These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Detection of Infectious Enteroviruses, Enterovirus Genomes, Somatic Coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis Phages in Treated Wastewater  

PubMed Central

In this study, three types of treated wastewater were tested for infectious enteroviruses, the enterovirus genome, somatic coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis phages. The aim of this work was to determine whether the presence of the two types of bacteriophages or of the enterovirus genome was a good indicator of infectious enterovirus contamination. The enterovirus genome was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Infectious enteroviruses were quantified by cell culturing (BGM cells), and the bacteriophages were quantified by plaque formation on the host bacterium (Escherichia coli or B. fragilis) in agar medium. Forty-eight samples of treated wastewater were analyzed. Sixteen samples had been subjected to a secondary treatment for 8 to 12 h (A), 16 had been subjected to a secondary treatment for 30 h (B1), and 16 had been subjected to both secondary and tertiary treatments (B2). The mean concentrations of somatic coliphages were 4.9 × 104 PFU · liter?1 for treatment line A, 9.8 × 103 PFU · liter?1 for B1, and 1.4 × 103 PFU · liter?1 for B2, with all the samples testing positive (100%). The mean concentrations of B. fragilis phages were 1.7 × 103 PFU · liter?1 for A (100% positive samples), 17 to 24 PFU · liter?1 for B1 (44% positive samples), and 0.8 to 13 PFU · liter?1 for B2 (6% positive samples). The mean concentrations of infectious enteroviruses were 4 most probable number of cytopathogenic units (MPNCU) · liter?1 for A (31% positive samples) and <1 MPNCU · liter?1 for B1 and B2 (0% positive samples). The percentages of samples testing positive for the enterovirus genome were 100% for A, 56% for B1, and 19% for B2. The percentages of samples testing positive for the enterovirus genome were significantly higher than those for infectious enteroviruses. This finding may have been due to the presence of noninfectious enteroviruses or to the presence of infectious enteroviruses that do not multiply in BGM cell cultures. However, under our experimental conditions, nondetection of the genome implies the absence of infectious viruses. There was a significant correlation between the concentration of somatic coliphages or B. fragilis phages and the presence of infectious enteroviruses or the presence of the enterovirus genome. However, the somatic coliphage concentration did not lead to fluctuations in the infectious enterovirus concentration, whereas the B. fragilis phage concentration did. PMID:9797281

Gantzer, C.; Maul, A.; Audic, J. M.; Schwartzbrod, L.

1998-01-01

2

Detection and Molecular Typing of Enteroviruses in Water Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the major health impact of enteroviruses, sensitive and reliable techniques for the detection and identification of this large group of closely related viruses are essential. To date enteroviruses have generally been isolated by cell culture propagation and typed by neutralization tests using specific antisera. Inoculation of newborn mice remains the most common procedure to distinguish between Coxsackie

JC Vivier; CG Clay; WOK Grabow

2000-01-01

3

Molecular Typing of Enteroviruses: Current Status and Future Requirements  

PubMed Central

Human enteroviruses have traditionally been typed according to neutralization serotype. This procedure is limited by the difficulty in culturing some enteroviruses, the availability of antisera for serotyping, and the cost and technical complexity of serotyping procedures. Furthermore, the impact of information derived from enterovirus serotyping is generally perceived to be low. Enteroviruses are now increasingly being detected by PCR rather than by culture. Classical typing methods will therefore no longer be possible in most instances. An alternative means of enterovirus typing, employing PCR in conjunction with molecular genetic techniques such as nucleotide sequencing or nucleic acid hybridization, would complement molecular diagnosis, may overcome some of the problems associated with serotyping, and would provide additional information regarding the epidemiology and biological properties of enteroviruses. We argue the case for developing a molecular typing system, discuss the genetic basis of such a system, review the literature describing attempts to identify or classify enteroviruses by molecular methods, and suggest ways in which the goal of molecular typing may be realized. PMID:9457433

Muir, Peter; Kämmerer, Ulrike; Korn, Klaus; Mulders, Mick N.; Pöyry, Tuija; Weissbrich, Benedikt; Kandolf, Reinhard; Cleator, Graham M.; van Loon, Anton M.

1998-01-01

4

Enterovirus type 70-neutralizing IgM in animal sera.  

PubMed

The neutralizing activity against human enterovirus type 70 was found in serum samples from normal cattle, horses, sheep, goats, swine and chickens raised in Japan. The frequency was variable depending upon animal species and the year of bleeding. The neutralizing activity in bovine sera was shown to reside in IgM by sucrose gradient centrifugation and immune gel electrophoresis. These findings suggested that the neutralizing substance in domestic animal sera is the antibody of IgM class elicited by unidentified viruses antigenically related to human enterovirus type 70. PMID:6287063

Sasagawa, A; Miyamura, K; Kono, R

1982-04-01

5

[Social and economic significance of enterovirus infection and its role in etiologic structure of infectious diseases in the world].  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses comprised by more than 100 serotypes, they spread everywhere and can cause wide spectrum of diseases as well as significant social and economic loss. Influenza-like illness and mild forms of enterovirus infection (herpangina, exanthema) are widespread and causes of significant number of visits in clinics. Economic cost of mild form of enterovirus infection is not high although great number of cases (10 - 15 mln cases yearly in USA) determines its important economic significance. Single cases and outbreaks of enterovirus aseptic meningitis occur less frequently but lead to significant economic burden due to hospitalization costs. Enteroviruses are also cause up to 30% of sepsis-like disease in newborns and play important role in infant morbidity and mortality. Potential of enteroviruses as a source of new diseases in humans has a special significance for practical healthcare. In XX century enteroviruses became a cause of pandemics of paralytic poliomyelitis, hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, and foot-and-mouth-like disease, which caused vast social and economic loss, and emergence of new forms of enterovirus infection is quite possible in XXI century. PMID:21061587

Lukashev, A N; Ivanova, O E; Khudiakova, L V

2010-01-01

6

Molecular typing and characterization of a new serotype of human enterovirus (EV-B111) identified in China.  

PubMed

Molecular methods, based on sequencing the region encoding the complete VP1 or P1 protein, have enabled the rapid identification of new enterovirus serotypes. In the present study, the complete genome of a newly discovered enterovirus serotype, strain Q0011/XZ/CHN/2000 (hereafter referred to as Q0011), was sequenced and analyzed. The virus, isolated from a stool sample from a patient with acute flaccid paralysis in the Tibet region of China in 2000, was characterized by amplicon sequencing and comparison to a GenBank database of enterovirus nucleotide sequences. The nucleotide sequence encoding the complete VP1 capsid protein is most closely related to the sequences of viruses within the species enterovirus B (EV-B), but is less than 72.1% identical to the homologous sequences of the recognized human enterovirus serotypes, with the greatest homology to EV-B101 and echovirus 32. Moreover, the deduced amino acid sequence of the complete VP1 region is less than 84.7% identical to those of the recognized serotypes, suggesting that the strain is a new serotype of enterovirus within EV-B. The virus was characterized as a new enterovirus type, named EV-B111, by the Picornaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Low positive rate and titer of neutralizing antibody against EV-B111 were found in the Tibet region of China. Nearly 50% of children ?5 years had no neutralizing antibody against EV-B111. So the extent of transmission and the exposure of the population to this new EV are very limited. This is the first identification of a new serotype of human enterovirus in China, and strain Q0011 was designated the prototype strain of EV-B111. PMID:24503225

Zhang, Yong; Hong, Mei; Sun, Qiang; Zhu, Shuangli; Tsewang; Li, Xiaolei; Yan, Dongmei; Wang, Dongyan; Xu, Wenbo

2014-04-01

7

Enterovirus 68 Overview  

MedlinePLUS

... be accessed by typing ‘cdc.gov/non-polio-enterovirus’ in most web browsers. While the website provides general information about non-polio enteroviruses, the section ‘States with lab-confirmed EV-D68 infection’ provides a state-by-state tracking of ...

8

Enteroviruses and the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes revisited: cross-reactivity of enterovirus capsid protein (VP1) antibodies with human mitochondrial proteins.  

PubMed

Current or recent enteroviral infections show an association with type 1 diabetes. However, evidence for this has mainly been generated using a particular mouse monoclonal antibody (clone 5-D8/1) which binds the viral capsid protein VP1. Difficulty in confirming these findings using other independent methods has led to the concern that this might be artefactual. To address this, we examined the potential cross-reactivity of clone 5-D8/1 with normal islet proteins. Western blotting, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry were used to identify human islet proteins bound by the clone 5-D8/1. We found a distinct reactivity with two mitochondrial proteins, creatine kinase B-type and ATP synthase beta subunit. Immunohistochemistry using the clone 5-D8/1 revealed a granular cytoplasmic staining pattern in mitochondria-rich cells, ie hepatocytes, ductal epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells, skeletal muscle cells, and the neoplastic salivary gland oncocytoma cells, whereas connective tissue and infiltrating immune cells were negative. Staining on islets of Langerhans from subjects with recent-onset type 1 diabetes, but not on isolated human islets infected in vitro with enteroviruses, could be blocked after mixing the clone 5-D8/1 with the mitochondrial proteins. Collectively, our data show that the clone 5-D8/1 detects two human mitochondrial enzymes in addition to enteroviral VP1. The notion that the previously reported VP1 positivity in islets of recent-onset type 1 diabetes patients could reflect cross-reactivity to native islet proteins and not the presence of EV is supported by difficulties in demonstrating EV infection by independent techniques such as PCR or in situ hybridization. These findings call for revisiting the presence of enteroviruses in pancreatic islets of patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23335350

Hansson, Sara F; Korsgren, Stella; Pontén, Fredrik; Korsgren, Olle

2013-04-01

9

Enterovirus infections with special reference to enterovirus 71.  

PubMed

The enteroviruses comprise a large group of immunologically distinct serotypes of viruses belonging to the family of Picornaviridae. Many enteroviruses cause diseases in human, but the infections are generally mild as asymptomatic, therefore, enteroviruses are considered to be unimportant as human pathogens. However, enteroviruses may also result in serious or even fatal disease (as shown in the enterovirus 71 (EV71) epidemic in Taiwan in 1998). There are three types of polioviruses, Coxsackievirus group A and group B viruses, and echoviruses group. All together a total of 67 types are available. Starting from enterovirus type 68 to 71, they are named as enterovirus types. Enterovirus type 72 is hepatitis A virus. Paralytic disease of poliomyelitis was recorded in ancient time but characterization of poliovirus was not reported until the turn of the 19th century that poliomyelitis was a viral disease. The major breakthrough for diagnosing and controlling of poliomyelitis was the discovery that poliovirus can be propagated in human embryonic tissues in cultures. As soon as cultures of human and monkey cells began to use for isolating polioviruses in stool specimen of patients, more unknown viruses were isolated which unlike polioviruses nor Coxsackie viruses; they were called "orphan" viruses or human enteric viruses, name later simplified to "echoviruses". Morphologically all enteroviruses are alike. They are small, ether insensitive viruses with an RNA genome. Their nucleic acid is single stranded, and the nucleocapsid has a cubic (icosahedral) symmetry, and is naked. The host ranges of enteroviruses vary greatly from one type to the next and even among strains of the same type. Polioviruses have a very restricted host range among laboratory animals. Virus isolation is the best method for diagnosis of enterovirus infection, but infection in the central nervous system (CNS) may be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Currently final identification and serotyping of enteroviruses are by indirect immunofluorescent tests using monoclonal antibody or by neutralization test using antiserum pools described by Lim and Benyesh-Melnick. The incidence and prevalence of diseases associated with the enterovirus infections are varied. The circulation of enteroviruses recently in Tainan and the epidemic of EV71 in Taiwan in 1998 are described in this review. Although poliovirus infection may be eradicated from the world due to the efficient vaccination program, there is no specific antiviral agents for either treatment or prevention for other enterovirus infections. In 1991, a new antiviral "pleconaril" which is a novel orally bioavailable and systematically acting small molecule inhibitor for picornaviruses. "Pleconaril" is currently in clinical trials for treatment of enterovirus meningitis and respiratory infections. PMID:10806956

Hsiung, G D; Wang, J R

2000-03-01

10

Enterovirus and herpesviridae family as etiologic agents of lymphomonocytary meningitis, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Viral meningitis is a common infectious disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that occurs worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify the etiologic agent of lymphomonocytary meningitis in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. During the period of July 2005 to December 2006, 460 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples with lymphomonocytary meningitis were analyzed by PCR methodologies. Fifty nine (12.8%) samples were positive. Enteroviruses was present in 49 (83%) samples and herpes virus family in 10 (17%), of these 6 (10%) herpes simplex virus, 1 (2%) Epstein Barr virus, 2 (3%) human herpes virus type 6 and 1 (2%) mixed infection of enterovirus and Epstein Barr virus. As conclusion enterovirus was the most frequent virus, with circulation during summer and was observed with higher frequency between 4 to 17 years of age. PCR methodology is an important method for rapid detection of RNA enterovirus and DNA herpesvirus in CSF. PMID:21755125

Vidal, Luine Rosele Renaud; Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro de; Messias-Reason, Iara José de; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Debur, Maria do Carmo; Pessa, Luís Felipe Cavalli; Pereira, Luciane Aparecida; Rotta, Indianara; Takahashi, Gislene Reche de Almeida; Silveira, Clyete Santos da; Araújo, Josianne Maria Reimann; Raboni, Sonia Mara

2011-06-01

11

Enterovirus 71 Protease 2Apro Targets MAVS to Inhibit Anti-Viral Type I Interferon Responses  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Its pathogenicity is not fully understood, but innate immune evasion is likely a key factor. Strategies to circumvent the initiation and effector phases of anti-viral innate immunity are well known; less well known is whether EV71 evades the signal transduction phase regulated by a sophisticated interplay of cellular and viral proteins. Here, we show that EV71 inhibits anti-viral type I interferon (IFN) responses by targeting the mitochondrial anti-viral signaling (MAVS) protein—a unique adaptor molecule activated upon retinoic acid induced gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene (MDA-5) viral recognition receptor signaling—upstream of type I interferon production. MAVS was cleaved and released from mitochondria during EV71 infection. An in vitro cleavage assay demonstrated that the viral 2A protease (2Apro), but not the mutant 2Apro (2Apro-110) containing an inactivated catalytic site, cleaved MAVS. The Protease-Glo assay revealed that MAVS was cleaved at 3 residues between the proline-rich and transmembrane domains, and the resulting fragmentation effectively inactivated downstream signaling. In addition to MAVS cleavage, we found that EV71 infection also induced morphologic and functional changes to the mitochondria. The EV71 structural protein VP1 was detected on purified mitochondria, suggesting not only a novel role for mitochondria in the EV71 replication cycle but also an explanation of how EV71-derived 2Apro could approach MAVS. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel strategy employed by EV71 to escape host anti-viral innate immunity that complements the known EV71-mediated immune-evasion mechanisms. PMID:23555247

Wang, Bei; Xi, Xueyan; Lei, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Cui, Sheng; Wang, Jianwei; Jin, Qi; Zhao, Zhendong

2013-01-01

12

Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: the innate immune response to enteroviruses and its possible role in regulating type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES Metabolic diseases, host responses, cancer, autoinflammatory diseases, allergy. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease arising as a consequence of a misdirected T cell response to the pancreatic beta cell. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the innate immune system as a regulator of disease development. Genome-wide association studies have identified diabetes-associated polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins with functions related to the innate immune response. Moreover, enteroviruses, known to activate a strong innate immune response, have been implicated in the disease pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the innate immune response elicited by enteroviruses and how this response may regulate T1D development. PMID:22385234

Lind, K; Huhn, M H; Flodstrom-Tullberg, M

2012-01-01

13

Sapronosis: a distinctive type of infectious agent.  

PubMed

Sapronotic disease agents have evolutionary and epidemiological properties unlike other infectious organisms. Their essential saprophagic existence prevents coevolution, and no host-parasite virulence trade-off can evolve. However, the host may evolve defenses. Models of pathogens show that sapronoses, lacking a threshold of transmission, cannot regulate host populations, although they can reduce host abundance and even extirpate their hosts. Immunocompromised hosts are relatively susceptible to sapronoses. Some particularly important sapronoses, such as cholera and anthrax, can sustain an epidemic in a host population. However, these microbes ultimately persist as saprophages. One-third of human infectious disease agents are sapronotic, including nearly all fungal diseases. Recognition that an infectious disease is sapronotic illuminates a need for effective environmental control strategies. PMID:25028088

Kuris, Armand M; Lafferty, Kevin D; Sokolow, Susanne H

2014-08-01

14

Complete Genome Characterization of a Novel Enterovirus Type EV-B106 Isolated in China, 2012  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus B106 (EV-B106) is a recently identified member of enterovirus species B. In this study, we report the complete genomic characterization of an EV-B106 strain (148/YN/CHN/12) isolated from an acute flaccid paralysis patient in Yunnan Province, China. The new strain had 79.2–81.3% nucleotide and 89.1–94.8% amino acid similarity in the VP1 region with the other two EV-B106 strains from Bolivia and Pakistan. When compared with other EV serotypes, it had the highest (73.3%) VP1 nucleotide similarity with the EV-B77 prototype strain CF496-99. However, when aligned with all EV-B106 and EV-B77 sequences available from the GenBank database, two major frame shifts were observed in the VP1 coding region, which resulted in substantial (20.5%) VP1 amino acid divergence between the two serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and similarity plot analysis revealed multiple recombination events in the genome of this strain. This is the first report of the complete genome of EV-B106. PMID:24584702

Tang, Jingjing; Tao, Zexin; Ding, Zhengrong; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Bingjun; Zhao, Zhixian; Zhang, Lifen; Xu, Wenbo

2014-01-01

15

The Evolution of Vp1 Gene in Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group That Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99  

PubMed Central

Genus Enterovirus (Family Picornaviridae,) consists of twelve species divided into genetically diverse types by their capsid protein VP1 coding sequences. Each enterovirus type can further be divided into intra-typic sub-clusters (genotypes). The aim of this study was to elucidate what leads to the emergence of novel enterovirus clades (types and genotypes). An evolutionary analysis was conducted for a sub-group of Enterovirus C species that contains types Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA-21), CVA-24, Enterovirus C95 (EV-C95), EV-C96 and EV-C99. VP1 gene datasets were collected and analysed to infer the phylogeny, rate of evolution, nucleotide and amino acid substitution patterns and signs of selection. In VP1 coding gene, high intra-typic sequence diversities and robust grouping into distinct genotypes within each type were detected. Within each type the majority of nucleotide substitutions were synonymous and the non-synonymous substitutions tended to cluster in distinct highly polymorphic sites. Signs of positive selection were detected in some of these highly polymorphic sites, while strong negative selection was indicated in most of the codons. Despite robust clustering to intra-typic genotypes, only few genotype-specific ‘signature’ amino acids were detected. In contrast, when different enterovirus types were compared, there was a clear tendency towards fixation of type-specific ‘signature’ amino acids. The results suggest that permanent fixation of type-specific amino acids is a hallmark associated with evolution of different enterovirus types, whereas neutral evolution and/or (frequency-dependent) positive selection in few highly polymorphic amino acid sites are the dominant forms of evolution when strains within an enterovirus type are compared. PMID:24695547

Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ivanova, Olga; Samoilovich, Elena; Al-Hello, Haider; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

2014-01-01

16

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Disease Pathology: SS16-1 UNDERSTANDING ENTEROVIRUS 71 INFECTION AND NEUROPATHOGENESIS: PERSPECTIVE FROM HUMAN AND ANIMAL MODEL STUDIES.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) (family Picornaviridae, genus Human Enterovirus A) causes the relatively mild hand, foot and mouth disease in children. However, rare complications including meningitis, acute transverse myelitis, flaccid paralysis and encephalomyelitis may occur. Recently, many EV71 outbreaks with significant mortality in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond have posed serious public health concerns worldwide. Fatal encephalomyelitis is mainly the result of severe inflammation and neuronal damage in the brainstem, spinal cord and other parts of the brain. Medullary involvement is believed to result in neurogenic pulmonary oedema and sudden collapse typically found in fatal cases. A recent study has demonstrated viral replication in tonsillar crypt epithelium, suggesting that tonsil may be a portal for viral entry into the body. Presumably this is followed by viral replication in other sites (e.g. skin) and/or viraemia, leading to neuroinvasion possibly by a retrograde peripheral motor nerve route. There is also increasing evidence that the SCARB2 receptor may be an important receptor for human EV71 infection. A possible hypothesis for viral transmission into the body leading to CNS infection will be discussed. The value of human material and animal models to study viral infections in general and EV71 infection in particular is emphasized. PMID:25188114

Wong, Kum Thong; ONg, Kien Chai

2014-10-01

17

Recombination in the Evolution of Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group that Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99  

PubMed Central

Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus). However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C) species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A–C). In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5?UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses. PMID:24722726

Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ivanova, Olga; Samoilovich, Elena; Al-Hello, Haider; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

2014-01-01

18

Molecular characterization of enteroviruses including a new type EV-C99 isolated from Xinjiang students in Shandong, China in 2011.  

