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Sample records for infections salmonella enteritidis

  1. Infection and excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis in two different chicken lines with concurrent Ascaridia galli infection.

    PubMed

    Eigaard, N M; Schou, T W; Permin, A; Christensen, J P; Ekstrøm, C T; Ambrosini, F; Cianci, D; Bisgaard, M

    2006-12-01

    Studies on the impact of interaction of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and the parasitic nematode Ascaridia galli with the avian host were undertaken with particular emphasis on infection and excretion of these pathogens in two different layer lines. A total of 148 salmonella-free 1-day-old chickens (73 Hellevad and 75 Lohmann Brown) were randomly divided into five groups for each line. Group 1 served as an uninoculated control group. Groups 2 and 3 were infected with A. galli and S. Enteritidis, respectively. Group 4 was first infected with S. Enteritidis and subsequently with A. galli, and vice versa for group 5. The number of chickens excreting S. Enteritidis was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the groups infected with both S. Enteritidis and A. galli compared with those only infected with S. Enteritidis over time. Furthermore, excretion of S. Enteritidis over time was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the group first infected with S. Enteritidis and subsequently with A. galli compared with the group infected in the reverse order. No significant differences were observed between the two lines concerning excretion of S. Enteritidis over time in any group (P = 0.61 (group 3), P = 0.73 (group 4), P = 0.31 (group 5)). A. galli established itself significantly better (P = 0.02) in the group first infected with A. galli and subsequently with S. Enteritidis compared with the group infected in the reverse order. Furthermore, the A. galli infection rate was significantly higher (P = 0.02) in Hellevad chickens compared with Lohmann Brown chickens at the end of the experiment. PMID:17121738

  2. Salmonella Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the 1980's, public health authorities around the world have continued to report high incidences of human SE infections. In both 2008 and 2009, SE was the Salmonella serotype most often associated with human illness in the US, with more than 7000 cases reported each year. Far more SE cases and ...

  3. Composition of Gut Microbiota Influences Resistance of Newly Hatched Chickens to Salmonella Enteritidis Infection.

    PubMed

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Kubasova, Tereza; Davidova-Gerzova, Lenka; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Sebkova, Alena; Faldynova, Marcela; Rychlik, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Since poultry is a very common source of non-typhoid Salmonella for humans, different interventions aimed at decreasing the prevalence of Salmonella in chickens are understood as an effective measure for decreasing the incidence of human salmonellosis. One such intervention is the use of probiotic or competitive exclusion products. In this study we tested whether microbiota from donor hens of different age will equally protect chickens against Salmonella Enteritidis infection. Newly hatched chickens were therefore orally inoculated with cecal extracts from 1-, 3-, 16-, 28-, and 42-week-old donors and 7 days later, the chickens were infected with S. Enteritidis. The experiment was terminated 4 days later. In the second experiment, groups of newly hatched chickens were inoculated with cecal extracts of 35-week-old hens either on day 1 of life followed by S. Enteritidis infection on day 2 or were infected with S. Enteritidis infection on day 1 followed by therapeutic administration of the cecal extract on day 2 or were inoculated on day 1 of life with a mixture of the cecal extract and S. Enteritidis. This experiment was terminated when the chickens were 5 days old. Both Salmonella culture and chicken gene expression confirmed that inoculation of newly hatched chickens with microbiota from 3-week-old or older chickens protected them against S. Enteritidis challenge. On the other hand, microbiota from 1-week-old donors failed to protect chickens against S. Enteritidis challenge. Microbiota from 35-week-old hens protected chickens even 24 h after administration. However, simultaneous or therapeutic microbiota administration failed to protect chickens against S. Enteritidis infection. Gut microbiota can be used as a preventive measure against S. Enteritidis infection but its composition and early administration is critical for its efficacy. PMID:27379083

  4. Composition of Gut Microbiota Influences Resistance of Newly Hatched Chickens to Salmonella Enteritidis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Kubasova, Tereza; Davidova-Gerzova, Lenka; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Sebkova, Alena; Faldynova, Marcela; Rychlik, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Since poultry is a very common source of non-typhoid Salmonella for humans, different interventions aimed at decreasing the prevalence of Salmonella in chickens are understood as an effective measure for decreasing the incidence of human salmonellosis. One such intervention is the use of probiotic or competitive exclusion products. In this study we tested whether microbiota from donor hens of different age will equally protect chickens against Salmonella Enteritidis infection. Newly hatched chickens were therefore orally inoculated with cecal extracts from 1-, 3-, 16-, 28-, and 42-week-old donors and 7 days later, the chickens were infected with S. Enteritidis. The experiment was terminated 4 days later. In the second experiment, groups of newly hatched chickens were inoculated with cecal extracts of 35-week-old hens either on day 1 of life followed by S. Enteritidis infection on day 2 or were infected with S. Enteritidis infection on day 1 followed by therapeutic administration of the cecal extract on day 2 or were inoculated on day 1 of life with a mixture of the cecal extract and S. Enteritidis. This experiment was terminated when the chickens were 5 days old. Both Salmonella culture and chicken gene expression confirmed that inoculation of newly hatched chickens with microbiota from 3-week-old or older chickens protected them against S. Enteritidis challenge. On the other hand, microbiota from 1-week-old donors failed to protect chickens against S. Enteritidis challenge. Microbiota from 35-week-old hens protected chickens even 24 h after administration. However, simultaneous or therapeutic microbiota administration failed to protect chickens against S. Enteritidis infection. Gut microbiota can be used as a preventive measure against S. Enteritidis infection but its composition and early administration is critical for its efficacy. PMID:27379083

  5. EFFECT OF PRIOR SERIAL IN VIVO PASSAGE ON THE FREQUENCY OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS CONTAMINATION IN EGGS FROM EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimental infection models are valuable tools for understanding and preventing the deposition of Salmonella enteritidis inside eggs. Oral inoculation is believed to closely simulate naturally occurring S. enteritidis infections of chickens, but oral infection studies have often generated relative...

  6. SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS INFECTION MODULATES DIVERSE FUNCTIONAL PROCESSES OF CHICKEN MACROPHAGE AT THE TRANSCRIPTIONAL LEVEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a major etiologic agent of non-typhoid salmonellosis. The organisms colonize adult chicken hosts without causing overt clinical signs. The immunological mechanisms underlying the silent and persistent infection of chickens by SE are not clearly underst...

  7. Transcriptional Response of Chicken Macrophages to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) continues to be the predominant etiologic agent of salmonellosis, with contaminated egg products being the primary source of infection. At the present time, the molecular and immunological mechanisms involved in SE colonization of chicken hosts are not we...

  8. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE OF CHICKEN MACROPHAGES TO SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transcriptional profiles of chicken macrophages (HD11) infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) were analyzed by using avian macrophage microarray and real time RT-PCR. Out of 4,906 array elements interrogated, 269 genes exhibited a 2-fold change (P < 0.001) over a 24-hour time...

  9. Salmonella Enteritidis deposition in eggs after experimental infection of laying hens with different oral doses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continuing attribution of human Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections to internally contaminated eggs has necessitated the commitment of substantial public and private resources to SE testing and control programs in commercial laying flocks. Cost-effective risk reduction requires a detailed and...

  10. Controlling Egg Contamination by Understanding Salmonella Enteritidis Infections in Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than twenty years, public health authorities have reported the transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis to consumers of internally contaminated eggs produced by infected hens. Egg contamination is both a cause of food-borne human illness and a principal diagnostic criterion for identifying in...

  11. CONTROLLING EGG CONTAMINATION BY UNDERSTANDING SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS INFECTIONS IN LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than twenty years, public health authorities have reported the transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis to consumers of internally contaminated eggs produced by infected hens. Egg contamination is both a cause of food-borne human illness and a principal diagnostic criterion for identifying in...

  12. Comparison of four different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for serological diagnosis of Salmonella enteritidis infections in experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed Central

    van Zijderveld, F G; van Zijderveld-van Bemmel, A M; Anakotta, J

    1992-01-01

    The program for the eradication of Salmonella enteritidis from chickens in The Netherlands is based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need for a specific and sensitive serological screening test. For that purpose, we developed four different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), i.e., an indirect ELISA with S. enteritidis flagellin, an indirect ELISA with S. enteritidis lipopolysaccharide, a double-antibody sandwich blocking ELISA that uses monoclonal antibodies against S. enteritidis flagellin (GM-DAS blocking ELISA), and a double-antibody sandwich ELISA that uses monoclonal antibodies against S. enteritidis lipopolysaccharide. In the present study, we compare the results of those ELISAs with sera from experimentally infected 1-day-old chickens and with sera and eggs from experimentally infected laying hens. Experimental infections were induced with strains of S. enteritidis phage types 1 and 2, S. typhimurium, and S. panama. Sera were collected up to days 44 and 39 after infection from 1-day-old chickens and laying hens, respectively. Only the GM-DAS blocking ELISA was able to discriminate between S. enteritidis infections and infections with the other serotypes. This ELISA had both a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% for all serum samples from experimentally infected chickens. A field study is in progress to evaluate whether this test can be implemented in the Dutch S. enteritidis eradication program. PMID:1400954

  13. Emergence of new Salmonella Enteritidis phage types in Europe? Surveillance of infections in returning travellers

    PubMed Central

    Nygård, Karin; de Jong, Birgitta; Guerin, Philippe J; Andersson, Yvonne; Olsson, Agneta; Giesecke, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Background Among human Salmonella Enteritidis infections, phage type 4 has been the dominant phage type in most countries in Western Europe during the last years. This is reflected in Salmonella infections among Swedish travellers returning from abroad. However, there are differences in phage type distribution between the countries, and this has also changed over time. Methods We used data from the Swedish infectious disease register and the national reference laboratory to describe phage type distribution of Salmonella Enteritidis infections in Swedish travellers from 1997 to 2002, and have compared this with national studies conducted in the countries visited. Results Infections among Swedish travellers correlate well with national studies conducted in the countries visited. In 2001 a change in phage type distribution in S. Enteritidis infections among Swedish travellers returning from some countries in southern Europe was observed, and a previously rare phage type (PT 14b) became one of the most commonly diagnosed that year, continuing into 2002 and 2003. Conclusions Surveillance of infections among returning travellers can be helpful in detecting emerging infections and outbreaks in tourist destinations. The information needs to be communicated rapidly to all affected countries in order to expedite the implementation of appropriate investigations and preventive measures. PMID:15345058

  14. Salmonella enteritidis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Caffer, M I; Eiguer, T

    1994-01-01

    A significant increase in the number of isolations of Salmonella enteritidis has been observed in Argentina since 1986. Outbreaks of foodborne diseases in humans were associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked hens' eggs. Between 1986 and the first 6 months of 1993 there were 150 outbreaks reported, affecting more than 6000 persons. A total of 71.3% of these outbreaks were confirmed by stool cultures, and 47.3% by bacteriological study of the food implicated in the outbreak. A permanent surveillance of salmonellosis is imperative, taking into account the persistence of Salmonella enteritidis isolations in sporadic cases and in new outbreaks. PMID:8155472

  15. Gene Expression Profiles of Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts in Response to Salmonella Enteritidis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Szmolka, Ama; Wiener, Zoltán; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Varmuzova, Karolina; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The response of chicken to non-typhoidal Salmonella infection is becoming well characterised but the role of particular cell types in this response is still far from being understood. Therefore, in this study we characterised the response of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) to infection with two different S. Enteritidis strains by microarray analysis. The expression of chicken genes identified as significantly up- or down-regulated (≥3-fold) by microarray analysis was verified by real-time PCR followed by functional classification of the genes and prediction of interactions between the proteins using Gene Ontology and STRING Database. Finally the expression of the newly identified genes was tested in HD11 macrophages and in vivo in chickens. Altogether 19 genes were induced in CEFs after S. Enteritidis infection. Twelve of them were also induced in HD11 macrophages and thirteen in the caecum of orally infected chickens. The majority of these genes were assigned different functions in the immune response, however five of them (LOC101750351, K123, BU460569, MOBKL2C and G0S2) have not been associated with the response of chicken to Salmonella infection so far. K123 and G0S2 were the only ’non-immune’ genes inducible by S. Enteritidis in fibroblasts, HD11 macrophages and in the caecum after oral infection. The function of K123 is unknown but G0S2 is involved in lipid metabolism and in β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria. PMID:26046914

  16. Effects of prior coinfection with different Salmonella serovars on the progression of a Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis infection in hens undergoing induced molt.

    PubMed

    Holt, Peter S; Gast, Richard K

    2004-01-01

    Four trials were conducted to evaluate whether prior infection with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) or Salmonella enterica serovar muenchen (S. muenchen) would modify the severity or the transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis (S. enteritidis) challenge in hens undergoing molt via feed withdrawal. Hens were separated into two groups where one group received a prior S. typhimurium or S. muenchen infection, whereas the other group remained untreated until S. enteritidis challenge. In trials 1 and 2, one group of hens was infected with S. typhimurium 5 days prior to feed withdrawal. Both groups of hens were then challenged with S. enteritidis on day 4 post feed withdrawal. In trials 3 and 4, one group of hens received S. typhimurium or S. muenchen, respectively, 1 day after feed was withdrawn. Transmission of S. enteritidis was evaluated by challenging the center hen in rows of 11 hens per row with S. enteritidis at 4 days post feed withdrawal and following the progression of the S. enteritidis down the row of hens over time. In trials 1 and 2, where hens received S. typhimurium 5 days prior to feed withdrawal, shedding of the S. enteritidis challenge was significantly reduced in hens on day 10 postchallenge in trial 1 and on days 3 and 10 postchallenge in trial 2 compared with the hens subjected only to the molt procedure. Significantly fewer S. enteritidis were recovered in livers and spleens at day 9 postchallenge in trial 2 from hens receiving the prior S. typhimurium infection. In trial 3, where hens received S. typhimurium 1 day after feed withdrawal, S. enteritidis transmission was significantly reduced in these hens on days 3, 10, and 24 postchallenge. In trial 4, similar in methodology to trial 3 except that, rather than S. typhimurium, hens received S. muenchen, a Salmonella organism totally lacking any antigen cross-reactive with S. enteritidis, S. enteritidis transmission was significantly reduced on days 3, 10, 17

  17. Influence of 5 major Salmonella pathogenicity islands on NK cell depletion in mice infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In this study we were interested in the colonisation and early immune response of Balb/C mice to infection with Salmonella Enteritidis and isogenic pathogenicity island free mutants. Results The virulence of S. Enteritidis for Balb/C mice was exclusively dependent on intact SPI-2. Infections with any of the mutants harbouring SPI-2 (including the mutant in which we left only SPI-2 but removed SPI-1, SPI-3, SPI-4 and SPI-5) resulted in fatalities, liver injures and NK cell depletion from the spleen. The infection was of minimal influence on counts of splenic CD4 CD8 T lymphocytes and γδ T-lymphocytes although a reduced ability of splenic lymphocytes to respond to non-specific mitogens indicated general immunosuppression in mice infected with SPI-2 positive S. Enteritidis mutants. Further investigations showed that NK cells were depleted also in blood but not in the caecal lamina propria. However, NK cell depletion was not directly associated with the presence of SPI-2 and was rather an indicator of virulence or avirulence of a particular mutant because the depletion was not observed in mice infected with other attenuated mutants such as lon and rfaL. Conclusions The virulence of S. Enteritidis for Balb/C mice is exclusively dependent on the presence of SPI-2 in its genome, and a major hallmark of the infection in terms of early changes in lymphocyte populations is the depletion of NK cells in spleen and blood. The decrease of NK cells in circulation can be used as a marker of attenuation of S. Enteritidis mutants for Balb/C mice. PMID:20226037

  18. Characterization of Chicken Spleen Transcriptome after Infection with Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Matulova, Marta; Rajova, Jana; Vlasatikova, Lenka; Volf, Jiri; Stepanova, Hana; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In this study we were interested in identification of new markers of chicken response to Salmonella Enteritidis infection. To reach this aim, gene expression in the spleens of naive chickens and those intravenously infected with S. Enteritidis with or without previous oral vaccination was determined by 454 pyrosequencing of splenic mRNA/cDNA. Forty genes with increased expression at the level of transcription were identified. The most inducible genes encoded avidin (AVD), extracellular fatty acid binding protein (EXFABP), immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1), chemokine ah221 (AH221), trappin-6-like protein (TRAP6) and serum amyloid A (SAA). Using cDNA from sorted splenic B-lymphocytes, macrophages, CD4, CD8 and γδ T-lymphocytes, we found that the above mentioned genes were preferentially expressed in macrophages. AVD, EXFABP, IRG1, AH221, TRAP6 and SAA were induced also in the cecum of chickens orally infected with S. Enteritidis on day 1 of life or day 42 of life. Unusual results were obtained for the immunoglobulin encoding transcripts. Prior to the infection, transcripts coding for the constant parts of IgM, IgY, IgA and Ig light chain were detected in B-lymphocytes. However, after the infection, immunoglobulin encoding transcripts were expressed also by T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Expression of AVD, EXFABP, IRG1, AH221, TRAP6, SAA and all immunoglobulin genes can be therefore used for the characterization of the course of S. Enteritidis infection in chickens. PMID:23094107

  19. Large Salmonella Enteritidis outbreak with prolonged transmission attributed to an infected food handler, Texas, 2002.

    PubMed

    Beatty, M E; Shevick, G; Shupe-Ricksecker, K; Bannister, E; Tulu, A; Lancaster, K; Alexander, N; Zellner, D E; Lyszkowicz, E; Braden, C R

    2009-03-01

    In March 2002, an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections occurred at a convention centre in Dallas, Texas and continued for 6 weeks. We conducted epidemiological studies, obtained clinical and environmental cultures, and interviewed employees to identify risk factors for infection. From 17 March-25 April 2002, the implicated hotel kitchen catered 41 multi-day conferences attended by 9790 persons. We received 617 illness reports from residents of 46 states. Sauces or items served with sauces were implicated in three cohort studies. SE phage-type 8 was identified as the agent. Eleven food service employees, including one who prepared sauces and salsa, had stool cultures that yielded SE. Although the original source was not determined, prolonged transmission resulted in the largest food handler-associated outbreak reported to date, affecting persons from 46 US states. Transmission ended with implementation of policies to screen food handlers and exclude those whose stool cultures yielded salmonellas. PMID:18817586

  20. Use of bacteriophage for biological control of Salmonella Enteritidis infection in chicken.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Myung-Seob; Lee, Dong-Hun; Lee, Yu-Na; Park, Jae-Keun; Youn, Ha-Na; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Yang, Si-Yong; Cho, Young-Wook; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2012-12-01

    Bacteriophage ΦCJ07 with broad host ranges for Salmonella strains isolated from sewage effluent were used to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infection in chickens. One-day-old chicks challenged with 5×10(7) colony-forming units/bird of SE were cohabitated with contact chicks and treated with three concentrations (10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) plaque forming units (PFU)/g) of bacteriophage prepared as a feed additive for 21days after challenge. Salmonella in the intestine was quantified and environmental contamination level was examined at 1, 2 and 3weeks after challenge. All treatments reduced intestinal SE colonization in challenged and contact chickens and reduced the environmental contamination level, but the reductions produced by 10(7) and 10(9)PFU/g of bacteriophage were significant (P<0.05) as compared with untreated controls. In addition, seven out of 10 (70%) contact chickens treated with 10(9)PFU/g of bacteriophage had no detectable intestinal Salmonella at 3weeks after treatment, suggesting that bacteriophage therapy significantly prevented the horizontal transmission of SE. These results provide important insights into preventive and control strategies against SE infection in poultry and indicate that the use of bacteriophage could reduce the incidence of Salmonella food poisoning. PMID:22795674

  1. Protection Against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Gallinarum, and Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Layer Chickens Conferred by a Live Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium Strain

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the protection conferred by a live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) strain against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Gallinarum (SG), and Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infection in layer chickens. Birds were orally primed with the attenuated ST strain at 7 days of age and then boosted at 4 weeks post prime immunization (PPI). Sequential monitoring of plasma IgG and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) levels revealed that inoculation with ST induced a significant antibody response to antigens against ST, SE, and SG. Moreover, significant lymphoproliferative responses to the 3 Salmonella serovars were observed in the immunized group. We also investigated protection against virulent ST, SE, and SG strain challenge. Upon virulent SG challenge, the immunized group showed significantly reduced mortality compared to the non-immunized group. The reduced persistence of the virulent ST and SE challenge strains in the liver, spleen, and cecal tissues of the immunized group suggests that immunization with the attenuated ST strain may not only protect against ST infection but can also confer cross protection against SE and SG infection. PMID:25713506

  2. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More human illnesses caused by Salmonella Enteritidis throughout the world have been linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs than to any other food vehicle. Deposition of this pathogen in the edible contents of eggs occurs when systemic infections of laying hens involve colonization of reprod...

  3. Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis from Internal Organs of Experimentally Infected Laying Hens Housed in Conventional or Enriched Cages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human illness caused by Salmonella Enteritidis has been more frequently linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs than to any other food source. This pathogen can be deposited inside the edible contents of eggs when reproductive organs are colonized in systemically infected laying hens. In rece...

  4. Detection of airborne Salmonella enteritidis in the environment of experimentally infected laying hens by an electrostatic sampling device.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Mitchell, Bailey W; Holt, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    Bacteriologic culturing of environmental samples taken from sources such as manure pits and egg belts has been the principal screening tool in programs for identifying commercial laying flocks that have been exposed to Salmonella enteritidis and are thus at risk to produce contaminated eggs. Because airborne dust and aerosols can carry bacteria, air sampling offers a potentially efficient and inexpensive alternative for detecting S. enteritidis in poultry house environments. In the present study, an electrostatic air sampling device was applied to detect S. enteritidis in a room containing experimentally infected, caged laying hens. After oral inoculation of hens with a phage type 13a S. enteritidis strain, air samples were collected onto agar plates with the electrostatic sampling device, an impaction air sampler, and by passive exposure to the settling of aerosols and dust. Even though the floor of the room was cleaned once per week (removing most manure, dust, and feathers), air samples were positive for S. enteritidis for up to 4 wk postinoculation. On the basis of both the number of S. enteritidis colonies observed on incubated agar plates and the frequency of positive results, the efficiency of the electrostatic device was significantly greater than that of the passive exposure plates (especially at short collection intervals) and was similar to that of the far more expensive impaction sampler. The electrostatic device, used for a 3-hr sampling interval, detected airborne S. enteritidis on 75% of agar plates over the 4 wk of the study. PMID:15077808

  5. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis infection associated with pet guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Michael L; Heffernan, Richard T; Wright, Jennifer G; Klos, Rachel F; Monson, Timothy; Khan, Sofiya; Trees, Eija; Sabol, Ashley; Willems, Robert A; Flynn, Raymond; Deasy, Marshall P; Jones, Benjamen; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2014-06-01

    Salmonella causes about one million illnesses annually in the United States. Although most infections result from foodborne exposures, animal contact is an important mode of transmission. We investigated a case of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) sternal osteomyelitis in a previously healthy child who cared for two recently deceased guinea pigs (GPs). A case was defined as SE pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) XbaI pattern JEGX01.0021, BlnI pattern JEGA26.0002 (outbreak strain) infection occurring during 2010 in a patient who reported GP exposure. To locate outbreak strain isolates, PulseNet and the US Department of Agriculture National Veterinary Service Laboratories (NVSL) databases were queried. Outbreak strain isolates underwent multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Traceback and environmental investigations were conducted at homes, stores, and breeder or broker facilities. We detected 10 cases among residents of eight states and four NVSL GP outbreak strain isolates. One patient was hospitalized; none died. The median patient age was 9.5 (range, 1-61) years. Among 10 patients, two purchased GPs at independent stores, and three purchased GPs at different national retail chain (chain A) store locations; three were chain A employees and two reported GP exposures of unknown characterization. MLVA revealed four related patterns. Tracebacks identified four distributors and 92 sources supplying GPs to chain A, including one breeder potentially supplying GPs to all case-associated chain A stores. All environmental samples were Salmonella culture-negative. A definitive SE-contaminated environmental source was not identified. Because GPs can harbor Salmonella, consumers and pet industry personnel should be educated regarding risks. PMID:24866204

  6. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    PubMed Central

    Paião, F.G.; Arisitides, L.G.A.; Murate, L.S.; Vilas-Bôas, G.T.; Vilas-Boas, L.A.; Shimokomaki, M.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 °C for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised. PMID:24159281

  7. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of human illnesses caused by Salmonella Enteritidis are attributed to contaminated eggs, and the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial laying flocks has been identified as a leading epidemiologic risk factor. Flock housing and management systems can affect opportunities for the intr...

  8. Detecting Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens and Eggs after Experimental Infection at Different Oral Dose Levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attribution of human illness to eggs contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis has led to substantial commitments of resources (by both government and industry) to risk reduction and testing programs in egg-laying flocks. Cost-effective application of testing requires a thorough understanding of ...

  9. Mechanisms of egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the major cause of the food-borne salmonellosis pandemic in humans of the last 20 years, during which contaminated eggs were the most important vehicle of the infection. Eggs can be contaminated on the outer shell surface and internally. Internal contamination can be the re...

  10. Serum, disc and egg ELISA for the serodiagnosis of Salmonella gallinarum and S. enteritidis infections in chickens.

    PubMed

    Minga, U M; Wray, C; Gwakisa, P S

    1992-01-01

    An ELISA was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of fowl typhoid and paratyphoid due to Salmonella enteritidis in chickens. The hot phenol: water lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extract of Salmonella was used as the antigen. Chicken serum, eggs and discs impregnated with chicken blood were tested for the presence of antibodies against Salmonella factor 'O' 9 antigen. The substrate and chromogen used were hydrogen peroxide and orthophenylenediamine respectively. Serological results from the experimentally and naturally infected chickens showed close agreement between the conventional Serum Tube Agglutination Test (SAT) and serum ELISA while serum ELISA results were in close agreement with the egg and disc ELISA results. It was noted that ELISA was highly sensitive, convenient and versatile. It is concluded that ELISA, especially disc ELISA, ought to replace SAT for seroscreening chickens against S. gallinarum and other Salmonella Group D infections. PMID:1381107

  11. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M. Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  12. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  13. An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 infection in a rural community in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Doherty, L; McCartney, M; Mitchell, E; Wilson, T S

    1997-05-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis arose in people who attended a charity barbecue at a hotel in a rural area of Northern Ireland in July 1995. About 120 people attended the barbecue, 98 of whom were identified. Fifty-one of them and seven members of hotel staff met the case definition. An epidemiological investigation showed that illness was significantly associated with eating foods containing mayonnaise that had been prepared using raw shell eggs and stored at too high a temperature. Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 was cultured from 17 out of 24 faecal specimens received from people who attended the barbecue and in 17 out of 34 faecal specimens from staff, including all seven staff cases. The primary source of infection was not identified despite thorough investigation. This paper highlights the value of administering questionnaires by telephone when investigating community outbreaks of infection in rural areas, the important role of general practitioners in the identification of community outbreaks, and the need to periodically reiterate public health messages, in particular for food handlers and caterers. PMID:9175310

  14. Incidence, distribution, seasonality, and demographic risk factors of Salmonella Enteritidis human infections in Ontario, Canada, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Canada, surveillance systems have highlighted the increasing trend of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections. Our study objectives were to evaluate the epidemiology of S. Enteritidis infections in Ontario using surveillance data from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2009. Methods Annual age-and-sex-adjusted incidence rates (IRs), annual and mean age-adjusted sex-specific IRs, and mean age-and-sex-adjusted IRs by public health unit (PHU), were calculated for laboratory-confirmed S. Enteritidis cases across Ontario using direct standardization. Multivariable Poisson regression with PHU as a random effect was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of S. Enteritidis infections among years, seasons, age groups, and sexes. Results The annual age-and-sex-adjusted IR per 100,000 person-years was 4.4 [95% CI 4.0-4.7] in 2007, and 5.2 [95% CI 4.8-5.6] in both 2008 and 2009. The annual age-adjusted sex-specific IRs per 100,000 person-years ranged from 4.5 to 5.5 for females and 4.2 to 5.2 for males. The mean age-adjusted sex-specific IR was 5.1 [95% CI 4.8-5.4] for females and 4.8 [95% CI 4.5-5.1] for males. High mean age-and-sex-adjusted IRs (6.001-8.10) were identified in three western PHUs, one northern PHU, and in the City of Toronto. Regression results showed a higher IRR of S. Enteritidis infections in 2009 [IRR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.32; P = 0.003] and 2008 [IRR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.31; P = 0.005] compared to 2007. Compared to the fall season, a higher IRR of S. Enteritidis infections was observed in the spring [IRR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.29; P = 0.040]. Children 0–4 years of age (reference category), followed by children 5–9 years of age [IRR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.52-0.78; P < 0.001] had the highest IRRs. Adults ≥ 60 years of age and 40–49 years of age [IRR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.26-0.37; P < 0.001] had the lowest IRRs. Conclusions The study findings suggest that there was an increase in the incidence of S

  15. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E; Karcher, Darrin M

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic analyses have linked the frequency of human infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis to the consumption of contaminated eggs and thus to the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial egg-laying flocks. Contamination of the edible contents of eggs by Salmonella Enteritidis is a consequence of the colonization of reproductive tissues in systemically infected hens. The animal welfare implications of laying hen housing systems have been widely debated, but no definitive consensus has yet emerged about the food safety significance of poultry housing options. The present study sought to determine the effects of two different bird stocking densities on the invasion of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in groups of experimentally infected laying hens housed in colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas. In two trials, groups of laying hens were distributed at two different stocking densities into colony cages and (along with a group housed in conventional cages) orally inoculated with doses of 1.0 × 10(7) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis. At 5 to 6 d post-inoculation, hens were euthanized and samples of internal organs were removed for bacteriologic culturing. For both trials combined, Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered at a significantly (P < 0.05) greater frequency from hens in enriched colony cages at the higher stocking density than at the lower density from livers (75.0% vs. 51.4%) and ovaries (51.4% vs. 30.6%). However, spleens from hens in enriched colony cages at the higher stocking density were significantly less often positive for Salmonella Enteritidis than from hens in conventional cages at that same density (90.3% vs. 68.1%). These results suggest that stocking density can influence the susceptibility of hens to Salmonella Enteritidis, but other housing systems parameters may also contribute to the outcome of infections. PMID:26944976

  16. Requirement for cobalamin by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium, Pullorum, Gallinarum and Enteritidis during infection in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Jacqueline Boldrin; Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Junior, Angelo Berchieri; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium synthesizes cobalamin (vitamin B12) only during anaerobiosis. Two percent of the S. Typhimurium genome is devoted to the synthesis and uptake of vitamin B12 and to B12-dependent reactions. To understand the requirement for cobalamin synthesis better, we constructed mutants of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Pullorum that are double-defective in cobalamin biosynthesis (ΔcobSΔcbiA). We compared the virulence of these mutants to that of their respective wild type strains and found no impairment in their ability to cause disease in chickens. We then assessed B12 production in these mutants and their respective wild type strains, as well as in S. Typhimurium ΔcobSΔcbiA, Salmonella Gallinarum ΔcobSΔcbiA, and their respective wild type strains. None of the mutants was able to produce detectable B12. B12 was detectable in S. Enteritidis, S. Pullorum and S. Typhimurium wild type strains but not in S. Gallinarum. In conclusion, the production of vitamin B12in vitro differed across the tested Salmonella serotypes and the deletion of the cbiA and cobS genes resulted in different levels of alteration in the host parasite interaction according to Salmonella serotype tested. PMID:24031771

  17. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency of human infections with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has been linked to contaminated eggs and thus to SE prevalence in commercial egg-laying flocks. Contamination of the edible contents of eggs is a consequence of SE colonization of reproductive tissues in systemically infected hens. T...

  18. FUNCTIONS EXERTED BY THE VIRULENCE ASSOCIATED TYPE THREE SECRETION SYSTEMS DURING SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS INFECTION OF CHICKEN OVIDUCT EPITHELIAL CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar, Enteritidis (SE) infection of chicken is a major contributing factor to non-typhoidal salmonellosis. The roles of the type three secretion systems (T3SS-1 and T3SS-2) in the pathogenesis of SE infection of chickens are poorly understood. In this study, the functions exer...

  19. A colonisation-inhibition culture consisting of Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strains protects against infection by strains of both serotypes in broilers.

    PubMed

    De Cort, W; Mot, D; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2014-08-01

    Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is still an important cause of Salmonella infections in humans and there is a need for control methods that protect broilers from day-of-hatch until slaughter age against infection with Salmonella. Colonisation-inhibition, a concept in which a live Salmonella strain is orally administered to day-old chickens and protects against subsequent challenge, can potentially be used as control method. In this study, the efficacy of a Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain as a colonisation-inhibition strain for protection of broilers against Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated. Administration of a Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain to day-old broiler chickens decreased faecal shedding and strongly reduced caecal and internal organ colonisation of a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge strain administered one day later using a seeder bird model. In addition, it was verified whether a colonisation-inhibition culture could be developed that protects against both Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium. Therefore, the Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain was orally administered simultaneously with a Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain to day-old broiler chickens, which resulted in a decreased caecal and internal organ colonisation for both a Salmonella Enteritidis and a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge strain short after hatching, using a seeder bird model. The combined culture was not protective against Salmonella Paratyphi B varietas Java challenge, indicating serotype-specific protection mechanisms. The data suggest that colonisation-inhibition can potentially be used as a versatile control method to protect poultry against several Salmonella serotypes. PMID:24975814

  20. Chicken-Specific Kinome Array Reveals that Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Modulates Host Immune Signaling Pathways in the Cecum to Establish a Persistence Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kogut, Michael H.; Swaggerty, Christina L.; Byrd, James Allen; Selvaraj, Ramesh; Arsenault, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induces an early, short-lived pro-inflammatory response in chickens that is asymptomatic of clinical disease and results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that transmits infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent colonization of the ceca of chickens by Salmonella are only beginning to be elucidated. We hypothesize that alteration of host signaling pathways mediate the induction of a tolerance response. Using chicken-specific kinomic immune peptide arrays and quantitative RT-PCR of infected cecal tissue, we have previously evaluated the development of disease tolerance in chickens infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in a persistent infection model (4–14 days post infection). Here, we have further outlined the induction of an tolerance defense strategy in the cecum of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis beginning around four days post-primary infection. The response is characterized by alterations in the activation of T cell signaling mediated by the dephosphorylation of phospholipase c-γ1 (PLCG1) that inhibits NF-κB signaling and activates nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling and blockage of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production through the disruption of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway (dephosphorylation of JAK2, JAK3, and STAT4). Further, we measured a significant down-regulation reduction in IFN-γ mRNA expression. These studies, combined with our previous findings, describe global phenotypic changes in the avian cecum of Salmonella Enteritidis-infected chickens that decreases the host responsiveness resulting in the establishment of persistent colonization. The identified tissue protein kinases also represent potential targets for future antimicrobial compounds for decreasing Salmonella loads in the intestines of food animals before going to market. PMID:27472318

  1. Chicken-Specific Kinome Array Reveals that Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Modulates Host Immune Signaling Pathways in the Cecum to Establish a Persistence Infection.

    PubMed

    Kogut, Michael H; Swaggerty, Christina L; Byrd, James Allen; Selvaraj, Ramesh; Arsenault, Ryan J

    2016-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induces an early, short-lived pro-inflammatory response in chickens that is asymptomatic of clinical disease and results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that transmits infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent colonization of the ceca of chickens by Salmonella are only beginning to be elucidated. We hypothesize that alteration of host signaling pathways mediate the induction of a tolerance response. Using chicken-specific kinomic immune peptide arrays and quantitative RT-PCR of infected cecal tissue, we have previously evaluated the development of disease tolerance in chickens infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in a persistent infection model (4-14 days post infection). Here, we have further outlined the induction of an tolerance defense strategy in the cecum of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis beginning around four days post-primary infection. The response is characterized by alterations in the activation of T cell signaling mediated by the dephosphorylation of phospholipase c-γ1 (PLCG1) that inhibits NF-κB signaling and activates nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling and blockage of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production through the disruption of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway (dephosphorylation of JAK2, JAK3, and STAT4). Further, we measured a significant down-regulation reduction in IFN-γ mRNA expression. These studies, combined with our previous findings, describe global phenotypic changes in the avian cecum of Salmonella Enteritidis-infected chickens that decreases the host responsiveness resulting in the establishment of persistent colonization. The identified tissue protein kinases also represent potential targets for future antimicrobial compounds for decreasing Salmonella loads in the intestines of food animals before going to market. PMID:27472318

  2. Identification of novel attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis mutants.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jason; Pang, Ervinna; He, Haiqi; Kwang, Jimmy

    2008-06-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major food-borne pathogen that causes nontyphoidal diarrhoea in humans. Infection of adult egg-laying hens usually results in symptomless carriage but in young chicks it may cause paratyphoid disease. It is not known whether S. Enteritidis requires genes additional to known virulence genes for systemic infection of young chickens. A transposon insertion library was created using S. Enteritidis 10/02, which yielded 1246 mutants. Of 384 mutants screened in chickens for attenuation (30.8% of insertion library), 12 (3.1%) had a 50% lethal dose at least 100 times that of the parental strain. Sequencing revealed insertions in genes involved in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide, cell membrane, ATP biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation of virulence and the yhbC gene, which has an unknown function. Evaluation of in vitro virulence characteristics of a Delta yhbC mutant revealed that its ability to invade HeLa cells and survive within a chicken macrophage cell line (HD11) was significantly reduced. It was also less resistant to reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates and had a retarded growth rate. Chickens challenged with the Delta yhbC mutant cleared the organism from the liver and spleen 1 week faster than the parental strain and were able to develop specific serum IgG antibodies against the Delta yhbC mutant. PMID:18355292

  3. Differential Responses of Macrophages to Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macrophages are major effectors against Salmonella infection, and also transport bacteria between host tissues and provide a protected site for intracellular bacterial replication. We hypothesized that differences in chicken macrophage responses to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and s...

  4. The rise and fall of salmonella enteritidis in poultry: implications for human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Describe how the dynamic of Salmonella prevalence within an animal species is serotype specific. Background: Among the >2500 Salmonella serotypes, infection with serovar Enteritidis can result in increased morbidity and mortality. Although the overall incidence of food borne salmonellosis...

  5. Salmonella enteritidis infections associated with foods purchased from mobile lunch trucks--Alberta, Canada, October 2010-February 2011.

    PubMed

    2013-07-19

    During October 2010-February 2011, an outbreak of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Alberta, Canada, was investigated by a local public health department (Alberta Health Services, Calgary Zone). Index cases initially were linked through a common history of consumption of food purchased from mobile food-vending vehicles (lunch trucks) operating at worksites in Alberta. Further investigation implicated one catering company that supplied items for the lunch trucks and other vendors. In 85 cases, patients reported consumption of food prepared by the catering company in the 7 days before illness. Six patients were employees of the catering company, and two food samples collected from the catering company were positive for SE. Foods likely were contaminated directly or indirectly through the use of illegally sourced, SE-contaminated eggs at the implicated catering facility and by catering employees who were infected with SE. Public health interventions put into place to control the outbreak included screening employees for Salmonella, excluding those infected from food-handling duties, and training employees in safe food-handling procedures. No further outbreak cases were identified after full implementation of the interventions. This investigation highlights the potential for lunch trucks to be a source of foodborne illness and the need for robust regulatory compliance monitoring of lunch trucks and their food suppliers. PMID:23863703

  6. First-trimester Septic Abortion Due to Salmonella enteritidis Oranienburg

    PubMed Central

    Jelsema, Russel D.; Isada, Nelson B.

    1995-01-01

    Background: Septic abortion caused by transplacental salmonella infection is extremely rare; there are no reported cases of serotype oranienburg as an etiology. Case: We describe a patient with non-typhoidal Salmonella enteritidis serotype oranienburg as a cause of first-trimester pregnancy loss. The rapid progression of this patient's septicemia and adverse outcome is described. The epidemiology and natural history of salmonella infections are also discussed. Conclusion: Non-typhoidal salmonella is still a cause of morbidity in Western countries. This infection can result in rapid-onset fetal demise and septic abortion. PMID:18475401

  7. Salmonella Enteritidis organ invasion and egg contamination in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both disease surveillance and epidemiologic analyses have confirmed a strong association between human salmonellosis and the prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in commercial egg flocks. The majority of human illnesses caused by this pathogen are attributed to contaminated eggs. Animal welfare...

  8. Contamination of eggs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both epidemiologic analyses and active disease surveillance confirm an ongoing strong association between human salmonellosis and the prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial egg flocks. The majority of human illnesses caused by this pathogen are attributed to the consumption of contaminat...

  9. Comparative Virulotyping of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Elemfareji, Omar Ismail; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2013-12-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are important foodborne pathogens of significant public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine a range of virulence genes among typhoidal (S. typhi) and non-typhoidal (S. enteritidis) strains isolated from different geographical regions and different years. A total of 87 S. typhi and 94 S. enteritidis strains were tested for presence of 22 virulence genes by employing multiplex PCR and the genetic relatedness of these strains was further characterized by REP-PCR. In S. typhi, invA, prgH, sifA, spiC, sopB, iroN, sitC, misL, pipD, cdtB, and orfL were present in all the strains, while sopE, agfC, agfA, sefC, mgtC, and sefD were present in 98.8, 97.7, 90.8, 87.4, 87.4 and 17.2 %, of the strains, respectively. No lpfA, lpfC, pefA, spvB, or spvC was detected. Meanwhile, in S. enteritidis, 15 genes, agfA, agfC, invA, lpfA, lpfC, sefD, prgH, spiC, sopB, sopE, iroN, sitC, misL, pipD, and orfL were found in all S. enteritidis strains 100 %, followed by sifA and spvC 98.9 %, pefA, spvB and mgtC 97.8 %, and sefC 90.4 %. cdtB was absent from all S. enteritidis strains tested. REP-PCR subtyped S. typhi strains into 18 REP-types and concurred with the virulotyping results in grouping the strains, while in S. enteritidis, REP-PCR subtyped the strains into eight profiles and they were poorly distinguishable between human and animal origins. The study showed that S. typhi and S. enteritidis contain a range of virulence factors associated with pathogenesis. Virulotyping is a rapid screening method to identify and profile virulence genes in Salmonella strains, and improve an understanding of potential risk for human and animal infections. PMID:24426144

  10. Controlling Egg Contamination with Salmonella Enteritidis by Understanding its Pathobiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than twenty years, public health authorities have reported the transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis to consumers of internally contaminated eggs produced by infected hens. Egg contamination is both a cause of food-borne human illness and a principal diagnostic criterion for identifying in...

  11. Integrated farm management to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis contamination of eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in contaminated eggs is a public health hazard which may cause hospitalization or death in the elderly, infants, and individuals with impaired immune systems. Prevention of SE infection of laying hens is an essential first step in reducing SE outbreaks in humans. Multiple...

  12. Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Core O Polysaccharide Conjugated to H:g,m Flagellin as a Candidate Vaccine for Protection against Invasive Infection with S. Enteritidis▿†

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Raphael; Tennant, Sharon M.; Wang, Jin Y.; Schmidlein, Patrick J.; Lees, Andrew; Ernst, Robert K.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Galen, James E.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are a common cause of gastroenteritis but also cause invasive infections and enteric fever in certain hosts (young children in sub-Saharan Africa, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals). Salmonella O polysaccharides (OPS) and flagellar proteins are virulence factors and protective antigens. The surface polysaccharides of Salmonella are poorly immunogenic and do not confer immunologic memory, limitations overcome by covalently attaching them to carrier proteins. We conjugated core polysaccharide-OPS (COPS) of Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to flagellin protein from the homologous strain. COPS and flagellin were purified from a genetically attenuated (ΔguaBA) “reagent strain” (derived from an isolate from a patient with clinical bacteremia) engineered for increased flagellin production (ΔclpPX). Conjugates were constructed by linking flagellin monomers or polymers at random COPS hydroxyls with various polysaccharide/protein ratios by 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CDAP) or at the 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) terminus by thioether chemistry. Mice immunized on days 0, 28, and 56 with COPS-flagellin conjugates mounted higher anti-LPS IgG levels than mice receiving unconjugated COPS and exhibited high antiflagellin IgG; anti-LPS and antiflagellin IgG levels increased following booster doses. Antibodies generated by COPS-flagellin conjugates mediated opsonophagocytosis of S. Enteritidis cells into mouse macrophages. Mice immunized with flagellin alone, COPS-CRM197, or COPS-flagellin conjugates were significantly protected from lethal challenge with wild-type S. Enteritidis (80 to 100% vaccine efficacy). PMID:21807909

  13. Control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in laying hens by inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano; Mesquita, Aline Lopes; de Paiva, Jaqueline Boldrin; Zotesso, Fábio; Berchieri Júnior, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the agents that is responsible for outbreaks of human foodborne salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis and is generally associated with the consumption of poultry products. Inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis cell vaccine is one of the available methods to control Salmonella Enteritidis in breeders and laying hens, however results in terms of efficacy vary. This vaccine has never been tested in Brazil, therefore, the present work was carried out to assess three commercial inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines allowed in Brazil. Four hundred white light variety commercial laying hens were obtained at one-day-of age. At eight weeks old, the birds were divided into four groups with one hundred animals each. Birds from three groups (V1, V2 and V3) received different intramuscular vaccines, followed by a booster dose at 16 weeks of age. Birds from another group (CG) were not vaccinated. When the laying hens were 20, 25 and 31 weeks old, 13 from each group were transferred to another room and were challenged by inoculating 2 mL neat culture of Salmonella Enteritidis. On the second day after each challenge, the caecal contents, spleen, liver and ovary of three birds from each group were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Twice a week a cloacal swab of each bird was taken and all eggs laid were examined for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. After four consecutive negative cloacal swabs in all the groups, the birds were sacrificed so as to examine the liver, caecal contents and ovaries. Overall, the inactivated vaccine used in group V3 reduced Salmonella Enteritidis in the feces and eggs. A very small amount of Salmonella was found in the spleen, liver, ovary and caeca of the birds in the four groups during the whole experiment. In general, inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines was able to decrease the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in the birds and in the eggs as well. Nevertheless, they must

  14. A Mexican restaurant-associated outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis type 34 infections traced to a contaminated egg farm.

    PubMed

    McNeil, M M; Sweat, L B; Carter, S L; Watson, C B; Holloway, J T; Manning, R; Altekruse, S F; Blake, P A

    1999-04-01

    In May 1996, the Georgia Division of Public Health was notified about a cluster of persons with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Waycross, Georgia. A matched pair case-control study to determine risk factors for illness found a statistically significant association of SE infection with a history of having eaten at Restaurant A during the 5 days before onset of illness (relative risk = 13 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3-62, P < 0.01]). In a second case-control study, to determine specific food exposures, consumption of a deep-fried Mexican dish (chile relleno) (4 of 21 cases vs. 0 of 26 controls, odds ratio undefined, 95% CI > 1.46, P = 0.034) was found to be significantly associated with SE infection. An environmental investigation found evidence of suboptimal food storage and cooking temperatures at Restaurant A; cross contamination of foods may have contributed to the low attributable risk identified for chile rellenos. Five of 37 Restaurant A food and environment specimens yielded SE strains. All five positive specimens were from chiles rellenos. Of the seven outbreak-associated strains (six patient isolates and one food isolate from Restaurant A) for which phage typing was conducted, all were phage type 34. A FDA traceback investigation through Restaurant A's single-egg supplier identified the potential source as three interrelated farms in South Carolina. Environmental culture from one of these farms yielded SE phage type 34. As a result of this outbreak, FDA helped institute a statewide egg quality-assurance programme in South Carolina to minimize SE contamination of eggs. PMID:10355784

  15. [Salmonella enteritidis: an unusual meningitis agent in an adult patient].

    PubMed

    Metan, Gökhan; Alp, Emine; Eşel, Duygu; Aygen, Bilgehan; Sümerkan, Bülent

    2005-10-01

    Salmonella species may cause wide spectrum of infections changing from enterocolitis to sepsis. However, Salmonella meningitis in adults is a rare but important clinical condition with a high mortality rate. In this report, a 71 years old male patient with Salmonella enteritidis meningitis who was followed-up with the diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenic purpura and had been administered azothioprin and prednisolone, has been presented and similar cases in the literature have been reviewed. The cerebrospinal fluid culture yielded S. enteritidis, and the isolate was intermediate susceptible to ampicillin, susceptible to cefotaxime, trimethoprim-sulphametoxasole, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. Our patient was successfully treated with ceftriaxone (2 x 2 gr i.v.) and discharged with total cure. PMID:16544553

  16. MHC haplotype and susceptibility to experimental infections (Salmonella Enteritidis, Pasteurella multocida or Ascaridia galli) in a commercial and an indigenous chicken breed.

    PubMed

    Schou, T W; Labouriau, R; Permin, A; Christensen, J P; Sørensen, P; Cu, H P; Nguyen, V K; Juul-Madsen, H R

    2010-05-15

    In three independent experimental infection studies, the susceptibility and course of infection of three pathogens considered of importance in most poultry production systems, Ascaridia galli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Pasteurella multocida were compared in two chicken breeds, the indigenous Vietnamese Ri and the commercial Luong Phuong. Furthermore, the association of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) with disease-related parameters was evaluated, using alleles of the LEI0258 microsatellite as markers for MHC haplotypes. The Ri chickens were found to be more resistant to A. galli and S. Enteritidis than commercial Luong Phuong chickens. In contrast, the Ri chickens were more susceptible to P. multocida, although production parameters were more affected in the Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, it was shown that the individual variations observed in response to the infections were influenced by the MHC. Using marker alleles of the microsatellite LEI0258, which is located within the MHC region, several MHC haplotypes were identified as being associated with infection intensity of A. galli. An association of the MHC with the specific antibody response to S. Enteritidis was also found where four MHC haplotypes were shown to be associated with high specific antibody response. Finally, one MHC haplotype was identified as being associated with pathological lesions and mortality in the P. multocida experiment. Although not statistically significant, our analysis suggested that this haplotype might be associated with resistance. These results demonstrate the presence of local genetic resources in Vietnamese chickens, which could be utilized in breeding programmes aiming at improving disease resistance. PMID:19945754

  17. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis in the spleens of hens by bacterins that vary in fimbrial protein SefD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene sefD is part of operon sefABCD, and it is required for production of the SEF14 fimbria by Salmonella Enteritidis. We compared strains that varied in SefD content for their ability to reduce recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis from the spleens of hens infected by parenteral challenge. The two bac...

  18. Identification of novel attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of egg-laying hens results in symptomless carriage but in young chicks it causes paratyphoid disease. Little is known about whether S. Enteritidis requires other genes additional to known virulence genes for systemic infection of young chickens. A transposon insertion library was created...

  19. Virulence and metabolic characteristics of Salmonella Enteritidis sefD variants in hens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is one of a few pathogenic Salmonella enterica serotypes that have SEF14 fimbriae encoded by the sef operon, which consists of 4 co-transcribed genes sefABCD that are regulated by sefR. To explore the function of sefD within the infection pathway resulting in egg contamination...

  20. The effects of polymorphisms in 7 candidate genes on resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in native chickens.

    PubMed

    Tohidi, R; Idris, I B; Malar Panandam, J; Hair Bejo, M

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection is a common concern in poultry production for its negative effects on growth as well as food safety for humans. Identification of molecular markers that are linked to resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis may lead to appropriate solutions to control Salmonella infection in chickens. This study investigated the association of candidate genes with resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in young chickens. Two native breeds of Malaysian chickens, namely, Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl, were evaluated for bacterial colonization after Salmonella Enteritidis inoculation. Seven candidate genes were selected on the basis of their physiological role in immune response, as determined by prior studies in other genetic lines: natural resistance-associated protein 1 (NRAMP1), transforming growth factor β3 (TGFβ3), transforming growth factor β4 (TGFβ4), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (IAP1), caspase 1 (CASP1), lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α factor (LITAF), and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Polymerase chain reaction-RFLP was used to identify polymorphisms in the candidate genes; all genes exhibited polymorphisms in at least one breed. The NRAMP1-SacI polymorphism correlated with the differences in Salmonella Enteritidis load in the cecum (P = 0.002) and spleen (P = 0.01) of Village Chickens. Polymorphisms in the restriction sites of TGFβ3-BsrI, TGFβ4-MboII, and TRAIL-StyI were associated with Salmonella Enteritidis burden in the cecum, spleen, and liver of Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the NRAMP1, TGFβ3, TGFβ4, and TRAIL genes are potential candidates for use in selection programs for increasing genetic resistance against Salmonella Enteritidis in native Malaysian chickens. PMID:23472012

  1. Sporadic salmonellosis in Lower Saxony, Germany, 2011-2013: raw ground pork consumption is associated with Salmonella Typhimurium infections and foreign travel with Salmonella Enteritidis infections.

    PubMed

    Rettenbacher-Riefler, S; Ziehm, D; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A; Pulz, M; Dreesman, J

    2015-10-01

    To investigate risk factors for sporadic salmonellosis, for each notified case four randomly selected population controls matched for age, sex and geographical region were interviewed via self-administered questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression analysis of 285 matched pairs revealed significant associations for raw ground pork consumption [odds ratio (OR) 6·0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·8-20·1], taking antacids (OR 5·8, 95% CI 1·4-24·5), eating meat outside the home (OR 5·7, 95% CI 2·2-14·6) and daily changing or cleaning of dishcloth (OR 2·1, 95% CI 1·2-3·9). Animal contact and ice cream consumption were negatively associated with salmonellosis (OR 0·5, 95% CI 0·2-1 and OR 0·3, 95% CI 0·1-0·6, respectively). S. Typhimurium infections were significantly associated with raw ground pork consumption (OR 16·7, 95% CI 1·4-194·4) and S. Enteritidis infections with having travelled abroad (OR 9·7, 95% CI 2·0-47·3). Raw egg consumption was not a risk factor, substantiating the success of recently implemented national control programmes in the poultry industry. Unexpectedly, hygienic behaviour was more frequently reported by cases, probably because they overestimated their hygiene precautions retrospectively. Although animal contact might enhance human immunocompetence, underreporting of salmonellosis by pet owners could have occurred. Eating raw pork products is the major risk factor for sporadic human S. Typhimurium infections in Lower Saxony. PMID:25626727

  2. SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS-INDUCED ALTERATION OF INFLAMMATORY CXCL CHEMOKINE MESSENGER-RNA EXPRESSION AND HISTOLOGIC CHANGES IN THE CECA OF INFECTED CHICKS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the avian host immune response to Salmonella enteritidis, we examined mRNA expression for 8 genes: CXCLi1[K60], CXCLi2 [IL-8/CAF], Interferon [IFN]-y Interleukin [IL] -1, IL-6, IL-12, IL-12, and Gallinacin [Gal] -2 in the cecum of young chicks one week post-inoculation with Sa...

  3. The influence of a fructooligosaccharide (FOS) prebiotic combined with alfalfa molt diets on the gastrointestinal tract fermentation, Salmonella Enteritidis infection and intestinal shedding in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molting is a natural process which birds undergo to rejuvenate their reproductive organs. The United States poultry egg production industry have used feed withdrawal to effectively induce molt, however, due to its correlation with increase susceptibility to Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) the developme...

  4. Mapping B-cell responses to Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis in chickens for the discrimination of infected from vaccinated animals.

