruses from infected rice plants, including rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), rice dwarf virus (RDV), rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV), rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), rice transitory yellowing virus (RTYV), rice stripe virus (RSV), rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV), rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), and rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV). Virus-specific primer sets were designed from the genome sequences of these viruses. By the combination of RNA rapid extraction and RT-LAMP, these nine viruses could be detected within 2h from infected rice plants. The sensitivities of the assays were either higher than (for RSV, RTBV, and RTYV) or similar (for RDV) to those of one-step RT-PCR. Furthermore, RTBV and RTSV were detected not only in infected rice plants but also in viruliferous insect vectors. The RT-LAMP assays may facilitate studies on rice disease epidemiology, outbreak surveillance, and molecular pathology. PMID:20837064

Le, Dung Tien; Netsu, Osamu; Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Shimizu, Takumi; Choi, Il-Ryong; Omura, Toshihiro; Sasaya, Takahide

2010-12-01

121

A genetic system for Citrus Tristeza Virus using the non-natural host Nicotiana benthamiana: an update.  

PubMed

In nature Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), genus Closterovirus, infects only the phloem cells of species of Citrus and related genera. Finding that the CTV T36 strain replicated in Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) protoplasts and produced normal virions allowed development of the first genetic system based on protoplast transfection with RNA transcribed from a full-genome cDNA clone, a laborious and uncertain system requiring several months for each experiment. We developed a more efficient system based on agroinfiltration of NB leaves with CTV-T36-based binary plasmids, which caused systemic infection in this non-natural host within a few weeks yielding in the upper leaves enough CTV virions to readily infect citrus by slash inoculation. Stem agroinoculation of citrus and NB plants with oncogenic strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying a CTV-T36 binary vector with a GUS marker, induced GUS positive galls in both species. However, while most NB tumors were CTV positive and many plants became systemically infected, no coat protein or viral RNA was detected in citrus tumors, even though CTV cDNA was readily detected by PCR in the same galls. This finding suggests (1) strong silencing or CTV RNA processing in transformed cells impairing infection progress, and (2) the need for using NB as an intermediate host in the genetic system. To maintain CTV-T36 in NB or assay other CTV genotypes in this host, we also tried to graft-transmit the virus from infected to healthy NB, or to mechanically inoculate NB leaves with virion extracts. While these trials were mostly unsuccessful on non-treated NB plants, agroinfiltration with silencing suppressors enabled for the first time infecting NB plants by side-grafting and by mechanical inoculation with virions, indicating that previous failure to infect NB was likely due to virus silencing in early infection steps. Using NB as a CTV host provides new possibilities to study virus-host interactions with a simple and reliable system. PMID:23847598

Ambrós, Silvia; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Peña, Leandro; Moreno, Pedro

2013-01-01

122

Viability of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' prolonged by addition of citrus juice to culture medium.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is associated with infection by the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Infection with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is incurable; therefore, knowledge regarding 'Ca. L. asiaticus' biology and pathogenesis is essential to develop a treatment. However, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' cannot currently be successfully cultured, limiting its study. To gain insight into the conditions conducive for growth of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in vitro, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inoculum obtained from seed of fruit from infected pomelo trees (Citrus maxima 'Mato Buntan') was added to different media, and cell viability was monitored for up to 2 months using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with ethidium monoazide. Media tested included one-third King's B (K), K with 50% juice from the infected fruit, K with 50% commercially available grapefruit juice, and 100% commercially available grapefruit juice. Results show that juice-containing media dramatically prolong viability compared with K in experiments reproduced during 2 years using different juice sources. Furthermore, biofilm formed at the air-liquid interface of juice cultures contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' cells, though next-generation sequencing indicated that other bacterial genera were predominant. Chemical characterization of the media was conducted to discuss possible factors sustaining 'Ca. L. asiaticus' viability in vitro, which will contribute to future development of a culture medium for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. PMID:23883155

Parker, Jennifer K; Wisotsky, Sarah R; Johnson, Evan G; Hijaz, Faraj M; Killiny, Nabil; Hilf, Mark E; De La Fuente, Leonardo

2014-01-01

123

Citrus Canker: The Pathogen and Its Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, currently featured on the home page of the American Phytopathological Society, contains a research report regarding the Asiatic citrus canker that has had devastating effects on Florida's citrus industry. The report, in a journal article format, thoroughly relates the natural history and current status of the disease, as well as detailing the methods and results of the (primarily genetic) experiments conducted in this study. One of the most appealing features of this Web site is the quality of the photos within the report. These photos can be viewed separately from the report in a slide show. While navigating this site is relatively straightforward, the lack of a table of contents can make finding your place in the body of the text somewhat confusing.

2002-01-01

124

Cyclic Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 Elicit Defense-Related Gene Expression in Citrus Fruit  

PubMed Central

Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in “Valencia” fruit following infection. PMID:25329301

Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

2014-01-01

125

Some new diseases of Citrus in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis-(LINN.) OSBECK locally known as malta orange; mandarin and tangerines (C. reticulata BLANCO var. mandarin and var. tangerine); lemon (C. limon (LINN.)BURM. f.); Grapefruit (C. paradisi MACFAYDEN); Shaddock (C. decumana MURR.) vern. Chokotra; lime (C. auranti\\/olia SWIGLE); sour or bitter orange (C. aurantium LIN1;. sub. sp. amara LINN.) Sweet lime (C. auranti\\/olia SWtNGLE (= C. limetta RlSSO)

Abdul Hamid Khan

1959-01-01

126

Candidatus Liberibacter americanus induces significant reprogramming of the transcriptome of the susceptible citrus genotype  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease is caused by endogenous, phloem-restricted, Gram negative, uncultured bacteria named Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (CaLaf), Ca. L. asiaticus (CaLas), and Ca. L. americanus (CaLam), depending on the continent where the bacteria were first detected. The Asian citrus psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri, transmits CaLas and CaLam and both Liberibacter species are present in Brazil. Several studies of the transcriptional response of citrus plants manifesting HLB symptoms have been reported, but only for CaLas infection. This study evaluated the transcriptional reprogramming of a susceptible genotype of sweet orange challenged with CaLam, using a customized 385K microarray containing approximately 32,000 unigene transcripts. We analyzed global changes in gene expression of CaLam-infected leaves of sweet orange during the symptomatic stage of infection and compared the results with previously published microarray studies that used CaLas-infected plants. Twenty candidate genes were selected to validate the expression profiles in symptomatic and asymptomatic PCR-positive leaves infected with CaLas or CaLam. Results The microarray analysis identified 633 differentially expressed genes during the symptomatic stage of CaLam infection. Among them, 418 (66%) were upregulated and 215 (34%) were down regulated. Five hundred and fourteen genes (81%) were orthologs of genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that several of the transcripts encoded transporters associated with the endomembrane system, especially zinc transport. Among the most biologically relevant gene transcripts in GSEA were those related to signaling, metabolism and/or stimulus to hormones, genes responding to stress and pathogenesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidative stress and transcription factors belonging to different families. Real time PCR of 20 candidate genes validated the expression pattern of some genes in symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves infected with CaLam or CaLas. Conclusions Many gene transcripts and biological processes are significantly altered upon CaLam infection. Some of them had been identified in response to CaLas infection, while others had not been previously reported. These data will be useful for selecting target genes for genetic engineering to control HLB. PMID:23586643

2013-01-01

127

Increasing antibiotic activity against a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp by essential oils of Citrus limon and Cinnamomum zeylanicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Acinetobacter has gained importance in recent years due to involvement in serious infections and antimicrobial resistance. Many plants have been evaluated not only for direct antimicrobial activity, but also as resistance modifying agents. The Essential oil of Citrus limon (EOCL) addition at 156.25?µgmL (MIC\\/8) sub-inhibitory concentration in the growth medium led to MIC decrease for amikacin, imipenem and

Felipe Queiroga Sarmento Guerra; Juliana Moura Mendes; Janiere Pereira de Sousa; Maria F. B. Morais-Braga; Bernadete Helena Cavalcante Santos; Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima

2011-01-01

128

Modelling the progress of Asiatic citrus canker on Tahiti lime in relation to temperature and leaf wetness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effect of temperature (15°C, 20°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C and 42°C) and leaf wetness duration (0, 4, 8 12, 16,\\u000a 20 and 24 h) on infection and development of Asiatic citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) on Tahiti lime plant was examined in growth chambers. No disease developed at 42°C and zero hours of leaf wetness. Periods\\u000a of leaf

R. S. C. Christiano; M. Dalla Pria; W. C. Jesus Junior; L. Amorim; A. Bergamin Filho

2009-01-01

129

Symmetric and asymmetric hybridization in citrus spp.  

E-print Network

be better tolerated than the whole donor genome (Ramulu et al., 1996a,b). Asymmetric hybrids have been produced in fusing species of Medicago, tobacco, tomato, potato, tomato + potato, Arabidopsis thaliana + Brassica napus and rice + Zizania latifolia... be better tolerated than the whole donor genome (Ramulu et al., 1996a,b). Asymmetric hybrids have been produced in fusing species of Medicago, tobacco, tomato, potato, tomato + potato, Arabidopsis thaliana + Brassica napus and rice + Zizania latifolia...

Bona, Claudine M.

2009-05-15

130

Growth inhibitory effect of peel extract from Citrus junos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract from yuzu fruit peel (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) strongly suppressed the germination of lettuce seeds while that from the peel of other citrus fruits such as navel orange (C. sinensis) and lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) had very little or no effect. The highest inhibitory activity was located in the peel followed by the segment but no significant

Shinsuke Fujihara; Tokurou Shimizu

2003-01-01

131

Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oils of Some Iranian Citrus Peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been efforts to overcome the problem in treatment of cancer using medicinal plants. It has been shown that Citrus essential oil of contains different terpens with antitumor activities. In this study we sought to determine the cytotoxicity of essential oils of Iranian Citrus limon (L.), C. medica (L.), C. sinsensis (L.) peels on cancer cell lines. Essential oils

Ramesh Monajemi; Shahrbanoo Oryan; Ali Haeri-Roohani; Alireza Ghannadi; Abbas Jafariane

132

Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Peel Essential Oils on the Microbial Growth of Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of citrus peel essential oils on the microbial growth and sensory characteristics of bread. Citrus peel essential oils extracted by cold expression from malta (Citrus sinensis) and mossumbi (Citrus sinensis) were applied in different forms (treatments) separately. The essential oils significantly affected sensory characteristics such as symmetry of form, character

Sarfraz Hussain; Haq Nawaz; Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad; Mian Anjum Murtaza; Ali Jaffar Rizvi

2007-01-01

133

Characterization of the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from some citrus peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] and characterize the antioxidant properties. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics\\u000a were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Free phenolic extracts had

G. Oboh; A. O. Ademosun

134

rice boulevard Tennis Stadium  

E-print Network

rice boulevard Jake Hess Tennis Stadium Reckling Park Tennis Courts Practice Field Intramural Field Hess Tennis Stadium, Jake ............34 Holloway Field .................................35 Wendel D

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

135

Current Insights into Research on Rice stripe virus  

PubMed Central

Rice stripe virus (RSV) is one of the most destructive viruses of rice, and greatly reduces rice production in China, Japan, and Korea, where mostly japonica cultivars of rice are grown. RSV is transmitted by the small brown plant-hopper (SBPH) in a persistent and circulative-propagative manner. Several methods have been developed for detection of RSV, which is composed of four single-stranded RNAs that encode seven proteins. Genome sequence data and comparative phylogenetic analysis have been used to identify the origin and diversity of RSV isolates. Several rice varieties resistant to RSV have been selected and QTL analysis and fine mapping have been intensively performed to map RSV resistance loci or genes. RSV genes have been used to generate several genetically modified transgenic rice plants with RSV resistance. Recently, genome-wide transcriptome analyses and deep sequencing have been used to identify mRNAs and small RNAs involved in RSV infection; several rice host factors that interact with RSV proteins have also been identified. In this article, we review the current statues of RSV research and propose integrated approaches for the study of interactions among RSV, rice, and the SBPH.

Cho, Won Kyong; Lian, Sen; Kim, Sang-Min; Park, Sang-Ho; Kim, Kook-Hyung

2013-01-01

136

Sodium sulphite yields improved DNA of higher stability for PCR detection of Citrus yellow mosaic virus from citrus leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), a non-enveloped bacilliform DNA virus causes a severe mosaic disease in sweet oranges in India. CYMV is weakly immunogenic, thus serodiagnosis is not a preferred method for its detection. As an alternative a rapid and reliable detection protocol by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. However, high levels of polyphenolics and tannins in citrus leaves

V. K. Baranwal; S. Majumder; Y. S. Ahlawat; R. P. Singh

2003-01-01

137

Rice University General Announcements  

E-print Network

, to correctorotherwisechangeanyinformationwithoutnotice.Amorerecentversion of this publication is available on the university's website. The information opportunity in education and employment. It is the policy of Rice University to attract qualified individuals of diverse backgrounds to its faculty, staff, and student body. Rice University does not discriminate against

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

138

Screening citrus rootstocks for alkalinity tolerance  

E-print Network

, . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 xIV Appendix Table Page G 6. Above-ground fresh weight after 1 5 weeks for 18 citrus rootstocks grown in sand culture and watered with a half strength macronutrient Hoagland's solution at 3 pH levels. 137 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION..., and 8. 5) to induce Fe- deficiency chlorosis. The pH 6. 0 was obtained by adjusting the solution using 110 pl of 1. 0 N NaOH, while pH 7. 5 and 8. 5 were obtained by adding 0. 068 and 0. 148 g K2CO3 per liter solution, respectively (Appendix C...

Sudahono

2012-06-07

139

Citrus flavonoids and the prevention of atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables can prevent or delay the onset of many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD). While more current research has begun to focus on the effects of specific polyphenol compounds found in fruits and vegetables, mechanistic insights have been hampered by the multiple simultaneous effects these compounds may have on the disease process. In this article, we review the basic research studies that have evaluated the effects of citrus flavonoids to: improve dyslipidemia, normalize glucose homeostasis, prevent oxidative stress, and attenuate inflammation, which collectively have the ability to enhance metabolic health and improve CVD risk. PMID:23030447

Mulvihill, Erin E; Huff, Murray W

2012-12-01

140

Dietary rice bran promotes resistance to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colonization in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary rice bran consists of many bioactive components with disease fighting properties; including the capacity to modulate the gut microbiota. Studies point to the important roles of the gut microbiota and the mucosal epithelium in the establishment of protection against enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella. The ability of rice bran to reduce the susceptibility of mice to a Salmonella infection has not been previously investigated. Therefore, we hypothesized that the incorporation of rice bran into the diet would inhibit the colonization of Salmonella in mice through the induction of protective mucosal responses. Results Mice were fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% rice bran for one week prior to being orally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We found that mice consuming the 10 and 20% rice bran diets exhibited a reduction in Salmonella fecal shedding for up to nine days post-infection as compared to control diet fed animals (p?rice bran fed mice (p?rice bran extracts to reduce Salmonella entry into mouse small intestinal epithelial cells. Conclusions Increasing rice bran consumption represents a novel dietary means for reducing susceptibility to enteric infection with Salmonella and potentially via induction of native Lactobacillus spp. PMID:22583915

2012-01-01

141

Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership Rice is to help Rice University undergraduates from  

E-print Network

189 Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership Rice is to help Rice University undergraduates from all disciplines build their leadership capacities to create and manage change ef- fectively. Leadership Rice explores how heart and mind, theory and practice, and ideas and actions come together

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

142

Leadership Rice Leadership Rice exists to encourage and equip Rice students to obtain  

E-print Network

Leadership Rice Leadership Rice exists to encourage and equip Rice students to obtain leadership roles at Rice and beyond. We provide leadership development opportunities to undergraduates from every ambition for leadership. We seek to accomplish our mission through a blend of curricular and co

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

143

Effect of citrus leaf-miner damage, mechanical damage and inoculum concentration on severity of symptoms of Asiatic citrus canker in Tahiti lime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citriculture in São Paulo State, Brazil, is threatened by Asiatic citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri). The introduction of the Asian citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella [CLM]) has resulted in an increase in the number of disease foci and has changed the spatial pattern of citrus canker symptomatic trees from strong aggregation to intermediate aggregation and random patterns. We evaluated

R. S. C. Christiano; M. Dalla Pria; W. C. Jesus Junior; J. R. P. Parra; L. Amorim; A. Bergamin Filho

2007-01-01

144

Phenology of asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in punjab pakistan.  

PubMed

The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:25198345

Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

2014-10-01

145

Large scale germplasm screening for identification of novel rice blast resistance sources  

PubMed Central

Rice is a major cereal crop that contributes significantly to global food security. Biotic stresses, including the rice blast fungus, cause severe yield losses that significantly impair rice production worldwide. The rapid genetic evolution of the fungus often overcomes the resistance conferred by major genes after a few years of intensive agricultural use. Therefore, resistance breeding requires continuous efforts of enriching the reservoir of resistance genes/alleles to effectively tackle the disease. Seed banks represent a rich stock of genetic diversity, however, they are still under-explored for identifying novel genes and/or their functional alleles. We conducted a large-scale screen for new rice blast resistance sources in 4246 geographically diverse rice accessions originating from 13 major rice-growing countries. The accessions were selected from a total collection of over 120,000 accessions based on their annotated rice blast resistance information in the International Rice Genebank. A two-step resistance screening protocol was used involving natural infection in a rice uniform blast nursery and subsequent artificial infections with five single rice blast isolates. The nursery-resistant accessions showed varied disease responses when infected with single isolates, suggesting the presence of diverse resistance genes/alleles in this accession collection. In addition, 289 accessions showed broad-spectrum resistance against all five single rice blast isolates. The selected resistant accessions were genotyped for the presence of the Pi2 resistance gene, thereby identifying potential accessions for isolation of allelic variants of this blast resistance gene. Together, the accession collection with broad spectrum and isolate specific blast resistance represent the core material for isolation of previously unknown blast resistance genes and/or their allelic variants that can be deployed in rice breeding programs.

Vasudevan, Kumar; Vera Cruz, Casiana M.; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K.

2014-01-01

146

Citrus residues isolates improve astaxanthin production by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.  

PubMed

The wild strain and two astaxanthin-overproducing mutant strains, W618 and GNG274, of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were analyzed in order to assess their ability to grow and synthesize astaxanthin in a minimal medium containing (per liter): 2 g KH2PO4, 0.5 g MgSO4, 2 g KNO3, and 1 g yeast extract, and supplemented with citrus residues isolates as a carbon source (citrus medium). The selected strain W618 was evaluated under various contents of citrus juice. At the content of 20% (v/v), the highest astaxanthin production reached 22.63 mg L(-1), which was two-fold more than that observed in yeast malt medium. Addition of 8% (v/v) n-hexadecane to the citrus medium was found to be optimal, increasing the astaxanthin yield by 21.7%. PMID:21138061

Wu, Wei; Lu, Mingbo; Yu, Longjiang

2010-01-01

147

PhysicoChemical Characteristics of Citrus Seeds and Seed Oils from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physico-chemical characteristics of the seeds and seed oils of four citrus species, Mitha (Citrus limetta), Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), Mussami (Citrus sinensis), and Kinnow (Citrus reticulata) were investigated. The hexane-extracted oil content of citrus seeds ranged from 27.0 to 36.5%. The protein, fiber and ash\\u000a contents were found to be 3.9–9.6%, 5.0–8.5%, and 4.6–5.6%, respectively. The extracted oils exhibited an

Farooq Anwar; Rehana Naseer; M. I. Bhanger; Samia Ashraf; Farah Naz Talpur; Felix Adekunle Aladedunye

2008-01-01

148

Properties of a Cationic Peroxidase from Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major pool of peroxidase activity is present in the peel of some Egyptian citrus species and cultivars compared to the\\u000a juice and pulp. Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia had the highest peroxidase activity among the examined species. Four anionic and one cationic peroxidase isoenzymes\\u000a from C. jambhiri were detected using the purification procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, chromatography on diethylaminoethanol-cellulose,

Saleh A. Mohamed; Mohamed O. El-Badry; Ehab A. Drees; Afaf S. Fahmy

2008-01-01

149

Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).  

PubMed

A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

2014-04-20

150

Texas Rice Production Guidelines  

E-print Network

wide crosses between elite Texas variet- ies and Oryza glaberrima as a potential source for major yield increases in Texas varieties beyond indica/japonica hybrids. Project Title: Plant Physiology Research. Texas Rice Ratoon Crop Management... wide crosses between elite Texas variet- ies and Oryza glaberrima as a potential source for major yield increases in Texas varieties beyond indica/japonica hybrids. Project Title: Plant Physiology Research. Texas Rice Ratoon Crop Management...

Way, M. O.; Cockrell, Jay

2008-03-11

151

Dietary citrus pulp reduces lipid oxidation in lamb meat.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of replacing cereal concentrates with high levels of dried citrus pulp in the diet on lamb meat oxidative stability. Over 56 days, lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (Control) or concentrates in which 24% and 35% dried citrus pulp were included to partially replace barley (Citrus 24% and Citrus 35%, respectively). Meat was aged under vacuum for 4 days and subsequently stored aerobically at 4 °C. The Control diet increased the redness, yellowness and saturation of meat after blooming (P<0.01). Regardless of the level of supplementation, dietary dried citrus pulp strongly reduced meat lipid oxidation over 6 days of aerobic storage (P<0.001), while colour parameters did not change noticeably over storage and their variation rate was not affected by the diet. In conclusion, replacing cereals with dried citrus pulp in concentrate-based diets might represent a feasible strategy to naturally improve meat oxidative stability and to promote the exploitation of this by-product. PMID:24440744

Inserra, L; Priolo, A; Biondi, L; Lanza, M; Bognanno, M; Gravador, R; Luciano, G

2014-04-01

152

Citrus tristeza virus p23: a unique protein mediating key virus-host interactions  

PubMed Central

The large RNA genome of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; ca. 20 kb) contains 12 open reading frames, with the 3?-terminal one corresponding to a protein of 209 amino acids (p23) that is expressed from an abundant subgenomic RNA. p23, an RNA-binding protein with a putative zinc-finger domain and some basic motifs, is unique to CTV because no homologs have been found in other closteroviruses, including the type species of the genus Beet yellows virus (despite both viruses having many homologous genes). Consequently, p23 might have evolved for the specific interaction of CTV with its citrus hosts. From a functional perspective p23 has been involved in many roles: (i) regulation of the asymmetrical accumulation of CTV RNA strands, (ii) induction of the seedling yellows syndrome in sour orange and grapefruit, (iii) intracellular suppression of RNA silencing, (iv) elicitation of CTV-like symptoms when expressed ectopically as a transgene in several Citrus spp., and (v) enhancement of systemic infection (and virus accumulation) in sour orange and CTV release from the phloem in p23-expressing transgenic sweet and sour orange. Moreover, transformation of Mexican lime with intron-hairpin constructs designed for the co-inactivation of p23 and the two other CTV silencing suppressors results in complete resistance against the homologous virus. From a cellular point of view, recent data indicate that p23 accumulates preferentially in the nucleolus, being the first closterovirus protein with such a subcellular localization, as well as in plasmodesmata. These major accumulation sites most likely determine some of the functional roles of p23. PMID:23653624

Flores, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesus; Fagoaga, Carmen; Lopez, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Pena, Leandro

2013-01-01

153

Detached leaf inoculation of germplasm for rapid screening of resistance to citrus canker and citrus bacterial spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detached leaf protocol for rapid screening of germplasm for resistance to citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) and citrus bacterial spot (Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis, Xac) was developed to evaluate limited quantities of leaf material. Bacterial inocula of Xcc or Xac at 104, 105, or 108 cfu ml?1 were injection-infiltrated into the abaxial surface of disinfested, immature leaves of susceptible

Marta I. Francis; Alma Peña; James H. Graham

2010-01-01

154

Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership RiceistohelpRiceUniversityundergraduates  

E-print Network

189 Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership RiceistohelpRiceUniversityundergraduates fromalldisciplinesbuildtheirleadershipcapacitiestocreateandmanage changeeffectively.LeadershipRiceexploreshowheartandmind,theoryand practice,andideasandactionscometogethertofacilitatechange. Theintroductorycourse,LEAD309Leadership: Theory to Practice (formerly UNIV309),isrequiredtoapplyforparticipationinthe

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

155

Resequencing rice genomes: an emerging new era of rice genomics.  

PubMed

Rice is a model system for crop genomics studies. Much of the early work on rice genomics focused on analyzing genome-wide genetic variation to further understand rice gene functions in agronomic traits and to generate data and resources for rice research. The advent of next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies and the completion of high-quality reference genome sequences have enabled the development of sequencing-based genotyping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that have significantly advanced rice genetics research. This has led to the emergence of a new era of rice genomics aimed at bridging the knowledge gap between genotype and phenotype in rice. These technologies have also led to pyramid breeding through genomics-assisted selection, which will be useful in breeding elite varieties suitable for sustainable agriculture. Here, we review the recent advances in rice genomics and discuss the future of this line of research. PMID:23295340

Huang, Xuehui; Lu, Tingting; Han, Bin

2013-04-01

156

Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.  

PubMed

Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

2014-07-01

157

7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.  

...any local citrus canker eradication program office in Florida, or from the USDA Citrus Canker Eradication Program, 6901 West Sunrise Boulevard, Plantation, FL 33313. The completed application should be accompanied by a copy of the public...

2014-01-01

158

Rice University Department of Bioengineering  

E-print Network

Page | 1 Rice University Department of Bioengineering Graduate Degree Requirements.D./Ph.D. is offered between the Rice Department of Bioengineering and Baylor College of Medicine. Few students ...............................................................................8 J. Acceptance of Thesis

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

159

Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.  

PubMed

Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter. PMID:23751544

Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

2014-06-01

160

Cooking with Rice (not instant)  

E-print Network

(6 servings). To make rice, mix the following ingredients in a medium saucepan: 1 cup uncooked rice 1 tablespoon margarine (if you like) 2 cups water ? teaspoon salt (if you like) Bring the contents to a boil and stir once or twice. Reduce... or washed before cooking. Rice Salad (makes 6 servings) What you need 3 cups cooked rice, cooled 2 hard-cooked eggs, chopped ? cup mayonnaise-type salad dressing ? cup finely chopped green onions...

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09

161

In vitro inhibition of vancomycin-susceptible and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis in the presence of citrus essential oils.  

PubMed

Glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus (GRE) is an important healthcare-acquired infection (HCAI) which costs the healthcare service many millions of pounds worldwide. In this study, lemon (Citrus limon), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) or bergamot (Citrus bergamia) essential oils (EO) and their vapours, alone and in combination, are tested for their antimicrobial activity against vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-sensitive strains of E. faecium and E. faecalis. A blend of 1:1 (v/v) orange and bergamot EO was the most effective of the oils and/or blends tested with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), at 25 degrees C and pH 5.5, of 0.25-0.5% (v/v) and a minimum inhibitory dose (MID) of 50 mg/L, at 50 degrees C at pH 7.5, when viable counts reduced by 5.5-10 log10 colony forming units (cfu)/mL, suggesting that this blend of citrus oils is effective under a range of conditions for inhibiting the growth and survival of E. faecalis, E. faecium and VRE. PMID:20095125

Fisher, K; Phillips, C

2009-01-01

162

Global gene expression in rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae treated with a natural rice soil isolate.  

PubMed

The rhizospheric microbiome is comprised of many microbes, some of which reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic neighbors; however, the mechanisms underlying these interactions are largely unknown. Rice soil isolate Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105 strongly inhibits Magnaporthe oryzae's in vitro growth by restricting fungal diameter as well as inhibiting the formation of the appressorium, required for penetration. We were interested in elucidating M. oryzae's response to EA105 treatment, and utilized a microarray approach to obtain a global perspective of EA105 elicited changes in this pathogen. Based on this analysis, three genes of interest were knocked out in M. oryzae 70-15, and their sensitivity to EA105 treatment as well as their ability to infect rice was determined. Priming rice plants with EA105 prior to M. oryzae infection decreased lesion size, and the mutants were tested to see if this effect was retained. A null 70-15 mutant in a trichothecene biosynthesis gene showed less susceptibility to bacterial treatment, forming more appressoria than the parental type 70-15. A similar pattern was seen in a null mutant for a stress-inducible protein, MGG_03098. In addition, when this mutant was inoculated onto the leaves of EA105-primed rice plants, lesions were reduced to a greater extent than in 70-15, implicating the lack of this gene with an increased ISR response in rice. Understanding the global effect of biocontrol bacteria on phytopathogens is a key for developing successful and lasting solutions to crop loss caused by plant diseases and has the potential to greatly increase food supply. PMID:24126723

Spence, Carla A; Raman, Vidhyavathi; Donofrio, Nicole M; Bais, Harsh P

2014-01-01

163

Red Rice Research and Control.  