PubMed

The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994. In 2011, a poliomyelitis outbreak caused by imported wide-type poliovirus occurred in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Here, we report the results of enterovirus (EV) isolation from Xinjiang students that returned to school in Shandong after summer vacation during this outbreak. Stool specimens from 376 students were collected and 10?EV strains were isolated including 4 polioviruses (All Sabin strains), 1 coxsackievirus (CV) A13, 3 CVA17 and 2 EV-C99. VP1 sequence analysis revealed these CVA13, CVA17 and EV-C99 strains had 71.3-81.8%, 76.5-84.6% and 74.2-82.9% nucleotide similarity with strains from other countries within a serotype, respectively. EV-C99 strains had 82.7-92.8% VP1 similarity with two previously reported Xinjiang strains. Complete genome analysis on EV-C99 strains revealed intra-serotypic genetic recombination events. These findings reflect great genetic divergence between Chinese strains and strains from other countries of the three types, and provide valuable information on monitoring EV transmission over long distance. PMID:25298041

Tao, Zexin; Yuan, Qun; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Suting; Liu, Yao; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Cui, Ning; Song, Lizhi; Wang, Mei; Xu, Aiqiang

2014-01-01

19

Molecular Characterization of Enteroviruses Including a New Type EV-C99 Isolated from Xinjiang Students in Shandong, China in 2011  

PubMed Central

The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994. In 2011, a poliomyelitis outbreak caused by imported wide-type poliovirus occurred in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Here, we report the results of enterovirus (EV) isolation from Xinjiang students that returned to school in Shandong after summer vacation during this outbreak. Stool specimens from 376 students were collected and 10?EV strains were isolated including 4 polioviruses (All Sabin strains), 1 coxsackievirus (CV) A13, 3 CVA17 and 2 EV-C99. VP1 sequence analysis revealed these CVA13, CVA17 and EV-C99 strains had 71.3–81.8%, 76.5–84.6% and 74.2–82.9% nucleotide similarity with strains from other countries within a serotype, respectively. EV-C99 strains had 82.7–92.8% VP1 similarity with two previously reported Xinjiang strains. Complete genome analysis on EV-C99 strains revealed intra-serotypic genetic recombination events. These findings reflect great genetic divergence between Chinese strains and strains from other countries of the three types, and provide valuable information on monitoring EV transmission over long distance. PMID:25298041

Tao, Zexin; Yuan, Qun; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Suting; Liu, Yao; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Cui, Ning; Song, Lizhi; Wang, Mei; Xu, Aiqiang

2014-01-01

20

Detection of Astroviruses, Enteroviruses, and Adenovirus Types 40 and 41 in Surface Waters Collected and Evaluated by the Information Collection Rule and an Integrated Cell Culture-Nested PCR Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the use of an integrated cell culture-reverse transcription-PCR (ICC-RT-PCR) procedure coupled with nested PCR to detect human astroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenovirus types 40 and 41 in surface water samples that were collected and evaluated by using the Information Collection Rule (ICR) method. The results obtained with the ICC-RT-PCR-nested PCR method were compared to the results obtained with the

CHRISTOPHER D. CHAPRON; NICOLA A. BALLESTER; JUSTIN H. FONTAINE; CHRISTINE N. FRADES; AARON B. MARGOLIN

2000-01-01

21

Discovery of a Bovine Enterovirus in Alpaca  

PubMed Central

A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen. PMID:23950875

McClenahan, Shasta D.; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L.; Krause, Philip R.; Uhlenhaut, Christine

2013-01-01

22

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

23

Detection and rapid differentiation of human enteroviruses in water sources by restriction enzyme analysis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the application and efficiency of molecular techniques for the detection and serotyping of enteroviruses from environmental water samples. Samples of water were collected at regular intervals upstream and downstream of an informal settlement. Techniques for the detection of enteroviruses included a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), nested PCR (n-PCR) and Sabin-specific triplex PCR. A specific 297 bp fragment was amplified by the n-PCR and subjected to restriction enzyme (RE) analysis to differentiate between various serotypes of prototypical enteroviruses. Enteroviruses that gave inconclusive restriction patterns were typed by partial sequencing of the VP1 region. Results indicated a high incidence of enteroviruses, predominantly coxsackie B viruses. The results on polioviruses, as well as other enteroviruses, contributed valuable information on enteroviruses circulating in the community. The molecular approach described here proved suitable for the rapid, sensitive, specific and cost effective, simultaneous detection and typing of enteroviruses in water. PMID:11464758

Vivier, J C; Clay, C G; Grabow, W O

2001-01-01

24

Laboratory production in vivo of infectious human papillomavirus type 11  

SciTech Connect

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) induce among patients natural lesions which produce small amounts of virus. Infection of human cell cultures does not lead to the multiplication of virus, which also does not replicate in experimental animals. The authors have developed a unique system for the laboratory production of HPV type 11 (HPV-11). Fragments of human neonatal foreskin were infected with an extract of naturally occurring human vulvar condylomata and grafted beneath the renal capsule of athymic mice. Later (3 to 5 months), condylomatous cysts developed from those grafts. Nuclei of koilocytotic cells contained large amounts of capsid antigen and intranuclear virions. The experimentally induced condylomata were homogenized, and the virions were extracted and used to infect another generation of human foreskin grafts in athymic mice. The HPV-11 DNA content and infectivity of the natural and experimental condylomata were similar. Extracts of experimental condylomata were subjected to differential ultracentrifugation and sedimentation in CsCl density gradients. A single, opalescent band was visible at a density of 1.34 g/ml. It contained HPV virions with HPV-11 DNA. This report is the first demonstration of the laboratory production of an HPV.

Kreider, J.W.; Howett, M.K.; Leure-Dupree, A.E.; Zaino, R.J.; Weber, J.A.

1987-02-01

25

Comparison of human parechovirus and enterovirus detection frequencies in cerebrospinal fluid samples collected over a 5-year period in edinburgh: HPeV type 3 identified as the most common picornavirus type.  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses (EVs) and more recently parechoviruses (HPeVs) have been identified as the principal viral causes of neonatal sepsis-like disease and meningitis. The relative frequencies of specific EV and HPeV types were determined over a 5-year surveillance period using highly sensitive EV and HPeV PCR assays for screening 4,168 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens collected from hospitalized individuals between 2005 and 2010 in Edinburgh. Positive CSF samples were typed by sequencing of VP1. From the 201 EV and 31 HPeV positive (uncultured) CSF samples on screening, a high proportion of available samples could be directly typed (176/182, 97%). Highest frequencies of EV infections occurred in young adults (n = 43; 8.6%) although a remarkably high proportion of positive samples (n = 98; 46%) were obtained from young infants (<3 months). HPeV infections were seen exclusively in children under the age of 3 months (31/1,105; 2.8%), and confined to spring on even-numbered years (22% in March 2006, 25% in April 2008, and 22% in March 2010). In contrast, EV infections were distributed widely across the years. Twenty different EV serotypes were detected; E9, E6, and CAV9 being found most frequently, whereas all but one HPeVs were type 3. Over this period, HPeV3 was identified as the most prevalent picornavirus type in CNS-related infections with similarly high incidences of EV infection frequencies in very young children. The highly sensitive virus typing methods applied in this study will assist further EV and HPeV screening of sepsis and meningitis cases as well as in future molecular epidemiological studies and population surveillance. PMID:21412796

Harvala, Heli; McLeish, Nigel; Kondracka, Jasmina; McIntyre, Chloe L; McWilliam Leitch, E Carol; Templeton, Kate; Simmonds, Peter

2011-05-01

26

Human Chromosome 2 Carries a Gene Required for Production of Infectious Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) replicates only in certain primate cells. In murine cells expressing cyclin T1, a posttranscriptional block exists such that small amounts of capsid and little infectious virus are released. This block is relieved in part by fusion with human cells. Here we have tested a panel of mouse-human somatic cell hybrids for production of infectious virus. Only those containing human chromosome 2 were permissive, which correlated with capsid production. The effect was specific to HIV in that release of murine leukemia virus was minimally affected by the presence of chromosome 2. Although expression of Vpu markedly increased capsid production in the absence of chromosome 2, it did not result in a corresponding increase in infectious HIV. The presence of chromosome 2 did not have consistent effects on the amount of unspliced viral RNA, whereas the amount of cell-associated Gag p55 was increased a fewfold. These results suggest that processing of HIV Gag can be corrected by one or more genes present on human chromosome 2 to allow production of infectious HIV from murine cells. PMID:16537608

Coskun, Ayse K.; van Maanen, Marc; Nguyen, Van; Sutton, Richard E.

2006-01-01

27

[Research progress in human enterovirus recombination].  

PubMed

Complex genetic variation has been known to occur during the transmission of human enterovirus (HEV), and the HEV virulence and pathogenicity enhanced by genetic recombination also pose a serious threat to human health. In recent years, the interest in recombination mechanism of genetic plasticity has been renewed with the emergence of pathogenic recombinant circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, which were implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in several regions of the world with insufficient vaccination coverage. This paper reviews recent research progress in HEV genome, including evolutionary characteristics, recombination types, and in vitro recombinant construction. PMID:24923173

Wang, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Peng; Tao, Ze-Xin; Zhang, Wen-Qiang; Xu, Ai-Qiang

2014-03-01

28

Cell and tissue tropism of enterovirus 71 and other enteroviruses infections.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a member of Picornaviridae that causes mild and self-limiting hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). However, EV71 infections can progress to polio-like paralysis, neurogenic pulmonary edema, and fatal encephalitis in infants and young children. Large EV71 outbreaks have been reported in Taiwan, China, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, and Australia. This virus is considered a critical emerging public health threat. EV71 is an important crucial neurotropic enterovirus for which there is currently no effective antiviral drug or vaccine. The mechanism by which EV71 causes severe central nervous system complications remains unclear. The interaction between the virus and the host is vital for viral replication, virulence, and pathogenicity. SCARB2 or PSGL-1 receptor binding is the first step in the development of viral infections, and viral factors (e.g., 5' UTR, VP1, 3C, 3D, 3' UTR), host factors and environments (e.g., ITAFs, type I IFN) are also involved in viral infections. The tissue tropism and pathogenesis of viruses are determined by a combination of several factors. This review article provides a summary of host and virus factors affecting cell and tissue tropism and the pathogenesis of enteroviruses. PMID:24602216

Lin, Jing-Yi; Shih, Shin-Ru

2014-01-01

29

Structure determination of enterovirus 71  

SciTech Connect

Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease but may induce fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 crystallized in a body-centered orthorhombic space group with two particles in general orientations in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Determination of the particle orientations required that the locked rotation function excluded the twofold symmetry axes from the set of icosahedral symmetry operators. This avoided the occurrence of misleading high rotation-function values produced by the alignment of icosahedral and crystallographic twofold axes. Once the orientations and positions of the particles had been established, the structure was solved by molecular replacement and phase extension.

Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G. (Purdue); (Sentinext)

2013-02-20

30

Association of incidence of type 1 diabetes with mortality from infectious disease and with antibiotic susceptibility at a country level.  

PubMed

To investigate the association between country incidence of type 1 diabetes and mortality from infectious disease and antibiotic susceptibility. An ecological study to explore the relationship at a country level of the reported incidence of type 1 diabetes (DiaMond) to infectious disease mortality (World Health Organisation) and to antibiotic susceptibility (Alexander Project). There were significant negative correlations between the incidence of type 1 diabetes and mortality for all infectious diseases studied. There were also significant positive correlations between the incidence of type 1 diabetes and antibiotic susceptibilities of Strep. pneumoniae, but not to those of Haem. influenzae. Since infectious disease mortality and antibiotic susceptibility are surrogate markers for bacterial exposure, our results provide support for a negative association between bacterial exposure in a community and its incidence of type 1 diabetes. The consistency of our results as well as the highly statistically significant results of most of the associations studied reinforces the validity of our findings. PMID:23512474

Abela, Alexia-Giovanna; Fava, Stephen

2013-12-01

31

Sequence analysis of a duck picornavirus isolate indicates that it together with porcine enterovirus type 8 and simian picornavirus type 2 should be assigned to a new picornavirus genus.  

PubMed

In a 1990 outbreak, a virus isolated in Taiwan from the intestines of ducks showing signs of hepatitis was tentatively classified as a picornavirus on the basis of physical, chemical, and morphological characteristics. The virus was cloned and then found not to be type 1 duck hepatitis virus (DHV-1) or a new serotype of duck hepatitis virus (N-DHV) by serum neutralization. Complete genome sequencing indicated that the virus genome had 8351 nucleotides and the typical picornavirus genome organization (i.e., 5' untranslated region (UTR)-L-P1 (VP 4-2-3-1)-P2 (2A-B-C)-P3 (3A-B-C-D)-3' UTR-poly A). One open reading frame encoded 2521 amino acids, which makes this virus one of the largest picornaviruses, second only to equine rhinitis B virus of the genus Erbovirus. Its L protein was the largest within the family Picornaviridae (451 amino acids) and suspected to be a trypsin-like protease. The 235-nucleotide 3' UTR region was of intermediate size, quite long compared to other picornaviruses but shorter than other picornaviruses of duck-origin (DHV-1 and N-DHV) and had four regions of secondary structure. The 2A protein was composed of only 12 amino acids, which is the shortest of any member of the family Picornaviridae. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein and 3D sequences indicated that this virus (named duck picornavirus [DPV]) together with porcine enterovirus type 8 virus and several simian picornaviruses form a distinct branch of the family Picornaviridae and should be assigned to a new picornavirus genus. PMID:17686542

Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung

2007-11-01

32

Occurrence of different types of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in fish.  

PubMed Central

The virion protein patterns of 71 isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from the Pacific Northwest were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of [35S]-methionine-labeled virus. This analysis led to the classification of these virus isolates into four or more types. Type 1 virus was characterized by a nucleocapsid protein with an approximate molecular weight of 40,500. Type 2 and type 3 viruses have nucleocapsid proteins with molecular weights of 42,800 and 43,250, respectively. Type 2 virus was responsible for the recent epizootics of IHNV among fish in the lower Columbia River. The California IHNV isolates were type 3 with the exception of some of those isolated from fish at the Coleman Hatchery on the Sacramento River. These Coleman Hatchery isolates belonged to a type 4 virus group characterized by a larger glycoprotein of approximately 70,000 molecular weight. All other viruses examined had glycoproteins of 67,000 molecular weight. The "type 5" virus isolates were grouped together because they were not sufficiently distinct to warrant classification into a separate type. These findings have been useful in determining that a particular virus type is characteristic for a geographic area and will infect many different salmonid species in that area and the same type isolated from parental fish is responsible for the subsequent outbreak of the diseases in progeny. Images PMID:3789723

Hsu, Y L; Engelking, H M; Leong, J C

1986-01-01

33

Crystal Structure of Human Enterovirus 71  

SciTech Connect

Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus associated with fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Here, we report the crystal structure of enterovirus 71 and show that, unlike in other enteroviruses, the 'pocket factor,' a small molecule that stabilizes the virus, is partly exposed on the floor of the 'canyon.' Thus, the structure of antiviral compounds may require a hydrophilic head group designed to interact with residues at the entrance of the pocket.

Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G. (Purdue); (Sentinext)

2013-04-08

34

First Full Genome Sequence of a Human Enterovirus A120, Isolated in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

We report the first complete genome sequence of an enterovirus isolate belonging to the human enterovirus A species of the Picornaviridae family and to type A120 (EV-A120). The EV-A120 isolate MAD-2741-11 was obtained from the stool of a healthy child living on Madagascar Island. The isolate genome was amplified by a reverse transcription-PCR method, and the consensus sequence was determined. PMID:24948760

Joffret, Marie-Line; Delpeyroux, Francis; Heraud, Jean-Michel

2014-01-01

35

Estimation of Contamination Sources of Human Enteroviruses in a Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation System by PCR-DGGE.  

PubMed

A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method was employed to estimate the contamination sources of human enteroviruses and understand how their dominant strains vary in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system consisting of sewage collection, wastewater treatment with membrane bioreactor and open lakes for reclaimed water storage and reuse. After PCR-DGGE using a selected primer set targeting enteroviruses, phylogenetic analysis of acquired enterovirus gene sequences was performed. Enteroviruses identified from the septic tank were much more diverse than those from grey water and kitchen wastewater. Several unique types of enterovirus different from those in wastewater samples were dominant in a biological wastewater treatment unit. Membrane filtration followed by chlorination was proved effective for physically eliminating enteroviruses; however, secondary contamination likely occurred as the reclaimed water was stored in artificial lakes. Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) viral pathogen, was detected mainly from the artificial lakes, implying that wastewater effluent was not the contamination source of EV71 and that there were unidentified non-point sources of the contamination with the HFMD viral pathogen in the reclaimed water stored in the artificial lakes. The PCR-DGGE targeting enteroviruses provided robust evidence about viral contamination sources in the wastewater treatment and reclamation system. PMID:24715657

Ji, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochang C; Xu, Limei; Zhang, Chongmiao; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

2014-06-01

36

Enterovirus 2Apro Targets MDA5 and MAVS in Infected Cells  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) MDA5 and RIG-I are key players in the innate antiviral response. Upon recognition of viral RNA, they interact with MAVS, eventually inducing type I interferon production. The interferon induction pathway is commonly targeted by viruses. How enteroviruses suppress interferon production is incompletely understood. MDA5 has been suggested to undergo caspase- and proteasome-mediated degradation during poliovirus infection. Additionally, MAVS is reported to be cleaved during infection with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) by the CVB3 proteinase 3Cpro, whereas MAVS cleavage by enterovirus 71 has been attributed to 2Apro. As yet, a detailed examination of the RLR pathway as a whole during any enterovirus infection is lacking. We performed a comprehensive analysis of crucial factors of the RLR pathway, including MDA5, RIG-I, LGP2, MAVS, TBK1, and IRF3, during infection of CVB3, a human enterovirus B (HEV-B) species member. We show that CVB3 inhibits the RLR pathway upstream of TBK1 activation, as demonstrated by limited phosphorylation of TBK1 and a lack of IRF3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we show that MDA5, MAVS, and RIG-I all undergo proteolytic degradation in CVB3-infected cells through a caspase- and proteasome-independent manner. We convincingly show that MDA5 and MAVS cleavages are both mediated by CVB3 2Apro, while RIG-I is cleaved by 3Cpro. Moreover, we show that proteinases 2Apro and 3Cpro of poliovirus (HEV-C) and enterovirus 71 (HEV-A) exert the same functions. This study identifies a critical role of 2Apro by cleaving MDA5 and MAVS and shows that enteroviruses use a common strategy to counteract the interferon response in infected cells. IMPORTANCE Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are important pathogens that cause a variety of diseases in humans, including poliomyelitis, hand, foot, and mouth disease, viral meningitis, cardiomyopathy, and more. Like many other viruses, enteroviruses target the host immune pathways to gain replication advantage. The MDA5/MAVS pathway is responsible for recognizing enterovirus infections in the host cell and leads to expression of type I interferons (IFN-I), crucial antiviral signaling molecules. Here we show that three species of HEVs all employ the viral proteinase 2A (2Apro) to proteolytically target MDA5 and MAVS, leading to an efficient blockade upstream of IFN-I transcription. These observations suggest that MDA5/MAVS antagonization is an evolutionarily conserved and beneficial mechanism of enteroviruses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of enterovirus immune evasion strategies will help to develop countermeasures to control infections with these viruses in the future. PMID:24390337

Feng, Qian; Langereis, Martijn A.; Lork, Marie; Nguyen, Mai; Hato, Stanleyson V.; Lanke, Kjerstin; Emdad, Luni; Bhoopathi, Praveen; Fisher, Paul B.; Lloyd, Richard E.

2014-01-01

37

Prevalence of Nonpolio Enteroviruses in the Sewage of Guangzhou City, China, from 2009 to 2012  

PubMed Central

The human-pathogenic viruses in urban sewage have been extensively monitored to obtain information on circulating viruses in human communities. Enteroviruses (EVs) excreted by patients who present with diverse clinical syndromes can remain infectious in the environment for several weeks, and limited data on circulating environmental EVs are available. A 4-year (2009 to 2012) surveillance study was conducted to detect nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in the urban sewage of Guangzhou city, China. After the viruses in the sewage samples were concentrated and isolated, molecular identification was used to detect and type the NPEVs. During the 4-year study, 17 different NPEV serotypes were identified in the sewage of Guangzhou city. The most common serotypes were echovirus 11 (ECHO11), ECHO6, ECHO7, and ECHO12 and coxsackie group B viruses 5 (CVB5) and CVB3. The predominant serotypes were influenced by spatial and temporal factors and differed each year. CVB5 was commonly detected in 2009 and 2010 but was rarely isolated in 2011 and 2012. In contrast, CVB3 was not observed in 2009 and 2010 but was increasingly detected in 2011 and 2012. Our study provides an overview of the serotype distribution and circulation patterns of NPEVs in the sewage of Guangzhou, China. In the absence of a systematic EV disease surveillance system, the detection and characterization of sewage-borne NPEVs will help us better understand the changes in EV disease trends and the epidemic background of circulating EVs, which could help interpret the EV trends and warn of future outbreaks in this area. PMID:24096418

Lu, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Yoshida, Hiromu; Guo, Xue; Liu, Leng; Li, Hui; Zeng, Hanri; Fang, Ling; Mo, Yanling; Yi, Lina; Chosa, Toru; Xu, Wenbo; Ke, Changwen

2013-01-01

38

Longitudinal field studies of infectious bronchitis virus and avian pneumovirus in broilers using type-specific polymerase chain reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In longitudinal studies, 13 flocks were swabbed twice each week for the life of the flock (up to 46 days). The swabs were analyzed by type-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. Massachusetts type vaccinal infectious bronchitis virus (IBVs), applied at the hatchery, were usually maximal during the first week, as expected and, notably, remained detectable for 3 to 4 weeks,

K. Mawditt; P. Britton; C. J. Naylor

1999-01-01

39

[Fruit of the emergence of an enterovirus: acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis].  

PubMed

First seen in Ghana and Indonesia in the early 70's, acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis or "Apollo 11" disease is an eye infection caused by Enterovirus type 70 (EV70). The disease appeared to be a highly contagious conjunctivitis which spread rapidly all over the world. EV70 has been considered as an emerging virus and was classified as a new Enterovirus. No human or animal virus genetically similar to EV70 was known before the sudden outcome of the disease in Ghana, West Africa. EV70 appeared as a pretty demonstrative example of virus emergence and virus spreading. Studies of virus genetic mutations emphasized the variations of RNA virus within a short time period. The current review presents the EV70 infection and the genetic profile of the virus from its emergence to nowadays. PMID:18957336

Sane, F; Sauter, P; Fronval, S; Goffard, A; Dewilde, A; Hober, D

2008-01-01

40

High Susceptibility for Enterovirus Infection and Virus Excretion Features in Tunisian Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies  

PubMed Central

To estimate the susceptibility to enterovirus infection and the frequency of long-term poliovirus excreters in Tunisian patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), enteroviruses were assessed in stool specimens of 82 patients with humoral, combined, and other PIDs. Isolated viruses were typed and intratyped by standard molecular techniques, and the whole VP1 region of poliovirus isolates was sequenced. Polioviruses were detected in 6 patients; all isolates were vaccine related. Five patients rapidly stopped excretion; one excreted a poliovirus type 1 isolate for several months, and the isolate accumulated up to 14 mutations in the VP1 region. Nonpolio enteroviruses were identified in 6 patients; 4 of them kept excreting the same strain for more than 6 months. The rate of enterovirus infection was 13.4% of the PID patients and 20.7% of those with an IgG defect; it greatly exceeded the rates generally found in Tunisian supposed-immunocompetent individuals (4.1% during the study period; P = 0.001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Interestingly, patients with combined immunodeficiencies were at a higher risk for enterovirus infection than those with an exclusively B cell defect. A major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen expression defect was found in 54% of enterovirus-positive patients and in the unique long-term poliovirus excreter. The study results also suggest that substitutive immunoglobulin therapy may help clearance of a poliovirus infection and that most PID patients have the ability to stop poliovirus excretion within a limited period. However, the high susceptibility of these patients to enterovirus infection reinforces the need for enhanced surveillance of these patients until the use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is stopped. PMID:22914367

Driss, Nadia; Ben-Mustapha, Imen; Mellouli, Fethi; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Touzi, Henda; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Ben Ghorbel, Mohamed; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha

2012-01-01

41

Intra-laboratory validation of a concentration method adapted for the enumeration of infectious F-specific RNA coliphage, enterovirus, and hepatitis A virus from inoculated leaves of salad vegetables.  