    PubMed

    Naqid, Ibrahim A; Owen, Jonathan P; Maddison, Ben C; Spiliotopoulos, Anastasios; Emes, Richard D; Warry, Andrew; Flynn, Robin J; Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J; Davies, Robert H; La Ragione, Roberto M; Gough, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveillance and vaccination are important strategies for controlling infectious diseases of food production animals. However, the compatibility of these strategies is limited by a lack of assays capable of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA tests) for established killed or attenuated vaccines. Here, we used next generation phage-display (NGPD) and a 2-proportion Z score analysis to identify peptides that were preferentially bound by IgY from chickens infected with Salmonella Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis compared to IgY from vaccinates, for both an attenuated and an inactivated commercial vaccine. Peptides that were highly enriched against IgY from at least 4 out of 10 infected chickens were selected: 18 and 12 peptides for the killed and attenuated vaccines, respectively. The ten most discriminatory peptides for each vaccine were identified in an ELISA using a training set of IgY samples. These peptides were then used in multi-peptide assays that, when analysing a wider set of samples from infected and vaccinated animals, diagnosed infection with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The data describes a method for the development of DIVA assays for conventional attenuated and killed vaccines. PMID:27510219

  5. Mapping B-cell responses to Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis in chickens for the discrimination of infected from vaccinated animals

    PubMed Central

    Naqid, Ibrahim A.; Owen, Jonathan P.; Maddison, Ben C.; Spiliotopoulos, Anastasios; Emes, Richard D.; Warry, Andrew; Flynn, Robin J.; Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J.; Davies, Robert H.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Gough, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveillance and vaccination are important strategies for controlling infectious diseases of food production animals. However, the compatibility of these strategies is limited by a lack of assays capable of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA tests) for established killed or attenuated vaccines. Here, we used next generation phage-display (NGPD) and a 2-proportion Z score analysis to identify peptides that were preferentially bound by IgY from chickens infected with Salmonella Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis compared to IgY from vaccinates, for both an attenuated and an inactivated commercial vaccine. Peptides that were highly enriched against IgY from at least 4 out of 10 infected chickens were selected: 18 and 12 peptides for the killed and attenuated vaccines, respectively. The ten most discriminatory peptides for each vaccine were identified in an ELISA using a training set of IgY samples. These peptides were then used in multi-peptide assays that, when analysing a wider set of samples from infected and vaccinated animals, diagnosed infection with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The data describes a method for the development of DIVA assays for conventional attenuated and killed vaccines. PMID:27510219

  6. Multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis on Egg Yolk Membranes and Penetration into Yolk Contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prompt refrigeration to limit bacterial multiplication is a critical aspect of efforts to control the transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) to consumers of contaminated eggs. However, a proposed national S. Enteritidis control program would allow unrefrigerated am...

  7. Evaluation of the respiratory route as a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry via intratracheal challenge of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium1

    PubMed Central

    Kallapura, G.; Morgan, M. J.; Pumford, N. R.; Bielke, L. R.; Wolfenden, A. D.; Faulkner, O. B.; Latorre, J. D.; Menconi, A.; Hernandez-Velasco, X.; Kuttappan, V. A.; Hargis, B. M.; Tellez, G.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that primary infection of Salmonella is by the oral-fecal route for poultry. However, the airborne transmission of Salmonella and similar enteric zoonotic pathogens has been historically neglected. Increasing evidence of Salmonella bioaerosol generation in production facilities and studies suggesting the vulnerabilities of the avian respiratory architecture together have indicated the possibility of the respiratory system being a potential portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry. Presently, we evaluated this hypothesis through intratracheal (IT) administration of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, as separate challenges, in a total of 4 independent trials, followed by enumeration of cfu recovery in ceca-cecal tonsils and recovery incidence in liver and spleen. In all trials, both Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, challenged IT colonized cecae to a similar or greater extent than oral administration at identical challenge levels. In most trials, chickens cultured for cfu enumeration from IT-challenged chicks at same dose as orally challenged, resulted in an increase of 1.5 log higher Salmonella Enteritidis from ceca-cecal tonsils and a much lower dose IT of Salmonella Enteritidis could colonize ceca to the same extent than a higher oral challenge. This trend of increased cecal colonization due to IT challenge was observed with all trails involving week-old birds (experiment 2 and 3), which are widely considered to be more difficult to infect via the oral route. Liver-spleen incidence data showed 33% of liver and spleen samples to be positive for Salmonella Enteritidis administered IT (106 cfu/chick), compared with 0% when administered orally (experiment 2, trial 1). Collectively, these data suggest that the respiratory tract may be a largely overlooked portal of entry for Salmonella infections in chickens. PMID:24570455

  8. Salmonella Enteritidis strains from poultry show differential responses to acid stress, oxidative stress and survival in the egg albumen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the major food-borne pathogen primarily causing human infection through contaminated chicken meat and eggs. We recently demonstrated that S. Enteritidis strains from poultry differ in their ability to invade human intestinal cells and cause disease in orally challenged mice...

  9. Penetration of Salmonella enteritidis through the yolk membrane in eggs from six genetically distinct commercial lines of laying hens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infected laying hens can deposit Salmonella enteritidis inside developing eggs and thereby transmit disease to humans. Although deposition of S. enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in the albumen or on the yolk (vitelline) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs, migration across...

  10. Evaluating area-level spatial clustering of Salmonella Enteritidis infections and their socioeconomic determinants in the greater Toronto area, Ontario, Canada (2007 – 2009): a retrospective population-based ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been only a few region-level ecological studies conducted in Canada investigating enteric infections in humans. Our study objectives were to 1) assess the spatial clustering of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections in the Greater Toronto Area, and 2) identify underlying area-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators that might explain the clustering of infections. Methods Retrospective data on S. Enteritidis infections from 2007 to 2009 were obtained from Ontario’s reportable disease surveillance database and were grouped at the forward sortation area (FSA) - level. A spatial scan statistic was employed to identify FSA-level spatial clusters of high infection rates. Negative binomial regression was used to identify FSA-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and SES indicators obtained from the 2006 Census of Canada. Global Moran’s I statistic was used to evaluate the final model for residual spatial clustering. Results A spatial cluster that included nine neighbouring FSAs was identified in downtown Toronto. A significant positive curvilinear relationship was observed between S. Enteritidis infection rates and FSA-level average number of children at home per census family. Areas with high and areas with low average median family income had higher infection rates than FSAs with medium average median family income. Areas with a high proportion of visible minority population had lower infection rates than FSAs with a medium proportion of visible minority population. The Moran’s I statistic was not significant, indicating that no residual spatial autocorrelation was present after accounting for the SES variables in the final model. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that FSAs with high and low average median family income, medium proportion of visible minority population, and high average number of children at home per census

  11. ISOLATIONS OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS AND SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM FROM MICE IN POULTRY FLOCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House mice (Mus musculus), laying hens and the environments of thirty-nine poultry flocks in Pennsylvania, USA were cultured for Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. Mice spleen and intestinal samples were each cultured, individually, with S. enteritidis isolated from fifteen and thi...

  12. Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... responsible for the outbreaks is raw or undercooked eggs. A person infected with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), the strain of Salmonella found most frequently in raw eggs, usually has fever, diarrhea and abdominal cramps beginning ...

  13. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT) in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a) have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a) as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68) and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94), after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors. PMID:23057531

  14. Limited Genetic Diversity in Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis PT13

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has emerged as a significant food-borne pathogen throughout the world and it is commonly characterized by phage typing (PT). In Canada, PT4, 8 and 13 are the predominant PTs. Epidemiological subtyping of Salmonella is typically done by PFGE but plasmid profil...

  15. MITIGATION OF AVIAN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT FUNCTION BY SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS PRODUCING HIGH-MILECULAR-MASS LIPOPPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hens were infected with a wild-type Salmonella enteritidis and its wzz mutant, which lacked the ability to make high-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide, in six experiments paired by dosage and by route of exposure. Hens underwent involution of the reproductive tract when injected subcutaneously with ...

  16. Influence of exogenous melatonin administration on Salmonella enteritidis colonization in molted layers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous melatonin on Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection in experimentally-challenged laying hens subjected to a forced molt. Single Comb White Leghorn hens (W-36) over 50-wk-of-age were randomly placed in one of two rooms, allowed to acclima...

  17. Potential International Spread of Multidrug-Resistant Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Rodicio, M. Rosario; Guerra, Beatriz; Hopkins, Katie L.

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causes substantial illness and death, and drug resistance is increasing. Isolates from the United Kingdom containing virulence-resistance plasmids were characterized. They mainly caused invasive infections in adults linked to Africa. The common features in isolates from these continents indicate the role of human travel in their spread. PMID:22709653

  18. Colonization of avian reproductive tract tissues by variant subpopulations of Salmonella Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leghorn hens were infected with Salmonella Enteritidis cultures to determine their comparative ability to colonize the avian reproductive tract. Group 1 received PT4 22079, which was previously shown to contaminate eggs and to form biofilm. Group 2 received a 90:10 mixture of PT13a strains 21027 and...

  19. Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis in French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Le Hello, Simon; Maillard, Fiona; Mallet, Henri-Pierre; Daudens, Elise; Levy, Marc; Roy, Valérie; Branaa, Philippe; Bertrand, Sophie; Fabre, Laetitia; Weill, François-Xavier

    2015-06-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections associated with eggs occurred in French Polynesia during 2008-2013. Molecular analysis of isolates by using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat polymorphisms and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis was performed. This subtyping made defining the epidemic strain, finding the source, and decontaminating affected poultry flocks possible. PMID:25988406

  20. Effect of passage through laying hens on organ invasiveness and phenotypic heterogeneity of Salmonella enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horizontal transmission within and between flocks is an important aspect of the epidemiology of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in poultry. Previously, a series of passages through infected laying hens increased the frequency at which an SE isolate was deposited inside eggs. The present study evaluated ...

  1. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis enterocolitis during late stages of gestation induces an adverse pregnancy outcome in the murine model.

    PubMed

    Noto Llana, Mariángeles; Sarnacki, Sebastián Hernán; Aya Castañeda, María del Rosario; Pustovrh, María Carolina; Gartner, Alejandra Sonia; Buzzola, Fernanda Roxana; Cerquetti, María Cristina; Giacomodonato, Mónica Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Foodborne diseases caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) are a significant health problem. Pregnancy, state of immunological tolerance, is a predisposing condition for the development of infections with intracellular pathogens. Salmonella species can cause pregnancy complications such as chorioamnionitis, transplacental fetal infection, pre term labor, abortions, neonatal and maternal septicemia. However, the specific mechanisms by which Salmonella infections trigger these alterations are not clear. In the present work, using a self-limiting enterocolitis murine model, we show that the ingestion of a low dose of S. Enteritidis at late stages of pregnancy (day 15 of gestation) is sufficient to induce massive maternal infection. We found that Salmonella infection leads to 40% of pre term delivery, 33% of abortion and fetal growth restriction. Placental dysfunction during S. Enteritidis enterocolitis was confirmed through cellular infiltration and hypoxia markers (MPO activity and COX-1 and COX-2 expression, respectively). Apoptosis in placental tissue due to Salmonella infection was also evident at day 18 of gestation when investigated by morphometric procedure, DNA fragmentation and Fas/FasL expression. Also, the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-10 was up regulated in response to Salmonella not only in placenta, but also in amniotic fluid and maternal serum. Altogether, our results demonstrate that S. Enteritidis enterocolitis during late stages of gestation causes detrimental effect on pregnancy outcome. PMID:25365504

  2. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M

    2015-06-19

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines. PMID:25902362

  3. Genomic and phenotypic variation in epidemic-spanning Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) has caused major epidemics of gastrointestinal infection in many different countries. In this study we investigate genome divergence and pathogenic potential in S. Enteritidis isolated before, during and after an epidemic in Uruguay. Results 266 S. Enteritidis isolates were genotyped using RAPD-PCR and a selection were subjected to PFGE analysis. From these, 29 isolates spanning different periods, genetic profiles and sources of isolation were assayed for their ability to infect human epithelial cells and subjected to comparative genomic hybridization using a Salmonella pan-array and the sequenced strain S. Enteritidis PT4 P125109 as reference. Six other isolates from distant countries were included as external comparators. Two hundred and thirty three chromosomal genes as well as the virulence plasmid were found as variable among S. Enteritidis isolates. Ten out of the 16 chromosomal regions that varied between different isolates correspond to phage-like regions. The 2 oldest pre-epidemic isolates lack phage SE20 and harbour other phage encoded genes that are absent in the sequenced strain. Besides variation in prophage, we found variation in genes involved in metabolism and bacterial fitness. Five epidemic strains lack the complete Salmonella virulence plasmid. Significantly, strains with indistinguishable genetic patterns still showed major differences in their ability to infect epithelial cells, indicating that the approach used was insufficient to detect the genetic basis of this differential behaviour. Conclusion The recent epidemic of S. Enteritidis infection in Uruguay has been driven by the introduction of closely related strains of phage type 4 lineage. Our results confirm previous reports demonstrating a high degree of genetic homogeneity among S. Enteritidis isolates. However, 10 of the regions of variability described here are for the first time reported as being variable in S

  4. Refined Live Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Enteritidis Vaccines Mediate Homologous and Heterologous Serogroup Protection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schmidlein, Patrick; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Galen, James E.; Levine, Myron M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections constitute a major health problem among infants and toddlers in sub-Saharan Africa; these infections also occur in infants and the elderly in developed countries. We genetically engineered a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain of multilocus sequence type 313, the predominant genotype circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the capacities of S. Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaBA ΔclpX live oral vaccines to protect mice against a highly lethal challenge dose of the homologous serovar and determined protection against other group B and D serovars circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccines S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 were immunogenic and protected BALB/c mice against 10,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis, respectively. S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 protected mice against the group B serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Stanleyville (91% vaccine efficacy), and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 protected mice against the group D serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (85% vaccine efficacy). High rates of survival were observed when mice were infected 12 weeks postimmunization, indicating that the vaccines elicited long-lived protective immunity. Whereas CVD 1931 did not protect against S. Enteritidis R11, CVD 1944 did mediate protection against S. Typhimurium D65 (81% efficacy). These findings suggest that a bivalent (S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis) vaccine would provide broad protection against the majority of invasive NTS infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26351285

  5. Refined live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Enteritidis vaccines mediate homologous and heterologous serogroup protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Sharon M; Schmidlein, Patrick; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F; Galen, James E; Levine, Myron M

    2015-12-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections constitute a major health problem among infants and toddlers in sub-Saharan Africa; these infections also occur in infants and the elderly in developed countries. We genetically engineered a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain of multilocus sequence type 313, the predominant genotype circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the capacities of S. Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaBA ΔclpX live oral vaccines to protect mice against a highly lethal challenge dose of the homologous serovar and determined protection against other group B and D serovars circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccines S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 were immunogenic and protected BALB/c mice against 10,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis, respectively. S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 protected mice against the group B serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Stanleyville (91% vaccine efficacy), and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 protected mice against the group D serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (85% vaccine efficacy). High rates of survival were observed when mice were infected 12 weeks postimmunization, indicating that the vaccines elicited long-lived protective immunity. Whereas CVD 1931 did not protect against S. Enteritidis R11, CVD 1944 did mediate protection against S. Typhimurium D65 (81% efficacy). These findings suggest that a bivalent (S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis) vaccine would provide broad protection against the majority of invasive NTS infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26351285

  6. Fitness Costs and Stability of a High-Level Ciprofloxacin Resistance Phenotype in Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis: Reduced Infectivity Associated with Decreased Expression of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fitness costs associated with high-level fluoroquinolone resistance were examined in phenotypically and genotypically characterized ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis mutants (104-cip and 5408-cip, MIC > 32 µg/ml). The stability of the fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype in both mut...

  7. Salmonella Infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bacteria of the genus Salmonella are responsible for a variety of acute and chronic diseases in poultry. These diseases continue to cause economically significant losses in many nations and absorb a large investment of resources in testing and control efforts in others. Infected poul...

  8. Isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from House Flies (Musca domestica) Found in Rooms Containing Salmonella serovar Enteritidis-challenged hens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Musca domestica) released into rooms containing hens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. enteritidis) rapidly became contaminated with S. enteritidis. Forty to 50% of the flies were contaminated at 48 hours which increased to 50-70% at 4 and 7 days post exposur...

  9. A Role for the Non-Canonical Wnt-β-Catenin and TGF-β Signaling Pathways in the Induction of Tolerance during the Establishment of a Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Persistent Cecal Infection in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kogut, Michael H.; Arsenault, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early pro-inflammatory response in chickens. However, the response is short-lived, asymptomatic of disease, resulting in a persistent colonization of the ceca, and fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent infection of chickens by Salmonella are unknown. Recently, we found an expansion of the Treg population and subsequent increased in vitro immunosuppressive functions of the CD4+CD25+ cells isolated from the ceca of the Salmonella-infected chickens by day 4 post-infection that increased steadily throughout the course of the 14 days of infection, whereas the number of CD4+CD25+ cells in the non-infected controls remained steady throughout the study. CD4+CD25+ cells from cecal tonsils of S. enteritidis-infected birds had greater expression of IL-10 mRNA content than the CD4+CD25+ cells from the non-infected controls at all the time points studied. These results suggest the development of a tolerogenic immune response in the cecum of Salmonella-infected chickens may contribute to the persistance of Salmonella cecal colonization. Using a chicken-specific kinome peptide immune array, we have analyzed the signaling pathways altered during the establishment of this tolerogenic state. This analysis has revealed a role for the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway in the cecum at 4 days post-infection. Infection induced the significant (p < 0.01) phosphorylation of the G-protein-coupled transmembrane protein, Frizzled 1 (FZD1), resulting in an influx of intracellular Ca2+ and the phosphorylation of the Ca2+-dependent effector molecules calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CamKII), β-catenin, protein kinase C, and the activation of the transcription factor, NFAT. Nuclear translocation of NFAT resulted in a significant increase in the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β. Increased expression of TGF-β4 mRNA activates the TGF-β signaling pathway that

  10. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis in the spleens of hens by bacterins that vary in fimbrial protein SefD.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Ingunza, Roxana; Guard, Jean; Morales, Cesar A; Icard, Alan H

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether variation in the presence of fimbrial protein SefD would impact efficacy of bacterins as measured by recovery of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) from the spleens of hens. Two bacterins were prepared that varied in SefD content. Also, two adjuvants were tested, namely, water-in-oil and aluminum hydroxide gel (alum). Control groups for both adjuvant preparations included infected nonvaccinated hens and uninfected nonvaccinated hens. At 21 days postinfection, Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered from 69.7%, 53.1%, and 86.0% from the spleens of all hens vaccinated with bacterins lacking SefD, bacterins that included SefD, and infected nonvaccinated control hens, respectively. No Salmonella was recovered from uninfected nonvaccinates. Results from individual trials showed that both bacterins reduced positive spleens, but that the one with SefD was more efficacious. Alum adjuvant had fewer side effects on hens and egg production as compared to water-in-oil. However, adjuvant did not change the relative recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis from spleens. These results suggest that SefD is a promising target antigen for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy in hens, and is intended to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in the food supply. PMID:26218804

  11. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis in the Spleens of Hens by Bacterins That Vary in Fimbrial Protein SefD

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Ingunza, Roxana; Morales, Cesar A.; Icard, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this research was to determine whether variation in the presence of fimbrial protein SefD would impact efficacy of bacterins as measured by recovery of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) from the spleens of hens. Two bacterins were prepared that varied in SefD content. Also, two adjuvants were tested, namely, water-in-oil and aluminum hydroxide gel (alum). Control groups for both adjuvant preparations included infected nonvaccinated hens and uninfected nonvaccinated hens. At 21 days postinfection, Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered from 69.7%, 53.1%, and 86.0% from the spleens of all hens vaccinated with bacterins lacking SefD, bacterins that included SefD, and infected nonvaccinated control hens, respectively. No Salmonella was recovered from uninfected nonvaccinates. Results from individual trials showed that both bacterins reduced positive spleens, but that the one with SefD was more efficacious. Alum adjuvant had fewer side effects on hens and egg production as compared to water-in-oil. However, adjuvant did not change the relative recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis from spleens. These results suggest that SefD is a promising target antigen for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy in hens, and is intended to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in the food supply. PMID:26218804

  12. Epidemiological differentiation of pathogenic strains of Salmonella enteritidis by ribotyping.

    PubMed Central

    Landeras, E; González-Hevia, M A; Alzugaray, R; Mendoza, M C

    1996-01-01

    The usefulness of two-way ribotyping, performed with SphI and PstI, as a genetic marker for a series of pathogenic Salmonella enteritidis strains is reported. Eighteen combined ribotypes were differentiated, a discrimination index of 0.77 was reached, a genetic relationship dendrogram was traced, and the results were applied in an epidemiological study. PMID:8862603

  13. Method for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    DOEpatents

    Agron, Peter G.; Andersen, Gary L.; Walker, Richard L.

    2008-10-28

    Described herein is the identification of a novel Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis locus that serves as a marker for DNA-based identification of this bacterium. In addition, three primer pairs derived from this locus that may be used in a nucleotide detection method to detect the presence of the bacterium are also disclosed herein.

  14. Limited genetic diversity in Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis PT13

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has emerged as a significant foodborne pathogen throughout the world and is commonly characterized by phage typing. In Canada phage types (PT) 4, 8 and 13 predominate and in 2005 a large foodborne PT13 outbreak occurred in the province of Ontario. The ability ...

  15. Bio-Control of Salmonella Enteritidis in Foods Using Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Hongduo; Zhang, Pengyu; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Two lytic phages, vB_SenM-PA13076 (PA13076) and vB_SenM-PC2184 (PC2184), were isolated from chicken sewage and characterized with host strains Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) ATCC13076 and CVCC2184, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that they belonged to the family Myoviridae. The lytic abilities of these two phages in liquid culture showed 104 multiplicity of infection (MOI) was the best in inhibiting bacteria, with PC2184 exhibiting more activity than PA13076. The two phages exhibited broad host range within the genus Salmonella. Phage PA13076 and PC2184 had a lytic effect on 222 (71.4%) and 298 (95.8%) of the 311 epidemic Salmonella isolates, respectively. We tested the effectiveness of phage PA13076 and PC2184 as well as a cocktail combination of both in three different foods (chicken breast, pasteurized whole milk and Chinese cabbage) contaminated with SE. Samples were spiked with 1 × 104 CFU individual SE or a mixture of strains (ATCC13076 and CVCC2184), then treated with 1 × 108 PFU individual phage or a two phage cocktail, and incubated at 4 °C or 25 °C for 5 h. In general, the inhibitory effect of phage and phage cocktail was better at 4 °C than that at 25 °C, whereas the opposite result was observed in Chinese cabbage, and phage cocktail was better than either single phage. A significant reduction in bacterial numbers (1.5–4 log CFU/sample, p < 0.05) was observed in all tested foods. The two phages on the three food samples were relatively stable, especially at 4 °C, with the phages exhibiting the greatest stability in milk. Our research shows that our phages have potential effectiveness as a bio-control agent of Salmonella in foods. PMID:26305252

  16. Bio-Control of Salmonella Enteritidis in Foods Using Bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hongduo; Zhang, Pengyu; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Ran

    2015-08-01

    Two lytic phages, vB_SenM-PA13076 (PA13076) and vB_SenM-PC2184 (PC2184), were isolated from chicken sewage and characterized with host strains Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) ATCC13076 and CVCC2184, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that they belonged to the family Myoviridae. The lytic abilities of these two phages in liquid culture showed 104 multiplicity of infection (MOI) was the best in inhibiting bacteria, with PC2184 exhibiting more activity than PA13076. The two phages exhibited broad host range within the genus Salmonella. Phage PA13076 and PC2184 had a lytic effect on 222 (71.4%) and 298 (95.8%) of the 311 epidemic Salmonella isolates, respectively. We tested the effectiveness of phage PA13076 and PC2184 as well as a cocktail combination of both in three different foods (chicken breast, pasteurized whole milk and Chinese cabbage) contaminated with SE. Samples were spiked with 1 × 10(4) CFU individual SE or a mixture of strains (ATCC13076 and CVCC2184), then treated with 1 × 10(8) PFU individual phage or a two phage cocktail, and incubated at 4 °C or 25 °C for 5 h. In general, the inhibitory effect of phage and phage cocktail was better at 4 °C than that at 25 °C, whereas the opposite result was observed in Chinese cabbage, and phage cocktail was better than either single phage. A significant reduction in bacterial numbers (1.5-4 log CFU/sample, p < 0.05) was observed in all tested foods. The two phages on the three food samples were relatively stable, especially at 4 ºC, with the phages exhibiting the greatest stability in milk. Our research shows that our phages have potential effectiveness as a bio-control agent of Salmonella in foods. PMID:26305252

  17. Effect of a Selected Lactobacillus spp-Based Probiotic on Salmonella Serovar Enteritidis-Infected Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of a Lactobacillus-based probiotic (FM-B11**TM) on Salmonella recovery was evaluated in liquid (Exp. 1) and lyophilized (Exp. 2) forms in two separate experiments with two trials each. For each trial, eighty broiler chicks were randomly allocated into two treatments: control and probioti...

  18. Salmonella enteritidis contamination of ice cream associated with a 1994 multistate outbreak.

    PubMed

    Vought, K J; Tatini, S R

    1998-01-01

    Nine ice cream sample containers, representing three production lots involved in a 1994 outbreak of salmonellosis, were obtained from the manufacturer's distribution warehouse and from consumers. Single 100-g samples from each container were tested initially, with analyses beginning seven weeks after the ice cream was produced. Quantitative salmonella analysis of these samples was performed 14 weeks after the production date using a three-replicate, three-dilution most probable number (MPN) procedure using 100-, 10-, and 1-g samples. The MPN/g estimates ranged from 0.004 to 0.46 Salmonella enteritidis per g with six of nine samples showing an MPN value of 0.093 S. enteritidis per g. The 95% confidence interval for S. enteritidis among these samples was < 0.001 to 2.4 cells/g. The 95% upper limit of S. enteritidis per g was 0.38 for five of six consumer samples. Based on this, the number of S. enteritidis cells per serving (65 g) was 25. Based on the consumption of a single sundae cone (73 g, prepackaged), which caused severe illness in an eight-year-old boy and moderate to mild illness in the adult parents, the infective dose would appear to be no more than 28 cells. PMID:9708244

  19. Fecal shedding and internal organ colonization following exposure of laying hens to different oral doses of Salmonella Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contaminated eggs produced by infected laying hens continue to pose a significant public health concern as a leading source of transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis infections to humans. A recently implemented national regulatory program for egg-producing flocks in the United States seeks to contro...

  20. Purification and characterization of fimbriae from Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed Central

    Feutrier, J; Kay, W W; Trust, T J

    1986-01-01

    A human isolate of Salmonella enteritidis which displayed strong pellicle formation during static broth culture and mannose-sensitive hemagglutination produced fimbriae which were morphologically indistinguishable from type 1 fimbriae of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Fimbrin was purified to homogeneity, and the apparent molecular weight (Mr, 14,400) was markedly lower than that reported for the type 1 fimbrin of Salmonella typhimurium (Mr, 22,100). This fimbrin contained 40% hydrophobic amino acids and lacked cysteine. The sequence of the N-terminal 64 amino acids was determined, and sequence alignment revealed that although the 18 N-terminal residues of the S. enteritidis molecule shared considerable homology with Escherichia coli and S. typhimurium type 1 fimbrins, the S. enteritidis fimbrin lacked a 6- to 9-residue terminal sequence present in the other type 1 fimbrins and, after residue 18, shared little homology with the E. coli sequence. Antibodies raised to the purified S. enteritidis fimbrin bound to surface-exposed conformational epitopes on the native fimbriae and displayed pronounced serospecificity. These antibodies were used in the isolation of a nonfimbriated Tn10 insertion mutant which was unable to hemagglutinate. Images PMID:2875990

  1. Distribution of Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Enteritidis from poultry in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Makaya, P V; Matope, G; Pfukenyi, D M

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Salmonella serovars from chickens from large-scale commercial (LSC), small-scale commercial (SSC), and rural free-range (RFR) farms of Zimbabwe. Pooled cloacal swabs were collected for culture and isolation of Salmonella spp. A chi-square test was used to assess distribution differences of salmonellas among the farming sectors. Approximately 10% (283/2833) of the swabs were positive for Salmonella enterica, with only subspecies enterica (98.6%) and arizonae (1.4%) being detected. The prevalence of S. enterica varied significantly (P<0.05) among areas, with Harare (27.8%) and Buhera (1.3%) recording the highest and the least prevalence, respectively. S. enterica was only isolated from LSC and SSC farms, with the former having a significantly (P<0.001; χ(2)=155.3) higher prevalence than the latter. S. arizonae was only isolated from the SSC farms while none were obtained from the RFR farms. The serovars isolated were Salmonella Enteritidis (72.8%), Group C (20.1%), Group B (4.2%), Salmonella Typhimurium (1.1%) and Salmonella Gallinarum (0.4%). S. Enteritidis predominated in the urban/periurban areas. Approximately 26% (53/206) of S. Enteritidis isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to tetracycline was the most common, while no resistance was detected for furazolidone, neomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. There were 12.1% multi-drug-resistant S. Enteritidis isolates, and the resistance to ampicillin/kanamycin was predominant. The identification of multi-drug-resistant S. Enteritidis is of public health concern. Thus, stringent control of S. Enteritidis will reduce the public health risk of human salmonellosis. PMID:22515540

  2. Interrelationships between strains of Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed Central

    Threlfall, E. J.; Chart, H.

    1993-01-01

    In contrast to S. typhimurium [19], S. enteritidis is a serotype which has its primary food-animal reservoir in poultry. To date, phage typing has been of paramount importance in studying the epidemiology of this serotype and in particular, has demonstrated the involvement of both poultry meat and whole shell eggs in the transmission of S. enteritidis PT4 to humans. The findings discussed above describe various aspects of the serotype, particularly in relation to the involvement of both LPS and plasmids in its virulence and phage type identity (Fig. 2). These findings have led to an increased understanding of the biology of this serotype, which is of major importance in human food-poisoning in England and Wales at the present time. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8348924

  3. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Heraldo Bezerra; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C), continuous high temperature (38.7°C) and continuous low temperature (36.7°C). After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control). At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry. PMID:26131553

  4. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    de Barros Moreira Filho, Alexandre Lemos; de Oliveira, Celso José Bruno; de Oliveira, Heraldo Bezerra; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo; Givisiez, Patricia Emília Naves

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C), continuous high temperature (38.7°C) and continuous low temperature (36.7°C). After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control). At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry. PMID:26131553

  5. Successful treatment of a septic aneurysm due to Salmonella enteritidis complicated by the rupture of the pelvis of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Rókusz, László; Dlustus, Béla; Tóth, Gyula; Acs, Tihamér; Orgován, György

    2007-10-01

    We report on a 43-year-old patient with septic aneurysm complicated by rupture of the pelvis of the kidney due to Salmonella enteritidis that we treated successfully by empiric therapy, then targeted antibiotic therapy and late surgical intervention with iliofemoral crossover bypass grafting and aneurysm resection. The course was complicated by deep neutropenia and chronic hepatitis C infection. PMID:17985776

  6. Frequency and persistence of fecal shedding following exposure of laying hens to different oral doses of Salmonella enteritidi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections of egg-laying poultry with Salmonella enteritidis and the associated transmission of illness to consumers of contaminated eggs has been a prominent international public health concern for many years. Testing and risk reduction programs for laying flocks have been implemented in many natio...

  7. In Vitro Penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis through Yolk Membranes of Eggs from Six Genetically Distinct Commercial Lines of Laying Hens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although deposition of Salmonella Enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in albumen or on the vitelline (yolk) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs laid by infected hens, bacterial migration into the yolk to reach its nutrient-rich contents could lead to extensive multiplication...

  8. Detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) Antibodies in Serum Using A Polystyrene Bead/SE Flagella Agglutination Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serologic screening of flocks can be an important method to detect Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infections but can be labor intensive or lack specificity. Our goal was to develop a rapid agglutination assay using SE flagella adsorbed to polystyrene beads as a simple, relatively specific test to dete...

  9. A hotel-based outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) in the United Kingdom, 2006.

    PubMed

    Calvert, N; Murphy, L; Smith, A; Copeland, D

    2007-03-01

    An outbreak of food-borne Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 occurred in Cumbria, in north-west England, in the summer of 2006. Fifteen people, all with positive stool samples, met the case definition; three of these were admitted to hospital, including one patient who died. Preliminary investigations suggested a link to a meal served at a local hotel. A case control study was implemented, together with microbiological and environmental investigations. Fifteen microbiologically confirmed cases and 27 unmatched controls were included in the study, controls being randomly selected from people who had eaten at the hotel on the same day. The epidemiological evidence indicated a very strong association between infection and consumption of tiramisu made with raw shell eggs, although none were available for microbiological investigation. These results are in line with other salmonellosis outbreaks that have been associated with the use of raw shell eggs in food manufacturing and production. This paper highlights the continuing need for a greater awareness by those who work in the food industry of the health risks associated with the consumption of raw shell eggs. PMID:17439807

  10. Use of random forest to estimate population attributable fractions from a case-control study of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections.

    PubMed

    Gu, W; Vieira, A R; Hoekstra, R M; Griffin, P M; Cole, D

    2015-10-01

    To design effective food safety programmes we need to estimate how many sporadic foodborne illnesses are caused by specific food sources based on case-control studies. Logistic regression has substantive limitations for analysing structured questionnaire data with numerous exposures and missing values. We adapted random forest to analyse data of a case-control study of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis illness for source attribution. For estimation of summary population attributable fractions (PAFs) of exposures grouped into transmission routes, we devised a counterfactual estimator to predict reductions in illness associated with removing grouped exposures. For the purpose of comparison, we fitted the data using logistic regression models with stepwise forward and backward variable selection. Our results show that the forward and backward variable selection of logistic regression models were not consistent for parameter estimation, with different significant exposures identified. By contrast, the random forest model produced estimated PAFs of grouped exposures consistent in rank order with results obtained from outbreak data, with egg-related exposures having the highest estimated PAF (22·1%, 95% confidence interval 8·5-31·8). Random forest might be structurally more coherent and efficient than logistic regression models for attributing Salmonella illnesses to sources involving many causal pathways. PMID:25672399

  11. Improving Food Safety by Understanding the Evolution of Egg-contaminating Salmonella Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving Food Safety by Understanding the Evolution of Egg-contaminating Salmonella Enteritidis Jean Guard, Veterinary Medical Officer U. S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA USA (jean.guard@ars.usda.gov) The curious case of egg contamination by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis S. ...

  12. 21 CFR 118.10 - Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. 118.10 Section 118.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.10 Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)...

  13. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.5 Section 118.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5 Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental testing when laying...

  14. 21 CFR 118.9 - Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. 118.9 Section 118.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... EGGS § 118.9 Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. You must have one...

  15. 21 CFR 118.10 - Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. 118.10 Section 118.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.10 Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)...

  16. 21 CFR 118.9 - Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. 118.9 Section 118.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... EGGS § 118.9 Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. You must have one...

  17. 21 CFR 118.9 - Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. 118.9 Section 118.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... EGGS § 118.9 Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. You must have one...

  18. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.5 Section 118.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5 Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental testing when laying...

  19. 21 CFR 118.7 - Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.7 Section 118.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....7 Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental sampling. An...

  20. 21 CFR 118.10 - Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. 118.10 Section 118.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.10 Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)...

  1. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.5 Section 118.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5 Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental testing when laying...

  2. 21 CFR 118.7 - Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.7 Section 118.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....7 Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental sampling. An...

  3. 21 CFR 118.7 - Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.7 Section 118.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....7 Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental sampling. An...

  4. 21 CFR 118.9 - Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. 118.9 Section 118.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... EGGS § 118.9 Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. You must have one...

  5. 21 CFR 118.7 - Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.7 Section 118.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....7 Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental sampling. An...

  6. 21 CFR 118.10 - Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. 118.10 Section 118.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.10 Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)...

  7. 21 CFR 118.7 - Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.7 Section 118.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....7 Sampling methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental sampling. An...

  8. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.5 Section 118.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5 Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental testing when laying...

  9. 21 CFR 118.10 - Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. 118.10 Section 118.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.10 Recordkeeping requirements for the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)...

  10. 21 CFR 118.9 - Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. 118.9 Section 118.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... EGGS § 118.9 Administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention plan. You must have one...

  11. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.5 Section 118.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5 Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental testing when laying...

  12. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic ...

  13. Evolutionary trends of Salmonella Enteritidis linked to subpopulation biology and virulence attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. enteritidis) is currently the world’s leading cause of food borne salmonellosis. It is the only serotype out of over 1400 within Salmonella enterica I that contaminates the internal contents of the egg by vertical transmission from the reproductive tract...

  14. Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 from a single almond orchard over a 4-year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2001, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 was isolated from drag swabs of 17 61-ha almond orchards on three farms linked to an outbreak of salmonellosis associated with consumption of raw almonds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term persistence of Salmonella Enteritidi...

  15. Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Types 1 and 4: Pheno- and Genotypic Epidemiology of Recent Outbreaks in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lukinmaa, Susanna; Schildt, Raili; Rinttilä, Teemu; Siitonen, Anja

    1999-01-01

    In the 1990s, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis has caused 15 outbreaks in Finland; 12 of them were caused by phage type 1 (PT1) and PT4. Thus far, there has been no clear evidence as to the source of these Salmonella Enteritidis PT1 and PT4 strains, so it was necessary to try to characterize them further. Salmonella Enteritidis PT1 (n = 57) and PT4 (n = 43) isolates from different sources were analyzed by genomic pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), plasmid profiling, and antimicrobial resistance testing to investigate the distribution of their subtypes in Finland. It was also hoped that this investigation would help in identifying the sources of the infections, especially the sources of the outbreaks caused by PT1 and PT4 in the 1990s. The results showed that both PFGE and plasmid profiling, but not antimicrobial susceptibility testing, were capable of differentiating isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis PT1 and PT4. By genotypic methods, it was possible to divide both PT1 and PT4 isolates into 12 subtypes. It could also be shown that all PT1 outbreak isolates were identical and, at least with this collection of isolates, that the outbreaks did not originate from the Baltic countries or from Russia, where this phage type predominates. It was also established that the outbreaks caused by PT4 all had different origins. Valuable information for future investigations was gained on the distribution of molecular subtypes of strains that originated from the tourist resorts that are popular among Finns and of strains that were isolated from livestock. PMID:10364582

  16. Linear antigenic mapping of flagellin (FliC) from Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis with yeast surface expression system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaoling; Shi, Bingtian; Li, Tao; Zuo, Teng; Wang, Bin; Si, Wei; Xin, Jiuqing; Yang, Kongbin; Shi, Xuanlin; Liu, Siguo; Liu, Henggui

    2016-02-29

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major cause of food-borne illness around the world and can have significant health implications in humans, poultry and other animals. Flagellin (FliC) is the primary component of bacterial flagella. It has been shown that the FliC of S. Enteritidis is a significant antigenic structure and can elicit strong humoral responses against S. Enteritidis infection in chickens. Here, we constructed a FliC antigen library using a yeast surface expression system. Yeast cells expressing FliC peptide antigens were labeled with chicken sera against S. Enteritidis and sorted using FACS. The analyses of FliC peptides revealed that the FliC linear antigenicity in chickens resided on three domains which were able to elicit strong humoral responses in vivo. Animal experiments further revealed that the antibodies elicited by these antigenic domains were able to significantly inhibit the invasion of S. Enteritidis into the liver and spleen of chickens. These findings will facilitate our better understanding of the humoral responses elicited by FliC in chickens upon infection by S. Enteritidis. PMID:26854340

  17. Egg contamination by Salmonella serovar enteritidis following vaccination with Delta-aroA Salmonella serovar typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Parker, C; Asokan, K; Guard-Petter, J

    2001-02-01

    The efficacy of an aroA Salmonella serovar typhimurium modified live vaccine to decrease internal egg contamination after oral challenge of hens with egg-contaminating Salmonella serovar enteritidis was assessed. Challenge was with a mixed phenotype of S. enteritidis that had virulence characteristics previously associated with enhanced oral invasiveness and egg contamination in chickens. Immunized birds had fewer positive ovary/oviduct pools and lower cfu g(-1) cecal contents than did non-immunized birds, but the differences were not significant. The number of positive intestinal (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) and organ (spleen, kidney, liver) pools following challenge from each treatment group were equivalent. Most importantly, immunization did not decrease egg contamination. These results suggest that the ability of modified live vaccines to reduce internal egg contamination by S. serovar enteritidis can be assessed using characterized strains for challenge. PMID:11166998

  18. Isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    PubMed

    Marietto-Gonçalves, Guilherme Augusto; de Almeida, Sílvia Maria; de Lima, Edna Tereza; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Pinczowski, Pedro; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2010-03-01

    Avian salmonellosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella that can cause three distinct diseases in birds: pullorum diseases, fowl typhoid, and paratyphoid infection. Various wildlife species are susceptible to infections by Salmonella, regardless of whether they live in captivity or freely in the wild. The present study verified the presence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in three captive specimens of Amazona aestiva. The study involved a total of 103 birds undergoing rehabilitation to prepare for living in the wild, after having been captured from animal traffickers and delivered to the Centrofauna Project of the Floravida Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil. This is the first report of Salmonella Enteritidis isolation in A. aestiva that originated from capture associated with animal trafficking; Salmonella was detected during the study by the serologic method of rapid serum agglutination on a plate with bacterial isolate. The antimicrobial profile exam of the isolated samples demonstrated sensitivity to ampicillin, cefaclor, ciprofloxacin, and cloranfenicol. The three samples also presented resistance to more than four antibiotics. The presence of the genes invA and spvC was verified by PCR technique and was associated with virulence and absence of class 1 integron, a gene related to antimicrobial resistance. The commercial antigen for pullorum disease was shown to be a useful tool for rapid detection in the screening of Salmonella of serogroup D1 in Psittaciformes. New studies on Salmonella carriage in birds involved in trafficking must be performed to better understand their participation in the epidemiologic cycle of salmonellosis in humans and other animals. PMID:20408416

  19. Chicken-specific kinome array reveals that Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis modulates host immune signaling pathways in the cecum to establish a persistence infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early, short-lived, pro-inflammatory response in chickens that is asymptomatic of clinical disease and results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that transmits infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The und...

  20. Heat transfer models for predicting Salmonella enteritidis in shell eggs through supply chain distribution.

    PubMed

    Almonacid, S; Simpson, R; Teixeira, A

    2007-11-01

    Egg and egg preparations are important vehicles for Salmonella enteritidis infections. The influence of time-temperature becomes important when the presence of this organism is found in commercial shell eggs. A computer-aided mathematical model was validated to estimate surface and interior temperature of shell eggs under variable ambient and refrigerated storage temperature. A risk assessment of S. enteritidis based on the use of this model, coupled with S. enteritidis kinetics, has already been reported in a companion paper published earlier in JFS. The model considered the actual geometry and composition of shell eggs and was solved by numerical techniques (finite differences and finite elements). Parameters of interest such as local (h) and global (U) heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity, and apparent volumetric specific heat were estimated by an inverse procedure from experimental temperature measurement. In order to assess the error in predicting microbial population growth, theoretical and experimental temperatures were applied to a S. enteritidis growth model taken from the literature. Errors between values of microbial population growth calculated from model predicted compared with experimentally measured temperatures were satisfactorily low: 1.1% and 0.8% for the finite difference and finite element model, respectively. PMID:18034720

  1. The role of roof rats (Rattus rattus) in the spread of Salmonella Enteritidis and S. Infantis contamination in layer farms in eastern Japan

    PubMed Central

    LAPUZ, R.; TANI, H.; SASAI, K.; SHIROTA, K.; KATOH, H.; BABA, E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The prevalence of Salmonella in four layer farms in eastern Japan was investigated between 2004 and 2006 to determine the role of roof rats (Rattus rattus) in the epizootology of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). Persistent S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis contamination of the environment and pooled egg samples were detected in three out of four layer farms. A total of 113 (13·3%) and 158 (18·6%) out of 851 rats examined were positive for S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis, respectively. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, only one indistinguishable pulsed-field pattern was yielded by S. Enteritidis strains from rats, eggs and environmental samples from each of the two contaminated layer farms. Although, a variety of pulsed-field patterns were generated by S. Enteritidis isolates from rats, eggs, and the environment of the other contaminated farms, there are, however, some S. Enteritidis strains that are closely related clones. These results suggest that roof rats are carriers of S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis and that persistent S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis infections in a rat population may play an important role in the spread and maintenance of these pathogens inside the layer premises. PMID:17988423

  2. Characterization of the ELPhiS prophage from Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis strain LK5.

    PubMed

    Hanna, L Farris; Matthews, T David; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Hasty, David; Edwards, Robert A

    2012-03-01

    Phages are a primary driving force behind the evolution of bacterial pathogens by transferring a variety of virulence genes into their hosts. Similar to other bacterial genomes, the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis LK5 genome contains several regions that are homologous to phages. Although genomic analysis demonstrated the presence of prophages, it was unable to confirm which phage elements within the genome were viable. Genetic markers were used to tag one of the prophages in the genome to allow monitoring of phage induction. Commonly used laboratory strains of Salmonella were resistant to phage infection, and therefore a rapid screen was developed to identify susceptible hosts. This approach showed that a genetically tagged prophage, ELPhiS (Enteritidis lysogenic phage S), was capable of infecting Salmonella serovars that are diverse in host range and virulence and has the potential to laterally transfer genes between these serovars via lysogenic conversion. The rapid screen approach is adaptable to any system with a large collection of isolates and may be used to test the viability of prophages found by sequencing the genomes of various bacterial pathogens. PMID:22247173

  3. Rapid inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on shell eggs by plant-derived antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Darre, Michael J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a common foodborne pathogen transmitted to humans largely by consumption of contaminated eggs. The external surface of eggs becomes contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis from various sources on farms, the main sources being hens' droppings and contaminated litter. Therefore, effective egg surface disinfection is critical to reduce pathogens on eggs and potentially control egg-borne disease outbreaks. This study investigated the efficacy of GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDA), namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), carvacrol (CR), and eugenol (EUG), as an antimicrobial wash for rapidly killing Salmonella Enteritidis on shell eggs in the presence or absence of chicken droppings. White-shelled eggs inoculated with a 5-strain mixture of nalidixic acid (NA) resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (8.0 log cfu/mL) were washed in sterile deionized water containing each PDA (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75%) or chlorine (200 mg/kg) at 32 or 42°C for 30 s, 3 min, or 5 min. Approximately 6.0 log cfu/mL of Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered from inoculated and unwashed eggs. The wash water control and chlorine control decreased Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs by only 2.0 log cfu/mL even after washing for 5 min. The PDA were highly effective in killing Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs compared with controls (P < 0.05). All treatments containing CR and EUG reduced Salmonella Enteritidis to undetectable levels as rapidly as within 30 s of washing, whereas TC (0.75%) completely inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs washed at 42°C for 30 s (P < 0.05). No Salmonella Enteritidis was detected in any PDA or chlorine wash solution; however, substantial pathogen populations (~4.0 log cfu/mL) survived in the antibacterial-free control wash water (P < 0.05). The CR and EUG were also able to eliminate Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs to undetectable levels in the presence of 3% chicken droppings at 32°C (P < 0.05). This study

  4. Molting in Salmonella enteritidis-challenged laying hens fed alfalfa crumbles. I. Salmonella enteritidis colonization and virulence gene hilA response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine microbial population shifts and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) responses in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)-challenged molted and non-molted hens fed different dietary regimens. Fifteen Salmonella-free single comb Leghorn hen...

  5. Prevention of Salmonella enteritidis in shell eggs during production, storage, and transportation. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2009-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule that requires shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from contaminating eggs on the farm and from further growth during storage and transportation, and requires these producers to maintain records concerning their compliance with the rule and to register with FDA. FDA is taking this action because SE is among the leading bacterial causes of foodborne illness in the United States, and shell eggs are a primary source of human SE infections. The final rule will reduce SE-associated illnesses and deaths by reducing the risk that shell eggs are contaminated with SE. PMID:19588581

  6. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA10 against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis SE86 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Scapin, Diane; Grando, Williani Fabiola; Rossi, Eliandra Mirlei; Perez, Karla Joseane; Malheiros, Patrícia da Silva; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the main pathogens responsible for foodborne illness in Brazil. Probiotic bacteria can play a role in defense and recovery from enteropathogenic infections. In this study, the ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA10 to colonise and exert antagonistic effects in the gastrointestinal tract was tested before and during experimental infection in conventional mice contaminated with S. Enteritidis (SE86). A dose of 0.1 mL containing 108 viable cells of SE86 and L. acidophilus LA10 was orally administered by gavage to mice. The experiment was divided into groups. As a negative control, Group 1 was administered only sterile saline solution. As a positive control, Group 2 was administered only SE86. Group 3 was first administered SE86, and after 10 days, treated with L. acidophilus LA10. Group 4 was first administered L. acidophilus LA10, and after 10 days, challenged with SE86. The results demonstrated that a significant number of SE86 cells were able to colonize the gastrointestinal tract of mice, specifically in the colon and ileum. L. acidophilus LA10 demonstrated an antagonistic effect against SE86, with better results observed for Group 3 over Group 4. Thus, L. acidophilus LA10 shows potential antagonistic effects against S. Enteritidis SE86, especially if administered after infection. PMID:24159284

  7. Emergence of host-adapted Salmonella Enteritidis through rapid evolution in an immunocompromised host.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Elizabeth J; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Hadfield, James; Forbester, Jessica L; Harris, Simon R; Hale, Christine; Heath, Jennifer N; Wileman, Thomas; Clare, Simon; Kane, Leanne; Goulding, David; Otto, Thomas D; Kay, Sally; Doffinger, Rainer; Cooke, Fiona J; Carmichael, Andrew; Lever, Andrew M L; Parkhill, Julian; MacLennan, Calman A; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Dougan, Gordon; Kingsley, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Host adaptation is a key factor contributing to the emergence of new bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens. Many pathogens are considered promiscuous because they cause disease across a range of host species, while others are host-adapted, infecting particular hosts(1). Host adaptation can potentially progress to host restriction, where the pathogen is strictly limited to a single host species and is frequently associated with more severe symptoms. Host-adapted and host-restricted bacterial clades evolve from within a broader host-promiscuous species and sometimes target different niches within their specialist hosts, such as adapting from a mucosal to a systemic lifestyle. Genome degradation, marked by gene inactivation and deletion, is a key feature of host adaptation, although the triggers initiating genome degradation are not well understood. Here, we show that a chronic systemic non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in an immunocompromised human patient resulted in genome degradation targeting genes that are expendable for a systemic lifestyle. We present a genome-based investigation of a recurrent blood-borne Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection covering 15 years in an interleukin-12 β1 receptor-deficient individual that developed into an asymptomatic chronic infection. The infecting S. Enteritidis harboured a mutation in the mismatch repair gene mutS that accelerated the genomic mutation rate. Phylogenetic analysis and phenotyping of multiple patient isolates provides evidence for a remarkable level of within-host evolution that parallels genome changes present in successful host-restricted bacterial pathogens but never before observed on this timescale. Our analysis identifies common pathways of host adaptation and demonstrates the role that immunocompromised individuals can play in this process. PMID:27572160

  8. Emergence of host-adapted Salmonella Enteritidis through rapid evolution in an immunocompromised host

    PubMed Central

    Klemm, Elizabeth J; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Hadfield, James; Forbester, Jessica L; Harris, Simon R; Hale, Christine; Heath, Jennifer N; Wileman, Thomas; Clare, Simon; Kane, Leanne; Goulding, David; Otto, Thomas D; Kay, Sally; Doffinger, Rainer; Cooke, Fiona J; Carmichael, Andrew; Lever, Andrew ML; Parkhill, Julian; MacLennan, Calman A; Kumararatne, Dinakantha

    2016-01-01

    Summary Host adaptation is a key factor contributing to the emergence of new bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens. Many pathogens are considered promiscuous because they cause disease across a range of host species, while others are host-adapted, infecting particular hosts1. Host adaptation can potentially progress to host restriction where the pathogen is strictly limited to a single host species and is frequently associated with more severe symptoms. Host-adapted and host-restricted bacterial clades evolve from within a broader host-promiscuous species and sometimes target different niches within their specialist hosts, such as adapting from a mucosal to a systemic lifestyle. Genome degradation, marked by gene inactivation and deletion, is a key feature of host adaptation, although the triggers initiating genome degradation are not well understood. Here, we show that a chronic systemic non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in an immunocompromised human patient resulted in genome degradation targeting genes that are expendable for a systemic lifestyle. We present a genome-based investigation of a recurrent blood-borne Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection covering 15 years in an interleukin (IL)-12 β-1 receptor-deficient individual that developed into an asymptomatic chronic infection. The infecting S. Enteritidis harbored a mutation in the mismatch repair gene mutS that accelerated the genomic mutation rate. Phylogenetic analysis and phenotyping of multiple patient isolates provides evidence for a remarkable level of within-host evolution that parallels genome changes present in successful host-restricted bacterial pathogens but never before observed on this timescale. Our analysis identifies common pathways of host adaptation and demonstrates the role that immunocompromised individuals can play in this process. PMID:27127642

  9. Risks Involved in the Use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in Commercial Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Calhoun, Nicole; Lobato-Tapia, Jose L.; Lucca, Vivian; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Petrone-García, Victor M.; Latorre, Juan D.; Mahaffey, Brittany D.; Teague, Kyle D.; Graham, Lucas E.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Baxter, Mikayla F. A.; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Experiment 1 consisted of two trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Experiment 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighed and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics, and SH infection. In both trials of Experiment 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability, and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. By contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest

  10. Salmonella Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... reptiles like snakes, turtles, and lizards. Symptoms include Fever Diarrhea Abdominal cramps Headache Possible nausea, vomiting, and ... be serious. The usual treatment is antibiotics. Typhoid fever, a more serious disease caused by Salmonella, is ...

  11. Electron-beam-inactivated vaccine against Salmonella enteritidis colonization in molting hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electron Beam (eBeam) ionization technology has a variety of applications in modern society. The underlying hypothesis was that electron beam (eBeam) inactivated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) cells can serve as a vaccine to control Salmonella colonization and Salmonella shedding in c...

  12. COMPARATIVE GENOME SEQUENCING OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS ISOLATES THAT VARY IN VIRULENCE CHARACTERISTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica subspecies I enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is currently the leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide and the second leading cause in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) have recently describe...

  13. Antibacterial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde on Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in chickens drinking water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are two major food-borne pathogens in the US, accounting to more than 3 million cases of human illness annually. Chickens are the natural hosts of these bacteria. Drinking water can be a potential source of S. Enteritidis and C.jejuni, resulting in the...

  14. Inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in Poultry Drinking Water by trans-cinnamaldehyde

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are two major food-borne pathogens in the US, accounting to more than 3 million cases of human illness annually. Chickens are the natural hosts of these bacteria. Poultry drinking water can be a potential source of S. Enteritidis and C.jejuni, resultin...

  15. Mutational Mapping and Location of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Salmonella Enteritidis Isolates that Vary in Virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica subspecies I enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is currently the leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide and the second leading cause in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) have recently describe...

  16. Molecular and virulence characteristics of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from poultry.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Kim, Ji Hee; Park, Jong Ho; Lee, Young-Ju; Lee, John Hwa

    2011-09-01

    Forty-six Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) strains were isolated from chicken meat, faeces, and eggshells collected from hatcheries throughout Korea. The strains were examined for the presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. All 46 isolates were resistant to at least one of 21 antibiotics used in this study, 30 (65.2%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials, and a single remarkable isolate was resistant to 15 antimicrobials. The isolates were primarily resistant to penicillins, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline and quinolones. The high rate of resistance in S. Enteritidis strains, sometimes to multiple drugs, may complicate future options for treating human infections. Nineteen of the 21 penicillin resistant isolates carried the bla(TEM) gene, while one strain, resistant both to penicillins and ceftriaxone, carried the bla(CTX-M) gene. Thirty-seven of the 45 sulfisoxazole resistant isolates carried sul2, and 23/24 streptomycin resistant isolates carried both strA and strB. All 10 tetracycline resistant isolates carried the tet(A) gene. Most isolates harboured both SPI-1 and SPI-2-associated genes, and the spv operon, which are known to be associated with human infections. The presence of these genes suggests that these strains could give rise to public health problems if dispersed in the general human population. PMID:20822940

  17. Research note: Salmonella enteritidis and Arizona hinshawii isolated from wild sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Trainer, D.O.; Duncan, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis serotype Rubislaw and Arizona hinshawii were isolated from cloacal swabs of 'healthy' live-trapped sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in Indiana and Wisconsin. These respective isolations were the first reported from wild sandhill cranes.