E-print Network

Physiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Baldwin, Ford L., University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, Little Rock. Bourgeois, W. J., Department of Plant Pathology and Crop Physiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Cox... ...................................... 10 E. A. Sonnier RED RICE CONTROL IN ALTERNATE CROPS ................................ 16 F. L. Baldwin ..# RED RICE CONTROL ..................................................lg B. A. Huey and F. L. Baldwin RED RICE HERBICIDE SCREENING TESTS...

Baker, John B.; Baldwin, Ford L.; Bourgeois, W.J.; Cox, Clodis H.; Craigmiles, Julian P.; Dishman, William D.; Eastin, E. Ford; Helpert, Charles W.; Hill, Lewis C.; Huey, Bobby A.; Klosterboer, Arlen D.; Sonnier, Earl A.

1980-01-01

164

Predominant rice weeds in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey conducted in the four major rice ecological zones in Nigeria the predominant weeds of the flora growing in association with both direct?seeded and transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) were determined. Most of the predominant weed species differed with differing rice ecologies. Among the predominant broadleaved species, Ageratum conyzoides L., Sphenochlea zeylanica Gaertn, Tridax procumbens L., Portulaca oleracea

L. I. Okafor

1986-01-01

165

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated...receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of...

2011-01-01

166

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated...receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of...

2012-01-01

167

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

...false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section...75-15 Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability...of appropriated funds, the owner of a commercial citrus grove may be eligible to...

2014-01-01

168

Reducing chilling injury and decay of stored citrus fruit by hot water dips  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hot water dips (53 °C, 2–3 min) on chilling injury (CI) and decay of various citrus fruits was compared with the effect of curing (36 °C, 72 h). Experiments were conducted with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., cv. Marsh), lemon (Citrus limon. Burm., cv. Eureka), oroblanco (C. grandis Osb. × C. paradisi, cv. Oroblanco, syn. Sweety) and kumquat

V. Rodov; S. Ben-Yehoshua; R. Albagli; D. Q. Fang

1995-01-01

169

Land cover classification and economic assessment of citrus groves using remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus industry has the second largest impact on Florida's economy, following tourism. Estimation of citrus area coverage and annual forecasts of Florida's citrus production are currently dependent on labor-intensive interpretation of aerial photographs. Remotely sensed data from satellites has been widely applied in agricultural yield estimation and cropland management. Satellite data can potentially be obtained throughout the year, making

Rahul J. Shrivastava; Jennifer L. Gebelein

2007-01-01

170

Citrus essential oils and four enantiomeric pinenes against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of pinenes (entantiomers of ?- and ?-) and essential oils from Greek plants of the Rutaceae family against the mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from fruit peel of orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon L.), and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.).

Antonios Michaelakis; Dimitrios Papachristos; Athanasios Kimbaris; George Koliopoulos; Athanasios Giatropoulos; Moschos G. Polissiou

2009-01-01

171

Physiological changes associated with senescence and abscission in mature citrus fruit induced by 5-chloro-3-  

E-print Network

and Bleecker 2004) and orchid (Van Doorn 2002), although Abbreviations ­ AT, aristolochic acid; FDF, fruitPhysiological changes associated with senescence and abscission in mature citrus fruit induced by 5), a plant growth regulator that selectively promotes abscission in mature citrus fruit (Citrus sinensis

Burns, Jacqueline K.

172

Citrus Flavonoids in Fruit and Traditional Chinese Medicinal Food Ingredients in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Flavonoids-enriched tissues of citrus such as peel, immature fruit and flower are consumed as culinary seasonings, tea ingredients in China for centuries. This HPLC quantitative study on the five citrus flavonoids, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, sinensetin and nobiletin on a wide range of Chinese citrus fruits and several Traditional Chinese Medicinal food ingredients in East China, revealed a great diversity in

Yanhua Lu; Chongwei Zhang; Peter Bucheli; Dongzhi Wei

2006-01-01

173

Citrus Tree Abiotic and Biotic Stress and Implication of Simulation and Modeling Tools in Tree Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant abiotic and biotic stress is related to unfavorable and environmental constraints. As a warm climate tree fruit crop, citrus (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.) is adapted to a wide variety of soil types and growth conditions. However, when waterlogging, soil acidity and root weevil infestation occur simultaneously, citrus roots can be injured from anaerobic disturbance, oxygen deprivation and root injury,

Hong Li

174

Citrus essential oil of Nigeria. Part V: Volatile constituents of sweet orange leaf oil (Citrus sinensis).  

PubMed

The volatile oils extracted from leaves of eight cultivars of Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck were comprehensively analysed by a combination of GC and GC-MS. Fifty four constituents accounting for 82.3-98.2% were identified. Sabinene (20.9-49.1%), delta-3-carene (0.3-14.3%), (E)-beta-ocimene (4.4-12.6%), linalool (3.7-11.1%) and terpinen-4-ol (1.7-12.5%) were the major constituents that are common to all the volatile oils. In addition, a cluster analysis was carried out and indicated at least four different chemotypes for the C. sinensis cultivars. PMID:21815430

Kasali, Adeleke A; Lawal, Oladipupo A; Eshilokun, Adeolu O; Olaniyan, Abayomi A; Opoku, Andy R; Setzer, William N

2011-06-01

175

Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership Rice is to help Rice University undergraduates  

E-print Network

194 Leadership Rice The mission of Leadership Rice is to help Rice University undergraduates from all disciplines build their leadership capacities to create and manage change effectively. Leadership to facilitate change. The introductory course, LEAD 309 Leadership: Theory to Practice (formerly UNIV 309

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

176

Resistance of citrus genotypes to Phyllocnitis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).  

PubMed

The development and reproduction of the citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, were evaluated in six citrus genotypes in order to identify genotypes with resistance traits that could be applied in a program for the development of citrus varieties resistant to the citrus leafminer. Tests were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and 14h photophase). Seedlings of each genotype tested were infested with eggs obtained from a stock colony of CLM maintained on 'Cravo' lemon (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck), and the duration and survival of the eggs, larval and pupal stages, pupal size and weight, fecundity and longevity of adults, and sex ratio were evaluated. No influence was observed on the duration and survival of eggs, larvae and pupae of P. citrella. However, pupae obtained in the hybrid C x R(4) were significantly smaller and lighter than pupae from the remaining treatments. Adult females from the hybrids C x R(4) and C x R(315) were the least fecund. However, the lowest value for the corrected reproductive potential (CRP) was recorded in the hybrid C x R(315), suggesting that this genotype is the least favorable for the development and reproduction of CLM. On the other hand, the highest CRP value obtained in the 'Rugoso' lemon confirms the susceptibility of this genotype, indicating it as the most suitable for CLM. PMID:21952967

Santos, M S; Vendramim, J D; Lourenção, A L; Pitta, R M; Martins, E S

2011-01-01

177

Rice Insect Management.  

E-print Network

more severe during cold, wet springs. Grasshoppers Several grasshopper species attack rice. The most common and abundant is a meadow grasshopper, ConocephalllS fasciatus (DeGeer). This green insect, 7/ 8- to I 1/ 8-inches long, feeds on leaves... more severe during cold, wet springs. Grasshoppers Several grasshopper species attack rice. The most common and abundant is a meadow grasshopper, ConocephalllS fasciatus (DeGeer). This green insect, 7/ 8- to I 1/ 8-inches long, feeds on leaves...

Drees, Bastiaan M.

1983-01-01

178

Citrus MAF1, a repressor of RNA polymerase III, binds the Xanthomonas citri canker elicitor PthA4 and suppresses citrus canker development.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Xanthomonas species pathogens act as transcription factors in plant cells; however, how TAL effectors activate host transcription is unknown. We found previously that TAL effectors of the citrus canker pathogen Xanthomonas citri, known as PthAs, bind the carboxyl-terminal domain of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and inhibit the activity of CsCYP, a cyclophilin associated with the carboxyl-terminal domain of the citrus RNA Pol II that functions as a negative regulator of cell growth. Here, we show that PthA4 specifically interacted with the sweet orange MAF1 (CsMAF1) protein, an RNA polymerase III (Pol III) repressor that controls ribosome biogenesis and cell growth in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human. CsMAF1 bound the human RNA Pol III and rescued the yeast maf1 mutant by repressing tRNA(His) transcription. The expression of PthA4 in the maf1 mutant slightly restored tRNA(His) synthesis, indicating that PthA4 counteracts CsMAF1 activity. In addition, we show that sweet orange RNA interference plants with reduced CsMAF1 levels displayed a dramatic increase in tRNA transcription and a marked phenotype of cell proliferation during canker formation. Conversely, CsMAF1 overexpression was detrimental to seedling growth, inhibited tRNA synthesis, and attenuated canker development. Furthermore, we found that PthA4 is required to elicit cankers in sweet orange leaves and that depletion of CsMAF1 in X. citri-infected tissues correlates with the development of hyperplastic lesions and the presence of PthA4. Considering that CsMAF1 and CsCYP function as canker suppressors in sweet orange, our data indicate that TAL effectors from X. citri target negative regulators of RNA Pol II and Pol III to coordinately increase the transcription of host genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. PMID:23898043

Soprano, Adriana Santos; Abe, Valeria Yukari; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

2013-09-01

179

Induced resistance against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, by ?-aminobutyric acid in citrus.  

PubMed

?-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to induce resistance to microbial pathogens, nematodes and insects in several host plant/pest systems. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect of BABA occurred against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in citrus. A 25 mM drench application of BABA significantly reduced the number of eggs/plant as compared with a water control, whereas 200 and 100 mM applications of BABA reduced the numbers of nymphs/plant and adults/plants, respectively. A 5 mM foliar application of BABA significantly reduced the number of adults but not eggs or nymphs when compared with a water control treatment. In addition, leaf-dip bioassays using various concentrations (25–500 mM) of BABA indicated no direct toxic effect on 2nd and 5th instar nymphs or adult D. citri. BABA-treated plants were characterized by significantly lower levels of iron, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur and zinc as compared with control plants. The expression level of the PR-2 gene (?-1,3-glucanase) in BABA-treated plants that were also damaged by D. citri adult feeding was significantly higher than in plants exposed to BABA, D. citri feeding alone or control plants. Our results indicate the potential for using BABA as a systemic acquired resistance management tool for D. citri. PMID:23590847

Tiwari, Siddharth; Meyer, Wendy L; Stelinski, Lukasz L

2013-10-01

180

Anticancer Activities of Citrus Peel Polymethoxyflavones Related to Angiogenesis and Others  

PubMed Central

Citrus is a kind of common fruit and contains multiple beneficial nutrients for human beings. Flavonoids, as a class of plant secondary metabolites, exist in citrus fruits abundantly. Due to their broad range of pharmacological properties, citrus flavonoids have gained increased attention. Accumulative in vitro and in vivo studies indicate protective effects of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) against the occurrence of cancer. PMFs inhibit carcinogenesis by mechanisms like blocking the metastasis cascade, inhibition of cancer cell mobility in circulatory systems, proapoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. This review systematically summarized anticarcinogenic effect of citrus flavonoids in cancer therapy, together with the underlying important molecular mechanisms, in purpose of further exploring more effective use of citrus peel flavonoids.

Wang, Liwen; Wang, Jinhan; Fang, Lianying; Zheng, Zuliang; Zhi, Dexian; Wang, Suying; Li, Shiming; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhao, Hui

2014-01-01

181

The use of straw mulch as a strategy to prevent extreme soil erosion rates in citrus orchard. A Rainfall simulation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not only the Sahel (Haregeweyn et al., 2013), the deforested land (Borelli et al., 2013) the chinese Plateau are affected by intense soil erosion rates (Zhao et al., 2013). Soil erosion affect agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009), and citrus orchards are being seeing as one of the crops with the highest erosion rates due to the managements that avoid the catch crops, weeds or litter. Example of the research carried out on citrus orchards is found in the Mediterranean (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) and in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012), and they confirm the non sustainable soil losses measured. The land management in citrus plantations results in soil degradation too (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012). The use of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel has been found successful. There is a need to find new plants or residues to protect the soils on citrus orchards. Agriculture produces a high amount of residues. The pruning can contribute with a valuable source of nutrients and a good soil protection. The leaves of the trees, and some parts of the plants, once harvest can contribute to reduce the soil losses. Due to the mechanization of the agriculture, and the reduction of the draft animals (mainly horses, mules, donkeys and oxen) the straw is being a residue instead of a resource. The Valencia region is the largest producer of citrus in Europe, and the largest exporter in the world. This citrus production region is located in the eastern cost of Spain where we can find the rice production area of the l'Albufera Lagoon paddy fields, the third largest production region in Spain. This means, a rice production region surrounded by the huge citrus production region. There, the rice straw is not used in the paddy fields after harvesting and the straw is being as a residue that damages the air quality when burnt, the water quality due to the decomposition and the methane production, and is not accepted in the field by the farmers. This is a new problem as few years ago the rice straw was use for animal feeding. Many attempts were developed in the last decade to remove and use the straw to avoid fires and water pollution (Iranzo et al., 2004; Silvestre et al., 2013). Our goal is to test if a residue such as the rice straw can be transformed as a resource: soil erosion control. Straw has been seen as a very efficient to reduce the water losses in agriculture land (García Moreno et al., 2013), the soil losses in fire affected land (Robichaud et al., 2013a; 2013b; Fernandez and Vega, 2014), and soil properties (García Orenes et al., 2009; 2010; Jordán et al., 2010; García Orenes 2012). Rainfall simulations under 55 mm h-1 rainfall intensity during one hour on 0,25 m2 plots were carried out on plots paired plots: bare and covered with straw. The plots covered with straw had different straw mulch cover: from 10 to 100 % cover and from 0,005 g m2 to 300 g m2. The results show a positive effect of the straw cover that show an exponential relation between the straw cover and weight with the sediment yield. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE supported this research. References Bombino, G., Denisi, P., Fortugno, D., Tamburino, V., Zema, D.A., Zimbone, S.M. 2010. Land spreading of solar-dried citrus peel to control runoff and soil erosion. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment 140,145-154. Borrelli, P., Märker, M., Schütt, B. 2013. Modelling post-tree-haversting soil erosion and sediment deposition potential in the Turano River Basin (Italian Central Apennine). Land Degradation & Development, DOI 10.1002/ldr.2214 Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 200

Cerdà, Artemi; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

2014-05-01

182

Natural bioactive compounds of Citrus limon for food and health.  

PubMed

Citrus genus is the most important fruit tree crop in the world and lemon is the third most important Citrus species. Several studies highlighted lemon as an important health-promoting fruit rich in phenolic compounds as well as vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, essential oils and carotenoids. Lemon fruit has a strong commercial value for the fresh products market and food industry. Moreover, lemon productive networks generate high amounts of wastes and by-products that constitute an important source of bioactive compounds with potential for animal feed, manufactured foods, and health care. This review focuses on the phytochemistry and the analytical aspects of lemon compounds as well as on the importance for food industry and the relevance of Citrus limon for nutrition and health, bringing an overview of what is published on the bioactive compounds of this fruit. PMID:19748198

González-Molina, E; Domínguez-Perles, R; Moreno, D A; García-Viguera, C

2010-01-20

183

Reproducible RNA Preparation from Sugarcane and Citrus for Functional Genomic Applications  

PubMed Central

High-throughput functional genomic procedures depend on the quality of the RNA used. Copurifying molecules can negatively impact the functionality of some plant RNA preparations employed in these procedures. We present a simplified, rapid, and scalable SDS/phenol-based method that provides the high-quantity and -quality RNA required by the newly emerging biotechnology applications. The method is applied to isolating RNA from tissues of two biotechnologically important crop plants, sugarcane and citrus, which provide a challenge due to the presence of fiber, polysaccharides, or secondary metabolites. The RNA isolated by this method is suitable for several downstream applications including northern blot hybridization, microarray analysis, and quantitative RT-PCR. This method has been used in a diverse range of projects ranging from screening plant lines overexpressing mammalian genes to analyzing plant responses to viral infection and defense signaling molecules. PMID:20148085

Damaj, Mona B.; Beremand, Phillip D.; Buenrostro-Nava, Marco T.; Riedel, Beth; Molina, Joe J.; Kumpatla, Siva P.; Thomas, Terry L.; Mirkov, T. Erik

2009-01-01

184

Weedy hosts and prevalence of potential leafhopper vectors (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) of a phytoplasma (16SrIX group) associated with Huanglongbing symptoms in citrus groves.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a severe citrus (Citrus spp.) disease associated with the bacteria genus Candidatus Liberibacter, detected in Brazil in 2004. Another bacterium was found in association with HLB symptoms and characterized as a phytoplasma belonging to the 16SrIX group. The objectives of this study were to identify potential leafhopper vectors of the HLB-associated phytoplasma and their host plants. Leafhoppers were sampled every other week for 12 mo with sticky yellow cards placed at two heights (0.3 and 1.5 m) in the citrus tree canopy and by using a sweep net in the ground vegetation of two sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, groves infected by the HLB-phytoplasma in São Paulo state. Faunistic analyses indicated one Agalliinae (Agallia albidula Uhler) and three Deltocephalinae [Balclutha hebe (Kirkaldy), Planicephalus flavicosta (Stål), and Scaphytopius (Convelinus) marginelineatus (Stål)] species, as the most abundant and frequent leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Visual observations indicated an association of leafhopper species with some weeds and the influence of weed species composition on leafhopper abundance in low-lying vegetation. S. marginelineatus and P. flavicosta were more frequent on Sida rhombifolia L. and Althernantera tenella Colla, respectively, whereas A. albidula was observed more often on Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. and B. hebe only occurred on grasses. DNA samples of field-collected S. marginelineatus were positive by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing tests for the presence of the HLB-phytoplasma group, indicating it as a potential vector. The association of leafhoppers with their hosts may be used in deciding which management strategies to adopt against weeds and diseases in citrus orchards. PMID:22606800

Marques, R N; Teixeira, D C; Yamamoto, P T; Lopes, J R S

2012-04-01

185

Narendra Anand Rice University  

E-print Network

Researcher, Networking and Communications Lab Prototyped hybrid Software Defined Radio platform. Began of components, and creating an option comprised of 802.11b Radio, low-power FPGA, and ARM 9 microcontroller mobile devices. AwardsAcademic Honors · Rice University Hershel M. Rich Invention Award Spring 2012

186

RICE UNIVERSITY COUNSELING RECORD  

E-print Network

Employee Assistance Referral Suspension With Pay; Reassignment of Job Duties Termination of Employment Written Reprimand Employee Assistance Referral Suspension With Pay; Reassignment of Job Duties TerminationRICE UNIVERSITY COUNSELING RECORD Employee Name Date Issued Employee ID # Job Title Work Location

187

visitor parking rice village  

E-print Network

, CONTROLLER'S OFFICE, ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEMS) university boulevard greenbriar chaucer rice boulevard campanile road whitley shepherd wilton hazard kent ashby cherokee alumnidrive sunset boulevard remington main, Engineering and Planning Lot G Greenbriar Lot GA Greenbriar Annex H Hess Court Lot K Keck Lot L Lovett Lot N

Alvarez, Pedro J.

188

InvasiveNattrassia mangiferaeInfections: Case Report, Literature Review, and Therapeutic and Taxonomic Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a case of subcutaneous infection of the arm caused by the coelomycetous fungus Nattrassia mangiferae (formerly Hendersonula toruloidea) in a steroid-dependent diabetic man with chronic obstructive lung disease. The man was a resident of Arizona, where the fungus is known to be endemic on Eucalyptus camaldulensis and on citrus trees. Diagnosis of fungal infection was made by

LYNNE SIGLER; RICHARD C. SUMMERBELL; LYNN POOLE; MARION WIEDEN; DEANNA A. SUTTON; MICHAEL G. RINALDI; MARIA AGUIRRE; GEORGE W. ESTES; ANDJOHN N. GALGIANI

1997-01-01

189

Sustainable Rice Production Through Farming Systems Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted for three years (from 1999 to 2002) at ICAR Research Complex for Goa, Old Goa, Goa, India, to identify a productive and sustainable cropping system with rice. Three major cropping systems common to the coastal region of India (rice–groundnut, rice–cowpea, and rice–vegetables) were compared with rice–fallow and rice–green manure (sunnhemp) systems. The experiment was conducted in

B. L. Manjunath; V. S. Korikanthimath

2009-01-01

190

Texas Rice, Volume IV, Number 2  

E-print Network

interest in high quality long grain rice from the United States. Their visit will be sponsored by the Foreign Agricultural Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture with cooperation from the US Rice Producers Association, the USA Rice Federation... interest in high quality long grain rice from the United States. Their visit will be sponsored by the Foreign Agricultural Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture with cooperation from the US Rice Producers Association, the USA Rice Federation...

191

Comparative genomic characterization of citrus-associated Xylella fastidiosa strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) in vineyards and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) in orange trees. Both of these economically-devastating diseases are caused by distinct strains of this complex group of microorganisms, which has motivated researchers to conduct extensive genomic sequencing projects with Xf strains. This sequence information, along with other

Vivian S da Silva; Cláudio S Shida; Fabiana B Rodrigues; Diógenes CD Ribeiro; Alessandra A de Souza; Helvécio D Coletta-Filho; Marcos A Machado; Luiz R Nunes; Regina Costa de Oliveira

2007-01-01

192

Subcritical Water Extraction of Nutraceutical Compounds from Citrus Pomaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water (SCW) extraction of citrus pomaces (CPs) was carried out, and antioxidant activity and nutraceutical compound levels of the SCW extracts were evaluated in detail. At first, CP samples were subjected to the SCW extraction under various conditions focusing on the extraction temperature and time. Consequently, the highest total phenol contents, radical scavenging activity, and reducing power were found

Jong-Wan Kim; Tatsuya Nagaoka; Yasuyuki Ishida; Tatsuya Hasegawa; Kuniyuki Kitagawa; Seung-Cheol Lee

2009-01-01

193

OXIDANT AIR POLLUTION AND WORK PERFORMANCE OF CITRUS HARVEST LABOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The project assesses the effect of photochemical oxidants on the work performance of twelve individual citrus pickers in the South Coast Air Basin of southern California. A model of the picker's decision problem is constructed in which oxidants influence the individual's picking ...

194

RESEARCH ARTICLE Impact of water stress on citrus yield  

E-print Network

October 2011 # INRA and Springer-Verlag, France 2011 Abstract Water shortage is becoming a severe problemRESEARCH ARTICLE Impact of water stress on citrus yield Iván García-Tejero & Victor Hugo Durán in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide, reducing the avail- ability of agricultural land and water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

GROWTH REGULA TORS AND FRUIT SET OF CITRUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike apples or pecans, most citrus does not require cross pollination with a different, compatible variety to produce adequate crops. Some varieties undergo normal pollination, fertilization, and subsequent seed development. The process of fertilization and pollination is covered elsewhere in this short course. However, other varieties produce fruit without sexual fertilization, a process termed \\

F. S. DAVIES

196

Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events. PMID:23818960

Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

2013-01-01

197

ANTHELMINTIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF PEELS OF CITRUS SINENSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objective of the present investigation was to determine the anthelmintic and antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether extract of the peels of Citrus sinensis. Anthelmintic activity of this extract was evaluated on Indian adult earthworms, Pheretima posthuma, and exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of spontaneous motility (paralysis), and evoked responses to pin-prick, and the effects were comparable with that

A. T. Rajarajan; V. G. Vijayasree; W. Kenichi; S. Vijaya Kumar; G. Narasimman; S. Sadish

2009-01-01

198

Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.  

PubMed

The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production. PMID:24617532

Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

2014-07-01

199

21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No...Red No. 2 shall be used only for coloring the skins of oranges that...

2010-04-01

200

21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No...Red No. 2 shall be used only for coloring the skins of oranges that...

2013-04-01

201

21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No...Red No. 2 shall be used only for coloring the skins of oranges that...

2011-04-01

202

21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.  

... 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No...Red No. 2 shall be used only for coloring the skins of oranges that...

2014-04-01

203

21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No...Red No. 2 shall be used only for coloring the skins of oranges that...

2012-04-01

204

Potential perchlorate exposure from Citrus sp. irrigated with contaminated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus produced in the southwestern United States is often irrigated with perchlorate-contaminated water. This irrigation water includes Colorado River water which is contaminated with perchlorate from a manufacturing plant previously located near the Las Vegas Wash, and ground water from wells in Riverside and San Bernardino counties of California which are affected by a perchlorate plume associated with an aerospace

C. A. Sanchez; R. I. Krieger; N. R. Khandaker; L. Valentin-Blasini; B. C. Blount

2006-01-01

205

Evaluation of citrus fibers as a tablet excipient.  

PubMed

The consumption of fibers is associated with many health benefits, such as a reduction of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, control of body weight, and prevention of diabetes. Despite the widespread use of fiber supplements such as capsules or tablets, there is an almost complete lack of information concerning the technological properties of functional fibers used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to characterize the technological properties of citrus fibers necessary for their use as a processing aid in tableting. The results obtained showed that citrus fibers share many properties of other polysaccharides used as tableting excipients, such as thermal behavior and compaction mechanism, together with an appreciable tabletability. However, the most interesting properties resulted from their disintegration power. Citrus fibers behaved in a similar manner to the well-known super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium and resulted to be little susceptible to their concentration, to lubricant type, and lubricant concentration. Thus, this work supports the idea of a potential use of citrus fibers as "active" substances and processing aid in the tableting of nutraceutical products and also as functional excipient in pharmaceutical tablets formulation. PMID:24306677

Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Roberts, Matthew; Hanson, Samuel; Jones, Stephen; Makevica, Elina; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo

2014-04-01

206

Limettin and furocoumarins in beverages containing citrus juices or extracts.  

PubMed

Phototoxic and photo-genotoxic furocoumarins occur, e.g., in citrus species, parsnip, parsley, celery, and figs. They exhibit phototoxic and photo-genotoxic properties in combination with UV radiation, while less is known about the phototoxicity of the coumarin derivative limettin mainly found in limes and lemons. Risk assessment of dietary furocoumarins is based on a threshold approach and on estimates of 1.2-1.45 mg for the average daily exposure for adults via the diet in several countries. In these estimates, the major contribution to overall daily exposure has been attributed to citrus-flavored non-alcoholic beverages, in spite of a lack of analytical data for those products. Therefore, we analyzed a number of furocoumarins in a variety of citrus-containing beverages and included limettin in the pattern of analyzed constituents. Our findings provide strong evidence that grapefruit juice and not citrus-flavored non-alcoholic beverages is the major source of furocoumarin exposure in a Western diet. Based on these findings it can be assumed that the average dietary exposure to furocoumarins is about 3-fold lower than previously estimated, i.e. in the range of 548 and 2237 microg/day for the average and high consumer, respectively. The coumarin derivative limettin was mainly found in lime products. PMID:19770019

Gorgus, E; Lohr, C; Raquet, N; Guth, S; Schrenk, D

2010-01-01

207

Drying Rough Rice in Storage.  

E-print Network

undried riff' with an initial moisture content of 18 to 19 perce a' for 9 days without grade loss from discolored kc I" nels. t l i r Aeration was effective in maintaining the ca ic dition of rice after it was dried to a safe stora! h level. Rice...- ment needs, air flow requirements and operating schedules for drying and storing rice. It includes information on the relationship of drying time to the drying air temperature, moisture content and depth of rice. Information on the effects...

Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; Crane, L. E.

1960-01-01

208

RICE UNIVERSITY CONGRUENCY EFFECTS WITH  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY CONGRUENCY EFFECTS WITH DYNAMIC AUDITORY STIMULI by BRUCE N. WALKER A THESIS of Psychology ____________________________________ David M. Lane, Associate Professor Department of Psychology

209

Effect of two systemic fungicides on rice blast control in a rainforest zone of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two systemic fungicides, benomyl (methyl 1?((butylamino)?carbonyl)?1H?benzimidazol?2?yl carbamate) (Benlate 50WP, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.) and tricyclazole (5?methyl?1,2,4?triazole (3,4?b) benzothiazole) (Beam 75 WP, Eli Lilly & Co.), were sprayed on Faro 29, a popular shallow swamp rice, at full tillering stage for the control of natural infection of rice blast caused by Pyricularia oryzae Cav. in the rainforest zone

T. Enyinnia

1996-01-01

210

Effects of different citrus varieties on the developmental behaviour of Citrus Butterfly Papilio demoleus in lower Sindh, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of ten different varieties of citrus plantation by butterfly Papilio demoleus and its effects on its larval and postlarval development were studied at Tando Mohammad Khan, Lower Sindh. Different type of food showed significant effects on growth rate, food utilization and reproductive potential of this pest. It was revealed that the growth index value was highest being 13.84

Arshad Munir; Nikliat Yasmin; M. Ather Rafi

211

Evaluation of thermodynamics and effect of chemical treatments on sorption potential of Citrus waste biomass for removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intention of this study is to assess the sorption potential of Citrus waste biomasses, i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus sinensis, Citrus limetta and Citrus paradisi having optimum sorption capacity for anionic reactive dyes. Citrus sinensis biosorbent showing maximum sorption capacity was selected (qe 13.99, 15.21, 14.80 and 27.41mg\\/g for Reactive yellow 42, Reactive red 45, Reactive blue 19 and Reactive

Mahwish Asgher; Haq Nawaz Bhatti

212

Proteomics of rice and Cochliobolus miyabeanus fungal interaction: Insight into proteins at intracellular and extracellular spaces.  