PubMed

Salad vegetables exposed to fecal contamination may cause outbreaks of hepatitis or gastro-enteritis if they are eaten raw. A procedure, based on elution with phosphate-buffered saline and concentration by filtration through membrane filters, was developed for the recovery of enteric viruses from salad leaves. The method was evaluated using lettuce leaves inoculated with hepatitis A virus (HAV), poliovirus, and MS2 bacteriophage. In addition, this method was validated by an intra-laboratory study using leaves of various salad vegetables inoculated with MS2 phage. The French standard NF V 03-110 was used to establish the general principle and the technical protocol of the validation procedure. Linear regression models describing the quantitative reactions were good fits to data in the whole range of viral concentrations tested, which was from about 1 to 4 log plaque-forming units (PFU) per 25 g of lettuce. The fractions of inoculated viruses recovered were estimated to be about 64% for HAV, 18% for poliovirus, and 29% for MS2. No significant effect of the food matrix was found using various types of salad vegetable (butter lettuce, iceberg lettuce, romaine lettuce, witloof chicory, curly endive, corn salad, rocket and watercress). Moreover, the variance of the results was constant for all levels of virus contamination within the experimental range. Intermediate reproducibility experiments were also performed to allow calculation of the uncertainty factor, which was found to be 0.58 log PFU/25 g. When used in association with phage enumeration, this validated procedure is rapid enough to be used for screening salad vegetables for evaluation of the efficacy of processes for control of pathogenic microorganisms on such foods. PMID:16387377

Dubois, Eric; Hennechart, Catherine; Deboosère, Nathalie; Merle, Ghislaine; Legeay, Odile; Burger, Christian; Le Calvé, Marie; Lombard, Bertrand; Ferré, Virginie; Traoré, Ousmane

2006-04-25

42

Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as three major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In Coastal Washington State IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in Coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were eight IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving seven different fish culture facilities in four separate watersheds. During the same time period IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from six coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from Coastal Washington revealed the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV, and that there were two distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007–2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in Coastal steelhead trout during 2007–2009 and type mG139M was dominant between 2010–2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all Coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007–2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the Coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of Coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout.

Breyta, R.; Jones, A.; Stewart, B.; Brunson, R.; Thomas, J.; Kerwin, J.; Bertolini, J.; Mumford, S.; Patterson, C.; Kurath, G.

2013-01-01

43

Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout.  

PubMed

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. PMID:23759556

Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

2013-06-13

44

Bovine enteroviruses: classification and serological characterization  

E-print Network

BOVINE ENTEROVIRUSES: CLASS IF ICATION AND SEROLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION A Thesis by SIBA KUMAR SAMAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M Uni vers i ty in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1981 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology BOVINE ENTEROVIRUSES: CLASSIFICATION AND SEROLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION A Thesis by SIBA KUMAR SAMAL Approved as to style and content by: Chairman o Committee Hem er Nem e Head of Oepartment...

Samal, Siba Kumar

2012-06-07

45

Differential transcription patterns in wild-type and glycoprotein G-deleted infectious laryngotracheitis viruses.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) causes severe respiratory disease in poultry throughout the world. Recently the role of glycoprotein G (gG) in ILTV pathogenesis has been investigated and it has been shown to have chemokine-binding activity. An ILTV vaccine candidate deficient in gG has been developed and the deletion has been shown to alter the host's immune response to the virus. To understand the effect of the gG gene on transcription of other viral genes, the global expression profile of 72 ILTV genes in gG-deleted and wild-type ILTVs were investigated both in vivo and in vitro using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Several genes were differentially expressed in the different viruses in LMH cell cultures or in the tracheas of infected birds, and the expression of a number of genes, including ICP27, gC, gJ, Ul7 and UL40, differed significantly both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that they had direct or indirect roles in virulence. This study has provided insights into the interactions between gG and other ILTV genes that may have a role in virulence. PMID:23611157

Mahmoudian, Alireza; Markham, Philip F; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Devlin, Joanne M; Browning, Glenn F

2013-01-01

46

Occurrence and genetic typing of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Kamchatka, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a well known rhabdoviral pathogen of salmonid fish in North America that has become established in Asia and Europe. On the Pacific coast of Russia, IHNV was first detected in hatchery sockeye from the Kamchatka Peninsula in 2001. Results of virological examinations of over 10 000 wild and cultured salmonid fish from Kamchatka during 1996 to 2005 revealed IHNV in several sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations. The virus was isolated from spawning adults and from juveniles undergoing epidemics in both hatchery and wild sockeye populations from the Bolshaya watershed. No virus was detected in 2 other water-sheds, or in species other than sockeye salmon. Genetic typing of 8 virus isolates by seguence analysis of partial glycoprotein and nucleocapsid genes revealed that they were genetically homogeneous and fell within the U genogroup of IHNV. In phylogenetic analyses, the Russian IHNV sequences were indistinguishable from the sequences of North American U genogroup isolates that occur throughout Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. The high similarity, and in some cases identity, between Russian and North American IHNV isolates suggests virus transmission or exposure to a common viral reservoir in the North Pacific Ocean. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

Rudakova, S.L.; Kurath, G.; Bochkova, E.V.

2007-01-01

47

Genetic Relationship between Cocirculating Human Enteroviruses Species C  

E-print Network

Genetic Relationship between Cocirculating Human Enteroviruses Species C Mae¨l Bessaud1 Recombination events between human enteroviruses (HEV) are known to occur frequently and to participate to the Human enterovirus species C (HEV-C) that had been cocirculating in a small geographic area of Madagascar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

[Acute enterovirus uveitis in infants].  

PubMed

Enterovirus uveitis (EU) is a new infant eye disease that was first detected and identified in Russia in 1980-1981. Three subtypes of human echoviruses (EV19K, EV11A, and EV11/B) caused 5 nosocomial outbreaks of EU in different Siberian cities and towns in 1980-1989, by affecting more than 750 children mainly below one year of age. Sporadic and focal EU cases (more than 200) were also retrospectively diagnosed in other regions of Russia and in different countries of the former Soviet Union. There were following clinical manifestations: common symptoms of the infection; acute uveitis (rapid focal iridic destruction, pupillary deformities, formation of membranes in the anterior chamber of the eye); and in 15-30% of cases severe complications, cataract, glaucoma, vision impairments. Uveitis strains EV19 and EV11 caused significant uveitis in primates after inoculation into the anterior chamber of the eye, as well as sepsis-like fatal disease with liver necrosis after venous infection. The uveitis strains are phylogenetically and pathogenetically close for primates to strains EV19 and EV11 isolated from young children with sepsis-like disease. The contents of this review have been published in the Reviews in Medical Virology, 2004, vol. 14, p. 241-254. PMID:16078433

Lashkevich, V A; Koroleva, G A; Lukashev, A N; Denisova, E V; Katargina, L A; Khoroshilova-Maslova, I P

2005-01-01

49

Management of Atrial Tachycardia in the Newborn With Enterovirus Myocarditis  

PubMed Central

Neonatal enterovirus myocarditis is a rare but serious infection that is often an underrecognized cause of cardiovascular collapse. Enterovirus myocarditis in patients with such collapse should be suspected when signs of congestive heart failure and tachyarrhythmia are present. The majority of reported electrical disturbances associated with enterovirus myocarditis are ventricular in origin, but the infection can present as atrial tachyarrhythmia. Atrial tachyarrhythmias associated with enterovirus myocarditis are difficult to manage because of their resistance to conventional antiarrhythmic therapy. We present 2 cases of neonates with atrial tachycardia associated with enterovirus myocarditis who responded to a combination of amiodarone and flecainide. PMID:22778684

Petroni, Daniel H.; Yang, Song G.; Kattash, Mudar M.; Snyder, Christopher S.

2012-01-01

50

Non-polio enteroviruses and their association with acute diarrhea in children in India.  

PubMed

A causative agent in approximately 40% of diarrheal cases still remains unidentified. Though many enteroviruses (EVs) are transmitted through fecal-oral route and replicate in the intestinal cells, their association with acute diarrhea has not so far been recognized due to lack of detailed epidemiological investigations. This long-term, detailed molecular epidemiological study aims to conclusively determine the association of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with acute diarrhea in comparison with rotavirus (RV) in children. Diarrheal stool specimens from 2161 children aged 0-2 years and 169 children between 2 and 9 years, and 1800 normal stool samples from age-matched healthy children between 0 and 9 years were examined during 2008-2012 for enterovirus (oral polio vaccine strains (OPVs) and NPEVs). Enterovirus serotypes were identified by complete VP1 gene sequence analysis. Enterovirus and rotavirus were detected in 19.01% (380/2330) and 13.82% (322/2330) diarrheal stools. During the study period, annual prevalence of EV- and RV-associated diarrhea ranged between 8% and 22%, but with contrasting seasonal prevalence with RV predominating during winter months and NPEV prevailing in other seasons. NPEVs are associated with epidemics-like outbreaks during which they are detected in up to 50% of diarrheic children, and in non-epidemic seasons in 0-10% of the patients. After subtraction of OPV-positive diarrheal cases (1.81%), while NPEVs are associated with about 17% of acute diarrhea, about 6% of healthy children showed asymptomatic NPEV excretion. Of 37 NPEV serotypes detected in diarrheal children, seven echovirus types 1, 7, 11, 13, 14, 30 and 33 are frequently observed, with E11 being more prevalent followed by E30. In conclusion, NPEVs are significantly associated with acute diarrhea, and NPEVs and rotavirus exhibit contrasting seasonal predominance. This study signifies the need for a new direction of research on enteroviruses involving systematic analysis of their contribution to diarrheal burden. PMID:23602838

Rao, Durga C; Ananda Babu, M; Raghavendra, A; Dhananjaya, D; Kumar, Sudheendra; Maiya, P P

2013-07-01

51

Mechanisms and consequences of enterovirus persistence in cardiac myocytes and cells of the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans and experimental murine models enteroviruses, and in particular coxsackieviruses of group B (CVB), may induce chronic myocarditis associated with a persistent type of heart muscle infection. Persistent myocardial infection has been characterized by restricted viral replication and gene expression, which is capable of sustaining chronic inflammation. Altered replication and transcription of the virus, in addition to an immune

Reinhard Kandolf; Martina Sauter; Christian Aepinus; Jens-Jörg Schnorr; Hans-Christoph Selinka; Karin Klingel

1999-01-01

52

Co-Circulation and Evolution of Polioviruses and Species C Enteroviruses in a District of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between October 2001 and April 2002, five cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) were reported in the southern province of the Republic of Madagascar. To determine viral factors that favor the emergence of these pathogenic VDPVs, we analyzed in detail their genomic and phenotypic characteristics and compared them with co-circulating enteroviruses. These VDPVs

Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo; Sophie Guillot; Jane Iber; Jean Balanant; Bruno Blondel; Franck Riquet; Javier Martin; Olen Kew; Bakolalao Randriamanalina; Lalatiana Razafinimpiasa; Dominique Rousset; Francis Delpeyroux

2007-01-01

53

ADSORPTION OF ENTEROVIRUSES TO SOIL CORES AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT ELUTION BY ARTIFICIAL RAINWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The adsorption and elution of a variety of human enteroviruses in a highly permeable, sandy soil was studied by using cores (43 by 125 mm) collected from an operating recharge basin on Long Island. Viruses studied included field and reference strains of polioviruses types 1 and 3...

54

Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

55

Post-infectious disease syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Many post-infectious syndromes have been recognized in the last 50 years, some following viral infections and others closely related to bacterial disease. The occurrence of prolonged fatigue following an apparent viral illness of varying severity is also well documented. The lack of a recognizable precipitating cause and the tendency for epidemic fatigue to occur among hospital staff led many to believe that the illness may be psychogenic in origin. However, there is serological evidence that some cases may follow enterovirus infections or occasionally delayed convalescence from infectious mononucleosis. Much interesting work is currently in progress relating fatigue to persisting immunological abnormalities, and the development of molecular immunology makes this a most exciting field of research. This paper reviews the evidence for and against a definitive post-viral fatigue syndrome and examines the results of research carried out in the last 50 years. PMID:3074289

Bannister, B. A.

1988-01-01

56

Human papillomavirus type 18 chimeras containing the L2/L1 capsid genes from evolutionarily diverse papillomavirus types generate infectious virus  

PubMed Central

Papillomaviruses (PVs) comprise a large family of viruses infecting nearly all vertebrate species, with more than 100 human PVs identified. Our previous studies showed that a mutant chimera HPV18/16 genome, consisting of the upper regulatory region and early ORFs of HPV18 and the late ORFs of HPV16, was capable of producing infectious virus in organotypic raft cultures. We were interested in determining whether the ability of this chimeric genome to produce infectious virus was the result of HPV18 and HPV16 being similarly oncogenic, anogenital types and whether more disparate PV types could also interact functionally. To test this we created a series of HPV18 chimeric genomes where the ORFs for the HPV18 capsid genes were replaced with the capsid genes of HPV45, HPV39, HPV33, HPV31, HPV11, HPV6b, HPV1a, CRPV, and BPV1. All chimeras were able to produce infectious chimeric viral particles, although with lower infectivity than wild-type HPV18. Steps in the viral life cycle and characteristics of the viral particles were examined to identify potential causes for the decrease in infectivity. PMID:21762735

Bowser, Brian S.; Chen, Horng-Shen; Conway, Michael J.; Christensen, Neil D.; Meyers, Craig

2011-01-01

57

Enteroviruses and Bacteriophages in Bathing Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new procedure for detecting and counting enteroviruses based on the VIRADEN method applied to 10 liters of seawater was examined. It improved the efficiency of detection by taking into account both the number of positive isolations and numbers found with traditional methods. It was then used to quantify viruses in bathing waters. A number of bacterial indicators and bacteriophages

L. Moce-Llivina; Francisco Lucena; Juan Jofre

2005-01-01

58

Binding of Glutathione to Enterovirus Capsids Is Essential for Virion Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses (family of the Picornaviridae) cover a large group of medically important human pathogens for which no antiviral treatment is approved. Although these viruses have been extensively studied, some aspects of the viral life cycle, in particular morphogenesis, are yet poorly understood. We report the discovery of TP219 as a novel inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus and poliovirus. We show that TP219 binds directly glutathione (GSH), thereby rapidly depleting intracellular GSH levels and that this interferes with virus morphogenesis without affecting viral RNA replication. The inhibitory effect on assembly was shown not to depend on an altered reducing environment. Using TP219, we show that GSH is an essential stabilizing cofactor during the transition of protomeric particles into pentameric particles. Sequential passaging of coxsackievirus B3 in the presence of low GSH-levels selected for GSH-independent mutants that harbored a surface-exposed methionine in VP1 at the interface between two protomers. In line with this observation, enteroviruses that already contained this surface-exposed methionine, such as EV71, did not rely on GSH for virus morphogenesis. Biochemical and microscopical analysis provided strong evidence for a direct interaction between GSH and wildtype VP1 and a role for this interaction in localizing assembly intermediates to replication sites. Consistently, the interaction between GSH and mutant VP1 was abolished resulting in a relocalization of the assembly intermediates to replication sites independent from GSH. This study thus reveals GSH as a novel stabilizing host factor essential for the production of infectious enterovirus progeny and provides new insights into the poorly understood process of morphogenesis. PMID:24722756

Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Thys, Bert; Canela, María-Dolores; Aguado, Leire; Wimmer, Eckard; Paul, Aniko; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Neyts, Johan

2014-01-01

59

Genetic and serological typing of European infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes the lethal disease infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in juvenile salmon and trout. The nucleocapsid (N) protein gene and partial glycoprotein (G) gene (nucleotides 457 to 1061) of the European isolates IT-217A, FR-32/87, DE-DF 13/98 11621, DE-DF 4/99-8/99, AU-9695338 and RU-FR1 were sequenced and compared with IHNV isolates from the North American genogroups U, M and L. In phylogenetic studies the N gene of the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, though in a different subgroup than the isolates from the USA. Analyses of the partial G gene of these European isolates clustered them in the M genogroup close to the root while the Russian isolate clustered in the U genogroup. The European isolates together with US-WRAC and US-Col-80 were also tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the N protein. MAbs 136-1 and 136-3 reacted equally at all concentrations with the isolates tested, indicating that these antibodies identify a common epitope. MAb 34D3 separated the M and L genogroup isolates from the U genogroup isolate. MAb 1DW14D divided the European isolates into 2 groups. MAb 1DW14D reacted more strongly with DE-DF 13/98 11621 and RU-FR1 than with IT-217A, FR- 32/87, DE-DF 4/99-8/99 and AU-9695338. In the phylogenetic studies, the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, whereas in the serological studies using MAbs, the European M genogroup isolates could not be placed in the same specific group. These results indicate that genotypic and serotypic classification do not correlate. ?? 2009 Inter-Research.

Johansson, T.; Einer-Jensen, K.; Batts, W.; Ahrens, P.; Bjorkblom, C.; Kurath, G.; Bjorklund, H.; Lorenzen, N.

2009-01-01

60

Development of a quantitative method for the detection of enteroviruses in soil.  

PubMed Central

A method is described for efficiently concentrating enteroviruses from soil. Viruses were eluted from soil by mechanical agitation in high pH glycine buffer containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The eluted viruses were concentrated on a floc that formed de novo upon adjustment of the soil eluate to 0.06 M aluminum chloride and pH 3.5. Viruses not pelleted with the floc were concentrated by adsorption to and elution from membrane filters. This method yielded an average efficiency of 66% recovery from loamy sand soil for four enteroviruses. Virus recovery from soil was consistently high, with samples ranging in size from 25 to 500 g. The method was used successfully to isolate naturally occurring viruses from soil beneath a wastewater land treatment site. Recovery of enteroviruses by this method form different types of soil was dependent on percentage of clay, surface area, and cation exchange capacity. Recovery was not dependent on soil saturation pH or on percentage of organic matter. This method should prove useful for studying enterovirus migration and survival during the land application of domestic sewage. PMID:36845

Hurst, C J; Gerba, C P

1979-01-01

61

Enteroviruses in water environment--a potential threat to public health.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses belong to the Picornaviridae family and are the smallest, nonenveloped viruses known to infect both humans and animals. The spread of enteroviral infections is mainly by the faecal-oral and oral-oral route, but also through direct contact with secretions from ophthalmic and dermal lesions. Water, food and soil contaminated by infected faeces are an exogenous infection source which creates many opportunities for the transfer of the infection, and cause an epidemic outbreak in a short period of time. Enteroviruses are being isolated from all types of water: ground, sea, sewage and fresh water environments but also--and what is the most important from the epidemiological point of view--drinking water. They are resilient organisms, able to withstand high concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) and large changes in temperature. These abilities allow the viruses to flourish in a water environment, their natural reservoir. The number of infections in temperate climate regions peak in summer months and early autumn. Detection of enteroviruses in the water environment is performed by virus isolation in cell cultures and the use of molecular techniques. Many researches conducted in different countries with the use of methods mentioned above, reveal widespread environmental contamination by enteroviruses. PMID:19061255

Rajtar, Barbara; Majek, Magdalena; Pola?ski, ?ukasz; Polz-Dacewicz, Ma?gorzata

2008-12-01

62

Enterovirus surveillance--United States, 2000-2001.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses are common viruses associated with diverse clinical manifestations ranging from mild febrile illness to severe and potentially fatal syndromes including aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, neonatal systemic enteroviral disease, and paralytic poliomyelitis. A total of 64 enterovirus serotypes are recognized, including 61 nonpolio enteroviruses. Individual serotypes have different temporal patterns of circulation and often are associated with different clinical manifestations. This report describes temporal trends in reported enterovirus infections in the United States during 2000-2001, including widespread activity of two serotypes (echoviruses 13 and 18) that previously were detected rarely. Monitoring of circulating enterovirus serotypes helped identify these two agents as the primary causes of aseptic meningitis outbreaks in the United States in 2001. Further improvements in timeliness of reporting and geographic representation of the system are needed to allow more complete surveillance for enteroviruses. PMID:12487527

2002-11-22

63

Characterization of a Novel Enterovirus Serotype and an Enterovirus EV-B93 Isolated from Acute Flaccid Paralysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. Most of these infections are asymptomatic but few can lead to systemic and neurological disorders like Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP). Acute Flaccid Paralysis is a clinical syndrome and NPEVs have been isolated frequently from the patients suffering from AFP but little is known about their causal relationship. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the NPEV serotypes recovered from 184 stool samples collected from AFP patients in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in north-west of Pakistan. Overall, 44 (95.6 %) isolates were successfully typed through microneutralization assay as a member of enterovirus B species including echovirus (E)-2, E-3, E-4, E-6, E-7, E-11, E-13, E-14, E-21 and E-29 while two isolates (PAK NIH SP6545B and PAK NIH SP1202B) remained untypeable. The VP1 and capsid regions analysis characterized these viruses as EV-B93 and EV-B106. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that PAK NIH isolates had high genetic diversity and represent distinct genotypes circulating in the country. Our findings highlight the role of NPEVs in AFP cases to be thoroughly investigated especially in high disease risk areas, with limited surveillance activities and health resources. PMID:24244603

Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Sharif, Salmaan; Khurshid, Adnan; Mahmood, Tariq; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

2013-01-01

64

High-affinity interaction of hnRNP A1 with conserved RNA structural elements is required for translation and replication of enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging pathogen of infectious disease and a serious threat to public health. Currently, there are no antivirals or vaccines to slow down or prevent EV71 infections, thus underscoring the urgency to better understand mechanisms of host-enterovirus interactions. EV71 uses a type I internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit via a pathway that requires the cytoplasmic localization of hnRNP A1, which acts as an IRES trans-activating factor. The mechanism of how hnRNP A1 trans activates EV71 RNA translation is unknown, however. Here, we report that the UP1 domain of hnRNP A1 interacts specifically with stem loop II (SLII) of the IRES, via a thermodynamically well-defined biphasic transition that involves conserved bulge 5?-AYAGY-3? and hairpin 5?-RY(U/A)CCA-3? loops. Calorimetric titrations of wild-type and mutant SLII constructs reveal these structural elements are essential to form a high-affinity UP1-SLII complex. Mutations that alter the bulge and hairpin primary or secondary structures abrogate the biphasic transition and destabilize the complex. Notably, mutations within the bulge that destabilize the complex correlate with a large reduction in IRES-dependent translational activity and impair EV71 replication. Taken together, this study shows that a conserved SLII structure is necessary to form a functional hnRNP A1-IRES complex, suggesting that small molecules that target this stem loop may have novel antiviral properties. PMID:23727900

Levengood, Jeffrey D.; Tolbert, Michele; Li, Mei-Ling; Tolbert, Blanton S.