  18. Microarray-Based Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Genes Involved in Chicken Reproductive Tract Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Raspoet, R.; Appia-Ayme, C.; Shearer, N.; Martel, A.; Pasmans, F.; Haesebrouck, F.; Ducatelle, R.; Thompson, A.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has developed the potential to contaminate table eggs internally, by colonization of the chicken reproductive tract and internalization in the forming egg. The serotype Enteritidis has developed mechanisms to colonize the chicken oviduct more successfully than other serotypes. Until now, the strategies exploited by Salmonella Enteritidis to do so have remained largely unknown. For that reason, a microarray-based transposon library screen was used to identify genes that are essential for the persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis inside primary chicken oviduct gland cells in vitro and inside the reproductive tract in vivo. A total of 81 genes with a potential role in persistence in both the oviduct cells and the oviduct tissue were identified. Major groups of importance include the Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2, genes involved in stress responses, cell wall, and lipopolysaccharide structure, and the region-of-difference genomic islands 9, 21, and 40. PMID:25281378

  19. Conjugal Transfer of the Pathogenicity Island ROD21 in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Depends on Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J.; Tobar, Hugo E.; Nieto, Pamela A.; Riedel, Claudia A.; Bueno, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Unstable pathogenicity islands are chromosomal elements that can be transferred from one bacterium to another. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a pathogenic bacterium containing such unstable pathogenicity islands. One of them, denominated ROD21, is 26.5 kb in size and capable of excising from the chromosome in certain culture conditions, as well as during bacterial infection of phagocytic cells. In this study we have evaluated whether ROD21 can be effectively transferred from one bacterium to another. We generated a donor and several recipient strains of S. Enteritidis to carry out transfer assays in liquid LB medium. These assays showed that ROD21 is effectively transferred from donor to recipient strains of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. When Escherichia coli was used as the recipient strain, ROD21 transfer failed to be observed. Subsequently, we showed that a conjugative process was required for the transfer of the island and that changes in temperature and pH increased the transfer frequency between Salmonella strains. Our data indicate that ROD21 is an unstable pathogenicity island that can be transferred by conjugation in a species-specific manner between Salmonellae. Further, ROD21 transfer frequency increases in response to environmental changes, such as pH and temperature. PMID:24705125

  20. Immunogenicity of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis virulence protein, InvH, and cross-reactivity of its antisera with Salmonella strains.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Behzad; Rasooli, Iraj; Gargari, Seyed Latif Mousavi; Nadooshan, Mohammad Reza Jalali; Owlia, Parviz; Nazarian, Shahram

    2013-02-22

    Acellular vaccines containing bacterial immunodominant components such as surface proteins may be potent alternatives to live attenuated vaccines in order to reduce salmonellosis risk to human health. invH gene, an important part of needle complex in type three secretion system (TTSS) plays important role in efficient bacterial adherence and entry into epithelial cells. In this work we hypothesize that use of a 15 kDa recombinant InvH as Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis surface protein could provoke antibody production in mouse and would help us study feasibility of its potential for diagnosis and/or a recombinant vaccine. The purified InvH provoked significant rise of IgG in mice. Active protection induced by immunization with InvH against variable doses of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, indicated that the immunized mice were completely protected against challenge with 10(4) LD(50). The immunoreaction of sera from immunized mice with other Salmonella strains or cross reaction with sera of Salmonella strains inoculated mice is indicative of possessing by Salmonella strains of the surface protein, InvH, that can be employed in both prophylactic and diagnostic measures against S. enterica. Bacteria free spleen and ileum of the immunized mice in this study indicate that the invH gene affects bacterial invasion. Efficacy of the virulence protein, InvH, in shuttling into host cells in injectisome of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis and inhibition of this phenomenon by active immunization was shown in this study. In conclusion immunization with InvH protein can develop protection against S. enterica serovar Enteritidis infections. InvH in Salmonella strains can be exploited in protective measures as well as a diagnostic tool in Salmonella infections. PMID:23141708

  1. Numbers of Salmonella enteritidis in the contents of naturally contaminated hens' eggs.

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, T. J.; Whitehead, A.; Gawler, A. H.; Henley, A.; Rowe, B.

    1991-01-01

    Over 5700 hens eggs from 15 flocks naturally infected with Salmonella enteritidis were examined individually for the presence of the organism in either egg contents or on shells. Thirty-two eggs (0.6%) were positive in the contents. In the majority, levels of contamination were low. Three eggs, however, were found to contain many thousands of cells. In eggs where it was possible to identify the site of contamination, the albumen was more frequently positive than the yolk. Storage at room temperature had no significant effect on the prevalence of salmonella-positive eggs but those held for more than 21 days were more likely (P less than 0.01) to be heavily contaminated. In batches of eggs where both shells and contents were examined, 1.1% were positive on the former site and 0.9% in the latter. PMID:2050203

  2. Analysis of Molecular Epidemiology of Chilean Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Isolates by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Bacteriophage Typing

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Jorge; Fica, Alberto; Ebensperger, German; Calfullan, Hector; Prat, Soledad; Fernandez, Alda; Alexandre, Marcela; Heitmann, Ingrid

    2003-01-01

    Human Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections emerged in Chile in 1994. S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 1 isolates predominated in the north, and phage type 4 isolates predominated in the central and southern regions. A study was planned to characterize this epidemic using the best discriminatory typing technique. Research involved 441 S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates, including clinical preepidemic samples (n = 74; 1975 to 1993) and epidemic (n = 199), food (n = 72), poultry (n = 57), and some Latin American (n = 39) isolates. The best method was selected based on a sample of preepidemic isolates, analyzing the discriminatory power (DP) obtained by phage typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electophoresis (PFGE) analysis. The highest DP was associated with BlnI PFGE-bacteriophage typing analysis (0.993). A total of 38 BlnI patterns (B patterns) were identified before the epidemic period, 19 since 1994, and only 4 in both periods. Two major clusters were identified by phylogenetic analysis, and the predominant B patterns clustered in the same branch. Combined analysis revealed that specific B pattern-phage type combinations (subtypes) disappeared before 1994, that different genotypes associated with S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 4 had been observed since 1988, and that strain diversity increased before the expansion of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis in 1994. Predominant subtype B3-phage type 4 was associated with the central and southern regions, and subtype B38-phage type 1 was associated with the north (P < 0.0001). Food and poultry isolates matched the predominant S. enterica serotype Enteritidis subtypes, but isolates identified in neighboring countries (Peru and Bolivia) did not match S. enterica serotype Enteritidis subtypes identified in the north of Chile. The results of this work demonstrate that genetic diversity, replacement, and expansion of specific S. enterica serotype

  3. Analysis of molecular epidemiology of Chilean Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and bacteriophage typing.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Jorge; Fica, Alberto; Ebensperger, German; Calfullan, Hector; Prat, Soledad; Fernandez, Alda; Alexandre, Marcela; Heitmann, Ingrid

    2003-04-01

    Human Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections emerged in Chile in 1994. S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 1 isolates predominated in the north, and phage type 4 isolates predominated in the central and southern regions. A study was planned to characterize this epidemic using the best discriminatory typing technique. Research involved 441 S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates, including clinical preepidemic samples (n = 74; 1975 to 1993) and epidemic (n = 199), food (n = 72), poultry (n = 57), and some Latin American (n = 39) isolates. The best method was selected based on a sample of preepidemic isolates, analyzing the discriminatory power (DP) obtained by phage typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electophoresis (PFGE) analysis. The highest DP was associated with BlnI PFGE-bacteriophage typing analysis (0.993). A total of 38 BlnI patterns (B patterns) were identified before the epidemic period, 19 since 1994, and only 4 in both periods. Two major clusters were identified by phylogenetic analysis, and the predominant B patterns clustered in the same branch. Combined analysis revealed that specific B pattern-phage type combinations (subtypes) disappeared before 1994, that different genotypes associated with S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 4 had been observed since 1988, and that strain diversity increased before the expansion of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis in 1994. Predominant subtype B3-phage type 4 was associated with the central and southern regions, and subtype B38-phage type 1 was associated with the north (P < 0.0001). Food and poultry isolates matched the predominant S. enterica serotype Enteritidis subtypes, but isolates identified in neighboring countries (Peru and Bolivia) did not match S. enterica serotype Enteritidis subtypes identified in the north of Chile. The results of this work demonstrate that genetic diversity, replacement, and expansion of specific S. enterica serotype

  4. Prevention of egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis after oral vaccination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC mutants.

    PubMed

    Kilroy, Sofie; Raspoet, Ruth; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of laying hens has been successfully used to reduce egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis, decreasing human salmonellosis cases worldwide. Currently used vaccines for layers are either inactivated vaccines or live attenuated strains produced by mutagenesis. Targeted gene deletion mutants hold promise for future vaccines, because specific bacterial functions can be removed that may improve safety and allow differentiation from field strains. In this study, the efficacy of Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC strains in laying hens as live vaccines was evaluated. The mutants are deficient in either the membrane channel TolC (ΔtolC) or the multi-drug efflux systems acrAB, acrEF and mdtABC (ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC). These strains have a decreased ability for gut and tissue colonization and are unable to survive in egg white, the latter preventing transmission of the vaccine strains to humans. Two groups of 30 laying hens were orally inoculated at day 1, 6 weeks and 16 weeks of age with 10(8) cfu of either vaccine strain, while a third group was left unvaccinated. At 24 weeks of age, the birds were intravenously challenged with 5 × 10(7) cfu Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 S1400/94. The vaccine strains were not shed or detected in the gut, internal organs or eggs, 2 weeks after the third vaccination. The strains significantly protected against gut and internal organ colonization, and completely prevented egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis under the conditions of this study. This indicates that Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC strains might be valuable strains for vaccination of layers against Salmonella Enteritidis. PMID:27519174

  5. Genetic and phenotypic evidence of the Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis human-animal interface in Chile.

    PubMed

    Retamal, Patricio; Fresno, Marcela; Dougnac, Catherine; Gutierrez, Sindy; Gornall, Vanessa; Vidal, Roberto; Vernal, Rolando; Pujol, Myriam; Barreto, Marlen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Abalos, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is a worldwide zoonotic agent that has been recognized as a very important food-borne bacterial pathogen, mainly associated with consumption of poultry products. The aim of this work was to determine genotypic and phenotypic evidence of S. Enteritidis transmission among seabirds, poultry and humans in Chile. Genotyping was performed using PCR-based virulotyping, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Pathogenicity-associated phenotypes were determined with survival to free radicals, acidic pH, starvation, antimicrobial resistance, and survival within human dendritic cells. As result of PCR and PFGE assays, some isolates from the three hosts showed identical genotypic patterns, and through MLST it was determined that all of them belong to sequence type 11. Phenotypic assays show diversity of bacterial responses among isolates. When results were analyzed according to bacterial host, statistical differences were identified in starvation and dendritic cells survival assays. In addition, isolates from seabirds showed the highest rates of resistance to gentamycin, tetracycline, and ampicillin. Overall, the very close genetic and phenotypic traits shown by isolates from humans, poultry, and seabirds suggest the inter-species transmission of S. Enteritidis bacteria between hosts, likely through anthropogenic environmental contamination that determines infection of seabirds with bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for other susceptible organism, including humans. PMID:26029196

  6. Genetic and phenotypic evidence of the Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis human-animal interface in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Retamal, Patricio; Fresno, Marcela; Dougnac, Catherine; Gutierrez, Sindy; Gornall, Vanessa; Vidal, Roberto; Vernal, Rolando; Pujol, Myriam; Barreto, Marlen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Abalos, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is a worldwide zoonotic agent that has been recognized as a very important food-borne bacterial pathogen, mainly associated with consumption of poultry products. The aim of this work was to determine genotypic and phenotypic evidence of S. Enteritidis transmission among seabirds, poultry and humans in Chile. Genotyping was performed using PCR-based virulotyping, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Pathogenicity-associated phenotypes were determined with survival to free radicals, acidic pH, starvation, antimicrobial resistance, and survival within human dendritic cells. As result of PCR and PFGE assays, some isolates from the three hosts showed identical genotypic patterns, and through MLST it was determined that all of them belong to sequence type 11. Phenotypic assays show diversity of bacterial responses among isolates. When results were analyzed according to bacterial host, statistical differences were identified in starvation and dendritic cells survival assays. In addition, isolates from seabirds showed the highest rates of resistance to gentamycin, tetracycline, and ampicillin. Overall, the very close genetic and phenotypic traits shown by isolates from humans, poultry, and seabirds suggest the inter-species transmission of S. Enteritidis bacteria between hosts, likely through anthropogenic environmental contamination that determines infection of seabirds with bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for other susceptible organism, including humans. PMID:26029196

  7. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium in experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contaminated eggs produced by infected commercial laying flocks are often implicated as sources of human infections with Salmonella Enteritidis, but Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium have also been significantly associated with egg-transmitted illness. Contamination of the edible conten...

  8. Genetically Similar Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Persistent in China for a Long-Term Period.

    PubMed

    Song, Qifa; Shen, Xuanyi; Yang, Yuanbin; Zhang, Danyang; Gao, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is an important causative agent of nontyphoidal salmonellosis in human populations. In this study, we collected 72 S. Enteritidis strains from 2004 to 2014 in Ningbo, mid-east China. Of the 72 strains, we identified a dominant clone of 58 strains recovered from patient's feces (n = 48), blood (n = 1), pleural effusion (n = 1), chickens (n = 3), and dessert cakes (n = 5) by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). The profile arrangements of MLVA were SE1-SE2-SE3-SE5-SE6-SE8-SE9: 4-4-3-11-10-1-3. These dominant strains were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, cefotaxime and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and resistant to nalidixic acid. Additionally, all isolates harboured virulence genes invA, sipA, sopE, and spvB when tested by PCR. Our results reveal that genetically similar S. Enteritidis strains which accounted for several outbreaks as well as blood infection and pleural cavity infection are prevalent in China for a long-term period. This situation calls for further attention in the prevention and control of foodborne disease caused by Salmonella species. PMID:27228342

  9. Transposon Mutagenesis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Identifies Genes That Contribute to Invasiveness in Human and Chicken Cells and Survival in Egg Albumen

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaohui; Kim, Hye-Young; Call, Douglas R.; Guard, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is an important food-borne pathogen, and chickens are a primary reservoir of human infection. While most knowledge about Salmonella pathogenesis is based on research conducted on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis is known to have pathobiology specific to chickens that impacts epidemiology in humans. Therefore, more information is needed about S. Enteritidis pathobiology in comparison to that of S. Typhimurium. We used transposon mutagenesis to identify S. Enteritidis virulence genes by assay of invasiveness in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells and chicken liver (LMH) cells and survival within chicken (HD-11) macrophages as a surrogate marker for virulence. A total of 4,330 transposon insertion mutants of an invasive G1 Nalr strain were screened using Caco-2 cells. This led to the identification of attenuating mutations in a total of 33 different loci, many of which include genes previously known to contribute to enteric infection (e.g., Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 [SPI-1], SPI-4, SPI-5, CS54, fliH, fljB, csgB, spvR, and rfbMN) in S. Enteritidis and other Salmonella serovars. Several genes or genomic islands that have not been reported previously (e.g., SPI-14, ksgA, SEN0034, SEN2278, and SEN3503) or that are absent in S. Typhimurium or in most other Salmonella serovars (e.g., pegD, SEN1152, SEN1393, and SEN1966) were also identified. Most mutants with reduced Caco-2 cell invasiveness also showed significantly reduced invasiveness in chicken liver cells and impaired survival in chicken macrophages and in egg albumen. Consequently, these genes may play an important role during infection of the chicken host and also contribute to successful egg contamination by S. Enteritidis. PMID:22988017

  10. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat at retail markets in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thung, T Y; Mahyudin, N A; Basri, D F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, C W J; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Radu, S

    2016-08-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the major food-borne diseases in many countries. This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. The most probable number (MPN) in combination with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method was used to quantify the Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in the samples. The occurrence of Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in 120 chicken meat samples were 20.80%, 6.70%, and 2.50%, respectively with estimated quantity varying from <3 to 15 MPN/g. The antibiogram testing revealed differential multi-drug resistance among S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolates. All the isolates were resistance to erythromycin, penicillin, and vancomycin whereas sensitivity was recorded for Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid, Gentamicin, Tetracycline, and Trimethoprim. Our findings demonstrated that the retail chicken meat could be a source of multiple antimicrobial-resistance Salmonella and may constitute a public health concern in Malaysia. PMID:27118863

  11. Viable but nonrecoverable stage of Salmonella enteritidis in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Roszak, D B; Grimes, D J; Colwell, R R

    1984-03-01

    An environmental isolate (13- 1BB ) of Salmonella enteritidis serogroup C1 was inoculated into sterile Potomac River water microcosms to observe survival and culturability of the organism by employing acridine orange direct count, fluorescent antibody direct count, direct viable count, plate count on veal infusion agar and xylose lysine decarboxylase agar, and indirect enumeration by the most-probable-number method (MPN), using media selective for Salmonella. Loss of culturability on laboratory media was observed within 48 h. However, cultures could be "resuscitated" and cultured on solid media, following addition of nutrients to the microcosms . Cells, resuscitated 4 days after apparent "die-off" (0 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL) using plate count techniques, yielded numbers of cfu in the same order of magnitude as had been observed before the onset of nutrient limitation. Microscopic techniques for direct viable counting indicated that viability is maintained for as long as 60 days after depletion of nutrients, although attempts to culture these cells, by addition of nutrient, after 21 days yielded apparently sterile plates. Thus, longer periods of "dormancy" appear to require conditions other than simple nutrient addition for resumption of cell growth and division. PMID:6372975

  12. Identification of SNPs in two Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT13a pathotypes that point to epidemiological trends.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the most frequent cause of salmonellosis in the world. Epidemiological data from the Centers for Disease Control indicates that the incidence of illness from S. Enteritidis in the United States increased during 2005 despi...

  13. In vitro multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis on the egg yolk membrane and penetration to the yolk contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigeration to limit bacterial multiplication is a critical aspect of efforts to control the transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) to consumers of contaminated eggs. Although the nutrient-rich yolk interior is an uncommon location for S. Enteritidis contaminatio...

  14. Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure Pulsing on the Inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis in Liquid Whole Egg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella in Eggs and egg-containing foods have caused numerous food-borne outbreaks and recalls. Liquid whole egg inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis at 108 CFU/ml were treated with continuous or repeating hydrostatic -pressures (300 MPa to 400 MPa) at 25C, 40C and 50C for up to 40 min. Treatme...

  15. Antibacterial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde on Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in chicken drinking water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are two major food-borne pathogens in the US, accounting to more than 3 million cases of human illness annually. Chickens are the natural hosts of these bacteria and their drinking water can be a potential source of Salmonella and Campylobacter resulti...

  16. Circulating γδ T Cells in Response to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Exposure in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Angela; Pieper, Jana; Methner, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    γδ T cells are considered crucial to the outcome of various infectious diseases. The present study was undertaken to characterize γδ (T-cell receptor 1+ [TCR1+]) T cells phenotypically and functionally in avian immune response. Day-old chicks were orally immunized with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis live vaccine or S. enterica serovar Enteritidis wild-type strain and infected using the S. enterica serovar Enteritidis wild-type strain on day 44 of life. Between days 3 and 71, peripheral blood was examined flow cytometrically for the occurrence of γδ T-cell subpopulations differentiated by the expression of T-cell antigens. Three different TCR1+ cell populations were found to display considerable variation regarding CD8α antigen expression: (i) CD8α+high TCR1+ cells, (ii) CD8α+dim TCR1+ cells, and (iii) CD8α− TCR1+ cells. While most of the CD8α+high TCR1+ cells expressed the CD8αβ heterodimeric antigen, the majority of the CD8α+dim TCR1+ cells were found to express the CD8αα homodimeric form. After immunization, a significant increase of CD8αα+high γδ T cells was observed within the CD8α+high TCR1+ cell population. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed reduced interleukin-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) and Bcl-x expression and elevated IL-2Rα mRNA expression of the CD8αα+high γδ T cells. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a significant increase of CD8α+ and TCR1+ cells in the cecum and spleen and a decreased percentage of CD8β+ T cells in the spleen after Salmonella immunization. After infection of immunized animals, immune reactions were restricted to intestinal tissue. The study showed that Salmonella immunization of very young chicks is accompanied by an increase of CD8αα+high γδ T cells in peripheral blood, which are probably activated, and thus represent an important factor for the development of a protective immune response to Salmonella organisms in chickens. PMID:16790770

  17. Identification of Key Genes in the Response to Salmonella enterica Enteritidis, Salmonella enterica Pullorum, and Poly(I:C) in Chicken Spleen and Caecum

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Zhongwei; Dai, Aiqin; Zhai, Fei; Li, Jianchao; Xia, Mingxiu; Hua, Dengke; Xu, Lu; Wang, Hongzhi; Chen, Jing; Liu, Lu; Chen, Guohong

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and Salmonella enterica Pullorum (S. pullorum) are regarded as a threat to poultry production. This study's aim is to characterize the expression profiles in response to three different challenges and to identify infection-related genes in the chicken spleen and caecum. Groups of the Chinese chicken breed Langshan were challenged with either S. Enteritidis, S. pullorum, or poly(I:C). The concentrations of cytokines and antibodies and the Salmonella colonization level of the caecum and liver were detected in each group at 7 days postinfection. Expression microarray experiments were conducted using mRNA isolated from both spleen and caecum. Crucial differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with immunity were identified. Four DEGs were identified in spleen of all three challenge groups (RBM16, FAH, SOX5, and RBM9) and different four genes in caecum (SOUL, FCN2, ANLN, and ACSL1). Expression profiles were clearly different among the three challenged groups. Genes enriched in the spleen of birds infected with S. pullorum were enriched in lymphocyte proliferation related pathways, but the enriched genes in the caecum of the same group were primarily enriched in innate immunity or antibacterial responses. The DEGs that appear across all three challenge groups might represent global response factors for different pathogens. PMID:24707473

  18. Salmonella Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... vegetables. You also can get infected after handling pets, especially reptiles like snakes, turtles, and lizards. Symptoms include Fever Diarrhea Abdominal cramps Headache Possible nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite Symptoms usually last 4-7 days. ...

  19. Induction of CXC chemokine mRNA expression in chicken oviduct epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis via the type three secretion system-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The messenger-RNA (mRNA) expression of selected cytokines and chemokines in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) was determined following in vitro infection with wild type or type three secretion system (T3SS) mutant Salmonella enteritidis (SE) strains. All SE strains examined in this stu...

  20. Effect of in-feed supplementation of trans-cinnamaldehyde and caprylic acid on chicken cecal microbiome in response to Salmonella Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen causing enteric illnesses in humans, with undercooked eggs and poultry meat as the primary sources of infection. Our previous research revealed that in-feed supplementation of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-status, natural compounds,...

  1. Microarray analysis of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 8 treated with subinhibitory concentrations of trans-cinnamaldehyde or eugenol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 8 (PT8) is a major poultry-associated Salmonella isolate implicated in foodborne outbreaks in the United States. We previously reported that the GRAS-status plant-derived compounds trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) significantly reduced S. Enteritidis colon...

  2. Emerging Salmonella Enteritidis anaerogenic phage type 14b: outbreak in Norwegian, Swedish and Finnish travellers returning from Greece.

    PubMed

    Guerin, P J; Nygard, K; Siitonen, A; Vold, L; Kuusi, M; de Jong, B; Rottingen, J A; Alvseike, O; Olsson, A; Lassen, J; Andersson, Y; Aavitsland, P

    2006-01-01

    In July 2001, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (Folkehelseinstituttet, FHI) reported a cluster of Salmonella Enteritidis of phage type 14b infections in Norwegian travellers returning from Greece. An increase in the same uncommon phage type was also registered in Sweden and Finland at the same time. Cases of S. Enteritidis PT 14b in patients returning from Greece were reported in these three Nordic countries in 2001 (303 cases), 2002 (164 cases) and 2003 (199 cases). Case-control studies performed in 2001 in Norway and Sweden indicated that consumption of chicken was associated with illness. In 2002 and 2003, continuing case reports indicated that this uncommon phage type had probably become established in the Greek food chain. Tour operators were informed and contacts were made with Greek public health authorities. Because place of infection is not systematically included in most Salmonella notification systems, the S. Enteritidis phage type 14b outbreak reported here may represent only part of a larger outbreak among travellers visiting Greece. Infections are often reported only in the tourists' home countries and public health authorities in the tourist destinations may not be aware of the problem. Further collaboration between national institutes of public health in Europe is needed to detect outbreaks occurring among tourists. PMID:16525196

  3. Investigation of the distribution and control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT6 in layer breeding and egg production.

    PubMed

    Davies, Robert; Liebana, Ernesto; Breslin, Mark

    2003-06-01

    Investigations were carried out in a layer breeder hatchery, a layer parent rearing farm, a layer parent farm and in a commercial pullet rearing and cage layer farm where Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) PT6 had become established. PT6 was initially found in focal points in the hatchery, such as hatcher ventilation ducting, tray wash areas and waste areas, but improved disinfection was followed by a rapid disappearance of contamination. Several different phage types of S. Enteritidis were found in the hatchery but most of these proved to be genotypically identical with PT6. Investigations of contaminated layer breeder and rearing sites showed that the terminal disinfection programmes in place were effective in that no carry-over of infection occurred and the organism was rapidly eliminated from the organization. Infection with PT6 originating from chicks was investigated on a commercial pullet rearing farm. After several rounds of treatment with a fluoroquinolone antibiotic and competitive exclusion, no Salmonella was found in faeces or cloacal swabs but was present in dust in one of six houses. Sampling carried out after cleaning and disinfection confirmed clearance of the organism from the site, but infection did become established in a commercial laying house receiving the birds. PMID:12850912

  4. Effect of Salmonella infection on cecal tonsil regulatory T cell properties in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to study Regulatory T cell (Treg) properties post-Salmonella infection in broiler birds. Four-day-old broiler chicks were orally infected with 5x106 CFU/ml Salmonella enteritidis or sterile PBS (control). Samples were collected at 4, 7, 10, and 14 d post-infection. ...

  5. Rapid real-time PCR methods to distinguish Salmonella Enteritidis wildtype field isolates from vaccine strains Salmovac SE/Gallivac SE and AviPro SALMONELLA VAC E.

    PubMed

    Maurischat, Sven; Szabo, Istvan; Baumann, Beatrice; Malorny, Burkhard

    2015-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major non-typhoid Salmonella serovar causing human salmonellosis mainly associated with the consumption of poultry and products thereof. To reduce infections in poultry, S. Enteritidis live vaccine strains AviPro SALMONELLA VAC E and Salmovac SE/Gallivac SE have been licensed and used in several countries worldwide. To definitively diagnose a S. Enteritidis contamination in vaccinated herds a reliable and fast method for the differentiation between vaccine and wildtype field isolates is required. In this study, we developed and validated real-time PCR (qPCR) assays to distinguish those variants genetically. Suitable target sequences were identified by whole genome sequencing (WGS) using the Illumina MiSeq system. SNP regions in kdpA and nhaA proved to be most useful for differentiation of AviPro SALMONELLA VAC E and Salmovac SE/Gallivac SE, respectively, from wildtype strains. For each vaccine strain one TaqMan-qPCR assay and one alternative approach using High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis was designed. All 30 Salmovac SE and 7 AviPro SALMONELLA VAC E vaccine strain reisolates tested were correctly identified by both approaches (100% inclusivity). Furthermore, all 137 (TaqMan) and 97 (HRM) Salmonella non-vaccine and related Enterobacteriaceae strains tested were excluded (100% exclusivity). The analytical detection limits were determined to be approx. 10(2) genome copies/reaction for the TaqMan and 10(4) genome copies/reaction for the HRM approach. The real-time PCR assays proved to be a reliable and fast alternative to the cultural vaccine strain identification tests helping decision makers in control measurements to take action within a shorter period of time. PMID:25794902

  6. Development and Optimization of a Novel Immunomagnetic Separation- Bacteriophage Assay for Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis in Broth

    PubMed Central

    Favrin, Stacy J.; Jassim, Sabah A.; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2001-01-01

    Salmonella is the second-leading cause of food-borne illness in most developed countries, causing diarrhea, cramps, vomiting, and often fever. Many rapid methods are available for detection of Salmonella in foods, but these methods are often insensitive or expensive or require a high degree of technical ability to perform. In this paper we describe development and characterization of a novel assay that utilizes the normal infection cycle of bacteriophage SJ2 for detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in broth. The assay consists of four main stages: (i) capture and concentration of target cells by using immunomagnetic separation (IMS); (ii) infection of the target bacterium with phage; (iii) amplification and recovery of progeny phage; and (iv) assay of progeny phage on the basis of their effect on a healthy population of host cells (signal-amplifying cells). The end point of the assay can be determined by using either fluorescence or optical density measurements. The detection limit of the assay in broth is less than 104 CFU/ml, and the assay can be performed in 4 to 5 h. The results of this study demonstrate that the IMS-bacteriophage assay is a rapid, simple, and sensitive technique for detection of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis in broth cultures which can be applied to preenriched food samples. PMID:11133448

  7. Reduction of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Colonization in 20-Day-Old Broiler Chickens by the Plant-Derived Compounds trans-Cinnamaldehyde and Eugenol

    PubMed Central

    Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Mattson, Tyler; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne; Babapoor, Sankhiros; March, Benjamin; Valipe, Satyender; Darre, Michael; Hoagland, Thomas; Schreiber, David; Khan, Mazhar I.; Donoghue, Ann; Donoghue, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The efficacies of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) for reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in broiler chickens were investigated. In three experiments for each compound, 1-day-old chicks (n = 75/experiment) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (n = 15/treatment group): negative control (-ve S. Enteritidis, -ve TC, or EG), compound control (-ve S. Enteritidis, +ve 0.75% [vol/wt] TC or 1% [vol/wt] EG), positive control (+ve S. Enteritidis, -ve TC, or EG), low-dose treatment (+ve S. Enteritidis, +ve 0.5% TC, or 0.75% EG), and high-dose treatment (+ve S. Enteritidis, +ve 0.75% TC, or 1% EG). On day 0, birds were tested for the presence of any inherent Salmonella (n = 5/experiment). On day 8, birds were inoculated with ∼8.0 log10 CFU S. Enteritidis, and cecal colonization by S. Enteritidis was ascertained (n = 10 chicks/experiment) after 24 h (day 9). Six birds from each treatment group were euthanized on days 7 and 10 after inoculation, and cecal S. Enteritidis numbers were determined. TC at 0.5 or 0.75% and EG at 0.75 or 1% consistently reduced (P < 0.05) S. Enteritidis in the cecum (≥3 log10 CFU/g) after 10 days of infection in all experiments. Feed intake and body weight were not different for TC treatments (P > 0.05); however, EG supplementation led to significantly lower (P < 0.05) body weights. Follow-up in vitro experiments revealed that the subinhibitory concentrations (SICs, the concentrations that did not inhibit Salmonella growth) of TC and EG reduced the motility and invasive abilities of S. Enteritidis and downregulated expression of the motility genes flhC and motA and invasion genes hilA, hilD, and invF. The results suggest that supplementation with TC and EG through feed can reduce S. Enteritidis colonization in chickens. PMID:22327574

  8. [Significance of Salmonella enteritidis in outbreaks of diseases transmitted by foods in Argentina, 1986-1988].

    PubMed

    Eiguer, T; Caffer, M I; Fronchkowsky, G B

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the outbreaks of food-borne-diseases due to Salmonella Enteritidis which occurred in Argentina between 1986 and 1988. In 39 registered episodes 210 strains were isolated from human feces (28 outbreaks) and 59 from food (23 outbreaks). More than 2,500 people in different provinces were affected, the chief characteristics of the clinical picture being the gravity of the symptoms (high temperature, vomiting, diarrhea and severe dehydration). The main source of infection was related to raw eggs, eaten in the form of home-made mayonnaise. It is considered necessary to carry out an effective control of poultry products, as well as a permanent surveillance of salmonellosis. PMID:2274662

  9. Effect of selected antibiotics and anticoccidials on Salmonella enteritidis cecal colonization and organ invasion in Leghorn chicks.

    PubMed

    Manning, J G; Hargis, B M; Hinton, A; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R; Creger, C R

    1994-01-01

    One-day-old leghorn chicks were placed in floor pens on previously used poultry litter (potentially providing exposure to normal chicken enteric flora) for 7 days and provided feed containing one of several antibiotics or anticoccidials. On day 7, all groups were challenged orally with an isolate of Salmonella enteritidis (10(6) colony-forming units) that was resistant to bacitracin, novobiocin, nalidixic acid, and nitrofurazone. All chicks were killed on day 13, and liver, spleen, and cecal tonsils were cultured. Dietary administration of novobiocin (0.385 g/kg) caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) in positive chick colonization rate (either liver and spleen or cecal tonsils) compared with the unmedicated controls. Similarly, chicks administered dietary nitrofurazone (0.3 g/kg) were infected with S. enteritidis at a significantly greater frequency than the unmedicated controls. A significant decrease in cecal volatile fatty acid concentration, previously shown to influence susceptibility to selected enteric pathogens, was observed in the novobiocin- and nitrofurazone-treated groups. Treatment with chlortetracycline (11.4 g/kg), monensin (0.91 g/kg), or nicarbazin (0.49 g/kg) had no effect on S. enteritidis invasion or colonization. Bacitracin (0.49 g/kg) significantly increased S. enteritidis cecal colonization rate when administered continuously throughout the study. These data support and extend previous investigations involving other salmonellae and indicate that selected antibiotics may increase the severity and frequency of S. enteritidis colonization and invasion rate in leghorn chicks. PMID:7980273

  10. Contribution of the Type VI Secretion System Encoded in SPI-19 to Chicken Colonization by Salmonella enterica Serotypes Gallinarum and Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, Carlos J.; Yang, Hee-Jeong; Castro, Benjamín; Chiang, Sebastián; Toro, Cecilia S.; Zaldívar, Mercedes; Contreras, Inés; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.; Santiviago, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella Gallinarum is a pathogen with a host range specific to poultry, while Salmonella Enteritidis is a broad host range pathogen that colonizes poultry sub-clinically but is a leading cause of gastrointestinal salmonellosis in humans and many other species. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the complex interplay between Salmonella and their hosts, the molecular basis of host range restriction and unique pathobiology of Gallinarum remain largely unknown. Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) represents a new paradigm of protein secretion that is critical for the pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria. We recently identified a putative T6SS in the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 19 (SPI-19) of Gallinarum. In Enteritidis, SPI-19 is a degenerate element that has lost most of the T6SS functions encoded in the island. In this work, we studied the contribution of SPI-19 to the colonization of Salmonella Gallinarum strain 287/91 in chickens. Non-polar deletion mutants of SPI-19 and the clpV gene, an essential T6SS component, colonized the ileum, ceca, liver and spleen of White Leghorn chicks poorly compared to the wild-type strain after oral inoculation. Return of SPI-19 to the ΔSPI-19 mutant, using VEX-Capture, complemented this colonization defect. In contrast, transfer of SPI-19 from Gallinarum to Enteritidis resulted in transient increase in the colonization of the ileum, liver and spleen at day 1 post-infection, but at days 3 and 5 post-infection a strong colonization defect of the gut and internal organs of the experimentally infected chickens was observed. Our data indicate that SPI-19 and the T6SS encoded in this region contribute to the colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and internal organs of chickens by Salmonella Gallinarum and suggest that degradation of SPI-19 T6SS in Salmonella Enteritidis conferred an advantage in colonization of the avian host. PMID:20661437

  11. O-antigen chain-length distribution in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is regulated by oxygen availability.

    PubMed

    Silva-Valenzuela, Cecilia A; Velásquez, Felipe; Peñailillo, Johany; Garcias-Papayani, Héctor; Fernández, Paulina; Tobar, Pía; Contreras, Inés; Santiviago, Carlos A; Álvarez, Sergio A

    2016-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) consists of three covalently linked domains: the lipid A, the core region and the O antigen (OAg), consisting of repeats of an oligosaccharide. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) produces a LPS with two OAg preferred chain lengths: a long (L)-OAg controlled by WzzSE and a very long (VL)-OAg controlled by WzzfepE. In this work, we show that OAg produced by S. Enteritidis grown in E minimal medium also presented two preferred chain-lengths. However, a simultaneous and opposing change in the production of L-OAg and VL-OAg was observed in response to oxygen availability. Biochemical and genetics analyses indicate that this process is regulated by transcriptional factors Fnr and ArcA by means of controlling the transcription of genes encoding WzzSE and WzzfepE in response to oxygen availability. Thus, our results revealed a sophisticated regulatory mechanism involved in the adaptation of S. Enteritidis to one of the main environmental cues faced by this pathogen during infection. PMID:27343553

  12. Salmonella Infections in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Bula-Rudas, Fernando J; Rathore, Mobeen H; Maraqa, Nizar F

    2015-08-01

    Salmonella are gram-negative bacilli within the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Animals (pets) are an important reservoir for nontyphoidal Salmonella, whereas humans are the only natural host and reservoir for Salmonella Typhi. Salmonella infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They account for an estimated 2.8 billion cases of diarrheal disease each year. The transmission of Salmonella is frequently associated with the consumption of contaminated water and food of animal origin, and it is facilitated by conditions of poor hygiene. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections have a worldwide distribution, whereas most typhoidal Salmonella infections in the United States are acquired abroad. In the United States, Salmonella is a common agent for food-borne–associated infections. Several outbreaks have been identified and are most commonly associated with agricultural products. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is usually characterized by a self-limited gastroenteritis in immunocompetent hosts in industrialized countries, but it may also cause invasive disease in vulnerable individuals (eg, children less than 1 year of age, immunocompromised). Antibiotic treatment is not recommended for treatment of mild to moderate gastroenteritis by nontyphoidal Salmonella in immunocompetent adults or children more than 1 year of age. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in infants less than 3 months of age, because they are at higher risk for bacteremia and extraintestinal complications. Typhoid (enteric) fever and its potential complications have a significant impact on children, especially those who live in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of typhoid fever has become challenging because of the emergence of Salmonella Typhi strains that are resistant to classically used first-line agents: ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. The

  13. In Vitro Penetration of Egg Yolks by Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg Strains During 36-hour Ambient Temperature Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Salmonella deposition inside egg yolks is uncommon, migration through the vitelline membrane into the nutrient-rich yolk contents could enable rapid bacterial multiplication. Egg refrigeration restricts both penetration and growth, but a recently proposed national S. enteritidis control pro...

  14. Red Seaweeds Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii and Chondrus crispus down Regulate Virulence Factors of Salmonella Enteritidis and Induce Immune Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Borza, Tudor; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn S.; Thomas, Nikhil A.; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Red seaweeds are a rich source of unique bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites that are known to improve human and animal health. S. Enteritidis is a broad range host pathogen, which contaminates chicken and poultry products that end into the human food chain. Worldwide, Salmonella outbreaks have become an important economic and public health concern. Moreover, the development of resistance in Salmonella serovars toward multiple drugs highlights the need for alternative control strategies. This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of red seaweeds extracts against Salmonella Enteritidis using the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. Six red seaweed species were tested for their antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis and two, Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG) and Chondrus crispus (CC), were found to exhibit such properties. Spread plate assay revealed that SG and CC (1%, w/v) significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis. Seaweed water extracts (SWE) of SG and CC, at concentrations from 0.4 to 2 mg/ml, significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis (log CFU 4.5–5.3 and log 5.7–6.0, respectively). However, methanolic extracts of CC and SG did not affect the growth of S. Enteritidis. Addition of SWE (0.2 mg/ml, CC and SG) significantly decreased biofilm formation and reduced the motility of S. Enteritidis. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that SWE (CC and SG) suppressed the expression of quorum sensing gene sdiA and of Salmonella Pathogenesis Island-1 (SPI-1) associated genes sipA and invF, indicating that SWE might reduce the invasion of S. Enteritidis in the host by attenuating virulence factors. Furthermore, CC and SG water extracts significantly improved the survival of infected C. elegans by impairing the ability of S. Enteritidis to colonize the digestive tract of the nematode and by enhancing the expression of C. elegans immune responsive genes. As the innate immune response pathways of C. elegans and mammals show a

  15. Red Seaweeds Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii and Chondrus crispus down Regulate Virulence Factors of Salmonella Enteritidis and Induce Immune Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Borza, Tudor; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn S; Thomas, Nikhil A; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Red seaweeds are a rich source of unique bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites that are known to improve human and animal health. S. Enteritidis is a broad range host pathogen, which contaminates chicken and poultry products that end into the human food chain. Worldwide, Salmonella outbreaks have become an important economic and public health concern. Moreover, the development of resistance in Salmonella serovars toward multiple drugs highlights the need for alternative control strategies. This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of red seaweeds extracts against Salmonella Enteritidis using the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. Six red seaweed species were tested for their antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis and two, Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG) and Chondrus crispus (CC), were found to exhibit such properties. Spread plate assay revealed that SG and CC (1%, w/v) significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis. Seaweed water extracts (SWE) of SG and CC, at concentrations from 0.4 to 2 mg/ml, significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis (log CFU 4.5-5.3 and log 5.7-6.0, respectively). However, methanolic extracts of CC and SG did not affect the growth of S. Enteritidis. Addition of SWE (0.2 mg/ml, CC and SG) significantly decreased biofilm formation and reduced the motility of S. Enteritidis. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that SWE (CC and SG) suppressed the expression of quorum sensing gene sdiA and of Salmonella Pathogenesis Island-1 (SPI-1) associated genes sipA and invF, indicating that SWE might reduce the invasion of S. Enteritidis in the host by attenuating virulence factors. Furthermore, CC and SG water extracts significantly improved the survival of infected C. elegans by impairing the ability of S. Enteritidis to colonize the digestive tract of the nematode and by enhancing the expression of C. elegans immune responsive genes. As the innate immune response pathways of C. elegans and mammals show a high

  16. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms that Differentiate Two Subpopulations of Salmonella Enteritidis Within Phage Type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is currently the world’s leading cause of salmonellosis, in part because of its ability to contaminate the internal contents of eggs. Comparative whole genome mutational mapping of two PT13a strains that historically varied in the ability to contaminate eggs a...

  17. 21 CFR 118.6 - Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or processed as egg products in accordance with the Egg Products Inspection Act, 21 CFR 118.6(f... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.6...

  18. 21 CFR 118.6 - Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or processed as egg products in accordance with the Egg Products Inspection Act, 21 CFR 118.6(f... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.6...

  19. 21 CFR 118.6 - Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or processed as egg products in accordance with the Egg Products Inspection Act, 21 CFR 118.6(f... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.6...

  20. 21 CFR 118.6 - Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or processed as egg products in accordance with the Egg Products Inspection Act, 21 CFR 118.6(f... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.6...

  1. 21 CFR 118.6 - Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or processed as egg products in accordance with the Egg Products Inspection Act, 21 CFR 118.6(f... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.6...

  2. 21 CFR 118.8 - Testing methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testing methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.8 Section 118.8 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.8 Testing methodology for...

  3. 21 CFR 118.8 - Testing methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testing methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.8 Section 118.8 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.8 Testing methodology for...

  4. Differential Transcriptional Regulation Between Egg-contaminating and Non-egg-contaminating Strains of Salmonella Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is the most common cause of food-borne salmonellosis primarily transmitted by contaminated poultry eggs. Despite its genetically clonal nature, SE strains differ markedly in their ability to disseminate systemically in chickens and subsequently invade the inte...

  5. Thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in commercially acquired 10% salted liquid whole egg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid egg pasteurization requirements are based on time/temperature combinations in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Ch. III, Sec. 590.570 from data acquired prior to 1970. These guidelines are being reevaluated in light of recent risk assessments. Heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidi...

  6. Genomic epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis based on population structure of prevalent lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) is one of the most commonly reported causes of human salmonellosis. The low genetic diversity of SE measured by fingerprinting methods has made subtyping a challenge. In this study, we used whole genome sequencing to characterize a total of 125 SE and Sa...

  7. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis Population Sizes on Almond Kernels with Infrared Heat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catalytic infrared (IR) heating was investigated to determine its effect on Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis population sizes on raw almond kernels. Using a double-sided catalytic infrared heating system, a radiation intensity of 5458 W/m2 caused a fast temperature increase at the kernel surf...

  8. Removal of Salmonella Enteritidis from commercial† unpasteurized liquid egg white using pilot scale crossflow tangential microfiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of a pilot-scale cross-flow microfiltration (MF) process for removal of Salmonella enteritidis from liquid egg white (LEW) was evaluated. To facilitate MF, 110 L of unpasteurized LEW from a local egg breaking plant was first wedge screened, homogenized and then diluted (1:2 w/w) w...

  9. Inactivation kinetics of a four-strain composite of Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in commercial liquid egg yolk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to develop a general model of inactivation of salmonellae in commercial liquid egg yolk for temperatures ranging from 58 to 66 deg C by studying the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in liquid egg yolk. Heat-resistant salmonellae (three serovars of Enteritidis [two of p...

  10. Evolutionary trends in two strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis PT13a that vary in virulence potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the world's leading cause of salmonellosis. Eggs contaminated by apparently healthy hens and that have been improperly cooked can result in illness in humans who consume them. Although the incidence of this pathogen within the Uni...

  11. Detection of Polymorphism in a Diguanylate Cyclase of Egg-Contaminating Salmonella enteritidis Deficient in Biofilm Formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. enteritidis) is a model organism for evaluating how genetic drift impacts phenotype, because mutational mapping of clonally related pathotypes has been completed and small scale evolutionary events (SSEE) are being linked to the ability of this food-borne...

  12. Evolutionary trends in two strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis PT13a that vary in virulence potential.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the world's leading cause of salmonellosis. Eggs contaminated by apparently healthy hens and that have been improperly cooked can result in illness in humans who consume them. Although the incidence of this pathogen within the Unit...

  13. Critical role of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß in regulating the avian heterophil response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microarray-assisted gene expression screen of chicken heterophils revealed glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß), a multifunctional Ser/Thr kinase, to be consistently up-regulated 30-180 min following stimulation with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). The present study was ...

  14. Evolutionary trends in two strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis PT13a that vary in virulence potential.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the world's leading cause of salmonellosis. Eggs contaminated by apparently healthy hens can result in illness in humans who consume them. Although the incidence of this pathogen within the United States has not been as high as it ...

  15. Evolutionary trends in two strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis PT13a that vary in virulence potential.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the world's leading cause of salmonellosis. Eggs that are contaminated by apparently healthy hens and that have been improperly cooked can result in illness in humans who consume them. Although the incidence of this pathogen within...

  16. Multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolks after inoculation outside, on, and inside vitelline membranes and storage at different temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prompt refrigeration to restrict bacterial growth is a widely acknowledged practice for reducing the risk of egg-borne transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis to consumers. A recently published federal regulation for S. Enteritidis control requires eggs to be refrigerated within 36 after they are la...

  17. Genetic Diversity and Evolution of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Strains with Different Phage Types

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, James; Strain, Errol; Allard, Marc W.; Ahmed, Rafiq; Zhao, Shaohua; Brown, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Phage typing has been used for the epidemiological surveillance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis for over 2 decades. However, knowledge of the genetic and evolutionary relationships between phage types is very limited, making differences difficult to interpret. Here, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from whole-genome comparisons were used to determine the relationships between some S. Enteritidis phage types (PTs) commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in the United States. Emphasis was placed on the predominant phage types PT8, PT13a, and PT13 in North America. With >89,400 bp surveyed across 98 S. Enteritidis isolates representing 14 distinct phage types, 55 informative SNPs were discovered within 23 chromosomally anchored loci. To maximize the discriminatory and evolutionary partitioning of these highly homogeneous strains, sequences comprising informative SNPs were concatenated into a single combined data matrix and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The resultant phylogeny allocated most S. Enteritidis isolates into two distinct clades (clades I and II) and four subclades. Synapomorphic (shared and derived) sets of SNPs capable of distinguishing individual clades/subclades were identified. However, individual phage types appeared to be evolutionarily disjunct when mapped to this phylogeny, suggesting that phage typing may not be valid for making phylogenetic inferences. Furthermore, the set of SNPs identified here represents useful genetic markers for strain differentiation of more clonal S. Enteritidis strains and provides core genotypic markers for future development of a SNP typing scheme with S. Enteritidis. PMID:24574287

  18. Cloning and expression of a Salmonella enteritidis fimbrin gene in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Feutrier, J; Kay, W W; Trust, T J

    1988-01-01

    A gene bank of DNA from a human isolate of Salmonella enteritidis was constructed in the cosmid pHC79 in Escherichia coli HB101. Five clones containing 35- to 45-kilobase inserts of S. enteritidis DNA reacted in colony immunoblot assays with a polyclonal antiserum prepared against purified S. enteritidis fimbriae. Electron microscopy showed that none of the five fimbrin-producing clones produced fimbriae, yet radioimmunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis located the 14,400-molecular-weight S. enteritidis in the outer membrane fraction of three of the clones and in the periplasmic fraction of all five clones. By using an oligonucleotide probe homologous to the 5' region of the fimbrin structural gene, the fimbrin gene was located on a 5.3-kilobase HindIII fragment. In vitro transcription-translation analysis verified that this HindIII fragment subcloned into plasmid pTZ18R produced unprocessed S. enteritidis fimbrin of molecular weight 16,400. Dot blot hybridization against a selection of strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae indicated a limited distribution of the S. enteritidis fimbrin gene. Images PMID:2900832

  19. Antimicrobial effect of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extracts against the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the antimicrobial effects of berry extracts obtained from four cultivars (Elliott, Darrow, Bluecrop and Duke) of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal conc...

  20. SHV-12-Like Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Strains of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Babelsberg and Enteritidis Isolated in France among Infants Adopted from Mali

    PubMed Central

    Weill, François-Xavier; Demartin, Marie; Tandé, Didier; Espié, Emmanuelle; Rakotoarivony, Ignace; Grimont, Patrick A. D.

    2004-01-01

    From December 2002 to June 2003, 14 cultures of Salmonella enterica serotype Babelsberg and 6 cultures of serotype Enteritidis, isolated in France from internationally adopted children, were identified at the French National Reference Center for Salmonella. All serotype Babelsberg isolates were related, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and all serotype Enteritidis strains displayed the same phage type. All serotype Enteritidis and seven serotype Babelsberg isolates produced an SHV-12-like extended-spectrum β-lactamase as determined by sequencing of PCR products and by isoelectrofocusing. Some serotype Enteritidis isolates exhibited additional antimicrobial resistance (aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim). Our investigation indicated that these Salmonella isolates were certainly acquired in the same orphanage in Bamako, Mali, before the children were adopted by French families. An inappropriate use of ceftriaxone was probably the cause of the emergence of such strains. There is an urgent need to determine the origin of the contamination and to introduce adequate antibiotic protocols into this orphanage to prevent further transmission and dissemination. Screening for infections and follow-up, adapted to the origin of the internationally adopted children, should be recommended. PMID:15184415

  1. Application of bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus cricetus S760 for treating Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella-associated infections in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enteritidis are leading food-borne pathogens worldwide. An important natural reservoir for these pathogens is commercially distributed poultry. Objective: To control C. jejuni and S. enteritidis associated infections in broilers by treating with a p...

  2. Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Prerak T.; den Bakker, Henk C.; Mikoleit, Matthew; Tolar, Beth; Trees, Eija; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Frye, Jonathan G.; Porwollik, Steffen; Weimer, Bart C.; Wiedmann, Martin; Weinstock, George M.; Fields, Patricia I.; McClelland, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is one of the most commonly reported causes of human salmonellosis. Its low genetic diversity, measured by fingerprinting methods, has made subtyping a challenge. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize 125 S. enterica Enteritidis and 3 S. enterica serotype Nitra strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were filtered to identify 4,887 reliable loci that distinguished all isolates from each other. Our whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism typing approach was robust for S. enterica Enteritidis subtyping with combined data for different strains from 2 different sequencing platforms. Five major genetic lineages were recognized, which revealed possible patterns of geographic and epidemiologic distribution. Analyses on the population dynamics and evolutionary history estimated that major lineages emerged during the 17th–18th centuries and diversified during the 1920s and 1950s. PMID:25147968

  3. Review of induced molting by feed removal and contamination of eggs with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neal J; Marks, Harry H; Coleman, Margaret E; Schroeder, Carl M; Bauer, Nathan E; Schlosser, Wayne D

    2008-10-15

    As laying hens age, egg production and quality decreases. Egg producers can impose an induced molt on older hens that results in increased egg productivity and decreased hen mortality compared with non-molted hens of the same age. This review discusses the effect of induced molting by feed removal on immune parameters, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) invasion and subsequent production of SE-contaminated eggs. Experimental oral infections with SE show molted hens are more susceptible to SE infection and produce more SE-contaminated eggs in the first few weeks post-molt compared with pre-molt egg production. In addition, it appears that molted hens are more likely to disseminate SE into their environment. Molted hens are more susceptible to SE infection by contact exposure to experimentally infected hens; thus, transmission of SE among molted hens could be more rapid than non-molted birds. Histological examination of the gastrointestinal tracts of molted SE-infected hens revealed more frequent and severe intestinal mucosal lesions compared with non-molted SE-infected hens. These data suggest that induced molting by feed deprivation alters the normal asymptomatic host-pathogen relationship. Published data suggest the highest proportion of SE-positive eggs is produced within 1-5 weeks post-molt and decreases sharply by 6-10 weeks and dissipates to the background level for non-molted hens by 11-20 weeks. Appropriate treatment measures of eggs produced in the fist 5 weeks post-molting may decrease the risk of foodborne infections to humans. PMID:18479846

  4. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (c) Rodents, flies, and other pest control. As part of this program, you must: (1) Monitor for... conditions. “SE monitored” means the pullets are raised under SE control conditions that prevent SE... National Poultry Improvement Plan's standards for “U.S. S. Enteritidis Clean” status (9 CFR 145.23(d))...

  5. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... National Poultry Improvement Plan's standards for “U.S. S. Enteritidis Clean” status (9 CFR 145.23(d)) or... pullet house with spray, aerosol, fumigation, or another appropriate disinfection method. (b) Biosecurity... rodents by visual inspection and mechanical traps or glueboards or another appropriate monitoring...

  6. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... National Poultry Improvement Plan's standards for “U.S. S. Enteritidis Clean” status (9 CFR 145.23(d)) or... pullet house with spray, aerosol, fumigation, or another appropriate disinfection method. (b) Biosecurity... rodents by visual inspection and mechanical traps or glueboards or another appropriate monitoring...

  7. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... National Poultry Improvement Plan's standards for “U.S. S. Enteritidis Clean” status (9 CFR 145.23(d)) or... pullet house with spray, aerosol, fumigation, or another appropriate disinfection method. (b) Biosecurity... rodents by visual inspection and mechanical traps or glueboards or another appropriate monitoring...

  8. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... National Poultry Improvement Plan's standards for “U.S. S. Enteritidis Clean” status (9 CFR 145.23(d)) or.... (c) Rodents, flies, and other pest control. As part of this program, you must: (1) Monitor for... methods to achieve satisfactory rodent control; (2) Monitor for flies by spot cards, Scudder grills,...