PubMed

Necrotrophic fungal pathogen Cochliobolus miyabeanus causes brown spot disease in rice leaves upon infection, resulting in critical rice yield loss. To better understand the rice-C. miyabeanus interaction, we employed proteomic approaches to establish differential proteomes of total and secreted proteins from the inoculated leaves. The 2DE approach after PEG-fractionation of total proteins coupled with MS (MALDI-TOF/TOF and nESI-LC-MS/MS) analyses led to identification of 49 unique proteins out of 63 differential spots. SDS-PAGE in combination with nESI-LC-MS/MS shotgun approach was applied to identify secreted proteins in the leaf apoplast upon infection and resulted in cataloging of 501 unique proteins, of which 470 and 31 proteins were secreted from rice and C. miyabeanus, respectively. Proteins mapped onto metabolic pathways implied their reprogramming upon infection. The enzymes involved in Calvin cycle and glycolysis decreased in their protein abundance, whereas enzymes in the TCA cycle, amino acids, and ethylene biosynthesis increased. Differential proteomes also generated distribution of identified proteins in the intracellular and extracellular spaces, providing a better insight into defense responses of proteins in rice against C. miyabeanus. Established proteome of the rice-C. miyabeanus interaction serves not only as a good resource for the scientific community but also highlights its significance from biological aspects. PMID:25047395

Kim, Jin Yeong; Wu, Jingni; Kwon, Soon Jae; Oh, Haram; Lee, So Eui; Kim, Sang Gon; Wang, Yiming; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep; Kang, Kyu Young; Ahn, Il-Pyung; Kim, Beom-Gi; Kim, Sun Tae

2014-10-01

213

Effectiveness of gene silencing induced by viral vectors based on Citrus leaf blotch virus is different in Nicotiana benthamiana and citrus plants.  

PubMed

Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective technology for gene function analysis in plants. We assessed the VIGS effectiveness in Nicotiana benthamiana and citrus plants of different Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV)-based vectors, using insets of the phytoene desaturase (pds) gene. While in N. benthamiana the silencing phenotype was induced only by the construct carrying a 58-nt pds hairpin, in citrus plants all the constructs induced the silencing phenotype. Differences in the generation of secondary small interfering RNAs in both species are believed to be responsible for differential host-species effects. The ability of CLBV-based vectors to silence different endogenous citrus genes was further confirmed. Since CLBV-based vectors are known to be stable and induce VIGS in successive flushes for several months, these vectors provide an important genomic tool and it is expected that they will be useful to analyze gene function by reverse genetics in the long-lived citrus plants. PMID:25010281

Agüero, Jesus; Vives, María del Carmen; Velázquez, Karelia; Pina, José Antonio; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, Jose

2014-07-01

214

Sulfur volatiles from Allium spp. affect Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), response to citrus volatiles.  

PubMed

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus (Lam), the presumed causal agents of huanglongbing. D. citri generally rely on olfaction and vision for detection of host cues. Plant volatiles from Allium spp. (Alliaceae) are known to repel several arthropod species. We examined the effect of garlic chive (A. tuberosum Rottl.) and wild onion (A. canadense L.) volatiles on D. citri behaviour in a two-port divided T-olfactometer. Citrus leaf volatiles attracted significantly more D. citri adults than clean air. Volatiles from crushed garlic chive leaves, garlic chive essential oil, garlic chive plants, wild onion plants and crushed wild onion leaves all repelled D. citri adults when compared with clean air, with the first two being significantly more repellent than the others. However, when tested with citrus volatiles, only crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil were repellent, and crushed wild onions leaves were not. Analysis of the headspace components of crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that monosulfides, disulfides and trisulfides were the primary sulfur volatiles present. In general, trisulfides (dimethyl trisulfide) inhibited the response of D. citri to citrus volatiles more than disulfides (dimethyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide, allyl disulfide). Monosulfides did not affect the behaviour of D. citri adults. A blend of dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl disulfide in 1:1 ratio showed an additive effect on inhibition of D. citri response to citrus volatiles. The plant volatiles from Allium spp. did not affect the behaviour of the D. citri ecto-parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). Thus, Allium spp. or the tri- and di-sulphides could be integrated into management programmes for D. citri without affecting natural enemies. PMID:20609277

Mann, R S; Rouseff, R L; Smoot, J M; Castle, W S; Stelinski, L L

2011-02-01

215

Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Sunkist Citrus Plant in Ontario, California, processes about 6 million pounds of citrus fruit per day to make products which include frozen concentrated juice; chilled, pasteurized, natural strength juice; molasses from peel; dried meal from peel; pectin; citrus oil; and bioflavonoids. The energy intensive operations at the plant include concentration, drying, and refrigeration. The objective of the two-year two-phase project is to identify an economically viable alternative to the existing method of meeting energy requirements. Progress on the technical work of Phase I is reported. The following are summarized: requirements (energy price projection, atmospheric emission requirements, citrus juice quality constraints, economic evaluations); characterization (basic citrus processing operations, energy consumption and fruit processed vs time, identification and measurement of energy uses, energy balance for a typical citrus juice evaporator); and thermodynamic analysis (heat pump model, thermal evaporator, and co-generation model).

Not Available

1980-06-15

216

Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.  

PubMed

Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. PMID:25081855

Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

2014-11-01

217

SOLID MECHANICS James R. Rice  

E-print Network

1 SOLID MECHANICS James R. Rice School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Department of Earth: February 2010 Downloadable at: http://esag.harvard.edu/rice/e0_Solid_Mechanics_94_10.pdf TABLE OF CONTENTS well below those of the application or phenomenon of interest. Solid mechanics is concerned

218

RICE UNIVERSITY Effective Static Debugging  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY Effective Static Debugging via Componential Set­Based Analysis by Cormac Flanagan of Computer Science J. E. Dennis Noah Harding Professor of Computational and Applied Mathematics Houston on my committee. My research environment at Rice was valuably enriched by my collogues

219

Advances in Transgenic Rice Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is the most amenable crop plant for genetic manipulation amongst monocots due to its small genome size, enriched genetic map, availability of entire genome sequence, and relative ease of transformation. Improvement in agronomic traits of rice is bound to affect a sizeable population since it is a primary source of sustenance. Recent advances like use of ‘clean gene’ technology

Hitesh Kathuria; Jitender Giri; Himani Tyagi; Akhilesh K. Tyagi

2007-01-01

220

Rice Boulevard Track/Soccer  

E-print Network

Timeline Banners: A walking history tour The university has installed 100 banners around the campus Tudor Fieldhouse #12;Rice University Centennial Timeline Banners: A walking history tour 1891 Benefactor The first Rice football team is formed. 1913 The first baseball team is formed. 1914 Renowned Oxford

Mellor-Crummey, John

221

Implications of Climate Change for Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), a Disease Vector of Citrus in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Increasing temperatures, elevated CO2 levels, and changes in rainfall patterns are predicted to impact plants and insects, both harmful and beneficial. Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Homoptera: Aphididae), commonly known as the brown citrus aphid (BrCA), is a cosmopolitan pest of citrus and a\\u000a highly efficient vector of citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Both the pest and the disease pose a serious threat

Jawwad A. Qureshi

222

Allelochemicals and their transformations in the Ageratum conyzoides intercropped citrus orchard soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercropping Ageratum conyzoides in citrus orchards may effectively suppress weeds and control other pests. Investigations showed that the inhibition of major\\u000a weeds and soil pathogenic fungi in citrus orchards was significantly correlated with the allelochemicals released into the\\u000a soil by intercropped A. conyzoides. Three flavones, ageratochromene, and its two dimers were isolated and identified from the A. conyzoides intercropped citrus orchard soil.

Chuihua Kong; Wenju Liang; Fei Hu; Xiaohua Xu; Peng Wang; Yong Jiang; Baoshan Xing

2004-01-01

223

Report on Experiments with Citrus Fruits at the Beeville Sub-station.  

E-print Network

!TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN No. 148. MAY, 1912. Report on Experiments With Citrus Fruits at The Bee- ville Sub-station A. T. POTTS, Superintendent Beeville Sub-station AUSTIN PRINTING COMPANY AUSTIN. TEXAS TEXAS... in Original Bulletin] SATSUBIA ORANGE. A Three-Year-old Tree. .REPORT ON EXPERIMENTS WITH CITRUS FRUITS AT THE BEEVILLE SUB-STATION. The object of this bulletin is to give a brief resume of the experi- ments with citrus fruits which have been conducted...

Potts, A. T. (Arthur Tillman)

1912-01-01

224

Rice-Map: a new-generation rice genome browser  

PubMed Central

Background The concurrent release of rice genome sequences for two subspecies (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) facilitates rice studies at the whole genome level. Since the advent of high-throughput analysis, huge amounts of functional genomics data have been delivered rapidly, making an integrated online genome browser indispensable for scientists to visualize and analyze these data. Based on next-generation web technologies and high-throughput experimental data, we have developed Rice-Map, a novel genome browser for researchers to navigate, analyze and annotate rice genome interactively. Description More than one hundred annotation tracks (81 for japonica and 82 for indica) have been compiled and loaded into Rice-Map. These pre-computed annotations cover gene models, transcript evidences, expression profiling, epigenetic modifications, inter-species and intra-species homologies, genetic markers and other genomic features. In addition to these pre-computed tracks, registered users can interactively add comments and research notes to Rice-Map as User-Defined Annotation entries. By smoothly scrolling, dragging and zooming, users can browse various genomic features simultaneously at multiple scales. On-the-fly analysis for selected entries could be performed through dedicated bioinformatic analysis platforms such as WebLab and Galaxy. Furthermore, a BioMart-powered data warehouse "Rice Mart" is offered for advanced users to fetch bulk datasets based on complex criteria. Conclusions Rice-Map delivers abundant up-to-date japonica and indica annotations, providing a valuable resource for both computational and bench biologists. Rice-Map is publicly accessible at http://www.ricemap.org/, with all data available for free downloading. PMID:21450055

2011-01-01

225

Efficacy of the combined application of chitosan and Locust Bean Gum with different citrus essential oils to control postharvest spoilage caused by Aspergillus flavus in dates.  

PubMed

This study reports the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CH) and Locust Bean Gum (LBG) in combination with different citrus essential oils (EOs) to inhibit Aspergillus flavus in vitro and on artificially infected dates for a storage period of 12 days. The effect of these treatments on the fruits' sensory characteristics was evaluated to verify the complete absence of off-odours and off-flavours. Bergamot EO was the most effective in reducing mycelial growth, followed by bitter orange EO. Both bergamot and bitter orange oils significantly reduced conidial germination and a complete inhibition was obtained at concentrations higher than 2%. The mixtures based on CH-2% (v/v) bergamot EO or CH-2% (v/v) bitter orange EO proved to be the most effective coatings to reduce conidial germination resulting in an 87-90% inhibition compared with the control. In fruit decay assays coatings based on CH incorporating citrus oils were able to reduce fungal decay in the range of 52-62% at day 12. The study results and the complete absence of off-flavours and off-odours demonstrate the potential of CH coatings carrying citrus EOs at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control postharvest growth of A. flavus in dates. PMID:24291176

Aloui, Hajer; Khwaldia, Khaoula; Licciardello, Fabio; Mazzaglia, Agata; Muratore, Giuseppe; Hamdi, Moktar; Restuccia, Cristina

2014-01-17

226

Production of cecropin A antimicrobial peptide in rice seed endosperm  

PubMed Central

Background Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits rapid, potent and long-lasting lytic activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens, thus having great biotechnological potential. Here, we report a system for producing bioactive cecropin A in rice seeds. Results Transgenic rice plants expressing a codon-optimized synthetic cecropin A gene drived by an endosperm-specific promoter, either the glutelin B1 or glutelin B4 promoter, were generated. The signal peptide sequence from either the glutelin B1 or the glutelin B4 were N-terminally fused to the coding sequence of the cecropin A. We also studied whether the presence of the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal at the C-terminal has an effect on cecropin A subcellular localization and accumulation. The transgenic rice plants showed stable transgene integration and inheritance. We show that cecropin A accumulates in protein storage bodies in the rice endosperm, particularly in type II protein bodies, supporting that the glutelin N-terminal signal peptides play a crucial role in directing the cecropin A to this organelle, independently of being tagged with the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. The production of cecropin A in transgenic rice seeds did not affect seed viability or seedling growth. Furthermore, transgenic cecropin A seeds exhibited resistance to infection by fungal and bacterial pathogens (Fusarium verticillioides and Dickeya dadantii, respectively) indicating that the in planta-produced cecropin A is biologically active. Conclusions Rice seeds can sustain bioactive cecropin A production and accumulation in protein bodies. The system might benefit the production of this antimicrobial agent for subsequent applications in crop protection and food preservation. PMID:24755305

2014-01-01

227

Characteristic volatile components of Kabosu (Citrus sphaerocarpa Hort. ex Tanaka).  

PubMed

The volatile components of both peel and juice of Japanese citrus, Kabosu (Citrus sphaerocarpa Hort. ex Tanaka) were investigated using SAFE (Solvent Assisted Flavor Evaporation) technique after solvent extraction. In this study, wine lactone, rose oxide, (2E)-4,5-epoxy-2-decenal, mintsulfide, and indole were newly identified from Kabosu. AEDA (Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis) of the oxygenated fraction of the peel extract showed high FD (Flavor Dilution) factors for linalool, (2E)-4,5-epoxy-2-decenal, octanal, (4Z)-decenal, beta-citronellol, geraniol, and wine lactone, while wine lactone, linalool, eugenol, geraniol, and (2E)-4,5-epoxy-2-decenal from the juice extract. The enantiomeric distribution of linalool, cis-rose oxide, beta-citronellol, and wine lactone were also determined using a multidimensional chiral GC/MS. PMID:21485282

Tomiyama, Kenichi; Aoki, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Takeshi; Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Kasahara, Yoko; Kawakami, Yukihiro

2011-03-01

228

Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden. PMID:16410968

Hamed, Manal A; Hetta, Mona H

2005-11-01

229

The Chemical Composition of Citrus Hystrix DC (Swangi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oils of Swangi (Citrus hystrix DC) were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (?)-Citronellal was characterized as the main component (81%) of the leaf oil. It was also found as the main component of the twig oil (78.64%), and a major component of the peel oil (23.64%) in combination with ?-pinene (25.93%)

Akiyoshi Sato; Kenichi Asano; Toshiya Sato

1990-01-01

230

Carotenoids synthesized in citrus callus of different genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight carotenoids, such as phytoene, ?-carotene, violaxanthin, etc., synthesized in citrus callus of 31 genotypes were identified\\u000a and determined. Though varied with genotypes, the carotenoids composition of callus derived from a certain genotype was stable,\\u000a while carotenoids contents altered between sub-cultures. Some specific carotenoids were produced in calluses of limited genotypes:\\u000a ?-citraurin was only synthesized in calluses of Nianju tangerine

Juan Xu; Baozhen Liu; Xi Liu; Huijun Gao; Xiuxin Deng

2011-01-01

231

Limettin and furocoumarins in beverages containing citrus juices or extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phototoxic and photo-genotoxic furocoumarins occur, e.g., in citrus species, parsnip, parsley, celery, and figs. They exhibit phototoxic and photo-genotoxic properties in combination with UV radiation, while less is known about the phototoxicity of the coumarin derivative limettin mainly found in limes and lemons. Risk assessment of dietary furocoumarins is based on a threshold approach and on estimates of 1.2–1.45mg for

E. Gorgus; C. Lohr; N. Raquet; S. Guth; D. Schrenk

2010-01-01

232

Benefits of low-frequency irrigation in citrus orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus is a crop of major economic importance in Spain, cultivated during the dry season when irrigation is essential to guarantee\\u000a yields of high quality. As water resources are progressively more insufficient, more effective water management in agriculture\\u000a is crucial. Deficit irrigation in many agricultural crops has frequently proved to be an efficient tool for improving water-use\\u000a efficiency. We hypothesise

Iván García-Tejero; Víctor Hugo Durán-Zuazo; José Luis Muriel-Fernández; Gonzalo Martínez-García; Juan Antonio Jiménez-Bocanegra

233

Cytokinins act synergistically with salicylic acid to activate defense gene expression in rice.  

PubMed

Hormone crosstalk is pivotal in plant-pathogen interactions. Here, we report on the accumulation of cytokinins (CK) in rice seedlings after infection of blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and its potential significance in rice-M. oryzae interaction. Blast infection to rice seedlings increased levels of N(6)-(?(2)-isopentenyl) adenine (iP), iP riboside (iPR), and iPR 5'-phosphates (iPRP) in leaf blades. Consistent with this, CK signaling was activated around the infection sites, as shown by histochemical staining for ?-glucuronidase activity driven by a CK-responsive OsRR6 promoter. Diverse CK species were also detected in the hyphae (mycelium), conidia, and culture filtrates of blast fungus, indicating that M. oryzae is capable of production as well as hyphal secretion of CK. Co-treatment of leaf blades with CK and salicylic acid (SA), but not with either one alone, markedly induced pathogenesis-related genes OsPR1b and probenazole-induced protein 1 (PBZ1). These effects were diminished by RNAi-knockdown of OsNPR1 or WRKY45, the key regulators of the SA signaling pathway in rice, indicating that the effects of CK depend on these two regulators. Taken together, our data imply a coevolutionary rice-M. oryzae interaction, wherein M. oryzae probably elevates rice CK levels for its own benefits such as nutrient translocation. Rice plants, on the other hand, sense it as an infection signal and activate defense reactions through the synergistic action with SA. PMID:23234404

Jiang, Chang-Jie; Shimono, Masaki; Sugano, Shoji; Kojima, Mikiko; Liu, Xinqiong; Inoue, Haruhiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

2013-03-01

234

Inheritance and heritability of resistance to citrus leprosis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The genetic inheritance of resistance to leprosis, the most important viral disease of citrus in Brazil, was characterized through the phenotypic assessment of 143 hybrids resulting from crosses between tangor 'Murcott' (Citrus sinensis x C. reticulata) and sweet orange 'Pêra' (C. sinensis), considered to be resistant and susceptible to the disease, respectively. All plants were grafted onto Rangpur lime (C. limonia) and inoculated with Citrus leprosis virus, cytoplasmic type through the infestation with viruliferous mites, Brevipalpus phoenicis. The experiments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with 10 replicates. Incidence and severity of the disease in leaves and stems as well as plant growth parameters (plant height and stem diameter) were recorded for 3 years after the infestation with the viruliferous mites. The average values of all variables were analyzed using principal component analysis, discriminant factorial analysis, estimation of the clonal repeatability coefficients, and frequency of the distributions of the average values for each measured variable. The principal component analysis resulted in the identification of at least two groups with resistance and susceptibility to leprosis, respectively. About 99% of all hybrids were correctly classified according to the discriminant factorial analysis. The broad-sense heritability coefficients for characteristics associated with incidence and severity of leprosis ranged from 0.88 to 0.96. The data suggest that the inheritance of resistance to leprosis may be controlled by only a few genes. PMID:18943497

Bastianel, Marinês; de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Cristofani, Mariângela; Filho, Oliveiro Guerreiro; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Rodrigues, Vandeclei; Astúa-Monge, Gustavo; Machado, Marcos Antônio

2006-10-01

235

The tenderisation of shin beef using a citrus juice marinade.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic) and a citrus juice marinade as tenderising agents in shin beef muscle was investigated. At 0.2 M, citric acid was more effective as a tenderising agent than acetic or lactic acid. Immersion of shin beef strips in citric acid (0-0.05 M) showed that a significant tenderising effect was obtained above a concentration of 0.013 M. When shin beef strips were immersed in the citrus juice marinade (31% orange juice, 31% lemon juice, 38% distilled water) mean pH decreased from 5.7 to 3.1 and mean sample weight increased by ?65%. The mean Warner-Bratzler shear force value decreased from 178 to 44 N cm(-2) following marination while mean sensory analysis scores for tenderness and juiciness increased following marination. A mean total collagen content of 1.4 g/100 g was recorded in shin beef of which 9% was soluble in unmarinated samples and 29% was soluble in marinated samples. The results indicated that the tenderisation of beef samples using a citrus juice marinade could be attributed to marinade uptake by muscle proteins and also to solubilisation of collagen. PMID:22062175

Burke, R M; Monahan, F J

2003-02-01

236

In vitro effects of citrus oils against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria of clinical importance.  

PubMed

We evaluated the in vitro activity of citrus oils against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species. Citrus essential oils were tested against a variety of Mycobacterium species and strains using the BACTEC radiometric growth system. Cold pressed terpeneless Valencia oil (CPT) was further tested using the Wayne model of in vitro latency. Exposure of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG to 0.025 % cold pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (CPT) resulted in a 3-log decrease in viable counts versus corresponding controls. Inhibition of various clinical isolates of the M. avium complex and M. abscessus ranged from 2.5 to 5.2-logs. Some species/strains were completely inhibited in the presence of CPT including one isolate each of the following: the M. avium complex, M. chelonae and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. CPT also inhibited the growth of BCG more than 99 % in an in vitro model of latency which mimics anaerobic dormancy thought to occur in vivo. The activity of CPT against drug-resistant strains of the M. avium complex and M. abscessus suggest that the mechanism of action for CPT is different than that of currently available drugs. Inhibition of latently adapted bacilli offers promise for treatment of latent infections of MTB. These results suggest that the antimycobacterial properties of CPT warrant further study to elucidate the specific mechanism of action and clarify the spectrum of activity. PMID:22560037

Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Parrish, Nicole M

2012-01-01

237

Ecological Modelling 117 (1999) 261267 Modeling bird mortality associated with the M/V Citrus oil spill  

E-print Network

/V Citrus oil spill in February 1996. Most of the islands beaches were searched on an irregular schedule estimated number of birds impacted by the M/V Citrus spill 1930. Given that oiled birds occurred in places probability; Oil spill; Persistence rate 1. Introduction On 17 February 1996 the freighter M/V Citrus collided

Rockwell, Robert F.

238

Increasing herbicide selectivity between rice and red rice  

E-print Network

and lower organic matter of the soil used by Eastin could have effectively increased the herbi- cide concentration available in the soil which could have caused the high level of injury. NA has been shown to protect rice against several herbicides... and lower organic matter of the soil used by Eastin could have effectively increased the herbi- cide concentration available in the soil which could have caused the high level of injury. NA has been shown to protect rice against several herbicides...

Koetz, Paul Howard

2012-06-07

239

Influence of rice black streaked dwarf virus on the ecological fitness of non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).  

PubMed

Rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV) is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallen). Non-vector rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), shares the same host rice plants with SBPH in paddy fields. The changes in nutritional composition of rice plants infected by RBSDV and the ecological fitness of BPH feeding on the infected plants were studied under both artificial climate chamber and field conditions. Contents of 16 detected amino acids and soluble sugar in RBSDV infected rice plants were higher than those in the healthy ones. On the diseased plants BPH had significantly higher nymphal survival rates, nymphal duration of the males, weight of the female adults, as well as egg hatchability compared to BPH being fed on healthy plants. However, there was no obvious difference in female nymph duration, longevity and fecundity. Defense enzymes (superoxidase dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) and detoxifying enzymes (carboxylesterase, CAE and glutathione S-transferase, GST) in BPH adults fed on diseased plants had markedly higher activities. The results indicate rice plants infected by RBSDV improved the ecological fitness of the brown planthopper, a serious pest but not a transmitter of the RBSDV virus. PMID:23956237

Xu, Hong-Xing; He, Xiao-Chan; Zheng, Xu-Song; Yang, Ya-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Xian

2014-08-01

240

Epigenetic Inheritance in Rice Plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Epigenetics is defined as mechanisms that regulate gene expression without base sequence alteration. One molecular basis is considered to be DNA cytosine methylation, which reversibly modifies DNA or chromatin structures. Although its correlation with epigenetic inheritance over generations has been circumstantially shown, evidence at the gene level has been limited. The present study aims to find genes whose methylation status directly correlates with inheritance of phenotypic changes. Methods DNA methylation in vivo was artificially reduced by treating rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) seeds with 5-azadeoxycytidine, and the progeny were cultivated in the field for > 10 years. Genomic regions with changed methylation status were screened by the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphysm (MSAP) method, and cytosine methylation was directly scanned by the bisulfite mapping method. Pathogen infection with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, race PR2 was performed by the scissors-dip method on mature leaf blades. Key Results The majority of seedlings were lethal, but some survived to maturity. One line designated as Line-2 showed a clear marker phenotype of dwarfism, which was stably inherited by the progeny over nine generations. MSAP screening identified six fragments, among which two were further characterized by DNA blot hybridization and direct methylation mapping. One clone encoding a retrotransposon gag–pol polyprotein showed a complete erasure of 5-methylcytosines in Line-2, but neither translocation nor expression of this region was detectable. The other clone encoded an Xa21-like protein, Xa21G. In wild-type plants, all cytosines were methylated within the promoter region, whereas in Line-2, corresponding methylation was completely erased throughout generations. Expression of Xa21G was not detectable in wild type but was constitutive in Line-2. When infected with X. oryzae pv. oryzae, against which Xa21 confers resistance in a gene-for-gene manner, the progeny of Line-2 were apparently resistant while the wild type was highly susceptible without Xa21G expression. Conclusions These results indicated that demethylation was selective in Line-2, and that promoter demethylation abolished the constitutive silencing of Xa21G due to hypermethylation, resulting in acquisition of disease resistance. Both hypomethylation and resistant trait were stably inherited. This is a clear example of epigenetic inheritance, and supports the idea of Lamarckian inheritance which suggested acquired traits to be heritable. PMID:17576658

Akimoto, Keiko; Katakami, Hatsue; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Ogawa, Emiko; Sano, Cecile M.; Wada, Yuko; Sano, Hiroshi

2007-01-01

241

Pharmacokinetics of the citrus flavanone aglycones hesperetin and naringenin after single oral administration in human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objective:Hesperetin and naringenin, the aglycones of the flavanone glycosides hesperidin and naringin, occur naturally in citrus fruits. They exert interesting pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, blood lipid and cholesterol lowering and are considered to contribute to health benefits in humans. However, no information is available on the pharmacokinetics of the citrus flavanones hesperetin and naringenin after their

F I Kanaze; M I Bounartzi; M Georgarakis; I Niopas

2007-01-01

242

Citrus long-horned beetle Anoplophora chinensis Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Citrus long-horned beetle Anoplophora chinensis Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The citrus long

243

Evaluation of the Genetic Structure of Xylella fastidiosa Populations from Different Citrus sinensis Varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylella fastidiosa was isolated from sweet orange plants (Citrus sinensis) grown in two orchards in the northwest region of the Brazilian state of Sao Paulo. One orchard was part of a germ plasm field plot used for studies of citrus variegated chlorosis resistance, while the other was an orchard of C. sinensis cv. Pera clones. These two collections of strains

Helvecio Della Coletta-Filho; Marcos Antonio Machado

2002-01-01

244

EXAMINATION OF FLORAL NECTAR OF CITRUS, COTTON, AND ARIZONA DESERT PLANTS FOR MICROBES  

E-print Network

EXAMINATION OF FLORAL NECTAR OF CITRUS, COTTON, AND ARIZONA DESERT PLANTS FOR MICROBES Martha microbiological media. No microbes were isolated from nectar of any cotton flowers. Of 23 samples of citrus nectar no microbes, although nectar from saguaro cactus contained a few bacteria (gram-negative rods, gram

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

245

Larval Cryptothelea gloverii (Lepidoptera: Psycidae), an arthropod predator and herbivore on Florida citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orange bagworm (OBW), Cryptothelea gloverii (Packard) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) was previously reported feeding on citrus fruit and foliage and preying upon the camphor scale Pseudaonidia duplex (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Coccidae). In this study using laboratory assays, OBW preyed upon citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Acari: Eriophyidae) and consumed eggs and adults of both P. oleivora and Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari:

Raul T. Villanueva; Jose C. V. Rodrigues; Carl C. Childers

2005-01-01

246

SOIL AND DIAPREPES ABBREVIATUS ROOT WEEVIL SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN A POORLY DRAINED CITRUS GROVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and water variability in space and time could be important for management of the citrus root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.). We con- ducted a study of soil, tree, and root weevil relationships in a poorly drained grove of Hamlin orange on Swingle citrumelo rootstock (Pon- cirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. X Citrus paradisi Macfad.) in central Florida in 2002. We

Hong Li; James P. Syvertsen; Robin J. Stuart; Clay W. McCoy; Arnold W. Schumann; William S. Castle

2004-01-01

247

Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities from Citrus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus has long been regarded as a food and also as a medicinal plant. Fruits of four species of citrus which are commonly available in Malaysia, namely C. hystrix (wild lime), C. aurantifolia (common lime), C. microcarpa (musk lime) and C. sinensis (orange), were chosen to investigate their total phenolic, flavonoid and hesperidine contents. Additionally, the antioxidant activities were also

Mohammed Fadlinizal; Abd Ghafar; K. Nagendra Prasad; Kong Kin Weng; Amin Ismail

248

Sintomatología e Histopatología del Amarillamiento Letal de la Lima Persa Citrus latifolia Tanaka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histological alterations in citrus plants affected by exocortis, xyloporosis, psorosis, and tristeza diseases have been previously studied by various researchers; however, those associated with lethal yellowing (LY) are unknown. Therefore, in this study such alterations were determined from roots of persa lime (Citrus latifolia). Secondary and terciary roots with a diameter of 0.5 cm were collected from two asymptomatic trees

Daniel Leobardo Ochoa-Martínez; Elizabeth Cárdenas-Soriano

249

What is it? The citrus longhorn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Forster), is a non-native pest  

E-print Network

beetles have been intercepted in the UK at nurseries, bonsai importers and in private gardens on trees palmatum (Japanese maple). An outbreak of citrus longhorn beetle was detected in Lombardy, Italy in 2000. The tunnel and exit hole left within a young Japanese maple tree that had been infested by a citrus longhorn

250

Citrus Compounds Inhibit Inflammation and Obesity-Related Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary polyphenols are important potential chemopreventive natural agents. Other agents, such as citrus compounds, are also candidates for cancer chemopreventives. They act on multiple key elements in signal transduction pathways related to cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, and obesity. This short review article provides our findings of preclinical studies on potential chemopreventive activities of dietary citrus compounds, auraptene, collinin, and

Takuji Tanaka; Yumiko Yasui; Rikako Ishigamori-Suzuki; Takeru Oyama

2008-01-01

251

Fruit spot of sweet lime ( Citrus limetta ) caused by Septoria sp. in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002, a severe fruit spot of sweet lime (Citrus limetta) was observed in Piura and Lambayeque provinces in northern Peru. Affected fruits showed large oval and sunken lesions, often\\u000a surrounded by chlorotic haloes. Septoria sp. was isolated from affected fruits. Sweet lime isolates showed larger pycnidia and pycnidiospores than those of Septoria spp. previously described on citrus. In addition,

Luis A. Álvarez-Bernaola; Javier Javier-Alva; Antonio Vicent; Maela León; José García-Jiménez

2007-01-01

252

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run...Application. A grower shall apply to ship tree run fruit using a Grower...