2013-01-01

65

Detection of wild- and vaccine-type avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus in clinical samples and feather shafts of commercial chickens.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of poultry caused by an alphaherpesvirus (ILTV). To evaluate differential detection of ILTVs belonging to the two types, wild-type or vaccine-type, both causing clinical signs, five PCRs were evaluated to detect wild-type and vaccine-type ILTV in clinical samples. By directly sampling the organs, we aimed to avoid changes in the virus genome and to facilitate a fast diagnosis. The samples were tracheal and spleen homogenates and feather shafts. The latter are easy to collect, nonlethal for the bird, and advantageous for monitoring purposes. We investigated the time interval for vaccine virus detection following commercial vaccination by the vent application, which is successfully practiced in Israel. The study indicated that ILTV amplification from feather shafts was possible in clinical cases for about a one-month period after vaccination. Vaccine strains were identified by nested PCR for the ILTV-gE gene and differed from wild-type ILTV strains by two criteria: (1) While avirulent vaccines could be detected for about a month after the vent application, wild-type virus could be detected, in conjunction with clinical signs, for an unlimited time period; and (2) The ILTV vaccine was present in the bird in minute quantities compared to the wild-type virus. We assessed the virus type that appeared in conjunction with the clinical signs and determined that the clinical signs appeared in conjunction with both molecular forms of ILTV. The vaccine virus-type and the wild-type ILTV differed by their distinct restriction pattern when using the HaeIII restriction enzyme digestion of the nested amplification product. PMID:20095166

Davidson, Irit; Nagar, Sagit; Ribshtein, Israel; Shkoda, Irena; Perk, Shimon; Garcia, Maricarmen

2009-12-01

66

Survival of enteroviruses in rapid-infiltration basins during the land application of wastewater.  

PubMed

The downward migration through soil of seeded poliovirus type 1 and echovirus type 1 and of naturally occurring enteroviruses during infiltration of sewage effluent through rapid-infiltration basins was investigated. After 5 days of flooding, the amount of seeded poliovirus type 1 that had migrated 5 to 10 cm downward through the soil profile was found to be 11% of that remaining at the initial burial depth. The amount of echovirus type 1 determined to have moved an equal distance was at least 100-fold less. Migration of naturally occurring enteroviruses during infiltration of sewage effluent through soil could not be measured with accuracy because of the possibility of virus survival from previous applications of effluent. The rate of inactivation for seeded poliovirus 1 and echovirus 1 buried in the infiltration basins ranged between 0.04 and 0.15 log10 units per day during the time when the basins were flooded. Inactivation of these same seeded virus types and of indigenous enterovirus populations in the infiltration basins during the drying portion of the sewage application cycle ranged between 0.11 and 0.52 log10 units per day. The rate of virus inactivation was dependent upon the rate of soil moisture loss. These results indicate that drying cycles during the land application of wastewater enhance virus inactivation in the soil. PMID:6258471

Hurst, C J; Gerba, C P; Lance, J C; Rice, R C

1980-08-01

67

Enterovirus related metabolic myopathy: a postviral fatigue syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: To detect and characterise enterovirus RNA in skeletal muscle from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and to compare efficiency of muscle energy metabolism in enterovirus positive and negative CFS patients. Methods: Quadriceps muscle biopsy samples from 48 patients with CFS were processed to detect enterovirus RNA by two stage, reverse transcription, nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-NPCR), using enterovirus group specific primer sets. Direct nucleotide sequencing of PCR products was used to characterise the enterovirus. Controls were 29 subjects with normal muscles. On the day of biopsy, each CFS patient undertook a subanaerobic threshold exercise test (SATET). Venous plasma lactate was measured immediately before and after exercise, and 30 minutes after testing. An abnormal lactate response to exercise (SATET+) was defined as an exercise test in which plasma lactate exceeded the upper 99% confidence limits for normal sedentary controls at two or more time points. Results: Muscle biopsy samples from 20.8% of the CFS patients were positive for enterovirus sequences by RT-NPCR, while all the 29 control samples were negative; 58.3% of the CFS patients had a SATET+ response. Nine of the 10 enterovirus positive cases were among the 28 SATET+ patients (32.1%), compared with only one (5%) of the 20 SATET- patients. PCR products were most closely related to coxsackie B virus. Conclusions: There is an association between abnormal lactate response to exercise, reflecting impaired muscle energy metabolism, and the presence of enterovirus sequences in muscle in a proportion of CFS patients. PMID:14570830

Lane, R; Soteriou, B; Zhang, H; Archard, L

2003-01-01

68

Comparison of Automated and Manual Nucleic Acid Extraction Methods for Detection of Enterovirus RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated nucleic acid extraction is an attractive alternative to labor-intensive manual methods. We compared two automated methods, the BioRobot M48 instrument (Qiagen, Inc.) and MagNA Pure (Roche Applied Sciences) methods, to two manual methods, the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit (Qiagen) and TRIzol (Invitrogen), for the extraction of enterovirus RNA. Analytical sensitivity was assessed by dilution analysis of poliovirus type

Julia H. Knepp; Melissa A. Geahr; Michael S. Forman; Alexandra Valsamakis

2003-01-01

69

Distinct Intracellular Trafficking of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Gag during Viral Assembly and Budding Revealed by Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retroviral Gag polyproteins are necessary and sufficient for virus budding. Numerous studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag assembly and budding mechanisms have been reported, but relatively little is known about these fundamental pathways among animal lentiviruses. While there may be a general assumption that lentiviruses share common assembly mechanisms, studies of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have

Jing Jin; Timothy Sturgeon; Chaoping Chen; Simon C. Watkins; Ora A. Weisz; Ronald C. Montelaro

2007-01-01

70

COPI Is Required for Enterovirus 71 Replication  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is found in Asian countries where it causes a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Picornaviruses undergo RNA replication in association with membranes of infected cells. COPI and COPII have been shown to be involved in the formation of picornavirus-induced vesicles. Replication of several picornaviruses, including poliovirus and Echovirus 11 (EV11), is dependent on COPI or COPII. Here, we report that COPI, but not COPII, is required for EV71 replication. Replication of EV71 was inhibited by brefeldin A and golgicide A, inhibitors of COPI activity. Furthermore, we found EV71 2C protein interacted with COPI subunits by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay, indicating that COPI coatomer might be directed to the viral replication complex through viral 2C protein. Additionally, because the pathway is conserved among different species of enteroviruses, it may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies. PMID:22662263

Wang, Jianmin; Wu, Zhiqiang; Jin, Qi

2012-01-01

71

Occurrence of enteroviruses in community swimming pools.  

PubMed Central

Municipal swimming pools and wading pools were examined for the presence of human enteric viruses using a portable virus concentrator at the site to concentrate viruses from 100-gallon to 500-gallon samples. Ten of 14 samples contained viruses; three of these were positive for virus in the presence of residual free chlorine. Enteroviruses were isolated from two pools which exceeded the 0.4 ppm free residual chlorine standard. This study appears to be supportive of recent evidence that indicates a higher incidence of enterovirus infection among bathers. All seven wading pool samples contained virus. Coxsackieviruses B3 and B4, poliovirus 1, and echovirus 7 were isolated. Total coliform bacteria were not adequate indicators of the presence of virus, as six of the samples were positive for virus but negative for coliforms. Total plate counts appeared to provide a better indication of the sanitary quality of the pool water, but viruses could still be detected in samples that met currently recommended bacterial levels. It is possible that swimming and wading pools may serve as a means of transmission of enteroviral disease, especially in children, during summer months. PMID:6267950

Keswick, B H; Gerba, C P; Goyal, S M

1981-01-01

72

Molecular Analysis of Virulent Determinants of Enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most important causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. In most cases, it is a self-limiting illness. However some EV71 infectious cases can develop severe clinical outcomes, such as encephalitis, meningitis, poliomyelitis like paralysis, and even death. To identify the determinants of virulence, the deduced amino acid sequence of polyprotein and nucleotide sequence of 5?-NTR and 3?-NTR in 25 SC-EV71 strains (strains from severe cases) and 31 MC-EV71 strains (strains from mild cases) were analyzed. Results showed four amino acids on two positions (GlyP710/GlnP710/ArgP710 and GluP729) on the DE and EF loop of VP1, one (LysP930) on the surface of protease 2A and four nucleotides on three positions (GP272, UP488 and AP700/UP700) in the 5'-NTR region are associated with EV71 virulent phenotype. Predicted secondary structure of RNA using the consensus sequence of 5'-NTR by RNAStructure showed the mutation of nucleotide at position 488 in strain BJ08-Z004-3 (position 491 in prototype strain BrCr) can result in the discrepancy of an additional pair of nucleotides and thus change the stability of the second structure of IRES. Fragment base content analysis showed that in the region 696 to 714 bp at the 5'-NTR, where the AP700/UP700 was located, the nucleotide constitution ratios differed significantly between SC-EV71 and MC-EV71 strains. In conclusion, comparative genomic analysis showed that virulence of EV71 strains are mainly determined by the amino acids on two positions of VP1, one position of protease 2A and the nucleotides on three positions in 5'-NTR. PMID:22039449

Chen, Lijuan; Zhang, Herun; Wang, Yumei

2011-01-01

73

Enter at Your Own Risk: How Enteroviruses Navigate the Dangerous World of Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses are the most common human viral pathogens worldwide. This genus of small, non-enveloped, single stranded RNA viruses includes coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, echovirus, and poliovirus species. Infection with these viruses can induce mild symptoms that resemble the common cold, but can also be associated with more severe syndromes such as poliomyelitis, neurological diseases including aseptic meningitis and encephalitis, myocarditis, and the onset of type I diabetes. In humans, polarized epithelial cells lining the respiratory and/or digestive tracts represent the initial sites of infection by enteroviruses. Control of infection in the host is initiated through the engagement of a variety of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs act as the sentinels of the innate immune system and serve to alert the host to the presence of a viral invader. This review assembles the available data annotating the role of PRRs in the response to enteroviral infection as well as the myriad ways by which enteroviruses both interrupt and manipulate PRR signaling to enhance their own replication, thereby inducing human disease. PMID:23764548

Harris, Katharine G; Coyne, Carolyn B

2013-01-01

74

Simple Use of the Suppository Type Povidone-Iodine Can Prevent Infectious Complications in Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the effect of simple use of suppository povidone-iodine on infectious complications after transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy of the prostate. Methods. All 481 patients are included and received antibiotic prophylaxis. Among them, 360 patients received povidone-iodine suppository (Gynobetadine; 200 mg) immediately prior to biopsy and 121 patients did not. Infectious complications were classified. To evaluate bactericidal effects, we counted bacterial colonies in the rectum, harvested from a rectal swab before insertion of the suppository and after biopsy. Aliquots of the suspended bacterial strains were added to Mueller-Hinton agar medium for incubation. Colony counts were determined. Results. Infectious complications developed in 1 case (0.3%) in the rectal preparation group (Group 1) and in 8 cases (6.6%) in the nonrectal preparation group (Group 2). One in Group 1 had a fever without sepsis. Two patients had sepsis and six had fever without sepsis in Group 2. Rectal preparation was a statistically significant risk factor influencing the development of infectious complications. In vitro experiments, the mean number of colony-forming units decreased 99.9% after the rectal povidone-iodine preparation. Conclusions. All through the biopsy, povidone-iodine melted into the rectum and decreased the bacterial colony count. Simple use of povidone-iodine suppository before prostate biopsy minimizes the risk of infectious complications. PMID:19404480

Park, Dong Soo; Oh, Jong Jin; Lee, Jin Ha; Jang, Woong Ki; Hong, Young Kwon; Hong, Sung Keun

2009-01-01

75

Anti-Enterovirus 71 Effects of Chrysin and Its Phosphate Ester  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause severe disease and even lead to death in children, and an effective antiviral drug is currently unavailable. The anti-EV71 effect of chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid commonly found in many plants, was tested in this report. By using the predicting program Autodock 4.0 and an in vitro protease inhibition assay, we found that chrysin could suppress viral 3Cpro activity. Replication of viral RNA and production of viral capsid protein and the infectious virion were strongly inhibited by chrysin, without noticeable cytotoxicity. Cytopathic effects on cells were also prevented. Diisopropyl chrysin-7-yl phosphate (CPI), the phosphate ester for chrysin, was generated through a simplified Atheron-Todd reaction to achieve stronger anti-viral activity. CPI was also able to bind with and inhibit viral 3Cpro activity in vitro. As expected, CPI demonstrated more potent antiviral activity against EV71. PMID:24598537

Du, Jiang; Cui, Sheng; Yang, Fan; Jin, Qi

2014-01-01

76

112 The Development of Enterovirus 71 Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major cause of epidemic outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. The virus belongs to the family Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus. 3 genotypes—A, B, and C and more than 10 sub-genotypes have been identified. After the initial identification of this virus in 1969, some large outbreaks of HFMD have been reported worldwide. EV71-induced HFMD is usually characterized by the formation of maculopapular or vesicular lesions on the skin and oral mucosa, especially on the palms, soles, and mouth. There were a greater number of fatal cases with brainstem encephalitis, pulmonary edema and/or hemorrhage, and cardiopulmonary collapse. Developing effective vaccines is considered a top choice among all control measures. We evaluated the ability of inactivated virus vaccine to elicit neutralizing antibody and to provide protection against lethal infection of EV71 in suckling mice. The purity of EV71 vaccine was up to 96.8% by HPLC identification. The purified EV71 vaccine induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies, these antibodies were shown to be protective against lethal infection when passively transferred to susceptible newborn mice. With a challenge dose of 50LD50 virus/mouse, suckling mice born to dams immunized with inactivated virus showed 100% survival. In preliminary animal trial, no side effects were detected when monkeys were immunized with purified EV71 vaccine either at normal or large doses. The vaccine was approved of the clinical evaluation in 2009. The phase 1/2/3 clinical trail was completed in March 2013. The data suggested that the inactivated EV71 vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile and good immunogenicity in healthy children and infants. Our data indicated that inactivated EV71 vaccine is the choice of vaccine preparation capable of fulfilling the demand for effective control.

Xiuling, Li; Zhongyang, Zhang; Xiaoxiao, Wang; Chunsheng, Hao; Yi, Li; Chong, Zhang; Chen, Zhang; Ming, Chen; haijing, Ning; Yu, Liu; Lei, Chen; Shuhua, Ma; Yongjuan, Yang; Dongmei, Song; Xinliang, Shen

2014-01-01

77

Differential growth of U and M type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in a rainbow trout–derived cell line, RTG-2  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of salmonids. In rainbow trout, IHNV isolates in the M genogroup are highly pathogenic, while U genogroup isolates are significantly less pathogenic. We show here that, at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1, a representative U type strain yielded 42-fold less infectious virus than an M type strain in the rainbow trout–derived RTG-2 cell line at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). However, at an MOI of 10, there was only fivefold difference in the yield of infectious virus between the U and M strains. Quantification of extracellular viral genomic RNA suggested that the number of virus particles released from cells infected with the U strain at a MOI of 1 was 47-fold lower than from M-infected cells, but U and M virions were equally infectious by particle to infectivity ratios. At an MOI of 1, U strain intracellular viral genome accumulation and transcription were 37- and 12-fold lower, respectively, than those of the M strain at 24 h p.i. Viral nucleocapsid (N) protein accumulation in U strain infections was fivefold lower than in M strain infections. These results suggest that the block in U type strain growth in RTG-2 cells was because of the effects of reduced genome replication and transcription. The reduced growth of the U strain does not seem to be caused by defective genes, because the U and M strains grew equally well in the permissive epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line at an MOI of 1. This suggests that host-specific factors in RTG-2 cells control the growth of the IHNV U and M strains differently, leading to growth restriction of the U type virus during the RNA synthesis step.

Gael Kurath;Maureen Purcell;Wargo, , Andrew;Park, Jeong, Woo;Moon, Chang, Hoon

2010-01-01

78

Enterovirus infection in Korean children and anti-enteroviral potential candidate agents  

PubMed Central

Although most enterovirus infections are not serious enough to be life threatening, several enteroviruses such as enterovirus 71 are responsible for severe, potentially life-threatening disease. The epidemic patterns of enteroviruses occur regularly during the year, but they may change due to environmental shifts induced by climate change due to global warming. Therefore, enterovirus epidemiological studies should be performed continuously as a basis for anti-viral studies. A great number of synthesized antiviral compounds that work against enteroviruses have been developed but only a few have demonstrated effectiveness in vivo. No proven effective antiviral agents are available for enterovirus disease therapy. The development of a new antiviral drug is a difficult task due to poor selective toxicity and cost. To overcome these limitations, one approach is to accelerate the availability of other existing antiviral drugs approved for antiviral effect against enteroviruses, and the other way is to screen traditional medicinal plants. PMID:23133481

Park, Kwi Sung; Choi, Young Jin

2012-01-01

79

High Susceptibility for Enterovirus Infection and Virus Excretion Features in Tunisian Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies  

E-print Network

High Susceptibility for Enterovirus Infection and Virus Excretion Features in Tunisian Patients, Ministry of Health, Tunis, Tunisiad To estimate the susceptibility to enterovirus infection), enteroviruses were assessed in stool specimens of 82 patients with humoral, com- bined, and other PIDs. Isolated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

Co-Circulation and Evolution of Polioviruses and Species C Enteroviruses in a District  

E-print Network

Co-Circulation and Evolution of Polioviruses and Species C Enteroviruses in a District and phenotypic characteristics and compared them with co-circulating enteroviruses. These VDPVs appeared poliovaccine (OPV) in the 59-half of the genome and sequences derived from unidentified species C enteroviruses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

81

Bovine enteroviruses as indicators of fecal contamination.  

PubMed

Surface waters frequently have been contaminated with human enteric viruses, and it is likely that animal enteric viruses have contaminated surface waters also. Bovine enteroviruses (BEV), found in cattle worldwide, usually cause asymptomatic infections and are excreted in the feces of infected animals in large numbers. In this study, the prevalence and genotype of BEV in a closed herd of cattle were evaluated and compared with BEV found in animals in the immediate environment and in environmental specimens. BEV was found in feces from 76% of cattle, 38% of white-tailed deer, and one of three Canada geese sharing the same pastures, as well as the water obtained from animal watering tanks, from the pasture, from streams running from the pasture to an adjacent river, and from the river, which emptied into the Chesapeake Bay. Furthermore, BEV was found in oysters collected from that river downstream from the farm. These findings suggest that BEV could be used as an indicator of fecal pollution originating from animals (cattle and/or deer). Partial sequence analysis of the viral genomes indicates that different viral variants coexist in the same area. The possibility of identifying the viral strains found in the animals and in the contaminated areas by sequencing the RNA genome, could provide a tool to find the origin of the contamination and should be useful for epidemiological and viral molecular evolution studies. PMID:12089028

Ley, Victoria; Higgins, James; Fayer, Ronald

2002-07-01

82

Human enterovirus 71 epidemics: what's next?  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) epidemics have affected various countries in the past 40 years. EV71 commonly causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, but can result in neurological and cardiorespiratory complications in severe cases. Genotypic changes of EV71 have been observed in different places over time, with the emergence of novel genotypes or subgenotypes giving rise to serious outbreaks. Since the late 1990s, intra- and inter-typic recombination events in EV71 have been increasingly reported in the Asia-Pacific region. In particular, ‘double-recombinant’ EV71 strains belonging to a novel genotype D have been predominant in mainland China and Hong Kong over the last decade, though co-circulating with a minority of other EV71 subgenotypes and coxsackie A viruses. Continuous surveillance and genome studies are important to detect potential novel mutants or recombinants in the near future. Rapid and sensitive molecular detection of EV71 is of paramount importance in anticipating and combating EV71 outbreaks. PMID:24119538

Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2013-01-01

83

[Infectious pulmonary diseases].  

PubMed

Infectious pulmonary diseases and pneumonias are important causes of death within the group of infectious diseases in Germany. Most cases are triggered by bacteria. The morphology of the inflammation is often determined by the agent involved but several histopathological types of reaction are possible. Histology alone is only rarely able to identify the causal agent; therefore additional microbiological diagnostics are necessary in most cases. Clinically cases are classified as community acquired and nosocomial pneumonia, pneumonia under immunosuppression and mycobacterial infections. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial as well as lobar and focal pneumonia can be differentiated. PMID:25319227

Hager, T; Reis, H; Theegarten, D

2014-11-01

84

Passive Immunity in Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Antibodies have been used for over a century in the prevention and treatment of infectious disease. They are used most commonly for the prevention of measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, varicella, rabies, and vaccinia. Although their use in the treatment of bacterial infection has largely been supplanted by antibiotics, antibodies remain a critical component of the treatment of diptheria, tetanus, and botulism. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin can be used to treat certain viral infections in immunocompromised patients (e.g., cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, and enterovirus infections). Antibodies may also be of value in toxic shock syndrome, Ebola virus, and refractory staphylococcal infections. Palivizumab, the first monoclonal antibody licensed (in 1998) for an infectious disease, can prevent respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants. The development and use of additional monoclonal antibodies to key epitopes of microbial pathogens may further define protective humoral responses and lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:11023960

Keller, Margaret A.; Stiehm, E. Richard

2000-01-01

85

Infectious Diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The mechanisms of disease production by enteric pathogens include mucosal adherence, mucosal invasion, and the effect of toxins\\u000a and destruction of absorptive cells.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical syndromes of infectious diarrhea include food poisoning, viral gastroenteritis, diarrhea in the returning traveler,\\u000a community-acquired infectious diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infection, and subacute to chronic diarrhea due to parasitic diseases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Bloody diarrhea in an

Manie Beheshti; W. Lance George

86

Enterovirus immunity and maternal enterovirus infections - connection to type 1 diabetes.  

E-print Network

??Tyypin 1 diabetes on insuliininpuutostauti, joka johtuu insuliinia tuottavien haiman beta-solujen tuhoutumisesta. Suomessa tyypin 1 diabeteksen ilmaantuvuus on korkein maailmassa. Taudin ilmaantuvuus on koko ajan… (more)

Viskari, Hanna

2005-01-01

87

The ecology of enteroviruses in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 100 different enteric viruses are known to be excreted in human feces. More than 1 million viruses may be excreted per gram of feces, and concentrations as high as 500,000 infectious virus particles per liter have been detected in raw sewage. Certain enteric viruses can persist for long periods of time in the environment. Reported survival times range

Joseph L. Melnick; Charles P. Gerba; Gerald Berg

1980-01-01

88

Infectious diarrhea.  

PubMed

Patients presenting to the emergency department with diarrhea should be evaluated for infectious causes. Information obtained from the history and physical examination should be used in deciding whether symptomatic treatment alone is sufficient or whether the patient's stool should be examined for pathogens. Antiperistaltic agents should be used only in selected patients, usually after the results of stool cultures are known to be negative. Antibiotic administration should be based on results of stool cultures and examination for parasites. Finally, the emergency physician should be familiar with the special situations of traveler's diarrhea, food-borne illness, and sexually transmitted enteric disease. PMID:3902451

Kimmey, M

1985-02-01

89

Molecular identification and analysis of nonserotypeable human enteroviruses.  