  9. Salmonella Neck Abscess as an Opportunistic Infection in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella neck infections represent an uncommon cause of focal salmonellosis. While the incidence of nontyphoid salmonellosis is estimated at over 2 million cases annually, extraintestinal manifestations account for less than 1% of cases. This paper describes two patients with Salmonella neck abscesses as the initial presentation of diabetes mellitus. The first patient was diagnosed as having Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis sternocleidomastoid pyomyositis and the second patient Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium parapharyngeal abscess. Both patients had elevated hemoglobin A1c levels and had not been previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Salmonella spp. should be on the differential as a causative pathogen in patients presenting with neck abscesses and poorly controlled glucose levels. Diabetes may be a risk factor for salmonellosis due to decreased gastric acidity and prolonged gastric transit time. Prompt incision and drainage accompanied by antibiotics remains the treatment of choice for infected neck abscesses. PMID:24307959

  10. The impact of Salmonella Enteritidis on lipid accumulation in chicken hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Lan; Fan, Yang-Chi; Wang, Chinling; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Chou, Chung-Hsi

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a public health concern and infected chickens serve as a reservoir that potentially transmits to humans through food. Although SE seldom causes systemic disease in chickens, virulent SE strains can colonize in intestines and lead a persistent infection of the liver. The liver is the primary organ for lipid metabolism in chickens and the site for production and assembly of main components in yolk. We performed a time-course experiment using LMH-2A cells that were infected with SE and co-incubated with β-oestradiol to evaluate if SE infection affected lipid metabolism and subsequently changed lipoprotein formation for egg yolk. The results indicated that lipid accumulation significantly increased in infected LMH-2A cells while the viability of these cells was only slightly decreased. The mRNA expressions of lipid transportation and most lipogenetic genes including sterol regulatory element binding protein 1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty-acid synthase, long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) II were significantly up-regulated while the expression of lipogenetic-related stearoyl-CoA denaturase 1 was down-regulated. Moreover, decline in lipid transportation of hepatocytes was evidenced by the down-regulation of oestrogen receptor α which promotes VLDLy formation, an increase of intra-cellular accumulation of Apoprotein B (ApoB) protein, and a decrease of cellular excretion of VLDL protein. Conclusively, SE infection could elevate lipid synthesis and reduce lipid transportation in the chicken hepatocytes. These changes may lead excessive lipid accumulation in liver and slower lipoprotein deposition in yolk. PMID:26957042

  11. Efficiency of slightly acidic electrolyzed water for inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis and its contaminated shell eggs.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Zhu, Zhi Wei; Shi, Zheng Xiang; Wang, Chao Yuan; Li, Bao Ming

    2009-03-31

    The efficiency of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) at different temperatures (4, 20 and 45 degrees C) for inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis and it on the surface of shell eggs was evaluated. The bactericidal activity of SAEW, sodium hypochlorite solution (NaClO) and acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) to inactivate S. enteritidis was also compared. SAEW with a pH value of 6.0-6.5 used was generated by the electrolysis of a dilute hydrochloric acid (2.4 mM) in a chamber without a membrane. Although the pH value of SAEW was greatly higher than that of AEW (pH2.6-2.7), SAEW had a comparative powerful bactericidal activity at the same available chlorine concentrations. The efficiency of SAEW for inactivation of pure S. enteritidis cultures increased with increasing the available chlorine concentration and treatment time at the three different temperatures. The S. enteritidis counts decreased to less than 1.0 log(10) CFU/ml at available chlorine of 2 mg/l and 100% inactivation (reduction of 8.2 log(10) CFU/ml) was resulted in using SAEW with available chlorine more than 4 mg/l at 4, 20 and 45 degrees C after 2 min treatment, whereas no reduction was observed in the control samples. Moreover, SAEW was also effective for inactivating the S. enteritidis inoculated on the surface of shell eggs. A reduction of 6.5 log(10) CFU/g of S. enteritidis on shell eggs was achieved by SAEW containing 15 mg/l available chlorine for 3 min, but only a reduction of 0.9-1.2 log(10) CFU/g for the control samples. No survival of S. enteritidis was recovered in waste wash SAEW after treatment. The findings of this study indicate that SAEW may be a promising disinfectant agent for the shell egg washing processing without environmental pollution. PMID:19185376

  12. Genomic Comparison of the Closely-Related Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E.; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J.; Farris Hanna, Leigh; Schifferli, Dieter M.; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars. PMID:26039056

  13. Genomic Comparison of the Closely-Related Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Matthews, T David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J; Farris Hanna, Leigh; Schifferli, Dieter M; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars. PMID:26039056

  14. Genomic comparison of the closely-related Salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis, dublin and gallinarum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E.; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J.; et al

    2015-06-03

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content betweenmore » strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars.« less

  15. The Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 13 contributes to pathogenesis in streptomycin pre-treated mice but not in day-old chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a human and animal pathogen that causes gastroenteritis characterized by inflammatory diarrhea and occasionally an invasive systemic infection. Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) are horizontally acquired genomic segments known to contribute to Salmone...

  16. Citrus juice composition does not influence radiation sensitivity of Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Niemira, B A

    2001-06-01

    Food substrate chemistry is known to influence radiation sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria. The sensitivity of a citrus juice outbreak strain of Salmonella Enteritidis to gamma radiation was determined in five commercial orange juice formulations. The juices differed in pH (3.87 to 4.13), calcium concentration (2.1 versus 36.9 mM), juice composition (orange versus orange-tangerine blend), and antioxidant power (11,751 to 12,826 microM ferric reducing-antioxidant power units). The Dgamma (dose required to achieve 90% destruction) varied only slightly (0.35 to 0.37 kGy), with no significant (P < 0.05) differences among any of the suspending juices. These results indicate that Salmonella Enteritidis sensitivity to gamma radiation is not strongly influenced by the composition of formulated commercial orange juices. PMID:11403141

  17. Promoting crystallisation of the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 pilin SefD using deuterium oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Garnett, James A; Lee, Wei-chao; Lin, Jing; Salgado, Paula; Taylor, Jonathan; Xu, Yingqi; Lambert, Sebastian; Cota, Ernesto; Matthews, Steve

    2012-05-01

    The use of heavy water (D(2)O) as a solvent is commonplace in many spectroscopic techniques for the study of biological macromolecules. A significant deuterium isotope effect exists where hydrogen-bonding is important, such as in protein stability, dynamics and assembly. Here we illustrate the use of D(2)O in additive screening for the production of reproducible diffraction-quality crystals for the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 (SEF14) putative tip adhesin, SefD. PMID:22497887

  18. Selection for pro-inflammatory mediators yields chickens with increased resistance against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Swaggerty, Christina L; Pevzner, Igal Y; Kogut, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness and can be transmitted through consumption of contaminated poultry; therefore, increasing a flock's natural resistance to Salmonella could improve food safety. Previously, we characterized the heterophil-mediated innate immune response of 2 parental broiler lines and F1 reciprocal crosses and showed that increased heterophil function and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators corresponds with increased resistance against diverse pathogens. A preliminary selection trial showed that individual sires had varying inherent levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and selection based on a high or low phenotype was passed onto progeny. Based on these results, we hypothesized selection of broilers for higher levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators IL-6, CXCLi2, and CCLi2 would produce progeny with increased resistance against Salmonella Enteritidis. Peripheral blood leukocytes were isolated from 75 commercial broiler sires, screened, and 10 naturally high and low expressing sires were selected and mated to randomly selected dams to produce the first generation of "high" and "low" progeny. The mRNA expression of CXCLi2 and CCLi2 were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) higher in the high progeny and were more resistant to liver and spleen organ invasion by Salmonella Enteritidis compared with low progeny. Production of the second generation yielded progeny that had differences (P ≤ 0.03) in all 3 mediators and further improved resistance against Salmonella Enteritidis. Feed conversion ratio and percent breast meat yield were calculated and were equal, whereas the high birds weighed slightly, but significantly, less than the low birds. These data clearly demonstrate that selection based on a higher phenotype of key pro-inflammatory mediators is a novel means to produce broilers that are naturally more resistant to Salmonella, one of the most important foodborne pathogens affecting the poultry industry. PMID:24604845

  19. Comparative genotypes of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Phage type 30 and 9c strains isolated from three outbreaks associated with raw almonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2000-2001, 2003-2004 and 2005-2006, three outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were linked with the consumption of raw almonds. The S. Enteritidis strains from these outbreaks had rare phage types (PT), PT30 and PT9c. Clinical and environmental S. Enteritidis strains were subjec...

  20. Inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis on shell eggs by coating with phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Yin, H-B; Surendran Nair, M; Chen, C-H; Lang, R; Darre, M J; Venkitanarayanan, K

    2016-09-01

    Salmonella enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen that causes human infections largely by consumption of contaminated eggs. The external surface of eggs becomes contaminated with SE from multiple sources, highlighting the need for effective egg surface disinfection methods. This study investigated the efficacy of three GRAS-status, phytochemicals, namely carvacrol (CR), eugenol (EG), and β-resorcylic acid (BR) applied as pectin or gum arabic based coating for reducing SE on shell eggs. White-shelled eggs, spot inoculated with a 5-strain mixture of nalidixic acid (NA) resistant SE (8.0 log CFU/mL) were coated with pectin or gum arabic solution containing each phytochemical (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75%), and stored at 4°C for 7 days. SE on eggs was enumerated on days 0, 1, 3, and 7 of storage. Approximately 4.0 log CFU/egg of SE was recovered from inoculated and pectin or gum arabic coated eggs on day 0. All coating treatments containing CR and EG, and BR at 0.75% reduced SE to undetectable levels on day 3 (P < 0.05). Results suggest that the aforementioned phytochemicals could effectively be used as a coating to reduce SE on shell eggs, but detailed studies on the sensory and quality attributes of coated eggs need to be conducted before recommending their use. PMID:27252373

  1. Coconut and Salmonella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schaffner, Carl P.; Mosbach, Klaus; Bibit, Venuso C.; Watson, Colin H.

    1967-01-01

    Raw, unprocessed coconut supports the growth of salmonellae as well as that of other enteric bacteria, salmonellae being particularly resistant to subsequent desiccation. Original contamination is not due to carriers or to polluted water supplies, but to contact with bacteria-containing soils followed by dispersion via infected coconut milk and shells. Pasteurization of raw coconut meat in a water bath at 80 C for 8 to 10 min effectively killed such bacteria, did not injure the product, and provided a prophylactic method now widely used by the coconut industry. PMID:5340650

  2. Changes in the Salmonella enterica Enteritidis phenotypes in presence of acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing signals.

    PubMed

    Campos-Galvão, Maria Emilene Martino; Ribon, Andrea Oliveira Barros; Araújo, Elza Fernandes; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2016-05-01

    Quorum sensing is used by bacteria to coordinate gene expression in response to population density and involves the production, detection and response to extracellular signaling molecules known as autoinducers (AIs). Salmonella does not synthesize the AI-1, acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) common to gram-negative bacteria; however, it has a receptor for AI-1, the SdiA protein. The effect of SdiA in modulating phenotypes of Salmonella has not been elucidated. In this report, we provide evidence that the AIs-1 affect Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis behavior by enhancing the biofilm formation and expression of virulence genes under anaerobic conditions. Biofilm formation by Salmonella was detected by the crystal violet method and by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of AHLs, particularly C12-HSL, increased biofilm formation and promoted expression of biofilm formation genes (lpfA, fimF, fliF, glgC) and virulence genes (hilA, invA, invF). Our results demonstrated that AHLs produced by other organisms played an important role in virulence phenotypes of Salmonella Enteritidis. PMID:26662614

  3. Dietary β-galactomannans have beneficial effects on the intestinal morphology of chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Brufau, M T; Martín-Venegas, R; Guerrero-Zamora, A M; Pérez-Vendrell, A M; Vilà, B; Brufau, J; Ferrer, R

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the leading causes of food-borne salmonellosis in humans. Poultry is the single largest reservoir, and the consumption of incorrectly processed chicken meat and egg products is the major source of infection. Since 2006, the use of antibiotics as growth promoters has been banned in the European Union, and the dietary inclusion of β-galactomannans (βGM) has become a promising strategy to control and prevent intestinal infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various βGM-rich products on intestinal morphology in chickens challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. To assess this effect, a total of 280 male Ross 308 chickens were studied (40 animals per treatment housed in 5 cages). There were 7 treatments, including controls: uninoculated birds fed the basal diet (negative control) and inoculated birds fed the basal diet (positive control) or the basal diet supplemented with Salmosan (1 g/kg), Duraió gum (1 g/kg), Cassia gum (1 g/kg), the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.5 g/kg), or the antibiotic colistine (0.8 g/kg). The birds were fed these diets from the d 1 to 23, except the animals in the colistine group, which were fed the diet containing the antibiotic only from d 5 to 11. The inoculated animals were orally infected on d 7 with 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis. Bird performance per replicate was determined for the whole study period (23 d), and the distal ileum and cecal tonsil of 5 animals per treatment (1 animal per replicate) were observed at different magnification levels (scanning electron, light, and laser confocal microscopy). In the images corresponding to the treatments containing βGM we observed more mucus, an effect that can be associated with the observation of more goblet cells. Moreover, the images also show fewer M cells, which are characteristic of infected animals. Regarding the morphometric parameters, the animals that received Duraió and Cassia gums

  4. Subpopulation Characteristics of Egg-Contaminating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis as Defined by the Lipopolysaccharide O Chain

    PubMed Central

    Guard-Bouldin, Jean; Gast, Richard K.; Humphrey, Thomas J.; Henzler, David J.; Morales, Cesar; Coles, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was refined by incorporating new data from isolates obtained from avian sources, from the spleens of naturally infected mice, and from the United Kingdom into an existing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-chain compositional database. From least to greatest, the probability of avian isolates producing high-molecular-mass LPS O chain ranked as follows: pooled kidney, liver, and spleen; intestine; cecum; ovary and oviduct; albumen; yolk; and whole egg. Mouse isolates were most like avian intestinal samples, whereas United Kingdom isolates were most like those from the avian reproductive tract and egg. Non-reproductive tract organ isolates had significant loss of O chain. Isogenic isolates that varied in ability to make biofilm and to be orally invasive produced different O-chain structures at 25°C but not at 37°C. Hens infected at a 91:9 biofilm-positive/-negative colony phenotype ratio yielded only the negative phenotype from eggs. These results indicate that the environment within the hen applies stringent selection pressure on subpopulations of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis at certain points in the infection pathway that ends in egg contamination. The avian cecum, rather than the intestines, is the early interface between the environment and the host that supports emergence of subpopulation diversity. These results suggest that diet and other factors that alter cecal physiology should be investigated as a means to reduce egg contamination. PMID:15128529

  5. Optical immunosensors for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis from food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, Arun K.; Geng, Tao; Lathrop, Amanda; Valadez, Angela; Morgan, Mark T.

    2004-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella are two major foodborne pathogens of significant concern. Two optical evanescent wave immunosensors were evaluated for detection: Antibody-coupled fiber-optic biosensor and a surface plasmon resonant (SPR) immunosensor. In the fiber-optic sensor, polyclonal antibodies for the test organisms were immobilized on polystyrene fiber wave -guides using streptavidin - biotin chemistry. Cyanine 5 -labeled monoclonal antibodies C11E9 (for L. monocytogenes) and SF-11 (for Salmonella Enteritidis) were used to generate a specific fluorescent signal. Signal acquisition was performed by launching a laser-light (635 nm) from an Analyte-2000. This immunosensor was able to detect 103 - 109 cfu/ml of L. monocytogenes or 106-109 cfu/ml of Salmonella Enteritidis and the assays were conducted at near real-time with results obtained within one hour of sampling. The assays were specific and showed signal even in the presence of other microorganisms such as E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis or Salmonella Typhimurium. In the SPR system, IAsys instrument (resonant mirror sensor) was used. Monoclonal antibody-C11E9 was directly immobilized onto a carboxylate cuvette. Whole Listeria cells at various concentrations did not yield any signal while surface protein extracts did. Crude protein extracts from L. monocytogenes and L. innocua had average binding responses of around 150 arc sec (0.25 ng/mm2), which was significantly different from L. grayi, L. ivanovii, or L. welshimeri with average responses of <48 arc sec. Both fiber-optic and SPR sensors show promise in near real-time detection of foodborne L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis.

  6. Transposon mutagenesis of Salmonella Enteritidis identifies genes that contribute to invasiveness in human and chicken cells and survival in egg albumen.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the world’s leading cause of food borne salmonellosis and illness in people is linked strongly to its contamination of eggs produced by otherwise healthy appearing hens. Salmonella Enteritidis is noted for generating exceptional strain heterogeneity despite having a clonal ...

  7. Difference in cellular damage and cell death in thermal death time disks and high hydrostatic pressure treated Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC13076) in liquid whole egg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in membrane damage including leakage of intracellular UV-materials and loss of viability of Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC13076) in liquid whole egg (LWE) following thermal-death-time (TDT) disk and high hydrostatic pressure treatments were examined. Salmonella enteritidis was inoculated ...

  8. wksl3, a New Biocontrol Agent for Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium in Foods: Characterization, Application, Sequence Analysis, and Oral Acute Toxicity Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyun-Wol; Kim, Jae-Won; Jung, Tae-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Of the Salmonella enterica serovars, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium are responsible for most of the Salmonella outbreaks implicated in the consumption of contaminated foods in the Republic of Korea. Because of the widespread occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella in foods and food processing environments, bacteriophages have recently surfaced as an alternative biocontrol tool. In this study, we isolated a virulent bacteriophage (wksl3) that could specifically infect S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and several additional serovars. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that phage wksl3 belongs to the family Siphoviridae. Complete genome sequence analysis and bioinformatic analysis revealed that the DNA of phage wksl3 is composed of 42,766 bp with 64 open reading frames. Since it does not encode any phage lysogeny factors, toxins, pathogen-related genes, or food-borne allergens, phage wksl3 may be considered a virulent phage with no side effects. Analysis of genetic similarities between phage wksl3 and four of its relatives (SS3e, vB_SenS-Ent1, SE2, and SETP3) allowed wksl3 to be categorized as a SETP3-like phage. A single-dose test of oral toxicity with BALB/c mice resulted in no abnormal clinical observations. Moreover, phage application to chicken skin at 8°C resulted in an about 2.5-log reduction in the number of Salmonella bacteria during the test period. The strong, stable lytic activity, the significant reduction of the number of S. Enteritidis bacteria after application to food, and the lack of clinical symptoms of this phage suggest that wksl3 may be a useful agent for the protection of foods against S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium contamination. PMID:23335772

  9. Mycotic (infected) aneurysm of the popliteal artery and arthritis following Salmonella bacteriemia.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Bartolomé, P; Alonso Valle, H; Aurrecoechea, E; Acha, O; Blanco, R; Martínez-Taboada, V M; Rodríguez-Valverde, V

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of a mycotic (infected) aneurysm of the popliteal artery due to Salmonella enteritidis. The clinical presentation may be confused with other more common causes of diffuse swollen leg, causing a delay in the diagnosis and proper therapy. Prompt surgical resection of the infected aneurysm together with medical therapy is required for successful treatment. PMID:11407089

  10. Whole-Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Phage Type 4, Isolated from a Brazilian Poultry Farm

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Leandro Costa; Tirabassi, Adriane Holtz; Rodrigues, Dália Prazeres; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Brocchi, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) strain IOC4647/2004, isolated from a poultry farm in São Paulo state, was obtained with high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform, generating 4,173,826 paired-end reads with 251 bp. The assembly of 4,804,382 bp in 27 scaffolds shows strong similarity to other S. Enteritidis strains. PMID:27174265

  11. Effect of controlled atmosphere storage, modified atmosphere packaging and gaseous ozone treatment on the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis on cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Daş, Elif; Gürakan, G Candan; Bayindirli, Alev

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, outbreaks of infections associated with raw and minimally processed fruits and vegetables have been reported. The objective of this study was to analyse the growth/survival of Salmonella Enteritidis at spot-inoculated or stem-injected cherry tomatoes during passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), controlled atmosphere (CA) and to compare the results with those of air storage at 7 and 22 degrees C. During MAP, the gas composition equilibrated to 6% O2/4% CO2. CO2 level was maintained as 5% through the term of CA storage at 7 and 22 degrees C. The results demonstrate that S. Enteritidis can survive and/or grow during the storage of tomatoes depending on the location site of the pathogen on fruit, suspension cell density and storage temperature. During MAP, CA and air storage, S. Enteritidis with initial population of 7.0 log10 cfu/tomato survived on tomato surfaces with an approximate decrease of 4.0-5.0 log10 cfu/tomato in population within the storage period; however, in the case of initial population of 3.0 log10 cfu/tomato, cells died completely on day 4 during MAP storage and on day 6 during both CA and air storage. The death rate of S. Enteritidis on the surfaces of tomatoes that were stored in MAP was faster than that of stored in air and in CA. Storage temperature was effective on the survival of S. Enteritidis for the samples stored at ambient atmosphere; cells died completely on day 6 at 7 degrees C and on day 8 at 22 degrees C. Stem scars provided protective environments for Salmonella; an approximate increase of 1.0 log10 cfu/tomato in stem-scar population was observed during MAP, CA and air storage at 22 degrees C within the period of 20 days. Cells survived with no significant change in number at 7 degrees C. During the research, the effect of ozone treatment (5-30 mg/l ozone gas for 0-20 min) was also considered for surface sanitation before storage. Gaseous ozone treatment has bactericidal effect on S. Enteritidis, inoculated on

  12. Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis protein expression upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica, a common food-borne bacterial pathogen, is believed to change its protein expression profile in the presence of different environmental stress such as that caused by the exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which can be generated by phagocytes during infection and represents an important antibacterial mechanism of host cells. Among Salmonella proteins, the effectors of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) are of particular interest since they are expressed during host infection in vivo and are important for invasion of epithelial cells and for replication in organs during systemic infection, respectively. However, the expression profiles of these proteins upon exposure to H2O2 or to host cells in vivo during the established phase of systemic infection have not been extensively studied. Results Using stable isotope labeling coupled with mass spectrometry, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and identified 76 proteins whose expression is modulated upon exposure to H2O2. SPI-1 effector SipC was expressed about 3-fold higher and SopB was expressed approximately 2-fold lower in the presence of H2O2, while no significant change in the expression of another SPI-1 protein SipA was observed. The relative abundance of SipA, SipC, and SopB was confirmed by Western analyses, validating the accuracy and reproducibility of our approach for quantitative analysis of protein expression. Furthermore, immuno-detection showed substantial expression of SipA and SipC but not SopB in the late phase of infection in macrophages and in the spleen of infected mice. Conclusions We have identified Salmonella proteins whose expression is modulated in the presence of H2O2. Our results also provide the first direct evidence that SipC is highly expressed in the spleen at late stage of salmonellosis in vivo. These results suggest a possible role of SipC and other regulated proteins in

  13. Interpretations of Antibody Responses to Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis gm Flagellin in Poultry Flocks Are Enhanced by a Kinetics-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Patrick L.; Jacobson, Richard H.; Timoney, John F.; Mutalib, Ahmed; Kradel, David C.; Chang, Yung-fu; Shin, Sang J.; Lein, Donald H.; Trock, Susan; Wheeler, Kaye

    1998-01-01

    Many regulatory and diagnostic programs for the detection of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infection in commercial poultry flocks have relied on rapid Pullorum agglutination tests to screen birds because of the shared antigens of S. enterica Enteritidis and S. enterica Pullorum and Gallinarum; however, the use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format affords better analytical sensitivity than crude agglutination tests. In this study, we adapted our earlier conventional indirect ELISA, using gm flagellin as the antigen, to a kinetics-based, computer-controlled ELISA (KELA). The KELA was used to screen for flagellin antibody from three commercial flocks: (i) a large flock involved in a U.S. Department of Agriculture trace back from a human S. enterica Enteritidis foodborne outbreak (n = 3,209), (ii) a flock infected with the endemic S. enterica Enteritidis serotype but which also had multiple other salmonella serotypes (n = 65), and (iii) an S. enterica Pullorum-infected flock (n = 12). The first flock (S. enterica Enteritidis prevalence of 2.45% based on culture) provided a field test of the KELA and allowed the calculation of diagnostic sensitivity (D-Sn) and diagnostic specificity (D-Sp). With a cutoff of 10 (used for screening flocks [i.e., high sensitivity]), the KELA has a D-Sn of 95.2% and a D-Sp of 18.5%; with a cutoff of 140 (used in confirmatory flock testing [i.e., high specificity]), the KELA has a D-Sn of 28.0% and a D-Sp of 99.1%. We found that with a cutoff of 60 (D-Sn = 63.1%; D-Sp = 91.6%), we could eliminate reactions in the KELA caused by other non-S. enterica Enteritidis salmonellae. The KELA was also compared to two commercial rapid Pullorum tests, the Solvay (D-Sn = 94.9%; D-Sp = 55.5%) and the Vineland (D-Sn = 62.0%; D-Sp = 75.3%). PMID:9665965

  14. Growth in Egg Yolk Enhances Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Human Colitis.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Matthew R; Wijetunge, Dona Saumya S; Bailey, Megan L; Gongati, Sudharsan R; Goodfield, Laura L; Hewage, Eranda Mangala K Kurundu; Kennett, Mary J; Fedorchuk, Christine; Ivanov, Yury V; Linder, Jessica E; Jayarao, Bhushan M; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is one of the most common causes of bacterial food-borne illnesses in the world. Despite the SE's ability to colonize and infect a wide-range of host, the most common source of infection continues to be the consumption of contaminated shell eggs and egg-based products. To date, the role of the source of SE infection has not been studied as it relates to SE pathogenesis and resulting disease. Using a streptomycin-treated mouse model of human colitis, this study examined the virulence of SE grown in egg yolk and Luria Bertani (LB) broth, and mouse feces collected from mice experimentally infected with SEE1 (SEE1 passed through mice). Primary observations revealed that the mice infected with SE grown in egg yolk displayed greater illness and disease markers than those infected with SE passed through mice or grown in LB broth. Furthermore, the SE grown in egg yolk achieved higher rates of colonization in the mouse intestines and extra-intestinal organs of infected mice than the SE from LB broth or mouse feces. Our results here indicate that the source of SE infection may contribute to the overall pathogenesis of SE in a second host. These results also suggest that reservoir-pathogen dynamics may be critical for SE's ability to establish colonization and priming for virulence potential. PMID:26939126

  15. Growth in Egg Yolk Enhances Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Human Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Matthew R.; Wijetunge, Dona Saumya S.; Bailey, Megan L.; Gongati, Sudharsan R.; Goodfield, Laura L.; Hewage, Eranda Mangala K. Kurundu; Kennett, Mary J.; Fedorchuk, Christine; Ivanov, Yury V.; Linder, Jessica E.; Jayarao, Bhushan M.; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is one of the most common causes of bacterial food-borne illnesses in the world. Despite the SE’s ability to colonize and infect a wide-range of host, the most common source of infection continues to be the consumption of contaminated shell eggs and egg-based products. To date, the role of the source of SE infection has not been studied as it relates to SE pathogenesis and resulting disease. Using a streptomycin-treated mouse model of human colitis, this study examined the virulence of SE grown in egg yolk and Luria Bertani (LB) broth, and mouse feces collected from mice experimentally infected with SEE1 (SEE1 passed through mice). Primary observations revealed that the mice infected with SE grown in egg yolk displayed greater illness and disease markers than those infected with SE passed through mice or grown in LB broth. Furthermore, the SE grown in egg yolk achieved higher rates of colonization in the mouse intestines and extra-intestinal organs of infected mice than the SE from LB broth or mouse feces. Our results here indicate that the source of SE infection may contribute to the overall pathogenesis of SE in a second host. These results also suggest that reservoir-pathogen dynamics may be critical for SE’s ability to establish colonization and priming for virulence potential. PMID:26939126

  16. Visualisation of morphological interaction of diamond and silver nanoparticles with Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Mitura, Katarzyna; Mitura, Stanisław; Szeliga, Jacek; Niemiec, Tomasz; Rupiewicz, Marlena; Grodzik, Marta; Sokołowska, Aleksandra

    2011-09-01

    Currently, medicine intensively searches for methods to transport drugs to a target (sick) point within the body. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of silver or diamond nanoparticles with Salmonella Enteritidis (G-) or Listeria monocytogenes (G+), to reveal possibilities of constructing nanoparticle-bacteria vehicles. Diamond nanoparticles (nano-D) were produced by the detonation method. Hydrocolloids of silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) were produced by electric non-explosive patented method. Hydrocolloids of nanoparticles (200 microl) were added to bacteria suspension (200 microl) in the following order: nano-D + Salmonella E.; nano-D + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Ag + Salmonella E; nano-Ag + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscopy. Visualisation of nanoparticles and bacteria interaction showed harmful effects of both nanoparticles on bacteria morphology. The most spectacular effect of nano-D were strong links between nano-D packages and the flagella of Salmonella E. Nano-Ag were closely attached to Listeria monocytogenes but not to Salmonella E. There was no evidence of entering nano-Ag inside Listeria monocytogenes but smaller particles were placed inside Salmonella E. The ability of nano-D to attach to the flagella and the ability of nano-Ag to penetrate inside bacteria cells can be utilized to design nano-bacteria vehicles, being carriers for active substances attached to nanoparticles. PMID:22097468

  17. Interdigitated microelectrode based impedance biosensor for detection of salmonella enteritidis in food samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G.; Morgan, M.; Hahm, B. K.; Bhunia, A.; Mun, J. H.; Om, A. S.

    2008-03-01

    Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks continue to occur, and S. enteritidis-related outbreaks from various food sources have increased public awareness of this pathogen. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification are labor-intensive and take days to complete. Some immunological rapid assays are developed, but these assays still require prolonged enrichment steps. Recently developed biosensors have shown great potential for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. To develop the biosensor, an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) was fabricated by using semiconductor fabrication process. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were immobilized based on avidin-biotin binding on the surface of the IME to form an active sensing layer. To increase the sensitivity of the sensor, three types of sensors that have different electrode gap sizes (2 μm, 5 μm, 10 μm) were fabricated and tested. The impedimetric biosensor could detect 103 CFU/mL of Salmonella in pork meat extract with an incubation time of 5 minutes. This method may provide a simple, rapid and sensitive method to detect foodborne pathogens.

  18. Development of a Biosafety Enhanced and Immunogenic Salmonella Enteritidis Ghost Using an Antibiotic Resistance Gene Free Plasmid Carrying a Bacteriophage Lysis System

    PubMed Central

    Jawale, Chetan V.; Lee, John Hwa

    2013-01-01

    In the development of genetically inactivated bacterial vaccines, plasmid retention often requires the antibiotic resistance gene markers, the presence of which can cause the potential biosafety hazards such as the horizontal spread of resistance genes. The new lysis plasmid was constructed by utilizing the approach of balanced-lethal systems based on auxotrophic gene Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (asd). The PhiX174 lysis gene E and λPR37-cI857 temperature-sensitive regulatory system was cloned in the asd gene positive plasmid and this novel approach allowed the production of antibiotic resistance marker free Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) ghost. The immunogenic potential of the biosafety enhanced antibiotic resistance gene free S. Enteritidis ghost was evaluated in chickens by employing the prime-boost vaccination strategy using a combination of oral and intramuscular routes. A total of 75 two-week-old chickens were equally divided into five groups: group A (non-immunized control), group B (intramuscularly primed and boosted), group C (primed intramuscularly and boosted orally), group D (primed and boosted orally), and group E (primed orally and boosted intramuscularly). Chickens from all immunized groups demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative response. After a virulent S. Enteritidis challenge, all immunized groups showed fewer gross lesions and decreased bacterial recovery from organs in comparison with the non-immunized control group. Among the immunized chickens, groups B and D chickens showed optimized protection, indicating that the prime-booster immunization with the ghost via intramuscular or oral route is efficient. Taken together, our results demonstrate that an antibiotic resistance gene free lysis plasmid was successfully constructed and utilized for production of safety enhanced S. Enteritidis ghost, which can be used as a safe and effective

  19. Development of a biosafety enhanced and immunogenic Salmonella enteritidis ghost using an antibiotic resistance gene free plasmid carrying a bacteriophage lysis system.

    PubMed

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2013-01-01

    In the development of genetically inactivated bacterial vaccines, plasmid retention often requires the antibiotic resistance gene markers, the presence of which can cause the potential biosafety hazards such as the horizontal spread of resistance genes. The new lysis plasmid was constructed by utilizing the approach of balanced-lethal systems based on auxotrophic gene Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (asd). The PhiX174 lysis gene E and λPR37-cI857 temperature-sensitive regulatory system was cloned in the asd gene positive plasmid and this novel approach allowed the production of antibiotic resistance marker free Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) ghost. The immunogenic potential of the biosafety enhanced antibiotic resistance gene free S. Enteritidis ghost was evaluated in chickens by employing the prime-boost vaccination strategy using a combination of oral and intramuscular routes. A total of 75 two-week-old chickens were equally divided into five groups: group A (non-immunized control), group B (intramuscularly primed and boosted), group C (primed intramuscularly and boosted orally), group D (primed and boosted orally), and group E (primed orally and boosted intramuscularly). Chickens from all immunized groups demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative response. After a virulent S. Enteritidis challenge, all immunized groups showed fewer gross lesions and decreased bacterial recovery from organs in comparison with the non-immunized control group. Among the immunized chickens, groups B and D chickens showed optimized protection, indicating that the prime-booster immunization with the ghost via intramuscular or oral route is efficient. Taken together, our results demonstrate that an antibiotic resistance gene free lysis plasmid was successfully constructed and utilized for production of safety enhanced S. Enteritidis ghost, which can be used as a safe and effective

  20. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Pande, Vivek V; Devon, Rebecca L; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time

  1. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vivek V.; Devon, Rebecca L.; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time

  2. An overview of the Salmonella enteritidis risk assessment for shell eggs and egg products.

    PubMed

    Hope, B K; Baker, R; Edel, E D; Hogue, A T; Schlosser, W D; Whiting, R; McDowell, R M; Morales, R A

    2002-04-01

    This article summarizes a quantitative microbial risk assessment designed to characterize the public health impact of consumption of shell eggs and egg products contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). This risk assessment's objectives were to: (1) establish the baseline risk of foodborne illness from SE, (2) identify and evaluate potential risk mitigation strategies, and (3) identify data gaps related to future research efforts. The risk assessment model has five modules. The Egg Production module estimates the number of eggs produced that are SE-contaminated. Shell Egg Processing, Egg Products Processing, and Preparation & Consumption modules estimate the increase or decrease in the numbers of SE organisms in eggs or egg products as they pass through storage, transportation, processing, and preparation. A Public Health Outcomes module then calculates the incidence of illnesses and four clinical outcomes, as well as the cases of reactive arthritis associated with SE infection following consumption. The baseline model estimates an average production of 2.3 million SE-contaminated shell eggs/year of the estimated 69 billion produced annually and predicts an average of 661,633, human illnesses per year from consumption of these eggs. The model estimates approximately 94% of these cases recover without medical care, 5% visit a physician, an additional 0.5% are hospitalized, and 0.05% result in death. The contribution of SE from commercially pasteurized egg products was estimated to be negligible. Five mitigation scenarios were selected for comparison of their individual and combined effects on the number of human illnesses. Results suggest that mitigation in only one segment of the farm-to-table continuum will be less effective than several applied in different segments. Key data gaps and areas for future research include the epidemiology of SE on farms, the bacteriology of SE in eggs, human behavior in food handling and preparation, and human responses to SE

  3. Salmonella enterica Serotype Choleraesuis Infection of the Knee and Femur in a Nonbacteremic Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Alexander M.; Sandhu, Jagbir; Lenox, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarticular infections caused by Salmonella are rare. The rates of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis due to Salmonella are estimated to be less than 1% and 0.1%-0.2%, respectively (Kato et al., 2012). Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis is a nontyphoidal Salmonella, highly pathogenic in humans, usually causing septicemic disease with little or no intestinal involvement. Serotype Choleraesuis accounts for a small percentage of published studies of Salmonella infections in the United States. It is not commonly reported in joint fluid and bones in contrast to serotype Enteritidis and Typhi, where a considerable number of cases have been published. Chen et al. in Taiwan found that 21% of bacteremic patients with this infection subsequently develop focal infections such as septic arthritis, pneumonia, peritonitis, and cutaneous abscess (Chen et al., 1999, Chiu et al., 2004). In contrast, our patient presented with localized osteoarticular infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Cholerasuis, but without evidence of bacteremia. PMID:23781356

  4. Egg white versus Salmonella Enteritidis! A harsh medium meets a resilient pathogen.

    PubMed

    Baron, Florence; Nau, Françoise; Guérin-Dubiard, Catherine; Bonnassie, Sylvie; Gautier, Michel; Andrews, Simon C; Jan, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the prevalent egg-product-related food-borne pathogen. The egg-contamination capacity of S. Enteritidis includes its exceptional survival capability within the harsh conditions provided by egg white. Egg white proteins, such as lysozyme and ovotransferrin, are well known to play important roles in defence against bacterial invaders. Indeed, several additional minor proteins and peptides have recently been found to play known or potential roles in protection against bacterial contamination. However, although such antibacterial proteins are well studied, little is known about their efficacy under the environmental conditions prevalent in egg white. Thus, the influence of factors such as temperature, alkalinity, nutrient restriction, viscosity and cooperative interactions on the activities of antibacterial proteins in egg white remains unclear. This review critically assesses the available evidence on the antimicrobial components of egg white. In addition, mechanisms employed by S. Enteritidis to resist egg white exposure are also considered along with various genetic studies that have shed light upon egg white resistance systems. We also consider how multiple, antibacterial proteins operate in association with specific environmental factors within egg white to generate a lethal protective cocktail that preserves sterility. PMID:26678134

  5. Persistence of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 in the environment and arthropod vectors on an empty free-range chicken farm.

    PubMed

    Davies, Robert H; Breslin, Mark

    2003-02-01

    The persistence of S. Enteritidis PT4 was studied on a free-range breeding chicken farm which had been depopulated following identification of the organism in breeding birds. The site was sampled periodically for 26 months after depopulation and the organism was found to persist in litter, dried faeces and feed, but not in dust within empty poultry houses, for the whole of that period. Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 was also found in soil samples after 8 months but not 13 months and in faeces from wild mice, foxes and cats but not wild birds or badgers. The organism was also found in adult and larval forms of ground beetles and centipedes. Addition of pullets to a contaminated pen or inclusion of contaminated litter, feed or beetles/larvae to feed did not result in acquisition of infection by birds. PMID:12558590

  6. Comparative evaluation of Salmonella Enteritidis ghost vaccines with a commercial vaccine for protection against internal egg contamination with Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-10-14

    The study was conducted for the comparative evaluation of the vaccine potential of Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis, SE) ghost, SE ghost carrying Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein, and a commercial vaccine. Group A chickens were used as a non-vaccinated control, group B chickens were immunized with the ghost carrying LTB protein, group C chickens were immunized with the ghost and, group D chickens were immunized with a commercial vaccine. Group D chickens showed the swelling at the injection site, while no adverse reactions were observed at injection sites of the group B and C chickens. Chickens from the immunized groups B, C, and D demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses. After challenge with a virulent SE strain via intravenous route, groups B, C, and D showed significantly higher egg production and lower internal egg contamination and lower recovery of the challenge strain from internal organs compared to non-immunized-challenged control group A. In conclusion, these data indicate that immunization of chickens with the ghost and ghost carrying LTB is safe, without causing any adverse reaction, and is effective as the commercial vaccine in terms of reduction in internal egg contamination and internal organ colonization of Salmonella. PMID:25218296

  7. Growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Enteritidis during Preparation and Storage of Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    Cirone, K.; Huberman, Y.; Morsella, C.; Méndez, L.; Jorge, M.; Paolicchi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) during preparation and refrigerated storage of yogurt. Three yogurts were prepared using pasteurized commercial milk. Each yogurt was artificially contaminated with (1) MAP, (2) E. coli + S. Enteritidis, and (3) MAP + E. coli + S. Enteritidis. Samples were taken during and after the fermentation process until day 20 after inoculation. MAP was not detected during their preparation and short-term storage but was recuperated after starting at 180 min after inoculation storage. Live bacterial counts of E. coli, and S. Enteritidis increased during the first 24 hours, followed by a slight decrease towards the end of the study. In this study it was shown how MAP, E. coli, and S. Enteritidis resisted the acidic conditions generated during the preparation of yogurt and low storage temperatures. This work contributes to current knowledge regarding survival of MAP, E. coli, and S. Enteritidis during preparation and refrigerated storage of yogurt and emphasizes the need to improve hygiene measures to ensure the absence of these pathogenic microorganisms in dairy products. PMID:24455399

  8. Adhesion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel welds.

    PubMed

    Casarin, Letícia Sopeña; Brandelli, Adriano; de Oliveira Casarin, Fabrício; Soave, Paulo Azevedo; Wanke, Cesar Henrique; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2014-11-17

    Pathogenic microorganisms are able to adhere on equipment surfaces, being possible to contaminate food during processing. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are important pathogens that can be transmitted by food, causing severe foodborne diseases. Most surfaces of food processing industry are made of stainless steel joined by welds. However currently, there are few studies evaluating the influence of welds in the microorganism's adhesion. Therefore the purpose of the present study was to investigate the adhesion of Salmonella Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes on surface of metal inert gas (MIG), and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, as well as to evaluate the cell and surface hydrophobicities. Results demonstrated that both bacteria adhered to the surface of welds and stainless steel at same levels. Despite this, bacteria and surfaces demonstrated different levels of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, results indicated that there was no correlation between adhesion to welds and stainless steel and the hydrophobicity. PMID:25261827

  9. Salmonella infections associated with mung bean sprouts 2000-2002: Epidemiological and environmental investigations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated 7 outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections linked to raw mung bean sprouts in 2000-2002 through case-control and cohort studies. All outbreaks were due to unusual phage types (PT) of SE and occurred in the United States (PT 33, 1, and 913), Canada (PT 11b and 913), and the...

  10. Clinical and veterinary isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis defective in lipopolysaccharide O-chain polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Guard-Petter, J.; Parker, C.T.; Asokan, K.; Carlson, R.W.

    1999-05-01

    Twelve human and chicken isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis belonging to phage types 4, 8, 13a, and 23 were characterized for variability in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composition. Isolates were differentiated into two groups, i.e., those that lacked immunoreactive O-chain, termed rough isolates, and those that had immunoreactive O-chain, termed smooth isolates. Isolates within these groups could be further differentiated by LPS compositional differences as detected by gel electrophoresis and gas liquid chromatography of samples extracted with water, which yielded significantly more LPS in comparison to phenol-chloroform extraction. The rough isolates were of two types, the O-antigen synthesis mutants and the O-antigen polymerization (wzy) mutants. Smooth isolates were also of two types, one producing low-molecular-weight (LMW) LPS and the other producing high-molecular-weight (HMW) LPS. To determine the genetic basis for the O-chain variability of the smooth isolates, the authors analyzed the effects of a null mutation in the O-chain length determinant gene, wzz (cld) of serovar Typhimurium. This mutation results in a loss of HMW LPS; however, the LMW LPS of this mutant was longer and more glucosylated than that from clinical isolates of serovar Enteritidis. Cluster analysis of these data and of those from two previously characterized isogenic strains of serovar Enteritidis that had different virulence attributes indicated that glucosylation of HMW LPS (via oafR function) is variable and results in two types of HMW structures, one that is highly glucosylated and one that is minimally glucosylated. These results strongly indicate that naturally occurring variability in wzy, wzz, and oafR function can be used to subtype isolates of serovar Enteritidis during epidemiological investigations.

  11. Physiology, pathogenicity and immunogenicity of live, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis mutants in chicks.

    PubMed

    Si, Wei; Wang, Xiumei; Liu, Huifang; Yu, Shenye; Li, Zhaoli; Chen, Liping; Zhang, Wanjiang; Liu, Siguo

    2015-01-01

    To construct a novel live, attenuated Salmonella vaccine, the lon, cpxR and cpdB genes were deleted from a wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis-6 (SM-6) strain using the phage λ Red homologous recombination system, resulting in SM-△CpxR, SM-△C/Lon and SM-△C/L/CpdB. The growth curves of strain SM-△C/Lon grew more rapidly than the other strains and had OD 600 values higher than the other strains starting at the 4 h time point. The growth curves of strain SM-△C/L/CpdB were relatively flat. The colonization time of SM-△C/L/CpdB is about 8-10 days. Deleting the lon/cpxR/cpdB (SM-6) genes resulted in an approximate 10(3)-fold attenuation in virulence assessed by the analysis of the LD50 of specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks. This result indicated that the deletion of the lon, cpxR and cpdB genes induced significant virulence attenuation. The protective effects of SM-△C/L/CpdB vaccination in SPF chicks against 5 × 10(9) colony forming units (CFU) of S. Enteritidis were resulted from the induction of an effective immune response. These findings demonstrate the potential of mutant SM-△C/L/CpdB to be used as an effective vaccine. PMID:25819881

  12. Crop Isolated Lymphoid Follicles and Ileal Peyer’s patches in Egg-Layer Hens Challenged with Salmonella enterica Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica Enteritidis (SE) can be harbored within the upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract of chickens. Induction of immune response by SE at various alimentary tract regions may perhaps be attributable to local gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). The study...

  13. Dimethyl adenosine transferase (KsgA) deficiency in Salmonella Enteritidis confers susceptibility to high osmolarity and virulence attenuation in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Dimethyladenosine transferase (KsgA) performs diverse roles in bacteria including ribosomal maturation, DNA mismatch repair, and synthesis of KsgA is responsive to antibiotics and cold temperature. We previously showed that ksgA mutation in Salmonella Enteritidis results in impaired invasiveness i...

  14. Gene expression profiling in chicken heterophils with Salmonella enteritidis stimulation using a chicken 44 K Agilent microarray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is one of the most common food-borne pathogens that cause human salmonellosis and usually results from the consumption of contaminated poultry products. The mechanism of SE resistance in chickens remains largely unknown. Previously, heterophils isolated...

  15. Direct construction of predictive models for describing growth Salmonella enteritidis in liquid eggs – a one-step approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new approach using a one-step approach to directly construct predictive models for describing the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in liquid egg white (LEW) and egg yolk (LEY). A five-strain cocktail of SE, induced to resist rifampicin at 100 mg/L, ...

  16. Continuing multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis strains in egg yolk during refrigeration at 7.2° C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continuing attribution of human illness caused by Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) to the consumption of contaminated eggs has led to widespread implementation of risk reduction programs for commercial egg production. Prompt refrigeration of eggs to prevent bacterial multiplication to dangerously hig...

  17. Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

  18. DETECTION OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS IN INCUBATED POOLS OF EGG CONTENTS BY FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION AND LATERAL FLOW IMMUNODIFFUSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient detection of Salmonella enteritidis inside eggs is critical for determining whether individual commercial laying flocks present a risk to public health. In most standard bacteriological culturing protocols, an initial incubation step is necessary to allow the typically very small populatio...

  19. CELLULAR ASSESSMENT OF CROP LYMPHOID TISSUE FROM SPECIFIC-PATHOGEN-FREE WHITE LEGHORN CHICKENS AFTER SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS CHALLENGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The crop may be an important site along the upper alimentary tract where a humoral immune response against SE may perhaps be elicited locally. The mucosal immune response within the crop (ingluvies) of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorn (WL) chickens against Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) was ...

  20. Multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolks after inoculation outside, on, and inside vitelline membranes and storage at different temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prompt refrigeration to restrict bacterial growth is important for reducing egg-borne transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The nutrient-rich yolk interior is a relatively infrequent location for initial SE deposition in eggs, but migration across the vitelline membrane can ...

  1. Discrimination Between Strains of Salmonella Enteritidis PT13 and PT13a by Comparative Genome Sequencing of the Virulence Plasmid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is an important pathogen of poultry products and it appears to be increasing within broiler flocks. Subtyping of SE is commonly done by phage typing, plasmid profiling, genomic microarrays, pulsed field gel electrophoresis and other restriction-enzyme based fingerprinting...

  2. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Zinc Oxide Quantum Dots Against Listeria Monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) in a powder form, a ZnO-polystyrene (PS) film form and a polyvinylprolidone capped ZnO (ZnO-PVP) gel form were prepared and their antibacterial activities against foodborne pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cul...

  3. How is the source of food poisoning outbreaks established? The example of three consecutive Salmonella enteritidis PT4 outbreaks linked to eggs.

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, R L; Palmer, S R; Ribeiro, C D; Hutchings, P; Coleman, T J; Willis, F J; Allsup, T N; Ritchie, W N

    1991-01-01

    Three consecutive outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis PT4 occurred in Wales in 1989 in which epidemiological and microbiological investigation established eggs as the likely source although kitchen inspection and food preparation histories suggested other vehicles of infection. This paper examines the contribution of analytical epidemiology in attributing causation, with particular reference to those limitations which are regarded as inherent in epidemiological evidence. Such evidence, implicating eggs in the three outbreaks, fulfilled 6/7 widely accepted criteria for causation; data to assess the seventh were lacking. Collaboration between different agencies and professionals in investigating outbreaks is very important. PMID:1795143

  4. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium in experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contaminated eggs produced by infected commercial laying flocks are often implicated as sources of human infections with Salmonella Enteritidis, but Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium have also been associated with egg-transmitted illness. Contamination of the edible contents of eggs is ...

  5. Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30 from a single almond orchard over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Aaron R; Danyluk, Michelle D; Mandrell, Robert E; Harris, Linda J

    2007-08-01

    In 2001, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 was isolated from drag swabs of 17 61-ha almond orchards on three farms linked to an outbreak of salmonellosis associated with consumption of raw almonds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in one of the almond orchards associated with the outbreak. Swabs (gauze saturated with full-strength sterile evaporated skim milk and attached to string) were pulled along the orchard floor in a standardized manner for 55 m. At each sample time, two pooled samples (four swabs each) were collected from each orchard quadrant. Swabs were enriched for Salmonella using a delayed secondary enrichment procedure developed for isolation of Salmonella from poultry houses. Suspect Salmonella isolates were selected, confirmed, serotyped, and phage typed, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were determined after cleavage with XbaI and BlnI. Salmonella was recovered infrequently from pooled samples collected from January through July (3 of 56 samples, 5.3%). In general, Salmonella isolation frequency per sample time increased during and immediately after the harvest, when large amounts of dust were generated in or near the orchard: August, 4 (20%) of 20 samples; September, 13 (20%) of 64 samples; October, 27 (42%) of 64 samples; November, 4 (25%) of 16 samples; and December, 2 (25%) of 8 samples. All 53 Salmonella isolates during the 5 years were identified as Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30, and two PFGE patterns that differed by the presence of an approximately 40-kb fragment were identified. These data demonstrate the potential for long-term environmental persistence of Salmonella in almond orchards. PMID:17803132

  6. IncI1 Plasmids Carrying Various blaCTX-M Genes Contribute to Ceftriaxone Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis in China

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Biao; Chan, Edward Wai-chi

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactams in Salmonella, in particular, in serotypes such as Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis that are frequently associated with clinical infections, is a serious public health concern. In this study, phenotypic characterization of 433 clinical S. Enteritidis strains obtained from a nationwide collection of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention during the period from 2005 to 2010 depicted a trend of increasing resistance to ceftriaxone from 2008 onwards. Seventeen (4%) of the strains were found to be resistant to ceftriaxone, 7% were found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 0.7% were found to be resistant to both ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Most of the ceftriaxone-resistant S. Enteritidis strains (15/17) were genetically unrelated and originated from Henan Province. The complete sequence of an IncI1 plasmid, pSE115, which belonged to a novel sequence type, was obtained. This 87,255-bp IncI1 plasmid was found to harbor a blaCTX-M-14 gene in a novel multidrug resistance region (MRR) within the tra locus. Although the majority of strains were also found to contain conjugative IncI1 plasmids with a size similar to that of pSE115 (∼90 kb) and harbor a variety of blaCTX-M group 1 and group 9 elements, the novel MRR site at the tra locus in pSE115 was not detectable in the other IncI1 plasmids. The findings from this study show that cephalosporin resistance in S. Enteritidis strains collected in China was mainly due to the dissemination of IncI1 plasmids carrying blaCTX-M, resembling the situation in which IncI1 plasmids serve as major vectors of blaCTX-M variants in other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:26643327

  7. [Agglutination of hen egg-yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) against Salmonella enterica, serovar enteritidis].

    PubMed

    Terzolo, H R; Sandoval, V E; Caffer, M I; Terragno, R; Alcain, A

    1998-01-01

    Two groups of 6 laying hens were used to produce IgY. In the vaccinated group (V), hens were injected by intramuscular route with two doses of a Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis bacterin at 20-day interval. In the control group (T) hens remained unvaccinated. Four IgY extractions were performed on the egg production of both groups. The first two extractions were carried out using the yolks obtained from the eggs produced during the 4th and 5th post-vaccination week (extracts 1V and 1T) and the other two using the ones from the 6th, 7th and 8th week (2V and 2T). Starting from the extracts 1V and 1T other products were obtained by freezing-thawing (1V-A and 1T-A) and simple (1V-B and 1T-B) or double (1V-C and 1T-C) flow capillary dialysis concentration. All these products were compared using an ELISA test specific for the detection of chicken antibodies against flagellar antigens of S. Enteritidis. In this test, V extracts were positive whereas T extracts were negative. The extract 1V was more positive than the extract 2V. The extract 1V-C was the most positive and was therefore selected to be used as an antiserum in the agglutination tests. This extract contained 1.9 g/dl of total proteins, 0.028 g/dl of triglycerides and 0.012 g/dl of cholesterol and showed an electrophoretic pattern characteristic of IgY. The 1T-C extract was used as a negative control in the agglutination tests. Slide somatic and tube flagellar agglutination tests were simultaneously carried out using both IgY extracts and a standard rabbit anti-Salmonella (IgG) sera. Overall 367 strains from the Enterobacteriaceae family were tested together with two other strains belonging to the Vibrionaceae family. The 1V-C extract specifically agglutinated S. Enteritidis strains in the same way as the rabbit sera. This extract also agglutinated other Salmonella strains antigenically related to S. Enteritidis. Salmonella which did not share somatic or flagellar antigens with S. Enteritidis, other

  8. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on shell eggs by ozone and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Romo, Luis A; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2005-04-01

    The presence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in shell eggs has serious public health implications. Several treatments have been developed to control Salmonella on eggs with mixed results. Currently, there is a need for time-saving, economical, and effective egg sanitization treatments. In this study, shell eggs externally contaminated with Salmonella (8.0 x 10(5) to 4.0 x 10(6) CFU/g of eggshell) were treated with gaseous ozone (O3) at 0 to 15 lb/in2 gauge for 0 to 20 min. In other experiments, contaminated shell eggs were exposed to UV radiation at 100 to 2,500 microW/cm2 for 0 to 5 min. Treatment combination included exposing contaminated eggs to UV (1,500 to 2,500 microW/cm2) for 1 min, followed by ozone at 5 lb/in2 gauge for 1 min. Eggs that were (i) noncontaminated and untreated, (ii) contaminated and untreated, and (iii) contaminated and treated with air were used as controls. Results indicated that treating shell eggs with ozone or UV, separately or in combination, significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Salmonella on shell eggs. For example, contaminated eggs treated with ozone at 4 to 8 degrees C and 15 lb/in2 gauge for 10 min or with UV (1,500 to 2,500 microW/cm2) at 22 to 25 degrees C for 5 min produced 5.9- or 4.3-log microbial reductions or more, respectively, when compared with contaminated untreated controls. Combinations including UV followed by ozone treatment resulted in synergistic inactivation of Salmonella by 4.6 log units or more in about 2 min of total treatment time. Salmonella was effectively inactivated on shell eggs in a short time and at low temperature with the use of a combination of UV radiation and ozone. PMID:15830660

  9. Infected abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by nontyphoid Salmonella in an immunocompromised patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kayoko; Nonomura, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Kaori; Koike, Ryuji; Kubota, Tetsuo; Harigai, Masayoshi; Inoue, Yoshinori; Iwai, Takehisa; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki

    2009-10-01

    Nontyphoid Salmonella strains are important pathogens commonly found worldwide, typically causing gastrointestinal illness. Here, we report a case of a 66-yearold man with an abdominal aortic infected (or so-called mycotic) aneurysm caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). He had multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis: age over 60, a long history of smoking, an 8-year history of diabetes mellitus, and a 10-year history of rheumatoid arthritis treated with low-dose corticosteroids. Although he had presented with no episode of diarrhea or abdominal pain, the abdominal aortic infected aneurysm was diagnosed by blood cultures and was carefully followed up by computed tomography. An abdominal aneurysmectomy and autogenous in situ reconstruction were successfully performed consequently. Alertness to the possibility of endovascular infection is important, even if there are no symptoms except for persistent fever, when treating Salmonella bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient, particularly when there are associated atherosclerotic risk factors. PMID:19856069

  10. Development of a New Molecular Subtyping Tool for Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genotyping Using PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Hilary; Dupras, Andrée Ann; Belanger, Sebastien; Devenish, John

    2014-01-01

    The lack of a sufficiently discriminatory molecular subtyping tool for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has hindered source attribution efforts and impeded regulatory actions required to disrupt its food-borne transmission. The underlying biological reason for the ineffectiveness of current molecular subtyping tools such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and phage typing appears to be related to the high degree of clonality of S. Enteritidis. By interrogating the organism's genome, we previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) distributed throughout the chromosome and have designed a highly discriminatory PCR-based SNP typing test based on 60 polymorphic loci. The application of the SNP-PCR method to DNA samples from S. Enteritidis strains (n = 55) obtained from a variety of sources has led to the differentiation and clustering of the S. Enteritidis isolates into 12 clades made up of 2 to 9 isolates per clade. Significantly, the SNP-PCR assay was able to further differentiate predominant PFGE types (e.g., XAI.0003) and phage types (e.g., phage type 8) into smaller subsets. The SNP-PCR subtyping test proved to be an accurate, precise, and quantitative tool for evaluating the relationships among the S. Enteritidis isolates tested in this study and should prove useful for clustering related S. Enteritidis isolates involved in outbreaks. PMID:25297333

  11. Development of a new molecular subtyping tool for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis based on single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping using PCR.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Dele; Kelly, Hilary; Dupras, Andrée Ann; Belanger, Sebastien; Devenish, John

    2014-12-01

    The lack of a sufficiently discriminatory molecular subtyping tool for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has hindered source attribution efforts and impeded regulatory actions required to disrupt its food-borne transmission. The underlying biological reason for the ineffectiveness of current molecular subtyping tools such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and phage typing appears to be related to the high degree of clonality of S. Enteritidis. By interrogating the organism's genome, we previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) distributed throughout the chromosome and have designed a highly discriminatory PCR-based SNP typing test based on 60 polymorphic loci. The application of the SNP-PCR method to DNA samples from S. Enteritidis strains (n = 55) obtained from a variety of sources has led to the differentiation and clustering of the S. Enteritidis isolates into 12 clades made up of 2 to 9 isolates per clade. Significantly, the SNP-PCR assay was able to further differentiate predominant PFGE types (e.g., XAI.0003) and phage types (e.g., phage type 8) into smaller subsets. The SNP-PCR subtyping test proved to be an accurate, precise, and quantitative tool for evaluating the relationships among the S. Enteritidis isolates tested in this study and should prove useful for clustering related S. Enteritidis isolates involved in outbreaks. PMID:25297333

  12. Antibacterial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol on Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in chicken cecal contents in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are two major food-borne pathogens that are transmitted through poultry products. These pathogens colonize the chicken cecum leading, to contamination of carcasses during slaughter and subsequent processing operations. We investigated the antimicrobial...