2014-01-01

253

Interactions among rice ORC subunits.  

PubMed

The origin recognition complex (ORC) is composed of six subunits and plays an important role in DNA replication in all eukaryotes. The ORC subunits OsORC6 as well as the other five ORC subunits in rice were experimentally isolated and sequenced. It indicated that there also exist six ORC subunits in rice. Results of RT-PCR indicated that expression of all the rice ORC genes are no significant difference under 26°C and 34°C. Yeast two hybridization indicated that OsORC2, -3, -5 interact with each other. OsORC5 can then bind OsORC4 to form the OsORC2, -3,-4,-5 core complex. It suggested that the basic interactions have been conserved through evolution. No binding of OsORC1 and OsORC6 with the other subunits were observed. A model of ORC complex in rice is proposed. PMID:23733064

Tan, Deyong; Lv, Qundan; Chen, Xinai; Shi, Jianghua; Ren, Meiyan; Wu, Ping; Mao, Chuanzao

2013-08-01

254

Interactions among rice ORC subunits  

PubMed Central

The origin recognition complex (ORC) is composed of six subunits and plays an important role in DNA replication in all eukaryotes. The ORC subunits OsORC6 as well as the other five ORC subunits in rice were experimentally isolated and sequenced. It indicated that there also exist six ORC subunits in rice. Results of RT-PCR indicated that expression of all the rice ORC genes are no significant difference under 26°C and 34°C. Yeast two hybridization indicated that OsORC2, -3, -5 interact with each other. OsORC5 can then bind OsORC4 to form the OsORC2, -3,-4,-5 core complex. It suggested that the basic interactions have been conserved through evolution. No binding of OsORC1 and OsORC6 with the other subunits were observed. A model of ORC complex in rice is proposed. PMID:23733064

Tan, Deyong; Lv, Qundan; Chen, Xinai; shi, Jianghua; Ren, Meiyan; Wu, Ping; Mao, Chuanzao

2013-01-01

255

OsNAC111, a blast disease-responsive transcription factor in rice, positively regulates the expression of defense-related genes.  

PubMed

Plants respond to pathogen attack by transcriptionally regulating defense-related genes via various types of transcription factors. We identified a transcription factor in rice, OsNAC111, belonging to the TERN subgroup of the NAC family that was transcriptionally upregulated after rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae) inoculation. OsNAC111 was localized in the nucleus of rice cells and had transcriptional activation activity in yeast and rice cells. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsNAC111 showed increased resistance to the rice blast fungus. In OsNAC111-overexpressing plants, the expression of several defense-related genes, including pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, was constitutively high compared with the control. These genes all showed blast disease-responsive expression in leaves. Among them, two chitinase genes and one ?-1,3-glucanase gene showed reduced expression in transgenic rice plants in which OsNAC111 function was suppressed by a chimeric repressor (OsNAC111-SRDX). OsNAC111 activated transcription from the promoters of the chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase genes in rice cells. In addition, brown pigmentation at the infection sites, a defense response of rice cells to the blast fungus, was lowered in OsNAC111-SRDX plants at the early infection stage. These results indicate that OsNAC111 positively regulates the expression of a specific set of PR genes in the disease response and contributes to disease resistance. PMID:25014590

Yokotani, Naoki; Tsuchida-Mayama, Tomoko; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Kaku, Hisatoshi; Minami, Eiichi; Nishizawa, Yoko

2014-10-01

256

Molecular mapping of rice chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the construction of an RFLP genetic map of rice (Oryza sativa) chromosomes. The map is comprised of 135 loci corresponding to clones selected from a PstI genomic library. This molecular map covers 1,389 cM of the rice genome and exceeds the current classical maps by more than 20%. The map was generated from F2 segregation data (50 individuals)

S. R. McCouch; G. Kochert; Z. H. Yu; Z. Y. Wang; G. S. Khush; W. R. Coffman; S. D. Tanksley

1988-01-01

257

Texas Rice, Highlights in Research  

E-print Network

herbicide technology that selec- tively removes red rice from commercial rice without harming the crop. Previously research has indicated that first generation Clearfield cultivars displayed minimal tolerance to Newpath therefore a second generation... was developed and displayed increased tolerance. As new cultivars are developed, research testing tolerance continues to be important. This year we are looking at four new or existing culti- vars, CL-XL745, CL-XL730, CL-XL729, CL171-R, and CL161 testing...

2007-01-01

258

Odor coding in a disease-transmitting herbivorous insect, the Asian citrus psyllid.  

PubMed

Olfactory systems discriminate odorants very efficiently and herbivorous insects use them to find hosts in confounding and complex odor landscapes. The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, feeds on citrus flush and transmits Candidatus Liberibacter that causes citrus greening disease globally. Here, we perform a systematic analysis of odor detection in the ACP antenna using single-unit electrophysiology of rhinarial plate sensilla to a large panel of odorants from plants. We identify neurons that respond strongly to odorants found in the host citrus plants. Comparisons with the generalist yeast-feeding Drosophila melanogaster and specialist anthropophilic Anopheles gambiae reveal differences in odor-coding strategies for the citrus-seeking ACP. These findings provide a foundation for understanding host-odor coding in herbivorous insects. PMID:24904081

Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; McInally, Shane; Forster, Lisa; Luck, Robert; Ray, Anandasankar

2014-07-01

259

Expansins in deepwater rice internodes.  

PubMed

Cell walls of deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) internodes undergo long-term extension (creep) when placed under tension in acidic buffers. This is indicative of the action of the cell wall-loosening protein expansin. Wall extension had a pH optimum of around 4.0 and was abolished by boiling. Acid-induced extension of boiled cell walls could be reconstituted by addition of salt-extracted rice or cucumber cell wall proteins. Cucumber expansin antibody recognized a single protein band of 24.5-kD apparent molecular mass on immunoblots of rice cell wall proteins. Expansins were partially purified by concanavalin A affinity chromatography and sulfopropyl (SP) cation-exchange chromatography. The latter yielded two peaks with extension activity (SP20 and SP29), and immunoblot analysis showed that both of these active fractions contained expansin of 24.5-kD molecular mass. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of SP20 expansin is identical to that deduced from the rice expansin cDNA Os-EXP1. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of SP29 expansin matches that deduced from the rice expansin cDNA Os-EXP2 in six of eight amino acids. Our results show that two expansins occur in the cell walls of rice internodes and that they may mediate acid-induced wall extension. PMID:9112771

Cho, H T; Kende, H

1997-04-01

260

Expansins in deepwater rice internodes.  

PubMed Central

Cell walls of deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) internodes undergo long-term extension (creep) when placed under tension in acidic buffers. This is indicative of the action of the cell wall-loosening protein expansin. Wall extension had a pH optimum of around 4.0 and was abolished by boiling. Acid-induced extension of boiled cell walls could be reconstituted by addition of salt-extracted rice or cucumber cell wall proteins. Cucumber expansin antibody recognized a single protein band of 24.5-kD apparent molecular mass on immunoblots of rice cell wall proteins. Expansins were partially purified by concanavalin A affinity chromatography and sulfopropyl (SP) cation-exchange chromatography. The latter yielded two peaks with extension activity (SP20 and SP29), and immunoblot analysis showed that both of these active fractions contained expansin of 24.5-kD molecular mass. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of SP20 expansin is identical to that deduced from the rice expansin cDNA Os-EXP1. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of SP29 expansin matches that deduced from the rice expansin cDNA Os-EXP2 in six of eight amino acids. Our results show that two expansins occur in the cell walls of rice internodes and that they may mediate acid-induced wall extension. PMID:9112771

Cho, H T; Kende, H

1997-01-01

261

Effect of Putrescine and Paclobutrazol on Growth, Physiochemical Parameters, and Nutrient Acquisition of Salt-sensitive Citrus Rootstock Karna khatta ( Citrus karna Raf . ) under NaCl Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is a serious problem in arid and semiarid areas and citrus trees are classified as salt-sensitive. Because putrescine\\u000a (Put) and paclobutrazol (PBZ) are known to act as plant protectants under environmental stresses, we examined the effect of\\u000a Put and PBZ on the physiochemical parameters of the salt-susceptible citrus rootstock Karna khatta under NaCl stress. PBZ was applied at 0,

Dew Kumari Sharma; A. K. Dubey; Manish Srivastav; A. K. Singh; R. K. Sairam; R. N. Pandey; Anil Dahuja; Charanjeet Kaur

262

Detection of genomic changes in transgenic Bt rice populations through genetic fingerprinting using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP).  

PubMed

A highly precise molecular marker technique, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) was used to characterize the changes in genomic structure occurred due to introduction of foreign gene and/ or due to the induced tissue culture stress during the development of various transgenic Bt rice populations. The transgenic rice plants having complex to simple Bt gene and selectable marker gene organizations were selected from the six insect resistant Bt rice lines. Our results clearly demonstrate that integration pattern, extent of rearrangement of foreign DNA and method of transformation may influence the genomic changes in transgenic rice populations. Eleven of fourteen AFLP primer combinations tested, generated distinct scorable banding pattern, which were further used in this study. Three primer combinations E-TA / M-CTT (IRRI-NPT), E-AG / M-CAC (Tulasi) and E-AA / M-CAG (IR 68899B) produced only monomorphic bands in all the transgenic and control rice plants .A percentage of 0.61% of 430 million bases of haploid rice genome were examined by the use of 11 AFLP primer combinations employed in this study. The DNA fingerprints generated by AFLP analysis, of each Bt rice population was compared with their respective non-transgenic control and was found to be > 97% similar. This indicated that the introduction of Bt gene into the genome of six rice varieties showed few genomic changes. The comparison shows that fewer changes were observed among the transgenic plants developed by Agrobacterium infection than that of developed through particle bombardment. Transgene integration pattern and their copy number were associated with the extent of genomic changes observed in the transgenic Bt rice varieties. AFLP fingerprints of the six transgenic rice varieties evidenced few, but consistent polymorphic bands between the transgenic individuals with different PI values. Relationships among the transgenic populations with their control rice plants were expressed in the form of dendrograms. PMID:21844690

Chandel, Girish; Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan K

2010-01-01

263

Analysis of Rice Act1 5[prime] Region Activity in Transgenic Rice Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 5' region of the rice actin 1 gene (Actl) has been developed as an efficient regulator of foreign gene expression in transgenic rice plants. To determine the pattern and level of rice Actl 5' region activity, transgenic rice plants containing the Actl 5' region fused to a bacterial 8-glucuronidase (Gus) coding sequence were generated. Two independent clonal lines of

Wanggen Zhang; David McElroy; Ray WU

1991-01-01

264

The First Identified Citrus tristeza virus Isolate of Turkey Contains a Mixture of Mild and Severe Strains  

PubMed Central

The presence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has previously been reported in citrus growing regions of Turkey. All serologically and biologically characterized isolates including I?d?r, which was the first identified CTV isolates from Turkey, were considered mild isolates. In this study, molecular characteristics of the I?d?r isolate were determined by different methods. Analysis of the I?d?r isolate by western blot and BD-RT-PCR assays showed the presence of MCA13 epitope, predominantly found in severe isolates, in the I?d?r isolate revealing that it contains a severe component. For further characterization, the coat protein (CP) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes representing the 3? and 5? half of CTV genome, respectively, were amplified from dsRNA by RT-PCR. Both genes were cloned separately and two clones for each gene were sequenced. Comparisons of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences showed that while two CP gene sequences were identical, two RdRp clones showed only 90% and 91% sequence identity in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, suggesting a mixed infection with different strains. Phylogenetic analyses of the CP and RdRp genes of I?d?r isolate with previously characterized CTV isolates from different citrus growing regions showed that the CP gene was clustered with NZRB-TH30, a resistance breaking isolate from New Zealand, clearly showing the presence of severe component. Furthermore, two different clones of the RdRp gene were clustered separately with different CTV isolates with a diverse biological activity. While the RdRp-1 was clustered with T30 and T385, two well-characterized mild isolates from Florida and Spain, respectively, the RdRp-2 was most closely related to NZRB-G90 and NZRB-TH30, two well-characterized resistance breaking and stem pitting (SP) isolates from New Zealand confirming the mixed infection. These results clearly demonstrated that the I?d?r isolate, which was previously described as biologically a mild isolate, actually contains a mixture of mild and severe strains. PMID:25288926

Cevik, Bayram; Yardimci, Nejla; Korkmaz, Savas

2013-01-01

265

Xylella fastidiosa disturbs nitrogen metabolism and causes a stress response in sweet orange Citrus sinensis cv. Pera.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a fastidious bacterium that grows exclusively in the xylem of several important crop species, including grape and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.) causing Pierce disease and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), respectively. The aim of this work was to study the nitrogen metabolism of a highly susceptible variety of sweet orange cv. 'Pêra' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) infected with Xf. Plants were artificially infected and maintained in the greenhouse until they have developed clear disease symptoms. The content of nitrogen compounds and enzymes of the nitrogen metabolism and proteases in the xylem sap and leaves of diseased (DP) and uninfected healthy (HP) plants was studied. The activity of nitrate reductase in leaves did not change in DP, however, the activity of glutamine synthetase was significantly higher in these leaves. Although amino acid concentration was slightly higher in the xylem sap of DP, the level dropped drastically in the leaves. The protein contents were lower in the sap and in leaves of DP. DP and HP showed the same amino acid profiles, but different proportions were observed among them, mainly for asparagine, glutamine, and arginine. The polyamine putrescine was found in high concentrations only in DP. Protease activity was higher in leaves of DP while, in the xylem sap, activity was detected only in DP. Bidimensional electrophoresis showed a marked change in the protein pattern in DP. Five differentially expressed proteins were identified (2 from HP and 3 from DP), but none showed similarity with the genomic (translated) and proteomic database of Xf, but do show similarity with the proteins thaumatin, mucin, peroxidase, ABC-transporter, and strictosidine synthase. These results showed that significant changes take place in the nitrogen metabolism of DP, probably as a response to the alterations in the absorption, assimilation and distribution of N in the plant. PMID:17609534

Purcino, Rúbia P; Medina, Camilo Lázaro; Martins de Souza, Daniel; Winck, Flávia Vischi; Machado, Eduardo Caruso; Novello, José Camilo; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Mazzafera, Paulo

2007-01-01

266

Survey of arsenic and its speciation in rice products such as breakfast cereals, rice crackers and Japanese rice condiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice has been demonstrated to be one of the major contributors to arsenic (As) in human diets in addition to drinking water, but little is known about rice products as an additional source of As exposure. Rice products were analyzed for total As and a subset of samples were measured for arsenic speciation using high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with

Guo-Xin Sun; Paul N. Williams; Yong-Guan Zhu; Claire Deacon; Anne-Marie Carey; Andrea Raab; Joerg Feldmann; Andrew A. Meharg

2009-01-01

267

Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering Neuroengineering  

E-print Network

Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering Neuroengineering Learn more at ece Electrical and Computer Engineering Neuroengineering Faculty Learn more at ece.rice.edu Caleb Kemere, Assistant Professor, Electrical and Computer Engineering Research Interests: Building interfaces with memory

268

Melitidin: a flavanone glycoside from Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa'.  

PubMed

Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa' is a traditional Chinese medicine, used as an antitussive. In this research, melitidin, a flavanone glycoside, was isolated from this species for the first time by using chromatographic methods. The structure was confirmed through comprehensive analyses of its ultraviolet, infrared, 1H and 13C NMR, HMBC and HMQC spectroscopic and high-resolution mass spectrometric data. Meliditin showed a good antitussive effect on cough induced by citric acid in Guinea pig, suggesting that it was a contributor to the antitussive effect of C. grandis 'Tomentosa'. PMID:23738451

Zou, Wei; Wang, Yonggang; Liu, Haibin; Luo, Yulong; Chen, Si; Su, Weiwei

2013-04-01

269

Texas Rice, Volume II, Number 2  

E-print Network

. Researchers at the Louisiana State University were able to successfully cross these abnormal rice plants with commercial varieties, creating new variet- ies that can be treated with imi or Newpath herbicide without killing the rice. In the past, a rice... that would lead to his discovery of an imi tolerant rice. And actually, he started out screening with other contact herbicides, as the imi chemistry had not yet been devel- oped. At first Croughan tried cellular level selection in petri dishes, whereby...

270

[Eat a citrus fruit, stay healthy--a case report of scurvy].  

PubMed

Scurvy is a disease that results from a vitamin C deficient diet. Since vitamin C is available in many food products, and especially in citrus fruits, the disease is rare in developed countries. Clinical manifestations of scurvy include general weakness, cutaneous and gum bleeding, pain in the lower limbs and inability to stand and walk (pseudo paralysis). The diagnosis of scurvy requires a high level of clinical suspicion, typical radiographic features and low Levels of vitamin C in the plasma. We report a case of a 7-year-old patient with a medical history of hydrocephalus, failure to thrive and severe psychomotor retardation due to complications of prematurity. On admission she had gum bleeding, severe anemia, pain in the lower limbs and refused to stand and walk. According to her parents, her diet was restricted, without vegetables or fruit consumption. Our investigation ruled out coagulopathy, malignancy and infection. Serum vitamin C levels were low and radiographic findings were consistent with the diagnosis of scurvy. The patient improved rapidly after the initiation of vitamin C supplements. Despite being rare, scurvy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bleeding and pain in the lower limbs, especially in a malnourished patient. PMID:22991858

Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Greenberg, David

2012-06-01

271

Problems, Treatment, and Prevention of Paddy Rice Bacterial Disease of Leaf Spot in Kuangtung Province.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bacterial paddy rice disease of leaf spot is widespread in Kuangtung Province. The loss in yield of the affected paddies is generally 5-25%, but when the disease is serious, the loss may reach above 30%. One of the major primary source of infection is...

H. Fan

1966-01-01

272

Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.  

PubMed

The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development. PMID:24566692

Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

2014-07-01

273

Antimicrobial activity of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract in milk.  

PubMed

Citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peels were extracted with hot water and then acid-hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid. Antimicrobial activities of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract were evaluated against pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Antilisterial effect was also determined by adding extracts at 1, 2, and 4% to whole, low-fat, and skim milk. The cell numbers of B. cereus, Staph. aureus, and L. monocytogenes cultures treated with acid-hydrolyzed extract for 12h at 35°C were reduced from about 8log cfu/mL to <1log cfu/mL. Bacillus cereus was more sensitive to acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract than were the other bacteria. The addition of 4% acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu extracts to all types of milk inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes within 1d of storage at 4°C. The results indicated that Citrus unshiu peel extracts, after acid hydrolysis, effectively inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These findings indicate that acid hydrolysis of Citrus unshiu peel facilitates its use as a natural antimicrobial agent for food products. PMID:24534507

Min, Keun Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2014-04-01

274

Straw Mulching Reduces the Harmful Effects of Extreme Hydrological and Temperature Conditions in Citrus Orchards  

PubMed Central

Extreme weather conditions with negative impacts can strongly affect agricultural production. In the Danjiangkou reservoir area, citrus yields were greatly influenced by cold weather conditions and drought stress in 2011. Soil straw mulching (SM) practices have a major effect on soil water and thermal regimes. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the SM practices can help achieve favorable citrus fruit yields. Results showed that the annual total runoff was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with SM as compared to the control (CK). Correspondingly, mean soil water storage in the top 100 cm of the soil profile was increased in the SM as compared to the CK treatment. However, this result was significant only in the dry season (Jan to Mar), and not in the wet season (Jul to Sep) for both years. Interestingly, the SM treatment did not significantly increase citrus fruit yield in 2010 but did so in 2011, when the citrus crop was completely destroyed (zero fruit yield) in the CK treatment plot due to extremely low temperatures during the citrus overwintering stage. The mulch probably acted as an insulator, resulting in smaller fluctuations in soil temperature in the SM than in the CK treatment. The results suggested that the small effects on soil water and temperature changes created by surface mulch had limited impact on citrus fruit yield in a normal year (e.g., in 2010). However, SM practices can positively impact citrus fruit yield in extreme weather conditions. PMID:24489844

Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Liu, Dongbi; Li, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoshi; Tao, Yong; Xie, Juan; Pan, Junfeng; Chen, Fang

2014-01-01

275

Global climate changes and rice food security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing hunger and poverty are the key United Nations Millenium Development Goals. This was the main reason for the UN declaration of the International Year of Rice 2004. In 2002, rice was the source of more than 500 calories per person per day for over 3 billion people (FAOSTAT). Furthermore, rice cultivation is the principal activity and source of income

N. V. Nguyen

276

Rice MBA Admissions Online Chat Transcript  

E-print Network

25061a: hi lmurrah(MBA Admissions Lolita): Hello Welcome to the Rice MBA Chat Session. We will begin in about 10 more minutes. lmurrah(MBA Admissions Lolita): Hello Welcome to the Rice MBA Chat Session. We Lolita): Hello Welcome to the Rice MBA Chat Session. We will begin in about 10 more minutes. lmurrah

277

Sequence and analysis of rice chromosome 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is the principal food for over half of the population of the world. With its genome size of 430 megabase pairs (Mb), the cultivated rice species Oryza sativa is a model plant for genome research. Here we report the sequence analysis of chromosome 4 of O. sativa, one of the first two rice chromosomes to be sequenced completely. The

Qi Feng; Yujun Zhang; Pei Hao; Shengyue Wang; Gang Fu; Yucheng Huang; Ying Li; Jingjie Zhu; Yilei Liu; Xin Hu; Peixin Jia; Yu Zhang; Qiang Zhao; Kai Ying; Shuliang Yu; Yesheng Tang; Qijun Weng; Lei Zhang; Ying Lu; Jie Mu; Yiqi Lu; Lei S. Zhang; Zhen Yu; Danlin Fan; Xiaohui Liu; Tingting Lu; Yongrui Wu; Tongguo Sun; Haiyan Lei; Tao Li; Hao Hu; Jianping Guan; Mei Wu; Runquan Zhang; Bo Zhou; Zehua Chen; Ling Chen; Zhaoqing Jin; Rong Wang; Haifeng Yin; Zhen Cai; Shuangxi Ren; Gang Lv; Wenyi Gu; Genfeng Zhu; Yuefeng Tu; Jia Jia; Yi Zhang; Jie Chen; Hui Kang; Xiaoyun Chen; Chunyan Shao; Yun Sun; Qiuping Hu; Xianglin Zhang; Wei Zhang; Lijun Wang; Chunwei Ding; Haihui Sheng; Jingli Gu; Shuting Chen; Lin Ni; Fenghua Zhu; Wei Chen; Lefu Lan; Ying Lai; Zhukuan Cheng; Minghong Gu; Jiming Jiang; Jiayang Li; Guofan Hong; Yongbiao Xue; Bin Han

2002-01-01

278

LASER SAFETY MANUAL 2012 RICE UNIVERSITY 1  

E-print Network

LASER SAFETY MANUAL 2012 RICE UNIVERSITY 1 Rice University Laser Safety Manual Environmental Health and Safety MS 123 P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX 77251-1892 December 2012 #12;LASER SAFETY MANUAL 2012 RICE, and general procedures to aid those individuals working in the laser laboratory environment. It is intended

Natelson, Douglas

279

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL 2012 RICE UNIVERSITY 1  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL 2012 RICE UNIVERSITY 1 Rice University Radiation Safety Manual Environmental Health and Safety MS 123 P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX 77251-1892 February 2013 #12;RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL 2012 RICE UNIVERSITY 2 INTRODUCTION The goal of the Radiation Safety Manual is to assist lab

Natelson, Douglas

280

Red yeast rice: a new hypolipidemic drug  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red yeast rice is a source of fermented pigment with possible bioactive effect. Evidence shows that fermented red yeast rice lowers cholesterol levels moderately compared to other statin drugs, but with the added advantage of causing less adverse effects. A review of the body of evidence surrounding the properties of red yeast rice underscores its potential as a new alternative

Mélanie Journoud; Peter J. H Jones

2004-01-01

281

Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE

E. Yu. Vlasenko; H. Ding; J. M. Labavitch; S. P. Shoemaker

1997-01-01

282

Satellite remote sensing of wild rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild rice (Zizania aquatica) is a primary staple for Native Americans in the northern United States and there is a strong need to timely map and monitor its production on American Indian Reservations. This paper describes a methodology for the detection and classification of wild rice using satellite remote sensing. Landsat-7 data were used to map and estimate wild rice

R. C. Frohn

2001-01-01

283

Decomposition of rice residue in tropical soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen uptake by rice plants from rice straw incorporated, fertilizer (ammonium sulfate), and soil was investigated using N as a tracer in pot experiments conducted in the greenhouse of the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines. The nitrogen from fertilizer was rapidly absorbed in an early growth stage. The nitrogen from straw was absorbed in an early growth stage

Tadakatsu Yoneyama; Tomio Yoshida

1977-01-01

284

Decomposition of rice residue in tropical soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decomposition processes of intact rice residue (leaf blades) in Maahas soil of the Philippines were investigated by incubation experiments at 30°C. The experiments dealt with nitrogen immobilization by rice residue under lowland and upland conditions. Rice residue which is low in nitrogen. absorbed nitrogen from the soil and from the added fertilizer (ammonium sulfate) during its decomposition under both

Tadakatsu Yoneyama; Tomio Yoshida

1977-01-01

285

Revised 7/10 1 RICE UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

that opportunities or events may come up that cause you to leave Rice University to pursue other career or personal: _____________________ * Medical benefits - Your Rice medical benefits will end on: __________________________ * Vesting in the 401, and Benefits to discuss and enroll in retiree health benefits, if desired. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES: * Rice Human

286

Advances in Drought Resistance of Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water deficit is a serious environmental stress and the major constraint to rice productivity. Losses in rice yield due to water shortage probably exceed losses from all other causes combined and the extent of the yield loss depends on both the severity and duration of the water stress. Drought affects rice at morphological, physiological, and molecular levels such as delayed

Muhammad Farooq; Abdul Wahid; Dong-Jin Lee; Osamu Ito; Kadambot H. M. Siddique

2009-01-01

287

Treatments with acetic acid followed by curing reduce postharvest decay on Citrus fruit.  