PubMed

Conventional approaches to characterizing human enteroviruses (HEVs) are based on viral isolation and neutralization. Molecular typing methods depend largely on reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequencing of the entire or partial VP1 gene. A modified RT-PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was developed as a rapid and efficient way to characterize common and nonserotypeable (by neutralization) HEVs. Twenty HEV serotypes accounted for 87.1% of all HEVs isolated at a reference laboratory from 1979 to 2007; these common serotypes were identified using one sense and three antisense primers and a set of 80 serotype-specific probes in VP1 (F. Zhou et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:2737-2743, 2009). In this study, one HEV-specific primer pair, two probes in the 5' untranslated region (UTR), and a new set of 80 serotype-specific probes in VP1 were designed. First, we successfully applied the modified RT-PCR-RLB (using two HEV-specific probes and two sets of serotype-specific probes) to synchronously detect the 5' UTR and VP1 regions of 131/132 isolates previously studied (F. Zhou et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:2737-2743, 2009). Then, this method was used to identify 73/92 nonserotypeable HEV isolates; 19 nonserotypeable isolates were hybridized only with HEV-specific probes. The VP1 region of 92 nonserotypeable HEV isolates was sequenced; 73 sequences corresponded with one or both RLB results and 19 (not belonging to the 20 most common genotypes) were identified only by sequencing. Two sets of serotype-specific probes can capture the majority of strains belonging to the 20 most common serotypes/genotypes simultaneously or complementarily. Synchronous detection of the 5' UTR and VP1 region by RT-PCR-RLB will facilitate the identification of HEVs, especially nonserotypeable isolates. PMID:20164278

Zhou, Fei; Kong, Fanrong; McPhie, Kenneth; Ratnamohan, Mala; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Dwyer, Dominic E

2010-04-01

90

Virus infections in type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

The precise etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still unknown, but viruses have long been suggested as a potential environmental trigger for the disease. However, despite decades of research, the body of evidence supporting a relationship between viral infections and initiation or acceleration of islet autoimmunity remains largely circumstantial. The most robust association with viruses and T1D involves enterovirus species, of which some strains have the ability to induce or accelerate disease in animal models. Several hypotheses have been formulated to mechanistically explain how viruses may affect islet autoimmunity and ?-cell decay. The recent observation that certain viral infections, when encountered at the right time and infectious dose, can prevent autoimmune diabetes illustrates that potential relationships may be more complex than previously thought. Here, we provide a concise summary of data obtained in mouse models and humans, and identify future avenues toward a better characterization of the association between viruses and T1D. PMID:22315719

Coppieters, Ken T; Boettler, Tobias; von Herrath, Matthias

2012-01-01

91

Dynamics of infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J.

2014-02-01

92

Space-time clustering analyses of type 1 diabetes in children from north-east England: support for an infectious aetiology?  

PubMed Central

Background The aetiology of type 1 diabetes in children is uncertain. A number of recent studies have suggested an infectious aetiology. It has been postulated that an infectious agent may be involved. Support for this hypothesis may be provided by a finding of space-time clustering. The aims of this study were: (i) to determine whether there was space-time clustering in cases of childhood diabetes from north-east England; and to test for differences in space-time clustering: (ii) due to age at diagnosis; (iii) between the sexes and (iv) between levels of residential population density. Methods We studied incidence of type 1 diabetes diagnosed in children aged 0-14 years and diagnosed during the period 1990-2007. All cases were resident in a defined geographical region of north-east England (Northumberland, Newcastle upon Tyne and North Tyneside). We applied a second-order procedure based on K-functions to test for global clustering. Locations were residential addresses at time of diagnosis. Tests were repeated using nearest neighbour thresholds to allow for variable population density, providing the primary result for each analysis. Differences between sexes and between levels of population density were assessed. Results We analysed 457 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was marginally significant evidence of global space-time clustering (P = 0.089). There was statistically significant clustering amongst pairs of cases that contained at least one female (P = 0.017), but not amongst pairs of cases that contained at least one male (P = 0.190). Furthermore, there was significant clustering amongst pairs of cases that contained at least one from a more densely populated area (P = 0.044), but not amongst pairs of cases that contained at least one from a less densely populated area (P = 0.226). Conclusion Although the analyses have only found marginally significant evidence of global space-time clustering for cases of type 1 diabetes diagnosed in north-east England, there were two notable findings. First, there was evidence of clustering amongst females and secondly clustering was confined to cases from more densely populated areas. These findings are consistent with a possible aetiological involvement of an infectious agent. PMID:20102581

2009-01-01

93

Epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human enterovirus 71 among Thai populations  

PubMed Central

Background Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important pathogen caused large outbreaks in Asian-Pacific region with severe neurological complications and may lead to death in young children. Understanding of the etiological spectrum and epidemic changes of enterovirus and population’s immunity against EV71 are crucial for the implementation of future therapeutic and prophylactic intervention. Results A total of 1,182 patients who presented with the symptoms of hand foot and mouth disease (67.3%) or herpangina (HA) (16.7%) and admitted to the hospitals during 2008-2013 were tested for enterovirus using pan-enterovirus PCR targeting 5?-untranslated region and specific PCR for viral capsid protein 1 gene. Overall, 59.7% were pan-enterovirus positive comprising 9.1% EV71 and 31.2% coxsackievirus species A (CV-A) including 70.5% CV-A6, 27.6% CV-A16, 1.1% CV-A10, and 0.8% CV-A5. HFMD and HA occurred endemically during 2008-2011. The number of cases increased dramatically in June 2012 with the percentage of the recently emerged CV-A6 significantly rose to 28.4%. Co-circulation between different EV71 genotypes was observed during the outbreak. Total of 161 sera obtained from healthy individuals were tested for neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against EV71 subgenotype B5 (EV71-B5) using microneutralization assay. The seropositive rate of EV71-B5 was 65.8%. The age-adjusted seroprevalence for individuals was found to be lowest in children aged >6 months to 2 years (42.5%). The seropositive rate remained relatively low in preschool children aged?>?2 years to 6 years (48.3%) and thereafter increased sharply to more than 80% in individuals aged?>?6 years. Conclusions This study describes longitudinal data reflecting changing patterns of enterovirus prevalence over 6 years and demonstrates high seroprevalences of EV71-B5 NAb among Thai individuals. The rate of EV71 seropositive increased with age but without gender-specific significant difference. We identified that relative lower EV71 seropositive rate in early 2012 may demonstrate widely presented of EV71-B5 in the population before account for a large outbreak scale epidemic occurred in 2012 with due to a relatively high susceptibility of the younger population. PMID:24548776

2014-01-01

94

Evaluation of single-round infectious, chimeric dengue type 1 virus as an antigen for dengue functional antibody assays.  

PubMed

Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are endemic throughout tropical and subtropical countries. Four serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV-1 to DENV-4), each with several genotypes including various subclades, are co-distributed in most endemic areas. Infection-neutralizing and -enhancing antibodies are believed to play protective and pathogenic roles, respectively. Measurement of these functional antibodies against a variety of viral strains is thus important for evaluating coverage and safety of dengue vaccine candidates. Although transportation of live virus materials beyond national borders is increasingly limited, this difficulty may be overcome using biotechnology that enables generation of an antibody-assay antigen equivalent to authentic virus based on viral sequence information. A rapid system to produce flavivirus single-round infectious particles (SRIPs) was recently developed using a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) subgenomic replicon plasmid. This system allows production of chimeric SRIPs that have surface proteins of other flaviviruses. In the present study, SRIPs of DENV-1 (D1-SRIPs) were evaluated as an antigen for functional antibody assays. Inclusion of the whole mature capsid gene of JEV into the replicon plasmid provided higher D1-SRIP yields than did its exclusion in cases where a DENV-1 surface-protein-expressing plasmid was used for co-transfection of 293T cells with the replicon plasmid. In an assay to measure the balance between neutralizing and enhancing activities, dose (antibody dilution)-dependent activity curves in dengue-immune human sera or mouse monoclonal antibodies obtained using D1-SRIP antigen were equivalent to those obtained using DENV-1 antigen. Similar results were obtained using additional DENV-2 and DENV-3 systems. In a conventional Vero-cell neutralization test, a significant correlation was shown between antibody titers obtained using D1-SRIP and DENV-1 antigens. These results demonstrate the utility of D1-SRIPs as an alternative antigen to authentic DENV-1 in functional antibody assays. SRIP antigens may contribute to dengue vaccine candidate evaluation, understanding of dengue pathogenesis, and development of serodiagnostic systems. PMID:24950360

Yamanaka, Atsushi; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Konishi, Eiji

2014-07-23

95

Restricted growth of U-type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout cells may be linked to casein kinase II activity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previously, we demonstrated that a representative M genogroup type strain of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from rainbow trout grows well in rainbow trout-derived RTG-2 cells, but a U genogroup type strain from sockeye salmon has restricted growth, associated with reduced genome replication and mRNA transcription. Here, we analysed further the mechanisms for this growth restriction of U-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells, using strategies that assessed differences in viral genes, host immune regulation and phosphorylation. To determine whether the viral glycoprotein (G) or non-virion (NV) protein was responsible for the growth restriction, four recombinant IHNV viruses were generated in which the G gene of an infectious IHNV clone was replaced by the G gene of U- or M-type IHNV and the NV gene was replaced by NV of U- or M-type IHNV. There was no significant difference in the growth of these recombinants in RTG-2 cells, indicating that G and NV proteins are not major factors responsible for the differential growth of the U- and M-type strains. Poly I:C pretreatment of RTG-2 cells suppressed the growth of both U- and M-type IHNV, although the M virus continued to replicate at a reduced level. Both viruses induced type 1 interferon (IFN1) and the IFN1 stimulated gene Mx1, but the expression levels in M-infected cells were significantly higher than in U-infected cells and an inhibitor of the IFN1-inducible protein kinase PKR, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), did not affect the growth of U- or M-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells. These data did not indicate a role for the IFN1 system in the restricted growth of U-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells. Prediction of kinase-specific phosphorylation sites in the viral phosphoprotein (P) using the NetPhosK program revealed differences between U- and M-type P genes at five phosphorylation sites. Pretreatment of RTG-2 cells with a PKC inhibitor or a p38MAPK inhibitor did not affect the growth of the U- and M-type viruses. However, 100 ?m of the casein kinase II (CKII) inhibitor, 5,6-dichloro-1-?-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB), reduced the titre of the U type 8.3-fold at 24 h post-infection. In contrast, 100 ?m of the CKII inhibitor reduced the titre of the M type only 1.3-fold at 48 h post-infection. Our data suggest that the different growth of U- and M-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells may be linked to a differential requirement for cellular protein kinases such as CKII for their growth.

Park, J.-W.; Moon, C.H.; Harmache, A.; Wargo, A.R.; Purcell, M.K.; Bremont, M.; Kurath, G.

2011-01-01

96

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Are Highly Susceptible to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection and Release Infectious Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pcDC) and myeloid dendritic cells (myDC) are shown to express CD4 and low levels of CCR5 and CXCR4, but only myDC express DC SIGN, a C-type lectin that binds human immunode- ficiency virus but does not mediate virus entry. Both DC types were more susceptible to infection with a macrophage than a lymphotropic strain of human immunodeficiency

STEVEN PATTERSON; AARON RAE; NICOLA HOCKEY; JILL GILMOUR; FRANCES GOTCH

2001-01-01

97

Sub-clinical enterovirus infections in Norwegian infants: A prospective cohort study on viral circulation and predictors of infection.  

E-print Network

??Background: Enteroviruses are common in infancy, but usually sub-clinical and self-limiting. Most previous data on enterovirus circulation derive from analyses of specimens from individuals with… (more)

Witsø, Elisabet

2009-01-01

98

A Non-Mouse-Adapted Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Strain Exhibits Neurotropism, Causing Neurological Manifestations in a Novel Mouse Model of EV71 Infection  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that has been consistently associated with the severe neurological forms of hand, foot, and mouth disease. The lack of a relevant animal model has hampered our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, in particular the route and mode of viral dissemination. It has also hindered the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic approaches, making EV71 one of the most pressing public health concerns in Southeast Asia. Here we report a novel mouse model of EV71 infection. We demonstrate that 2-week-old and younger immunodeficient AG129 mice, which lack type I and II interferon receptors, are susceptible to infection with a non-mouse-adapted EV71 strain via both the intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral routes of inoculation. The infected mice displayed progressive limb paralysis prior to death. The dissemination of the virus was dependent on the route of inoculation but eventually resulted in virus accumulation in the central nervous systems of both animal groups, indicating a clear neurotropism of the virus. Histopathological examination revealed massive damage in the limb muscles, brainstem, and anterior horn areas. However, the minute amount of infectious viral particles in the limbs from orally infected animals argues against a direct viral cytopathic effect in this tissue and suggests that limb paralysis is a consequence of EV71 neuroinvasion. Together, our observations support that young AG129 mice display polio-like neuropathogenesis upon infection with a non-mouse-adapted EV71 strain, making this mouse model relevant for EV71 pathogenesis studies and an attractive platform for EV71 vaccine and drug testing. PMID:22130542

Khong, Wei Xin; Yan, Benedict; Yeo, Huimin; Tan, Eng Lee; Lee, Jia Jun; Ng, Jowin K. W.; Chow, Vincent T.

2012-01-01

99

Infectious hepatitis A virus particles produced in cell culture consist of three distinct types with different buoyant densities in CsCl.  

PubMed Central

Although hepatitis A virus (HAV) released by infected BS-C-1 cells banded predominantly at 1.325 g/cm3 (major component) in CsCl, smaller proportions of infectious virions banded at 1.42 g/cm3 (dense HAV particles) and at 1.27 g/cm3 (previously unrecognized light HAV particles). cDNA-RNA hybridization confirmed the banding of viral RNA at each density, and immune electron microscopy demonstrated apparently complete viral particles in each peak fraction. The ratio of the infectivity (radioimmunofocus assay) titer to the antigen (radioimmunoassay) titer of the major component was approximately 15-fold greater than that of dense HAV particles and 4-fold that of light HAV particles. After extraction with chloroform, the buoyant density of light and major component HAV particles remained unchanged, indicating that the lower density of the light particles was not due to association with lipids. Light particles also banded at a lower density (1.21 g/cm3) in metrizamide than did the major component (1.31 g/cm3). Dense HAV particles, detected by subsequent centrifugation in CsCl, were indistinguishable from the major component when first banded in metrizamide (1.31 g/cm3). However, dense HAV particles recovered from CsCl subsequently banded at 1.37 g/cm3 in metrizamide. Electrophoresis of virion RNA under denaturing conditions demonstrated that dense, major-component, and light HAV particles all contained RNA of similar length. Thus, infectious HAV particles released by BS-C-1 cells in vitro consist of three distinct types which band at substantially different densities in CsC1, suggesting different capsid structures with varied permeability to cesium or different degrees of hydration. Images PMID:2983123

Lemon, S M; Jansen, R W; Newbold, J E

1985-01-01

100

High Frequency and Diversity of Species C Enteroviruses in Cameroon and Neighboring Countries  

PubMed Central

Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are endemic worldwide and among the most common viruses infecting humans. Nevertheless, there are very limited data on the circulation and genetic diversity of HEVs in developing countries and sub-Saharan Africa in particular. We investigated the circulation and genetic diversity of HEVs among 436 healthy children in a limited area of the far north region of Cameroon in 2008 and 2009. We also characterized the genetic biodiversity of 146 nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) isolates obtained throughout the year 2008 from stool specimens of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Cameroon, Chad, and Gabon. We found a high rate of NPEV infections (36.9%) among healthy children in the far north region of Cameroon. Overall, 45 different HEV types were found among healthy children and AFP patients. Interestingly, this study uncovered a high rate of HEVs of species C (HEV-C) among all typed NPEVs: 63.1% (94/149) and 39.5% (49/124) in healthy children and AFP cases, respectively. Besides extensive circulation, the most prevalent HEV-C type, coxsackievirus A-13, featured a tremendous intratypic diversity. Africa-specific HEV lineages were discovered, including HEV-C lineages and the recently reported EV-A71 “genogroup E.” Virtually all pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) that have been fully characterized were recombinants between oral poliovaccine (OPV) strains and cocirculating HEV-C strains. The extensive circulation of diverse HEV-C types and lineages in countries where OPV is massively used constitutes a major viral factor that could promote the emergence of recombinant cVDPVs in the Central African subregion. PMID:23254123

Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Bessaud, Mael; Massenet, Denis; Joffret, Marie-Line; Endegue, Marie-Claire; Njouom, Richard; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Rousset, Dominique

2013-01-01

101

Enterovirus 71 Induces Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Generation That is Required for Efficient Replication  

PubMed Central

Redox homeostasis is an important host factor determining the outcome of infectious disease. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has become an important endemic disease in Southeast Asia and China. We have previously shown that oxidative stress promotes viral replication, and progeny virus induces oxidative stress in host cells. The detailed mechanism for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in infected cells remains elusive. In the current study, we demonstrate that mitochondria were a major ROS source in EV71-infected cells. Mitochondria in productively infected cells underwent morphologic changes and exhibited functional anomalies, such as a decrease in mitochondrial electrochemical potential ??m and an increase in oligomycin-insensitive oxygen consumption. Respiratory control ratio of mitochondria from infected cells was significantly lower than that of normal cells. The total adenine nucleotide pool and ATP content of EV71-infected cells significantly diminished. However, there appeared to be a compensatory increase in mitochondrial mass. Treatment with mito-TEMPO reduced eIF2? phosphorylation and viral replication, suggesting that mitochondrial ROS act to promote viral replication. It is plausible that EV71 infection induces mitochondrial ROS generation, which is essential to viral replication, at the sacrifice of efficient energy production, and that infected cells up-regulate biogenesis of mitochondria to compensate for their functional defect. PMID:25401329

Cheng, Mei-Ling; Weng, Shiue-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hao; Ho, Hung-Yao

2014-01-01

102

Construction and Characterization of a Full-Length Infectious Simian T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 3 Molecular Clone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Together with their simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV) equivalent, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), HTLV-2, and HTLV-3 form the primate T-cell lymphotropic virus (PTLV) group. Over the years, understanding the biology and pathogenesis of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 has been widely improved by the creation of molecular clones. In contrast, so far, PTLV-3 experimental studies have been restricted to

Sebastien Alain Chevalier; M. Walic; S. Calattini; A. Mallet; M.-C. Prevost; A. Gessain; R. Mahieux

2007-01-01

103

Partial sequencing of the VP2 capsid gene for direct enterovirus genotyping in clinical specimens.  

PubMed

Typing of human enterovirus (EV) remains a major goal for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes. Whereas sequencing of the VP1 coding region is the reference standard for EV typing, a method relying on sequencing of the VP2 coding region has been proposed as an alternative; however, this has been validated only on cell culture supernatants. To avoid the selection of cultivable strains and to quicken the identification step, a new semi-nested PCR method targeting the VP2 region was developed by use of the CODEHOP strategy. After validation of the method on reference and clinical strains, a total of 352 clinical specimens found to be positive for EV RNA (138 with the GeneXpert EV kit and 214 with the Enterovirus R-gene kit) during a 3-year period (2010-2012) were analysed prospectively for VP2 genotyping. Overall, 204 (58%) specimens were typeable. A higher proportion of throat swab/stool specimens than of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens was found to be typeable (94 of 142 (66.2%) vs. 83 of 169 (49.1%), respectively, p <0.01 by the chi-square test). Moreover, the median Ct value obtained was lower for typeable specimens than for untypeable specimens (32.20 vs. 33.01, p <0.05, and 25.96 vs. 31.74, p <0.001, for the GeneXpert and R-gene tests, respectively, by the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test). These results suggest that, in cases of EV meningitis, a peripheral specimen (i.e. throat swab or stool) that is susceptible to exhibiting a higher viral load should be used in preference to CSF for identifying the causative EV genotype by use of the VP2 typing method without cell culture isolation. PMID:24372815

Ibrahim, W; Boukhadra, N; Nasri-Zoghlami, D; Berthelot, P; Omar, S; Bourlet, T; Pozzetto, B; Pillet, S

2014-09-01

104

Officials Report First Confirmed Child Death Due to Enterovirus D68  

MedlinePLUS

... Officials Report First Confirmed Child Death Due to Enterovirus D68 Virus, which can cause paralysis, has spread to ... 6, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. outbreak of Enterovirus D68 has claimed its first confirmed victim, a 4- ...

105

Deferoxamine compensates for decreases in B cell counts and reduces mortality in enterovirus 71-infected mice.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in children under six years of age. No vaccine or antiviral therapy is currently available. In this work, we found that the number of B cells was reduced in enterovirus 71-infected mice. Deferoxamine, a marine microbial natural product, compensated for the decreased levels of B cells caused by enterovirus 71 infection. The neutralizing antibody titer was also improved after deferoxamine treatment. Furthermore, deferoxamine relieved symptoms and reduced mortality and muscle damage caused by enterovirus 71 infection. This work suggested that deferoxamine has the potential for further development as a B cell-immunomodulator against enterovirus 71. PMID:25003792

Yang, Yajun; Ma, Jing; Xiu, Jinghui; Bai, Lin; Guan, Feifei; Zhang, Li; Liu, Jiangning; Zhang, Lianfeng

2014-07-01

106

Studies on Infectious Mononucleosis  

PubMed Central

Viral studies were carried out on throat swabs, rectal swabs and washed white blood cells from 27 cases of infectious mononucleosis (positive Paul-Bunnell-David-sohn test), and from 22 controls. Four cytopathic agents were isolated in the test group, two of which were readily subcultured for at least three successive passages. Three cytopathic agents were recovered in the control group, two of which have been identified as adenovirus type 5 and adenovirus type 3. The unidentified agents tested so far are sensitive to ether and to pH 3. The results of acridine-orange staining and the immunofluorescence technique, using a conjugated control serum and two conjugated convalescent infectious mononucleosis sera, indicate that the isolated agent or agents in the test group are RNA-type agents with a cytoplasmic cycle of development. The overall results of this study lead the authors to suspect a respiratory syncytial-like myxovirus as the as yet unidentified agent which they recovered. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 1bFig. 1cFig. 1dFig. 2aFig. 2bFig. 2cFig. 2dFig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 3cFig. 3dFig. 3eFig. 3f PMID:4952899

Joncas, J.; Chagnon, A.; Pavilanis, V.

1966-01-01

107

Typing hepatitis C virus by polymerase chain reaction with type-specific primers: application to clinical surveys and tracing infectious sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on variation in nucleotide sequence within restricted regions in the putative C (core) gene of hepatitis C virus (HCV), four groups of HCV have been postulated in a panel of 44 HCV isolates. They were provisionally designated types I, II, III and IV. A method for typing HCV was developed, depending on the amplification of a C gene sequence

Hiroaki Okamoto; Yasushi Sugiyama; Shunichi Okada; Kiyohiko Kurai; Yoshihiro Akahane; Yoshiki Sugai; Takeshi Tanaka; Koei Sato; Fumio Tsuda; Yuzo Miyakawa; M. Mayumi

1992-01-01

108

Antiviral Activity of Salmonid Gamma Interferon against Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus and Salmonid Alphavirus and Its Dependency on Type I Interferon?  