  13. Comparative genome analysis of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Gallinarum 287/91 provides insights into evolutionary and host adaptation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Nicholas R.; Clayton, Debra J.; Windhorst, Daniel; Vernikos, Georgios; Davidson, Susanne; Churcher, Carol; Quail, Michael A.; Stevens, Mark; Jones, Michael A.; Watson, Michael; Barron, Andy; Layton, Abigail; Pickard, Derek; Kingsley, Robert A.; Bignell, Alex; Clark, Louise; Harris, Barbara; Ormond, Doug; Abdellah, Zahra; Brooks, Karen; Cherevach, Inna; Chillingworth, Tracey; Woodward, John; Norberczak, Halina; Lord, Angela; Arrowsmith, Claire; Jagels, Kay; Moule, Sharon; Mungall, Karen; Sanders, Mandy; Whitehead, Sally; Chabalgoity, Jose A.; Maskell, Duncan; Humphrey, Tom; Roberts, Mark; Barrow, Paul A.; Dougan, Gordon; Parkhill, Julian

    2008-01-01

    We have determined the complete genome sequences of a host-promiscuous Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 isolate P125109 and a chicken-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum isolate 287/91. Genome comparisons between these and other Salmonella isolates indicate that S. Gallinarum 287/91 is a recently evolved descendent of S. Enteritidis. Significantly, the genome of S. Gallinarum has undergone extensive degradation through deletion and pseudogene formation. Comparison of the pseudogenes in S. Gallinarum with those identified previously in other host-adapted bacteria reveals the loss of many common functional traits and provides insights into possible mechanisms of host and tissue adaptation. We propose that experimental analysis in chickens and mice of S. Enteritidis–harboring mutations in functional homologs of the pseudogenes present in S. Gallinarum could provide an experimentally tractable route toward unraveling the genetic basis of host adaptation in S. enterica. PMID:18583645

  14. Preacclimation alters Salmonella Enteritidis surface properties and its initial attachment to food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yishan; Kumar, Amit; Zheng, Qianwang; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2015-04-01

    Exposure of Salmonella to environmental stress, prior to its adherence to a food contact surface, may change the cell surface properties and consequently affect its initial attachment and biofilm formation. This study investigated the influence of temperature and pH preacclimation on the initial attachment of Salmonella Enteritidis to acrylic and stainless steel. Besides, changes in physicochemical properties of cells were examined; and their surface attachment was modeled by xDLVO theory. Results showed that control cells pre-grown at 37°C had significantly (P<0.05) higher initial attachment, followed by those pre-grown at 25, 42, and 10°C. The initial attachment of cells pre-grown at pH 5.3 or 6.3 was not significantly (P>0.05) different from control cells pre-grown at pH 7.3, but they were significantly higher compared to cells pre-grown at pH 8.3 and 9.0. No significant difference was observed between cell attachment to acrylic and stainless steel, although they had different physicochemical properties. The xDLVO theory successfully explained higher attachment for cells pre-grown at optimal condition on both contact surfaces. However, the xDLVO theory could not explain the similar attachment of cells to acrylic and stainless steel. This study elucidates that commonly used intervention technologies including cold storage, thermal treatment, and alkaline antimicrobial agents might alter the physicochemical properties of S. Enteritidis cells and result in varied initial attachment levels. PMID:25800356

  15. Epidemiological Analysis of Salmonella enteritidis Isolates from Humans and Broiler Chickens in Thailand by Phage Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Boonmar, Sumalee; Bangtrakulnonth, Aroon; Pornrunangwong, Srirat; Terajima, Jun; Watanabe, Haruo; Kaneko, Ken-Ichi; Ogawa, Masuo

    1998-01-01

    To determine the phage types (PT) of Salmonella enteritidis found in Thailand and to clarify the potential for human infection by S. enteritidis in broiler chicken meat, human and poultry isolates taken from Thailand between 1990 and 1997 were phage typed and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ten different PT were found among the 302 isolates phage typed, with PT 4 being the most frequent in human (73.9%) and poultry (76.2%) isolates, followed by PT 1 (8.0%), 8 (3.6%), and 7a (2.2%) in human isolates and by PT 7a (4.9%), 1 (3.7%), and 12 (2.4%) in poultry isolates. Of the 53 isolates analyzed by PFGE, 45 showed an indistinguishable pattern (pattern A) by BlnI-digested PFGE and the other 8 isolates showed a very similar pattern that differed by only a few bands. These results indicate the spread of a genetically identical clone of S. enteritidis in humans and poultry in Thailand. PMID:9542918

  16. Immunity to systemic Salmonella infections.

    PubMed

    Mastroeni, Pietro

    2002-06-01

    Salmonella infections are a serious public health problem in developing countries and represent a constant concern for the food industry. The severity and the outcome of a systemic Salmonella infection depends on the "virulence" of the bacteria, on the infectious dose as well as on the genetic makeup and immunological status of the host. The control of bacterial growth in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) in the early phases of a Salmonella infection relies on the NADPH oxidase-dependent anti-microbial functions of resident phagocytes and is controlled by the innate resistance gene Nramp1. This early phase is followed by the suppression of Salmonella growth in the RES due to the onset of an adaptive host response. This response relies on the concerted action of a number of cytokines (TNFalpha, IFNgamma, IL12, IL18, and IL15), on the recruitment of inflammatory phagocytes in the tissues and on the activation of the recruited cells. Phagocytes control bacterial growth in this phase of the infection by producing reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) generated via the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Clearance of the bacteria from the RES at a later stage of the infection requires the CD28-dependent activation of CD4+ TCR-alphabeta T-cells and is controlled by MHC class II genes. Resistance to re-infection with virulent Salmonella micro-organisms requires the presence of Th1 type immunological memory and anti-Salmonella antibodies. Thus, the development of protective immunity to Salmonella infections relies on the cross-talk between the humoral and cellular branches of the immune system. PMID:12108950

  17. [Investigation of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis isolates by plasmid profile analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Us, Ebru; Erdem, Birsel; Tekeli, Alper; Gerçeker, Devran; Saran, Begüm; Bayramova, Mehseti; Sahin, Fikret

    2011-04-01

    In this study a total of 122 Salmonella serotype Enteritidis stock strains selected from the culture collection of Enterobacteriaceae Laboratory of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, were investigated by plasmid profile analysis with the method defined by Kado and Liu and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) according to World Health Organization protocols using SpeI and XbaI macrorestriction enzymes, for better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of S. Enteritidis. The study strains were selected from a collection of previously isolated epidemic (n= 13) and sporadic (n= 109) strains (103 stool, 16 blood and one each bile, urine and cerebrospinal fluid) obtained from 10 different cities after the year 2000. PFGE patterns were analyzed with Gene Directory software (Syngene, UK) and a similarity index was determined by using Dice coefficient and the unweighted pair group method with mathematical averaging (UPGMA). Plasmid-carrying 110 (90%) strains that harbored 1-4 plasmids with sizes ranging from 2.0 to 100 kb were separated into patterns more than 14 (p1-p14). A total of 85 (69.7%) isolates harbored the 57 kb plasmid solely or in combination with other plasmids. By PFGE, 11 distinct patterns were shown with each enzyme SpeI and XbaI. S. Enteritidis strains after digestion with macrorestriction enzyme SpeI generated 11 different PFGE patterns (A to K), whereas XbaI generated also 11 different PFGE patterns (a to k). PFGE pattern A consisted of 93 strains (76.2%) after digestion with macrorestriction enzyme SpeI, while PFGE pattern a consisted 53 (43.4%) and PFGE pattern b 42 strains (34.4%) after digestion with macrorestriction enzyme XbaI. Using two macrorestriction enzymes two PFGE cluster profiles Aa (50 strains, 40.9%) and Ab (42 strains, 34.4%) were found to be predominating among 17 different PFGE clusters. Our results confirmed the clonal nature of S. Enteritidis strains in Turkey. The use of two enzymes in

  18. Immunomodulatory activity and control of Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in the intestinal tract of chickens by Lactobacillus based probiotic.

    PubMed

    Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Díaz, Silvia Juliana Acelas; Fernando, Filipe Santos; Chang, Yung-Fu; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio; Berchieri Junior, Angelo

    2015-09-15

    Lactobacillus-based probiotics (LBP) are used as competitive exclusion to control pathogenic enterobacterial infections and improve the weight gain in broiler chickens. This study assessed the inhibition of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infection in one-week-old broiler chicks, using an experimental LBP containing four Lactobacillus strains isolated from chickens (L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. reuteri, L. salivarius). The immunomodulatory effects of this treatment were evaluated, through the analysis of cytokines and influx of macrophages, γδ, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the gut. The intestinal colonization by SE was reduced by 1.8 CFU/g (log10) in chicks treated with LBP (p<0.05). The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, LITAF) were significantly reduced in treated chicks (p<0.05), whilst untreated chicks showed elevated inflammatory stimulus and an increased population of CD8(+) T cells in the intestinal mucosa after challenge (p<0.05). Additionally, the LBP stimulated TLR2 expression in caecal tonsils. The adjuvant property of the Lactobacillus cell wall (LCW) was evaluated, demonstrating good capability to stimulate T helper 2 (Th2) cell proliferation. Pretreatment of chicks with LBP decreased the intestinal colonization by SE, minimizing the tissue lesions and inflammation after challenge and showed a potential use as adjuvant with injectable killed vaccines. PMID:26099807

  19. RNA Sequencing Reveals Differences between the Global Transcriptomes of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Strains with High and Low Pathogenicities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the important causes of bacterial food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Field strains of S. Enteritidis are relatively genetically homogeneous; however, they show extensive phenotypic diversity and differences in virulence potential. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to characterize differences in the global transcriptome between several genetically similar but phenotypically diverse poultry-associated field strains of S. Enteritidis grown in laboratory medium at avian body temperature (42°C). These S. Enteritidis strains were previously characterized as high-pathogenicity (HP; n = 3) and low-pathogenicity (LP; n = 3) strains based on both in vitro and in vivo virulence assays. Using the negative binomial distribution-based statistical tools edgeR and DESeq, 252 genes were identified as differentially expressed in LP strains compared with their expression in the HP strains (P < 0.05). A majority of genes (235, or 93.2%) showed significantly reduced expression, whereas a few genes (17, or 6.8%) showed increased expression in all LP strains compared with HP strains. LP strains showed a unique transcriptional profile that is characterized by significantly reduced expression of several transcriptional regulators and reduced expression of genes involved in virulence (e.g., Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 [SPI-1], SPI-5, and fimbrial and motility genes) and protection against osmotic, oxidative, and other stresses, such as iron-limiting conditions commonly encountered within the host. Several functionally uncharacterized genes also showed reduced expression. This study provides a first concise view of the global transcriptional differences between field strains of S. Enteritidis with various levels of pathogenicity, providing the basis for future functional characterization of several genes with potential roles in virulence or stress regulation of S. Enteritidis. PMID:24271167

  20. Comparison of a live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit with a commercial vaccine for efficacy of protection against internal egg contamination by Salmonella in hens

    PubMed Central

    Nandre, Rahul M.; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang Youel; Lee, John Hwa

    2015-01-01

    This study compared a new live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (SE-LTB) with a commercial Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine for efficacy of protection against SE infection in laying hens. Chickens were divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group A chickens were inoculated orally with phosphate-buffered saline and served as controls, group B chickens were inoculated orally with the vaccine candidate, and group C chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with a commercial vaccine, the primary inoculation in groups B and C being at 10 wk of age and the booster at 16 wk. Groups B and C showed significantly higher titers of plasma immunoglobulin G, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A, and egg yolk immunoglobulin Y antibodies compared with the control group, and both vaccinated groups showed a significantly elevated cellular immune response. After virulent challenge, group B had significantly lower production of thin-shelled and/or malformed eggs and a significantly lower rate of SE contamination of eggs compared with the control group. Furthermore, the challenge strain was detected significantly less in all of the examined organs of group B compared with the control group. Group C had lower gross lesion scores only in the spleen and had lower bacterial counts only in the spleen, ceca, and ovary. These findings indicate that vaccination with the SE-LTB vaccine candidate can efficiently reduce internal egg and internal organ contamination by Salmonella and has advantages over the commercial vaccine. PMID:26130857

  1. Altered virulence potential of Salmonella Enteritidis cultured in different foods: A cumulative effect of differential gene expression and immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sangeeta; Sahoo, Prakash Kumar; Ryan, Daniel; Das, Jugal Kishore; Chakraborty, Eesha; Mohakud, Nirmal Kumar; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most common causes of food borne illness. Bacterial growth environment plays an important role in regulating gene expression thereby affecting the virulence profile of the bacteria. Different foods present diverse growth conditions which may affect the pathogenic potential of the bacteria. In the present study, the effect of food environments on the pathogenic potential of S. Enteritidis has been evaluated. S. Enteritidis was grown in different foods e.g. egg white, peanut butter and milk, and virulent phenotypes were compared to those grown in Luria Bertani broth. In-vivo experiments in C57BL/6 mice revealed S. Enteritidis grown in egg white did not induce significant (p<0.001) production of proinflammatory cytokines in mice and were unable to cause colitis despite efficient colonization in cecum, mesenteric lymph node, spleen and liver. Further studies revealed that bacteria grown in LB activated MAP Kinase and NFκB pathways efficiently, while those grown in egg white poorly activated the above pathways which can account for the decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines. qRT PCR analysis revealed SPI-1 effectors were downregulated in bacteria grown in egg white. Interestingly, bacteria grown in egg white showed reversal of phenotype upon change in growth media to LB. Additionally, bacteria grown in milk and peanut butter showed different degrees of virulence in mice as compared to those grown in LB media. Thus, the present study demonstrates that, S. Enteritidis grown in egg white colonizes systemic sites without causing colitis in a mouse model, while bacteria grown in milk and peanut butter show different pathogenicity profiles suggesting that food environments significantly affect the pathogenicity of S. Enteritidis. PMID:27132148

  2. Genomic comparison of the closely-related Salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis, dublin and gallinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E.; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J.; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Schifferli, Dieter M.; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Robert A.; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2015-06-03

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars.

  3. Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance Genes Aid in Defense against Chicken Innate Immunity, Fecal Shedding, and Egg Deposition

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Jessica A.; Yang, Ming; Jiang, Yanhua

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major etiologic agent of nontyphoid salmonellosis in the United States. S. Enteritidis persistently and silently colonizes the intestinal and reproductive tract of laying hens, resulting in contaminated poultry products. The consumption of contaminated poultry products has been identified as a significant risk factor for human salmonellosis. To understand the mechanisms S. Enteritidis utilizes to colonize and persist in laying hens, we used selective capture of transcribed sequences to identify genes overexpressed in the HD11 chicken macrophage cell line and in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells. From the 15 genes found to be overexpressed in both cell types, we characterized the antimicrobial peptide resistance (AMPR) genes, virK and ybjX, in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, AMPR genes were required for natural morphology, motility, secretion, defense against detergents such as EDTA and bile salts, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides polymyxin B and avian β-defensins. From this, we inferred the AMPR genes play a role in outer membrane stability and/or modulation. In the intestinal tract, AMPR genes were involved in early intestinal colonization and fecal shedding. In the reproductive tract, virK was required in early colonization whereas a deletion of ybjX caused prolonged ovary colonization and egg deposition. Data from the present study indicate that AMPR genes are differentially utilized in various host environments, which may ultimately assist S. Enteritidis in persistent and silent colonization of chickens. PMID:25267840

  4. An inhibitory factor for cell-free protein synthesis from Salmonella enteritidis exhibits cytopathic activity against Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Iwamaru, Y; Miyake, M; Arii, J; Tanabe, Y; Noda, M

    2001-12-01

    A factor inhibiting cell-free protein synthesis was purified from Salmonella enteritidis cell lysate by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation, chromatography on anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction columns, and polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis. The purified factor, which was named SIPS (Salmonella inhibitor of protein synthesis), inhibited in vitro protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocyte lysate and had a molecular mass of 38 kDa, estimated by PAGE under denaturing conditions. SIPS was also cytopathic for Chinese hamster ovary cells. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (20 residues) of SIPS was found to be identical to that of mature L-asparaginase II of Escherichia coli. Indeed, the purified SIPS exhibited asparaginase activity, E. coli L-asparaginase II had cytopathic activity and inhibited in vitro protein synthesis. The results suggest that at least a part of cytotoxicity and inhibition of cell-free protein synthesis caused by S. enteritidis is a property of the bacterial L-asparaginase. PMID:11747376

  5. Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 13a: case-control investigation in Hertsmere, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Morgan, O; Milne, L; Kumar, S; Murray, D; Man, W; Georgiou, M; Verlander, N Q; de Pinna, E; McEvoy, M

    2007-07-01

    Cases of illness were reported to Hertsmere Borough Council among attendees of a children's charity event in June 2006. Initial laboratory investigation identified Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a as a possible cause of the outbreak. We carried out an unmatched case-control investigation. The population at risk included all individuals who attended the event. Self-completion questionnaires were sent to 53 presumptive cases and 212 randomly selected potential controls. Information was available for 49 cases and 128 controls (overall response rate=75%). We calculated odds ratios from single and multivariable analysis and tested for all two-way interactions. Risk factors for diarrhoea were eating egg mayonnaise bagels (OR=34.1, 95%CI 10.5 - 111.3) and drinking apple juice (OR=16.1, 95% CI 3.5 - 74.2). There was weak statistical evidence to suggest that the risk of diarrhoea after eating egg mayonnaise bagels was greater in the afternoon. No food samples were available to confirm which food item might have caused this outbreak. Eggs from Spain were used by the caterer. The ecology of salmonella, experience from previous outbreaks and epidemiological findings from this case-control investigation suggest that the most likely cause of the outbreak was contaminated eggs. PMID:17991411

  6. Characterization of a Novel Inactivated Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Vaccine Candidate Generated Using a Modified cI857/λ PR/Gene E Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Jawale, Chetan V.; Chaudhari, Atul A.; Jeon, Byung Woo; Nandre, Rahul M.

    2012-01-01

    A new strategy to develop an effective vaccine is essential to control food-borne Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infections. Bacterial ghosts (BGs), which are nonliving, Gram-negative bacterial cell envelopes, are generated by expulsion of the cytoplasmic contents from bacterial cells through controlled expression using the modified cI857/λ PR/gene E expression system. In the present study, the pJHL99 lysis plasmid carrying the mutated lambda pR37-cI857 repressor and PhiX174 lysis gene E was constructed and transformed in S. Enteritidis to produce a BG. Temperature induction of the lysis gene cassette at 42°C revealed quantitative killing of S. Enteritidis. The S. Enteritidis ghost was characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy to visualize the transmembrane tunnel structure and loss of cytoplasmic materials, respectively. The efficacy of the BG as a vaccine candidate was evaluated in a chicken model using 60 10-day-old chickens, which were divided into four groups (n = 15), A, B, C, and D. Group A was designated as the nonimmunized control group, whereas the birds in groups B, C, and D were immunized via the intramuscular, subcutaneous, and oral routes, respectively. The chickens from all immunized groups showed significant increases in plasma IgG and intestinal secretory IgA levels. The lymphocyte proliferation response and CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD8+ T cell subpopulations were also significantly increased in all immunized groups. The data indicate that both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses are robustly stimulated. Based on an examination of the protection efficacy measured by observations of gross lesions in the organs and bacterial recovery, the candidate vaccine can provide efficient protection against virulent challenge. PMID:22290147

  7. Protective host immune responses to Salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Oanh H; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi are the causative agents of human typhoid fever. Current typhoid vaccines are ineffective and are not widely used in endemic areas. Greater understanding of host–pathogen interactions during Salmonella infection should facilitate the development of improved vaccines to combat typhoid and nontyphoidal Salmonellosis. This review will focus on our current understanding of Salmonella pathogenesis and the major host immune components that participate in immunity to Salmonella infection. In addition, recent findings regarding host immune mechanisms in response to Salmonella infection will be also discussed, providing a new perspective on the utility of improved tools to study the immune response to Salmonella infections. PMID:25598340

  8. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to acidified Sodium chlorite or tri-sodium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Karuppasamy, K; Yadav, Ajit S; Saxena, Gaurav K

    2015-12-01

    Thermal inactivation of normal and starved cells of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to different concentrations of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was investigated. Inoculated skin was pretreated with different concentration of ASC or TSP, packaged in bags, and then immersed in a circulating water bath at 60 to 68 °C. The recovery medium was Hektoen enteric agar. D-values, determined by linear regression, for normal cells on chicken skin, were 2.79, 1.17 and 0.53 min whereas D-values for starved cells were 4.15, 1.83 and 0.66 at 60, 64 and 68 °C, respectively. z-values for normal cells were 3.54 and for starved cells were 2.29. Pretreatment of Salmonella Enteritidis cells with 0 to 200 ppm of ASC or 0 to 1.0 % TSP resulted in lower D-values at all temperatures. Sensory results indicated no significance differences for control and treatments. Thus, results of this study indicated that pretreatment of chicken skin with ASC or TSP increased sensitivity of Salmonella Enteritidis to heat without affecting organoleptic quality of chicken meat. PMID:26604399

  9. Investigation of the concurrent emergence of Salmonella enteritidis in humans and poultry in British Columbia, Canada, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M; Leslie, M; Ritson, M; Stone, J; Cox, W; Hoang, L; Galanis, E; Bowes, Victoria; Byrne, Sean; de With, Nancy; Embree, Glen; Ekkert, Judi; Gully, Maritia; Gustafson, Larry; Nowakowski, Craig; Rice, George; Wong, Julie; Wilcott, Lynn

    2012-12-01

    An increase in the rate of human infections with Salmonella enteritidis (SE) occurred between 2007 and 2010 in British Columbia (BC). During the same time period, an increase in SE from poultry-sourced isolates and increased clinical severity in poultry were also observed in BC. This article describes a multi-sectoral collaboration during a 3-year investigation, and the actions taken by public health and animal health professionals. Human cases were interviewed, clusters were investigated, and a case-control study was conducted. Environmental investigations were conducted in food service establishments (FSE). Suspect foods were tested. Laboratory data from poultry-sourced isolates were analysed. Five hundred and eighty-four human cases of SE with the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern were identified between May 2008 and August 2010. Seventy-three percentage of cases reported consumption of eggs. The odds of egg consumption were 2.4 times higher for cases than controls. Implicated FSE were found to use ungraded eggs, which had been distributed illegally. Investigation suggested that there were multiple suppliers of these eggs. Collaboration between public health and animal health professionals led to data sharing, improved understanding of SE, engagement with the poultry industry and public communication. Multi-disciplinary, multi-sectoral and multi-pronged investigations are recommended to identify the likely source of illness in large, protracted foodborne outbreaks caused by commonly consumed foods. PMID:22639971

  10. Survival and growth of Salmonella Enteritidis in membrane processed liquid egg white with pH, temperature and storage conditions as controlling factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was undertaken to determine the effect of variation in solution pH and process temperature on the removal and regrowth of Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid egg white (LEW) by microfiltration (MF) membrane process. Influence of various storage conditions on growth of Salmonella in membrane sep...

  11. Yerba mate enhances probiotic bacteria growth in vitro but as a feed additive does not reduce Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, Francisco; Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; Pendleton, Sean; Andino, Ana; Zhang, Nan; Yard, Carrie; Crilly, Nate; Harte, Federico; Hanning, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a tea known to have beneficial effects on human health and antimicrobial activity against some foodborne pathogens. Thus, the application of yerba mate as a feed additive for broiler chickens to reduce Salmonella colonization was evaluated. The first in vitro evaluation was conducted by suspending Salmonella Enteritidis and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in yerba mate extract. The in vivo evaluations were conducted using preventative and horizontal transmission experiments. In all experiments, day-of-hatch chicks were treated with one of the following 1) no treatment (control); 2) ground yerba mate in feed; 3) probiotic treatment (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pediococcus; 9:1 administered once on day of hatch by gavage); or 4) both yerba mate and probiotic treatments. At d 3, all chicks were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (preventative experiment) or 5 of 20 chicks (horizontal transmission experiment). At d 10, all birds were euthanized, weighed, and cecal contents enumerated for Salmonella. For the in vitro evaluation, antimicrobial activity was observed against Salmonella and the same treatment enhanced growth of LAB. For in vivo evaluations, none of the yerba mate treatments significantly reduced Salmonella Enteritidis colonization, whereas the probiotic treatment significantly reduced Salmonella colonization in the horizontal transmission experiment. Yerba mate decreased chicken BW and decreased the performance of the probiotic treatment when used in combination. In conclusion, yerba mate had antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and enhanced the growth of LAB in vitro, but in vivo yerba mate did not decrease Salmonella Enteritidis colonization. PMID:24570466

  12. Assessing the growth and recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 after sodium dichloroisocyanurate exposure.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fernanda Stoduto; Horvath, Mariana Bandeira; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the growth and the recovery of Salmonella (S.) Enteritidis SE86 in different diluents, culture media and using different plating methods after the exposure to 200 mg/kg sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC). Before and after NaDCC exposure, SE86 was cultured at 30 °C and 7 °C in the following diluents: Peptone water (P), Saline solution (SaS), Peptone water+Saline solution (P+SaS), Peptone water+Tween 80+Lecithin+Sodium thiosulfate (P+N) and Saline solution+Tween 80+Lecithin+Sodium thiosulfate (SaS+N). The SaS diluent was chosen because it was able to maintain cells viable without growth and was further used for plating SE86 on non selective medium (Tryptic Soy Agar-TSA) and on selective media (Mannitol Lysine Crystal Violet Brilliant Green Agar-MLCB; Brilliant Green Agar-BGA; Salmonella Shigella Agar-SS and Xylose Lysine Dextrose-XLD). The Thin Agar Layer method (TAL) i.e., selective media overlayed with non selective TSA was also evaluated. Results indicated that SE86 not exposed to NaDCC was able to grow in P, P+N, SaS+N and P+SaS, but not in SaS, that was able to maintain cells viable. SE86 exposed to NaDCC demonstrated similar counts after dilution in SaS and the plating on non selective TSA, selective media MLCB, BGA, SS and XLD and on TAL media. SE86, S. Typhimurium and S. Bredeney, exposed or not exposed to NaDCC, showed no significant differences in counts on TSA, XLD and XLD overlayed with TSA, suggesting that all those media may be used to quantify NaDCC-exposed Salmonella by plating method. PMID:24516446

  13. Assessing the growth and recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 after sodium dichloroisocyanurate exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Fernanda Stoduto; Horvath, Mariana Bandeira; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the growth and the recovery of Salmonella (S.) Enteritidis SE86 in different diluents, culture media and using different plating methods after the exposure to 200 mg/kg sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC). Before and after NaDCC exposure, SE86 was cultured at 30 °C and 7 °C in the following diluents: Peptone water (P), Saline solution (SaS), Peptone water+Saline solution (P+SaS), Peptone water+Tween 80+Lecithin+Sodium thiosulfate (P+N) and Saline solution+Tween 80+Lecithin+Sodium thiosulfate (SaS+N). The SaS diluent was chosen because it was able to maintain cells viable without growth and was further used for plating SE86 on non selective medium (Tryptic Soy Agar-TSA) and on selective media (Mannitol Lysine Crystal Violet Brilliant Green Agar-MLCB; Brilliant Green Agar-BGA; Salmonella Shigella Agar-SS and Xylose Lysine Dextrose–XLD). The Thin Agar Layer method (TAL) i.e., selective media overlayed with non selective TSA was also evaluated. Results indicated that SE86 not exposed to NaDCC was able to grow in P, P+N, SaS+N and P+SaS, but not in SaS, that was able to maintain cells viable. SE86 exposed to NaDCC demonstrated similar counts after dilution in SaS and the plating on non selective TSA, selective media MLCB, BGA, SS and XLD and on TAL media. SE86, S. Typhimurium and S. Bredeney, exposed or not exposed to NaDCC, showed no significant differences in counts on TSA, XLD and XLD overlayed with TSA, suggesting that all those media may be used to quantify NaDCC-exposed Salmonella by plating method. PMID:24516446

  14. On the evolutionary history, population genetics and diversity among isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis PFGE pattern JEGX01.0004.

    PubMed

    Allard, Marc W; Luo, Yan; Strain, Errol; Pettengill, James; Timme, Ruth; Wang, Charles; Li, Cong; Keys, Christine E; Zheng, Jie; Stones, Robert; Wilson, Mark R; Musser, Steven M; Brown, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    Facile laboratory tools are needed to augment identification in contamination events to trace the contamination back to the source (traceback) of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). Understanding the evolution and diversity within and among outbreak strains is the first step towards this goal. To this end, we collected 106 new S. Enteriditis isolates within S. Enteriditis Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern JEGX01.0004 and close relatives, and determined their genome sequences. Sources for these isolates spanned food, clinical and environmental farm sources collected during the 2010 S. Enteritidis shell egg outbreak in the United States along with closely related serovars, S. Dublin, S. Gallinarum biovar Pullorum and S. Gallinarum. Despite the highly homogeneous structure of this population, S. Enteritidis isolates examined in this study revealed thousands of SNP differences and numerous variable genes (n = 366). Twenty-one of these genes from the lineages leading to outbreak-associated samples had nonsynonymous (causing amino acid changes) changes and five genes are putatively involved in known Salmonella virulence pathways. While chromosome synteny and genome organization appeared to be stable among these isolates, genome size differences were observed due to variation in the presence or absence of several phages and plasmids, including phage RE-2010, phage P125109, plasmid pSEEE3072_19 (similar to pSENV), plasmid pOU1114 and two newly observed mobile plasmid elements pSEEE1729_15 and pSEEE0956_35. These differences produced modifications to the assembled bases for these draft genomes in the size range of approximately 4.6 to 4.8 mbp, with S. Dublin being larger (∼4.9 mbp) and S. Gallinarum smaller (4.55 mbp) when compared to S. Enteritidis. Finally, we identified variable S. Enteritidis genes associated with virulence pathways that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing

  15. Glycerol supplementation enhances the protective effect of dietary FloraMax-B11 against Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in neonate broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Delgado, R; Latorre, J D; Vicuña, E; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Vicente, J L; Menconi, A; Kallapura, G; Layton, S; Hargis, B M; Téllez, G

    2014-09-01

    Two independent trials were conducted in the present study to evaluate the effect of 5% glycerol supplementation combined with dietary FloraMax-B11 (FM) against Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in neonate broiler chickens. In each trial, 60 chicks were randomly assigned into 4 groups. Group 1 received a control diet. Group 2 received a control diet supplemented with 5% glycerol. Group 3 received a control diet supplemented with FM, and group 4 received a control diet supplemented with 5% glycerol and FM. At placement, chickens were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis at 10(4) cfu/bird. In each trial, 12 chicks were humanely killed 72 h postchallenge, respectively, for Salmonella Enteritidis colonization. Supplementation of 5% glycerol or FM by themselves, showed no significant effect on Salmonella Enteritidis recovery or incidence when compared with control nontreated chickens in both trials. However, no detectable Salmonella Enteritidis was observed in the chickens that received the supplementation of 5% glycerol combined with FM in both trials. Further studies are in progress in older birds to substantiate these findings. PMID:25002551

  16. A Role for Vaccination to Control Salmonella in Poultry Flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than twenty years, the egg-borne transmission of human Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infections has been a prominent international public health and economic issue. Vaccination to induce immunity against Salmonella has been both extensively researched and widely i...

  17. The Antibacterial Activity of Coriolus versicolor Methanol Extract and Its Effect on Ultrastructural Changes of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Matijašević, Danka; Pantić, Milena; Rašković, Božidar; Pavlović, Vladimir; Duvnjak, Dunja; Sknepnek, Aleksandra; Nikšić, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol extract obtained from fruiting body of industrially grown basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor was examined. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values against various bacteria ranged from 0.625 to 20 mg mL-1. C. versicolor expressed bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The growth curves of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, measured at 630 nm, and confirmed with macrodilution method showed that the obtained extract could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material were used to examine the ultrastructural changes in bacteria induced by the extract. When S. aureus was exposed to the MIC of C. versicolor, elongated and malformed cells were observed by SEM, while S. Enteritidis treated cells appeared shorter and aggregated with ruptured cell walls. TEM revealed the formation of non-membrane-enclosed bodies and depleted inner content of S. aureus. Larger and irregular periplasmic space and deformed and scattered components of the cell envelope were observed in treated S. Enteritidis. The loss of 260-nm-absorbing material indicated that the disruptive action of the extract on cytoplasmic membrane was more pronounced in S. aureus than in S. Enteritidis treated cells. The UV and FTIR spectrophotometric analyses revealed diverse composition of C. versicolor extract and high content of total phenolics. Altogether, mushroom extracts could be used to develop nutraceuticals or drugs effective against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:27540376

  18. The Antibacterial Activity of Coriolus versicolor Methanol Extract and Its Effect on Ultrastructural Changes of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Matijašević, Danka; Pantić, Milena; Rašković, Božidar; Pavlović, Vladimir; Duvnjak, Dunja; Sknepnek, Aleksandra; Nikšić, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol extract obtained from fruiting body of industrially grown basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor was examined. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values against various bacteria ranged from 0.625 to 20 mg mL(-1). C. versicolor expressed bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The growth curves of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, measured at 630 nm, and confirmed with macrodilution method showed that the obtained extract could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material were used to examine the ultrastructural changes in bacteria induced by the extract. When S. aureus was exposed to the MIC of C. versicolor, elongated and malformed cells were observed by SEM, while S. Enteritidis treated cells appeared shorter and aggregated with ruptured cell walls. TEM revealed the formation of non-membrane-enclosed bodies and depleted inner content of S. aureus. Larger and irregular periplasmic space and deformed and scattered components of the cell envelope were observed in treated S. Enteritidis. The loss of 260-nm-absorbing material indicated that the disruptive action of the extract on cytoplasmic membrane was more pronounced in S. aureus than in S. Enteritidis treated cells. The UV and FTIR spectrophotometric analyses revealed diverse composition of C. versicolor extract and high content of total phenolics. Altogether, mushroom extracts could be used to develop nutraceuticals or drugs effective against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:27540376

  19. Marinade with thyme and orange oils reduces Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter coli on inoculated broiler breast fillets and whole wings.

    PubMed

    Thanissery, R; Smith, D P

    2014-05-01

    Essential oils have been reported to possess antimicrobial properties and therefore have potential usage as natural antimicrobials in food. In a previous study, thyme orange essential oil combination (TOC) used at the 0.5% level as a dip application on chicken cut-up parts had a significant antibacterial effect against Salmonella and Campylobacter. A study was designed to evaluate the effect of salt-phosphate marinade solution containing 0.5% TOC to 1) reduce Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter coli numbers on broiler breast fillets and whole wings marinated by vacuum tumbling, and 2) reduce cross-contamination of both pathogens between inoculated and uninoculated parts during marination. A total of 52 skinless breast fillets and 52 whole wings were used for the 2 replications. For each replication, each cut-up part was randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups: treatment 1: uninoculated parts marinated without TOC; treatment 2: inoculated parts marinated without TOC; treatment 3: uninoculated parts marinated with TOC; treatment 4: inoculated parts marinated with TOC; and control: nonmarinated inoculated parts. Samples were dipped in an inoculum containing a mixture of Salmonella Enteritidis and C. coli. The treatment samples were marinated by vacuum tumbling. All samples were immediately evaluated to determine Salmonella Enteritidis and C. coli numbers. Results indicated that TOC at the 0.5% level in the marinade solution applied by vacuum tumbling significantly reduced (P < 0.05) numbers of viable Salmonella Enteritidis by 2.6 and 2.3 log cfu/mL on broiler breast fillets and C. coli by 3.6 and 3.1 log cfu/mL on whole wings. Cross-contamination was observed as the uninoculated chicken parts marinated with inoculated parts were positive. However, the number of bacterial cells recovered from the TOC treated samples were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the numbers recovered from the untreated samples. Marination with a salt phosphate formulation containing 0.5% TOC

  20. Inhibition of the Early Stage of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Biofilm Development on Stainless Steel by Cell-Free Supernatant of a Hafnia alvei Culture▿

    PubMed Central

    Chorianopoulos, Nikos G.; Giaouris, Efstathios D.; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Nychas, George-John E.

    2010-01-01

    Compounds present in Hafnia alvei cell-free culture supernatant cumulatively negatively influence the early stage of biofilm development by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on stainless steel while they also reduce the overall metabolic activity of S. Enteritidis planktonic cells. Although acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) were detected among these compounds, the use of several synthetic AHLs was not able to affect the initial stage of biofilm formation by this pathogen. PMID:20097823

  1. The relationship between infecting dose and severity of disease in reported outbreaks of Salmonella infections.

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, J. R.; Bradley, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between size of the infecting dose and severity of the resulting disease has been investigated for salmonella infections by reanalysis of data within epidemics for 32 outbreaks, and comparing data between outbreaks for 68 typhoid epidemics and 49 food-poisoning outbreaks due to salmonellas. Attack rate, incubation period, amount of infected food consumed and type of vehicle are used as proxy measures of infecting dose, while case fatality rates for typhoid and case hospitalization rates for food poisoning salmonellas were used to assess severity. Limitations of the data are discussed. Both unweighted and logit analysis models are used. There is no evidence for a dose-severity relationship for Salmonella typhi, but evidence of a correlation between dose and severity is available from within-epidemic or between-epidemic analysis, or both, for Salmonella typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. infantis, S. newport, and S. thompson. The presence of such a relationship affects the way in which control interventions should be assessed. PMID:1468522

  2. [Infections due to several species of Salmonella in Mendoza, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Curi de Montbrun, S E; Ciccarelli, A S; de Ampuero, S; Fernández, R A; Benito, M A

    1981-01-01

    Fifty nine sporadic cases and forty five cases from six outbreaks of salmonellosis occurring in Mendoza, Argentina between 1972-76 are reported. All 104 patients were studied epidemiologically searching for the etiologic agent, implicated food and contacts. Stools of patients and contacts were examined. Other clinical specimens and the implicated foods were examined bacteriologically. The Salmonella isolates were classified in eleven serotypes with the following order of frequency: a) Outbreaks: S. typhimurium (50,0%), S. derby (16,7%), S. newport (16,7%), S. bredeney (16,7%), S. enteritidis (16,7%), S. cholerae-suis (16,7%) and S. oranienburg (16,7%). b) Sporadic cases; S. typhimurium (35,9%), S. newport (15,6%), S. anatum (7,8%), S. oranienburg (6,2%), S. derby (4,7%), S. java (3,1%), S. cholerae-suis (3,1%), S. bredeney (1,6%), S. enteritidis (1,6%), S. minnesota (1,6%), S. urbana (1,6%), and Salmonella spp (17,2%). These results are compared with those obtained in the same areas between 1962-71 and with the serotype frequencies from different sources of infection found in Mendoza and other regions. PMID:7346889

  3. Eggshell penetration of various types of hens' eggs by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Messens, Winy; Grijspeerdt, Koen; De Reu, Koen; De Ketelaere, Bart; Mertens, Kristof; Bamelis, Flip; Kemps, Bart; De Baerdemaeker, Josse; Decuypere, Eddy; Herman, Lieve

    2007-03-01

    Egg weight, shell thickness, number of pores, cuticle deposition, eggshell strength (dynamic stiffness and damping ratio), and the ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) to penetrate the eggshell were determined. Penetration was assessed by filling the eggs with a selective medium that allowed viewing of Salmonella growth on the inside of the shell and membrane complex. After inoculation of each shell with on average 2.71 log CFU, the eggs were stored for up to 14 days at 20 degrees C and 60% relative humidity. Commercially available eggs were used. At 14 days of storage, only 6.0% of the eggs from free-range hens and 16.0% of the generic (i.e., eggs from hens in conventional battery cages that were given standard feed) white eggs were penetrated. The generic brown, organic, and omega-3-enriched eggs were penetrated at a frequency of 30 to 34%. In a second experiment it was shown that the layer strains of the hen (ISA-Brown Warren versus Bovans Goldline), which were kept in furnished cages, did not affect eggshell penetration by SE. For Bovans Goldline hens, the housing system (furnished cage versus aviary) did not affect penetration, while a trend was visible toward a higher fraction of penetrated eggshells when hens were fed corncob mix rather than standard feed. Eggshell penetration was observed more frequently in the absence of cuticle spots and for eggs having lower dynamic stiffness values. Shell contamination at the end of storage was highly correlated with SE penetration. PMID:17388050

  4. Temperature-Sensitive Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis PT13a Expressing Essential Proteins of Psychrophilic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Duplantis, Barry N.; Puckett, Stephanie M.; Rosey, Everett L.; Ameiss, Keith A.; Hartman, Angela D.; Pearce, Stephanie C.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic genes based on deduced amino acid sequences of the NAD-dependent DNA ligase (ligA) and CTP synthetase (pyrG) of psychrophilic bacteria were substituted for their native homologues in the genome of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 13a (PT13a). The resulting strains were rendered temperature sensitive (TS) and did not revert to temperature resistance at a detectable level. At permissive temperatures, TS strains grew like the parental strain in broth medium and in macrophage-like cells, but their growth was slowed or stopped when they were shifted to a restrictive temperature. When injected into BALB/c mice at the base of the tail, representing a cool site of the body, the strains with restrictive temperatures of 37, 38.5, and 39°C persisted for less than 1 day, 4 to 7 days, and 20 to 28 days, respectively. The wild-type strain persisted at the site of inoculation for at least 28 days. The wild-type strain, but not the TS strains, was also found in spleen-plus-liver homogenates within 1 day of inoculation of the tail and was detectable in these organs for at least 28 days. Intramuscular vaccination of White Leghorn chickens with the PT13a strain carrying the psychrophilic pyrG gene provided some protection against colonization of the reproductive tract and induced an anti-S. enterica antibody response. PMID:26187965

  5. Promoting crystallisation of the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 pilin SefD using deuterium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing; Garnett, James A.; Lee, Wei-chao; Lin, Jing; Salgado, Paula; Taylor, Jonathan; Xu, Yingqi; Lambert, Sebastian; Cota, Ernesto; Matthews, Steve

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The benefits of D{sub 2}O in screening for crystallisation was explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structures of the SefD pilin in both H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O reveal differences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallisation improvements are explained by altered interactions in D{sub 2}O crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D{sub 2}O is useful additive in sparse-matrix screening for crystallisation. -- Abstract: The use of heavy water (D{sub 2}O) as a solvent is commonplace in many spectroscopic techniques for the study of biological macromolecules. A significant deuterium isotope effect exists where hydrogen-bonding is important, such as in protein stability, dynamics and assembly. Here we illustrate the use of D{sub 2}O in additive screening for the production of reproducible diffraction-quality crystals for the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 (SEF14) putative tip adhesin, SefD.

  6. Bone Mineralization of Broiler Chicks Challenged with Salmonella enteritidis Fed Diet Containing Probiotic (Bacillus subtilis).

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, A A

    2014-12-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the effect of probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, on ash and calcium contents of tibia bone in unchallenged and challenged broiler chicks with Salmonella enteritidis. In a completely randomized design, 160 chicks were divided into four groups. Each group had four replicates with 10 birds each. Treatments were control group, probiotic-treated group, challenged group and challenged probiotic-treated group. Ash and calcium contents of tibia at 21 and 42 days of age were determined. At 21 days of age, the highest contents of ash and calcium were related to probiotic-treated group and the lowest means to challenged chicks (P < 0.05). At this period, inclusion of probiotic to diet of challenged chick increased (P < 0.05) ash and calcium contents of tibia. With increases in age, the negative effects of challenging and beneficial effects of probiotic on bone mineralization diminished; since at 42 days of age, challenging or probiotic treatment had no effect on ash and calcium contents of tibia. PMID:25300924

  7. An agar gel enzyme assay (AGEA) for simple detection of Salmonella enteritidis antibodies in chicken sera.

    PubMed

    Kim, C J; Nagaraja, K V

    1991-01-01

    An agar gel enzyme assay (AGEA) was developed for the detection of antibodies to Salmonella enteritidis (SE). The assay was based on the ability of antibodies to diffuse through an agar gel and react with antigen coated on a polystyrene surface. The antigen-antibody reaction was then made visible by applying an enzyme-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin and the addition, subsequently, of a substrate-containing gel. The color change in circular zones was taken as the indication for the presence of antibodies. The present investigation reports identification of an antigen specific for SE and its use in the development of a relatively simple AGEA procedure. The results of AGEA were compared with those of conventional microagglutination (MA) test and serum plate (SP) test. The percentage agreement between MA and AGEA in positive serum sample was found to be 94.4%, and in negative serum samples it was found to be 88.8%. The present results suggest that the AGEA could be a very useful screening test for the detection of SE antibodies because the assay is inexpensive, specific and simple to perform without much equipment, and give results within a 3-hr period. PMID:1832368

  8. Salmonella

    MedlinePlus

    ... Symptoms Key Resource Enteritidis Infections Linked to Restaurant Chain A 2011 Outbreaks Typhimurium Infections Linked to Ground ... Pulp Hartford and Baildon Infections Associated with Restaurant Chain A I 4,[5],12:i:- Linked to ...

  9. A role for the non-canonical Wnt-ß-Catenin and TGF-ß signaling pathways in the induction of tolerance during the establishment of a Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis persistent cecal infection in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early pro-inflammatory response in chickens. However, the response is short-lived, asymptomatic of disease, resulting in a persistent colonization of the ceca, and fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent infecti...

  10. In-Feed Supplementation of trans-Cinnamaldehyde Reduces Layer-Chicken Egg-Borne Transmission of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Baskaran, Sangeetha A.; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Schreiber, David T.; Khan, Mazhar I.; Darre, Michael J.; Curtis, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen in the United States, causing gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated eggs. Chickens are the reservoir host of S. Enteritidis. In layer hens, S. Enteritidis colonizes the intestine and migrates to various organs, including the oviduct, leading to egg contamination. This study investigated the efficacy of in-feed supplementation with trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) plant compound obtained from cinnamon, in reducing S. Enteritidis cecal colonization and systemic spread in layers. Additionally, the effect of TC on S. Enteritidis virulence factors critical for macrophage survival and oviduct colonization was investigated in vitro. The consumer acceptability of eggs was also determined by a triangle test. Supplementation of TC in feed for 66 days at 1 or 1.5% (vol/wt) for 40- or 25-week-old layer chickens decreased the amounts of S. Enteritidis on eggshell and in yolk (P < 0.001). Additionally, S. Enteritidis persistence in the cecum, liver, and oviduct in TC-supplemented birds was decreased compared to that in controls (P < 0.001). No significant differences in feed intake, body weight, or egg production in birds or in consumer acceptability of eggs were observed (P > 0.05). In vitro cell culture assays revealed that TC reduced S. Enteritidis adhesion to and invasion of primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells and reduced S. Enteritidis survival in chicken macrophages (P < 0.001). Follow-up gene expression analysis using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that TC downregulated the expression of S. Enteritidis virulence genes critical for chicken oviduct colonization (P < 0.001). The results suggest that TC may potentially be used as a feed additive to reduce egg-borne transmission of S. Enteritidis. PMID:25710365

  11. Functional characterization of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS) in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Alexis M; Shippy, Daniel C; Eakley, Nicholas; Okwumabua, Ogi; Fadl, Amin A

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella is a threat to public health due to consumption of contaminated food. Screening of a transposon library identified a unique mutant that was growth and host cell binding deficient. The objective of this study was to determine the functional role of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS) in the biology and pathogenesis of Salmonella. To examine this, we created a glmS mutant (ΔglmS) of Salmonella and examined the effect on cell envelope integrity, growth, metabolism, and pathogenesis. Our data indicated ΔglmS was defective in growth unless media were supplemented with D-glucosamine (D-GlcN). Examination of the bacterial cell envelope revealed that ΔglmS was highly sensitive to detergents, hydrophobic antibiotics, and bile salts compared to the wild type (WT). A release assay indicated that ΔglmS secreted higher amounts of β-lactamase than the WT in culture supernatant fractions. Furthermore, ΔglmS was attenuated in cell culture models of Salmonella infection. Taken together, this study determined an important role for GlmS in the pathogenesis and biology of Salmonella. PMID:27017337

  12. A multi-country Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b outbreak associated with eggs from a German producer: 'near real-time' application of whole genome sequencing and food chain investigations, United Kingdom, May to September 2014.

    PubMed

    Inns, T; Lane, C; Peters, T; Dallman, T; Chatt, C; McFarland, N; Crook, P; Bishop, T; Edge, J; Hawker, J; Elson, R; Neal, K; Adak, G K; Cleary, P

    2015-01-01

    We report an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b (PT14b) in the United Kingdom (UK) between May and September 2014 where Public Health England launched an investigation to identify the source of infection and implement control measures. During the same period, outbreaks caused by a Salmonella Enteritidis strain with a specific multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profile occurred in other European Union Member States. Isolates from a number of persons affected by the UK outbreak, who had initially been tested by MLVA also shared this particular profile. Cases were defined as any person infected with S. Enteritidis PT14b, resident in England or Wales and without history of travel outside of this geographical area during the incubation period, reported from 1 June 2014 onwards, with a MLVA profile of 2–11–9-7–4-3–2-8–9 or a single locus variant thereof. In total, 287 cases met the definition. Food traceback investigations in the UK and other affected European countries linked the outbreaks to chicken eggs from a German company. We undertook whole genome sequencing of isolates from UK and European cases, implicated UK premises, and German eggs: isolates were highly similar. Combined with food traceback information, this confirmed that the UK outbreak was also linked to a German producer. PMID:25953273

  13. Invasive Infections with Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Barbara E; Fields, Patricia I

    2016-06-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections in Africa cause an enormous burden of illness. These infections are often devastating, with mortality estimated at 20%, even with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Two major groups-young children and HIV-infected adults-suffer the great majority of these infections. In children, younger age itself, as well as malaria, malnutrition, and HIV infection, are prominent risk factors. In adults, HIV infection is by far the most important risk factor. The most common serotypes in invasive infections are Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis. In recent years, a specific strain of Salmonella Typhimurium, multilocus sequence type 313, has caused epidemics of invasive disease. Little is known about risk factors for exposure to NTS, making the design of rational interventions to decrease exposure difficult. Antimicrobial therapy is critically important for treatment of invasive NTS infections. Thus, the emergence and spread of resistance to agents commonly used for treatment of invasive NTS infection, now including third-generation cephalosporins, is an ominous development. Already, many invasive NTS infections are essentially untreatable in many health care facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. Several candidate vaccines are in early development and, if safe and effective, could be promising. Interventions to prevent exposure to NTS (e.g., improved sanitation), to prevent the occurrence of disease if exposure does occur (e.g., vaccination, malaria control), and to prevent severe disease and death in those who become ill (e.g., preserving antimicrobial effectiveness) are all important in reducing the toll of invasive NTS disease in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27337467

  14. Procalcitonin levels in salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas; Sorabjee, Jehangir

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Procalcitonin (PCT) as a diagnostic marker for bacteremia and sepsis has been extensively studied. We aimed to study PCT levels in Salmonella infections whether they would serve as marker for early diagnosis in endemic areas to start empiric treatment while awaiting blood culture report. Materials and Methods: BACTEC blood culture was used to isolate Salmonella in suspected enteric fever patients. Serum PCT levels were estimated before starting treatment. Results: In 60 proven enteric fever patients, median value of serum PCT levels was 0.22 ng/ml, values ranging between 0.05 and 4 ng/ml. 95% of patients had near normal or mild increase (<0.5 ng/ml), only 5% of patients showed elevated levels. Notably, high PCT levels were found only in severe sepsis. Conclusion: PCT levels in Salmonella infections are near normal or minimally increased which differentiates it from other systemic Gram-negative infections. PCT cannot be used as a specific diagnostic marker of typhoid. PMID:26321807

  15. Poultry Body Temperature Contributes to Invasion Control through Reduced Expression of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Genes in Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Nicholas; Daron, Caitlyn; Pereira, Rafaela; Mendoza, Mary; Hassan, Hosni M.; Koci, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) are foodborne pathogens, and outbreaks are often associated with poultry products. Chickens are typically asymptomatic when colonized by these serovars; however, the factors contributing to this observation are uncharacterized. Whereas symptomatic mammals have a body temperature between 37°C and 39°C, chickens have a body temperature of 41°C to 42°C. Here, in vivo experiments using chicks demonstrated that numbers of viable S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis bacteria within the liver and spleen organ sites were ≥4 orders of magnitude lower than those within the ceca. When similar doses of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis were given to C3H/HeN mice, the ratio of the intestinal concentration to the liver/spleen concentration was 1:1. In the avian host, this suggested poor survival within these tissues or a reduced capacity to traverse the host epithelial layer and reach liver/spleen sites or both. Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) promotes localization to liver/spleen tissues through invasion of the epithelial cell layer. Following in vitro growth at 42°C, SPI-1 genes sipC, invF, and hilA and the SPI-1 rtsA activator were downregulated compared to expression at 37°C. Overexpression of the hilA activators fur, fliZ, and hilD was capable of inducing hilA-lacZ at 37°C but not at 42°C despite the presence of similar levels of protein at the two temperatures. In contrast, overexpression of either hilC or rtsA was capable of inducing hilA and sipC at 42°C. These data indicate that physiological parameters of the poultry host, such as body temperature, have a role in modulating expression of virulence. PMID:26386070

  16. Modeling Growth Kinetic Parameters of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 on Homemade Mayonnaise Under Isothermal and Nonisothermal Conditions.