PubMed

Citrus fruit are susceptible to many postharvest diseases and disorders, but Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing. The continuous employ in packing houses of synthetic fungicides such as imazalil (IMZ) or thiabendazote for the control of these pathogens is promoting the selection of resistant biotypes. These considerations together with an increased attention for human health and the environment have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In recent years researchers studies focused on alternatives to the chemical control of post-harvest decay, such as the utilization of GRAS compounds as well as physical methods. In the present study is reported the sequential use of acetic acid (AAC) followed by curing. The lemon variety "Verna" and the orange variety "Jaffa", naturally inoculated, were treated with vapours of AAC performed at three different concentration (15, 25 and 50 microL/L) for 15 minutes, after an incubation period of 24 hours at 27 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH). After treatments fruits were cured at 36 degrees C for 36 hours with 90% RH and subsequently stored at 8 degrees C and 90% of RH for eight weeks. Both citrus varieties were also treated with IMZ at a concentration of 200 mL/HL. At the end of the experiment decay and weight loss were evaluated. After 8 weeks of storage, in the lemon variety, the lowest percentage of infected wounds was 1.5% for both the fruit treated with IMZ or with AAC at 25 microL/L. Fruit treated with 15 mciroL/L or untreated (control) showed similar results with 13.6% and 16.6% of rotted fruit respectively. Different results were obtained with the orange variety, in this case the synthetic fungicide was the most effective at the end of the storage period, with 18.0% of decay. AAC treatments were not a successful as on lemons, the best result was achieved even in this case with AAC performed at 25 pL/L, but with 39.9% of decay. In both species the weight loss was not affected by the treatments. These results show that a good control of postharvest decay could be achieved, on lemon fruit, by combining the effect of a GRAS compound such as AAC with curing. Conversely the results obtained, by applying this control method to the orange variety were not so promising. Further researches are needed to shed light on the different behaviour between the two species. PMID:20222556

Venditti, T; Angiolino, C; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Petretto, A; D'Hallewin, G

2009-01-01

288

Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor. PMID:25167328

Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2014-01-01

289

Phosphate starvation signaling in rice.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is one of the most essential and limiting macronutrients for plants. Phosphate (Pi) deficiency could affect crop productivity seriously in agriculture. How to cope with this problem? Unveiling the molecular mechanism behind the Pi starvation responses of plants will be helpful to solve this issue. Rice is one of the most important crops, which feeds over one-third of the people in the world. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on Pi starvation signaling in rice with the intention to provide a further insight into the molecular mechanism of Pi starvation responses in rice and to give a new research direction to design transgenic plants with high Pi efficiency. PMID:21617375

Hu, Bin; Chu, Chengcai

2011-07-01

290

A plant natriuretic peptide-like molecule of the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes rapid changes in the proteome of its citrus host  

PubMed Central

Background Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) belong to a novel class of peptidic signaling molecules that share some structural similarity to the N-terminal domain of expansins and affect physiological processes such as water and ion homeostasis at nano-molar concentrations. The citrus pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri possesses a PNP-like peptide (XacPNP) uniquely present in this bacteria. Previously we observed that the expression of XacPNP is induced upon infection and that lesions produced in leaves infected with a XacPNP deletion mutant were more necrotic and lead to earlier bacterial cell death, suggesting that the plant-like bacterial PNP enables the plant pathogen to modify host responses in order to create conditions favorable to its own survival. Results Here we measured chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and water potential of citrus leaves infiltrated with recombinant purified XacPNP and demonstrate that the peptide improves the physiological conditions of the tissue. Importantly, the proteomic analysis revealed that these responses are mirrored by rapid changes in the host proteome that include the up-regulation of Rubisco activase, ATP synthase CF1 ? subunit, maturase K, and ?- and ?-tubulin. Conclusions We demonstrate that XacPNP induces changes in host photosynthesis at the level of protein expression and in photosynthetic efficiency in particular. Our findings suggest that the biotrophic pathogen can use the plant-like hormone to modulate the host cellular environment and in particular host metabolism and that such modulations weaken host defence. PMID:20302677

2010-01-01

291

Microscopical observation of inhibition-behaviors against Diaporthe citri by pre-treated with Pseudomonas putida strain THJ609-3 on the leaves of citrus plants.  

PubMed

Citrus melanose is one of the most important diseases in orchards cultivating citrus in the world. Although the disease does not cause yield loss, the profitability of the infected fruits is often reduced in the fresh-market, resulting in economic loss. In this study, disease reduction was proven by pre-treatment with Pseudomonas putida strain THJ609-3. In order to illustrate mechanism of the disease reduction by the bacterial strain, the infection behaviors of Diaporthe citri and necrosis deposit of plant tissue were observed using a fluorescence microscope. On the leaves pre-treated with the strain THJ609-3, germination rates of D. citri conidia were significantly decreased compared to those of the untreated control. Scanning electron microscopical observations showed that bacterial cells were attached to the surface of fungal hyphae. Furthermore, morphological change of germ tubes of the conidia was detected. These results suggest that the disease reduction may be caused by the direct antifungal activity of the bacterial strain on the leaf surfaces. PMID:25269607

Ko, Yun Jung; Kim, Ju Sung; Kim, Ki Deok; Jeun, Yong Chull

2014-10-01

292

Iron Biofortification of Myanmar Rice  

PubMed Central

Iron (Fe) deficiency elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75 and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high-yields or high-qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high-Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II)-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs. PMID:23750162

Aung, May Sann; Masuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Yamakawa, Takashi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

2013-01-01

293

Fertilizers for Rice in Texas.  

E-print Network

was needed more than phosphoric acid. During the thirteen years of the experiment, the application of 100 pounds of sulphate of ammonia per acre made the largest average yield of rice, 2,353 pounds per acre, or 553 pounds per acre more than the yield... sources of nitrogen as sulphate of ammonia. The use of 150 pounds of 16 per cent superphosphate per acre increased the yield of rice 239 pounds per acre a year during the thirteen years of the experiment. The treat- ment of 150 pounds of superphosphate...

Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner); Wyche, R. H. (Robert Henry)

1929-01-01

294

Texas Rice, Highlights in Research  

E-print Network

focuses on measuring main and ratoon continued on next page L to R: Mike Jund, Research Associate, Dr. Fred Turner, Professor of Soil and Plant Nutrition, and Darrell Hagler, Technician II. Figure 1 Nitr ogen in Plant (lbs/A) Texas Rice Special Section.... Performance results from previous tests will be handed-out at field day. The four types of rice being evaluated are Semidwarf (Cocodrie, Cheniere, Jefferson and TX 9092); Taller than semidwarf (Cybonnet and Banks); Hybrid (XP723); and Herbicide resistant...

2004-01-01

295

Sodium sulphite yields improved DNA of higher stability for PCR detection of Citrus yellow mosaic virus from citrus leaves.  

PubMed

Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), a non-enveloped bacilliform DNA virus causes a severe mosaic disease in sweet oranges in India. CYMV is weakly immunogenic, thus serodiagnosis is not a preferred method for its detection. As an alternative a rapid and reliable detection protocol by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. However, high levels of polyphenolics and tannins in citrus leaves generally interfered with obtaining good quality DNA, and thus affected the reliable detection of virus by PCR. Consequently, we evaluated the addition of sodium sulphite to a DNA extraction protocol used previously and compared the two methods with a commercially available plant DNeasy Kit (Qiagen). The addition of sodium sulphite improved the yield, quality and stability of DNA. The CYMV DNA was not only amplified at lower template DNA concentration, but also provided better DNA yields. In addition, the sodium sulphite extracted DNA survived at various temperatures much longer than those extracted without addition of sodium sulphite or with the commercial kit. The amplified product of CYMV DNA was cloned, sequenced and found to have 89% sequence identity with the only other sequenced Indian isolate of CYMV. PMID:12951224

Baranwal, V K; Majumder, S; Ahlawat, Y S; Singh, R P

2003-09-01

296

Cytological and Transcriptional Dynamics Analysis of Host Plant Revealed Stage-Specific Biological Processes Related to Compatible Rice-Ustilaginoidea virens Interaction  

PubMed Central

Abstract Rice false smut, a fungal disease caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is becoming a severe detriment to rice production worldwide. However, little is known about the molecular response of rice to attacks by the smut pathogen. In this article, we define the initial infection process as having three stages: initial colonization on the pistil (stage 1, S1), amplification on the anther (stage 2, S2) and sporulation in the anther chambers (stage 3, S3). Based on the transcriptome of rice hosts in response to U. virens in two separate years, we identified 126, 204, and 580 specific regulated genes in their respective stages S1, S2, and S3, respectively, by excluding common expression patterns in other openly biotic/abiotic databases using bioinformatics. As the disease progresses, several stage-specific biological processes (BP) terms were distinctively enriched: “Phosphorylation” in stage S1, “PCD” in S2, and “Cell wall biogenesis” in S3, implying a concise signal cascade indicative of the tactics that smut pathogens use to control host rice cells during infection. 113 regulated genes were coexpressed among the three stages. They shared highly conserved promoter cis-element in the promoters in response to the regulation of WRKY and Myb for up-regulation, and ABA and Ca2+ for down regulation, indicating their potentially critical roles in signal transduction during rice-U. virens interaction. We further analyzed seven highly regulated unique genes; four were specific to pollen development, implying that pollen-related genes play critical roles in the establishment of rice susceptibility to U. virens. To my knowledge, this is the first report about probing of molecular response of rice to smut pathogen infection, which will greatly expand our understanding of the molecular events surrounding infection by rice false smut. PMID:24646527

Chao, Jinquan; Jin, Jie; Wang, Dong; Han, Ran; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

2014-01-01

297

Production Systems and Processing Effect on Phytochemicals in Citrus Fruits and Their Analytical and Isolation Methods  

E-print Network

in gram level quantity. In the third study, the levels of phytochemicals in organically and conventionally grown lemons and their storage at market simulated conditions were determined. Results suggest that organically produced citrus fruits have higher...

Uckoo, Ram 1980-

2012-12-13

298

7 CFR 457.106 - Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. 457.106 Section 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.106 Texas...

2012-01-01

299

7 CFR 457.106 - Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. 457.106 Section 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.106 Texas...

2011-01-01

300

7 CFR 905.114 - Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...This district shall have two grower members and alternates. (c) Citrus District Three shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Soto, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2012-01-01

301

Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering Computer Engineering  

E-print Network

Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering Computer Engineering Learn more at ece.rice.edu The Computer Engineering group at Rice University has a long track record of innovative research in physical sub-8psec impulses. Developed at Rice. #12;Rice University Electrical and Computer Engineering

302

MENU NEW! CHICKEN RICE BOWL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We started offering a Rice Bowl bar in our high schools this fall and it got rave reviews from students and staff. So our elementary and middle school cafeteria supervisors asked if they could serve it too! We tested this popular entrée at Ramsey Junior High and Franklin Elementary School and asked kids what they thought. The con- sensus? A

Sloppy Joe; Chicken Patty Sandwich; Steak Fries

303

Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

304

Bruce N. Walker RICE UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

Copyright Bruce N. Walker 2000 #12;RICE UNIVERSITY Magnitude Estimation of Conceptual Data OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE Doctor of Philosophy APPROVED, THESIS COMMITTEE: David M. Lane, Associate Professor like to acknowledge the contribution of my advisor, David M. Lane, who granted me the freedom

305

WEB FREE RICE Yuhei YAMAUCHI  

E-print Network

;12 4 Monogatari 10 Monogatari Conomi WEB Monogatari IC 2 TV TV #12;13 200 WEB FREE RICE 1 10 ? ? 2009):955-62. 5.Monti,M.M.,D.N.Osherson,M.J.Martinez,and L.M.Parsons.2007. "FunctionalNeuroanatomy of Deductive

Miyashita, Yasushi

306

Methane emission from rice paddies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane release rates from rice paddies have been measured in Andalusia, Spain, during almost a complete vegetation period in 1982 using the static box system. The release rates ranged between 2 and 14 mg\\/m2\\/h and exhibited a strong seasonal variation with low values during the tillering stage and shortly before harvest, while maximum values were observed at the end of

W. Seiler; A. Holzapfel-Pschorn; R. Conrad; D. Scharffe

1983-01-01

307

Huajian Gao James R. Rice  

E-print Network

Shear Stress Intensity Factors for a Planar Crack With Slightly Curved Front Recent work (Rice, 1985a elasticfull space. That work also indicated the relation of such calculations to a three-dimensional weight function theoryfor crack analysis and derived an expression for the distribution of the tensile mode stress

308

Effect of pesticides on spiders occurring on apple and citrus in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments in an apple orchard and in a citrus grove were carried out to evaluate the effect of four commercial pesticides\\u000a in common use in Israel against apple and citrus pests, on the spider populations inhabiting the trees. The spider populations\\u000a on apple were markedly suppressed by the pesticides, the order of toxicity being Talstar (biphenate) >Mavrik (fluvalinate)\\u000a >

F. Mansour

1987-01-01

309

Isolation and Molecular Characterization of a Putative Ascorbate Peroxidase Gene from Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbate peroxidase is the key enzyme in detoxifying hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species from chloroplast and cytosol. A cDNA encoding a putative citrus ascorbate peroxidase, APXcit was isolated from mature ‘Dancy’ tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) juice vesicles using differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The full-length APXcit sequence was composed of 1,082 bp nucleotides, including an open

Madhurababu Kunta; Hilda S. Del Rio; M. Skaria; E. S. Louzada

2010-01-01

310

Oranges and lemons: clues to the taxonomy of Citrus from molecular markers.  

PubMed

Go into any grocery store and one is confronted with an array of Citrus fruit: oranges, grapefruit, mandarins (tangerines), lemons and limes. This is rich bounty for the shopper, but taxonomists are perplexed as to how to classify the various kinds of Citrus that have existed since antiquity. Now, thanks to new genetic and molecular biological techniques, the relationships between these fruit are being unraveled and show that there are probably only three true species. PMID:11525837

Moore, G A

2001-09-01

311

Natural products for cancer-targeted therapy: citrus flavonoids as potent chemopreventive agents.  

PubMed

Targeted therapy has been a very promising strategy of drug development research. Many molecular mechanims of diseases have been known to be regulated by abundance of proteins, such as receptors and hormones. Chemoprevention for treatment and prevention of diseases are continuously developed. Pre-clinical and clinical studies in chemoprevention field yielded many valuable data in preventing the onset of disease and suppressing the progress of their growth, making chemoprevention a challenging and a very rational strategy in future researches. Natural products being rich of flavonoids are those fruits belong to the genus citrus. Ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata and Citrus aurantiifolia peels showed anticarcinogenic, antiproliferative, co-chemotherapeutic and estrogenic effects. Several examples of citrus flavonoids that are potential as chemotherapeutic agents are tangeretin, nobiletin, hesperetin, hesperidin, naringenin, and naringin. Those flavonoids have been shown to possess inhibition activity on certain cancer cells' growth through various mechanisms. Moreover, citrus flavonoids also perform promising effect in combination with several chemotherapeutic agents against the growth of cancer cells. Some mechanisms involved in those activities are through cell cycle modulation, antiangiogenic effect, and apoptosis induction. Previous studies showed that tangeretin suppressed the growth of T47D breast cancer cells by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. While in combination with tamoxifen, doxorubicin, and 5-FU, respectively, it was proven to be synergist on several cancer cells. Hesperidin and naringenin increased cytotoxicitity of doxorubicin on MCF-7 cells and HeLa cells. Besides, citrus flavonoids also performed estrogenic effect in vivo. One example is hesperidin having the ability to decrease the concentration of serum and hepatic lipid and reduce osteoporosis of ovariectomized rats. Those studies showed the great potential of citrus fruits as natural product to be developed as not only the source of co-chemotherapeutic agents, but also phyto-estrogens. Therefore, further study needs to be conducted to explore the potential of citrus fruits in overcoming cancer. PMID:22524801

Meiyanto, Edy; Hermawan, Adam; Anindyajati

2012-01-01

312

Citrus waste recovery: a new environmentally friendly procedure to obtain animal feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus juice centrifugation pulp is the semi-solid product obtained from the industrial centrifugation of juices, to obtain a clear juice. This waste causes many economic and environmental problems because of its fermentability.In this paper we describe a method which makes it possible to obtain animal feed from citrus juice centrifugation pulp. To this end, alkaline and\\/or enzymatic treatments were carried

Maria Marcella Tripodo; Francesco Lanuzza; Giuseppe Micali; Rosa Coppolino; Fortunata Nucita

2004-01-01

313

Ethylene-induced differential gene expression during abscission of citrus leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to identify and classify genes involved in the process of leaf abscis- sion in Clementina de Nules (Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tan.). A 7 K unigene citrus cDNA microarray containing 12 K spots was used to characterize the transcriptome of the ethylene-induced abscission pro- cess in laminar abscission zone-enriched tissues and the petiole

Javier Agusti ´; Paz Merelo; Manuel Cercos; Francisco R. Tadeo; Manuel Talon

2008-01-01

314

The use of solid petroleum fuel blocks for cold protection in Texas citrus orchards  

E-print Network

THE USE OF SOLID PETROLEUM FUEL BLOCKS FOR COLD PROTECTION IN TEXAS CITRUS ORCHARDS A Thesis By MORRIS ADRIAN BAILEY, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas Afd6 University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1966 Major Subject: Horticulture THE USE OF SOLID PETROLEUM FUEL BLOCKS FOR COLD PROTECTION IN TEXAS CITRUS ORCHARDS A Thesis By MORRIS ADRIAN BAILEY, JR. Approved as to style and content by: (C 'rm of Committee) (Head...

Bailey, Morris Adrian

2012-06-07

315

Report of Progress with Citrus Fruits at the Beeville Sub-Station, Bee County.  

E-print Network

more easily gathered, and the expense of spraying is lessened; the effects of the wind against tree and fruit is better resisted. Grape Fruit at the Beeville Station. INSECTS AND DISEASES. The citrus, like other trees and plants, have their insect... more easily gathered, and the expense of spraying is lessened; the effects of the wind against tree and fruit is better resisted. Grape Fruit at the Beeville Station. INSECTS AND DISEASES. The citrus, like other trees and plants, have their insect...

Waschka, S. A.

1909-01-01

316

Cost-effective control of plant disease when epidemiological knowledge is incomplete: modelling Bahia bark scaling of citrus.  

PubMed

A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify-the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule-are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

Cunniffe, Nik J; Laranjeira, Francisco F; Neri, Franco M; DeSimone, R Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A

2014-08-01

317

Cost-Effective Control of Plant Disease When Epidemiological Knowledge Is Incomplete: Modelling Bahia Bark Scaling of Citrus  

PubMed Central

A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify—the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule—are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

Neri, Franco M.; DeSimone, R. Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A.

2014-01-01

318

Rice monoculture and integrated rice-fish farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam—economic and ecological considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a survey of agriculture practices and pest management strategies among rice and rice-fish farmers in the Mekong Delta. Based on an economic comparison between different farmer categories, it is argued that rice-fish farming provides a sustainable alternative to rice monoculture, if the farmer takes full advantage of the natural productivity of the rice field ecosystem. The aim

Håkan Berg

2002-01-01

319

Historical review of citrus flavor research during the past 100 years.  

PubMed

Citrus juices are a complex mixture of flavor and taste components. Historically, the contributions of taste components such as sugar (sweet) and acid (sour) components were understood before impactful aroma volatiles because they existed at higher concentrations and could be measured with the technologies of the 1920s and 1930s. The advent of gas chromatography in the 1950s allowed citrus researchers to separate and tentatively identify the major citrus volatiles. Additional volatiles were identified when mass spectrometry was coupled to capillary GC. Unfortunately, the major citrus volatiles were not major influences of citrus flavor. The major aroma impact compounds were found at trace concentrations. With the advent of increasingly more sensitive instrumental techniques, juice sample size shrank from 2025 L in the 1920s to 10 mL today and detection limits fell from percent to micrograms per liter. Currently gas chromatography-olfactometry is the technique of choice to identify which volatiles in citrus juices possess aroma activity, determine their relative aroma strength, and characterize their aroma quality but does not indicate how they interact together or with the juice matrix. Flavor equations based primarily on nonvolatiles and other physical measurements have been largely unsuccessful. The most successful flavor prediction equations that employ instrumental concentration values are based on a combination of aroma active volatiles and degrees Brix (sugar) values. PMID:19719125

Rouseff, Russell L; Ruiz Perez-Cacho, Pilar; Jabalpurwala, Fatima

2009-09-23

320

Evaluation of phloxine B as a possible control agent against citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

We evaluated the toxicity of phloxine B photoactive dye combined with a cane molasses bait against citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton). Laboratory bioassays conducted under artificial light showed that thrips mortality followed a log-dose probit-response model with an estimated LC50 of 0.0079% dye. Diluted cane molasses plus 0.01% phloxine B then was used as a standard for comparison of eight additional baits, including three formulations of concentrated citrus peel liquor (CCPL1-3). Citrus thrips mortality ranked highest to lowest with CCPL1 and CCPL3 > CCPL2, Mo-Bait and cane molasses > concentrated beet molasses, concentrated cane molasses, hemicellulose extract, and whey. Several commercial surfactants were tested to see if their addition to the standard increased efficacy. Hyper-Active, Kinetic, and Tween 60 at 1% and Cohort, Hyper-Active, Kinetic, and Silwet at 0.25% when added to the standard, reduced citrus thrips mortality, whereas Tween 60 and Dyne-Amic at 0.25% had no effect. Cane molasses with one or 5% phloxine B dye and CCPL1 with 1% dye were sprayed on citrus trees and allowed to weather in the field. Laboratory bioassays conducted after leaves had weathered for up to 8 d indicated that bait-dye toxicity was persistent. Possible use of the bait-dye mixture in commercial control of citrus thrips is discussed. PMID:12852598

Tollerup, K; Morse, J G

2003-06-01

321

Botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus orchards.  

PubMed

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. Young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. During winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. Overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. Botanicals and relatively selective insecticides could help to conserve beneficial insects and reduce pest resistance to insecticides. Sprays of Azadirachtin (Neem), Tropane (Datura), Spirotetramat, Spinetoram, and broad-spectrum Imidacloprid were evaluated to control ACP in spring and summer on 10-year-old "Kinow" Citrus reticulata Blanco trees producing new growth. Psyllid populations were high averaging 5-9 nymphs or adults per sample before treatment application. Nymphs or adults were significantly reduced to 0.5-1.5 per sample in all treatments for 3 weeks, average 61%-83% reduction. No significant reduction in ladybeetles Adalia bipunctata, Aneglei scardoni, Cheilomenes sexmaculata, and Coccinella septempunctata was observed. Syrphids, spiders and green lacewings were reduced in treated trees except with Tropane. Studies are warranted to assess impact of these predators on ACP and interaction with insecticides. Observed reduction in ACP populations may not be enough considering its reproductive potential and role in the spread of HLB. Follow-up sprays may be required to achieve additional suppression using rotations of different insecticides. PMID:25205398

Khan, Azhar A; Afzal, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Khan, Arif M; Raza, Abubakar M

2014-12-01

322

Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation  

PubMed Central

The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), ?-pinene (0.63–31.49%), ?-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saidani Tounsi, Moufida

2012-01-01

323

An Effective and Low-Cost Culture Medium for Isolation and Growth of Xylella fastidiosa from Citrus and Coffee Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffered charcoal–yeast extract medium (BCYE) has been used for isolation of Xylella fastidiosa from citrus (Citrus sinensis) and coffee (Coffea arabica) plants affected by citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and coffee leaf scorch (CLS). BCYE is composed of ACES (2-[2-amino-2oxoethyl)\\u000a amino]-ethanesulfonic acid) buffer, activated charcoal, yeast extract, L-cysteine, ferric pyrophosphate, and agar. ACES buffer\\u000a is costly and not always commercially available

S. A. Lopes; S. C. Z. Torres

2006-01-01

324

Seroprevalence Study of Leptospirosis Among Rice Farmers in Khuzestan Province, South West Iran, 2012  

PubMed Central

Background: Leptospirosis as an emerging infectious disease is considered as an important public health problem worldwide. Objectives: The current study aimed to identify potential risks for leptospirosis among rice farmers in Khuzestan province, Iran. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Khuzestan, South west Iran, from October to December, 2012. Randomly selected participants were placed in two groups: Rice farmers as cases, and non-farmers as controls. Blood samples obtained from the participants were tested for IgM anti-leptospira antibodies using Serion ELISA classic ESR 125M. The assays were performed and interpreted according to the manufacturer’s instructions. A questionnaire including variables related to Leptospira spp. exposure was administered to each participant. SPSS software version 16 was employed; Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to analyze data. Results: Of the total 288 samples, 65 (22.5%) were positive for IgM anti-leptospira antibodies. Among the positive samples, 52 (36.1%) were from the case (rice farmer) and 14 (9.7%) from the control groups. There was a significant difference between the case and control groups regarding leptospiral infection (P < 0.0001). Mean age in male and female in the case and control groups were 44.2, 41.9 and 43.5, 41.2 years, respectively (P > 0.05). In the case group, males and those more than 35 years were at a higher risk of infection. Conclusions: Rice farmers are significantly infected with leptospirosis, and infection prevalence is highly affected by gender (male) and age (above 35 years). Rice farming parts of Khuzestan, Iran may be considered as endemic for leptospirosis. PMID:25368799

Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Khoshkho, Mohammad Mehdi

2014-01-01

325

[Major domestication traits in Asian rice].  

PubMed

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding. PMID:23208135

Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

2012-11-01

326

Citrus flavanones: what is their role in cardiovascular protection?  

PubMed

Flavanones, including hesperidin and naringin, are polyphenolic compounds highly and almost exclusively present in citrus. Epidemiological studies reported an inverse relationship between their intake and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Clinical and experimental data further showed their antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties, which could explain their antiatherogenic action in animal models. Although flavanones may be promising compounds that are particularly active in cardiovascular disease prevention, clinical data are still scarce and most in vitro data have been obtained under nonphysiologically relevant conditions. Moreover, the mechanisms responsible for flavanone action are not fully elucidated. Therefore, further research is needed to better evaluate and understand the protective effects of flavanones in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22574825

Chanet, Audrey; Milenkovic, Dragan; Manach, Claudine; Mazur, Andrzej; Morand, Christine

2012-09-12

327

The functional evaluation of waste yuzu (Citrus junos) seeds.  

PubMed

We have succeeded in extracting a large amount of expensive limonoids and the high total antioxidant capability yuzu seed oil from waste yuzu seed by simple methods. Yuzu seeds contain higher amounts of fat-soluble limonoid aglycone (330.6 mg g(-1) of dry seed), water-soluble limonoid glycoside (452.0 mg g(-1) of dry seed), and oil (40 mg g(-1) of green seed) than other citrus fruits. The antioxidant activities of yuzu seed aglycone, glycoside, and seed oil were evaluated in vitro. The potential antioxidant activity in oil solution, diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, and hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity effects of the seed extracts were also investigated. The antioxidant activity of yuzu seed oil was two times that of grapefruit seed oil, which has high activity. Yuzu glycoside produced the same high antioxidant activity as Luo Han Guo glycoside. PMID:24336775

Minamisawa, Mayumi; Yoshida, Shoichiro; Uzawa, Atsushi

2014-02-01

328

20-Apr-12 Rice 2032: April 23, 2012 Last name First name Email address School  

E-print Network

@rice.edu Natural Sciences Colvin Vicky colvin@rice.edu Administration Kirby Kevin kevin@rice.edu Engineering Achard Michel achard@rice.edu Humanities DeConick April adeconick@rice.edu Humanities O'Callahan

Alvarez, Pedro J.

329

Molecular mechanisms of citrus flavanones on hepatic gluconeogenesis.  

PubMed

It is well known that hyperglycaemia is the initiating cause of tissue damage associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and that enhanced hepatic gluconeogenesis may account for the increase in blood glucose levels. The purpose of this work was to investigate the possible actions and mechanisms of three related citrus flavanones, namely hesperidin, hesperetin and naringenin, on hepatic gluconeogenesis and related parameters using isolated perfused rat liver. Hesperetin and naringenin (but not hesperidin) inhibited gluconeogenesis from lactate plus pyruvate, alanine and dihydroxyacetone. The inhibitory effects of these flavanones on gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate (hesperetin IC50 75.6 ?M; naringenin IC50 85.5 ?M) as well as from alanine were considerably more pronounced than those from dihydroxyacetone. The main cause of gluconeogenesis inhibition is the reduction of pyruvate carboxylation by hesperetin (IC50 134.2 ?M) and naringenin (IC50 143.5 ?M) via inhibition of pyruvate transport into the mitochondria. Secondary causes are likely inhibition of energy metabolism, diversion of glucose 6-phosphate for glucuronidation reactions and oxidation of NADH by flavanone phenoxyl radicals. The influence of the structural differences between hesperetin and naringenin on their metabolic effects was negligible. Analytical evidence indicated that the presence of a rutinoside moiety in hesperidin noticeably decreases its metabolic effects, confirming that hesperetin and naringenin interact with intracellular enzymes and mitochondrial or cellular membranes better than hesperidin. Thus, the inhibition of the gluconeogenic pathway by citrus flavanones, which was similar to that of the drug metformin, may represent an attractive novel treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. PMID:24239748

Constantin, Rodrigo Polimeni; Constantin, Renato Polimeni; Bracht, Adelar; Yamamoto, Nair Seiko; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza; Constantin, Jorgete

2014-01-01

330

Microbial, chemical and physical aspects of citrus waste composting.  