PubMed Central

We investigated the antiviral activity and gene induction properties of interferon gamma (IFN-?) compared to type I IFN (IFNa1) in Atlantic salmon. IFN-? protected salmon cells against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV)-induced cytopathic effect (CPE), reduced virus titers, and inhibited the synthesis of the viral structural protein VP3. Moreover, IFN-? showed potent antiviral activity against salmonid alphavirus 3 (SAV3) measured as a reduction in virus nsP1 transcripts. IFN-? (a type II IFN) had less specific antiviral activity against IPNV than IFNa1, showing a half-maximal effective concentration of 1.6 ng/ml versus 31 pg/ml determined in the CPE reduction assay. Compared to IFNa1, IFN-? was a more effective inducer of the antiviral protein GBP, several interferon regulatory transcription factors (IRFs), and the chemokine IP-10. The antiviral activity of IFN-? may also in part be ascribed to upregulation of Mx, ISG15, and viperin. These are typical type I IFN-induced genes in mammals and were also more strongly induced by IFNa1 than by IFN-? in salmon cells. Fish and mammalian IFN-? thus show strikingly similar gene induction properties. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of IFN-? against IPNV and SAV3 and its ability to induce Mx and ISG15 markedly decreased in the presence of neutralizing antiserum against IFNa1. In contrast, antiIFNa1 had no effect on the induction of IRF-1 and IP-10 by IFN-?. This suggests that the antiviral activity of IFN-? is partially dependent on IFNa induction. However, because antiIFNa1 could not abolish the IFN-?-mediated induction of Mx and ISG15 completely, IFN-? may possibly also induce such genes directly. PMID:21697489

Sun, Baojian; Skjaeveland, Ingrid; Svingerud, Tina; Zou, Jun; J?rgensen, Jorunn; Robertsen, B?rre

2011-01-01

109

Participation of three major glycoprotein antigens of herpes simplex virus type 1 early in the infectious cycle as determined by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.  

PubMed Central

Tissue culture cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 synthesize three major glycoprotein antigens (Ag-11, Ag-8, and Ag-6), which have been characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. The three viral antigens have been identified as a mixture of gA and gB (Ag-11), gD (Ag-8), and gC (Ag-6). Recent findings have shown that antibodies directed to each of the three antigens individually are able to mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity when tissue culture cells late in the infectious cycle (18 h postinfection) are used. In this work, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity was applied to study the time postinfection at which the individual viral antigens first made their appearance at the cell surface. All three viral antigens (Ag-11, Ag-8, and Ag-6) could be demonstrated as newly synthesized from 3 to 4 h postinfection, and the quantities of the antigens at the surfaces of the infected cells increased with time postinfection. The use of cycloheximide and ultraviolet-inactivated virus demonstrated that input virus could be detected by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity during the first 2 h postinfection, but the cytotoxicity caused by input virus remained constant with time postinfection. In conclusion, these observations demonstrate the participation of individual herpes simplex virus surface antigens in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity attack on cells early in infection. PMID:6247286

Norrild, B; Shore, S L; Cromeans, T L; Nahmias, A J

1980-01-01

110

Use of the 5' untranslated region and VP1 region to examine the molecular diversity in enterovirus B species.  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses evolve quickly. The 5' untranslated region (UTR) is fundamentally important for efficient viral replication and for virulence; the VP1 region correlates well with antigenic typing by neutralization, and can be used for virus identification and evolutionary studies. In order to investigate the molecular diversity in EV-B species, the 5' UTR and VP1 regions were analysed for 208 clinical isolates from a single public-health laboratory (serving New South Wales, Australia), representing 28 EV-B types. Sequences were compared with the 5' UTR and VP1 regions of 98 strains available in GenBank, representing the same 28 types. The genetic relationships were analysed using two types of software (mega and BioNumerics). The sequence analyses of the 5' UTR and VP1 regions of 306 EV-B strains demonstrated that: (i) comparing the two regions gives strong evidence of epidemiological linkage of strains in some serotypes; (ii) the intraserotypic genetic variation within each gene reveals that they evolve distinctly largely due to their different functions; and (iii) mutation and possible recombination in the two regions play significant roles in the molecular diversity of EV-B. Understanding the tempo and pattern of molecular diversity and evolution is of great importance in the pathogenesis of EV-B enteroviruses, information which will assist in disease prevention and control. PMID:25038138

Zhou, Fei; Wang, Qinning; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; O'Sullivan, Matthew V N; Iredell, Jonathan R; Dwyer, Dominic E

2014-10-01

111

Short Communication Characterization of an infectious clone of the wild-type yellow fever virus Asibi strain that is able to infect and disseminate in mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious clone technology provides an opportunity to study the molecular basis of arthropod-virus interactions in detail. This study describes the development of an infectious clone of the prototype yellow fever virus Asibi strain (YFV-As) with the purpose of identifying sequences or domains that influence infection dynamics in the mosquito vector. The full-length cDNA of YFV-As virus was produced from RT-PCR

Kate L. McElroy; Konstantin A. Tsetsarkin; Dana L. Vanlandingham; Stephen Higgs

112

Development and Evaluation of EPA Method 1615 for Detection of Enterovirus and Norovirus in Water  

PubMed Central

The U.S. EPA developed a sample concentration and preparation assay in conjunction with the total culturable virus assay for concentrating and measuring culturable viruses in source and drinking waters as part of the Information Collection Rule (ICR) promulgated in 1996. In an effort to improve upon this method, the U.S. EPA recently developed Method 1615: Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Method 1615 uses a culturable virus assay with reduced equipment and labor costs compared to the costs associated with the ICR virus method and introduces a new molecular assay for the detection of enteroviruses and noroviruses by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. In this study, we describe the optimization of several new components of the molecular assay and examine virus recovery from ground, reagent-grade, and surface water samples seeded with poliovirus type 3 and murine norovirus. For the culturable virus and molecular assays, mean poliovirus recovery using the complete method was 58% and 20% in groundwater samples, 122% and 39% using low-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, 42% and 48% using high-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, and 11% and 10% in surface water with high turbidity, respectively. Murine norovirus recovery by the molecular assay was 30% in groundwater samples, less than 8% in both low- and high-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, and 6% in surface water with high turbidity. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of Method 1615 for use with groundwater samples and highlights the need for further research into its effectiveness with surface water. PMID:23087037

Brinkman, Nichole E.; Griffin, Shannon M.; McMinn, Brian R.; Rhodes, Eric R.; Varughese, Eunice A.; Grimm, Ann C.; Parshionikar, Sandhya U.; Wymer, Larry; Fout, G. Shay

2013-01-01

113

Nutritional Modulation of Resistance to Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary characteristics can modulate a bird's susceptibility to infectious challenges and subtle influences due to the level of nutrients or the types of ingredients may at times be of critical importance. This review considers seven mechanisms for nutritional modulation of resistance to infectious disease in poultry. 1) Nutrition may impact the development of the immune system, both in ovo and

K. C. KLASING

1998-01-01

114

Parallelization: Infectious Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Epidemiology is the study of infectious disease. Infectious diseases are said to be "contagious" among people if they are transmittable from one person to another. Epidemiologists can use models to assist them in predicting the behavior of infectious diseases. This module will develop a simple agent-based infectious disease model, develop a parallel algorithm based on the model, provide a coded implementation for the algorithm, and explore the scaling of the coded implementation on high performance cluster resources.

Weeden, Aaron

115

Accuracy of Diagnostic Methods and Surveillance Sensitivity for Human Enterovirus, South Korea, 1999-2011  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999–2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results increased. A seasonal trend of outbreaks was documented. Genotypes enterovirus 71, echovirus 30, coxsackievirus B5, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B2 were the most common genotypes identified. Accurate test results correlated clinical syndromes to enterovirus genotypes: aseptic meningitis to echovirus 30, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B5; hand, foot and mouth disease to coxsackievirus A16; and hand, foot and mouth disease with neurologic complications to enterovirus 71. There are currently no treatments specific to human EV infections; surveillance of enterovirus infections such as this study provides may assist with evaluating the need to research and develop treatments for infections caused by virulent human EV genotypes. PMID:23876671

Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyejin; Song, Jaehyoung; Ahn, Jeongbae; Kang, Byunghak; Kim, Kisoon; Choi, Wooyoung; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Cheon-Hyun; Cho, Kyungsoon; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Min-Ji

2013-01-01

116

Action of commonly used disinfectants against enteroviruses.  

PubMed

The virucidal effect of some of the most commonly used hospital disinfectants against Coxsackie B4, Echovirus 11, Poliovirus type 1 and Rotavirus have been evaluated. It was found that 'Chloros', 'Totacide 28' and methylated spirits were completely virucidal to all the viruses under study. 'Stericol' and 'Lysol' had a limited effect while 'Hibiscrub' and 'Savlon' had no effect at all. PMID:6195231

Narang, H K; Codd, A A

1983-06-01

117

Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology.  

PubMed

In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection of a suitable internal control gene, real time PCR parameters were evaluated for three candidate genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 28S rRNA and beta-actin to IBDVs. Based on this beta-actin was selected as an internal control for quantification of IBDVs in BF. All BF samples with D78, DK01 or F52/70 inoculation were detected as virus positive at day 1 post inoculation (p.i.). The D78 viral load peaked at day 4 and day 8 p.i., while the DK01 and F52/70 viral load showed relatively high levels at day 2 p.i. In cloacal swabs, viruses detectable were at day 2 p.i. for DK01 and F52/70, day 8 p.i. for D78. Importantly, the primers set were specific as the D78 primer set gave no amplification of F52/70 and DK01 and the DK01 primer set gave no amplification of D78, thus DK01 and D78 could be quantified simultaneously in dually infected chickens by use of these two set of primers. The method described here is robust and may sever as a useful tool with high capacity for diagnostics as well as in viral pathogenesis studies. PMID:16678230

Li, Y P; Handberg, K J; Kabell, S; Kusk, M; Zhang, M F; Jørgensen, P H

2007-02-01

118

Neurotropic infectious agents and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The links between infectious agents and risk for schizophrenia have been widely debated, but few investigations have focused on "epidiagnostic" effects, eg, whether exposures to infectious agents alter key clinical aspects of the disorder, such as cognitive impairment. The present theme issue evaluates epidiagnostic cognitive effects of two common infectious agents, namely Herpes Simplex Virus, type 1 and Toxoplasma gondii. PMID:23117985

Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Yolken, Robert H

2012-11-01

119

Neurotropic Infectious Agents and Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The links between infectious agents and risk for schizophrenia have been widely debated, but few investigations have focused on “epidiagnostic” effects, eg, whether exposures to infectious agents alter key clinical aspects of the disorder, such as cognitive impairment. The present theme issue evaluates epidiagnostic cognitive effects of two common infectious agents, namely Herpes Simplex Virus, type 1 and Toxoplasma gondii. PMID:23117985

Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

2012-01-01

120

CLINICAL SEVERITY OF RHINOVIRUS/ENTEROVIRUS COMPARED TO OTHER RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN CHILDREN.  

E-print Network

?? Background: Human rhinovirus/enterovirus (HRV/ENT) infections are commonly identified in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs), but data on their clinical severity remains limited. We… (more)

Asner, Sandra Andrea, M.D

2013-01-01

121

Evidence for an enterovirus as the cause of encephalitis lethargica  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemic of encephalitis lethargica (EL), called classical EL, was rampant throughout the world during 1917–1926, affecting half a million persons. The acute phase was lethal for many victims. Post-encephalitic parkinsonism (PEP) affected patients for decades. Our purpose was to investigate the cause of classical EL by studying the few available brain specimens. Cases of PEP and modern EL were also studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunohistochemistry were employed to examine brain from four classical EL cases, two modern EL cases and one PEP case. Methods Standard methods for TEM, immunohistochemistry and RTPCR were applied. Results 27?nm virus-like particles (VLP) were observed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of midbrain neurons in all classical EL cases studied. Large (50?nm) VLP and 27?nm intranuclear VLP were observed in the modern EL cases and the PEP case. Influenza virus particles were not found. VLP were not observed in the control cases. TEM of cell cultures inoculated with coxsackievirus B4 and poliovirus revealed both small and large intranuclear virus particles and small cytoplasmic particles, similar to the VLP in EL neurons. In the EL brains, nascent VLP were embedded in putative virus factories and on endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The VLP in the cases of classical EL survived, whereas ribosomes underwent autolysis due to the lack of refrigeration and slow formaldehyde fixation of whole brain. The VLP were larger than ribosomes from well preserved brain. Immunohistochemistry of classical EL cases using anti-poliovirus and anti-coxsackievirus B polyclonal antibodies showed significant staining of cytoplasm and nuclei of neurons as well as microglia and neuropil. Purkinje cells were strongly stained. A 97-bp RNA fragment of a unique virus was isolated from brain tissue from acute EL case #91558. Sequence analysis revealed up to 95% identity to multiple human Enteroviruses. Additional cases had Enterovirus positive reactions by real time PCR. Conclusions The data presented here support the hypothesis that the VLP observed in EL tissue is an Enterovirus. PMID:22715890

2012-01-01

122

Complete genome sequence analysis of an enterovirus 75 isolate from China.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 75 (EV-B75) is a member of the species Enterovirus B (EV-B). So far, only the complete genome of the prototype strain from the United States is available. Here, we report the genome sequence of an EV-B75 isolate from an acute flaccid paralysis patient in China. Sequence analysis revealed high nucleotide sequence divergence from foreign EV-B75 strains and suggested several recombination events with other serotypes of EV-B. PMID:24852072

Tao, Zexin; Cui, Ning; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Haiyan; Song, Lizhi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Suting; Xu, Aiqiang; Song, Yanyan

2014-10-01

123

Detection of Enteroviruses and Rhinoviruses in Clinical Specimens by PCR and Liquid-Phase Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive method based on PCR followed by liquid-phase hybridization for detection of enterovirus and rhinovirus RNAs in clinical specimens and cell culture supernatants is described. RNA was extracted from stool samples, throat swabs, nasopharyngeal aspirates, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and plasma with a com- mercial phenol-guanidinium-chloroform reagent and purified on a polysulfone membrane, on which the reversetranscriptasereactionwasalsodone.Twosetsofoligonucleotideprimersfromthe5*noncodingregion ofpicornaviruseswereselectedforDNAamplificationof153-bp(enterovirus)and120-bp(rhinovirus)regions. Double-stranded amplicons

PEKKA HALONEN; ELISABET ROCHA; JOHN HIERHOLZER; BRIAN HOLLOWAY; TIMO HYYPIA; PERTTI HURSKAINEN; ANDMARK PALLANSCH; Wallac Oy

1995-01-01

124

Activation of MSRV-Type Endogenous Retroviruses during Infectious Mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr Virus Latency: The Missing Link with Multiple Sclerosis?  

PubMed Central

The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still unclear. The immuno-pathogenic phenomena leading to neurodegeneration are thought to be triggered by environmental (viral?) factors operating on predisposing genetic backgrounds. Among the proposed co-factors are the Epstein Barr virus (EBV), and the potentially neuropathogenic HERV-W/MSRV/Syncytin-1 endogenous retroviruses. The ascertained links between EBV and MS are history of late primary infection, possibly leading to infectious mononucleosis (IM), and high titers of pre-onset IgG against EBV nuclear antigens (anti-EBNA IgG). During MS, there is no evidence of MS-specific EBV expression, while a continuous expression of HERV-Ws occurs, paralleling disease behaviour. We found repeatedly extracellular HERV-W/MSRV and MSRV-specific mRNA sequences in MS patients (in blood, spinal fluid, and brain samples), and MRSV presence/load strikingly paralleled MS stages and active/remission phases. Aim of the study was to verify whether HERV-W might be activated in vivo, in hospitalized young adults with IM symptoms, that were analyzed with respect to expression of HERV-W/MSRV transcripts and proteins. Healthy controls were either EBV-negative or latently EBV-infected with/without high titers of anti-EBNA-1 IgG. The results show that activation of HERV-W/MSRV occurs in blood mononuclear cells of IM patients (2Log10 increase of MSRV-type env mRNA accumulation with respect to EBV-negative controls). When healthy controls are stratified for previous EBV infection (high and low, or no anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers), a direct correlation occurs with MSRV mRNA accumulation. Flow cytometry data show increased percentages of cells exposing surface HERV-Wenv protein, that occur differently in specific cell subsets, and in acute disease and past infection. Thus, the data indicate that the two main links between EBV and MS (IM and high anti-EBNA-1-IgG titers) are paralleled by activation of the potentially neuropathogenic HERV-W/MSRV. These novel findings suggest HERV-W/MSRV activation as the missing link between EBV and MS, and may open new avenues of intervention. PMID:24236019

Mameli, Giuseppe; Madeddu, Giordano; Mei, Alessandra; Uleri, Elena; Poddighe, Luciana; Delogu, Lucia G.; Maida, Ivana; Babudieri, Sergio; Serra, Caterina; Manetti, Roberto; Mura, Maria S.; Dolei, Antonina

2013-01-01

125

RESEARCH Open Access Construction and characterization of an infectious  

E-print Network

16 (CVA16) is a member of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family and it is a major) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) are major etiological agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is a common

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

Airplanes and Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air travel is associated with crowded conditions that can facilitate the transmission of airborne\\u000a infectious diseases. The risk of contracting such diseases depends on the presence of an infected\\u000a person who is shedding infectious particles and sufficient exposure of a sensitive person to achieve\\u000a an adequate dose to cause disease. Proximity to the infectious person and the length of time

Harriet A. Burge

127

About Infectious Mononucleosis  

MedlinePLUS

... spread through blood and semen during sexual contact, blood transfusions, and organ transplantations. Other infections that can cause infectious mononucleosis: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Toxoplasmosis ...

128

Molecular detection and characterization of human enteroviruses in Korean surface water.  

PubMed

In this study, the genetic epidemiology of enteroviruses (EVs) in Korean surface water was evaluated by conducting phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the 5' non-coding region (5' NCR), which was determined by RT-PCR analysis of total culturable virus assay-positive samples. The results showed that the nucleotide sequences of the EVs could be classified into 4 genetic clusters, and that the predominant presence of Korea EVs were very similar to echoviruses type 30. Interestingly, two nucleotide sequences were very similar to those of coxsackievirus type B1 isolated from aseptic meningitis patients in Seoul, Korea, implying the possibility of a common source for the viruses circulated in water systems and humans. In addition, 3 nucleotide sequences clustered strongly with the nucleotide sequences from China or Japan, and one fell into the same cluster as echovirus type 11 from Taiwan, which suggests that EVs in Asia may have evolved in a region-specific manner. Taken together, the results of this study revealed that EVs from Korea surface waters could be genetically classified as coxsackieviruses or echoviruses, and that they evolved in Asia in a region-specific manner. PMID:18604502

Lee, Gyucheol; Lee, Chanhee

2008-06-01

129

Deforestation and avian infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

Sehgal, R. N. M.

2010-01-01

130

Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.  

PubMed

In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

Sehgal, R N M

2010-03-15

131

Development of Monoclonal Antibodies that Recognize a Type2 Specific and a Common Epitope on the Nucleoprotein of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two monoclonal antibodies were produced against the nucleoproteins of two strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). One antibody, 1NDW14D, obtained by immunizing BALB\\/c mice with the nucleoprotein from Dworshak IHNV strain DW2, universally recognized IHNV in tests of direct and indirect fluorescence. The second antibody, 2NH105B, obtained by immunization with the nucleoprotein from an IHNV strain isolated from rainbow

Sandra S. Ristow; Jeanene M. Arnzen

1989-01-01

132

A recombinant porcine circovirus type 2 expressing the VP1 epitope of the type O foot-and-mouth disease virus is infectious and induce both PCV2 and VP1 epitope antibodies.  

PubMed

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the etiological agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, a disease that causes huge economic damage in swine industry. A recombinant PCV2 expressing the neutralizing VP1 epitope (aa 141-160) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was rescued using an infectious cloning technique. The PCV2 antigen and FMDV-VP1 antigenic epitope of the cloned strain recPCV2-CL-VP1 were confirmed by an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The morphological features of the recPCV2-CL-VP1 were not discernibly different from those of its parental strain (PCV2-CL). However, the recombinant virus could be differentiated from its parental virus by PCR and capture ELISA. The recPCV2-CL-VP1 was demonstrated to replicate stably in PK-15 cells through ten passages. An infection experiment using BALB/c mice showed that both recPCV2-CL-VP1 and PCV2-CL could replicate in the mice, cause various pathological changes, and induce a high level of anti-Cap antibodies. The recombinant virus emulsified with Freund's adjuvant was used to immunize BALB/c mice and induced antibodies against the FMDV-VP1 epitope. Hence, the recombinant PCV2 strain, which expressed the neutralizing FMDV-VP1 epitope, provides a valuable platform to develop novel genetic vaccines. PMID:25117547

Huang, Liping; Zhang, Feiyan; Tang, Qinghai; Wei, Yanwu; Wu, Hongli; Guo, Longjun; Fu, Yujie; Liu, Changming

2014-11-01

133

Immunosenescence and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases are major causes, with malignancies, of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Increased susceptibility to infections may result from underlying dysfunction of an aged immune system; moreover, inappropriate immunologic functions associated with aging can determine an insufficient response to vaccines. Impairments of cellular, humoral and innate immunity in the elderly, contributing to increased incidence of infectious diseases, are

Lia Ginaldi; Maria Francesca Loreto; Maria Pia Corsi; Marco Modesti; Massimo De Martinis

2001-01-01

134

HLA and Infectious Diseases †  

PubMed Central

Summary: Following their discovery in the early 1970s, classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci have been the prototypical candidates for genetic susceptibility to infectious disease. Indeed, the original hypothesis for the extreme variability observed at HLA loci (H-2 in mice) was the major selective pressure from infectious diseases. Now that both the human genome and the molecular basis of innate and acquired immunity are understood in greater detail, do the classical HLA loci still stand out as major genes that determine susceptibility to infectious disease? This review looks afresh at the evidence supporting a role for classical HLA loci in susceptibility to infectious disease, examines the limitations of data reported to date, and discusses current advances in methodology and technology that will potentially lead to greater understanding of their role in infectious diseases in the future. PMID:19366919

Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Jamieson, Sarra E.; Burgner, David

2009-01-01

135

76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC46 Infectious Diseases AGENCY: Occupational Safety...concerning occupational exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information...label it ``Attention: OSHA Infectious Diseases Stakeholder Meeting...