    PubMed

    Elias, Susana de Oliveira; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Longhi, Daniel Angelo; Sant'Ana, Anderson de Souza; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2016-08-01

    During the last decade, a specific strain of Salmonella Enteritidis (named SE86) has been identified as the major etiological agent responsible for salmonellosis in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, and the main food vehicle was homemade mayonnaise (HM). This study aimed to model the growth prediction of SE86 on HM under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. SE86 was inoculated on HM and stored at 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 37°C. Growth curves were built by fitting data to the Baranyi's DMFit, generating r(2) values greater than 0.98 for primary models. Secondary model was fitted with Ratkowsky equation, generating r(2) and root mean square error values of 0.99 and 0.016, respectively. Also, the growth of SE86 under nonisothermal conditions simulating abuse temperature during preparation, storage, and serving of HM was studied. Experimental data showed that SE86 did not grow on HM at 7°C for 30 days. At 10°C, no growth was observed until approximately 18 h, and the infective dose (assumed as 10(6) CFU/g) was reached after 8.1 days. However, the same numbers of SE86 were attained after 6 hours at 37°C. Experimental data demonstrated shorter lag times than those generated by ComBase Predictive Models, suggesting that SE86 is very well adapted for growing on HM. SE86 stored under nonisothermal conditions increased population to reach about 10(6) CFU/g after approximately 30 hours of storage. In conclusion, the developed model can be used to predict the growth of SE86 on HM under various temperatures, and considering this pathogen, HM can be produced if safe eggs are used and HM is stored below 7°C. PMID:26859536

  17. Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Salmonella Infections in the Pennsylvania Raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Very, K J; Kirchner, M K; Shariat, N; Cottrell, W; Sandt, C H; Dudley, E G; Kariyawasam, S; Jayarao, B M

    2016-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and spatial distribution of Salmonella infection in Pennsylvania raccoons (Procyon lotor), common wildlife mammals known to occupy overlapping habitats with humans and domestic food animals. The Pennsylvania Game Commission provided a total of 371 raccoon intestinal samples from trapped and road-killed raccoons collected between May and November 2011. Salmonella was isolated from the faeces of 56 (15.1%) of 371 raccoons in 35 (54%) of 65 counties across Pennsylvania. The five most frequently isolated serotypes were Newport (28.6%), Enteritidis (19.6%), Typhimurium (10.7%), Braenderup (8.9%) and Bareilly (7.1%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of the Salmonella isolates and subsequent comparison to the Pennsylvania Department of Health human Salmonella PFGE database revealed 16 different pulsetypes in Salmonella isolates recovered from raccoons that were indistinguishable from pulsetypes of Salmonella collected from clinically ill humans during the study period. The pulsetypes of seven raccoon Salmonella isolates matched those of 56 human Salmonella isolates by month and geographical region of sample collection. Results from Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and Multi-Virulence Locus Sequence Typing (CRISPR-MVLST) analysis corroborated the PFGE and serotyping data. The findings of this study show that several PFGE pulsetypes of Salmonella were shared between humans and raccoons in Pennsylvania, indicating that raccoons and humans might share the same source of Salmonella. PMID:26272724

  18. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of most infections start within 3 days of contamination and usually go away without medical treatment. At ... surfaces regularly. Salmonellosis also can spread through cross-contamination, so when you're preparing meals, keep uncooked ...

  19. Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis ghosts carrying the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit are capable of inducing enhanced protective immune responses.

    PubMed

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-06-01

    The Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) is a potent vaccine adjuvant. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ghosts carrying LTB (S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts) were genetically constructed using a novel plasmid, pJHL187-LTB, designed for the coexpression of the LTB and E lysis proteins. S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts were characterized using scanning electron microscopy to visualize their transmembrane tunnel structures. The expression of LTB in S. Enteritidis-LTB ghost preparations was confirmed by immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The parenteral adjuvant activity of LTB was demonstrated by immunizing chickens with either S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts or S. Enteritidis ghosts. Chickens were intramuscularly primed at 5 weeks of age and subsequently boosted at 8 weeks of age. In total, 60 chickens were equally divided into three groups (n = 20 for each): group A, nonvaccinated control; group B, immunized with S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts; and group C, immunized with S. Enteritidis ghosts. Compared with the nonimmunized chickens (group A), the immunized chickens (groups B and C) exhibited increased titers of plasma IgG and intestinal secretory IgA antibodies. The CD3(+) CD4(+) subpopulation of T cells was also significantly increased in both immunized groups. Among the immunized chickens, those in group B exhibited significantly increased titers of specific plasma IgG and intestinal secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies compared with those in group C, indicating the immunomodulatory effects of the LTB adjuvant. Furthermore, both immunized groups exhibited decreased bacterial loads in their feces and internal organs. These results indicate that parenteral immunization with S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts can stimulate superior induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses compared to immunization with S. Enteritidis ghosts alone, thus conferring efficient protection against salmonellosis. PMID:24671556

  20. Vaccine potential of a nonflagellated, virulence-plasmid-cured (fliD-, pSEVΔ) mutant of Salmonella Enteritidis for chickens.

    PubMed

    Imre, Ariel; Szmolka, Ama; Olasz, Ferenc; Nagy, Béla

    2015-09-01

    The aim of these studies was to assess residual virulence and early protective capacity of a negatively markered live attenuated vaccine candidate Salmonella Enteritidis mutant against a highly virulent S. Enteritidis strain using a dayold chicken model. Nonflagellated FliD negative mutants of Salmonella Enteritidis 11 (SE11) with and without the virulence plasmid proved to be sufficiently attenuated (limited invasiveness in vitro/in vivo) without reduced ability to colonise chicken gut. The early protective activity of a nonflagellated, virulence-plasmidcured (fliD-, pSEVΔ) mutant against organ invasion, caecal colonisation and faecal shedding by the highly virulent challenge strain S. Enteritidis 147 Nal(R) proved to be effective and safe. The innate and adaptive immunity was demonstrable during the first four weeks of life, and the serological response was clearly distinguishable from the response induced by the wild parental strain. In conclusion, we provided data for the first time about a virulence-plasmid-cured, nonflagellated mutant of S. Enteritidis to serve as a basis for development of a negatively markered potential live oral vaccine against virulent S. Enteritidis in chicken. PMID:26551419

  1. Three Epidemics of Invasive Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Bloodstream Infection in Blantyre, Malawi, 1998–2014

    PubMed Central

    Feasey, Nicholas A.; Masesa, Clemens; Jassi, Chikondi; Faragher, E. Brian; Mallewa, Jane; Mallewa, Macpherson; MacLennan, Calman A.; Msefula, Chisomo; Heyderman, Robert S.; Gordon, Melita A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme (MLW) has routinely collected specimens for blood culture from febrile patients, and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with suspected meningitis, presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi, since 1998. Methods. We present bloodstream infection (BSI) and meningitis surveillance data from 1998 to 2014. Automated blood culture, manual speciation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed at MLW. Population data for minimum-incidence estimates in urban Blantyre were drawn from published estimates. Results. Between 1998 and 2014, 167 028 blood cultures were taken from adult and pediatric medical patients presenting to QECH; Salmonella Typhi was isolated on 2054 occasions (1.2%) and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars were isolated 10 139 times (6.1%), of which 8017 (79.1%) were Salmonella Typhimurium and 1608 (15.8%) were Salmonella Enteritidis. There were 392 cases of NTS meningitis and 9 cases of Salmonella Typhi meningitis. There have been 3 epidemics of Salmonella BSI in Blantyre; Salmonella Enteritidis from 1999 to 2002, Salmonella Typhimurium from 2002 to 2008, and Salmonella Typhi, which began in 2011 and was ongoing in 2014. Multidrug resistance has emerged in all 3 serovars and is seen in the overwhelming majority of isolates, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones is currently uncommon but has been identified. Conclusions. Invasive Salmonella disease in Malawi is dynamic and not clearly attributable to a single risk factor, although all 3 epidemics were associated with multidrug resistance. To inform nonvaccine and vaccine interventions, reservoirs of disease and modes of transmission require further investigation. PMID:26449953

  2. The spectrum of Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M B; Rubin, R H

    1988-09-01

    Salmonellae have demonstrated an extraordinary capacity to adapt to a wide range of ecologic niches and to the peculiarities of modern society, such as the mass production of food products. The vast majority of infections in the United States are caused by serotypes not specifically adapted to human or animal hosts, whereas the most frequent isolate in developing countries is S. typhi, which is highly adapted to human hosts. The number of isolates reported in the United States has been increasing steadily since 1975, largely a result of outbreaks associated with the mass production of food products, particularly poultry, which is frequently contaminated. Salmonella infection occurs when ingested organisms bypass gastric defenses, multiply within the intestinal lumen, penetrate the intestinal mucosa, and multiply within macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. They may then disseminate via the systemic circulation. Several virulence factors have been identified. The wide range of pathologic and clinical manifestations are subdivided into four syndromes, each requiring a distinct diagnostic and therapeutic approach: (1) gastroenteritis, (2) enteric fever, (3) bacteremia with or without metastatic disease, and (4) asymptomatic carriage. Although any serotype can cause any of these syndromes, certain serotypes are associated with specific presentations. Serious complications of bacteremic infection include infections of the aorta, endocardium, bone, and meninges. Salmonella infection is particularly severe in patients who have AIDS, leukemia, lymphoma, immunodeficiency of other causes, inflammatory bowel disease, schistosomiasis, and macrophage dysfunction. Diagnosis is based on culture of the organism from appropriate sites. Several serologic tests have been developed that warrant further evaluation. Chloramphenicol, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole have clearly established efficacy. Experience with third generation cephalosporins and

  3. Molecular characterization and resistance profile of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and PT9 strains isolated in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Luciana B M; Scheffer, Mara C; Dalla-Costa, Libera M; Farah, Sonia M de S S; Moscalewski, Wanda S B; Magnani, Marciane; de Oliveira, Tereza C R M

    2011-07-01

    A total of 41 Salmonella Enteritidis strains, including phago-types (PTs) PT4 and PT9, were characterized by antimicrobial resistance profiles and PFGE. Of these strains, 34 were isolated from patients and foods, and 7 were of poultry origin. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and 41.5 % (n = 17) were resistant to nalidixic acid. PFGE analysis using XbaI and SpeI restriction enzymes resulted in X1S1 as the prevalent pattern, which was present in 48.8 % (n = 20) of epidemic strains and in one strain isolated from discarded hatching eggs. Distinct patterns were found for the other strains isolated from poultry (X3S1, X8S8, X11S12, X11S13, X16S1 and X13S15). The S. Enteritidis PT9 strains associated with outbreaks of salmonellosis were highly similar (≥0.90), suggesting clonality. The PFGE genotypes were related to the PTs, and it was possible to differentiate strains isolated from patients with salmonellosis from other strains of non-epidemic origin. The PFGE results suggested that the S. Enteritidis strains of poultry origin were a possible source of human salmonellosis during the study period. PMID:21459909

  4. The combination of CRISPR-MVLST and PFGE provides increased discriminatory power for differentiating human clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Shariat, Nikki; DiMarzio, Michael J; Yin, Shuang; Dettinger, Lisa; Sandt, Carol H; Lute, James R; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G

    2013-05-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major cause of foodborne salmonellosis. Rapid, efficient and accurate methods for identification are required to track specific strains of S. Enteritidis during outbreaks of human salmonellosis. By exploiting the hypervariable nature of virulence genes and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs), we previously developed a powerful sequence-based subtyping approach, designated CRISPR-MVLST. To substantiate the applicability of CRISPR-MVLST, we analyzed a broad set of S. Enteritidis isolates collected over a six-year period. Among 141 isolates we defined 22 Enteritidis Sequence Types (ESTs), the majority of which were novel. Notably, strains exhibiting the common PFGE pattern, JEGX01.0004 (characteristic of ∼40% of S. Enteritidis isolates in the United States), were separated into twelve distinct sequence types. Conversely, isolates of EST4, the most predominant EST we observed, comprised eight different PFGE patterns. Importantly, we showed that some genotypes that were previously associated with the food supply chain at the farm level have now been identified in clinical samples. CRISPR sequence data shows subtle but distinct differences among different alleles of S. Enteritidis, suggesting that evolution of these loci occurs vertically, as opposed to previously reported evolution by spacer acquisition in other bacteria. PMID:23498194

  5. Biosurfactant Produced by Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 Can Increase Adherence and Resistance to Sanitizers on Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L., cichoraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Eliandra M.; Beilke, Luniele; Kochhann, Marília; Sarzi, Diana H.; Tondo, Eduardo C.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 is an important foodborne pathogen in Southern Brazil and it is able to produce a biosurfactant. However, the importance of this compound for the microorganism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 on adherence to slices of lettuce leaves and on resistance to sanitizers. First, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 in order to determine the amount of biosurfactant produced. Subsequently, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 with and without the biosurfactant, and the adherence and bacterial resistance to different sanitization methods were evaluated. S. Enteritidis SE86 produced biosurfactant after 16 h (emulsification index of 11 to 52.15 percent, P < 0.05) and showed greater adherence capability and resistance to sanitization methods when the compound was present. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that S. Enteritidis was able to adhere, form lumps, and invade the lettuce leaves’ stomata in the presence of the biosurfactant. Results indicated that the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 contributed to adherence and increased resistance to sanitizers when the microorganism was present on lettuce leaves. PMID:26834727

  6. Biosurfactant Produced by Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 Can Increase Adherence and Resistance to Sanitizers on Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L., cichoraceae).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Eliandra M; Beilke, Luniele; Kochhann, Marília; Sarzi, Diana H; Tondo, Eduardo C

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 is an important foodborne pathogen in Southern Brazil and it is able to produce a biosurfactant. However, the importance of this compound for the microorganism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 on adherence to slices of lettuce leaves and on resistance to sanitizers. First, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 in order to determine the amount of biosurfactant produced. Subsequently, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 with and without the biosurfactant, and the adherence and bacterial resistance to different sanitization methods were evaluated. S. Enteritidis SE86 produced biosurfactant after 16 h (emulsification index of 11 to 52.15 percent, P < 0.05) and showed greater adherence capability and resistance to sanitization methods when the compound was present. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that S. Enteritidis was able to adhere, form lumps, and invade the lettuce leaves' stomata in the presence of the biosurfactant. Results indicated that the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 contributed to adherence and increased resistance to sanitizers when the microorganism was present on lettuce leaves. PMID:26834727

  7. Flow Cytometric Characterization of Peyer’s Patch and Cecal Tonsil T Lymphocytes in Laying Hens Following Challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specific-pathogen-free Single Comb White Leghorn hens, 34 weeks old, were challenged with 6.9 X 107 phage type 13 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) per os. Each week, crop lavage samples were obtained from four hens, the birds were then sacrificed and their intestinal tracts aseptically e...

  8. Cell invasion of poultry-associated Salmonella Enteritidis isolates is associated with pathogenicity, motility and secretion of type-three secretion system secreted proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the world’s leading cause of human salmonellosis. It is primarily transmitted to people who consume eggs or egg products that are contaminated. The bacterium is unusual in that strains have little genetic variability, but nonetheless any one strain may have a high or low ab...

  9. Changes in Peyer’s Patch and Cecal Tonsil B Lymphocytes in Laying Hens Following Challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to determine B cell changes in Peyer’s patches (PP) and cecal tonsils (CT) of specific-pathogen-free Single Comb White Leghorn hens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). Prior to challenge and then weekly post challenge, 4 or 3hens in Trials 1 and 2...

  10. Reduction of Salmonella Enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in 20-day-old broiler chickens by the plant derived compounds trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the efficacy of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) colonization in broiler chicks. In three separate experiments for each compound, day-old, chicks (N=75/experiment) were randomly assigned to five treatments (n=15/treatment): a...

  11. Effect of elevated incubation temperature (42 Degrees C) On the multiplication and rapid detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in Egg Contents Pools.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detecting internal contamination of eggs with Salmonella enteritidis is essential for identifying laying flocks that could threaten public health. The most commone strategy for such testing is to prepare pools of the contents of 10-20 eggs adn to then incubate these pools at 25-37 degrees C to allo...

  12. Impact of Skip a Day and Every Day Feeding Programs on the Colonization Rates of Salmonella Enteritidis in Broiler Breeder Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of feeding programs in the colonization rate after challenge with Salmonella enteritidis was investigated. Broiler breeder pullets from were vaccinated at 19 d of incubation with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1), or a vector HVT (vHVT) + Infectious bursal disease (...

  13. Caprylic acid reduces Salmonella Enteritidis populations in various segments of digestive tract and internal organs of three- and six-week-old broiler chickens, therapeutically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid, a natural, 8-carbon fatty acid for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chickens. In two separate 3- and 6-wk trials, day-old straight run (N=70 per trial), chicks were assigned to 5 treatment groups ...

  14. Differential innate immune responses of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes to Salmonella enterica serovars Dublin, Typhimurium, and Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Deng; Rostagno, Marcos H; Ebner, Paul D; Eicher, Susan D

    2015-05-15

    The majority of Salmonella serovars cause no clinical disease in cattle, while some are associated with severe disease. The objective of the current study was to determine the innate immune responses of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes exposed to Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (bovine-specific), Salmonella typhimurium (murine adapted, but zoonotic), and Salmonella enteritidis (poultry host-adapted) in 3-week-old calves. All Salmonella exposures increased cell surface CD14 and CD18 regardless of serovar. The greatest CD14 marker mean fluorescence was in monocytes and the greatest mean fluorescent of the marker mean was in neutrophils. Phagocytosis increased with all serovars, but was not different among them. Neutrophils had the greatest marker mean fluorescence for phagocytosis, with all serovars being equal. Oxidative burst increased in all serovars compared to control cells, but were not different among the serovars. Neutrophils and monocytes were similar in the oxidative burst, with limited oxidative burst detected in the primarily lymphocyte population. mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-12, increased above the control cells whereas none of these serovars affected mRNA expression of TLR4. TNF-α was greatest in S. enterica and S. typhimurium, compared to Salmonella dublin. In contrast, IL-8 was expressed more in S. dublin than S. typhiurium, with S. Enteriditus intermediary. These results show while cell surface markers, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst were largely unaffected by serovar, cytokine and chemokine expression differed among the Salmonella serovars. It appears that internal responses of the cells differ, rather than cell recognition, creating pathogenicity differences among of the serovars, even in the neonate with developing immunity. PMID:25847354

  15. Validation of the Reveal(®) 2.0 Group D1 Salmonella Test for Detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in Raw Shell Eggs and Poultry-Associated Matrixes.

    PubMed

    Mozola, Mark; Biswas, Preetha; Viator, Ryan; Feldpausch, Emily; Foti, Debra; Li, Lin; Le, Quynh-Nhi; Alles, Susan; Rice, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to assess the performance of the Reveal(®) 2.0 Group D1 Salmonella lateral flow immunoassay for use in detection of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in raw shell eggs and poultry-associated matrixes, including chicken carcass rinse and poultry feed. In inclusivity testing, the Reveal 2.0 test detected all 37 strains of SE tested. The test also detected all but one of 18 non-Enteritidis somatic group D1 Salmonella serovars examined. In exclusivity testing, none of 42 strains tested was detected. The exclusivity panel included Salmonella strains of somatic groups other than D1, as well as strains of other genera of Gram-negative bacteria. In matrix testing, performance of the Reveal 2.0 test was compared to that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference culture procedure for chicken carcass rinse and to that of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual for raw shell eggs and poultry feed. For all matrixes evaluated, there were no significant differences in the ability to detect SE when comparing the Reveal 2.0 method and the appropriate reference culture procedure as determined by probability of detection statistical analysis. The ability of the Reveal 2.0 test to withstand modest perturbations to normal operating parameters was examined in robustness experiments. Results showed that the test can withstand deviations in up to three operating parameters simultaneously without significantly affecting performance. Real-time stability testing of multiple lots of Reveal 2.0 devices established the shelf life of the test device at 16 months postmanufacture. PMID:27214854

  16. FimH adhesin from host unrestricted Salmonella Enteritidis binds to different glycoprotein ligands expressed by enterocytes from sheep, pig and cattle than FimH adhesins from host restricted Salmonella Abortus-ovis, Salmonella Choleraesuis and Salmonella Dublin.

    PubMed

    Grzymajło, Krzysztof; Ugorski, Maciej; Kolenda, Rafał; Kędzierska, Anna; Kuźmińska-Bajor, Marta; Wieliczko, Alina

    2013-10-25

    Adhesion to gut tissues and colonization of the alimentary tract, two important stages in the pathogenesis of Salmonella, are mediated by FimH adhesin of type 1 fimbriae. It was suggested that minor differences in the structure of FimH are most likely associated with differences in adhesion specificities, and may determine the tropism of various Salmonella serovars to different species and tissues. We investigated this hypothesis by comparing the binding properties of FimH proteins from three Salmonella enterica serovars with limited (Choleraesuis, Dublin) or restricted (Abortusovis) host ranges to FimH from broad host range S. Enteritidis and mannose inactive FimH from S. Gallinarum. Although all active variants of FimH protein were able to bind mannose-rich glycoproteins (RNase B, HRP and Man-BSA) with comparable affinity measured by surface plasmon resonance, there were significant differences in the binding profiles of the FimH proteins from host restricted serovars and host unrestricted serovar Enteritidis, to glycoproteins from enterocyte cell lines established in vitro and derived from sheep, pig and cattle. When low-binding FimH adhesin from S. Enteritidis was subjected to Western blot analysis, it bound to surface membrane protein of about 130 kDa, and high-binding FimH adhesins from S. Abortusovis, S. Choleraesuis and S. Dublin bound to surface membrane protein of about 55 kDa present in each cell line. Differential binding of FimH proteins from host-restricted and broad-host-range Salmonella to intestinal receptors was confirmed using mutant FimH adhesins obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the low-binding variant of FimH from S. Choleraesuis with mutation Leu57Pro lost the ability to bind protein band of 55 kDa, but instead interacted with glycoprotein of about 130 kDa. On the other hand, the high-binding variant of FimH adhesin from S. Enteritids with mutation Asn101Ser did not bind to its receptor of 130 kDa, but instead it

  17. Effects of Climate Change on Salmonella Infections

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Luma; Reddy, Remata S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Climate change and global warming have been reported to increase spread of foodborne pathogens. To understand these effects on Salmonella infections, modeling approaches such as regression analysis and neural network (NN) were used. Methods: Monthly data for Salmonella outbreaks in Mississippi (MS), Tennessee (TN), and Alabama (AL) were analyzed from 2002 to 2011 using analysis of variance and time series analysis. Meteorological data were collected and the correlation with salmonellosis was examined using regression analysis and NN. Results: A seasonal trend in Salmonella infections was observed (p<0.001). Strong positive correlation was found between high temperature and Salmonella infections in MS and for the combined states (MS, TN, AL) models (R2=0.554; R2=0.415, respectively). NN models showed a strong effect of rise in temperature on the Salmonella outbreaks. In this study, an increase of 1°F was shown to result in four cases increase of Salmonella in MS. However, no correlation between monthly average precipitation rate and Salmonella infections was observed. Conclusion: There is consistent evidence that gastrointestinal infection with bacterial pathogens is positively correlated with ambient temperature, as warmer temperatures enable more rapid replication. Warming trends in the United States and specifically in the southern states may increase rates of Salmonella infections. PMID:25496072

  18. Sensitivity analysis of Salmonella enteritidis levels in contaminated shell eggs using a biphasic growth model.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Heejeong K; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Morales, Roberta A; Cowen, Peter; Crawford-Brown, Douglas

    2002-05-01

    Salmonella enteritidis (SE) is a common foodbome pathogen, the transmission of which is primarily associated with the consumption of contaminated Grade A shell eggs. In order to estimate the level of SE present in raw shell eggs, it is necessary to consider the protective effects of the egg albumin, which effectively inhibits SE growth in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. In this study, a SE growth model was produced by combining two mathematical equations that described both the extended lag phase of SE growth (food component) and a SE growth model (pathogen component). This biphasic growth model was then applied to various egg handling scenarios based on the farm-to-table continuum, including in-line and off-line processing facilities with consideration of key events in production, processing, transportation, and storage. Seasonal effects were also studied. Monte Carlo simulation was used to characterize variability in temperature and time parameter values influencing the level of SE to which individuals are exposed. The total level of SE consumed was estimated under best, most likely, and time-temperature abusive handling scenarios. The model estimated that, in most cases, there was no SE growth in contaminated eggs handled under most likely practices, because 10-70% of the yolk membrane remained intact. Under abusive handling scenarios, complete loss of yolk membrane integrity frequently occurred by the time eggs reach the distribution phase, followed by subsequent SE growth, which was often quite rapid. In general, the effect of season and processing method (in-line vs. off-line) was minimal. Further sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the initial SE contamination level significantly influenced the final exposure levels only under no-abuse or mildly abusive conditions. The results of our study suggest that, for maximum reduction of SE exposure level, cooling strategies should not only focus on the on-farm or processing phases, but should emphasize

  19. A novel phage element of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis P125109 contributes to accelerated type III secretion system 2-dependent early inflammation kinetics in a mouse colitis model.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Vikalp; Periaswamy, Balamurugan; Bhusan Pati, Niladri; Slack, Emma; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2012-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis exhibits type III secretion system 2 (TTSS2)-dependent early colonization and inflammation kinetics faster than those of closely related S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. To investigate the accelerated TTSS-2-dependent pathogenic potential of S. Enteritidis, we focused on its genome. Results of a previously published comparative genomic study revealed the presence of mutually exclusive genes in both serovars. In this study, we investigated the roles of six S. Enteritidis-specific genes in vivo by using differential fluorescence induction (DFI) through putative gene-specific promoters. The promoter construct associated with the gene locus SEN1140 induced green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in the gut lumen, lamina propria, mesenteric lymph nodes, and related systemic organs. To further investigate the potential role of SEN1140, we compared a SEN1140 deletion mutant with S. Typhimurium in a TTSS1-deficient background. Interestingly, the S. Enteritidis mutant lacking SEN1140 did not show the unique TTSS-2-dependent early colonization and inflammation kinetic phenotype of S. Typhimurium. Consistent with this result, complementation of SEN1140 restored the TTSS-2-dependent accelerated inflammatory potential of S. Enteritidis. This report presents a suitable screening strategy that uses a combination of DFI, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, quantitative PCR, and wild-type isogenic tagged-strain techniques to explore the unique roles of S. Enteritidis-specific genes in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:22753379

  20. Genomic Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Hadar and Kentucky Isolates from Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Dhanani, Akhilesh S.; Block, Glenn; Dewar, Ken; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Topp, Edward; Beiko, Robert G.; Diarra, Moussa S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars, associated with different foods including poultry products, are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The colonization of the chicken gut by S. enterica could result in the contamination of the environment and food chain. The aim of this study was to compare the genomes of 25 S. enterica serovars isolated from broiler chicken farms to assess their intra- and inter-genetic variability, with a focus on virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics. Methodology/Principal Finding The genomes of 25 S. enterica isolates covering five serovars (ten Typhimurium including three monophasic 4,[5],12:i:, four Enteritidis, three Hadar, four Heidelberg and four Kentucky) were sequenced. Most serovars were clustered in strongly supported phylogenetic clades, except for isolates of serovar Enteritidis that were scattered throughout the tree. Plasmids of varying sizes were detected in several isolates independently of serovars. Genes associated with the IncF plasmid and the IncI1 plasmid were identified in twelve and four isolates, respectively, while genes associated with the IncQ plasmid were found in one isolate. The presence of numerous genes associated with Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) was also confirmed. Components of the type III and IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS) varied in different isolates, which could explain in part, differences of their pathogenicity in humans and/or persistence in broilers. Conserved clusters of genes in the T3SS were detected that could be used in designing effective strategies (diagnostic, vaccination or treatments) to combat Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance genes (CMY, aadA, ampC, florR, sul1, sulI, tetAB, and srtA) and class I integrons were detected in resistant isolates while all isolates carried multidrug efflux pump systems regardless of their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Conclusions/Significance This study showed that the predominant

  1. Salmonellosis outbreak due to Salmonella enteritidis phage type 14b resistant to nalidixic acid, Austria, September 2010.

    PubMed

    Hrivniaková, L; Schmid, D; Luckner-Hornischer, A; Lassnig, H; Kornschober, C; Angermayer, J; Allerberger, F

    2011-01-01

    We report on a salmonellosis-outbreak due to Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b resistant to nalidixic acid (S. Enteritidis PT14b Nx) among residents and employees of a student residence in Austria, September 2010. The outbreak was described and analysed by a retrospective cohort study, and microbiological environmental investigations were conducted to identify the outbreak source(s) and the reservoir of the outbreak strain. A total of 66 persons fulfilled the outbreak case definition including 14 laboratory-confirmed cases. Food specific cohort-analyses by day revealed that consumption of potato salad (RR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.35–2.01, p=0.001) and a cheese-sausage cold plate (RR: 2.24, 95%CI: 1.29–3.88, p=0.002) on 14 September was associated with being an outbreak case. We hypothesised that cross-contamination with S. Enteritidis PT14b Nx positive eggs had occurred during preparation of the potato salad and cold plate as a result of preparing in parallel egg-containing breaded cutlets on 14 September. A traced laying hen holding in eastern Austria was identified as the sole source of the consumable eggs in the student residence. By applying the legally mandated sampling method for epidemiological-related laying hen farms (one pooled dust sample à 150g, two paired boot swabs cultured separately), the outbreak strain could not be detected. Our findings, that legally required sampling methods for laying hen farms failed to detect the causative pathogen in a laying hen holding, despite an epidemiological link, underline the request stated by the European Food Safety Authority Panel on Biological Hazards for a more sensitive sampling plan in epidemiologically-associated laying hen flocks. PMID:21903036

  2. Transfer of Salmonella Enteritidis to four types of surfaces after cleaning procedures and cross-contamination to tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Vanessa Mendonça; Pereira, Juliano Gonçalves; Viana, Cibeli; Izidoro, Thiago Braga; Bersot, Luciano dos Santos; Pinto, José Paes de Almeida Nogueira

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the spread of Salmonella Enteritidis to different cutting boards (wood, triclosan-treated plastic, glass, and stainless steel) from contaminated poultry skin (5 log CFU/g) and then to tomatoes and to analyze the effect of different protocols used to clean these surfaces to control contamination. The following procedures were simulated: (1) no cleaning after handling contaminated poultry skin; (2) rinsing in running water; (3) cleaning with dish soap and mechanical scrubbing; and (4) cleaning with dish soap and mechanical scrubbing, followed by disinfection with hypochlorite. The pathogen was recovered from all surfaces following procedure 1, with counts ranging from 1.90 to 2.80 log, as well as from the tomatoes handled on it. Reduced numbers of S. Enteritidis were recovered using the other procedures, both from the surfaces and from the tomatoes. Counts were undetectable after procedure 4. From all surfaces evaluated, wood was the most difficult to clean, and stainless steel was the easiest. The use of hypochlorite as a disinfecting agent helped to reduce cross-contamination. PMID:22365360

  3. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis in tryptic soy broth and caviar samples by high pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Fioretto, F; Cruz, C; Largeteau, A; Sarli, T A; Demazeau, G; El Moueffak, A

    2005-08-01

    We studied the action of high pressure processing on the inactivation of two foodborne pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, suspended in a culture medium and inoculated into caviar samples. The baroresistance of the two pathogens in a tryptic soy broth suspension at a concentration of 10(8)-10(9) colony-forming units/ml was tested for continuous and cycled pressurization in the 150- to 550-MPa range and for 15-min treatments at room temperature. The increase of cycle number permitted the reduction of the pressure level able to totally inactivate both microorganisms in the tryptic soy broth suspension, whereas the effect of different procedure times on complete inactivation of the microorganisms inoculated into caviar was similar. PMID:16082468

  4. Structures of the SEp22 dodecamer, a Dps-like protein from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Takanori; Asahina, Yasuko; Miyazaki, Shohei; Shimizu, Hidetoshi; Ohto, Umeharu; Noguchi, Shuji; Satow, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    The crystal structure of SEp22, a DNA-binding protein from starved cells from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, has been determined in two forms: the native state at 1.25 Å resolution and an iron-soaked form at 1.30 Å resolution. The SEp22 protomers form a dodecameric shell with 23 symmetry and a single iron ion per protomer was found at the ferroxidase centre in the iron-soaked form. Along the threefold axes of the 23 symmetry, hydrophilic Asp channels that consist of Asp146 were found. Iron ions may flow into the cavity of the dodecameric shell through the Asp channels. PMID:21206015

  5. Evaluation of PCR inhibitory effect of enrichment broths and comparison of DNA extraction methods for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis using real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Hyeon, Ji Yeon; Hwang, In Gyun; Kwak, Hyo Sun; Park, Chankyu; Choi, In Soo; Seo, Kun Ho

    2010-06-01

    The best enrichment broth and DNA extraction scheme was determined for rapid and sensitive detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in steamed pork using real-time PCR. The inhibitory effect of commonly used Salmonella enrichment broths, Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) and Muller-Kauffmann tetrathionate with novobiocin (MKTTn), on real-time PCR was confirmed. The inhibition of PCR was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in RV and MKTTn, as compared with buffered peptone water (BPW) or phosphate-buffered saline. The inhibitory effect of the selective enrichment media was successfully removed by using a modified DNA extraction, PrepMan Ultra Reagent with an additional washing step or the DNeasy Tissue Kit. In three experiments, when applied to detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in steamed pork, the real-time PCR coupled with single 24 h enrichment with BPW performed better than double 48 h enrichment with BPW plus RV or MKTTn. The simple real-time PCR assay using BPW proved to be a rapid and sensitive test for detection of low concentrations of Salmonella Enteritidis in steamed pork samples as compared with the conventional culture method. PMID:20458155

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on commercial eggs experimentally inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez, I. G.; Trejo, R. M.; Sanchez, R. E.; Ceniceros, R. M.; Luna, Q. P.; Zazua, P.; Hargis, B. M.

    1995-02-01

    Using intact, fresh shell eggs, inoculated with 10 8 colony-forming units (cfu) of S. enteritidis, the effect of three doses of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic population and physical characteristics (Haugh units and yolk color) of the eggs was determinated. Penetration test area was picked at random just off the air cell of each egg. Aluminum cylinders were attached to the egg surface with a rim of molten paraffin, and 10 8S. enteritidis was then applied to inoculate the egg. Eggs were then irradiated within 2 hours using a Cobalt-60 gamma source at either 1, 2, or 3 kGy. A second set of inoculated, non-irradiated was used as controls. Following irradiation, eggs were maintained at 4°C for 42 hours prior culture. Irradiation with 1 kGy resulted in a significant (P < .05), 3.9 log reduction in detectable S. enteritidis in the shell and a higly significant (P < .025) 95% reduction in detectable S. enteritidis in the internal shell membranes. Irradiation of eggs with either 2 or 3 kGy reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels in both the shell and internal membranes. However, irradiation at either 1, 2 or 3 kGy resulted in a significant (P <- .05) decrease (approximately 50%) in Haugh units. Additionally, irradiation of intact shell eggs at 2 or 3 Kgy significantly (P ≤ .05) reduced yolk color regardless of the level of irradiation exposure implemented. This data indicates that gamma irradiation of intact raw eggs is effective in reducing (1 kGy) or eliminating (2 or more kGy) S. enteritidis contamination. However, each of the levels of irradiation used in the present experiments caused marked reduction of selected measures of egg quality.

  7. Molecular clonality and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Infantis from broilers in three Northern regions of Iran

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains are frequently encountered problems worldwide with considerable increased occurrences in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and frequency of antimicrobial resistance and associated resistance genes in Salmonella isolates from broiler farms in different regions of Iran covering a time period of four years. Results From 2007 to 2011, 36 Salmonella strains were isolated from broiler farms located in three northern provinces of Iran. The isolates were serotyped, antimicrobial susceptibility tested, and characterized for antimicrobial resistance genes associated to the phenotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied for comparison of genetic relatedness. Two serovars were detected among the isolates; Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis (75%) and S. Enteritidis (25%). Thirty-four (94%) of the isolates exhibited resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin caused by a single mutation in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA. For all strains this mutation occurred in the codon of Asp87 leading to a Asp87-Tyr, Asp87-Gly or Asp87-Asn substitutions. All S. Infantis (n = 27) were resistant to tetracycline, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and sulfamethoxazole and harbored the associated resistance genes; tetA, dfrA14, aadA1, and sulI together with class 1 integrons. The isolates revealed highly similar PFGE patterns indicating clonal relatedness across different geographical locations. Conclusion The data provided fundamental information applicable when launching future control programs for broilers in Iran with the aim to conserve the effectiveness of important antimicrobials for treatment in humans. PMID:23561048

  8. Modeling the thermal inactivation kinetics of heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienburg in 10 percent salted liquid egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Marks, Harry M; Jones, Deana R; Bailey, Rebecca R; Bauer, Nathan E

    2011-06-01

    There is no suitable model for predicting thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. for many types of liquid egg products, including salted liquid egg yolk, for use in updating U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) pasteurization guidelines. This is because, in part, of the variations in Salmonella strains and the changes in the processing of liquid egg products over the past 40 years. The objectives of the present study were to determine the thermal inactivation kinetics and to create a general thermal inactivation kinetics model that can be used for estimating log reductions of salmonellae in 10% salted liquid egg yolk for temperatures between 62.2 and 69°C. This model can be used by processors to help ensure adequate pasteurization. This was accomplished by studying the inactivation kinetics of a three-strain composite of heat-resistant Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Oranienburg, inoculated into commercially processed 10% salted liquid egg yolk. The survival curves were convex, with asymptotic D-values. From these curves, a general model was developed to predict log reductions for given times at specified temperatures. For example, at a temperature of 67.3°C (153.1°F) for 3.5 min, our model predicts a 5-log reduction would be obtained, whereas with the current USDA minimum required pasteurization regimen (63.33°C [146°F] for 3.5 min), our model predicts that a reduction of only 2.7 log would be obtained. The results of this study provide information that can be used by processors to aid in producing safe, pasteurized egg yolk products, and for satisfying USDA pasteurization performance standards and developing industry guidance. PMID:21669063

  9. Characterization of Foodborne Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis with Whole-Genome Sequencing Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Analysis for Surveillance and Outbreak Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lappi, Victoria; Wolfgang, William J.; Lapierre, Pascal; Palumbo, Michael J.; Medus, Carlota; Boxrud, David

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness in the United States; however, current molecular subtyping methods lack resolution for this highly clonal serovar. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to examine whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a potential molecular subtyping tool for outbreak detection and source trace back. Here, we conducted a retrospective analysis of S. Enteritidis isolates from seven epidemiologically confirmed foodborne outbreaks and sporadic isolates (not epidemiologically linked) to determine the utility of WGS to identify outbreaks. A collection of 55 epidemiologically characterized clinical and environmental S. Enteritidis isolates were sequenced. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based cluster analysis of the S. Enteritidis genomes revealed well supported clades, with less than four-SNP pairwise diversity, that were concordant with epidemiologically defined outbreaks. Sporadic isolates were an average of 42.5 SNPs distant from the outbreak clusters. Isolates collected from the same patient over several weeks differed by only two SNPs. Our findings show that WGS provided greater resolution between outbreak, sporadic, and suspect isolates than the current gold standard subtyping method, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Furthermore, results could be obtained in a time frame suitable for surveillance activities, supporting the use of WGS as an outbreak detection and characterization method for S. Enteritidis. PMID:26269623

  10. Highly expressed amino acid biosynthesis genes revealed by global gene expression analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis during growth in whole egg are not essential for this growth.

    PubMed

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Jelsbak, Lotte; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2016-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the most common cause of egg borne salmonellosis in many parts of the world. This study analyzed gene expression of this bacterium during growth in whole egg, and whether highly expressed genes were essential for the growth. High quality RNA was extracted from S. Enteritidis using a modified RNA-extraction protocol. Global gene expression during growth in whole egg was compared to growth in LB-medium using DNA array method. Twenty-six genes were significantly upregulated during growth in egg; these belonged to amino acid biosynthesis, di/oligopeptide transport system, biotin synthesis, ferrous iron transport system, and type III secretion system. Significant downregulation of 15 genes related to formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) and trehalose metabolism was observed. The results suggested that S. Enteritidis is starved for amino-acids, biotin and iron when growing in egg. However, site specific mutation of amino acid biosynthesis genes asnA (17.3 fold upregulated), asnB (18.6 fold upregulated), asnA/asnB and, serA (12.0 fold upregulated) and gdhA (3.7 fold upregulated), did not result in growth attenuation, suggesting that biosynthesis using the enzymes encoded from these genes may represent the first choice for S. Enteritidis when growing in egg, but when absent, the bacterium could use alternative ways to obtain the amino acids. PMID:26945769

  11. Genetic algorithm-artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system modeling of antibacterial activity of annatto dye on Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Yolmeh, Mahmoud; Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Salehi, Fakhreddin

    2014-01-01

    Annatto is commonly used as a coloring agent in the food industry and has antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. In this study, genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were used to predict the effect of annatto dye on Salmonella enteritidis in mayonnaise. The GA-ANN and ANFIS were fed with 3 inputs of annatto dye concentration (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4%), storage temperature (4 and 25°C) and storage time (1-20 days) for prediction of S. enteritidis population. Both models were trained with experimental data. The results showed that the annatto dye was able to reduce of S. enteritidis and its effect was stronger at 25°C than 4°C. The developed GA-ANN, which included 8 hidden neurons, could predict S. enteritidis population with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The overall agreement between ANFIS predictions and experimental data was also very good (r=0.998). Sensitivity analysis results showed that storage temperature was the most sensitive factor for prediction of S. enteritidis population. PMID:24566279

  12. Characterization of Foodborne Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis with Whole-Genome Sequencing Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Analysis for Surveillance and Outbreak Detection.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Angela J; Lappi, Victoria; Wolfgang, William J; Lapierre, Pascal; Palumbo, Michael J; Medus, Carlota; Boxrud, David

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness in the United States; however, current molecular subtyping methods lack resolution for this highly clonal serovar. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to examine whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a potential molecular subtyping tool for outbreak detection and source trace back. Here, we conducted a retrospective analysis of S. Enteritidis isolates from seven epidemiologically confirmed foodborne outbreaks and sporadic isolates (not epidemiologically linked) to determine the utility of WGS to identify outbreaks. A collection of 55 epidemiologically characterized clinical and environmental S. Enteritidis isolates were sequenced. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based cluster analysis of the S. Enteritidis genomes revealed well supported clades, with less than four-SNP pairwise diversity, that were concordant with epidemiologically defined outbreaks. Sporadic isolates were an average of 42.5 SNPs distant from the outbreak clusters. Isolates collected from the same patient over several weeks differed by only two SNPs. Our findings show that WGS provided greater resolution between outbreak, sporadic, and suspect isolates than the current gold standard subtyping method, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Furthermore, results could be obtained in a time frame suitable for surveillance activities, supporting the use of WGS as an outbreak detection and characterization method for S. Enteritidis. PMID:26269623

  13. Subtyping Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis isolates from different sources by using sequence typing based on virulence genes and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs).

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenyun; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Jayarao, Bhushan M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Ribot, Efrain M; Knabel, Stephen J; Dudley, Edward G

    2011-07-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major cause of food-borne salmonellosis in the United States. Two major food vehicles for S. Enteritidis are contaminated eggs and chicken meat. Improved subtyping methods are needed to accurately track specific strains of S. Enteritidis related to human salmonellosis throughout the chicken and egg food system. A sequence typing scheme based on virulence genes (fimH and sseL) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)-CRISPR-including multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (designated CRISPR-MVLST)-was used to characterize 35 human clinical isolates, 46 chicken isolates, 24 egg isolates, and 63 hen house environment isolates of S. Enteritidis. A total of 27 sequence types (STs) were identified among the 167 isolates. CRISPR-MVLST identified three persistent and predominate STs circulating among U.S. human clinical isolates and chicken, egg, and hen house environmental isolates in Pennsylvania, and an ST that was found only in eggs and humans. It also identified a potential environment-specific sequence type. Moreover, cluster analysis based on fimH and sseL identified a number of clusters, of which several were found in more than one outbreak, as well as 11 singletons. Further research is needed to determine if CRISPR-MVLST might help identify the ecological origins of S. Enteritidis strains that contaminate chickens and eggs. PMID:21571881

  14. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan and m-hydroxybenzylhydrazine associated to Lactobacillus spp. on the humoral response of broilers challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Donato, T C; Baptista, A A S; Garcia, K C O D; Smaniotto, B D; Okamoto, A S; Sequeira, J L; Andreatti Filho, R L

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of different doses of serotonin, its precursor 5-hydroxytry-ptophan (5HTP), and m-hydroxybenzylhydrazine inhibitor (NSD1015), administered via intraperitoneal for 5 consecutive days, on behavior and average body weight of broilers. We also measured the humoral immune response and quantification of Salmonella Enteritidis in broilers chickens that received the drugs evaluated and a Lactobacillus pool. The study was divided into 3 experiments: Experiment 1--administration of pharmaceuticals with choice of dosage; Experiment 2--administration of pharmaceuticals and a Lactobacillus pool in birds that were not challenged with S. Enteritidis, and Experiment 3--administration of pharmaceuticals and a Lactobacillus pool in birds challenged with S. Enteritidis. The ELISA was used to scan dosages of intestinal IgA and serum IgY. We used colony-forming units to quantify S. Enteritidis. The concentrations of IgA and IgY did not show significant differences (P>0.05) in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, NSD1015 associated with Lactobacillus determined higher IgA concentrations, promoting greater stimulus to the immune system than 5HTP. Regarding quantification of S. Enteritidis in the cecal content of birds, 5HTP associated to Lactobacillus determined the smallest number of bacteria, showing possible interaction of 5-hydroxytryptophan and Lactobacillus spp. with the immune system of broiler chickens. PMID:26195810

  15. Presence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum in commercial laying hens diagnosed with Fowl Typhoid Disease in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : A severe outbreak of salmonellosis in commercial brown table egg layers first occurred in Colombia in 2006. From 2008 to 2012, 35 samples collected from commercial layers farms in the states of Cundinamarca, Santander, Bolivar and San Andres, were positive to Salmonella enterica. Salmonella (S) wa...

  16. Membrane damage and viability loss of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella enteritidis in liquid egg by thermal death time disk treatment.

    PubMed

    Ukuku, Dike O; Jin, Tony; Zhang, Howard

    2008-10-01

    Bacterial injury, including leakage of intracellular substance and viability loss, of Escherichia coli K-12 (ATCC 23716) and Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC 13076) inoculated in liquid egg white and liquid whole egg was determined by thermal death time disk. E. coli K-12 and Salmonella Enteritidis were inoculated in liquid egg white and liquid whole egg to a final count of 7.8 log CFU/ml and were thermally treated with thermal death time disks at room temperature (23"C), 54, 56, 58, and 60 degrees C from 0 to 240 s. Sublethal injury, leakage of intracellular substances, and viability loss of E. coli K-12 and Salmonella Enteritidis was investigated by plating 0.1 ml on selective trypticase soy agar containing 3% NaCl, 5% NaCl, sorbitol MacConky agar, and xylose lysine sodium tetradecylsulfate and nonselective trypticase soy agar. No significant (P > 0.05) differences on percent injury or viability loss for E. coli K-12 and Salmonella populations were determined in all samples treated at 23 degrees C. Sublethal injury occurred in E. coli and Salmonella populations at 54 degrees C or above for 120 s. Viability losses for both bacteria averaged 5 log at 54 degrees C or above for 180 s, and the surviving populations were below detection (<10 CFU/ml). Thermal treatment at 40 degrees C and above led to membrane damage, leakage, and accumulation of intracellular ATP from 2 to 2.5 log fg/ml and UV-absorbing substances of 0.1 to 0.39 in the treated samples. These results indicate similar thermal injury/damage on both E. coli and Salmonella membranes as determined by the amount of inactivation, viability loss, and leakage of intracellular substances of bacteria. PMID:18939742

  17. Effect of rapid product desiccation or hydration on thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis PT 30 in wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Smith, Danielle F; Marks, Bradley P

    2015-02-01

    Salmonella is able to survive in low-moisture environments and is known to be more heat resistant as product water activity (aw) decreases. However, it is unknown how rapidly the resistance changes if product aw is altered rapidly, as can occur in certain processes. Therefore, the objective was to determine the effect of rapid product desiccation or hydration on Salmonella thermal resistance. Two dynamic moisture treatments were compared with two static moisture treatments to determine the effect of time-at-moisture on the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 30 (PT 30) in wheat flour. After inoculation, two static moisture groups were equilibrated to 0.3 and 0.6 aw over 4 to 7 days, and two dynamic moisture groups then were rapidly (<4 min) desiccated from 0.6 to 0.3 aw or hydrated from 0.3 to 0.6 aw. Samples then were subjected to isothermal (80°C) heat treatments, and Salmonella thermal resistance was compared via decimal reduction times (i.e., D80°C-values). The D80°C-value in flour that was rapidly desiccated from 0.6 to 0.3 aw was statistically equivalent (P > 0.05) to the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.3 aw, but both were greater (P < 0.05) than the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw. Similarly, the D80°C-value in flour rapidly hydrated from 0.3 to 0.6 aw was statistically equivalent (P > 0.05) to the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw, and both were less than the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.3 aw. Therefore, Salmonella in the rapidly desiccated flour (0.3 aw) was as thermally resistant as that which previously had been equilibrated to 0.3 aw, and Salmonella in the rapidly hydrated flour (0.6 aw) responded similarly to that in the flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw. These results suggest that the response period to new aw is negligible, which is critically important in applying thermal resistance data or parameters to industrial

  18. ZnO Nanoparticles Impose a Panmetabolic Toxic Effect Along with Strong Necrosis, Inducing Activation of the Envelope Stress Response in Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Vidovic, Sinisa; Elder, Jeff; Medihala, Prabhakara; Lawrence, John R.; Predicala, Bernardo; Zhang, Haixia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of three metal nanoparticles (NPs), ZnO, MgO, and CaO NPs, against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in liquid medium and on solid surfaces. Out of the three tested metal NPs, ZnO NPs exhibited the most significant antimicrobial effect both in liquid medium and when embedded on solid surfaces. Therefore, we focused on revealing the mechanisms of surface-associated ZnO biocidal activity. Using the global proteome approach, we report that a great majority (79%) of the altered proteins in biofilms formed by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were downregulated, whereas a much smaller fraction (21%) of proteins were upregulated. Intriguingly, all downregulated proteins were enzymes involved in a wide range of the central metabolic pathways, including translation; amino acid biosynthetic pathways; nucleobase, nucleoside, and nucleotide biosynthetic processes; ATP synthesis-coupled proton transport; the pentose phosphate shunt; and carboxylic acid metabolic processes, indicating that ZnO NPs exert a panmetabolic toxic effect on this prokaryotic organism. In addition to their panmetabolic toxicity, ZnO NPs induced profound changes in cell envelope morphology, imposing additional necrotic effects and triggering the envelope stress response of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis. The envelope stress response effect activated periplasmic chaperones and proteases, transenvelope complexes, and regulators, thereby facilitating protection of this prokaryotic organism against ZnO NPs. PMID:25801570

  19. ZnO nanoparticles impose a panmetabolic toxic effect along with strong necrosis, inducing activation of the envelope stress response in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Vidovic, Sinisa; Elder, Jeff; Medihala, Prabhakara; Lawrence, John R; Predicala, Bernardo; Zhang, Haixia; Korber, Darren R

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of three metal nanoparticles (NPs), ZnO, MgO, and CaO NPs, against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in liquid medium and on solid surfaces. Out of the three tested metal NPs, ZnO NPs exhibited the most significant antimicrobial effect both in liquid medium and when embedded on solid surfaces. Therefore, we focused on revealing the mechanisms of surface-associated ZnO biocidal activity. Using the global proteome approach, we report that a great majority (79%) of the altered proteins in biofilms formed by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were downregulated, whereas a much smaller fraction (21%) of proteins were upregulated. Intriguingly, all downregulated proteins were enzymes involved in a wide range of the central metabolic pathways, including translation; amino acid biosynthetic pathways; nucleobase, nucleoside, and nucleotide biosynthetic processes; ATP synthesis-coupled proton transport; the pentose phosphate shunt; and carboxylic acid metabolic processes, indicating that ZnO NPs exert a panmetabolic toxic effect on this prokaryotic organism. In addition to their panmetabolic toxicity, ZnO NPs induced profound changes in cell envelope morphology, imposing additional necrotic effects and triggering the envelope stress response of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis. The envelope stress response effect activated periplasmic chaperones and proteases, transenvelope complexes, and regulators, thereby facilitating protection of this prokaryotic organism against ZnO NPs. PMID:25801570

  20. Strategies for Controlling Salmonella Enteritidis in Poultry Flocks: Translating Research into Action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 2500 distinct Salmonella serotypes have been identified, but only a small fraction of these are commonly found in poultry flocks. However, poultry products are epidemiologically important as sources of Salmonella transmission to humans and several of the serotypes that most often cause hum...

  1. Development of hyperspectral imaging technique for salmonella enteritidis and typhimurium on agar plates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a common cause of foodborne disease resulting from the consumption of contaminated food products. Although a direct plating method is widely used for presumptive positive screening of pathogenic Salmonella colonies on agar plates, it is labor-intensive, time-consuming and also prone to...

  2. Selection for pro-inflammatory mediators yields chickens with increased resistance against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella are a leading cause of foodborne illness and can be transmitted through consumption of contaminated poultry; therefore, increasing a flocks’ natural resistance to Salmonella could improve food safety. Previously, we characterized the heterophil-mediated innate immune response of two pare...

  3. Effectiveness of superheated steam for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30, and Listeria monocytogenes on almonds and pistachios.