PubMed

Citrus waste supplemented with calcium hydroxide and with a C/N ratio of 24:1, pH of 6.3 and moisture content of 60% was composted by piling under shelter. With regular turning over of the pile and replenishment of moisture, the thermic phase lasted for 65-70 days and composting was completed after 3 months. Compost thus prepared had an air-filled porosity of 14%, water-holding capacity of 590 ml l(-1), bulk density of 1.05 g cm(-3) and conductivity of 480 mS m(-1). Phosphorus content (in mg l(-1)) was 15, potassium 1,170, calcium 362, magnesium 121, sodium 32, chloride 143, boron 0.31, and water-soluble nitrogen and organic matter 126 and 4788, respectively. Total carbon amounted to 8.85% and total nitrogen to 1.26% of the dry weight, giving a C/N ratio of 7. Mature compost showed some, but acceptable, levels of phytotoxicity. Raw citrus waste was predominantly colonised by mesophilic yeasts. Thermophilous microorganisms present during the thermic phase mainly comprised the bacterial species Bacillus licheniformis, B. macerans and B. stearothermophilus and, to a lesser extent, fungi such as Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, Emericella nidulans, Penicillium diversum, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizomucor pusillus, Talaromyces thermophilus and Thermomyces lanuginosus. Bacteria prevalent in the final product included B. licheniformis, B. macerans, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. luteola and Serratia marcescens, whereas fungi isolated most frequently comprised Aspergillus puniceus, A. ustus, E. nidulans. Paecilomyces lilacinus, T lanuginosus, yeasts and a basidiomycetous species, probably Coprinus lagopus. PMID:11708757

van Heerden, I; Cronjé, C; Swart, S H; Kotzé, J M

2002-01-01

331

Cloning and molecular analysis of cDNAs encoding three sucrose phosphate synthase isoforms from a citrus fruit ( Citrus unshiu Marc.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three partial cDNA clones (pSPS1, pSPS2 and pSPS3) encoding sucrose phosphate synthases (SPS) were isolated by Reverse Transcription (RT)-PCR using first-strand cDNA prepared from the leaf or fruit of citrus (Citrus unshiu Marc.). The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the three clones showed significant similarities to SPS previously isolated in other plants. A full-length, cDNA clone, CitSPS1, was

A. Komatsu; Y. Takanokura; T. Akihama; M. Omura

1996-01-01

332

Transferability of the EST-SSRs developed on Nules clementine (Citrus clementina Hort ex Tan) to other Citrus species and their effectiveness for genetic mapping  

PubMed Central

Background During the last decade, numerous microsatellite markers were developed for genotyping and to identify closely related plant genotypes. In citrus, previously developed microsatellite markers were arisen from genomic libraries and more often located in non coding DNA sequences. To optimize the use of these EST-SSRs as genetic markers in genome mapping programs and citrus systematic analysis, we have investigated their polymorphism related to the type (di or trinucleotide) or their position in the coding sequences. Results Among 11000 unigenes from a Clementine EST library, we have found at least one microsatellite sequence (repeated units size ranged from 2 to 6 nucleotides) in 1500 unigenes (13.6%). More than 95% of these SSRs were di or trinucleotides. If trinucleotide microsatellites were encountered trough all part of EST sequences, dinucleotide microsatellites were preferentially (50%) concentrated in the 5' 100th nucleotides. We assessed the polymorphism of 41 EST-SSR, by PCR amplification droved with flanking primers among ten Citrus species plus 3 from other genera. More than 90% of EST-SSR markers were polymorphic. Furthermore, dinucleotide microsatellite markers were more polymorphic than trinucleotide ones, probably related to their distribution that was more often located in the 5' UnTranslated Region (UTR). We obtained a good agreement of diversity relationships between the citrus species and relatives assessed with EST-SSR markers with the established taxonomy and phylogeny. To end, the heterozygosity of each genotype and all dual combinations were studied to evaluate the percentage of mappable markers. Higher values (> 45%) were observed for putative Citrus inter-specific hybrids (lime lemon, or sour orange) than for Citrus basic true species (mandarin, pummelo and citron) (<30%). Most favorable combinations for genome mapping were observed in those involving interspecific hybrid genotypes. Those gave higher levels of mappable markers (>70%) with a significant proportion suitable for synteny analysis. Conclusion Fourty one new EST-SSR markers were produced and were available for citrus genetic studies. Whatever the position of the SSR in the ESTs the EST-SSR markers we developed are powerful to investigate genetic diversity and genome mapping in citrus. PMID:18558001

Luro, Francois L; Costantino, Gilles; Terol, Javier; Argout, Xavier; Allario, Thierry; Wincker, Patrick; Talon, Manuel; Ollitrault, Patrick; Morillon, Raphael

2008-01-01

333

Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute  

E-print Network

divisions at Rice, overseen by the Rice Quantum Institute (RQI),theApplied Physics Program (APP87 Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute Participating Faculty This program is open to faculty from physics and astronomy, chemistry, mechanicalengineeringandmaterialsscience

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

334

Potential of Rice Husk and Rice Husk Ash for Phenol Removal in Aqueous Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of rice husk and rice husk ash for phenol adsorption from aqueous solution was studied. Batch kinetics and isotherm studies were carried out under varying experimental conditions of contact time, phenol concentration, adsorbent dose and pH. Adsorption equilibrium of rice husk and rice husk ash was reached within 6 hr for phenolic concentration 150-500 µg\\/L and 3 hr

A. H. Mahvi; A. Maleki; A. Eslami

2004-01-01

335

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? EFFECT OF DRY AND WET-MILLING PROCESSES ON RICE FLOUR AND RICE NOODLE PROPERTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the chemical and physicochemical properties of low amylose (Pathum Thani 1), medium amylose (RD 7) and high amylose (Leuang 11) milled rices prepared from dry- and wet-milling processes were determined. Protein and fat contents of dry-milled rice flours were significantly higher (P?0.05) than those of wet-milled rice flours in all rice varieties. There was a higher degree

Anocha Suksomboon; Onanong Naivikul

336

Infection capacities in the orange-pathogen relationship: compatible (Penicillium digitatum) and incompatible (Penicillium expansum) interactions.  

PubMed

Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum are the most devastating pathogens of citrus and pome fruits, respectively. Whereas P. digitatum is a very specific pathogen that only infects Citrus fruits, P. expansum has a broader host range but has not been reported to be infectious in Citrus. To determine the responses of fruits and the infection capacities of both moulds, two varieties of oranges at different maturity stages, different inoculum concentrations and two different storage temperatures were studied. In compatible interactions, no significant differences in rot dynamics among harvests were found with a 10(7) conidia mL(-1) inoculum concentration at both temperatures tested (20 °C and 4 °C). However, at other inoculum concentrations, significant differences in rot dynamics were found, especially in immature fruits. Incompatible interactions showed that P. expansum could infect oranges at commercial maturity in both tested varieties. Decay incidence and severity were higher at 4 °C than at 20 °C. In addition to infection capacity studies, histochemical tests were performed to detect wound-healing compounds for both pathogens. A positive reaction for lignin was detected for both pathogens in immature oranges over a short period (48 h). In all cases, no reactions were found in control samples. Our results indicate that pathogen concentration, host maturity and storage temperature can play important roles in the defence mechanisms of fruit. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first work that demonstrates that P. expansum can infect oranges under favourable conditions. PMID:22029919

Vilanova, L; Viñas, I; Torres, R; Usall, J; Jauset, A M; Teixidó, N

2012-02-01

337

Midday photoinhibition of two newly developed super-rice hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Super-rice hybrids are two-line hybrid rice cultivars with 15 to 20 % higher yields than the raditional three-line hybrid rice cultivars. Response of photosynthetic functions to midday photoinhibition was compared between seedlings of the traditional hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) Shanyou63 and two super-rice hybrids, Hua-an3 and Liangyoupeijiu. Under strong midday sunlight, in comparison with Shanyou63, the two super-rice hybrids

Q. A. Wang; C. M. Lu; Q. D. Zhang

2005-01-01

338

The role of momilactones in rice allelopathy.  

PubMed

Large field screening programs and laboratory experiments in many countries have indicated that rice is allelopathic and releases allelochemical(s) into its environment. A number of compounds, such as phenolic acids, fatty acids, phenylalkanoic acids, hydroxamic acids, terpenes, and indoles, have been identified as potential rice allelochemicals. However, the studies reviewed here demonstrate that the labdane-related diterpenoid momilactones are the most important, with momilactone B playing a particularly critical role. Rice plants secrete momilactone B from their roots into the neighboring environments over their entire life cycle at phytotoxic levels, and momilactone B seems to account for the majority of the observed rice allelopathy. In addition, genetic studies have shown that selective removal of the momilactones only from the complex mixture found in rice root exudates significantly reduces allelopathy, demonstrating that these serve as allelochemicals, the importance of which is reflected in the presence of a dedicated momilactone biosynthetic gene cluster in the rice genome. PMID:23385366

Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Peters, Reuben J

2013-02-01

339

PIXE analyses of cesium in rice grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident released vast amounts of radioactive material into the environment. For instance, 134Cs and 137Cs have half-lives of about 2 and 30 years, respectively, and emit many harmful gamma rays. In 2012, rice with radioactivity >100 Bq/kg was occasionally reported in Fukushima prefecture. To determine where and how cesium accumulates in rice, we grew rice in soil containing stable cesium and investigated the distribution of cesium in rice using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study found that cesium is accumulated in bran and germ at high concentrations, and white rice contains 40% of the cesium found in brown rice.

Sugai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Azusa; Fujishiro, Fumito; Arai, Hirotsugu; Osada, Naoyuki; Karahashi, Masahiro; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Yamauchi, Shosei; Kikuchi, Kosuke; Koshio, Shigeki; Watanabe, Koji

2014-01-01

340

Production of monoclonal antibodies specific for the recombinant viral coat protein of Apple stem grooving virus-citrus isolate and their application for a simple, rapid diagnosis by an immunochromatographic assay.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the diagnosis of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) in citrus was developed. Nine lines of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced by immunizing with a recombinant viral coat protein of ASGV as the antigen. According to the competitive-binding ELISA results, the 9 mAbs comprised 2 paratope groups, A and B. After screening for the most effective combination of mAbs, the two lines from different paratope groups (4A12 from group A and 6N31 from group B) were used to create a colloidal gold conjugate and for the test line, respectively, in ICA test plate preparation. The ICA detection using this test plate was accurate for positive and negative samples, and ASGV was detectable to a dilution of 1:2430 for the infected citrus sample. Furthermore, ICA was more sensitive than ELISA for the detection of ASGV isolates in citrus. The simple and sensitive ICA for ASGV provides a straightforward method for diagnosis by non-experts, including nursery workers and growers. PMID:24121136

Kusano, Nario; Iwanami, Toru; Narahara, Kenji; Tanaka, Masashi

2014-01-01

341

Incorporating Regional Rice Production Models in Rice Importation Simulation Model: a Stochastic Programming Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Philippines, importation has remained as one of the most feasible options for the government to meet the growing demand for rice. It is thus imperative for the government to develop a strategy that would ensure adequate supply and minimum importation costs. One of the critical factors in import decisionmaking is rice production. The Inter-Agency Committee on Rice and

Celia M Reyes; Rosalina G. de Guzman; Christian D. Mina; Jason Crean; Kevin Parton

2009-01-01

342

Rice University | Rice Facts Index Undergraduates Graduates Faculty & Researchers Staff Alumni  

E-print Network

Historical Facts Archives About OIR Rice News Feed Font Size Rice Facts Rice Culture Mission History about itself. This organizational intelligence function reflects the demand for increasingly and competitive environments. OIR uses a significant amount of time, resources and human capital in conducting

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

343

Multiple Rice MicroRNAs Are Involved in Immunity against the Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are indispensable regulators for development and defense in eukaryotes. However, the miRNA species have not been explored for rice (Oryza sativa) immunity against the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the most devastating fungal pathogen in rice production worldwide. Here, by deep sequencing small RNA libraries from susceptible and resistant lines in normal conditions and upon M. oryzae infection, we identified a group of known rice miRNAs that were differentially expressed upon M. oryzae infection. They were further classified into three classes based on their expression patterns in the susceptible japonica line Lijiangxin Tuan Hegu and in the resistant line International Rice Blast Line Pyricularia-Kanto51-m-Tsuyuake that contains a single resistance gene locus, Pyricularia-Kanto 51-m (Pikm), within the Lijiangxin Tuan Hegu background. RNA-blot assay of nine of them confirmed sequencing results. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay showed that the expression of some target genes was negatively correlated with the expression of miRNAs. Moreover, transgenic rice plants overexpressing miR160a and miR398b displayed enhanced resistance to M. oryzae, as demonstrated by decreased fungal growth, increased hydrogen peroxide accumulation at the infection site, and up-regulated expression of defense-related genes. Taken together, our data indicate that miRNAs are involved in rice immunity against M. oryzae and that overexpression of miR160a or miR398b can enhance rice resistance to the disease. PMID:24335508

Li, Yan; Lu, Yuan-Gen; Shi, Yi; Wu, Liang; Xu, Yong-Ju; Huang, Fu; Guo, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Jing; Zhao, Ji-Qun; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Xu, Pei-Zhou; Zhou, Jian-Min; Wu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Ping-Rong; Wang, Wen-Ming

2014-01-01

344

Texas Rice, Volume VII, Number 1  

E-print Network

.......................10 Statement from Mexico on GMO Rice ................................ 10 United States, Brazil Cooperate on Biofuels ....................... 12 Cover Story: The Indica Revolution Welcome again to Tex- as Rice. This issue marks the beginning of our... guarantee accuracy or completeness. Suggestions, story ideas and comments are encouraged. Rice Crop Update During a visit to Brazil, on March 8, President Bush signed an agreement with his counterpart, President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, to strengthen...

345

Texas Rice, Volume V, Number 6  

E-print Network

surface with crop residue after planting (Texas Rice, 2005). Conservation tillage has proven to be an extremely efficient and effective tool for reducing erosion, protecting the quality of surface and ground wa- ter, and providing habitat for a variety... of wildlife species (Texas Rice, 2005). The potential benefits of conservation tillage include reduced labor, time and fuel use, reduced machinery wear, higher soil mois- ture, and reduced runoff (Texas Rice, 2005). Conser- vation tillage often reduces...

346

Physical properties of cryomilled rice starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryomilling of rice starch was evaluated as a non-chemical way to modify starch structure and properties. Cryomilling in a liquid nitrogen bath (63–77.2K) was done to Quest (10.80% amylose) and Pelde (20.75% amylose) rice starch at five different time frames (0, 15, 30, 45, and 60min). The viscosity of the cryomilled rice starch decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing milling duration,

A. F. Devi; K. Fibrianto; P. J. Torley; B. Bhandari

2009-01-01

347

Meeting the challenges of global rice production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is the second most widely grown cereal crop and the staple food for more than half the world's population. More than\\u000a 3 billion people consume more than 100 kg of rice per year. Rice is cultivated on 155.5 million ha with an average growth\\u000a rate of 0.39% a year, in the last 30 years. In the near future, the possibility

Nguu Van Nguyen; Aldo Ferrero

2006-01-01

348

Research on Rice Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

, Beaumont, Texas, during the past 10 years. These include the development and testing of new and superior varieties of rice; time, methods and rates of seeding; time, methods and rates of application of fertilizers; studies on irrigation; control of weeds...! lfate of ammonia, urea and cyanamid were better sources of nitrogen for rice than nitrate of soda. .rieties of rice of different maturity responded differently to dates of application of fertilizers. early and midseason varieties are to be grown...

Reynolds, E. B.

1954-01-01

349

Sorting of rice grains using Zernike moments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two important factors that determine the efficiency and reliability of a rice sorting machine are the overall processing speed\\u000a and the classification accuracy. In this paper, an efficient rice sorting process which uses a subset of Zernike moments (ZM)\\u000a and a multilayer perceptron is presented. Since the falling rice grains during sorting process can be in any orientation,\\u000a a rotational

Chong-Yaw Wee; Paramesran Raveendran; Fumiaki Takeda

2009-01-01

350

Decomposition of rice residue in tropical soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen mineralization and immobilization of rice residue in Maahas clay soil under lowland and upland conditions were investigated by using N-labelled rice straw. The mineralization of residue-nitrogen was taking place even though the net mineralization was depressed by incorporation of rice residue.There were some significant differences in the pattern of nitrogen transformation between lowland and upland soil conditions. The nitrogen

Tadakatsu Yoneyama; Tomio Yoshida

1977-01-01

351

Bioethanol production from rice straw residues  

PubMed Central

A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L?1. PMID:24159309

Belal, Elsayed B.

2013-01-01

352

Texas Rice, Volume III, Number 2  

E-print Network

results in these systems. Jackson County rice farmer Hal Koop has worked with Marvin for many years on various problems such as crown rot, stem rot and salt problems in his rice fields. According to Hal, Marvin has been a tremen- dous resource... results in these systems. Jackson County rice farmer Hal Koop has worked with Marvin for many years on various problems such as crown rot, stem rot and salt problems in his rice fields. According to Hal, Marvin has been a tremen- dous resource...

353

RICE UNIVERSITY Computational Modeling of Icon Search  

E-print Network

1 RICE UNIVERSITY Computational Modeling of Icon Search by Michael D. Fleetwood A THESIS SUBMITTED: ______________________________ Michael D. Byrne, Assistant Professor Psychology #12;2 ______________________________ David M. Lane

Byrne, Mike

354

Publication 3441 Online with photos at http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/selectnewpest.citrus.html UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program  

E-print Network

/08)................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Precautions for Using Petroleum Oil Sprays (6/13) ................................................................................................................................. 13 General Properties of Fungicides Used in Citrus (4

Ishida, Yuko

355

Total arsenic in rice milk.  

PubMed

Rice milk and its by-products were tested for total arsenic concentration. Total arsenic concentration was determined using graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.7 ± 0.3 to 17.9 ± 0.5 µg L(-1). Rice milk and its by-products are not clearly defined as food, water or milk substitute. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have set a level of 10 µg L(-1) for total arsenic concentrations in drinking water. The EU and the US regulatory agencies do not provide any guidelines on total arsenic concentrations in foods. This study provides us with a starting point to address this issue in the State of Mississippi, USA. PMID:24779982

Shannon, Ron; Rodriguez, Jose M

2014-03-01

356

Genetic analysis of rice varietal diversity for rice blast control.  

PubMed

Two Indica hybrid rice of Shanyou63 (A) and Shanyou22 (B), two glutinous landraces of Huanghenuo (C) and Zinuo (D) and three improved Japonica rice of Hexi41 (E), Chujing12 (F) and 8126 (G) were selected and their genetic resistance relationship was estimated using resistance gene analogue (RGA). The results showed that there were similar genetic relationships between hybrid varieties at the genetic similarity (GS) of 0.86,and among improved Japonica varieties at the GS of 0.84, while highly genetic diversifications between traditional varieties, Indica and Japonica varieties, traditional and modern variety ( GS:0.45). The results also showed that clustering analysis based on RGA data were generally corresponded to known pedigrees and blast field resistances of the varieties. Based on varietal differences in RGA data and agronomic traits, plot experiments of five mixed-planting combinations of A/C, A/D, B/C, B/D and A/B and two combinations of E/C and E/F/G were conducted in Jianshui and Shiping counties ( Indica rice growing region) and Luxi County (warm Japonica region) in Yunnan Province in past two years, respectively. The results demonstrated that rice blast management was more effective in five mixed-planting combinations of varieties with different genetic backgrounds (GS: 0.45-0.77) than in two combinations with similar genetic relationships (GS: 0.84-0.90), compared with their monocultures. It is evident for the highly susceptible landraces in mixed-planting to achieve disease control, with significant decreases both in incidence and severity. The blast control efficiencies of landraces in different mixture combinations reached to 54.47%-92.18%. The control efficiencies of improved varieties varied from 15.12% to 25.54% in mixture combinations with closed genetic relationship. In addition,the total yield of 5 varietal combinations with distant genetic relationship increased 539.0-904.0 kg/ha in the mixed-planting plots, at increase rates of 5.6%-10.2%. Mixed rice varieties with similar genetic background did not achieve significant yield increase. Otherwise, the yield of E/F/G decreased 2.7%-4.0% compared with pure stand. The results can provide scientific basis of varietal combinations in diversification experiments for blast control. PMID:15473323

Zhu, You-Yong; Sun, Yan; Wang, Yun-Yue; Li, Yan; He, Yue-Qiu; He, Xia-Hong; Mundt, Christopher C; Mew, Tom W; Hei, Leung

2004-07-01

357

A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments  

PubMed Central

Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

Rodrigo, Maria J.; Alquezar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

2013-01-01

358

The myosin motor domain-containing chitin synthase PdChsVII is required for development, cell wall integrity and virulence in the citrus postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum.  

PubMed

Chitin is an essential component of the fungal cell wall and a potential target in the development of new antifungal compounds, due to its presence in fungi and not in plants or vertebrates. Chitin synthase genes (chs) constitute a complex family in filamentous fungi and are involved in fungal development, morphogenesis, pathogenesis and virulence. In this study, additional chs genes in the citrus postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum have been identified. Comparative analyses included each PdChs in each one of the classes I to VII previously established, and support the grouping of these into three divisions. Disruption of the gene coding PdChsVII, which contains a short version of a myosin motor domain, has been achieved by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and revealed its role in the life cycle of the fungus. Disruption strains were viable but showed reduced growth and conidia production. Moreover, Pdchs mutants developed morphological defects as balloon-like enlarged cells and increased chitin content, indicative of an altered cell wall structure. Gene disruption also increased susceptibility to antifungal compounds such as calcofluor white (CFW), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), hydroxide peroxide (H2O2) and commercial fungicides, but significantly no change was observed in the sensitivity to antifungal peptides. The PdchsVII mutants were able to infect citrus fruit and produced tissue maceration, although had reduced virulence and most importantly were greatly impaired in the production of visible mycelium and conidia on the fruit. PMID:24727399

Gandía, Mónica; Harries, Eleonora; Marcos, Jose F

2014-06-01

359

Texas Rice, Highlights in Research  

E-print Network

industry for the devel- opment and registration of experimental herbicides in weed control systems, and for expansion of uses of presently labeled herbicides. The research has played a major role in the development and introduction of Arrosolo, Basagran... involved in two projects. In one project, she is examining control of red rice using a combination of herbicide treatment and water management. She is also working on a novel strategy to enhance ratoon yield by manipulation of nitrogen metabolism using GMO...

2002-01-01

360

Texas Rice, Highlights in Research  

E-print Network

resources and a longer developmental period. In addition to unraveling the above effects, which lead to improved management schemes, we are evaluat- ing the timing of gibberellin applied at several days post-flowering to late grain fill. This treatment... tremendous success in using molecular markers, or “gene-tags”, to assist breeders in identifying and selecting breeding progeny containing desired blast resistance genes. Because single rice genes are known to confer clear and complete resistance to several...

2005-01-01

361

Proteomics of rice seed germination  

PubMed Central

Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles, and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS) technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies. PMID:23847647

He, Dongli; Yang, Pingfang

2013-01-01

362

Uncovering legumain genes in rice.  

PubMed

Legumains are Asn specific cysteine proteases physiologically related to the biosynthesis of vacuolar components, degradation of storage proteins and programmed cell death. The present work identifies and characterizes the genic family of legumains in rice (Oryza sativa), which comprises five different loci. Rice legumains (OsaLegs) were ubiquitously detected in all plant tissues analyzed. However, phylogenetic analyses and gene expression studies demonstrated greater association of OsaLeg2 and OsaLeg3 to seed-related legumains, whereas OsaLeg1, 4 and 5 would act as vegetative-related proteases. Additionally, OsaLeg1 mRNA is strongly induced in senescent leaves. All rice legumain genes respond in different ways to environmental conditions such as wounding, salt and abscisic acid treatments. Mainly, wounding is capable of inducing all the four expressed genes OsaLeg1, 2, 3 and 4. Alternative splicing isoforms, with potential to generate pre-activated OsaLeg1 and OsaLeg2 nonvacuolar enzymes under different environmental situations were also observed. PMID:24388520

Christoff, Ana Paula; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Margis, Rogerio

2014-02-01

363

Essential Oils and Antioxidants Derived From Citrus By-Products in Food Protection and Medicine: An Introduction and Review of Recent Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief overview of the general production, market value, and uses of citrus by-products, this literature review will focus on the most highly refined “pharmaceutical grade” citrus oils and antioxidants that have been derived from peels or other fruit parts. Citrus oils have been used as a part of the perfume industry and in the practice of alternative medicine

Amy Hardin; Philip G. Crandall; Tony Stankus

2010-01-01

364

Over the past 50 years, citrus growers have faced exotic pests and diseases predicted to cause the collapse of the Florida citrus  

E-print Network

, the possibility of pesticide applications affecting bees in citrus is past. For 2008, IFAS Extension programs of pesticides that are "bee-friendly" is underway. The goal is to find at least one product that could be used impossible to control. One problem with controlling psyllids is the coincidence of pesticide appli- cations

Jawitz, James W.

365

AISLAMIENTO E IDENTIFICACIÓN DE HONGOS PATÓGENOS DE NARANJA Citrus sinensis L. OSBECK CULTIVADA EN BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MÉXICO ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENIC FUNGI FROM ORANGE Citrus sinensis L. OSBECK CULTURED IN BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citric fruits constitute an important commodity in Mexico. However, because of significant post-harvest loses (up to 40%), the citrus industry in Mexico requires optimization. The presence of pathogenic fungi affecting root system, stem, leaves and fruits, represent a risk for ulterior development of post-harvest rotting. In this work, several varieties of orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), Valencia Temprana, Valencia Tardía

J. L. Ochoa; L. G. Hernández-Montiel; H. Latisnere-Barragán; J. L. León de La Luz; C. P. Larralde-Corona

2007-01-01

366

[Extraction and purification method of rice DNA from rice powder containing Konjak flour].  