2011-07-05

136

Characterization of the genome of human enteroviruses: design of generic primers for amplification and sequencing of different regions of the viral genome  

E-print Network

1 Characterization of the genome of human enteroviruses: design of generic primers.01.027 #12;2 Abstract Human enteroviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans and can cause. Biodiversity and evolution of human enterovirus genomes are shaped by frequent recombination events. Therefore

Boyer, Edmond

137

3C Protease of Enterovirus 68: Structure-Based Design of Michael Acceptor Inhibitors and Their Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Effects  

E-print Network

3C Protease of Enterovirus 68: Structure-Based Design of Michael Acceptor Inhibitors have determined the cleavage specificity and the crystal structure of the 3C protease of enterovirus 68 on the one hand and classical enteroviruses on the other prompted us to use the crystal structure

Lübeck, Universität zu

138

Evaluation of methods using celite to concentrate norovirus, adenovirus and enterovirus from wastewater.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. These viruses are shed in the feces of infected individuals and can accumulate in wastewater, making wastewater a source of a potentially diverse group of enteric viruses. In this study, two procedures were evaluated to concentrate noroviruses, adenoviruses and enteroviruses from primary effluent of wastewater. In the first procedure, indigenous enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses were concentrated using celite (diatomaceous earth) followed by centrifugation through a 30K MWCO filter and nucleic acid extraction. The second procedure used celite concentration followed by nucleic acid extraction only. Virus quantities were measured using qPCR. A second set of primary effluent samples were seeded with Coxsackievirus A7, Coxsackievirus B1, poliovirus 1 or enterovirus 70 before concentration and processed through both procedures for recovery evaluation of enterovirus species representatives. The pairing of the single step extraction procedure with the celite concentration process resulted in 47-98% recovery of examined viruses, while the celite concentration process plus additional centrifugal concentration before nucleic acid extraction showed reduced recovery (14-47%). The celite concentration process followed by a large volume nucleic acid extraction technique proved to be an effective procedure for recovering these important human pathogens from wastewater. PMID:23727118

Brinkman, Nichole E; Haffler, Tyler D; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Rhodes, Eric R

2013-10-01

139

Altered Antibody Profiles against Common Infectious Agents in Chronic Disease  

PubMed Central

Despite the important diagnostic value of evaluating antibody responses to individual human pathogens, antibody profiles against multiple infectious agents have not been used to explore health and disease mainly for technical reasons.  We hypothesized that the interplay between infection and chronic disease might be revealed by profiling antibodies against multiple agents. Here, the levels of antibodies against a panel of 13 common infectious agents were evaluated with the quantitative Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) in patients from three disease cohorts including those with pathogenic anti-interferon-? autoantibodies (IFN-? AAB), HIV and Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) to determine if their antibody profiles differed from control subjects.  The IFN-? AAB patients compared to controls demonstrated statistically higher levels of antibodies against VZV (p=0.0003), EBV (p=0.002), CMV (p=0.003), and C. albicans (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against poliovirus (p=0.04). Comparison of HIV patients with blood donor controls revealed that the patients had higher levels of antibodies against CMV (p=0.0008), HSV-2 (p=0.0008), EBV (p=0.001), and C. albicans (p=0.01), but showed decreased levels of antibodies against coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.0008), poliovirus (p=0.0005),   and HHV-6B (p=0.002). Lastly, SjS patients had higher levels of anti-EBV antibodies (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against several enteroviruses including a newly identified picornavirus, HCoSV-A (p=0.004), coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.04), and poliovirus (p=0.02). For the IFN-? AAB and HIV cohorts, principal component analysis revealed unique antibody clusters that showed the potential to discriminate patients from controls.  The results suggest that antibody profiles against these and likely other common infectious agents may yield insight into the interplay between exposure to infectious agents, dysbiosis, adaptive immunity and disease activity. PMID:24312567

Burbelo, Peter D.; Ching, Kathryn H.; Morse, Caryn G.; Alevizos, Ilias; Bayat, Ahmad; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Ali, Mir A.; Kapoor, Amit; Browne, Sarah K.; Holland, Steven M.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Iadarola, Michael J.

2013-01-01

140

Are all diseases infectious?  

PubMed

The complex interactions between microorganisms and human hosts include the well-known, traditional infectious diseases and the symbiotic relation we have with our normal flora. The media have brought to the public's attention many newly described infectious diseases, such as Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever, that were not part of common medical parlance a decade ago. While flooding us with interesting and often dramatic reports of so-called emerging infectious diseases, the media have largely ignored a more fundamental change in our appreciation of human-microorganism interactions: the discovery that transmissible agents may play important roles in diseases not suspected of being infectious in origin. A well-known example is ulcer disease; other examples include neurodegenerative disease, inflammatory disease, and cancer. These fascinating instances of host-pathogen interaction open new prospects for the prevention of disease through immunization. PMID:8928993

Lorber, B

1996-11-15

141

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis  

E-print Network

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) is a complex of disease syndromes occuring throughout the United States and the other major cattle-producing areas of the world. It affects cattle and some wild ruminants. This publication describes...

Sprott, L. R.

1998-11-30

142

Ethics and infectious disease.  

PubMed

Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude by providing sociological and historical explanations of why the topic of infectious disease has not already received more attention from bioethicists. PMID:16167406

Selgelid, Michael J

2005-06-01

143

Infectious Diseases Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioMedNet (BMN) presents the Infectious Diseases Gateway "featuring expertly selected content from the leading publications in infectious diseases." Users will find research articles, reviews, and other resources from the Elsevier family of journals and books; all freely available to any reader (free registration required). The Web site also offers related BMN news features, links to other BMN Gateways, and a special supplement to the upcoming Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

144

Climate and Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases; it not only determines spatial and seasonal\\u000a distributions, but influences inter-annual variability, including epidemics, and long-term trends. This paper collates published\\u000a scientific literature on climate and 20 infectious diseases that cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. It\\u000a highlights what has been done to date, identifies gaps and assesses

Louise Kelly-Hope; Madeleine C. Thomson

145

Seroepidemiology and Molecular Epidemiology of Enterovirus 71 in Russia  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging human pathogen causing massive epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications in Asia. EV71 also circulates in Europe, however it does not cause large outbreaks. The reason for distinct epidemiological patterns of EV71 infection in Europe and Asia and the risk of EV71 epidemic in Europe and Russia remain unknown. Seroepidemiology of EV71 and molecular epidemiology of occasional EV71 isolates were studied to explore circulation of EV71 in Russia. In six regions of Russian Federation, seroprevalence of EV71 in sera collected in 2008 ranged from 5% to 20% in children aged 1–2 years and from 19% to 83% in children aged 3–5 years. The seroprevalence among elder children was significantly higher (41–83% vs. 19–27%) in Asian regions of Russia. EV71 strains identified in Russia in 2001–2011 belonged to subtypes C1 and C2, while genotype C4 that was causing epidemics in Asia since 1998 emerged in 2009 and became dominant in 2013. PMID:24819617

Akhmadishina, Ludmila V.; Eremeeva, Tatiana P.; Trotsenko, Olga E.; Ivanova, Olga E.; Mikhailov, Mikhail I.; Lukashev, Alexander N.

2014-01-01

146

Animal models of enterovirus 71 infection: applications and limitations  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus that is responsible for several outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region over the past 15 years. Appropriate animal models are needed to understand EV71 neuropathogenesis better and to facilitate the development of effective vaccines and drugs. Non-human primate models have been used to characterize and evaluate the neurovirulence of EV71 after the early outbreaks in late 1990s. However, these models were not suitable for assessing the neurovirulence level of the virus and were associated with ethical and economic difficulties in terms of broad application. Several strategies have been applied to develop mouse models of EV71 infection, including strategies that employ virus adaption and immunodeficient hosts. Although these mouse models do not closely mimic human disease, they have been applied to determine the pathogenesis of and treatment and prevention of the disease. EV71 receptor-transgenic mouse models have recently been developed and have significantly advanced our understanding of the biological features of the virus and the host-parasite interactions. Overall, each of these models has advantages and disadvantages, and these models are differentially suited for studies of EV71 pathogenesis and/or the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this paper, we review the characteristics, applications and limitation of these EV71 animal models, including non-human primate and mouse models. PMID:24742252

2014-01-01

147

Cell Surface Vimentin Is an Attachment Receptor for Enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly transmissible pathogenic agent that causes severe central nervous system diseases in infected infants and young children. Here, we reported that EV71 VP1 protein could bind to vimentin intermediate filaments expressed on the host cell surface. Soluble vimentin or an antibody against vimentin could inhibit the binding of EV71 to host cells. Accompanied with the reduction of vimentin expression on the cell surface, the binding of EV71 to cells was remarkably decreased. Further evidence showed that the N terminus of vimentin is responsible for the interaction between EV71 and vimentin. These results indicated that vimentin on the host cell surface may serve as an attachment site that mediated the initial binding and subsequently increased the infectivity of EV71. IMPORTANCE This study delivers important findings on the roles of vimentin filaments in relation to EV71 infection and provides information that not only improves our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis but also presents us with potentially new strategies for the treatment of diseases caused by EV71 infections. PMID:24623428

Du, Ning; Cong, Haolong; Tian, Hongchao; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Wenliang; Song, Lei

2014-01-01

148

Conformational Plasticity of the 2A Proteinase from Enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

The 2A proteinase (2Apro) is an enterovirally encoded cysteine protease that plays essential roles in both the processing of viral precursor polyprotein and the hijacking of host cell translation and other processes in the virus life cycle. Crystallographic studies of 2Apro from enterovirus 71 (EV71) and its interaction with the substrate are reported here. EV71 2Apro was comprised of an N-terminal domain of a four-stranded antiparallel ? sheet and a C-terminal domain of a six-stranded antiparallel ? barrel with a tightly bound zinc atom. Unlike in other 2Apro structures, there is an open cleft across the surface of the protein in an open conformation. As demonstrated by the crystallographic studies and modeling of the complex structure, the open cleft could be fitted with the substrate. On comparison 2Apro of EV71 to those of the human rhinovirus 2 and coxsackievirus B4, the open conformation could be closed with a hinge motion in the bII2 and cII ? strands. This was supported by molecular dynamic simulation. The structural variation among different 2Apro structures indicates a conformational flexibility in the substrate-binding cleft. The open structure provides an accessible framework for the design and development of therapeutics against the viral target. PMID:23616646

Cai, Qixu; Yameen, Muhammad; Liu, Weihua; Gao, Zhenting; Li, Yaozong; Peng, Xuanjia; Cai, Yaxian; Wu, Caiming; Zheng, Qian

2013-01-01

149

Animal models of enterovirus 71 infection: applications and limitations.  

PubMed

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus that is responsible for several outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region over the past 15 years. Appropriate animal models are needed to understand EV71 neuropathogenesis better and to facilitate the development of effective vaccines and drugs. Non-human primate models have been used to characterize and evaluate the neurovirulence of EV71 after the early outbreaks in late 1990s. However, these models were not suitable for assessing the neurovirulence level of the virus and were associated with ethical and economic difficulties in terms of broad application. Several strategies have been applied to develop mouse models of EV71 infection, including strategies that employ virus adaption and immunodeficient hosts. Although these mouse models do not closely mimic human disease, they have been applied to determine the pathogenesis of and treatment and prevention of the disease. EV71 receptor-transgenic mouse models have recently been developed and have significantly advanced our understanding of the biological features of the virus and the host-parasite interactions. Overall, each of these models has advantages and disadvantages, and these models are differentially suited for studies of EV71 pathogenesis and/or the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this paper, we review the characteristics, applications and limitation of these EV71 animal models, including non-human primate and mouse models. PMID:24742252

Wang, Ya-Fang; Yu, Chun-Keung

2014-01-01

150

An Interaction between Glutathione and the Capsid Is Required for the Morphogenesis of C-Cluster Enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular thiol playing an essential role in preserving a reduced cellular environment. Cellular GSH levels can be efficiently reduced by the GSH biosynthesis inhibitor, L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). The aim of our study was to determine the role of GSH in the growth of two C-cluster enteroviruses, poliovirus type 1 (PV1) and coxsackievirus A20 (CAV20). Our results show that the growth of both PV1 and CAV20 is strongly inhibited by BSO and can be partially reversed by the addition of GSH. BSO has no effect on viral protein synthesis or RNA replication but it strikingly reduces the accumulation of 14S pentamers in infected cells. GSH-pull down assays show that GSH directly interacts with capsid precursors and mature virus made in the absence of BSO whereas capsid precursors produced under GSH-depletion do not bind to GSH. In particular, the loss of binding of GSH may debilitate the stability of 14S pentamers, resulting in their failure to assemble into mature virus. Immunofluorescence cell imaging demonstrated that GSH-depletion did not affect the localization of viral capsid proteins to the replication complex. PV1 BSO resistant (BSOr) mutants evolved readily during passaging of the virus in the presence of BSO. Structural analyses revealed that the BSOr mutations, mapping to VP1 and VP3 capsid proteins, are primarily located at protomer/protomer interfaces. BSOr mutations might, in place of GSH, aid the stability of 14S particles that is required for virion maturation. Our observation that BSOr mutants are more heat resistant and need less GSH than wt virus to be protected from heat inactivation suggests that they possess a more stable capsid. We propose that the role of GSH during enterovirus morphogenesis is to stabilize capsid structures by direct interaction with capsid proteins both during and after the formation of mature virus particles. PMID:24722315

Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Liu, Ying; Wang, Chunling; Strauss, Michael; Rehage, Nina; Chen, Ying-Han; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal; Hogle, James; Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen; Paul, Aniko V.; Jiang, Ping

2014-01-01

151

Emergent Infectious Uveitis  

PubMed Central

Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management. PMID:20404989

Khairallah, Moncef; Jelliti, Bechir; Jenzeri, Salah

2009-01-01

152

Transgenic mouse model for the study of enterovirus 71 neuropathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) typically causes mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children, but it can also cause severe neurological disease. Recently, epidemic outbreaks of EV71 with significant mortality have been reported in the Asia-Pacific region, and EV71 infection has become a serious public health concern worldwide. However, there is little information available concerning EV71 neuropathogenesis, and no vaccines or anti-EV71 drugs have been developed. Previous studies of this disease have used monkeys and neonatal mice that are susceptible to some EV71 strains as models. The monkey model is problematic for ethical and economical reasons, and mice that are more than a few weeks old lose their susceptibility to EV71. Thus, the development of an appropriate small animal model would greatly contribute to the study of this disease. Mice lack EV71 susceptibility due to the absence of a receptor for this virus. Previously, we identified the human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (hSCARB2) as a cellular receptor for EV71. In the current study, we generated a transgenic (Tg) mouse expressing hSCARB2 with an expression profile similar to that in humans. Tg mice infected with EV71 exhibited ataxia, paralysis, and death. The most severely affected cells were neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebrum. The pathological features in these Tg mice were generally similar to those of EV71 encephalomyelitis in humans and experimentally infected monkeys. These results suggest that this Tg mouse could represent a useful animal model for the study of EV71 infection. PMID:23959904

Fujii, Ken; Nagata, Noriyo; Sato, Yuko; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Shimanuki, Midori; Shitara, Hiroshi; Taya, Choji; Koike, Satoshi

2013-01-01

153

Enterovirus 71 infection: An experience in Korea, 2009.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been recognized as a frequent cause of epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) associated with severe neurological symptoms. In the spring of 2009, HFMD was epidemic in Korea. Severe cases with complication, including death, have been reported and it has become a public health issue. Most symptomatic EV71 infections commonly result in HFMD or herpangina. These clinical manifestations can be associated with neurologic syndromes frequently. Neurologic syndromes observed in EV71 include meningitis, meningoencephalomyelitis, poliomyelitis-like paralytic disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, cerebellar ataxia, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, benign intracranial hypertension, and brainstem encephalitis. Examinations for EV 71 were performed from the stools, respiratory secretion or CSF of the children by realtime PCR. Gene analysis showed that most of them were caused by EV71 subgenotype C4a which was prevalent in China, 2008. Public health measures including personal and environmental hygiene, must to target daycare centers, kindergartens, and schools where highly susceptible children congregate. To prevent the spread of infection, preschools where transmission persists for more than 2 incubation periods, have been recommended for closure, and trigger criteria for voluntary closure was instituted. During closure, operators are to thoroughly clean the centers before they are allowed to reopen. In addition, parents are advised to ensure that their children adopt a high standard of personal hygiene and to keep the infected child at home until full recovery. Because the outbreaks occur in a cyclical pattern, surveillance system to predict next outbreaks and adequate public health measures to control need to be planned for future. Control of EV71 epidemics through surveillance and public health intervention needs to be maintained in Korea. Future research should focus on understanding of EV71 virulence, identification of the receptor(s) for EV71, development of antiviral agents and development of vaccine. PMID:21189926

Kim, Kyung Hyo

2010-05-01

154

Survey of human enterovirus occurrence in fresh and marine surface waters on Long Island.  

PubMed Central

A variety of surface water systems, including a lake, a creek, and two marine embayments, were analyzed on a monthly basis for indigenous human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. Findings are discussed in terms of the probable pollution sources to each system and their relationship to data from previous studies. PMID:229767

Vaughn, J M; Landry, E F; Thomas, M Z; Vicale, T J; Penello, W F

1979-01-01

155

Cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5B by enterovirus 3C proteases.  

PubMed

The enteroviruses poliovirus (PV), Coxsackie B virus (CVB) and rhinovirus (HRV) are members of Picornaviridae that inhibit host cell translation early in infection. Enterovirus translation soon predominates in infected cells, but eventually also shuts off. This complex pattern of modulation of translation suggests regulation by a multifactorial mechanism. We report here that eIF5B is proteolytically cleaved during PV and CVB infection of cultured cells, beginning at 3 hours post-infection and increasing thereafter. Recombinant PV, CVB and HRV 3Cpro cleaved purified native rabbit eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 5B in vitro at a single site (VVEQG, equivalent to VMEQG479 in human eIF5B) that is consistent with the cleavage specificity of enterovirus 3C proteases. Cleavage separates the N-terminal domain of eIF5B from its essential conserved central GTPase and C-terminal domains. 3Cpro-mediated cleavage of eIF5B may thus play an accessory role in the shutoff of translation that occurs in enterovirus-infected cells. PMID:18572216

de Breyne, Sylvain; Bonderoff, Jennifer M; Chumakov, Konstantin M; Lloyd, Richard E; Hellen, Christopher U T

2008-08-15

156

Antigenic Diversity of Enteroviruses Associated with Nonpolio Acute Flaccid Paralysis, India, 2007-2009  

PubMed Central

Because of the broadened acute flacid paralysis (AFP) definition and enhanced surveillance, many nonpolio AFP (NP-AFP) cases have been reported in India since 2005. To determine the spectrum of nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) serotypes associated with NP-AFP from polio-endemic and -free regions, we studied antigenic diversity of AFP-associated NPEVs. Of fecal specimens from 2,786 children with NP-AFP in 1 polio-endemic and 2 polio-free states, 823 (29.5%) were positive for NPEVs in RD cells, of which 532 (64.6%) were positive by viral protein 1 reverse transcription PCR. We identified 66 serotypes among 581 isolates, with enterovirus 71 most frequently (8.43%) detected, followed by enterovirus 13 (7.1%) and coxsackievirus B5 (5.0%). Most strains within a serotype represented new genogropups or subgenogroups. Agents for ?35.0% and 70.0% of culture-positive and -negative cases, respectively, need to be identified. Association of human enterovirus with NP-AFP requires better assessment and understanding of health risks of NPEV infections after polio elimination. PMID:23092622

Yergolkar, Prasanna; Shankarappa, K. Subbanna

2012-01-01

157

Enterovirus, Cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Screening in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is frequently classified as ‘idiopathic’ since the causative factor is not identified in most cases. In the present study we determined whether SSNHL is associated with common viral infections, namely enterovirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Between April 2004 and March 2005, we conducted a prospective cohort study on 48 unselected patients with unilateral

Menachem Gross; Dana G. Wolf; Josef Elidan; Ron Eliashar

2007-01-01

158

Sequence analysis of a porcine enterovirus serotype 1 isolate: relationships with other picornaviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the genomic sequence of a porcine enterovirus serotype 1 (PEV-1) isolate was determined. The genome was found to contain a large open reading frame which encoded a leader protein prior to the capsid protein region. This showed no sequence identity to other picornavirus leader regions and the sequence data suggested that it does not possess proteolytic activity.

Michelle Doherty; Daniel Todd; Neil McFerran; Elizabeth M. Hoey

1999-01-01

159

Attenuation of Human Enterovirus 71 High-Replication-Fidelity Variants in AG129 Mice  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In a screen for ribavirin resistance, a novel high-fidelity variant of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) with the single amino acid change L123F in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or 3D) was identified. Based on the crystal structure of EV71 RdRp, L123 locates at the entrance of the RNA template binding channel, which might form a fidelity checkpoint. EV71 RdRp-L123F variants generated less progeny in a guanidine resistance assay and virus populations with lower mutation frequencies in cell culture passage due to their higher replication fidelity. However, compared with wild-type viruses, they did not show growth defects. In vivo infections further revealed that high-fidelity mutations L123F and G64R (previously reported) negatively impacted EV71 fitness and greatly reduced viral pathogenicity alone or together in AG129 mice. Interestingly, a variant with double mutations, RG/B4-G64R/L123F (where RG/B4 is an EV71 genotype B4 virus constructed by reverse genetics [RG])showed higher fidelity in vitro and less virulence in vivo than any one of the above two single mutants. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of the double mutant increased more than 500 times compared with the LD50 of wild-type RG/B4 in mice. The results indicated that these high-fidelity variants exhibited an attenuated pathogenic phenotype in vivo and offer promise as a live attenuated EV71 vaccine. IMPORTANCE The error-prone nature of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RNA viruses during replication results in quasispecies and aids survival of virus populations under a wide range of selective pressures. Virus variants with higher replication fidelity exhibit lower genetic diversity and attenuated pathogenicity in vivo. Here, we identified a novel high-fidelity mutation L123F in the RdRp of human enterovirus 71 (EV71). We further elucidated that EV71 variants with the RdRp-L123F mutation and/or the previously identified high-fidelity mutation RdRp-G64R were attenuated in an AG129 mouse model. As EV71 has emerged as a serious worldwide health threat, especially in developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region, we urgently need EV71 vaccines. Learning from the poliovirus vaccination, we prefer live attenuated EV71 vaccines to inactivated EV71 vaccines in order to effectively control EV71 outbreaks at low cost. Our results imply a new means of attenuating EV71 and reducing its mutation rate at the same time. PMID:24623423

Meng, Tao

2014-01-01

160

Controlling Infectious Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

1997-01-01

161

Vectorborne Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vectorborne infectious diseases play an important role worldwide. Most of these infections result from transmission of pathogens which are carried by vectors internally. Malaria, Lyme disease,West Nile virus encephalitis and yellow fever serve as examples of a long list of infections caused by transmission of the pathogen from an infected vector to humans during a blood meal by the vector.