    PubMed

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of superheated steam (SHS) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and Listeria monocytogenes on almonds and in-shell pistachios and to determine the effect of superheated steam heating on quality by measuring color and texture changes. Almonds and in-shell pistachios inoculated with four foodborne pathogens were treated with saturated steam (SS) at 100 °C and SHS at 125, 150, 175, and 200 °C for various times. Exposure of almonds and pistachios to SHS for 15 or 30s at 200 °C achieved >5l og reductions among all tested pathogens without causing significant changes in color values or texture parameters (P>0.05). For both almonds and pistachios, acid and peroxide values (PV) following SS and SHS treatment for up to 15s and 30s, respectively, were within the acceptable range (PV<1.0 meq/kg). These results show that thermal application of 200 °C SHS treatment for 15s and 30s did not affect the quality of almonds and pistachios, respectively. Therefore, SHS treatment is a very promising alternative technology for the tree nuts industry by improving inactivation of foodborne pathogens on almonds and pistachios while simultaneously reducing processing time. PMID:26773253

  4. Cell invasion of poultry-associated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates is associated with pathogenicity, motility and proteins secreted by the type III secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaohui; Addwebi, Tarek; Davis, Margaret A.; Orfe, Lisa; Call, Douglas R.; Guard, Jean; Besser, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Poultry and poultry products are considered the major vehicles of transmission to humans. Using cell invasiveness as a surrogate marker for pathogenicity, we tested the invasiveness of 53 poultry-associated isolates of S. Enteritidis in a well-differentiated intestinal epithelial cell model (Caco-2). The method allowed classification of the isolates into low (n = 7), medium (n = 18) and high (n = 30) invasiveness categories. Cell invasiveness of the isolates did not correlate with the presence of the virulence-associated gene spvB or the ability of the isolates to form biofilms. Testing of representative isolates with high and low invasiveness in a mouse model revealed that the former were more invasive in vivo and caused more and earlier mortalities, whereas the latter were significantly less invasive in vivo, causing few or no mortalities. Further characterization of representative isolates with low and high invasiveness showed that most of the isolates with low invasiveness had impaired motility and impaired secretion of either flagella-associated proteins (FlgK, FljB and FlgL) or type III secretion system (TTSS)-secreted proteins (SipA and SipD) encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity island-1. In addition, isolates with low invasiveness had impaired ability to invade and/or survive within chicken macrophages. These data suggest that not all isolates of S. Enteritidis recovered from poultry may be equally pathogenic, and that the pathogenicity of S. Enteritidis isolates is associated, in part, with both motility and secretion of TTSS effector proteins. PMID:21292746

  5. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 20121

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate. PMID:26982074

  6. Invasive Illness with Salmonella Virchow Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mani, V.; Brennand, J.; Mandal, B. K.

    1974-01-01

    Salmonella virchow infection in man is usually sporadic and is little known in Britain. We report an outbreak of 21 cases in the Manchester area. The source of infection was believed to be chickens bought at different shops. Symptoms were typhoidal or septicaemic. PMID:4856881

  7. Kinetics model comparison for the inactivation of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis and Oranienburg in 10% salted liquid whole egg.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Marks, Harry M; Bailey, Rebecca B; Juneja, Vijay; Jones, Deana R

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in commercial 10% salted liquid whole egg (LWE) to assist the U.S. Department of Agriculture in writing new liquid egg pasteurization guidelines. Current data are not sufficient for predicting thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. for use in updating pasteurization guidelines for many types of liquid egg products, including salted LWE (SLWE). This is, in part, due to variations in Salmonella strains and changes in the processing of liquid egg products that have arisen in the past 40 years. Pasteurization guidelines are currently being reevaluated in light of recent risk assessments. Heat-resistant Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Oranienburg were composited and mixed into 10% SLWE, resulting in final populations of approximately 5.7-7.8 log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. Inoculated egg was injected into glass capillary tubes, flame-sealed, and heated in a water bath at 60, 62.2, 63.3, 64.3, or 66°C. Contents were surface-plated and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Survival curves were not log-linear (log levels versus time), but decreased rapidly, and after initial periods became linear. Asymptotic decimal reduction values at each temperature were calculated from survivor curves with a minimum inactivation of 5.0 log CFU/mL. The asymptotic thermal D-values for SLWE were 3.47, 2.23, 1.79, 1.46, and 1.04 min at 60, 62.2, 63.3, 64.3, or 66°C, respectively. The calculated thermal z-value was 11.5°C. A model that predicts lethality for given times and temperatures that was developed predicted that the current pasteurization requirements for 10% SLWE (i.e., 63.3°C for 3.5 min, or 62.2°C for 6.2 min) are not sufficient to inactivate 7 log CFU/mL of Salmonella and only achieve approximately 4 log CFU/mL inactivation. This model will assist egg-products manufacturers and regulatory agencies in designing pasteurization processes to ensure product safety. PMID

  8. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in chicken manure by larvae of the black soldier fly.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Islam, Mahbub; Sheppard, Craig; Liao, Jean; Doyle, Michael P

    2004-04-01

    Green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were inoculated at 10(7) CFU/g into cow, hog, or chicken manure. Ten- or 11-day-old soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) (7 to 10 g) were added to the manure and held at 23, 27, or 32 degrees C for 3 to 6 days. Soldier fly larvae accelerated inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in chicken manure but had no effect in cow manure and enhanced survival in hog manure. The initial pH values of the hog and chicken manure were 6.0 to 6.2 and 7.4 to 8.2, respectively, and it is surmised that these conditions affected the stability of the larval antimicrobial system. Reductions of E. coli O157:H7 populations in chicken manure by larvae were affected by storage temperature, with greater reductions in samples held for 3 days at 27 or 32 degrees C than at 23 degrees C. Pathogen inactivation in chicken manure by larvae was not affected by the indigenous microflora of chicken manure, because Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae-treated samples were approximately 2.5 log lower than control samples without larvae when either autoclaved or nonautoclaved chicken manure was used as the contaminated medium during 3 days of storage. Extending the storage time to 6 days, larvae again accelerated the reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in chicken manure during the first 4 days of storage; however, larvae became contaminated with the pathogen. After 2 days of feeding on contaminated manure, Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae averaged 3.3 log CFU/g. Populations decreased to 1.9 log CFU/g after 6 days of exposure to contaminated chicken manure; however, the absence of feeding activity by the maggots in later stages of storage may be responsible for the continued presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in larvae. Transfer of contaminated larvae to fresh chicken manure restored feeding activity but led to cross-contamination of the fresh manure. PMID:15083719

  9. Yeast β-d-glucans induced antimicrobial peptide expressions against Salmonella infection in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yujing; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Xiangyu; Guo, Yuming; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of yeast β-d-glucans (YG) on gene expression of endogenous β-defensins (AvBDs), cathelicidins (Cath) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2) in broilers challenged with Salmonella enteritidis (SE). 240 day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly assigned to 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with two levels of dietary YG (0 or 200mg/kg in diet) and two levels of SE challenge (0 or 1×10(9) SE at 7-9 days of age). The results showed SE infection reduced growth performance,and increased salmonella cecal colonization and internal organs invasion, increased concentration of intestinal specific IgA and serum specific IgG antibody, as compared to uninfected birds. SE challenge differentially regulated AvBDs, Caths and LEAP-2 gene expression in the jejunum and spleen of broiler chickens during the infection period. However, YG supplementation inhibited the growth depression by SE challenge, and further increased level of serum specific IgG and intestinal specific IgA antibody. Higher level of salmonella colonization and internal organs invasion in the SE-infected birds were reduced by YG. SE-induced differentially expression patterns of AMPs genes was inhibited or changed by YG. Results indicated YG enhance chicken's resistance to salmonella infection. PMID:26794312

  10. Toll-Like Receptor Activation by Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens from Lipid A Mutants of Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Omar; Caboni, Mariaelena; Negrea, Aurel; Necchi, Francesca; Alfini, Renzo; Micoli, Francesca; Saul, Allan; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease is a neglected disease with high mortality in children and HIV-positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, caused primarily by Africa-specific strains of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. A vaccine using GMMA (generalized modules for membrane antigens) from S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis containing lipid A modifications to reduce potential in vivo reactogenicity is under development. GMMA with penta-acylated lipid A showed the greatest reduction in the level of cytokine release from human peripheral blood monocytes from that for GMMA with wild-type lipid A. Deletion of the lipid A modification genes msbB and pagP was required to achieve pure penta-acylation. Interestingly, ΔmsbB ΔpagP GMMA from S. Enteritidis had a slightly higher stimulatory potential than those from S. Typhimurium, a finding consistent with the higher lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) stimulatory potential of the former. Also, TLR5 ligand flagellin was found in Salmonella GMMA. No relevant contribution to the stimulatory potential of GMMA was detected even when the flagellin protein FliC from S. Typhimurium was added at a concentration as high as 10% of total protein, suggesting that flagellin impurities are not a major factor for GMMA-mediated immune stimulation. Overall, the stimulatory potential of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis ΔmsbB ΔpagP GMMA was close to that of Shigella sonnei GMMA, which are currently in phase I clinical trials. PMID:26865597

  11. Increasing Ceftriaxone Resistance in Salmonellae, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lin-Hui; Teng, Wen-Shin; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Lee, Hao-Yuan; Li, Hsin-Chieh; Wu, Tsu-Lan

    2011-01-01

    In Taiwan, despite a substantial decline of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis infections, strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone persist. A self-transferable blaCMY-2-harboring IncI1 plasmid was identified in S. enterica serotypes Choleraesuis, Typhimurium, Agona, and Enteritidis and contributed to the overall increase of ceftriaxone resistance in salmonellae. PMID:21749777

  12. Development of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) - Surface Enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) Assay for the Detection of Salmonella Enterica Serotype Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Lu, Xiaonan

    2016-01-01

    As a major foodborne pathogen, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is increasingly rising as a global health concern. Here, we developed an integrated assay that combines loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for DNA detection of S. Enteritidis using specifically designed Raman active Au-nanoprobes. The target DNA was amplified by LAMP and then labeled with Au-nanoprobes comprised of gold nanoparticle-modified with specific cy5/DNA probes to allow the detection by SERS. The sensitivity of the developed LAMP-SERS detection assay (66 CFU/mL) was ~100-fold higher than the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Significantly, this technique allowed highly specific detection of the target DNA of S. Enteritidis and could differentiate it from the DNA of closely related bacterial species or non-specific contamination, making it more accurate and reliable than the standard LAMP technique. The applicability of detection of S. Enteritidis in milk samples using LAMP-SERS assay was validated as well. In sum, the developed LAMP-SERS assay is highly specific and sensitive, and has the potential to be applied for rapid detection of different foodborne pathogens and other microbial contaminants. PMID:26941845

  13. Development of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) - Surface Enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) Assay for the Detection of Salmonella Enterica Serotype Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Lu, Xiaonan

    2016-01-01

    As a major foodborne pathogen, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is increasingly rising as a global health concern. Here, we developed an integrated assay that combines loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for DNA detection of S. Enteritidis using specifically designed Raman active Au-nanoprobes. The target DNA was amplified by LAMP and then labeled with Au-nanoprobes comprised of gold nanoparticle-modified with specific cy5/DNA probes to allow the detection by SERS. The sensitivity of the developed LAMP-SERS detection assay (66 CFU/mL) was ~100-fold higher than the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Significantly, this technique allowed highly specific detection of the target DNA of S. Enteritidis and could differentiate it from the DNA of closely related bacterial species or non-specific contamination, making it more accurate and reliable than the standard LAMP technique. The applicability of detection of S. Enteritidis in milk samples using LAMP-SERS assay was validated as well. In sum, the developed LAMP-SERS assay is highly specific and sensitive, and has the potential to be applied for rapid detection of different foodborne pathogens and other microbial contaminants. PMID:26941845

  14. Inflammatory Responses to Salmonella Infections Are Serotype-Specific

    PubMed Central

    Ktsoyan, Zhanna; Ghazaryan, Karine; Manukyan, Gayane; Martirosyan, Anush; Mnatsakanyan, Armine; Arakelova, Karine; Gevorgyan, Zaruhi; Sedrakyan, Anahit; Asoyan, Ara; Boyajyan, Anna; Aminov, Rustam

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the profile of inflammatory response in patients with acute salmonellosis caused by two serotypes of Salmonella enterica, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, as well as in convalescent patients with previous acute disease caused by S. Enteritidis. Patients with acute disease showed significantly elevated levels of IL-1β, IL-17, IL-10, and calprotectin compared to healthy control subjects. In convalescent patients, these markers were also significantly elevated, with the exception of IL-1β. Multivariate statistical analyses with the use of these variables produced models with a good predictive accuracy resulting in excellent separation of the diseased and healthy cohorts studied. Overall, the results suggest that the profile of inflammatory response in this disease is determined, to a significant degree, by the serotype of Salmonella, and the profile of certain cytokines and calprotectin remains abnormal for a number of months following the acute disease stage. PMID:26904722

  15. Inflammatory Responses to Salmonella Infections Are Serotype-Specific.

    PubMed

    Ktsoyan, Zhanna; Ghazaryan, Karine; Manukyan, Gayane; Martirosyan, Anush; Mnatsakanyan, Armine; Arakelova, Karine; Gevorgyan, Zaruhi; Sedrakyan, Anahit; Asoyan, Ara; Boyajyan, Anna; Aminov, Rustam

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the profile of inflammatory response in patients with acute salmonellosis caused by two serotypes of Salmonella enterica, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, as well as in convalescent patients with previous acute disease caused by S. Enteritidis. Patients with acute disease showed significantly elevated levels of IL-1β, IL-17, IL-10, and calprotectin compared to healthy control subjects. In convalescent patients, these markers were also significantly elevated, with the exception of IL-1β. Multivariate statistical analyses with the use of these variables produced models with a good predictive accuracy resulting in excellent separation of the diseased and healthy cohorts studied. Overall, the results suggest that the profile of inflammatory response in this disease is determined, to a significant degree, by the serotype of Salmonella, and the profile of certain cytokines and calprotectin remains abnormal for a number of months following the acute disease stage. PMID:26904722

  16. Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Webb, M L; Spickler, J L; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Wilson, J L; Buhr, R J

    2014-08-01

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using 3 sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10(1), 10(2), or 10(3) cfu/eggshell of Salmonella Enteritidis and allowed to dry at room temperature for 1 or 24 h. For the shell rinse groups, each inoculated egg was rinsed with buffered peptone water. These rinsed eggs were used for the shell crush with previous rinse groups, and each egg was aseptically cracked, the contents discarded, and the eggshell and membranes crushed with buffered peptone water. This same crush procedure was used for the shell crush without previous shell rinse eggs. The recovery of Salmonella 1 h after inoculation for shell rinse sampled eggs was 16% positive at 10(1), 49% at 10(2), and 93% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. For the shell crush with previous shell rinse, sampled egg recovery was 0% positive at 10(1), 3% at 10(2), and 17% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell. For the shell crush, sampled eggs had recovery of 23% positive at 10(1), 69% at 10(2), and 96% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. The recovery of Salmonella 24 h after inoculation for the shell rinse eggs was 3% positive at 10(1), 12% at 10(2), and 22% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; recovery for shell crush with previous shell rinse sampling was 2% positive at 10(1), 8% at 10(2), and 5% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; and for the shell crush sampling recovery was 2% at 10(1), 32% at 10(2), and 42% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. Eggshell crush was a more sensitive (∼10 percentage points) sampling method than eggshell rinse at both 1 and 24 h, but both methods were equally optimal when the inoculum was at 10(3) and samples were collected after 1 h. Waiting 24 h after inoculation to sample significantly lowered the recovery for both the shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods by ∼40 percentage points. PMID:24931964

  17. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from humans by antimicrobial resistance, virulence genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ming; Keelara, Shivaramu; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2012-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major serovar associated with human salmonellosis. A total of 425 clinical S. Enteritidis isolates of human origin were collected between June 2009 and September 2010 from North Carolina. The isolates were further characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility, antimicrobial resistance coding determinants, virulence genes, and fingerprint profiles to determine whether they were similar or different to the S. Enteritidis strain responsible for the human outbreak due to consumption of contaminated eggs. Ten different antimicrobial resistance phenotypes were observed with the highest frequency of resistance exhibited to ampicillin (n=10; 2.35%). The isolates were predominantly pansusceptible (n=409; 96.23%); however, seven isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR; i.e., resistant to three or more antimicrobials). Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) coding genes (bla(TEM) and bla(PSE)) were detected in the ampicillin-resistant isolates, whereas a single MDR isolate tested positive for class 1 integron (1 kb). The majority of the isolates (n=422; 99.3%) carried the invA, mgtC, stn, sopB, sopE1, and sefA virulence genes. However, 37 (8.7%) and 46 (10.82%) S. Enteritidis isolates tested negative for the plasmid encoded genes spvC and rck, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of 118 S. Enteritidis isolates by restriction enzymes XbaI and BlnI resulted in seven clusters, each with a discriminatory index (DI) of 0.715 and 0.785, respectively. The combination of XbaI-BlnI patterns generated a dendrogram with 14 clusters and a higher DI of 0.914. The PFGE profile of 80 isolates matched 100% with the S. Enteritidis strain that has been cited for the recent outbreak in the United States due to consumption of contaminated eggs. In conclusion, we identified a genotypic similar S. Enteritidis population in our study based on antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence gene, and PFGE fingerprint

  18. A comparative study of strains of salmonella isolated from irrigation waters, vegetables and human infections.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Villanova Ruiz, B.; Cueto Espinar, A.; Bolaños Carmona, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 181 samples of irrigation water from the farmlands of Granada were examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. At the same time 849 samples of the crops from these farmlands and of vegetables sold in city market-places were studied. Sampling was done regularly over the period of study which ran from March 1981 to February 1983. Isolates from these sources were compared with 93 salmonellas isolated from human pathological material at various hospitals of the city of Granada from 1979-80, and again from 1981-3. The most commonly isolated serotypes of human origin were S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis. In irrigation waters and in crops, S. typhimurium, S. kapemba, S. london and S. blockley were found to be the most common. The results indicate a close relationship between the isolates from the irrigation waters and those from the vegetables, but their relationship to prevalent human infections is less clear. PMID:3595745

  19. inhibitory effects of citral, cinnamaldehyde, and tea polyphenols on mixed biofilm formation by foodborne Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmei; Zhou, Wenyuan; Zhang, Wenyan; Yang, Anlin; Liu, Yanlan; Jiang, Yan; Huang, Shaosong; Su, Jianyu

    2014-06-01

    Biofilms are significant hazards in the food industry. In this study, we investigated the effects of food additive such as citral, cinnamaldehyde, and tea polyphenols on mixed biofilm formation by foodborne Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella serotype Enteritidis. The adhesion rates of mixed strains in sub-MIC of additives were determined by a microtiter plate assay and bacterial communication signal autoinducer 2 (AI-2) production via a bioluminescence reporter Vibrio harveyi BB170. The structure of mixed biofilm was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the disinfectants hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid was tested on the mixed biofilm. Our results demonstrated that citral, cinnamaldehyde, and tea polyphenols were able to significantly inhibit mixed biofilm formation, while citral could reduce the synthesis of AI-2. Conversely, we observed a significant increase in AI-2 mediated by cinnamaldehyde. Tea polyphenols at lower concentrations induced AI-2 synthesis; however, AI-2 synthesis was significantly inhibited at higher concentrations (300 m g/ml). Food additives inhibited the adhesion of mixed bacteria on stainless steel chips and increased the sensitivity of the mixed biofilm to disinfectants. In conclusion, citral, cinnamaldehyde, and tea polyphenols had strong inhibitory effects on mixed biofilm formation and also enhanced the effect of disinfectant on mixed biofilm formation. This study provides a scientific basis for the application of natural food additives to control biofilm formation of foodborne bacteria. PMID:24853514

  20. The rise and decline in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis outbreaks attributed to egg-containing foods in the United States, 1973-2009.

    PubMed

    Wright, A P; Richardson, L; Mahon, B E; Rothenberg, R; Cole, D J

    2016-03-01

    Salmonella enterica causes an estimated 1 million domestically acquired foodborne illnesses annually. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is among the top three serovars of reported cases of Salmonella. We examined trends in SE foodborne outbreaks from 1973 to 2009 using Joinpoint and Poisson regression. The annual number of SE outbreaks increased sharply in the 1970s and 1980s but declined significantly after 1990. Over the study period, SE outbreaks were most frequently attributed to foods containing eggs. The average rate of SE outbreaks attributed to egg-containing foods reported by states began to decline significantly after 1990, and the proportion of SE outbreaks attributed to egg-containing foods began declining after 1997. Our results suggest that interventions initiated in the 1990s to decrease SE contamination of shell eggs may have been integral to preventing SE outbreaks. PMID:26289100

  1. Environmental contamination and detection of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in laying flocks.

    PubMed

    Davies, R; Breslin, M

    2001-12-01

    Faecal, dust and other environmental samples were collected from the floors, droppings belts, egg-collection systems and other areas of 14 cage-layer flocks, 10 barn egg production flocks and seven free-range flocks, and cultured for Salmonella species. The distribution of the organism varied with its prevalence and with the vaccination status of the birds. No one sample type was found to be suitable for identifying all contaminated houses. Salmonella was also frequently found on egg-packing equipment and in samples from rodents and wild birds. PMID:11787781

  2. Development of classification models to detect Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium found in poultry carcass rinses by visible-near infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Young Wook; Yoon, Seung Chul; Park, Bosoon; Hinton, Arthur; Windham, William R.; Lawrence, Kurt C.

    2013-05-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne disease outbreaks resulting from the consumption of contaminated food products in the United States. This paper reports the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and differentiating two of the most common Salmonella serotypes, Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), from background microflora that are often found in poultry carcass rinse. Presumptive positive screening of colonies with a traditional direct plating method is a labor intensive and time consuming task. Thus, this paper is concerned with the detection of differences in spectral characteristics among the pure SE, ST, and background microflora grown on brilliant green sulfa (BGS) and xylose lysine tergitol 4 (XLT4) agar media with a spread plating technique. Visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging, providing the spectral and spatial information unique to each microorganism, was utilized to differentiate SE and ST from the background microflora. A total of 10 classification models, including five machine learning algorithms, each without and with principal component analysis (PCA), were validated and compared to find the best model in classification accuracy. The five machine learning (classification) algorithms used in this study were Mahalanobis distance (MD), k-nearest neighbor (kNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), and support vector machine (SVM). The average classification accuracy of all 10 models on a calibration (or training) set of the pure cultures on BGS agar plates was 98% (Kappa coefficient = 0.95) in determining the presence of SE and/or ST although it was difficult to differentiate between SE and ST. The average classification accuracy of all 10 models on a training set for ST detection on XLT4 agar was over 99% (Kappa coefficient = 0.99) although SE colonies on XLT4 agar were difficult to differentiate from background microflora. The average classification

  3. Combining Lactic Acid Spray with Near-Infrared Radiation Heating To Inactivate Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis on Almond and Pine Nut Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jae-Won

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of near-infrared radiation (NIR) heating combined with lactic acid (LA) sprays for inactivating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on almond and pine nut kernels and to elucidate the mechanisms of the lethal effect of the NIR-LA combined treatment. Also, the effect of the combination treatment on product quality was determined. Separately prepared S. Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and non-PT 30 S. Enteritidis cocktails were inoculated onto almond and pine nut kernels, respectively, followed by treatments with NIR or 2% LA spray alone, NIR with distilled water spray (NIR-DW), and NIR with 2% LA spray (NIR-LA). Although surface temperatures of nuts treated with NIR were higher than those subjected to NIR-DW or NIR-LA treatment, more S. Enteritidis survived after NIR treatment alone. The effectiveness of NIR-DW and NIR-LA was similar, but significantly more sublethally injured cells were recovered from NIR-DW-treated samples. We confirmed that the enhanced bactericidal effect of the NIR-LA combination may not be attributable to cell membrane damage per se. NIR heat treatment might allow S. Enteritidis cells to become permeable to applied LA solution. The NIR-LA treatment (5 min) did not significantly (P > 0.05) cause changes in the lipid peroxidation parameters, total phenolic contents, color values, moisture contents, and sensory attributes of nut kernels. Given the results of the present study, NIR-LA treatment may be a potential intervention for controlling food-borne pathogens on nut kernel products. PMID:25911473

  4. The feathering gene is linked to degranulation and oxidative burst not cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression levels or Salmonella enteritidis organ invasion in broilers.

    PubMed

    Swaggerty, Christina L; He, Haiqi; Genovese, Kenneth J; Kaiser, Pete; Pevzner, Igal Y; Kogut, Michael H

    2006-12-01

    In the past, we showed differences in heterophil function between parental broilers (A [fast feathering] > B [slow feathering]) and their F1 reciprocal crosses (D [fast feathering] > C [slow feathering]). In the present study, we evaluated the linkage of the feathering gene to heterophil function, pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression levels, and resistance to Salmonella enteritidis organ invasion. Heterophils were isolated from 2-day-old chickens (C and D) separated into males and females - slow males and females (SM and SF), and fast males and females (FM and FF). Heterophil functions of degranulation and oxidative burst were measured. Heterophils from FF chickens (183+/-8.9) released more (P < 0.05) beta-d-glucuronidase (microM) than heterophils from SF chickens (149+/-3.7); FF heterophils (4.6 x 10(4)) generated a significantly (P < 0.05) greater oxidative burst (mean relative fluorescent units) compared with SF heterophils (4.2 x 10(4)). Interleukin-6, CXCLi2, and interferon-alpha mRNA expression levels were quantitated by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. No differences were observed between SM and FM or between SF and FF heterophils. Finally, 1-day-old chickens were administered S. enteritidis and liver/spleen organ invasion was quantitated. No differences were observed between the number of S. enteritidis-positive FF and SF chickens, but FM were significantly (P < 0.05) more resistant to S. enteritidis organ invasion than SM chickens. The data indicate degranulation and oxidative burst were linked with the feathering gene; however, interleukin-6, CXCLi2, and interferon-alpha mRNA expression levels were not. Furthermore, susceptibility to in vitro S. enteritidis organ invasion was not linked to the feathering gene. PMID:17121735

  5. Combining Lactic Acid Spray with Near-Infrared Radiation Heating To Inactivate Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis on Almond and Pine Nut Kernels.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jae-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of near-infrared radiation (NIR) heating combined with lactic acid (LA) sprays for inactivating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on almond and pine nut kernels and to elucidate the mechanisms of the lethal effect of the NIR-LA combined treatment. Also, the effect of the combination treatment on product quality was determined. Separately prepared S. Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and non-PT 30 S. Enteritidis cocktails were inoculated onto almond and pine nut kernels, respectively, followed by treatments with NIR or 2% LA spray alone, NIR with distilled water spray (NIR-DW), and NIR with 2% LA spray (NIR-LA). Although surface temperatures of nuts treated with NIR were higher than those subjected to NIR-DW or NIR-LA treatment, more S. Enteritidis survived after NIR treatment alone. The effectiveness of NIR-DW and NIR-LA was similar, but significantly more sublethally injured cells were recovered from NIR-DW-treated samples. We confirmed that the enhanced bactericidal effect of the NIR-LA combination may not be attributable to cell membrane damage per se. NIR heat treatment might allow S. Enteritidis cells to become permeable to applied LA solution. The NIR-LA treatment (5 min) did not significantly (P > 0.05) cause changes in the lipid peroxidation parameters, total phenolic contents, color values, moisture contents, and sensory attributes of nut kernels. Given the results of the present study, NIR-LA treatment may be a potential intervention for controlling food-borne pathogens on nut kernel products. PMID:25911473

  6. 21 CFR 118.8 - Testing methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Salmonella Web site is located at http://www.fda.gov/Food/ScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm114716.htm... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The FDA will request approval to incorporate by reference any... Edition, is located at...

  7. 21 CFR 118.8 - Testing methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Salmonella Web site is located at http://www.fda.gov/Food/ScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm114716.htm... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The FDA will request approval to incorporate by reference any... Edition, is located at...

  8. 21 CFR 118.8 - Testing methodology for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Salmonella Web site is located at http://www.fda.gov/Food/ScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm114716.htm... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The FDA will request approval to incorporate by reference any... Edition, is located at...

  9. Loxoribine pretreatment reduces Salmonella enteritidis organ invasion in 1-day-old chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young poultry exhibit a transient susceptibility to some infectious diseases, including Salmonella, during the first week of life that stems from immature innate and acquired defense mechanisms. Consequently, stimulation or modulation of the hosts’ natural immune response is emerging as an importan...

  10. Migration of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 through almond hulls and shells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of Salmonella to migrate from an external aqueous environment through the almond hull and shell, and to colonize the kernel, was evaluated in two ways. First, the outer surface of shell halves from five varieties of almonds that differed in shell hardness were placed in contact with a s...

  11. Estimate of Illnesses from Salmonella Enteritidis in Eggs, United States, 2000

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Alecia Larew; Schlosser, Wayne D.; Hogue, Allan T.; Angulo, Frederick J.; Rose, Jonathon S.; Ebel, Eric D.; Disney, W. Terry; Holt, Kristin G.; Goldman, David P.

    2005-01-01

    Results from our model suggest that eating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis–contaminated shell eggs caused 182,060 illnesses in the United States during 2000. Uncertainty about the estimate ranged from 81,535 (5th percentile) to 276,500 illnesses (95th percentile). Our model provides 1 approach for estimating foodborne illness and quantifying estimate uncertainty. PMID:15705332

  12. Salmonella infection and immune response in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and the immunological alterations that occur in Salmonella-carrier pigs, by longitudinally com...

  13. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 Outbreaks from a National Reference Laboratory’s Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Wuyts, Véronique; Denayer, Sarah; Roosens, Nancy H.C.; Mattheus, Wesley; Bertrand, Sophie; Marchal, Kathleen; Dierick, Katelijne; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In April and May 2014, two suspected egg-related outbreaks of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) were investigated by the Belgian National Reference Laboratory of Foodborne Outbreaks. Both the suspected food and human isolates being available, and this for both outbreaks, made these the ideal case study for a retrospective whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis with the goal to investigate the feasibility of this technology for outbreak investigation by a National Reference Laboratory or National Reference Centre without thorough bioinformatics expertise. Methods: The two outbreaks were originally investigated epidemiologically with a standard questionnaire and with serotyping, phage typing, multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing as classical microbiological methods. Retrospectively, WGS of six outbreak isolates was done on an Illumina HiSeq. Analysis of the WGS data was performed with currently available, user-friendly software and tools, namely CLC Genomics Workbench, the tools available on the server of the Center for Genomic Epidemiology and BLAST Ring Image Generator (BRIG). Results: To all collected human and food outbreak isolates, classical microbiological investigation assigned phage type PT4 (variant phage type PT4a for one human isolate) and MLVA profile 3-10-5-4-1, both of which are common for human isolates in Belgium. The WGS analysis confirmed the link between food and human isolates for each of the outbreaks and clearly discriminated between the two outbreaks occurring in a same time period, thereby suggesting a non-common source of contamination. Also, an additional plasmid carrying an antibiotic resistance gene was discovered in the human isolate with the variant phage type PT4a. Discussion: For the two investigated outbreaks occurring at geographically separated locations, the gold standard classical microbiological subtyping

  14. The effect of dietary fructooligosaccharide supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and immune responses in broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yue; Regassa, Alemu; Kim, Ji Hyuk; Kim, Woo Kyun

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation on growth performance, lymphoid organ weight, intestinal morphology, and immunological status in broilers (n=180) challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Birds were randomly assigned into a 3×2 factorial arrangement that included 1) 3 dietary treatments from d one to 21: positive control (PC), wheat-corn-soybean meal based diet contained antibiotics (virginiamycin and monensin); negative control (NC), as PC without antibiotics; and NC+FOS, as NC supplemented with 0.5% FOS, and 2) 2 intraperitoneal injections: 2 mg/kg Salmonella Enteritidis LPS or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) on d 21. Growth performance and relative lymphoid organ weight were not significantly different among the treatments. Villus height, crypt depth, and total mucosa thickness were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the ileum of broiler chickens fed NC+FOS when compared to PC and NC. Birds in NC+FOS treatment had reduced heterophil but increased monocyte count when compared to NC (P<0.05). Significant diet×challenge interaction was observed on natural IgY levels (P<0.0001), and a significant dietary effect was observed on specific IgY levels in chickens fed NC+FOS (P=0.003). Supplementation of FOS also increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß, -10, and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA in the ileum of the birds. In summary, Salmonella Enteritidis LPS challenge established significant differences in the immune responses in broiler chickens. FOS supplementation increased ileal mucosa thickness and elevated the expressions of certain cytokine genes. It also led to the alteration of leukocyte compositions and serum IgY levels in response to LPS challenge, suggesting FOS supplementation may be effective to induce protective outcomes in gut health and immunity of broiler chickens. PMID:26467012

  15. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis by Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. Essential Oil in Pineapple Juice.

    PubMed

    Leite, Caroline Junqueira Barcellos; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Medeiros, José Alberto da Costa; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) to provoke a 5-log CFU/ml (5-log) inactivation in a mixed composite of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) juice (4°C) was assessed. Moreover, the effects of CCEO on the physicochemical and sensory quality parameters of pineapple juice were evaluated. The MIC of CCEO was 5 μl/ml against the composite mix examined. For L. monocytogenes and E. coli inoculated in juice containing CCEO (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl/ml), a ≥5-log reduction was detected after 15 min of exposure. This same result was obtained for Salmonella Enteritidis incubated alone in pineapple juice containing CCEO at 5 and 2.5 μl/ml. Overall, Salmonella Enteritidis was the most tolerant and L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive to CCEO. The physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidic [citric acid per 100 g], and soluble solids) of pineapple juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) were maintained. Juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) exhibited similar scores for odor, appearance, and viscosity compared with juice without CCEO. However, unsatisfactory changes in taste and aftertaste were observed in juices containing CCEO. These results suggest that CCEO could be used as an alternative antimicrobial compound to ensure the safety of pineapple juice, although CCEO at the tested concentrations negatively impacted its taste. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the balance between microbial safety and taste acceptability of pineapple juice containing CCEO. PMID:26818981

  16. The StepOne real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of Salmonella sp., Salmonella enterica ser. typhimurium and enteritidis in milk and meat.

    PubMed

    Pochop, Jaroslav; Kačániová, Miroslava; Hleba, Lukáš; Lejková, Jadža; Fikselová, Martina; Kunová, Simona; Kluz, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow contamination of ready to eat milk and meat products with Salmonella spp. by using the StepOne real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Classical microbiological methods for detection of foodborne bacteria involve the use of pre-enrichment and/or specific enrichment, following isolation of bacteria in solid media and the final confirmation by biochemical and/or serological tests. We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and MicroSEQ® Salmonella spp. Detection Kit for pursuance of the real-time PCR (Applied Biosystems). In samples without incubation we detected strain of Salmonella sp. in 5 out of 25 samples (swabs), as well as in the internal positive control (IPC), which was positive in all samples. This StepOne real-time PCR assay is extremely useful for any laboratory equipped by real-time PCR. It is a fast, reproducible, simple, specific and sensitive way to detect nucleic acids, which could be used in clinical diagnostic tests in the future. Our results indicated that real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Salmonella spp. in ready-to-eat food. This could prevent infection caused by Salmonella, and also could benefit food manufacturing companies by extending their product's shelf-life as well as saving the cost of warehousing their food products while awaiting pathogen testing results. PMID:21879831

  17. Helicobacter and Salmonella Persistent Infection Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Monack, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    Some host-adapted bacterial pathogens are capable of causing persistent infections in humans. For example, Helicobacter pylori inhabits the human gastric mucosa and persistence can be lifelong. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes systemic infections that involve colonization of the reticuloendothelial system and some individuals become lifelong carriers. In this review, I compare and contrast the different lifestyles of Helicobacter and Salmonella within the host and the strategies they have evolved to persist in mammalian hosts. Persistently infected carriers serve as the reservoirs for these pathogens, and the carrier state is an essential feature that is required for survival of the bacteria within a restricted host population. Therefore, investigating the chronic carrier state should provide insight into bacterial survival strategies, as well as new therapeutic approaches for treatments. PMID:24296347

  18. Analysis of pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles using multiple enzymes for predicting potential source reservoirs for strains of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from humans.

    PubMed

    Son, Insook; Zheng, Jie; Keys, Christine E; Zhao, Shaohua; Meng, Jianghong; Brown, Eric W

    2013-06-01

    We reported previously on a highly discriminatory pulsed field gel electrophoresis-based (PFGE) subtyping scheme for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) that relies on combined cluster analysis of up to six restriction enzymes. This approach allowed for the high-resolution separation of numerous poultry-derived SE and ST isolates into several distinct clusters that sorted along several geographical and host-linked boundaries. In this study, 101 SE and 151 ST strains isolated from poultry, swine, beef, mouse, and produce origins were combined with 62 human SE and ST isolates of unknown sources. PFGE profiles were generated across six restriction enzymes (XbaI, BlnI, SpeI, SfiI, PacI, and NotI) for human SE and ST isolates. The combined six-enzyme UPGMA trees of SE and ST revealed six separate origins of North American human SE isolates including one association with a "cosmopolitan" cluster of SEs from poultry originating in Scotland, Mexico, and China. In the case of ST, human isolates assorted readily along host lines rather than geographical partitions with the majority of human STs clustering in a larger group of STs of potential porcine origin. Such observations may underscore the ecological importance of poultry and pork reservoirs for SE and ST transmission to humans, respectively. In an examination of the relationship between enzyme diversity and congruence among enzymes, pairwise genetic diversity ranged from 6.5% to 9.7% for SE isolates and, more widely, from 17.5% to 27.4% for ST isolates. Phylogenetic congruence measures singled out XbaI, BlnI, and SfiI as most concordant for SE while XbaI and SfiI were most concordant among ST strains. Thus, these data provide the first proof of principal for concatenated PFGE, when coupled with sufficient enzyme numbers and combinations, as one effective means for predicting geographical and food source reservoirs for human isolates of these two highly prevalent Salmonella

  19. Colonization of marker and field strains of Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in antibiotic treated and non-treated laying hen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of three trials, caged laying hens (76, 26, and 33 wk-of-age) were divided into 6 groups designated to receive either maker (nalidixic acid resistance) S. Enteritidis (SE-M), field S. Enteritidis (SE-F), or marker S. Typhimurium (ST-M), and half pretreated with vancomycin (VNC) (n=12). VNC t...

  20. Transcriptional changes of cytokines in rooster testis and epididymis during sexual maturation stages and Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, M; Michailidis, G

    2016-08-01

    Infection of rooster testis and epididymis by pathogens can lead to impaired fertility, resulting in economic losses in the poultry industry. Antimicrobial protection of rooster reproductive organs is, therefore, an important aspect of reproductive physiology. Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, caused by Salmonella bacteria including Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and is usually the result of infection of the reproductive organs. Thus, knowledge of the endogenous innate immune mechanisms of the rooster testis and epididymis is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for stimulating the immune response and inflammation in chickens to Salmonella infection. In the present study the expression profile of 11 pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in the rooster testis and epididymis in vivo and transcriptional changes in these organs during sexual maturation and SE infection were investigated. Gene expression analysis data revealed that in both testis and epididymis nine cytokines namely the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17 and IL-18 genes were expressed, while no mRNA transcripts were detected in both organs for IL-2 and IL-4. Furthermore, the expression of various cytokine genes during sexual maturation appeared to be developmentally regulated, while SE infection resulted in a significant up-regulation of IL-1β, -6, -12 and -18 genes in the testis and an increase in the mRNA relative abundance of IL-1β, -6, -12, -16 and -18 in the epididymis of SE-infected sexually mature 28-week-old roosters. These results suggest a cytokine-mediated immune response mechanism against Salmonella infection in the rooster reproductive tract. PMID:27289435

  1. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on retail raw poultry in six provinces and two National cities in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Yang, Baowei; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Zengfeng; Meng, Xiaofeng; Xi, Meili; Wang, Xin; Xia, Xiaodong; Shi, Xianming; Wang, Dapeng; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-04-01

    One hundred and twenty six Salmonella Enteritidis isolates recovered from 1152 retail raw poultries were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility test, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), presence of quinolone resistance (Qnr) associated genes, Class I integron, extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) encoding genes, and mutations in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of GyrA and ParC. Resistance was most frequently found to nalidixic acid (88.1%), followed by to tetracycline (65.9%), sulfisoxazole (65.1%), and ampicillin (61.9%), and a less extent to cefoxitin (8.7%), gatifloxacin (8.7%), levofloxacin (7.9%), ceftriaxone (7.1%), and ceftiofur (6.3%). One hundred and twenty three (98.4%) isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 93 (74.4%) to at least four antibiotics. aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB, qnrA and qnrS genes were detected in 15 (11.9%), 11 (8.7%), 6 (4.8%) and 1 (0.8%) isolates, respectively. Amino acid substitutions of Ser83Tyr, Asp87Asn, Asp87Tyr, Asp87Gly and Ser83Phe/Asp87Asn were detected in QRDR of GyrA, Arg80Ser was the unique mutation in ParC. Eight isolates were detected with amino acid substitution both in GyrA and ParC. Three isolates carried Class I integron that harboring dfrA17-aadA5, dhfR1-aadA1, and dfrA1, respectively. Five isolates were detected carrying bla(TEM)-bla(ACC) (n = 1), bla(TEM) (n = 1), bla(TEM)-bla(OxA) (n = 3), respectively. Genetic diversities (D = 0.9255) were found among isolates based on PFGE analysis. PMID:25475269

  2. A Weibull model to describe antimicrobial kinetics of oregano and lemongrass essential oils against Salmonella Enteritidis in ground beef during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; Soares, Rodrigo de Araújo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2013-03-01

    The antimicrobial effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in in vitro experiments, and inoculated in ground bovine meat during refrigerated storage (4±2 °C) for 6 days was evaluated. The Weibull model was tested to fit survival/inactivation bacterial curves (estimating of p and δ parameters). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for both EOs on S. Enteritidis was 3.90 μl/ml. The EO concentrations applied in the ground beef were 3.90, 7.80 and 15.60 μl/g, based on MIC levels and possible activity reduction by food constituents. Both evaluated EOs in all tested levels, showed antimicrobial effects, with microbial populations reducing (p≤0.05) along time storage. Evaluating fit-quality parameters (RSS and RSE) Weibull models are able to describe the inactivation curves of EOs against S. Enteritidis. The application of EOs in processed meats can be used to control pathogens during refrigerated shelf-life. PMID:23273476

  3. Optimisation of the formulation and of the technological process of egg-based products for the prevention of Salmonella enteritidis survival and growth.

    PubMed

    Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Vannini, Lucia; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gardini, Fausto

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the survival of Salmonella enteritidis after a pressure treatment in relation to compositive variables (NaCl content, pH), both in model and real systems, the latter consisting in an egg-based mayonnaise type product. Moreover, the fate of the surviving cells of S. enteritidis has been monitored during storage at 10 degrees C and the growth or death parameters have been calculated and modelled in relation to pH, NaCl concentration of the medium and entity of the pressure treatment applied. The modelling of the effects of the environmental factors on the treatment effectiveness indicated that the salt content and pH displayed a synergistic effect with pressure, whose extent was higher in the mayonnaise based products than in BHI. In fact, while in the model systems the cell recovery and growth during the subsequent incubation at 10 degrees C was allowed in many combinations of the Central Composite Design, in the real systems no recovery or growth of S. enteritidis were observed. This viability loss, which was maximum at pH 4.00 or 2% NaCl, could not be attributed merely to the interactions of such variables, but probably involves the naturally occurring antimicrobial enzymes of the raw material, whose activity can be enhanced by the pressure treatment. PMID:11934044

  4. Antimicrobial efficacy of zinc oxide quantum dots against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Jin, T; Sun, D; Su, J Y; Zhang, H; Sue, H-J

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) are nanoparticles of purified powdered ZnO. These were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The ZnO QDs were utilized as a powder, bound in a polystyrene film (ZnO-PS), or suspended in a polyvinylprolidone gel (ZnO-PVP). Bacteria cultures were inoculated into culture media or liquid egg white (LEW) and incubated at 22 degrees C. The inhibitory efficacies of ZnO QDs against 3 pathogens were concentration dependent and also related to type of application. The ZnO-PVP (3.2 mg ZnO/mL) treatment resulted in 5.3 log reduction of L. monocytogenes and 6.0 log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 in growth media after 48 h incubation, as compared to the controls. Listeria cells in the LEW control increased from 3.8 to 7.2 log CFU/mL during 8 d incubation, while the cells in the samples treated with 1.12 and 0.28 mg ZnO/mL were reduced to 1.4 and 3.0 log CFU/mL, respectively. After 8 d incubation, the cell populations of Salmonella in LEW in the presence of 1.12 and 0.28 mg ZnO/mL were reduced by 6.1 and 4.1 log CFU/mL over that of controls, respectively. ZnO powder and ZnO-PVP showed significant antimicrobial activities against all 3 pathogens in growth media and LEW. ZnO-PVP coating had less inhibitory effect than the direct addition of ZnO-PVP. No antimicrobial activities of ZnO-PS film were observed. This study suggested that the application of ZnO nanoparticles in food systems may be effective at inhibiting certain pathogens. PMID:19200107

  5. Colonization of a marker and field strain of Salmonella Enteritidis and a marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium in vancomycin pretreated and non-pretreated laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a vancomycin pre-treatment on the ability of marker (nalidixic acid-resistant) S. Enteritidis (SE-M), field S. Enteritidis (SE-F), and marker S. Typhimurium (ST-M) strains to colonize within the intestinal and reproductive tracts and translocate to...

  6. A Protocol to Infect Caenorhabditis elegans with Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiuli; Jia, Kailiang

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, C. elegans has emerged as an invertebrate organism to study interactions between hosts and pathogens, including the host defense against gram-negative bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. Salmonella establishes persistent infection in the intestine of C. elegans and results in early death of infected animals. A number of immunity mechanisms have been identified in C. elegans to defend against Salmonella infections. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation pathway, has been shown to limit the Salmonella replication in C. elegans and in mammals. Here, a protocol is described to infect C. elegans with Salmonella typhimurium, in which the worms are exposed to Salmonella for a limited time, similar to Salmonella infection in humans. Salmonella infection significantly shortens the lifespan of C. elegans. Using the essential autophagy gene bec-1 as an example, we combined this infection method with C. elegans RNAi feeding approach and showed this protocol can be used to examine the function of C. elegans host genes in defense against Salmonella infection. Since C. elegans whole genome RNAi libraries are available, this protocol makes it possible to comprehensively screen for C. elegans genes that protect against Salmonella and other intestinal pathogens using genome-wide RNAi libraries. PMID:24998902

  7. The adherence of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 to stainless steel: the importance of the air-liquid interface and nutrient availability.

    PubMed

    Giaouris, Efstathios D; Nychas, George-John E

    2006-12-01

    Biofilm formation on stainless steel by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 during growth in three different nutritious conditions was studied. The ability of micro-organisms to generate biofilms on the stainless steel surfaces was studied for a total period of 18 days at 20 degrees C, under three different experimental treatments: (i) growth medium (tryptone soy broth) was not refreshed (no further nutrients were provided) during the incubation period, (ii) growth medium was renewed every 2 days and (iii) growth medium was renewed every 2 days and at the same time the planktonic cells from the old medium were transferred to the new fresh medium. It was found that biofilms developed better and a higher number of adherent cells (ca. 10(7) cfu/cm(2)) were recovered when the organism was grown in periodically renewed nutrient medium than when the growth medium was not refreshed. Regardless of the availability of nutrients, biofilm development was better (range 2-3 logs greater) when coupons were not totally covered by the growth medium and part of the surface was exposed to the air-liquid interface, than when coupons were submerged in the medium. The results suggest that existence of air-liquid interface and adequate nutrient conditions provide the best environment for Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 biofilm formation on stainless steel. The possible role of stationary phase planktonic cells in biofilm development by sessile/attached microbial cells is also discussed. PMID:16943077

  8. Electrochemical deoxyribonucleic acid biosensor based on electrodeposited graphene and nickel oxide nanoparticle modified electrode for the detection of salmonella enteritidis gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Xiuli; Lu, Yongxi; Gong, Shixing; Qi, Xiaowei; Lei, Bingxin; Sun, Zhenfan; Li, Guangjiu

    2015-04-01

    In this paper a new electrochemical DNA biosensor was prepared by using graphene (GR) and nickel oxide (NiO) nanocomposite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) as the substrate electrode. GR and NiO nanoparticles were electrodeposited on the CILE surface step-by-step to get the nanocomposite. Due to the strong affinity of NiO with phosphate groups of ssDNA, oligonucleotide probe with a terminal 5'-phosphate group could be attached on the surface of NiO/GR/CILE, which could further hybridize with the target ssDNA sequence. Methylene blue (MB) was used as the electrochemical indicator for monitoring the hybridization reaction. Under the optimal conditions the reduction peak current of MB was proportional to the concentration of salmonella enteritidis gene sequence in the range from 1.0×10(-13) to 1.0×10(-6)molL(-1) with a detection limit as 3.12×10(-14)molL(-1). This electrochemical DNA sensor exhibited good discrimination ability to one-base and three-base mismatched ssDNA sequences, and the polymerase chain reaction amplification product of salmonella enteritidis gene sequences were further detected with satisfactory results. PMID:25686924

  9. The relationship between the immune response and susceptibilty to Salmonella infection in the laying hen, producing safe eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken eggs are one of the main sources of human salmonellosis, with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis the most frequent cause of human non-typhoid salmonellosis. Laying hens colonized with S. Enteritidis generally do not show clinical signs. The bacteria colonize and invade the intestinal ...

  10. Consumer-phase Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis risk assessment for egg-containing food products.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Amirhossein; Moore, Christina M; Yang, Hong; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Morales, Roberta; Cates, Sheryl C; Cowen, Peter

    2006-06-01

    We describe a one-dimensional probabilistic model of the role of domestic food handling behaviors on salmonellosis risk associated with the consumption of eggs and egg-containing foods. Six categories of egg-containing foods were defined based on the amount of egg contained in the food, whether eggs are pooled, and the degree of cooking practiced by consumers. We used bootstrap simulation to quantify uncertainty in risk estimates due to sampling error, and sensitivity analysis to identify key sources of variability and uncertainty in the model. Because of typical model characteristics such as nonlinearity, interaction between inputs, thresholds, and saturation points, Sobol's method, a novel sensitivity analysis approach, was used to identify key sources of variability. Based on the mean probability of illness, examples of foods from the food categories ranked from most to least risk of illness were: (1) home-made salad dressings/ice cream; (2) fried eggs/boiled eggs; (3) omelettes; and (4) baked foods/breads. For food categories that may include uncooked eggs (e.g., home-made salad dressings/ice cream), consumer handling conditions such as storage time and temperature after food preparation were the key sources of variability. In contrast, for food categories associated with undercooked eggs (e.g., fried/soft-boiled eggs), the initial level of Salmonella contamination and the log10 reduction due to cooking were the key sources of variability. Important sources of uncertainty varied with both the risk percentile and the food category under consideration. This work adds to previous risk assessments focused on egg production and storage practices, and provides a science-based approach to inform consumer risk communications regarding safe egg handling practices. PMID:16834632

  11. A mouse model of Salmonella typhi infection

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ramkumar; Oh, Hyunju; Zhang, Dekai; Park, Sung-Gyoo; Seo, Jin; Koblansky, Alicia; Hayden, Matthew S.; Ghosh, Sankar

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are gram-negative flagellated bacteria that can cause food and water-borne gastroenteritis and typhoid fever in humans. We now report that flagellin from Salmonella spp. is recognized in mouse intestine by Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11). Absence of TLR11 renders mice more susceptible to infection by S. typhimurium, with increased dissemination of the bacteria and enhanced lethality. Unlike S. typhimurium, S. typhi, a human obligatory pathogen that causes typhoid fever, is normally unable to infect mice. TLR11 is expressed in mice but not in humans, and remarkably, we find that tlr11−/− mice are efficiently infected with orally-administered S. typhi. We also find that tlr11−/− mice can be immunized against S. typhi. Therefore, tlr11−/− mice represent the first small animal model for the study of the immune response to S. typhi, and for the development of vaccines against this important human pathogen. PMID:23101627

  12. Nontyphoid salmonella infection: microbiology, clinical features, and antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Ming; Wang, Yue; Su, Lin-Hui; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2013-06-01

    Nontyphoid Salmonella is the most common bacterial pathogen causing gastrointestinal infection worldwide. Most nontyphoid Salmonella infection is limited to uncomplicated gastroenteritis that seldom requires antimicrobial treatment. Nevertheless, invasive infections, such as bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and meningitis, may occur and require antimicrobial therapy. Continuous genetic and genomic evolution in Salmonella leading to increased virulence and resistance to multiple drugs are of significant public health concern. Two major changes in the epidemiology of nontyphoid salmonellosis in Europe and in the USA occurred in the second half of the 20(th) century: the emergence of foodborne human infections caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteriditis and by multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. In the 21(st) century, a worsening situation is the increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in nontyphoid Salmonella. Clinical isolates showing carbapenem resistance also have been identified. Although antimicrobial therapy is usually not indicated for uncomplicated Salmonella gastroenteritis, recent studies indicated that a short-course ceftriaxone therapy (3-5 days) for patients with severe gastroenteritis would lead to a faster clinical recovery. Continuous surveillance of Salmonella in both humans and animals is mandatory. A better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella may help in the devising of better interventional strategies to reduce the spread of resistant Salmonella between humans and reservoirs along the food chain. PMID:23597525

  13. Experimental Salmonella Enterica Infection in Market-weight Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Market pigs infected with Salmonella pose a significant food safety risk by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in market-weight pigs (220-240 lbs.). Pigs (n=24) were individually inoculated (intranasally; 108 cfu/mL) with Salm...