PubMed

Rice powder containing Konjak flour made with tuberous roots of Amorphophallus konjac is imported as a rice-processed product from China to Japan. An improved DNA purification method for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of rice in such products is necessary, since Konjak flour constituents absorb the DNA purification buffer to form a gel, and cause problems in the subsequent purification steps. Here, we present a simple preparative system for isolation of the rice and a purification method of the rice DNA from the product. The purified DNA was confirmed to be a good template for both PCR and real-time PCR. PMID:21071909

Minematsu, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Harikai, Naoki; Nakajima, Osamu; Kitta, Kazumi; Teshima, Reiko; Iizuka, Tayoshi

2010-01-01

367

The 3,000 rice genomes project  

PubMed Central

Background Rice, Oryza sativa L., is the staple food for half the world’s population. By 2030, the production of rice must increase by at least 25% in order to keep up with global population growth and demand. Accelerated genetic gains in rice improvement are needed to mitigate the effects of climate change and loss of arable land, as well as to ensure a stable global food supply. Findings We resequenced a core collection of 3,000 rice accessions from 89 countries. All 3,000 genomes had an average sequencing depth of 14×, with average genome coverages and mapping rates of 94.0% and 92.5%, respectively. From our sequencing efforts, approximately 18.9 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in rice were discovered when aligned to the reference genome of the temperate japonica variety, Nipponbare. Phylogenetic analyses based on SNP data confirmed differentiation of the O. sativa gene pool into 5 varietal groups – indica, aus/boro, basmati/sadri, tropical japonica and temperate japonica. Conclusions Here, we report an international resequencing effort of 3,000 rice genomes. This data serves as a foundation for large-scale discovery of novel alleles for important rice phenotypes using various bioinformatics and/or genetic approaches. It also serves to understand the genomic diversity within O. sativa at a higher level of detail. With the release of the sequencing data, the project calls for the global rice community to take advantage of this data as a foundation for establishing a global, public rice genetic/genomic database and information platform for advancing rice breeding technology for future rice improvement. PMID:24872877

2014-01-01

368

Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, representing particular treatments and tissues from selected varieties (Citrus clementina and C. sinensis) and rootstocks (C. reshni, and C. sinenis × Poncirus trifoliata) differing in fruit quality, resistance to abscission, and tolerance to salinity. The goal of this work was to provide a large expressed sequence tag (EST) collection enriched with transcripts related to these well appreciated agronomical traits. Towards this end, more than 54000 ESTs derived from these libraries were analyzed and annotated. Assembly of 52626 useful sequences generated 15664 putative transcription units distributed in 7120 contigs, and 8544 singletons. BLAST annotation produced significant hits for more than 80% of the hypothetical transcription units and suggested that 647 of these might be Citrus specific unigenes. The unigene set, composed of ~13000 putative different transcripts, including more than 5000 novel Citrus genes, was assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains Conclusion Comparative genomics with Arabidopsis revealed the presence of putative conserved orthologs and single copy genes in Citrus and also the occurrence of both gene duplication events and increased number of genes for specific pathways. In addition, phylogenetic analysis performed on the ammonium transporter family and glycosyl transferase family 20 suggested the existence of Citrus paralogs. Analysis of the Citrus gene space showed that the most important metabolic pathways known to affect fruit quality were represented in the unigene set. Overall, the similarity analyses indicated that the sequences of the genes belonging to these varieties and rootstocks were essentially identical, suggesting that the differential behaviour of these species cannot be attributed to major sequence divergences. This Citrus EST assembly contributes both crucial information to discover genes of agronomical interest and tools for genetic and genomic analyses, such as the development of new markers and microarrays. PMID:17254327

Terol, Javier; Conesa, Ana; Colmenero, Jose M; Cercos, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco; Agusti, Javier; Alos, Enriqueta; Andres, Fernando; Soler, Guillermo; Brumos, Javier; Iglesias, Domingo J; Gotz, Stefan; Legaz, Francisco; Argout, Xavier; Courtois, Brigitte; Ollitrault, Patrick; Dossat, Carole; Wincker, Patrick; Morillon, Raphael; Talon, Manuel

2007-01-01

369

Recovery and characterization of a Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. 'Clemenules' haploid plant selected to establish the reference whole Citrus genome sequence  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, the development of structural genomics has generated a growing interest in obtaining haploid plants. The use of homozygous lines presents a significant advantage for the accomplishment of sequencing projects. Commercial citrus species are characterized by high heterozygosity, making it difficult to assemble large genome sequences. Thus, the International Citrus Genomic Consortium (ICGC) decided to establish a reference whole citrus genome sequence from a homozygous plant. Due to the existence of important molecular resources and previous success in obtaining haploid clementine plants, haploid clementine was selected as the target for the implementation of the reference whole genome citrus sequence. Results To obtain haploid clementine lines we used the technique of in situ gynogenesis induced by irradiated pollen. Flow cytometry, chromosome counts and SSR marker (Simple Sequence Repeats) analysis facilitated the identification of six different haploid lines (2n = x = 9), one aneuploid line (2n = 2x+4 = 22) and one doubled haploid plant (2n = 2x = 18) of 'Clemenules' clementine. One of the haploids, obtained directly from an original haploid embryo, grew vigorously and produced flowers after four years. This is the first haploid plant of clementine that has bloomed and we have, for the first time, characterized the histology of haploid and diploid flowers of clementine. Additionally a double haploid plant was obtained spontaneously from this haploid line. Conclusion The first haploid plant of 'Clemenules' clementine produced directly by germination of a haploid embryo, which grew vigorously and produced flowers, has been obtained in this work. This haploid line has been selected and it is being used by the ICGC to establish the reference sequence of the nuclear genome of citrus. PMID:19698121

2009-01-01

370

Relationship between volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils and antimicrobial action on Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils on P. digitatum and P. italicum growth. The hydrodistilled essential oils of orange (Citrus sinensis cvv. “Washington navel”, “Sanguinello”, “Tarocco”, “Moro”, “Valencia late”, and “Ovale”), bitter (sour) orange (C. aurantium), mandarin (C. deliciosa cv. “Avana”), grapefruit (C. paradisi cvv. “Marsh seedless” and “Red Blush”), citrange (C. sinensis

Duccio R. L Caccioni; Monica Guizzardi; Daniela M Biondi; Agatino Renda; Giuseppe Ruberto

1998-01-01

371

Effects of Reclaimed Municipal Waste Water on Horticultural Characteristics, Fruit Quality, and Soil and Leaf Mineral Concentration of Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water Conserv II is a municipal reclaimed water project operated by the city of Orlando and Orange county, FL. The Water Conserv II project has been supplying high-quality reclaimed water for irrigation of citrus orchards, nurseries, greenhouse operations, golf courses, and residential landscapes in Orange and Lake counties since 1986. Selected commercial citrus orchards in the WaterConserv II service area

Kelly T. Morgan; T. Adair Wheaton; Larry R. Parsons; William S. Castle

372

Efficacy of Three Citrus Oil Formulations Against Solenopsis invieta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the Red Imported Fire Anti,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted in Alabama, Oklahoma, and Texas to assess efficacy of raw citrus peel extract (orange oil) and a commercial citrus oil formulation for control of Solenopsis invicta Buren, the red imported fire ant. A recipe containing orange oil (equal parts orange oil, cattlemen's molasses, and compost tea at 47 mL L-' water), orange oil premixed with water to

James T. Vogt; Vhomas G. Shelt; Michael E. Merchant; Scott A. Russell; Marla J. Tanle; Arthur G. Appe

373

Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Nobiletin on Phorbol Ester-induced Skin Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Tumor Promotion in Mice1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intake of citrus fruits has been suggested as a way to prevent the development of some types of human cancer. Nitric oxide (NO) is closely associated with the processes of epithelial carcinogenesis. We attempted a search for NO generation inhibitors in Citrus unshiu. The active constit- uent was traced by an activity-guiding separation. NO and superoxide (O2 2 )

Akira Murakami; Yoshimasa Nakamura; Koji Torikai; Takuji Tanaka; Teruaki Koshiba; Koichi Koshimizu; Shigeru Kuwahara; Yasuo Takahashi; Kazunori Ogawa; Masamichi Yano; Harukuni Tokuda; Hoyoku Nishino; Yoshihiro Mimaki; Yutaka Sashida; Susumu Kitanaka; Hajime Ohigashi

2000-01-01

374

Fortuitous establishment of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Jamaica on the citrus leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)  

SciTech Connect

These data indicate that the population of A. citricola in Jamaica probably originated from the Australian (Thailand), rather than from the Taiwan, population. This is consistent with what is currently known about the origin of the established Ageniaspis population in Florida (Alvarez 2000). It is not known when, or how, A. citricola arrived in Jamaica, although the CLM was detected there in 1994. The fortuitous establishment of A. citricolaon the CLM in Jamaica is not the only such establishment of a natural enemy discovered during this 2004 survey of citrus. The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) was found attacking the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (Hoy et al., unpublished data), and the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia radiata Waterston was found attacking the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The fact that 3 natural enemies of 3 invasive citrus pests were found in Jamaica, none of which were purposefully imported and released, suggests that pest-infested citrus trees were imported into Jamaica without going through appropriate quarantine procedures. Because each pest arrived at different times, the parasitoids probably arrived at different times, as well. This indicates that an analysis is needed to identify the critical control points within those services in Jamaica that support border protection, and that procedures may require strengthening. (author)

Hoy, M.A.; Jeyaprakash, A. [Department of Entomology and Nematology, P.O. Box 110620, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0620 (United States); Clarke-Harris, D. [Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI), 2 Belmopan Close, UWI Mona Campus, Kingston 7 (Jamaica)

2007-03-15

375

Australian Wild Rice Reveals Pre-Domestication Origin of Polymorphism Deserts in Rice Genome  

PubMed Central

Background Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. Results We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the ‘polymorphism deserts’ in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Conclusions Analysis of genes in the ‘polymorphism deserts’ indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security. PMID:24905808

Krishnan S., Gopala; Waters, Daniel L. E.; Henry, Robert J.

2014-01-01

376

Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the

Gurdev S. Khush

1997-01-01

377

Chapter 2 Climate Change Affecting Rice Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses possible adaptation strategies in rice production to abiotic stresses that will aggravate under climate change: heat (high temperature and humidity), drought, salinity, and submergence. Each stress is discussed regarding the current state of knowledge on damage mechanism for rice plants as well as possible developments in germplasm and crop management technologies to overcome production losses. Higher temperatures

R. Wassmann; S. V. K. Jagadish; S. Heuer; A. Ismail; E. Redona; R. Serraj; R. K. Singh; G. Howell; H. Pathak; K. Sumfleth

2009-01-01

378

Detailed Information: Rice Young Alumni Information  

E-print Network

, and scholarships will be available for young alumni and volunteers. Athletics Go Owls! Attend sports events and Gear #12;Rice Young Alumni Information Alumni.rice.edu 5 On-Campus Perks Alumni College Join alumni Athletics, and the perks of being a Young Alum as well! Tickets: Young Alumni, in their first year out from

Palem, Krishna V.

379

Texas Rice, Volume II, Number 3  

E-print Network

the Editor... Inside This Issue Industry Profile: Dick Ottis ................................................3 Rice Belt Warehouse, Inc ...................................................5 Researcher in the News: Lee Tarpley .................................7... from domesticated animals, and meat from various game animals, fish, and shellfish. His- torically, such feasts occurred in the late summer or fall, not surprisingly following harvest. In this issue of Texas Rice, we shift things a bit and in our cover...

380

Rice Supply, Demand and Related Government Programs.  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Analysis of Irrigation Costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 7 Domestic and World Trade... in the absence of marketing quotas. DOMESTIC AND WORLD TRADE Asia produces about 85 percent of the world supply of rice. The United States produces slightly less than 2 percent but ranks third as a rice exporting nation, exceeded only by Thailand and Burma...

Kincannon, John A.

1957-01-01

381

Simulating rice response to climate change  

SciTech Connect

The response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to elevated CO{sub 2} concentration and temperature increase was simulated using the CERES-rice model. CERES-rice belongs to the International Benchmark Sites Network for Agrotechnology Transfer (IBSNAT) family of crop and nutrient dynamics models. Long-term historical data from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) wetland site was used to quantify the climatic change effects. The model simulated such beneficial effects of CO{sub 2} enrichment as increased grain yields, reduced transpiration, increased water use efficiency, improved use of intercepted radiation, reduced N losses, and higher N use efficiency. The trends were reversed for all of the above parameters with increase in temperature. CERES-rice simulated these negative trends in low input rice production as well. Based on the model`s prediction, some of the negative effects of temperature increase in warmer regions of the world could be offset by use of rice varieties that are tolerant to high temperature-induced spikelet sterility, and planting varieties with longer growth duration, particularly, longer grain filling duration. With improved varieties and good management future impact of climate change could be capitalized to have positive effects on rice production. Although the model has been extensively tested, it is critical to validate it with field data from extreme temperature and CO{sub 2} level studies. 33 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Singh, U.; Padilla, J.L. [International Fertilizer Development Center, Manila (Philippines); [International Rice Research Inst., Manila (Philippines)

1995-12-31

382

RICE UNIVERSITY E ective Static Debugging  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY E ective Static Debugging via Componential Set-Based Analysis by Cormac Flanagan of Computer Science J. E. Dennis Noah Harding Professor of Computational and Applied Mathematics Houston, for taking time o his already busy schedule to serve on my committee. My research environment at Rice

Flanagan, Cormac

383

RICE UNIVERSITY Application Insight Through Performance Modeling  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY Application Insight Through Performance Modeling by Gabriel Marin A THESIS of Computer Science Peter J. Varman , Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering Houston, Texas December;Acknowledgements I am grateful to John Mellor-Crummey, my advisor through most of my graduate studies at Rice

Marin, Gabriel

384

Ricecraft: Rice Is for More Than Eating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rice can be the basis for mosaics, flower arrangements, games, toys, and many things children would like to make. It can add new dimensions to making candles, coasters, and jewelry. Working with rice can aid in the development of appreciation of texture, symmetry, coordination, imagination and, at the same time, result in hand-made gifts for…

Rice Council of America, Houston, TX.

385

Rice bran: Composition and potential food uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative aspects of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and antinutritional factors in rice bran and its subfractions are described. The nutritional value measured in animal feeding tests is summarized for bran, defatted bran, stabilized bran, and protein concentrates derived by alkaline extraction of bran. Stabilization of rice bran and how this process may lead to a quantum change

R. M. Saunders

1985-01-01

386

Establishment of a new cross of the rice blast fungus derived from Japanese differential strain Ina168 and hermaphroditic rice pathogen Guy11.  

PubMed

Mating experiments between Magnaporthe grisea Japanese rice pathogens and Guy11, a hermaphroditic fertile rice pathogen, were done aimed at identification of avirulence genes. A cross named cross 2107 with thirty-six random progenies was obtained. Segregation analyses of genetic markers found that the cross was less suitable for genetic analysis. Backcrosses with cross 2107 progenies and Guy11 were done and another cross named cross 5307 with sixty-five progenies was obtained. A locus controlling kasugamycin resistance named Ksg1R was identified and used for a model case of genetic mapping. Bulked segregant analysis was done to find adjacent RAPD markers for mapping of the gene. Three adjacent markers to Ksg1R were obtained and a genetic map around the Ksg1R was made, but these markers were not located on a single chromosome. These results suggest that genetic analysis to identify a gene locus is available in cross 5307. Infection assay of parental strains of cross 5307 to Japanese differential rice cultivars suggested the possibility of genetic analysis of cultivar specificity toward four rice cultivars: Aichi-asahi, Kusabue, Tsuyuake, and K59. PMID:11515527

Fukiya, S; Kodama, M; Kito, H; Sone, T; Tomita, F

2001-07-01

387

Expression of a harpin-encoding gene in rice confers durable nonspecific resistance to Magnaporthe grisea.  

PubMed

Engineering durable nonspecific resistance to phytopathogens is one of the ultimate goals of plant breeding. However, most attempts to reach this goal fail as a result of rapid changes in pathogen populations and the sheer diversity of pathogen infection mechanisms. In this study, we show that the expression of a harpin-encoding gene (hrf1), derived from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, confers nonspecific resistance in rice to the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Transgenic plants and their T1-T7 progenies were highly resistant to all major M. grisea races in rice-growing areas along the Yangtze River, China. The expression of defence-related genes was activated in resistant transgenic plants, and the formation of melanized appressoria, which is essential for foliar infection, was inhibited on plant leaves. These results suggest that harpins may offer new opportunities for generating broad-spectrum disease resistance in other crops. PMID:18005094

Shao, Min; Wang, Jinsheng; Dean, Ralph A; Lin, Yongjun; Gao, Xuewen; Hu, Shuijin

2008-01-01

388

Citrus flavanones enhance carotenoid uptake by intestinal Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

The health benefit of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables could be attributed to the presence of a large diversity of phytochemicals, including carotenoids. Bioactivities of carotenoids greatly depend on their bioavailability that could be modulated by the presence of other dietary constituents. Because citrus juices contain diverse antioxidant phytochemicals, the effects of flavonoids and ascorbic acid on intestinal carotenoid uptake were investigated. Experiments were conducted by using a Caco-2 cell monolayer exposed to micelles enriched in ?-cryptoxanthin (b-CX, 5 ?M) and ?-carotene (b-C, 5 ?M) in the presence of hesperetin (HES, 250 ?M), hesperidin (HES-G, 250 ?M), naringenin (NGN, 250 ?M), acid ascorbic (AA, 50 ?M) and iron. At 5 h or 24 h incubation, HES-G and HES significantly increased b-CX and b-C uptake by 1.7- and 1.6-fold, respectively (p < 0.05). Interestingly, AA was shown to eliminate the enhancing effect of HES-G by decreasing significantly the cellular uptake of carotenoids from 48.2 to 39.8% after 5 h incubation (p < 0.05). Iron decreased the carotenoid uptake, while HES-G in the presence of iron restored it, suggesting that the enhancing effect of HES-G on carotenoid uptake could be attributed to its iron-chelating activity. PMID:24060987

Claudie, Dhuique-mayer; Alexandrine, During; Bertrand, Caporiccio; Franck, Tourniaire; Marie-Josephe, Amiot

2013-11-01

389

Citrus flavonoid naringenin inhibits TLR2 expression in adipocytes.  

PubMed

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were recently shown to be involved in obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue, which contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Thus, the appropriate regulation of TLR expression or activation is an important strategy for improving obesity-related diseases. In this report, we show that naringenin, a citrus flavonoid, inhibits TLR2 expression during adipocyte differentiation. This effect is mediated in part through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? activation. In addition, naringenin suppresses TLR2 expression induced by the co-culture of differentiated adipocytes and macrophages and also inhibits tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced TLR2 expression by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-?B and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathways in differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, naringenin decreases TLR2 expression in adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed mice. These results are correlated with the improvement of hyperglycemia and the suppression of inflammatory mediators, including TNF-? and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Taken together, these data suggest that naringenin exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, presumably by inhibiting TLR2 expression in adipocytes. Our findings suggest a molecular mechanism by which naringenin exerts beneficial effects against obesity-related diseases. PMID:23333096

Yoshida, Hiroki; Watanabe, Wataru; Oomagari, Hiroyuki; Tsuruta, Eisuke; Shida, Mikiko; Kurokawa, Masahiko

2013-07-01

390

Production of biofuels, limonene and pectin from citrus wastes.  

PubMed

Production of ethanol, biogas, pectin and limonene from citrus wastes (CWs) by an integrated process was investigated. CWs were hydrolyzed by dilute-acid process in a pilot plant reactor equipped with an explosive drainage. Hydrolysis variables including temperature and residence time were optimized by applying a central composite rotatable experimental design (CCRD). The best sugar yield (0.41g/g of the total dry CWs) was obtained by dilute-acid hydrolysis at 150 degrees C and 6min residence time. At this condition, high solubilization of pectin present in the CWs was obtained, and 77.6% of total pectin content of CWs could be recovered by solvent recovery. Degree of esterification and ash content of produced pectin were 63.7% and 4.23%, respectively. In addition, the limonene of the CWs was effectively removed through flashing of the hydrolyzates into an expansion tank. The sugars present in the hydrolyzates were converted to ethanol using baker's yeast, while an ethanol yield of 0.43g/g of the fermentable sugars was obtained. Then, the stillage and the remaining solid materials of the hydrolyzed CWs were anaerobically digested to obtain biogas. In summary, one ton of CWs with 20% dry weight resulted in 39.64l ethanol, 45m(3) methane, 8.9l limonene, and 38.8kg pectin. PMID:20149643

Pourbafrani, Mohammad; Forgács, Gergely; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2010-06-01

391

Citrus tristeza virus: Evolution of Complex and Varied Genotypic Groups  

PubMed Central

Amongst the Closteroviridae, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is almost unique in possessing a number of distinct and characterized strains, isolates of which produce a wide range of phenotype combinations among its different hosts. There is little understanding to connect genotypes to phenotypes, and to complicate matters more, these genotypes are found throughout the world as members of mixed populations within a single host plant. There is essentially no understanding of how combinations of genotypes affect symptom expression and disease severity. We know little about the evolution of the genotypes that have been characterized to date, little about the biological role of their diversity and particularly, about the effects of recombination. Additionally, genotype grouping has not been standardized. In this study we utilized an extensive array of CTV genomic information to classify the major genotypes, and to determine the major evolutionary processes that led to their formation and subsequent retention. Our analyses suggest that three major processes act on these genotypes: (1) ancestral diversification of the major CTV lineages, followed by (2) conservation and co-evolution of the major functional domains within, though not between CTV genotypes, and (3) extensive recombination between lineages that have given rise to new genotypes that have subsequently been retained within the global population. The effects of genotype diversity and host-interaction are discussed, as is a proposal for standardizing the classification of existing and novel CTV genotypes. PMID:23630519

Harper, S. J.

2013-01-01

392

Cardiovascular toxicity of Citrus aurantium in exercised rats.  

PubMed

When safety concerns forced the removal of ephedra from the market, other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium or bitter orange (BO) were used as replacements. A major component of the BO extract is synephrine, a chemical that is structurally similar to ephedrine. Because ephedrine has cardiovascular effects that may be exacerbated during physical exercise, the purpose of this study was to determine whether extracts containing synephrine produced adverse effects on the cardiovascular system in exercising rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 28 days with 10 or 50 mg of synephrine/kg body weight from one of two different extracts; caffeine was added to some doses. The rats ran on a treadmill for 30 min/day, 3 days/week. Heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and QT interval were monitored. Both doses of both extracts significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure for up to 8 h after dosing. Effects on heart rate and body temperature appeared to be due primarily to the effects of caffeine. These data suggest that the combination of synephrine, caffeine, and exercise can have significant effects on blood pressure and do not appear to be effective in decreasing food consumption or body weight. PMID:23397375

Hansen, Deborah K; George, Nysia I; White, Gene E; Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Pellicore, Linda S; Fabricant, Daniel

2013-09-01

393

The potential bioproduction of the pharmaceutical agent sakuranetin, a flavonoid phytoalexin in rice  

PubMed Central

Sakuranetin, the major flavonoid phytoalexin in rice, can be induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, treatment with CuCl2 or jasmonic acid (JA), or phytopathogenic infection. In addition to sakuranetin’s biological significance on disease resistance in rice, its broad bioactivities have recently been described. Results from these studies have shown that sakuranetin is a useful compound as a plant antibiotic and a potential pharmaceutical agent. Sakuranetin is biosynthesized from naringenin, a precursor of sakuranetin, by naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase (NOMT), but the relevant gene has not yet been identified in rice. Recently, we identified the OsNOMT gene, which is involved in the final step of sakuranetin biosynthesis in rice. In previous studies, OsNOMT was purified to apparent homogeneity from UV-treated wild-type rice leaves; however, the purified protein, termed OsCOMT1, exhibited caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity, but not NOMT activity. Based on the analysis of an oscomt1 T-DNA tagged mutant, we determined that OsCOMT1 did not contribute to sakuranetin production in rice in vivo. Therefore, we took advantage of the oscomt1 mutant to purify OsNOMT. A crude protein preparation from UV-treated oscomt1 leaves was subjected to three sequential purification steps resulting in a 400-fold purification from the crude enzyme preparation with a minor band at an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa in the purest enzyme preparation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight analysis showed that the 40 kDa protein band included two O-methyltransferase-like proteins, but one of the proteins encoded by Os12g0240900 exhibited clear NOMT activity; thus, this gene was designated OsNOMT. Gene expression was induced by treatment with jasmonic acid in rice leaves prior to sakuranetin accumulation, and the recombinant protein showed reasonable kinetic properties to NOMT. Identification of the OsNOMT gene enables the production of large amounts of sakuranetin through transgenic rice and microorganisms. This finding also allows for the generation of disease-resistant and sakuranetin biofortified rice in the future. PMID:22895058

Shimizu, Takafumi; Lin, Fengqiu; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Nojiri, Hideaki; Yamane, Hisakazu; Okada, Kazunori

2012-01-01

394

Arsenic burden of cooked rice: Traditional and modern methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contamination of rice by irrigation with contaminated groundwater and secondarily increased soil arsenic compounds the arsenic burden of populations dependent on subsistence rice-diets. The arsenic concentration of cooked rice is known to increase with the arsenic concentration of the cooking water but the effects of cooking methods have not been defined. We tested the three major rice cooking procedures

M. K. Sengupta; M. A. Hossain; A. Mukherjee; S. Ahamed; B. Das; B. Nayak; A. Pal; D. Chakraborti

2006-01-01

395

Management Strategies to Reduce Arsenic Uptake by Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contaminated irrigation water in Bangladesh is most likely responsible for high arsenic levels in soils used for grow ing rice. Elevated arsenic concentrations in rice grain produced in such high arsenic water-soil environments ha ve been demonstrated. Because Bangladeshi diets are dominated by rice, arsenic contaminated rice could be aggravating existing human health risks from arsenic contaminated drinking water

J. G. Lauren; J. M. Duxbury

396

neuro-engineering at rice ece behnaam aazhang  

E-print Network

neuro-engineering at rice ece behnaam aazhang electrical and computer engineering rice university.0 · university of illinois Saturday, April 6, 13 #12;behnaam 3.0 · rice ece Saturday, April 6, 13 #12;neuro-engineering at rice ece · a step back in time Saturday, April 6, 13 #12;an evolving ee · electricity Saturday, April 6

Aazhang, Behnaam

397

Germinated Brown Rice and Its Role in Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brown rice, unmilled or partly milled, contains more nutritional components than ordinary white rice. Despite its elevated content of bioactive components, brown rice is rarely consumed as a staple food for its dark appearance and hard texture. The germination of brown rice can be used to improve its taste and further enhance its nutritional value and health functions. Germinated brown

Fengfeng Wu; Na Yang; Alhassane Touré; Zhengyu Jin; Xueming Xu

2011-01-01

398

Distribution of frogs in rice bays within an irrigated agricultural area: links to pesticide usage and farm practices.  

PubMed

In the Coleambally irrigation area (NSW, Australia), the occurrence of four tadpole and frog species in rice bays on farms growing either rice only or both rice and corn was studied over two seasons. In addition to analysis of species occurrence, both gonadal histology and assessment of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection rates were performed. The rice acreage available as potential tadpole habitat was extensively distributed throughout the irrigation area, but more corn was grown in the northern region compared with the southern region. The mean abundance of Litoria raniformis tadpoles was significantly lower in the northern sites compared with the southern sites. In contrast, tadpoles of Limnodynastes fletcheri, Limnodynastes tasmaniensis, and Crinia parinsignifera had a uniform distribution across all study sites. A principal components analysis showed a relationship between farm type and the rice herbicide applied when the crops were initially sown, with sites occupied by Litoria raniformis in the beginning being predominantly rice-only farms. A discriminant analysis showed that low concentrations of the corn herbicide metolachlor and increased pH were the main variables studied that determined site occupation by L. raniformis. This suggested that farms growing only rice (and not corn) with high algal production were the preferred sites. The rates of chytrid infection and gonadal malformations were low across both regions. Histology of the gonads of metamorphs showed that L. raniformis gonadal differentiation is slow compared to that of the two Limnodynastes species. We concluded that farm practices associated with increased corn cropping in the northern region, rather than any direct effect of corn herbicides, determine the reduced presence of Litoria raniformis in the northern region. PMID:19220075

Hyne, Ross V; Spolyarich, Nick; Wilson, Scott P; Patra, Ronald W; Byrne, Maria; Gordon, Geoff; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Palmer, Carolyn G

2009-06-01

399

Toxic Effect of Citrus Peel Constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann Immature Stages.  

PubMed

The toxicity of essential oils from the citrus peel has been proposed as the major resistance mechanism offered by citrus to fruit fly infestation. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of the ether extracts from the lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfadyen) peel as well as from limonene and citral against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) immature stages. We also evaluated the toxicity of the extracts at two ripening stages. Extracts proved toxic to A. fraterculus egg and larvae. The lemon and grapefruit extracts showed the same toxicity in both fruit fly species. For A. fraterculus eggs, citral was more toxic than limonene; for larvae, they showed equal toxicity. Anastrepha fraterculus eggs were more sensitive than C. capitata eggs. In conclusion, we provide evidence of chemical resistance mechanisms that could account for the nonhost condition of lemon for A. fraterculus. PMID:25237738

Ruiz, María J; Juárez, María L; Alzogaray, Raúl A; Arrighi, Federico; Arroyo, Lorena; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo; Bardón, Alicia Del Valle; Vera, Teresa

2014-10-15

400

Evaluation of Antidepressant-like Effect of Citrus Maxima Leaves in Animal Models of Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) This study planned to assess antidepressant like activity of aqueous extract from leaves of Citrus maxima Merr. (Rutaceae). Materials and Methods Boiling was used for aqueous extraction. Acute toxicity study was performed in mice. Antidepressant activity was studied using locomotor activity test, modified forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Three doses 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of aqueous extract of leaves were selected for testing. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as the standard drugs. Results Aqueous extract of Citrus maxima leaves significantly reduced immobility time in both TST and FST. In locomotor activity testing it showed psychostimulant effect. Extract increased the climbing behavior in FST, which is similar to effect observed with imipramine. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that antidepressant like effect of Citrus maxima seems to be mediated by an increase in norepinephrine level in synapses. PMID:23492865

Potdar, Vikram H; Kibile, Swati J

2011-01-01

401

Characterization of limes (Citrus aurantifolia) grown in Bhutan and Indonesia using high-throughput sequencing.  

PubMed

Lime [Citrus aurantifolia (Cristm.) Swingle] is a Citrus species that is a popular ingredient in many cuisines. Some citrus plants are known to originate in the area ranging from northeastern India to southwestern China. In the current study, we characterized and compared limes grown in Bhutan (n = 5 accessions) and Indonesia (n = 3 accessions). The limes were separated into two groups based on their morphology. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) separated the eight accessions into two clusters. One cluster contained four accessions from Bhutan, whereas the other cluster contained one accession from Bhutan and the three accessions from Indonesia. This genetic classification supported the morphological classification of limes. The analysis suggests that the properties associated with asexual reproduction, and somatic homologous recombination, have contributed to the genetic diversification of limes. PMID:24781859

Penjor, Tshering; Mimura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Yamamoto, Masashi; Nagano, Yukio

2014-01-01

402

Evaluation of mating disruption for control of lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in citrus.  

PubMed

Three large-scale mating disruption (MD) trials were conducted from 2001 to 2004 in an organic citrus orchard in inland southeastern Australia to evaluate the effectiveness of the MD dispenser Isomate LBAM Plus in controlling lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), in citrus. At the application rate of 364-728 dispensers per ha, the dispensers reduced pheromone trapping of E. postvittana to almost undetectable levels for approximately 6 mo in the treated area. During this period, most sentinel females in the treated area failed to mate. Infestation by E. postvittana in the treated area was reduced by >50%. If distributed in citrus orchards in late winter (August), the dispensers can be expected to remain effective until next February in southeastern Australia, covering the period when most fruit scarring caused by its larvae occurs. PMID:16686141

Mo, Jianhua; Glover, Michelle; Munro, Scott; Beattie, G Andrew C

2006-04-01

403

Evaluation of bioactive components and antioxidant and anticancer properties of citrus wastes generated during bioethanol production.  

PubMed

In the bioethanol production process employing citrus peels, a large amount of enzymatic hydrolyzed residues is generated as waste material. The bioactive compounds, and antioxidant and anticancer activities of these residues were investigated in the present study. Hydrolyzed citrus residues exhibited similar antioxidant activity as the unhydrolyzed control, which was positively correlated to the contents of total phenols, flavonoids and total carotenoid. Some flavonoids (naringin, naringenin, hesperetin and neohesperidin) and two high value co-products (D-limonene and galacturonic acid) were detected only in hydrolyzed residues. In addition, hydrolyzed residues showed antiproliferative activity and sub-G1 arrest in human melanoma A375 and colon cancer HCT116 cells. These results provide an alternative use for hydrolyzed citrus residues in the functional food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24868862

Im, Soon Jae; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Min Young

2014-04-01

404

Changes in rice allelopathy and rhizosphere microflora by inhibiting rice phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene expression.  

PubMed

Gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in allelopathic rice PI312777 was inhibited by RNA interference (RNAi). Transgenic rice showed lower levels of PAL gene expression and PAL activity than wild type rice (WT). The concentrations of phenolic compounds were lower in the root tissues and root exudates of transgenic rice than in those of wild type plants. When barndyardgrass (BYG) was used as the receiver plant, the allelopathic potential of transgenic rice was reduced. The sizes of the bacterial and fungal populations in rice rhizospheric soil at the 3-, 5-, and 7-leaf stages were estimated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR), which showed a decrease in both populations at all stages of leaf development analyzed. However, PI312777 had a larger microbial population than transgenic rice. In addition, in T-RFLP studies, 14 different groups of bacteria were detected in WT and only 6 were detected in transgenic rice. This indicates that there was less rhizospheric bacterial diversity associated with transgenic rice than with WT. These findings collectively suggest that PAL functions as a positive regulator of rice allelopathic potential. PMID:23385369

Fang, Changxun; Zhuang, Yuee; Xu, Tiecheng; Li, Yingzhe; Li, Yue; Lin, Wenxiong

2013-02-01

405

Arsenic in rice: I. Estimating normal levels of total arsenic in rice grain.  

PubMed

High levels of arsenic (As) in rice grain are a potential concern for human health. Variability in total As in rice was evaluated using 204 commercial rice samples purchased mostly in retail stores in upstate New York and supplemented with samples from Canada, France, Venezuela, and other countries. Total As concentration in rice varied from 0.005 to 0.710 mg kg(-1). We combined our data set with literature values to derive a global "normal" range of 0.08-0.20 mg kg(-1) for As concentration in rice. The mean As concentrations for rice from the U.S. and Europe (both 0.198 mg kg(-1)) were statistically similar and significantly higher than rice from Asia (0.07 mg kg(-1)). Using two large data sets from Bangladesh, we showed that As contaminated irrigation water, but not soil, led to increased grain As concentration. Wide variability found in U.S. rice grain was primarily influenced by region of growth rather than commercial type, with rice grown in Texas and Arkansas having significantly higher mean As concentrations than that from California (0.258 and 0.190 versus 0.133 mg kg(-1)). Rice from one Texas distributor was especially high, with 75% of the samples above the global "normal" range, suggesting production in an As contaminated environment. PMID:18546734

Zavala, Yamily J; Duxbury, John M

2008-05-15

406

The Galileo Project: Rice University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by Rice University, the Galileo Project "is a hypertext source of information on the life and work of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and the science of his time." One highlighted section entitled Galileo's Daughter (in reference to a recent book by Dava Sobel) includes 124 letters from Maria Celeste to Galileo--an excellent primary resource for those interested in the study of women in early modern Europe. Other sections are entitled Galileo's Villa, Resources (including a bibliography and a searchable catalog of the scientific community of Galileo's era), and Maps of Galileo's World.

Burr, Elizabeth S.; Albert., Van H.

1996-01-01

407

Texas Rice, Highlights in Research  

E-print Network

-234-3578 or email gmccaule@elc.net. ter indicates yes or no shade for 2-weeks post flowering. A fungicide treatment consisted of tilt at the 2-inch panicle followed by Quadris 14 days later. Late season phosphorus was 40 pounds per acre of 0-60-0 applied... at the soft dough stage of the rice. Shade post flowering in the MC drastically reduces the RC yield and reduces the impact of the other management inputs even with fungicide (NYYY). Cutting height was the only MC management variable that consistently...

2001-01-01

408

Peucedanum japonicum and Citrus unshiu essential oils inhibit the growth of antibiotic-resistant skin pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the chemical compositions and the anti-bacterial activities of hydrodistilled essential oils of the whole parts\\u000a ofPeucedanum japonicum and the immature fruits ofCitrus unshiu were investigated. The chemical constituents of theP. Japonicum (PJE) andCitrus unshiu (CuE) essential oils were further analyzed by GC-MS and their major components were ?-pinene (66.07%) and limonene (77.93%),\\u000a respectively. The antibacterial activities of

Eun-Jin Yang; Sang-Suk Kim; Tae-Heon Oh; Gwanpil Song; Kil-Nam Kim; Ji-Young Kim; Nam Ho Lee; Chang-Gu Hyun

2009-01-01

409

Modified citrus pectin anti-metastatic properties: one bullet, multiple targets.  

PubMed

In this minireview, we examine the ability of modified citrus pectin (MCP), a complex water soluble indigestible polysaccharide obtained from the peel and pulp of citrus fruits and modified by means of high pH and temperature treatment, to affect numerous rate-limiting steps in cancer metastasis. The anti-adhesive properties of MCP as well as its potential for increasing apoptotic responses of tumor cells to chemotherapy by inhibiting galectin-3 anti-apoptotic function are discussed in the light of a potential use of this carbohydrate-based substance in the treatment of multiple human malignancies. PMID:19061992

Glinsky, Vladislav V; Raz, Avraham

2009-09-28

410

Cost of Handling Texas Citrus, Fresh and Processed, 1946-47.  

E-print Network

than the cost of grapefruit juice. These costs per case of 121404's were: grapefruit juice, $1.08; orange juice, $1.00, and blended juice, 96 cents. This variation in the average total cost per case is caused mainly by the difference in the number... by the number of firms. COST OF HANDLING TEXAS CITRUS 19 Table 9. Relation of volume to cost of processing, warehousing and selling Texas citrus, 1946-47 Kind of product Grapefruit juice Grapefruit segments Type of container 121404 24/2 Volume * Under 100...

Samuels, J. K. (James Kenneth); Fugett, Kenneth A.

1949-01-01

411

Identification and characterization of microRNAs from citrus expressed sequence tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of single-stranded noncoding RNAs with general size of 21–24 nucleotides, which negatively\\u000a regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by repressing gene translation or degrading targeted mRNAs. Despite the important\\u000a functions of miRNAs in plants, little is known about miRNAs in citrus. Here we present a study of bioinformatics identification\\u000a of microRNA precursors in citrus by comparing known

Xiao-Meng Wu; Mei-Ya Liu; Qiang Xu; Wen-Wu Guo

2011-01-01

412

Identification and characterization of 27 conserved microRNAs in citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding small RNAs. Considering the conservation of many miRNA genes in different\\u000a plant genomes, the identification of miRNAs from non-model organisms is both practicable and instrumental in addressing miRNA-guided\\u000a gene regulation. Citrus is an important staple fruit tree, and publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST) database for\\u000a citrus are increasing. However, until now, little

Changnian Song; Jinggui Fang; Xiaoying Li; Hong Liu; C. Thomas Chao

2009-01-01

413

Analysis of alternative marketing organizations for improving rice producer income  

E-print Network

of the Blue Ribbon Rice Mills, Inc. This gives ARI milling and storage facilities. Also, AGA has acquired control and ownership of the MGC facilities. Both of these actions are definite moves toward a fully integrated and producer operated organization.... S ACQUISITION OF BLUE RIBBON RICE MILLS& INC 36 American Rice, Incorporated. Method of Operation. Payments to Growers. Marketing Blue Ribbon Rice Mills, Incorporated. . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . Rough Rice Supplies. Marketing. Competition...

Guillot, Patrick Dale

2012-06-07

414

Effects of Commercial Processing on Antioxidants in Rice Bran 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 77(5):551-555 Rice bran contains high amounts of beneficial antioxidants including tocopherols, tocotrienols, and oryzanols. Current rice m illing technology produces rice bran from different layers of the kernel caryopsis. Under current practices, these layers are combined and then steam-extruded to form a stabilized rice bran pellet that is storage-safe prior to oil extraction. Each of these rice bran

B. J. Lloyd; T. J. Siebenmorgen; K. W. Beers

2000-01-01

415

Lipid Components of North American Wild Rice ( Zizania palustris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content and composition of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols, and ?-oryzanol in wild rice (Zizania palustris) grown in North America were compared with those in regular brown rice (Oryza sativa L.). The lipid content of wild rice ranged from 0.7 to 1.1%, compared with 2.7% in regular brown rice. The lipids of wild rice\\u000a comprised mainly linoleic (35–37%) and linolenic

R. Przybylski; D. Klensporf-Pawlik; F. Anwar; M. Rudzinska

2009-01-01

416

Allelochemicals released by rice roots and residues in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties or rice straw produce and release allelochemicals into soil in which interfere with the growth of neighboring or successive plants. Allelopathic rice PI312777 and Huagan-1 at their early growth stages released momilactone B, 3-isopropyl-5-acetoxycyclohexene-2-one-1, and 5,7,4?-trihydroxy-3?,5?-dimethoxyflavone into soil at phytotoxic levels, but non-allelopathic rice Huajingxian did not. Both allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice residues

C. H. Kong; H. B. Li; F. Hu; X. H. Xu; P. Wang

2006-01-01

417

Whipworm infection  

MedlinePLUS

... of the large intestine with a type of roundworm. ... Whipworm infection is caused by the roundworm, Trichuris trichiura. It is a common infection that mainly affects children. Children may become infected if they swallow soil contaminated with whipworm ...

418

Variability in aggressiveness of rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) isolates originating from rice leaves and necks: a case of pathogen specialization?  

PubMed

Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, causes yield losses associated with injuries on leaves and necks, the latter being in general far more important than the former. Many questions remain on the relationships between leaf and neck blast, including questions related to the population biology of the pathogen. Our objective was to test the hypothesis of adaptation of M. oryzae isolates to the type of organ they infect. To that aim, the components of aggressiveness of isolates originating from leaves and necks were measured. Infection efficiency, latent period, sporulation intensity, and lesion size were measured on both leaves and necks. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that isolates originating from leaves were less aggressive than isolates originating from necks, when aggressiveness components were measured on leaves as well as on necks, indicating that there is no specialization within the pathogen population with respect to the type of organ infected. This result suggests that the more aggressive isolates involved in epidemics on leaves during the vegetative stage of the crop cycle have a higher probability to infect necks, and that a population shift may occur during disease transmission from leaves to necks. Implications for disease management are discussed. PMID:23776629

Ghatak, Abhijeet; Willocquet, Laetitia; Savary, Serge; Kumar, Jatinder

2013-01-01

419

Variability in Aggressiveness of Rice Blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) Isolates Originating from Rice Leaves and Necks: A Case of Pathogen Specialization?  

PubMed Central

Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, causes yield losses associated with injuries on leaves and necks, the latter being in general far more important than the former. Many questions remain on the relationships between leaf and neck blast, including questions related to the population biology of the pathogen. Our objective was to test the hypothesis of adaptation of M. oryzae isolates to the type of organ they infect. To that aim, the components of aggressiveness of isolates originating from leaves and necks were measured. Infection efficiency, latent period, sporulation intensity, and lesion size were measured on both leaves and necks. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that isolates originating from leaves were less aggressive than isolates originating from necks, when aggressiveness components were measured on leaves as well as on necks, indicating that there is no specialization within the pathogen population with respect to the type of organ infected. This result suggests that the more aggressive isolates involved in epidemics on leaves during the vegetative stage of the crop cycle have a higher probability to infect necks, and that a population shift may occur during disease transmission from leaves to necks. Implications for disease management are discussed. PMID:23776629

Ghatak, Abhijeet; Willocquet, Laetitia; Savary, Serge; Kumar, Jatinder

2013-01-01

420

Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.  

PubMed

Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ?40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis. PMID:25145278

Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

2014-11-01

421

Calcineurin phosphatase and phospholipase C are required for developmental and pathological functions in the citrus fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata.  

PubMed

Excessive Ca(2+) or compounds interfering with phosphoinositide cycling have been found to inhibit the growth of the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata, suggesting a crucial role of Ca(2+) homeostasis in this pathotype. The roles of PLC1, a phospholipase C-coding gene and CAL1, a calcineurin phosphatase-coding gene were investigated. Targeted gene disruption showed that both PLC1 and CAL1 were required for vegetative growth, conidial formation and pathogenesis in citrus. Fungal strains lacking PLC1 or CAL1 exhibited extremely slow growth and induced small lesions on calamondin leaves. ?plc1 mutants produced fewer conidia, which germinated at slower rates than wild-type. ?cal1 mutants produced abnormal hyphae and failed to produce any mature conidia, but instead produced highly melanized bulbous hyphae with distinct septae. Fluorescence microscopy using Fluo-3 dye as a Ca(2+) indicator revealed that the ?plc1 mutant hyphae emitted stronger cytosolic fluorescence, and the ?cal1 mutant hyphae emitted less cytosolic fluorescence, than those of wild-type. Infection assessed on detached calamondin leaves revealed that application of CaCl2 or neomycin 24 h prior to inoculation provided protection against Alt. alternata. These data indicate that a dynamic equilibrium of cellular Ca(2+) is critical for developmental and pathological processes of Alt. alternata. PMID:24763426

Tsai, Hsieh-Chin; Chung, Kuang-Ren

2014-07-01

422

Swamp rice farming: possible effects on endemicity of schistosomiasis mansoni and haematobia in a population in Liberia.  

PubMed

To obtain a better understanding of the possible influence of swamp rice farming on the patterns of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium infections, the populations of two communities in rural liberia were studied. In one village, Balama (population of 435), swamp rice farms were initiated six years before the survey; in the other nearby community, Gbarta (population of 216), swamp rice farms had not yet been initiated. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection in Balama was 87% vs. 9% in Gbarta (P less than 0.01). The geometric and arithmetic mean egg counts for all infected subjects in Balama were respectively 263 and 671/g feces. in Gbarta, the geometric and arithmetic mean egg counts were 150 and 129/g feces. S. haematobium eggs were detected in 42% of subjects in Balama vs. 11% in Gbarta (P less than 0.01). Hematuria correlated with the presence of S. haematobium eggs in urine. These data indicate that there is a significantly higher prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis mansoni and haematobia in a community where swamp rice farming has been utilized for 6 years compared to a nearby village where this water irrigation and drainage practice has not yet been implemented. PMID:3970302

Kazura, J W; Neill, M; Peters, P A; Dennis, E

1985-01-01

423

Seasonal differences in the incidence of infection with Fasciola gigantica in Cambodian cattle.  

PubMed

Farmer's cattle were treated with triclabendazole and used as tracer animals to detect new infections with Fasciola gigantica in three villages located on the bank of the Bassac River (a major tributary of the Mekong River) and in a fourth village located on farmland away from the river, from April 1999 until January 2001. The month of infection was estimated by subtracting 4 months from the date when eggs of F. gigantica were detected in faeces. Farmers were interviewed each month to record the nature of the agricultural and animal husbandry activities that occurred during the previous month, especially events that might have exposed cattle to infection with F. gigantica. Results support the conclusions that infection of cattle in riverbank villages acquired from about August or September until November originated from herbage and water in irrigation canals and dams on the riverbank, and that the progressively increasing monthly incidence from December until April (up to 87% per month in April 2000) was derived from herbage and water in recently harvested rice fields and lakes adjacent to the riverbank. The abrupt cessation of new infection in riverbank villages in May coincided with flooding of low-lying land, the movement of cattle to land above flood height on the riverbank, and a change of diet to dry-land crop residues, stored dry rice stalks, and herbage and water that were unlikely to contain metacercariae. It was concluded that snails in dams and canals on the riverbank became infected with E gigantica after cattle were moved to the riverbank in May, and cercariae shed from these snails provided the new infections that occurred in cattle in August and September. In the village located away from the river, infection of cattle between September and March coincided with the rice harvest, supporting the conclusion that feeding of fresh rice stalks and stubble after the rice was harvested was the main source of infection. The low monthly incidence observed (up to 6.4% per month) was consistent with the hypothesis that snails did not survive in the dry rice fields between crops and that few snails would have been available from the small number of aquatic refuges that persisted through the dry season to recolonize rice fields during the wet season. Between April and August there was no opportunity for new infection because cattle were fed forage from around houses and headlands, and on dry-land crop residues and stored dry rice stalks. Control of fasciolosis was proposed using a single treatment of cattle with triclabendazole in riverbank villages in May when cattle were moved to the riverbank, and after harvest of the last rice field in villages located away from the river. PMID:17405625

Suon, S; Hol, D; Siek, S; McLean, M; Copeman, B

2006-01-01

424

Silicon isotope fractionation in rice plants, an experimental study on rice growth under hydroponic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon (Si) isotope composition and Si distribution among different rice plant organs and different parts of rice leaf at\\u000a maturity were studied, which may provide new insights into the mechanism of Si accumulation in plants and biogeochemical Si\\u000a cycle. An isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) was used to examine Si isotope fractionation by rice plant grown in a hydroponic\\u000a system.

L. Sun; L. H. Wu; T. P. Ding; S. H. Tian

2008-01-01

425

Texas Rice, Volume II, Number 5  

E-print Network

to deliver baseline data on current grain storage practices. 4 Grower Profile... Stoesser Ag Company: A Family PartnershipRay Stoesser and his son Neal farm all across Liberty County - producing rice, milo and soybeans. (L to R) Ray, Grant and Neal... Stoesser catching a bird’s eye view of milo and rice fields that surround their drying and storage facility just west of Dayton. Ray Stoesser is a third generation rice farmer with a true appreciation for the value of research and edu- cation. The Stoesser...

426

Texas Rice, Volume V, Number 3  

E-print Network

budget. Madam Speaker, I would like to take some time to recount the personal stories of two of the countless Texas rice farmers, to give this body an idea just who these folks are. Ray Stoesser, he is a friend of mine. He is also a third-generation rice... farmer in southeast Texas. He has a true appreciation for the value of research, educa- tion, and he loves the land. One of the most successful and consistent producers, he brings an exceptional crop each year to the rice market. Ray is quick to point out...

427

Texas Rice, Volume III, Number 4  

E-print Network

Joe Krauz, a Professor and Extension Specialist located in College Station. With Joe’s ad- ministrative responsibilities as Associate Head for the Plant Pathology Department, we increasingly value the time Joe is able to provide to the rice research... com- munity and our rice industry. Much of Joe’s research has contributed to improved rice disease management in Texas. Joe is a prime example of the importance of maintaining a strong link between Beaumont/Eagle Lake Center faculty and faculty on our...

428

The Detection of Artificial Coatings on Rice  

E-print Network

KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection The Detection of Artificial Coatings on Rice May 15th, 1913 by Ernest E. Lyder This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU... COATINGS ON RICE ERMBST E. LYBER 1913 THESIS. THE DETECTION OE ARTIFICIAL COATINGS ON RICE, by ERNEST E. LYDER. A t h e s i s presented to the Facu l t y o f the School o f E n g i n e e r i n g o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f Kansas, f o r the deg...

Lyder, Ernest E.

1913-05-15

429

Texas Rice, Volume 1, Number 3  

E-print Network

Dr. Chandler into rice re- search. He was a graduate student from Brazil, and the government there paid for his assistantship but specified that his work must be done in rice. This led to a produc- tive working relationship between Dr. Garry Mc.../organic food company in the U.S. Other companies of the Hain Group include Earth’s Best baby food, Health Valley, Terra Chips, Garden of Eatin’ Chips, Hain Foods and West Brae. They currently buy organic wheat, soy- beans, rice and edible beans. For more...

430

Water Potential Components in Growing Citrus Fruits 1  

PubMed Central

Growing navel orange fruits (Citrus sinensis) 5.4 to 5.7 centimeters in diameter were used as a model system to determine the effects of transpiration and carbohydrate translocation on water and osmotic potentials in fruit tissues. Evidence supported the hypothesis that osmotic potential in the vesicles would be affected little by changes in transpiration or carbohydrate translocation because the vesicles are anatomically isolated from the transpiration stream and are at the end of the carbohydrate translocation pathway. In the mesocarp tissue, which contains a vascular network, osmotic potential decreased during the daytime when environmental conditions favored transpiration and increased at night. Exocarp water potential followed a similar pattern. Girdling of the stem above the fruits 5 days before sampling caused an increase of osmotic potential in the mesocarp but had no effect on exocarp water potential. Neither diurnal changes in transpiration nor girdling of the stem affected the osmotic potential of the vesicles. Osmotic potentials in all tissues of the fruit were in the range of ?10 to ?15 bars. Measurements of osmotic potential at 16 locations along a longitudinal plant through the fruit axis showed that osmotic potential increased from the stem to the stylar end, but it decreased from the pericarp tissues to the vesicles. As exocarp water potential decreased during a 20-day period after watering, osmotic potential decreased in the vesicles and exocarp. Turgor pressure, calculated as the difference between water and osmotic potentials, decreased with water potential in the vesicles but not in the exocarp. The lack of decrease of turgor pressure in the exocarp may result from a measurement error caused by pectins or from osmotic adjustment related to carbohydrate accumulation at low water potentials. PMID:16657407

Kaufmann, Merrill R.

1970-01-01

431

Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus.  

PubMed Central

Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad®) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida “fly free zone” protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production. PMID:15841224

Michaud, J.P.

2003-01-01

432

Understanding the evolution of rice technology in China - from traditional agriculture to GM rice today.  

PubMed

This paper provides an historical survey of the evolution of rice technology in China, from the traditional farming system to genetically modified rice today. Using sociotechnological analytical framework, it analyses rice technology as a socio-technical ensemble - a complex interaction of material and social elements, and discusses the specificity of technology development and its socio-technical outcomes. It points to two imperatives in rice variety development: wholesale transporting agricultural technology and social mechanism to developing countries are likely lead to negative consequences; indigenous innovation including deploying GM technology for seed varietal development and capturing/cultivating local knowledge will provide better solutions. PMID:20645458

Shen, Xiaobai

2010-01-01

433

Mapping of seed shattering loci provides insights into origin of weedy rice and rice domestication.  

PubMed

Seed shattering is an important trait that distinguishes crop cultivars from the wild and weedy species. The genetics of seed shattering was investigated in this study to provide insights into rice domestication and the evolution of weedy rice. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, conducted in 2 recombinant inbred populations involving 2 rice cultivars and a weedy rice accession of the southern United States, revealed 3-5 QTLs that controlled seed shattering with 38-45% of the total phenotypic variation. Two QTLs on chromosomes 4 and 10 were consistent in both populations. Both cultivar and weedy rice contributed alleles for increased seed shattering. Genetic backgrounds affected both QTL number and the magnitude of QTL effects. The major QTL qSH4 and a minor QTL qSH3 were validated in near-isogenic lines, with the former conferring a significantly higher degree of seed shattering than the latter. Although the major QTL qSH4 overlapped with the sh4, the presence of the nonshattering single nucleotide polymorphism allele in the weedy rice accession suggested involvement of a linked locus or an alternative molecular genetic mechanism. Overlapping of several QTLs with those from earlier studies indicated that weedy rice may have been derived from the wild species Oryza rufipogon. Natural hybridization of rice cultivars with the highly variable O. rufipogon present in different geographic regions might be responsible for the evolution of a wide range of phenotypic and genotypic variabilities seen in weedy rice populations worldwide. PMID:24336929

Subudhi, Prasanta K; Singh, Pradeep K; DeLeon, Teresa; Parco, Arnold; Karan, Ratna; Biradar, Hanamareddy; Cohn, Marc A; Sasaki, Takuji

2014-01-01

434

The Rice Genome Knowledgebase (RGKbase): an annotation database for rice comparative genomics and evolutionary biology.  

PubMed

Over the past 10 years, genomes of cultivated rice cultivars and their wild counterparts have been sequenced although most efforts are focused on genome assembly and annotation of two major cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies, 93-11 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica). To integrate information from genome assemblies and annotations for better analysis and application, we now introduce a comparative rice genome database, the Rice Genome Knowledgebase (RGKbase, http://rgkbase.big.ac.cn/RGKbase/). RGKbase is built to have three major components: (i) integrated data curation for rice genomics and molecular biology, which includes genome sequence assemblies, transcriptomic and epigenomic data, genetic variations, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the relevant literature; (ii) User-friendly viewers, such as Gbrowse, GeneBrowse and Circos, for genome annotations and evolutionary dynamics and (iii) Bioinformatic tools for compositional and synteny analyses, gene family classifications, gene ontology terms and pathways and gene co-expression networks. RGKbase current includes data from five rice cultivars and species: Nipponbare (japonica), 93-11 (indica), PA64s (indica), the African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and a wild rice species (Oryza brachyantha). We are also constantly introducing new datasets from variety of public efforts, such as two recent releases-sequence data from ?1000 rice varieties, which are mapped into the reference genome, yielding ample high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions-deletions. PMID:23193278

Wang, Dapeng; Xia, Yan; Li, Xinna; Hou, Lixia; Yu, Jun

2013-01-01

435

Lead in rice: analysis of baseline lead levels in market and field collected rice grains.  

PubMed

In a large scale survey of rice grains from markets (13 countries) and fields (6 countries), a total of 1578 rice grain samples were analysed for lead. From the market collected samples, only 0.6% of the samples exceeded the Chinese and EU limit of 0.2 ?g g(-1) lead in rice (when excluding samples collected from known contaminated/mine impacted regions). When evaluating the rice grain samples against the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) values for children and pregnant women, it was found that only people consuming large quantities of rice were at risk of exceeding the PTTI from rice alone. Furthermore, 6 field experiments were conducted to evaluate the proportion of the variation in lead concentration in rice grains due to genetics. A total of 4 of the 6 field experiments had significant differences between genotypes, but when the genotypes common across all six field sites were assessed, only 4% of the variation was explained by genotype, with 9.5% and 11% of the variation explained by the environment and genotype by environment interaction respectively. Further work is needed to identify the sources of lead contamination in rice, with detailed information obtained on the locations and environments where the rice is sampled, so that specific risk assessments can be performed. PMID:24742552

Norton, Gareth J; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka E; Price, Adam H; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve; Deacon, Claire M; Villada, Antia; Sommella, Alessia; Lu, Ying; Ming, Lei; De Silva, P Mangala C S; Brammer, Hugh; Dasgupta, Tapash; Islam, M Rafiqul; Meharg, Andrew A

2014-07-01

436

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) response to clomazone as influenced by rate, soil type, and planting date  

E-print Network

Clomazone is an effective herbicide widely used for preemergence grass control in rice. However, use of clomazone on sandy textured soils of the western Texas rice belt may cause serious rice injury. When labeled for rice in 2001, sandy textured...

O'Barr, John Houston

2006-08-16

437

Simultaneous determination of Ephedra sinica and Citrus aurantium var. amara alkaloids by ion-pair chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ephedra sinica (Ma Huang) preparations have recently gained a lot of attention because of serious side effects associated with their prolonged consumption. Citrus aurantium var. amara is now used as an alternative, despite the fact that similar side effects are suspected. We have developed and validated the first analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of all major alkaloids from both

M. Ganzera; C. Lanser; H. Stuppner

2005-01-01

438