  14. A label-free ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of viable Salmonella enteritidis using enzyme-induced cascade two-stage toehold strand-displacement-driven assembly of G-quadruplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Hui; Ma, Suzhen; Men, Shuai; Li, Qingzhou; Yang, Xin; Wang, Hongning; Zhang, Anyun

    2016-06-15

    The harm of Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis ) to public health mainly by contaminating fresh food and water emphasizes the urgent need for rapid detection techniques to help control the spread of the pathogen. In this assay, an newly designed capture probe complex that contained specific S. enteritidis-aptamer and hybridized signal target sequence was used for viable S. enteritidis recognition directly. In the presence of the target S. enteritidis, single-stranded target sequences were liberated and initiated the replication-cleavage reaction, producing numerous G-quadruplex structures with a linker on the 3'-end. And then, the sensing system took innovative advantage of quadratic linker-induced strand-displacement for the first time to release target sequence in succession, leading to the cyclic reuse of the target sequences and cascade signal amplification, thereby achieving the successive production of G-quadruplex structures. The fluorescent dye, N-Methyl mesoporphyrin IX, binded to these G-quadruplex structures and generated significantly enhanced fluorescent signals to achieve highly sensitive detection of S. enteritidis down to 60 CFU/mL with a linear range from 10(2) to 10(7)CFU/mL. By coupling the cascade two-stage target sequences-recyclable toehold strand-displacement with aptamer-based target recognition successfully, it is the first report on a novel non-label, modification-free and DNA extraction-free ultrasensitive fluorescence biosensor for detecting viable S. enteritidis directly, which can discriminate from dead S. enteritidis. PMID:26894984

  15. Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, and Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Piggott, Damani A.; Carroll, Karen C.; Lim, Michael; Melia, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and stroke are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with increased risk in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. We report a rare case of ischemic stroke associated with Salmonella enteritidis subdural empyema in an older HIV-infected patient with multimorbidity, despite surgery and treatment with susceptible antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27419176

  16. Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, and Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Damani A; Carroll, Karen C; Lim, Michael; Melia, Michael T

    2016-04-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and stroke are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with increased risk in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. We report a rare case of ischemic stroke associated with Salmonella enteritidis subdural empyema in an older HIV-infected patient with multimorbidity, despite surgery and treatment with susceptible antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27419176

  17. Invasive non-typhoidal salmonella infection with multifocal seeding in an immunocompetent host: an emerging disease in the developed world

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Rebecca Louise; Partridge, Rebecca; Venkatraman, Navin; Wiselka, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We report an immunocompetent 24-year-old man who presented with a severe, invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) infection. He presented with lumbar back pain associated with fever and rigours, which had been preceded by diarrhoea. Blood cultures grew Salmonella enteritidis. An MRI scan of his pelvis and spine showed that he had a small gluteal abscess and sacroiliitis. His condition subsequently deteriorated due to the development of a secondary pneumonia and respiratory failure. He was managed conservatively with 2 weeks of intravenous ceftriaxone, followed by 6 weeks of oral ciprofloxacin. Detailed investigations did not reveal any predisposing factors or evidence of an underlying immunodeficiency. Follow-up showed complete resolution of symptoms with no long-term sequelae. PMID:23370956

  18. Mucosal Inflammatory Response to Salmonella typhimurium Infection

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir; McCormick, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    The human intestinal epithelium consists of a single layer of epithelial cells that forms a barrier against food antigens and the resident microbiota within the lumen. This delicately balanced organ functions in a highly sophisticated manner to uphold the fidelity of the intestinal epithelium and to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms. On the luminal side, this barrier is fortified by a thick mucus layer, and on the serosal side exists the lamina propria containing a resident population of immune cells. Pathogens that are able to breach this barrier disrupt the healthy epithelial lining by interfering with the regulatory mechanisms that govern the normal balance of intestinal architecture and function. This disruption results in a coordinated innate immune response deployed to eliminate the intruder that includes the release of antimicrobial peptides, activation of pattern-recognition receptors, and recruitment of a variety of immune cells. In the case of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection, induction of an inflammatory response has been linked to its virulence mechanism, the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS secretes protein effectors that exploit the host’s cell biology to facilitate bacterial entry and intracellular survival, and to modulate the host immune response. As the role of the intestinal epithelium in initiating an immune response has been increasingly realized, this review will highlight recent research that details progress made in understanding mechanisms underlying the mucosal inflammatory response to Salmonella infection, and how such inflammatory responses impact pathogenic fitness of this organism. PMID:25071772

  19. Identification of a napin-like peptide from Eugenia malaccensis L. seeds with inhibitory activity toward Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    da Silva Dantas, Claudenise Caldas; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Cardoso, Juscélio Donizete; de Lima, Loiane Alves; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Migliolo, Ludovico; Dias, Simoni Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Magnani, Marciane

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to purify and characterize peptides from the seeds of Eugenia malaccensis, L. (jambo) with inhibitory activity against the foodborne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Enteritidis. Crude extract (CE), precipitate fraction 30-60 % and molecules between 3.5 and 10 kDa obtained from precipitate fraction 30-60 % (Em2) showed inhibitory activity against the tested bacterial strains. The highest antibacterial activity was observed for Em2 against S. aureus. The major peak eluted at approximately 30 % in an acetonitrile gradient in reverse-phase chromatography of Em2 (Em2-F1 to Em2-F19), and it showed the highest antibacterial activity, which was twofold higher against S. aureus than against S. Enteritidis. MALDI-ToF spectra of Em2-F18 revealed a molecular mass of 1,231.1 Da and the amino acid sequence showed high identity to the napin family. These findings report for the first time a napin-like peptide from E. malaccensis L. seeds with potential to be applied as a new anti-Staphylococcus molecule. PMID:25362256

  20. Effectiveness of a spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated broccoli and radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Micheli, Sean; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of fresh produce has continued to increase over the past decade. Sprouts, such as mung bean, alfalfa, radish, and broccoli, are minimally processed and have been sources for foodborne illness. Currently, a 20,000 ppm calcium hypochlorite soak is recommended for the treatment of sprouting seeds. In this study, the efficacy of an antimicrobial carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated sprouting seeds. Antimicrobial treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in nanoemulsions (4000 or 8000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. Following treatment, surviving cells were determined by performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens. Treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3 log CFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on radish seeds when soaked for 60 min at concentrations ≥4000 (0.4%) ppm carvacrol. This treatment method was not affective on contaminated broccoli seeds. Total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative treatment method for contaminated radish seeds. PMID:26187822

  1. IL-12 family members: differential kinetics of their TLR4-mediated induction by Salmonella enteritidis and the impact of IL-10 in bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Nicole; Schoeneberger, Sabine; Mueller, Uwe; Freudenberg, Marina A; Alber, Gottfried; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2005-05-01

    The members of the IL-12 family of heterodimeric cytokines play a pivotal role in initiation and regulation of cell-mediated immunity. Best known is IL-12p70, which promotes an immune response towards T(h)1 bias. Other members of this family (IL-23, IL-27) are less well characterized in terms of induction and function. Using either heat-killed or viable Salmonella Enteritidis or LPS as a stimulus, the kinetics of mRNA production of each member of the IL-12 family (p19, p28, p35, p40, Ebstein-Barr-Virus-induced gene 3 (EBI-3)) were determined in BMDMPhi originating from wild-type, Toll-like receptor (TLR)2- and/or TLR4-deficient mice. It was found that following either type of stimulation, a characteristic mRNA expression pattern was observed for each cytokine subunit. Whereas p19 was induced early and transiently, p40 and p35 were up-regulated later and then continuously, but the secretion of IL-23 and IL-12p70 was significantly reduced by IL-10. The up-regulation of p28 mRNA occurred also delayed and declined afterwards, whereas the initial high-level expression of EBI-3 remained almost unchanged in BMDMPhi. Furthermore, a splice variant of the EBI-3 mRNA was discovered. In this context, the cytokine mRNA up-regulation by whole Salmonella Enteritidis is mediated chiefly by TLR4, but depends on additional pattern recognition receptors other than TLR2 expressed by macrophages. PMID:15837713

  2. Salmonella Muenster infection in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Radke, Brian R; McFall, Margaret; Radostits, Steve M

    2002-06-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to provide information on animal and occupational health associated with the infection of a diary herd with Salmonella Muenster that would be useful in the management of dairy herds so infected. This retrospective, longitudinal report records a 2-year infection of a 140-cow dairy herd with S. Muenster, which was likely introduced by additions to the herd. Six cows aborted or had diarrhea due to salmonellosis in the last trimester of pregnancy. Additions to the herd and the presence of animals that had not received an Escherichia coli bacterin-toxoid were risk factors for salmonellosis. One neonate died, and 24 of 36 calves born between November 1998 and May 1999 had diarrhea by 1 mo of age. Initially, over 60% of the cows were fecal positive; within 6 months, all cows but I had become infected. The intermittent shedding of the organism and the eventual zero prevalence highlight the inappropriateness of extensive culling as an eradication strategy. Cultures of the bulk-tank milk filters were more sensitive than cultures of the bulk-tank milk samples at detecting S. Muenster. Two months after the index case, S. Muenster was cultured from the milk of 7.8% of the cows. Positive fecal or milk cultures were not associated with impaired health or production. The herd's milk was a zoonotic risk, but contact with infected animals was not. The organism spread easily between operations, likely via manure-contaminated clothing and footwear. PMID:12058570

  3. Persistence and growth of different Salmonella serovars on pre- and postharvest tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Shi, X; Namvar, A; Kostrzynska, M; Hora, R; Warriner, K

    2007-12-01

    The interaction of a range of Salmonella serovars with pre- and postharvest tomatoes was evaluated. Serovars were selected on the basis of previous association in tomato-linked outbreaks of salmonellosis (Salmonella Javiana, Salmonella Montevideo, and Salmonella Newport) or those typically isolated from animal or clinical infections (Salmonella Dublin, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Hadar, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Salmonella Senftenberg). Salmonella serovars introduced onto the flowers of growing plants were recovered on and within the developing tomato fruit. Of all the Salmonella serovars tested, Montevideo appeared to be more adapted to survival within tomatoes and was recovered from 90% of the fruit screened. All of the Salmonella serovars could persist and grow when introduced onto unripened (green) tomato fruit. In general, growth (internal and external) was promoted at the high incubation temperature (25 degrees C) and high relative humidity (95%), although this was serovar dependent. The growth and persistence of Salmonella introduced on and into ripened (red) tomatoes was serovar dependent. Salmonella serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium, and Dublin were less adapted to grow in or on intact red tomatoes than were serovars Hadar, Montevideo, or Newport. The results illustrated that a diverse range of Salmonella serovars can become established within and/or on preharvest tomatoes. The majority of Salmonella can grow and become established both on and within unripened tomatoes, but growth on ripened fruit was serovar dependent. The results provide a possible explanation why only a narrow range of Salmonella serovars are associated with foodborne illness outbreaks linked to tomatoes. PMID:18095423

  4. Assessment of attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains in controlling experimental Salmonella Typhimurium infection in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R.; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors. PMID:24396177

  5. Assessment of attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains in controlling experimental Salmonella Typhimurium infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors. PMID:24396177

  6. Salmonella serotype shift during an endemic dairy infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy farms are known reservoirs for Salmonella spp. and control of this organism is challenging. Salmonellae have been shown to be endemic in herds in part because they are easily spread between animals and throughout the farm environment. The impact of the infection on the herd is variable and dep...

  7. Assessing the potential impact of Salmonella vaccines in an endemically infected dairy herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella spp. in cattle are contributing to bacterial foodborne disease for humans. Reduction of Salmonella prevalence in herds is important to prevent human Salmonella infections. Typical control measures are culling of infectious animals, vaccination, and improved hygiene management. Vaccines ha...

  8. Thermal inactivation kinetics of heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in 10% salted liquid egg yolk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is presently not sufficient data nor is there a suitable model for predicting thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp for many types of liquid egg products, including salted liquid egg yolk, for use in updating pasteurization guidelines, in part because of the different Salmonella stra...

  9. Evolutionary trends associated with niche specialization as modeled by whole genome analysis of egg-contaminating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mosaic nature of the Salmonella enterica genome facilitates its access to multiple environments. Many large scale genomic events have been described that contribute to the combinatorial complexity of the pathogenic Salmonellae. However, the impact of small scale genetic change occurring at the ...

  10. Effectiveness of a novel spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Chang, Yuhua; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2014-09-18

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness from consumption of sprouts have been linked to contaminated seeds prior to germination. Due to the long sprouting period at ambient temperatures and high humidity, germinating seeds contaminated with low pathogen levels (0.1logCFU/g) can result in sprouts with high numbers (≥10(8)CFU/g) of pathogens. Currently, the recommended treatment method involves soaking seeds in 20,000ppm (2%) calcium hypochlorite prior to germination. In this study, an alternative treatment involving soaking seeds in a carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested for its efficacy against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds. The antimicrobial treatment was performed by soaking inoculated seed batches in the spontaneous nanoemulsion (4000 or 8000ppm) for 30 or 60min. The spontaneous nanoemulsion was formed by titrating the oil phase (carvacrol and medium chain triglycerides) and water-soluble surfactant (Tween 80®) into sodium citrate buffer. Following treatment, the numbers of surviving cells were determined by suspending the seeds in TSB and performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of the appropriate pathogen. This treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3logCFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on either seed types when soaked for either 30 or 60min at nanoemulsion concentrations corresponding to 4000 (0.4%) or 8000 (0.8%) ppm carvacrol. Inoculated alfalfa seeds treated with 4000ppm nanoemulsion, required a 60min treatment time to show a similar 2-3 log reduction. Complete inactivation was confirmed by germinating treated seeds and performing microbiological testing. Total sprout yield was not compromised by any of the tested treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative antimicrobial treatment method for

  11. Salmonella pneumonia complicated with encysted empyema in an immunocompromised youth: Case report and literature Review.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Nermin Kamal

    2016-01-01

    In this case report we described a Bahraini male patient of twenty years of age, a smoker and diagnosed with stage IV B Hodgkin lymphoma. He presented with fever, nonproductive cough, upper back pain and shortness of breath due to right upper lobe pneumonia with right encysted pleural effusion. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was isolated from the sputum. He was successfully treated with 2 weeks of ceftriaxone followed by 2 weeks of oral cefixime. This was the first case of encysted empyema caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis reported in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The different aspects of pulmonary Salmonella infections were discussed and the literature was reviewed. PMID:27131011

  12. Antimicrobial efficiency of essential oil and freeze-thaw treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Ser. Enteritidis in strawberry juice.

    PubMed

    Duan, J; Zhao, Y

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial efficiency of 3 essential oils (EOs), lemongrass, cinnamon leaf, and basil, and freeze-thaw treatment, alone or in combination, against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Ser. Enteritidis inoculated in strawberry juice stored at 7 degrees C. EO of lemongrass or cinnamon leaf at 0.1 to 2 microL/mL and freezing at -23 degrees C for 24 or 48 h followed by thawing at 7 degrees C for 4 h all showed significant antimicrobial activities (P < 0.05) against E. coli O157:H7 and S. Enteritidis in strawberry juice. The antimicrobial activity increased with increasing EO concentration and storage time, but extending freezing time from 24 to 48 h did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of freeze-thaw treatment (P > 0.05). EO of lemongrass or cinnamon leaf at 0.1 microL/mL and freeze-thaw treatment alone obtained a 5 log(10) reduction in the population of S. Enteritidis, while EOs at 0.1 to 0.3 microL/mL or freeze-thaw alone could not achieve a satisfactory protection against E. coli O157:H7 in strawberry juice. Combined EO and freeze-thaw treatment enhanced the overall antimicrobial effect against E. coli O157:H7, with adding EO before the freeze-thaw treatment showed a faster decontamination rate than when added EO after the freeze-thaw. EOs of lemongrass and cinnamon leaf at 0.1 or 0.3 microL/mL followed by the freeze-thawing resulted in a 5 log(10) reduction in E. coli O157:H7 on the 5th and 2nd day of storage, respectively. This study suggested that combined EO and freeze-thaw treatment may be a suitable and inexpensive method to eliminate microorganisms that can be a hazard for the consumers of unpasteurized berry juices. PMID:19397729

  13. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes during storage of fermented green table olives in brine.

    PubMed

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Lyra, Efstathia; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2013-10-01

    The survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes during the storage of fermented green table olives cv. Halkidiki in brine was studied in parallel with the evolution of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts and pH. The olives were previously fermented with a starter culture (a potential probiotic strain of Lactobacillus pentosus B281--starter process) or with the indigenous microbiota (control). After the end of fermentation, olives were placed in brine, inoculated with a cocktail of 5 strains of E. coli O157:H7, 5 strains of L. monocytogenes and 4 strains of S. Enteritidis, with a final concentration in the brine of ca. 7.0 log CFU/ml, and subsequently packaged in polyethylene pouches and stored at 20 °C. The population of E. coli O157:H7 reduced gradually and was detected in the brine until the 27th day of storage in both cases (i.e., starter and control process), and on olive fruits until the 19th and 16th days of storage in the starter and control process, respectively. S. Enteritidis population showed also a decrease and it was detected until the 21st day of storage in both brine and olive fruits in both cases. The population of L. monocytogenes declined during storage and it was detected until the 31st day of storage in both brine and olive fruits in both cases, showing a longer survival period in comparison to the other two studied pathogens. The presence of the potential probiotic starter did not affect the pathogen survival. The results demonstrated that even though the growth of the pathogenic strains was not supported, they may survive for a long period in a stressful environment of a fermented product with low pH value (4.2) and high salt concentration (6.0%). These results are a valuable contribution to risk assessment studies related to ready to eat foods in general. PMID:23764213

  14. Salmonella infection in a remote, isolated wild pig population.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Cowled, Brendan D; Galea, Francesca; Garner, M Graeme; Laffan, Shawn W; Marsh, Ian; Negus, Katherine; Sarre, Stephen D; Woolnough, Andrew P

    2013-03-23

    Although wild pig populations are known to sometimes be infected by Salmonella, the situation in Australia has received little attention and few population-based, planned studies have been conducted. Understanding the distribution of Salmonella infections within wild pig populations allows the potential hazard posed to co-grazing livestock to be assessed. We sampled a remote and isolated wild pig population in northwestern Australia. Faecal and mesenteric lymph node samples were collected from 651 wild pigs at 93 locations and cultured for Salmonella. The population sampled was typical of wild pig populations in tropical areas of Australia, and sampling occurred approximately halfway through the population's breeding season (38% of the 229 adult females were pregnant and 35% were lactating). Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella infection based on culture of 546 freshly collected faecal samples was 36.3% (95% CI 32.1-40.7%), and based on culture of mesenteric lymph nodes was 11.9% (95% CI, 9.4-15.0%). A total of 39 serovars (139 isolates) were identified--29 in faecal samples and 24 in lymph node samples--however neither Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium nor Salmonella Cholerasuis were isolated. There was a significant (p<0.0001) disagreement between faecal and lymph node samples with respect to Salmonella isolation, with isolation more likely from faecal samples. Prevalence differed between age classes, with piglets being less likely to be faecal-positive but more likely to be lymph node positive than adults. The distribution of faecal-positive pigs was spatially structured, with spatial clusters being identified. Study results suggest that this population of wild pigs is highly endemic for Salmonella, and that Salmonella is transmitted from older to younger pigs, perhaps associated with landscape features such as water features. This might have implications for infection of co-grazing livestock within this environment. PMID:23266110

  15. Gene expression analysis of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis NalR and Salmonella enterica Kentucky 3795 exposed to HCl and acetic acid in rich medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, serovar Kentucky has become one of the most frequently isolated Salmonella enterica serovars from chickens. The reasons for this prevalence are not well understood. Phenotypic comparisons of poultry Salmonella isolates belonging to various serovars demonstrated that serovar Ken...

  16. Development of classification models to detect salmonella enteritidis and salmonella typhimurium found in poultry carcass rinses by visible-near infrared hyperspectral imaging.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne disease outbreaks resulting from the consumption of contaminated food products in the United States. This paper reports the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and differentiating two of the most common Salmonella serotypes, Salmone...

  17. Penetration of Salmonella enteritidis and S. heidelberg strains into egg yolks during 36 hour ambient temperature storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Salmonella deposition inside yolks is uncommon in naturally contaminated eggs, migration through the vitelline membrane into the nutrient-rich yolk contents could enable rapid bacterial multiplication. Egg refrigeration restricts both penetration and growth, but a recently proposed national...

  18. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  19. [Protagonists of innate immunity during in Salmonella infections].

    PubMed

    Salez, Laurent; Malo, Danielle

    2004-12-01

    Salmonella are facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that are found ubiquitously in nature and have the ability to infect a wide range of hosts including humans, domesticated, wild mammals, and birds. The principal clinical manifestations associated with Salmonella infection in humans are enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) and a self-limiting gastroenteritis (salmonellosis). Additionally, silent carriage of this bacterium is frequent and contributes to disease dissemination. Typhoid fever still represents a major public health problem in many developing countries. On the other hand, industrialized countries experience an increased incidence of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections with most cases tracing back to food contamination. Studies using mouse model of infection with a highly virulent Salmonella typhimurium serotype have provided important insight into the complexity of the innate immune response to infection. The players are numerous but emphasis was placed on the genes that were discovered using genetic approaches and in vivo assay with live pathogen and include positional cloning of mouse mutations and manipulation of genes in the context of whole animal either by transgenesis or knockout technologies. Some of the critical genes include those known to play a role in the detection of the bacteria (Cd14, Lbp, Tlr4 and Tlr5) and in microbicidal activity (Slc11a1, Nos2, NADPH oxidase and cryptdins). These discoveries have already initiated the search for the contribution of particular genetic pathways in the innate immune response of humans to infection with Salmonella and other intracellular microorganisms. PMID:15581467

  20. Serological response of chickens to Salmonella thompson and Salmonella pullorum infections.

    PubMed

    Williams, J E; Whittemore, A D

    1979-01-01

    Chickens were experimentally infected with Salmonella thompson (serogroup C, paratyphoid) and Salmonella pullorum (serogroup D). Five serological methods and one cultural method were used in detecting the infections. The microantiglobulin test was superior to all other methods for detection of paratyphoid (S. THOMPSON) infection and was followed in efficacy by the microagglutination test, rapid serum plate test, cloacal swab culture, macroscopic tube agglutination test, and rapid whole-blood test, in that order. Birds infected with S. pullorum showed much higher agglutinin titers than the birds infected with paratyphoid. The microagglutination and microantiglobulin tests were not significantly different for detection of pullorum infection and were followed in efficacy by the rapid serum plate, macroscopic tube agglutination, rapid whole-blood, and cloacal swab culture tests, in that order. The cloacal swab culture test was totally inadequate for the detection of pullorum infection. PMID:429534

  1. A comparative study on invasion, survival, modulation of oxidative burst, and nitric oxide responses of macrophages (HD11), and systemic infection in chickens by prevalent poultry Salmonella serovars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry is a major reservoir for foodborne Salmonella serovars. Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Kentucky, and S. Senftenberg are the most prevalent serovars in poultry. Information concerning the interactions between different Salmonella species and host cells in poultry i...

  2. Salmonella typhimurium epidural empyema in an HIV-infected patient

    PubMed Central

    Hachfi, Wissem; Bellazreg, Foued; Ladib, Mohamed; Kaabia, Naoufel; Khalifa, Mabrouk; Krifa, Hedi; Letaief, Amel

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella focal intracranial infections are reported rarely. They tend to occur in immunocompromised patients. We present here a case of Salmonella typhimurium epidural empyema, with osteomyelitis of the adjacent frontal bone, in a 37-year-old human immunodeficiency virus positive man who presented with a three-day history of headache, fever, and sweats. He was treated successfully with antibiotics and surgical drainage. PMID:24470883

  3. Salmonella aberdeen infection in cattle associated with human sewage

    PubMed Central

    Bicknell, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Salmonella aberdeen was established as the cause of illness in 30 out of a herd of 90 milking cows. The illness was only moderately severe, and all animals responded to treatment. The source of infection was considered to be human sewage effluent overflowing onto grazing land. There was no report of human infection in the area from which the effluent came. PMID:4501833

  4. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 2012(1).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-04-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate. PMID:26982074

  5. "Salmonella arizona" Infections in Latinos Associated with Rattlesnake Folk Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Stephen H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Conducted a case-control study to determine the magnitude of the problem of Latino patients who ingested rattlesnake capsules and then developed serious "Salmonella arizona" infections. Eighty-two percent of infected Latinos in 1986-87 who were questioned reported ingesting snake capsules. Discusses the association of ingesting snake capsules with…

  6. A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis secreting detoxified heat labile toxin enhances mucosal immunity and confers protection against wild-type challenge in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lalsiamthara, Jonathan; Kamble, Nitin Machindra; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-01-01

    A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) capable of constitutively secreting detoxified double mutant Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (dmLT) was developed. The biologically adjuvanted strain was generated via transformation of a highly immunogenic SE JOL1087 with a plasmid encoding dmLT gene cassette; the resultant strain was designated JOL1641. A balanced-lethal host-vector system stably maintained the plasmid via auxotrophic host complementation with a plasmid encoded aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (asd) gene. Characterization by western blot assay revealed the dmLT subunit proteins in culture supernatants of JOL1641. For the investigation of adjuvanticity and protective efficacy, chickens were immunized via oral or intramuscular routes with PBS, JOL1087 and JOL1641. Birds immunized with JOL1641 showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in intestinal SIgA production at the 1(st) and 2(nd) weeks post-immunization via oral and intramuscular routes, respectively. Interestingly, while both strains showed significant splenic protection via intramuscular immunization, JOL1641 outperformed JOL1087 upon oral immunization. Oral immunization of birds with JOL1641 significantly reduced splenic bacterial counts. The reduction in bacterial counts may be correlated with an adjuvant effect of dmLT that increases SIgA secretion in the intestines of immunized birds. The inclusion of detoxified dmLT in the strain did not cause adverse reactions to birds, nor did it extend the period of bacterial fecal shedding. In conclusion, we report here that dmLT could be biologically incorporated in the secretion system of a live attenuated Salmonella-based vaccine, and that this construction is safe and could enhance mucosal immunity, and protect immunized birds against wild-type challenge. PMID:27262338

  7. Characterization of Seven Outbreaks of Hemorrhagic Hepatopathy Syndrome in Commercial Pullets Following the Administration of a Salmonella Enteritidis Bacterin in California.

    PubMed

    Carnaccini, S; Shivaprasad, H L; Cutler, G; Bland, M; Meng, X J; Kenney, S P; Bickford, A A; Cooper, G; Charlton, B; Sentíes-Cué, C G

    2016-03-01

    Between April 2013 and April 2015, seven flocks belonging to three different major commercial egg producers inCalifornia experienced a mild increase in mortality 2 to 3 wk after administration of Salmonella Enteritidis bacterins. Strains of chickens involved were H&N (flock A1, A2, B2, C1, C2, and C3) and Lohmann white (flock B1). Vaccination was administered individually through injection either in the breast muscles or subcutis in the legs between 11 and 18 wk of age in all flocks. Clinical signs ranged from inapparent to lameness, reluctance to walk, greenish diarrhea, and retching-like symptoms. The mortality ranged from 0.16% to 1.38% per week, with the highest peaks occurring usually 2 to 3 wk postvaccination, and then declined rapidly. Postmortem examinations revealed enlarged livers with disseminated hemorrhages and pale foci of necrosis. Also, severe extensive hemorrhages in the intestine, heart, and proventriculus were observed in a few birds. Various degrees of productive, exudative giant cell granulomatous myositis were observed invading deeply the muscles and subcutis at the site of vaccination. The myositis was always associated with optically empty vacuoles positive for neutral lipids by Oil Red O stain. Droplets of Oil Red O material were also noticed in the affected livers and intestines. Congo red stain highlighted the presence of amyloid in moderate to severe amounts in the breast muscles and moderate amounts in livers, spleens, and intestines. Salmonella antigens were detected in the injection sites and livers by immunohistochemical staining. No viruses or toxic substances were recovered from the liver, spleen, intestine, and pectoral muscles, and the few bacteria isolated were interpreted as secondary postmortem invaders. In addition, livers and bile tested for hepatitis E virus were negative by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. PMID:26953941

  8. Association of INOS, TRAIL, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and IgL genes with response to Salmonella enteritidis in poultry

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Several candidate genes were selected, based on their critical roles in the host's response to intracellular bacteria, to study the genetic control of the chicken response to Salmonella enteritidis (SE). The candidate genes were: inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS), tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2), transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3), and immunoglobulin G light chain (IgL). Responses to pathogenic SE colonization or to SE vaccination were measured in the Iowa Salmonella response resource population (ISRRP). Outbred broiler sires and three diverse, highly inbred dam lines produced 508 F1 progeny, which were evaluated as young chicks for either bacterial load isolated from spleen or cecum contents after pathogenic SE inoculation, or the circulating antibody level after SE vaccination. Fragments of each gene were sequenced from the founder lines of the resource population to identify genomic sequence variation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified, then PCR-RFLP techniques were developed to genotype the F1 resource population. Linear mixed models were used for statistical analyses. Because the inbred dam lines always contributed one copy of the same allele, the heterozygous sire allele effects could be assessed in the F1 generation. Association analyses revealed significant effects of the sire allele of TRAIL-StyI on the spleen (P < 0.07) and cecum (P < 0.0002) SE bacterial load. Significant effects (P < 0.04) were found on the cecum bacterial load for TGF-β3-BsrI. Varied and moderate association was found for SE vaccine antibody response for all genes. This is the first reported study on the association of SNP in INOS, TRAIL, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and IgL with the chicken response to SE. Identification of candidate genes to improve the immune response may be useful for marker-assisted selection to enhance disease resistance. PMID:12927083

  9. Salmonella infection and carriage in reptiles in a zoological collection.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Meredith M; Davis, Meghan; Valitutto, Marc T; Nelson, Kenrad; Sykes, John M

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify important subspecies and serovars of Salmonella enterica in a captive reptile population and clinically relevant risk factors for and signs of illness in Salmonella-positive reptiles. DESIGN Retrospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 11 crocodilians (4 samples), 78 snakes (91 samples), 59 lizards (57 samples), and 34 chelonians (23 samples) at the Bronx Zoo from 2000 through 2012. PROCEDURES Data pertaining to various types of biological samples obtained from reptiles with positive Salmonella culture results and the reptiles themselves were analyzed to determine period prevalence of and risk factors for various Salmonella-related outcomes. RESULTS Serovar distribution differences were identified for sample type, reptile phylogenetic family, and reptile origin and health. Salmonella enterica subsp enterica was the most common subspecies in Salmonella cultures (78/175 [45%]), identified across all reptilian taxa. Salmonella enterica subsp diarizonae was also common (42/175 [24%]) and was recovered almost exclusively from snakes (n = 33), many of which had been clinically ill (17). Clinically ill reptiles provided 37% (64) of Salmonella cultures. Factors associated with an increased risk of illness in reptiles with a positive culture result were carnivorous diet and prior confiscation. Snakes had a higher risk of illness than other reptile groups, whereas lizards had a lower risk. Bony changes, dermatitis, and anorexia were the most common clinical signs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided new information on Salmonella infection or carriage and associated clinical disease in reptiles. Associations identified between serovars or subspecies and reptile groups or clinical disease can guide management of Salmonella-positive captive reptiles. PMID:27074614

  10. Influence of polyclonal immunoglobulins on the polymorphonuclear leukocyte response to lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella enteritidis as measured with luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, D R; Heinrich, D

    1994-01-01

    In gram-negative sepsis, the activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the resulting production of superoxide and other oxygen radicals may be an important cause of tissue damage. A suppression of the PMN response to LPS stimulation would be therapeutically beneficial. The aim of this study was to determine whether different polyclonal immunoglobulins (Igs; 5S-Ig, 7S-Ig, and 19S-Ig) influence the PMN response to LPS of Salmonella enteritidis in vitro. The respiratory burst activity of PMN was measured with luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. After addition of a 5S-Ig solution containing F(ab')2 fragments of IgG and a 19S-Ig solution containing 12% polyclonal IgM, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence was reduced by 27% (P < 0.05) and 46% (P < 0.005), respectively. However, after addition of a 7S-Ig solution containing polyclonal IgG, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence was increased fourfold (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the influence of polyclonal Igs on PMN response to LPS stimulation is dependent on the Ig class, F(ab')2 fragments of IgG and IgM leading to LPS neutralization and IgG leading to the production of potentially toxic oxygen radicals. PMID:7927690

  11. Immunological, physiological and behavioral effects of Salmonella enterica carriage and shedding in experimentally infected finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. This study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and associated immunological, physiological, and behavioral alterations, by longitudinally ...

  12. The epidemiology of Salmonella dublin infection in a dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, G. H. K.; McPherson, E. A.; Laing, A. H.; Wooding, P.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes the epidemiologically relevant events that took place in a dairy herd infected by Salmonella dublin. The evidence presented indicates that it may be possible to eliminate infection from the farm and that residual infection or persistent excretion are uncommon. In two animals infection persisted, in one instance in the tonsil and in the other in the gall bladder. In this latter case the infection remained from the neonatal period until adulthood. It is possible that both these animals are relevant in a more general context and are indicative of the source of infection in outbreaks in which the origin of infection cannot be determined by more routine examinations. PMID:4602034

  13. Salmonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative non-spore forming rods belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonellosis is a zoonotic and foodborne illness that is usually transmitted by the fecal-oral route estimated to be responsible for 1.4 million cases of human infections in 2009 in...

  14. Immune reaction and survivability of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella infantis after infection of primary avian macrophages.

    PubMed

    Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages. PMID:25811871

  15. Immune Reaction and Survivability of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Infantis after Infection of Primary Avian Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages. PMID:25811871

  16. The commercial impact of pig Salmonella spp. infections in border-free markets during an economic recession

    PubMed Central

    Evangelopoulou, G.; Kritas, S.; Christodoulopoulos, G.; Burriel, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Salmonella, a group of important zoonotic pathogens, is having global economic and political importance. Its main political importance results from the pathogenicity of many of its serovars for man. Serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are currently the most frequently associated to foodborne infections, but they are not the only ones. Animal food products contaminated from subclinically infected animals are a risk to consumers. In border free markets, an example is the EU, these consumers at risk are international. This is why, economic competition could use the risk of consumer infection either to restrict or promote free border trade in animals and their products. Such use of public health threats increases during economic recessions in nations economically weak to effectively enforce surveillance. In free trade conditions, those unable to pay the costs of pathogen control are unable to effectively implement agreed regulations, centrally decided, but leaving their enforcement to individual states. Free trade of animal food products depends largely on the promotion of safety, included in “quality,” when traders target foreign markets. They will overtake eventually the markets of those ineffectively implementing agreed safety regulations, if their offered prices are also attractive for recession hit consumers. Nations unable to effectively enforce safety regulations become disadvantaged partners unequally competing with producers of economically robust states when it comes to public health. Thus, surveillance and control of pathogens like Salmonella are not only quantitative. They are also political issues upon which states base national trade decisions. Hence, the quantitative calculation of costs incurring from surveillance and control of animal salmonelloses, should not only include the cost for public health protection, but also the long term international economic and political costs for an individual state. These

  17. The commercial impact of pig Salmonella spp. infections in border-free markets during an economic recession.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulou, G; Kritas, S; Christodoulopoulos, G; Burriel, A R

    2015-03-01

    The genus Salmonella, a group of important zoonotic pathogens, is having global economic and political importance. Its main political importance results from the pathogenicity of many of its serovars for man. Serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are currently the most frequently associated to foodborne infections, but they are not the only ones. Animal food products contaminated from subclinically infected animals are a risk to consumers. In border free markets, an example is the EU, these consumers at risk are international. This is why, economic competition could use the risk of consumer infection either to restrict or promote free border trade in animals and their products. Such use of public health threats increases during economic recessions in nations economically weak to effectively enforce surveillance. In free trade conditions, those unable to pay the costs of pathogen control are unable to effectively implement agreed regulations, centrally decided, but leaving their enforcement to individual states. Free trade of animal food products depends largely on the promotion of safety, included in "quality," when traders target foreign markets. They will overtake eventually the markets of those ineffectively implementing agreed safety regulations, if their offered prices are also attractive for recession hit consumers. Nations unable to effectively enforce safety regulations become disadvantaged partners unequally competing with producers of economically robust states when it comes to public health. Thus, surveillance and control of pathogens like Salmonella are not only quantitative. They are also political issues upon which states base national trade decisions. Hence, the quantitative calculation of costs incurring from surveillance and control of animal salmonelloses, should not only include the cost for public health protection, but also the long term international economic and political costs for an individual state. These qualitative

  18. Propyl Paraben Sensitizes Heat-Resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienburg to Thermal Pasteurization in Liquid Egg Albumen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The USDA, Food Safety and Inspection Service requires that liquid egg albumen (or egg white, LEW) undergo pasteurization at 56.7 C for 3.5 min prior to distribution. This process is known change the physical properties of LEW. The use of antimicrobials to sensitize salmonellae to pa...

  19. Endovascular infection with Salmonella group C – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Arbune, Manuela; Ciobotaru, Roxana; Voinescu, Doina Carina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The risk of secondary endovascular infections after bacteremia with Salmonella spp. is augmented by preexisting atherosclerotic arterial lesions. Over the age of 50, the incidence varies between 25 and 35%. Case report A 57-year-old male, smoker, alcohol user, in poor social condition, was hospitalized for fever, malaise, left leg persistent thrombophlebitis, coxofemoral and back pain. His medical history was significant for recent sepsis with Salmonella group C, and a recent diagnosis of hepatitis C. During the antibiotic treatment, he complained of a left inguinal tumor, corresponding to a paravertebral image along the left psoas muscle identified by abdominal computed tomography. A paravertebral hematoma and an aneurysm of the left aortoiliac junction were repaired by surgery. The culture of the aneurysm was positive for Salmonella group C. Conclusion The differential diagnosis of lower limb persistent thrombophlebitis should consider the compression by abdominal aneurysm, consequent to a vascular complication from bacteremia with Salmonella spp. PMID:26405678

  20. Salmonella osteomyelitis of the thoracic spine: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Pandit, A; White, D G; Evans, P D

    2004-02-01

    A case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis due to Salmonella enteritidis phage type 2 in an immunocompetent patient is reported. The patient initially presented with abdominal, urinary and chest symptoms, which were followed by a large pleural effusion. The infection was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. This is the only case of salmonella thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient reported in the English literature. PMID:14970302

  1. Heterophil Phagocytic Activity Stimulated by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 and L55 Supplementation in Broilers with Salmonella Infection.

    PubMed

    Sornplang, Pairat; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Soikum, Chaiyaporn

    2015-11-01

    Newborn chicks are susceptible to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus probiotic isolated from chicken feces on heterophil phagocytosis in broiler chicks. A total of 150 newborn broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups (30 chicks per group) as follows: group 1 (normal control), given feed and water only, group 2 (positive control) given feed, water and SE infection, group 3 (L61 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 treatment, group 4 (L55 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L55 treatment, and group 5 given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L61 + L55 combination treatment. After SE infection, L. salivarius treatment lasted for 7 days. The results showed that L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 treatment, either alone or combination of both, increased the survival rate after SE infection, and upregulated heterophil phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI). Conversely, chick groups treated with Lactobacillus showed lower SE recovery rate from cecal tonsils than that of the positive control group. The PI values of the chicken group with SE infection, followed by the combination of L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 were the highest as compared to either positive control or normal control group. Two Lactobacillus strains supplementation group showed significantly (p<0.05) higher PI value at 48 h than 24 h after treatment. PMID:26580288

  2. Salmonella arizona infections in Latinos associated with rattlesnake folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Waterman, S H; Juarez, G; Carr, S J; Kilman, L

    1990-03-01

    In 1987 two Los Angeles County (California) hospitals reported four Latino patients with serious Salmonella arizona (Salmonella subgroup 3) infections who gave a medical history of taking rattlesnake capsules prior to illness. Capsules supplied by the patients or household members grew Salmonella arizona. We reviewed surveillance data for this Salmonella species and conducted a case-control study to determine the magnitude of this public health problem. Eighteen (82 percent) of the 22 Latino cases in 1986 and 1987 who were questioned reported ingesting snake capsules compared to two (8 percent) of 24 matched Latino controls with non-subgroup 3 salmonellosis or shigellosis (matched pair odds ratio = 18.0, CI = 4.2, 76.3). An average of 18 cases per year of Salmonella arizona were reported in the county between 1980 and 1987. In this investigation the majority of S. arizona cases reporting snake capsule ingestion had underlying illnesses such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), diabetes, arthritis, cancer. The capsules were obtained primarily from Tijuana, Mexico and from Los Angeles, California pharmacies in Latino neighborhoods. Despite publicity and attempts to remove the capsules from sale in California, Salmonella arizona cases associated with snake-capsule ingestion continue to occur. PMID:2305906

  3. Prevalence of salmonella infection in dogs in maiduguri, northeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13-24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3-6, 10-12, and 7-9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis. PMID:25404944

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella Infection in Dogs in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13–24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3–6, 10–12, and 7–9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis. PMID:25404944

  5. Isolation and characterization of Salmonella enterica in day-old ducklings in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Kamelia M; Marouf, Sherif H; Zolnikov, Tara R; AlAtfeehy, Nayerah

    2014-01-01

    Importing day-old ducklings (DOD) unknowingly infected with non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) may be associated with disease risk. Domestic and international trade may enhance this risk. Salmonella enterica serovars, their virulence genes combinations and antibiotic resistance, garner attention for their potentiality to contribute to the adverse health effects on populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of imported versus domestic DOD as potential carriers of NTS. The results confirm the prevalence of salmonellosis in imported ducklings was 18.5% (25/135), whereas only 12% (9/75) of cases were determined in the domestic ducklings. Fourteen serovars (Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella kisii, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella gaillac, Salmonella uno, Salmonella eingedi, Salmonella shubra, Salmonella bardo, Salmonella inganda, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella stanley, Salmonella virchow, Salmonella haifa, and Salmonella anatum) were isolated from the imported ducklings, whereas only S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium, S. virchow, and S. shubra were isolated from the domestic ducklings. The isolated Salmonella serovars were 100% susceptible to only colistin sulphate and 100% resistant to lincomycin. The 14 Salmonella serovars were screened for 11 virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, and bcfC) by PCR. The invA, sopB, and bcfC genes were detected in 100% of the Salmonella serovars; alternatively, the gipA gene was absent in all of the isolated Salmonella serovars. The 11 virulent genes were not detected in either of S. stanley or S. haifa serovars. The results confirm an association between antibiotic resistance and virulence of Salmonella in the DOD. This study confirms the need for a country adherence to strict public health and food safety regimes. PMID:24548159

  6. Salmonella induces prominent gene expression in the rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, Wendy; Keijer, Jaap; Kramer, Evelien; Roosing, Susanne; Vink, Carolien; Katan, Martijn B; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg MJ

    2007-01-01

    Background Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expression in vivo are largely unknown. We aimed to characterize time dependent Salmonella-induced changes of colonic mucosal gene expression in rats using whole genome microarrays. For this, rats were orally infected with Salmonella enteritidis to mimic a foodborne infection and colonic gene expression was determined at days 1, 3 and 6 post-infection (n = 8 rats per time-point). As fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) affect colonic physiology, we analyzed colonic mucosal gene expression of FOS-fed versus cellulose-fed rats infected with Salmonella in a separate experiment. Colonic mucosal samples were isolated at day 2 post-infection. Results Salmonella affected transport (e.g. Chloride channel calcium activated 6, H+/K+ transporting Atp-ase), antimicrobial defense (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Defensin 5 and phospholipase A2), inflammation (e.g. calprotectin), oxidative stress related genes (e.g. Dual oxidase 2 and Glutathione peroxidase 2) and Proteolysis (e.g. Ubiquitin D and Proteosome subunit beta type 9). Furthermore, Salmonella translocation increased serum IFNγ and many interferon-related genes in colonic mucosa. The gene most strongly induced by Salmonella infection was Pancreatitis Associated Protein (Pap), showing >100-fold induction at day 6 after oral infection. Results were confirmed by Q-PCR in individual rats. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary FOS was accompanied by enhancement of the Salmonella-induced mucosal processes, not by induction of other processes. Conclusion We conclude that the colon is a target tissue for Salmonella, considering the abundant changes in mucosal gene expression

  7. Group D Salmonella Urinary Tract Infection in an Immunocompetent Male

    PubMed Central

    Jehangir, Asad; Poudel, Dilli; Fareedy, Shoaib Bilal; Salman, Ahmed; Qureshi, Anam; Jehangir, Qasim

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old male with past medical history of benign prostatic hyperplasia presented to the emergency department with complaints of decreased urinary flow, inability to fully empty his bladder, and gross hematuria. Physical examination was unremarkable. Urinalysis revealed large amount of blood and more than 700 white blood cells suggesting a urinary tract infection. Urine culture grew group D Salmonella greater than 100,000 colony-forming units per mL. He was prescribed 6 weeks of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and had resolution of symptoms. Retrospectively, he reported a 3-day history of watery diarrhea about a week prior to onset of urinary symptoms that was presumed to be the hematogenous source in this case. Urinary tract infection from nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is rare and is usually associated with immunosuppression, chronic diseases, such as diabetes or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Genitourinary tract abnormalities previously reported in the literature that predispose to nontyphoidal Salmonella urinary tract infection include nephrolithiasis, chronic pyelonephritis, retrovesicular fistula, urethrorectal fistula, hydrocele, and post-TURP. We present an exceedingly uncommon case of 62-year-old male with group D Salmonella urinary tract infection predisposed by his history of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:25984372

  8. Visible/NIR spectroscopy for Identifying Salmonella Infected Broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visible/NIR spectroscopy has the potential to determine key wavelengths for bile detection on droppings. These wavelengths can be used for further development with hyperspectral and/or multispectral imaging methods for real-time monitoring broilers infected by Salmonella. From the preliminary test ...

  9. Detection and enumeration of Salmonella enteritidis in homemade ice cream associated with an outbreak: comparison of conventional and real-time PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Seo, K H; Valentin-Bon, I E; Brackett, R E

    2006-03-01

    Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a significant cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Consumption of undercooked eggs and egg-containing products has been the primary risk factor for the disease. The importance of the bacterial enumeration technique has been enormously stressed because of the quantitative risk analysis of SE in shell eggs. Traditional enumeration methods mainly depend on slow and tedious most-probable-number (MPN) methods. Therefore, specific, sensitive, and rapid methods for SE quantitation are needed to collect sufficient data for risk assessment and food safety policy development. We previously developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay for the direct detection and enumeration of SE and, in this study, applied it to naturally contaminated ice cream samples with and without enrichment. The detection limit of the real-time PCR assay was determined with artificially inoculated ice cream. When applied to the direct detection and quantification of SE in ice cream, the real-time PCR assay was as sensitive as the conventional plate count method in frequency of detection. However, populations of SE derived from real-time quantitative PCR were approximately 1 log higher than provided by MPN and CFU values obtained by conventional culture methods. The detection and enumeration of SE in naturally contaminated ice cream can be completed in 3 h by this real-time PCR method, whereas the cultural enrichment method requires 5 to 7 days. A commercial immunoassay for the specific detection of SE was also included in the study. The real-time PCR assay proved to be a valuable tool that may be useful to the food industry in monitoring its processes to improve product quality and safety. PMID:16541697

  10. Salmonella Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Symptoms Key Resource Enteritidis Infections Linked to Restaurant Chain A 2011 Outbreaks Typhimurium Infections Linked to Ground ... Pulp Hartford and Baildon Infections Associated with Restaurant Chain A I 4,[5],12:i:- Linked to ...

  11. Comparative Immunogenicity of Heat-Killed and Living Oral Salmonella Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Frank M.; Carter, Philip B.

    1972-01-01

    CD-1 mice were vaccinated intragastrically or intramuscularly with one or two doses of 200 μg of heat-killed Salmonella enteritidis 5694. Control mice were vaccinated with sublethal doses of living S. enteritidis Se795. The mice were challenged intragastrically with approximately 106S. enteritidis 5694 SMR 7 to 14 days later, and the growth of the challenge population in the liver, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, lungs, and intestine was measured quantitatively. Mice receiving two doses of heat-killed vaccine by mouth were able to delay the systemic emergence of a gastrically introduced salmonella infection by 1 to 2 days. The corresponding liver and spleen populations were slightly lower than those seen in the normal controls. On the other hand, mice receiving the living, attenuated vaccine (either intravenously or intragastrically) developed an effective anti-salmonella immunity against subsequent reinfection. PMID:4564282

  12. Prevalence of Salmonella in vegetables from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Santiago, Carolina; Rodas-Suárez, Oscar R; Carlos R, Vázquez; Fernández, Francisco J; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    The present study is an overview of the role of vegetables as a transmission vehicle of Salmonella in Mexico. One hundred samples of each of 17 different vegetables were analyzed during a period of 18 months. Salmonella was isolated from 98 samples. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from the highest percentage of samples with typeable Salmonella isolates (23.9%), followed by S. enterica subsp. arizonae and Salmonella Choleraesuis each from 16.9%, Salmonella Gallinarum from 11.1%, Salmonella Anatum and S. enterica subsp. houtenae each from 9.7%, Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Edinburg each from 4.22%, Salmonella Enteritidis and S. enterica subsp. salamae each from 2.81%, and Salmonella Bongor, Salmonella Pullorum, Salmonella Typhi, and Salmonella C1 flagellar b each from 1.4%. Of the isolated bacteria, 27.6% were nontypeable strains. Salmonella was isolated from 12% of parsley samples, 11% of cilantro samples, 9% of broccoli samples, 9% of cauliflower samples, 9% of "papaloquelite" (Porophyllum ruderale) samples, 9% of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) samples, 7% of long lettuce samples, 7% of spinach samples, 7% of watercress samples, 6% of Chinese parsley samples, 4% of beet samples, 3% of celery samples, 3% of Romaine lettuce samples, 1% of cabbage samples, and 1% of potato samples. The presence of Salmonella Typhi in parsley is noteworthy. No Salmonella isolates were obtained from zucchini and onion. These results indicate that raw or minimally processed vegetables can be contaminated with Salmonella, leading to direct infection of consumers or cross-contamination of other foodstuffs. These contaminated vegetables can represent a severe health risk for the Mexican consumer. PMID:19610340

  13. Salmonella typhimurium Invasion Induces Apoptosis in Infected Macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monack, Denise M.; Raupach, Barbel; Hromockyj, Alexander E.; Falkow, Stanley

    1996-09-01

    Invasive Salmonella typhimurium induces dramatic cytoskeletal changes on the membrane surface of mammalian epithelial cells and RAW264.7 macrophages as part of its entry mechanism. Noninvasive S. typhimurium strains are unable to induce this membrane ruffling. Invasive S. typhimurium strains invade RAW264.7 macrophages in 2 h with 7- to 10-fold higher levels than noninvasive strains. Invasive S. typhimurium and Salmonella typhi, independent of their ability to replicate intracellularly, are cytotoxic to RAW264.7 macrophages and, to a greater degree, to murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Here, we show that the macrophage cytotoxicity mediated by invasive Salmonella is apoptosis, as shown by nuclear morphology, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and host cell DNA fragmentation. S. typhimurium that enter cells causing ruffles but are mutant for subsequent intracellular replication also initiate host cell apoptosis. Mutant S. typhimurium that are incapable of inducing host cell membrane ruffling fail to induce apoptosis. The activation state of the macrophage plays a significant role in the response of macrophages to Salmonella invasion, perhaps indicating that the signal or receptor for initiating programmed cell death is upregulated in activated macrophages. The ability of Salmonella to promote apoptosis may be important for the initiation of infection, bacterial survival, and escape of the host immune response.

  14. Behavior, plasma cortisol, and immune cell populations of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine characteristics of pigs infected with Salmonella as compared with pigs not infected. Four-month old swine were either infected with Salmonella Typhimurum (n = 24) or served as non-infected controls (n = 15). All pigs were housed in individual pens (approximatel...

  15. Mouse hepatitis virus strain UAB infection enhances resistance to Salmonella typhimurium in mice by inducing suppression of bacterial growth.

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, M T; Benjamin, W H; Schoeb, T R; Briles, D E

    1991-01-01

    We have previously shown that intranasal infection of mice with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strain UAB (MHV-UAB) increases their resistance to Salmonella typhimurium injected intravenously 6 days later. To study how salmonella resistance was induced, BALB/cAnNCr mice were infected with salmonella strains carrying specific genetic alterations. One set of studies compared the effect of MHV infection on subsequent salmonella infections with AroA- (avirulent) and Aro+ (virulent) salmonellae. Unlike its effect on Aro+ salmonellae, MHV failed to reduce the number of AroA- salmonellae recovered from mice. Because AroA- S. typhimurium shows almost no growth in vivo, this failure indicated that the effect of MHV on salmonella resistance required growth of the infecting salmonellae. In other studies, the effect of MHV infection on both growth and killing were monitored simultaneously in mice with growing salmonellae carrying a single copy of the temperature-sensitive pHSG422 plasmid, which is unable to replicate in vivo. MHV infection reduced salmonella growth but caused no increase in salmonella killing. MHV infection of mice given wild-type salmonellae also resulted in no increase in salmonella killing 4 h after salmonella challenge. These studies demonstrate that MHV-UAB infection increases host resistance to salmonellae by enhancing suppression of bacterial growth instead of by increasing the amount of salmonella killing. PMID:1847697

  16. Interaction of T-2 toxin with Salmonella infections of chickens.

    PubMed

    Boonchuvit, B; Hamilton, P B; Burmeister, H R

    1975-09-01

    A significant (P less than 0.05) interaction resulting in increased mortality occurred in chickens fed T-2 toxin (16 mug./g. of diet) and infected with either Salmonella worthington, S. thompson, S. derby, or S. typhimurium var. copenhagen, all species that cause paratyphoid. No interaction on growth rate or relative size of the bursa of Fabricus occurred, although T-2 toxin alone caused a significant (P less than 0.05) regression of that organ. The spleen size relative to the body weight was decreased (P less than 0.05) by T-2 toxin and increased (P less than 0.05) by the Salmonella infections. Interactions were observed on spleen size between the toxin and S. thompson (P less than 0.05) and S. derby (P less than 0.10). Total serum proteins were not affected by T-2 toxin or Salmonella infections. Agglutinins were formed in response to the infections, but the titers were unaltered by T-2 toxin. PMID:1103111

  17. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:25999427

  18. Salmonella enterica Infections in the United States and Assessment of Coefficients of Variation: A Novel Approach to Identify Epidemiologic Characteristics of Individual Serotypes, 1996–2011

    PubMed Central

    Boore, Amy L.; Hoekstra, R. Michael; Iwamoto, Martha; Fields, Patricia I.; Bishop, Richard D.; Swerdlow, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite control efforts, salmonellosis continues to cause an estimated 1.2 million infections in the United States (US) annually. We describe the incidence of salmonellosis in the US and introduce a novel approach to examine the epidemiologic similarities and differences of individual serotypes. Methods Cases of salmonellosis in humans reported to the laboratory-based National Salmonella Surveillance System during 1996–2011 from US states were included. Coefficients of variation were used to describe distribution of incidence rates of common Salmonella serotypes by geographic region, age group and sex of patient, and month of sample isolation. Results During 1996–2011, more than 600,000 Salmonella isolates from humans were reported, with an average annual incidence of 13.1 cases/100,000 persons. The annual reported rate of Salmonella infections did not decrease during the study period. The top five most commonly reported serotypes, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, and Javiana, accounted for 62% of fully serotyped isolates. Coefficients of variation showed the most geographically concentrated serotypes were often clustered in Gulf Coast states and were also more frequently found to be increasing in incidence. Serotypes clustered in particular months, age groups, and sex were also identified and described. Conclusions Although overall incidence rates of Salmonella did not change over time, trends and epidemiological factors differed remarkably by serotype. A better understanding of Salmonella, facilitated by this comprehensive description of overall trends and unique characteristics of individual serotypes, will assist in responding to this disease and in planning and implementing prevention activities. PMID:26701276

  19. Salmonella-related urinary tract infection in an elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Klosterman, Scott Anthony

    2014-01-01

    An elderly female patient with an uncomplicated urinary tract infection from Salmonella newport is presented. Radiological and laboratory studies were performed because of her systemic and exposure risk factors as well as prior urinary tract abnormalities. While this patient was successfully treated as an outpatient with oral antibiotics, complications and recurrence are common and deserve close follow-up with repeat urine cultures at a minimum. Further laboratory and radiological testing should be guided by patient gender, risk factors and recurrence. PMID:25193813

  20. Low-oxygen tensions found in Salmonella-infected gut tissue boost Salmonella replication in macrophages by impairing antimicrobial activity and augmenting Salmonella virulence.

    PubMed

    Jennewein, Jonas; Matuszak, Jasmin; Walter, Steffi; Felmy, Boas; Gendera, Kathrin; Schatz, Valentin; Nowottny, Monika; Liebsch, Gregor; Hensel, Michael; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Gerlach, Roman G; Jantsch, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    In Salmonella infection, the Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 (SPI-2)-encoded type three secretion system (T3SS2) is of key importance for systemic disease and survival in host cells. For instance, in the streptomycin-pretreated mouse model SPI-2-dependent Salmonella replication in lamina propria CD11c(-)CXCR1(-) monocytic phagocytes/macrophages (MΦ) is required for the development of colitis. In addition, containment of intracellular Salmonella in the gut critically depends on the antimicrobial effects of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX), and possibly type 2 nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). For both antimicrobial enzyme complexes, oxygen is an essential substrate. However, the amount of available oxygen upon enteroinvasive Salmonella infection in the gut tissue and its impact on Salmonella-MΦ interactions was unknown. Therefore, we measured the gut tissue oxygen levels in a model of Salmonella enterocolitis using luminescence two-dimensional in vivo oxygen imaging. We found that gut tissue oxygen levels dropped from ∼78 Torr (∼11% O2) to values of ∼16 Torr (∼2% O2) during infection. Because in vivo virulence of Salmonella depends on the Salmonella survival in MΦ, Salmonella-MΦ interaction was analysed under such low oxygen values. These experiments revealed an increased intracellular replication and survival of wild-type and t3ss2 non-expressing Salmonella. These findings were paralleled by blunted nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reduced Salmonella ROS perception. In addition, hypoxia enhanced SPI-2 transcription and translocation of SPI-2-encoded virulence protein. Neither pharmacological blockade of PHOX and NOS2 nor impairment of T3SS2 virulence function alone mimicked the effect of hypoxia on Salmonella replication under normoxic conditions. However, if t3ss2 non-expressing Salmonella were used, hypoxia did not further enhance Salmonella recovery in a PHOX and NOS2-deficient situation. Hence, these data suggest that