C. Ruef

2002-01-01

162

STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS  

E-print Network

Appendix G STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS STATISTICAL ROADMAP Prepared in Support of: CDC for Environmental Health 1 #12;Statistical Methods for Analyzing Data Collected During the Churchill County Study 1 with the complex statistical analysis, investigators from the CDC contracted with Battelle for their assistance

163

National Foundation for Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

About NFID Contact Us NFID Store Home Infectious Disease Information Infectious Disease Information Chickenpox (Varicella) Diphtheria Ebola Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hib Disease HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) MRSA Measles Meningococcal Disease ...

164

Patterns of genetic variation in populations of infectious agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The analysis of genetic variation in populations of infectious agents may help us understand their epidemiology and evolution. Here we study a model for assessing the levels and patterns of genetic diversity in populations of infectious agents. The population is structured into many small subpopulations, which correspond to their hosts, that are connected according to a specific type of

Isabel Gordo; Paulo RA Campos

2007-01-01

165

Principles of Infectious Disease Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, principles and concepts of modern infectious disease epidemiology Epidemiology are presented. We delineate\\u000a the role of epidemiology for public health and discuss the characteristics of infectious disease epidemiology. This chapter\\u000a also includes definitions of important terms used in infectious disease epidemiology.

Alexander Krämer; Manas Akmatov; Mirjam Kretzschmar

166

Comparison of diagnostic clinical samples and environmental sampling for enterovirus and parechovirus surveillance in Scotland, 2010 to 2012.  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses (EV) and parechoviruses (HPeV) within the family Picornaviridae are the most common causes of viral central nervous system (CNS)-associated infections including meningitis and neonatal sepsis-like disease. The frequencies of EV and HPeV types identified in clinical specimens collected in Scotland over an eight-year period were compared to those identified in sewage surveillance established in Edinburgh. Of the 35 different EV types belonging to four EV species (A to D) and the four HPeV types detected in this study, HPeV3 was identified as the most prevalent picornavirus in cerebrospinal fluid samples, followed by species B EV. Interestingly, over half of EV and all HPeV CNS-associated infections were observed in young infants (younger than three months). Detection of species A EV including coxsackievirus A6 and EV71 in clinical samples and sewage indicates that these viruses are already widely circulating in Scotland. Furthermore, species C EV were frequently identified EV in sewage screening but they were not present in any of 606 EV-positive clinical samples studied, indicating their likely lower pathogenicity. Picornavirus surveillance is important not only for monitoring the changing epidemiology of these infections but also for the rapid identification of spread of emerging EV and/or HPeV types. PMID:24762664

Harvala, H; Calvert, J; Van Nguyen, D; Clasper, L; Gadsby, N; Molyneaux, P; Templeton, K; McWilliams Leitch, C; Simmonds, P

2014-01-01

167

What we are watching—five top global infectious disease threats, 2012: a perspective from CDC’s Global Disease Detection Operations Center  

PubMed Central

Disease outbreaks of international public health importance continue to occur regularly; detecting and tracking significant new public health threats in countries that cannot or might not report such events to the global health community is a challenge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Global Disease Detection (GDD) Operations Center, established in early 2007, monitors infectious and non-infectious public health events to identify new or unexplained global public health threats and better position CDC to respond, if public health assistance is requested or required. At any one time, the GDD Operations Center actively monitors approximately 30–40 such public health threats; here we provide our perspective on five of the top global infectious disease threats that we were watching in 2012: (1) avian influenza A (H5N1), (2) cholera, (3) wild poliovirus, (4) enterovirus-71, and (5) extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:23827387

Christian, Kira A.; Ijaz, Kashef; Dowell, Scott F.; Chow, Catherine C.; Chitale, Rohit A.; Bresee, Joseph S.; Mintz, Eric; Pallansch, Mark A.; Wassilak, Steven; McCray, Eugene; Arthur, Ray R.

2013-01-01

168

Infectious Considerations in Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

Haddon, Robert

2009-01-01

169

Immunoserology of infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated. PMID:2187592

James, K

1990-01-01

170

Banting Memorial Lecture 2010^. Type 2 diabetes as an 'infectious' disease: is this the Black Death of the 21st century?  

PubMed

We are currently facing a global pandemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. In some settings, the population prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is 50%, and half of those affected will die from diabetes-related complications. Eight centuries ago, an epidemic of bubonic plague swept across Europe, killing at least half of its victims. We here draw comparisons between these two pandemics, proposing close analogies between the 'Black Death' of the 14th century and the modern-day equivalent of Type 2 diabetes. Both diseases can be considered in terms of an aetiological agent, a reservoir, a vector and a predisposing toxic environment; populations can be considered as highly susceptible to the transmissable agents of Type 2 diabetes in the setting of calorie excess, inadequate food labelling, poorly regulated advertising and sedentary lifestyles. As for tackling a pandemic of a contagious microbial pathogen, we believe that breaking the cycle of transmission in the diabetes epidemic must be underpinned by political will and prompt, decisive legislation backed by the medical community. Far from fearing that such measures edge us towards a 'nanny state', we believe individuals should expect a responsible government to safeguard them from the toxic milieu that puts them at risk of obesity and its complications, and that communities and populations have the right to have their health protected. PMID:21166840

Matthews, D R; Matthews, P C

2011-01-01

171

Analysis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase Subunit Structure\\/Function in the Context of Infectious Virions and Human Target Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reverse transcriptase (RT) of all retroviruses is required for synthesis of the viral DNA genome. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RT exists as a heterodimer made up of 51-kDa and 66-kDa subunits. The crystal structure and in vitro biochemical analyses indicate that the p66 subunit of RT is primarily responsible for the enzyme's polymerase and RNase H

Alok Mulky; John C. Kappes

2005-01-01

172

On the role of reinfection in the transmission of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

On the role of reinfection in the transmission of infectious diseases Rinaldo B. Schinazi LATP, infectious diseases, tuberculosis, spatial stochastic model 1. Introduction. Tuberculosis is usually acquired of the two types of reinfection in the spread of an infectious disease such as TB. We introduce a spatial

Schinazi, Rinaldo

173

[Outbreak of acute enterovirus intestinal infection in Sakhalin region in August 2010].  

PubMed

The investigation of cases of acute intestinal infections in the Sakhalin region of Russia in August, 2010 is described. Epidemiological and molecular biological studies were conducted. After initial PCR screening and determining the nucleotide sequences of the positive samples the following enteroviruses were found: Coxsackie A2 - 42 samples (45%), Coxsackie A4--31 sample (34%), Enterovirus 71--6 samples (6,5%), Coxsackievirus B5--6 samples (6,5%), Coxsackie B3--4 samples (4%) and Coxsackie B1--4 samples (4%). The phylogenetic analysis of sequences showed that the closest analogues for the nucleotide sequences of these genotypes were previously identified in Japan, Korea and China in 2000-2010. PMID:22642180

Demina, A V; Ternovo?, V A; Darizhapov, B B; Iakubich, T V; Sementsova, A O; Demina, O K; Protopopova, E V; Loktev, V B; Agafonov, A P; Netesov, S V

2012-01-01

174

[Experience in the use of chemical compounds for the primary identification and differentiation of enteroviruses].  

PubMed

Data on the usage of chemical inhibitors nifan and belvtazid, which possess a selective and antienteroviral effect, in the primary identification of enteroviruses and their differentiation into polio- and non-poliomyelytic ones isolated from human clinical materials or the environment by using the cell culture are presented in the article. The method is recommended for the practical use by the virology service in the diagnostics of enteroviral infections and in the identification of cytopathic agents isolated from the enviroment. PMID:12688219

Amvros'eva, T V; Votiakov, V I; Andreeva, O T; Kazinets, O N; Bogush, Z F; Sharko, R M; Kvacheva, Z B

2003-02-01

175

Diagnosis of horizontal enterovirus infections in neonates by nested PCR and direct sequence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hospital-acquired outbreak with febrile illness and\\/or rash occurred in our neonatal special care nursery (SCN) from September 1995 to September 1996. A total of 23 infants developed symptoms. We could not detect the etiological agents by routine virus isolation. In a retrospective study, however, enterovirus RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from four out of six

T Takami; S Sonoda; H Houjyo; H Kawashima; Y Takei; T Miyajima; K Takekuma; A Hoshika; T Mori; T Nakayama

2000-01-01

176

A comparison of two extraction methods for the detection of Enteroviruses in raw sludge.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare two viral extraction methods for the detection of naturally occurring Enteroviruses in raw sludge. The first method (M1) is based on an ultracentrifugation step. In the second one (M2), viral RNA was extracted directly after viral elution from suspended solids. Genomes of enteroviruses were quantified by a quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) in sludge samples. Somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages, considered as viral indicators of enteric viruses in sludge, were enumerated by the double layer agar technique. Results showed that direct assay of RNA extraction yielded higher genomic copies of enteric viruses (with an average of 5.07Log10 genomic copies/100 mL). After the ultracentrifugation assay in the second method, genomic copies number decreases (with an average of 4.39Log10 genomic copies/100 mL). This can be explained by an eventual concentration of inhibitors existing in sludge samples. Phages enumeration results showed their presence in all sludge samples with an average of (5.69Log10 PFU/100 mL) for somatic coliphages and (4Log10 PFU/100 mL) for F-specific RNA phages. This emphasizes the use of somatic coliphages as viral indicators for enteroviruses in environmental samples and especially in raw sludge samples in wastewater treatment plants prior to agricultural use. PMID:24503039

Jebri, Sihem; Hmaied, Fatma; Lucena, Francisco; Saavedra, Marià Eugenià; Yahya, Mariem; Hamdi, Moktar

2014-05-01

177

Outbreak of vertigo in Wyoming: possible role of an enterovirus infection.  

PubMed

An epidemiologic investigation was conducted to characterize and evaluate the possibility of a viral aetiology of an outbreak of acute vertigo in Hot Springs Country, Wyoming, during autumn 1992. Case-finding identified Hot Springs County residents who sought medical attention for new onset vertigo during 1 August, 1992-31 January 1993. Thirty-five case-patients and 61 matched controls were interviewed and serum specimens were obtained during January 1993. Case-patients were more likely than controls to report symptoms (e.g. fatigue, sore throat, fever, diarrhoea) of antecedent acute illness. Case-patients did not have a significantly greater prevalence or mean titre of IgG antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus than controls. Serologic evidence of recent enterovirus infection (IgM antibodies) was found for 74% of case-patients compared with 54% of controls (P < 0.05), suggesting a possible association between vertigo and enterovirus infection. Future studies are needed to define the role of enteroviruses in innerear diseases. PMID:8760963

Simonsen, L; Khan, A S; Gary, H E; Hanson, C; Pallansch, M A; Music, S; Holman, R C; Stewart, J A; Erdman, D D; Arden, N H; Arenberg, I K; Schonberger, L B

1996-08-01

178

Ecology of Infectious Diseases (EID)  

NSF Publications Database

... between anthropogenic environmental change and transmission of infectious agents. To that end ... and climate change events. The coincidence of broad scale environmental changes and emergence of ...

179

The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted. PMID:24159433

Kurane, Ichiro

2010-01-01

180

Apigenin Inhibits Enterovirus-71 Infection by Disrupting Viral RNA Association with trans-Acting Factors  

PubMed Central

Flavonoids are widely distributed natural products with broad biological activities. Apigenin is a dietary flavonoid that has recently been demonstrated to interact with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) and interferes with their RNA editing activity. We investigated whether apigenin possessed antiviral activity against enterovirus-71 (EV71) infection since EV71 infection requires of hnRNP proteins. We found that apigenin selectively blocks EV71 infection by disrupting viral RNA association with hnRNP A1 and A2 proteins. The estimated EC50 value for apigenin to block EV71 infection was determined at 10.3 µM, while the CC50 was estimated at 79.0 µM. The anti-EV71 activity was selective since no activity was detected against several DNA and RNA viruses. Although flavonoids in general share similar structural features, apigenin and kaempferol were among tested compounds with significant activity against EV71 infection. hnRNP proteins function as trans-acting factors regulating EV71 translation. We found that apigenin treatment did not affect EV71-induced nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of hnRNP A1 and A2 proteins. Instead, it prevented EV71 RNA association with hnRNP A1 and A2 proteins. Accordingly, suppression of hnRNP A1 and A2 expression markedly reduced EV71 infection. As a positive sense, single strand RNA virus, EV71 has a type I internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that cooperates with host factors and regulates EV71 translation. The effect of apigenin on EV71 infection was further demonstrated using a bicistronic vector that has the expression of a GFP protein under the control of EV71 5?-UTR. We found that apigenin treatment selectively suppressed the expression of GFP, but not a control gene. In addition to identification of apigenin as an antiviral agent against EV71 infection, this study also exemplifies the significance in antiviral agent discovery by targeting host factors essential for viral replication. PMID:25330384

Zhang, Wei; Qiao, Haishi; Lv, Yuanzi; Wang, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaoqing; Hou, Yayi; Tan, Renxiang; Li, Erguang

2014-01-01

181

Spatio-temporal analysis on enterovirus cases through integrated surveillance in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Severe epidemics of enterovirus have occurred frequently in Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Cambodia, and China, involving cases of pulmonary edema, hemorrhage and encephalitis, and an effective vaccine has not been available. The specific aim of this study was to understand the epidemiological characteristics of mild and severe enterovirus cases through integrated surveillance data. Methods All enterovirus cases in Taiwan over almost ten years from three main databases, including national notifiable diseases surveillance, sentinel physician surveillance and laboratory surveillance programs from July 1, 1999 to December 31, 2008 were analyzed. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was applied for measuring the consistency of the trends in the cases between different surveillance systems. Cross correlation analysis in a time series model was applied for examining the capability to predict severe enterovirus infections. Poisson temporal, spatial and space-time scan statistics were used for identifying the most likely clusters of severe enterovirus outbreaks. The directional distribution method with two standard deviations of ellipse was applied to measure the size and the movement of the epidemic. Results The secular trend showed that the number of severe EV cases peaked in 2008, and the number of mild EV cases was significantly correlated with that of severe ones occurring in the same week [r?=?0.553, p?

2014-01-01

182

Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

What is an Infectious Disease Specialist? When do I need an ID specialist? What will my visit be like? How was my ID specialist ... children. One of the best strategies for preventing infectious diseases is immunization. Ask your doctor for advice about ...

183

Infectious particles, stress, and induced prion amyloids  

PubMed Central

Transmissible encephalopathies (TSEs) are believed by many to arise by spontaneous conversion of host prion protein (PrP) into an infectious amyloid (PrP-res, PrPSc) without nucleic acid. Many TSE agents reside in the environment, with infection controlled by public health measures. These include the disappearance of kuru with the cessation of ritual cannibalism, the dramatic reduction of epidemic bovine encephalopathy (BSE) by removal of contaminated feed, and the lack of endemic scrapie in geographically isolated Australian sheep with susceptible PrP genotypes. While prion protein modeling has engendered an intense focus on common types of protein misfolding and amyloid formation in diverse organisms and diseases, the biological characteristics of infectious TSE agents, and their recognition by the host as foreign entities, raises several fundamental new directions for fruitful investigation such as: (1) unrecognized microbial agents in the environmental metagenome that may cause latent neurodegenerative disease, (2) the evolutionary social and protective functions of different amyloid proteins in diverse organisms from bacteria to mammals, and (3) amyloid formation as a beneficial innate immune response to stress (infectious and non-infectious). This innate process however, once initiated, can become unstoppable in accelerated neuronal aging. PMID:23633671

2013-01-01

184

Ecology of Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a dramatic image of a bustling city superimposed over a peaceful forest, the National Science Foundation's homepage on the ecology of infectious diseases is quite intriguing. After clicking on the image, visitors will be treated to an overview of this special report that asks: "Is our interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increases in incidence of these diseases?" The report is divided into five sections, each exploring a different facet of the National Science Foundation's work on this problem. The sections include "Medical Mystery Solved" and "Lyme Disease on the Rise". Each of these sections includes helpful graphics, well-written text, and links to additional sites. Overall, the site will be most useful for science educators and members of the public health community.

185

Sporadic isolation of sabin-like polioviruses and high-level detection of non-polio enteroviruses during sewage surveillance in seven Italian cities, after several years of inactivated poliovirus vaccination.  

PubMed

Sewage surveillance in seven Italian cities between 2005 and 2008, after the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccination (IPV) in 2002, showed rare polioviruses, none that were wild-type or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), and many other enteroviruses among 1,392 samples analyzed. Two of five polioviruses (PV) detected were Sabin-like PV2 and three PV3, based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and PCR results. Neurovirulence-related mutations were found in the 5'noncoding region (5'NCR) of all strains and, for a PV2, also in VP1 region 143 (Ile>Thr). Intertypic recombination in the 3D region was detected in a second PV2 (Sabin 2/Sabin 1) and a PV3 (Sabin 3/Sabin 2). The low mutation rate in VP1 for all PVs suggests limited interhuman virus passages, consistent with efficient polio immunization in Italy. Nonetheless, these findings highlight the risk of wild or Sabin poliovirus reintroduction from abroad. Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) were detected, 448 of which were coxsackievirus B (CVB) and 294 of which were echoviruses (Echo). Fifty-six NPEVs failing serological typing were characterized by sequencing the VP1 region (nucleotides [nt] 2628 to 2976). A total of 448 CVB and 294 Echo strains were identified; among those strains, CVB2, CVB5, and Echo 11 predominated. Environmental CVB5 and CVB2 strains from this study showed high sequence identity with GenBank global strains. The high similarity between environmental NPEVs and clinical strains from the same areas of Italy and the same periods indicates that environmental strains reflect the viruses circulating in the population and highlights the potential risk of inefficient wastewater treatments. This study confirmed that sewage surveillance can be more sensitive than acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in monitoring silent poliovirus circulation in the population as well as the suitability of molecular approaches to enterovirus typing. PMID:24814793

Battistone, A; Buttinelli, G; Fiore, S; Amato, C; Bonomo, P; Patti, A M; Vulcano, A; Barbi, M; Binda, S; Pellegrinelli, L; Tanzi, M L; Affanni, P; Castiglia, P; Germinario, C; Mercurio, P; Cicala, A; Triassi, M; Pennino, F; Fiore, L

2014-08-01

186

Antimicrobial Human ?-Defensins in the Colon and Their Role in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

?-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human ?-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of ?-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause cell death and chemoattraction of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of ?-defensin is well reported in vitro against several enteric pathogens and in non-infectious processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which alters ?-defensin production. However, the role of ?-defensin in vivo in its interaction with other immune components in host defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites with more complex membranes is still not well known. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding the role of ?-defensin in relevant human infectious and non-infectious diseases of the colonic mucosa. In addition, we summarize the most significant aspects of ?-defensin and its antimicrobial role in a variety of disease processes.

Cobo, Eduardo R.; Chadee, Kris

2013-01-01

187

Global Warming and Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to

Atul A. Khasnis; Mary D. Nettleman

2005-01-01

188

FastStats: Infectious Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... State and Territorial Data NCHS Home FastStats Home Infectious Disease Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of ... 10 [PDF - 330 KB] More data AIDS/HIV Infectious Disease Prevalence in Los Angeles County–A Comparison to ...

189

IDBD: Infectious Disease Biomarker Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecu- larly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious dis- eases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database

In Seok Yang; Chunsun Ryu; Ki Joon Cho; Jin Kwang Kim; Swee Hoe Ong; Wayne P. Mitchell; Bong Su Kim; Hee-Bok Oh; Kyung Hyun Kim

2008-01-01

190

Global mapping of infectious disease.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer 'cognitive surplus' through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

Hay, Simon I; Battle, Katherine E; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F; George, Dylan B; Gething, Peter W

2013-03-19

191

Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.

192

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Genomics Program The NIAID Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) has Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases #12;Centers Biodefense Proteomics Center Genome Sequencing

Levin, Judith G.

193

NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF WARMWATER FISHES  

EPA Science Inventory

Compared with infectious diseases and disorders, few non-infectious diseases and disorders in cultured fish have severe biologic or economic impact. Culture practices, however, often establish environments that promote infectious disease by weakening the immune response or by pro...

194

Clinical and Translational Infectious Diseases Research  

E-print Network

Clinical and Translational Infectious Diseases Research Anita Shet, M.D. Associate Professor of Minnesota, USA Infectious Diseases Fellowship: Univ of Minnesota, USA HIV Research: Rockefeller University, USA Contemporary infectious disease research in India is currently traversing the intersection between

Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

195

A neonatal gnotobiotic pig model of human enterovirus 71 infection and associated immune responses  

PubMed Central

Vaccine development and pathogenesis studies for human enterovirus 71 are limited by a lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report the development of a novel neonatal gnotobiotic pig model using the non-pig-adapted neurovirulent human enterovirus 71 strain BJ110, which has a C4 genotype. Porcine small intestinal epithelial cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neural cells were infected in vitro. Oral and combined oral–nasal infection of 5-day-old neonatal gnotobiotic pigs with 5×108 fluorescence forming units (FFU) resulted in shedding up to 18 days post-infection, with viral titers in rectal swab samples peaking at 2.22×108 viral RNA copies/mL. Viral capsid proteins were detected in enterocytes within the small intestines on post-infection days (PIDs) 7 and 14. Additionally, viral RNA was detected in intestinal and extra-intestinal tissues, including the central nervous system, the lung and cardiac muscle. The infected neonatal gnotobiotic pigs developed fever, forelimb weakness, rapid breathing and some hand, foot and mouth disease symptoms. Flow cytometry analysis revealed increased frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-?-producing T cells in the brain and the blood on PID 14, but reduced frequencies were observed in the lung. Furthermore, high titers of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies were generated in both orally and combined oral–nasally infected pigs on PIDs 7, 14, 21 and 28. Together, these results demonstrate that neonatal gnotobiotic pigs represent a novel animal model for evaluating vaccines for human enterovirus 71 and for understanding the pathogenesis of this virus and the associated immune responses.

Yang, Xingdong; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Bui, Tammy; Liu, Fangning; Kocher, Jacob; Jortner, Bernard S; Vonck, Marlice; Pelzer, Kevin; Deng, Jie; Zhu, Runan; Li, Yuyun; Qian, Yuan; Yuan, Lijuan

2014-01-01

196

Structural Basis for Antiviral Inhibition of the Main Protease, 3C, from Human Enterovirus 93 ?  

PubMed Central

Members of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family are abundant, with common human pathogens that belong to the rhinovirus (HRV) and enterovirus (EV) species, including diverse echo-, coxsackie- and polioviruses. They cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe diseases with neurological and/or cardiac manifestations. Pandemic outbreaks of EVs may be accompanied by meningitis and/or paralysis and can be fatal. However, no effective prophylaxis or antiviral treatment against most EVs is available. The EV RNA genome directs the synthesis of a single polyprotein that is autocatalytically processed into mature proteins at Gln?Gly cleavage sites by the 3C protease (3Cpro), which has narrow, conserved substrate specificity. These cleavages are essential for virus replication, making 3Cpro an excellent target for antivirus drug development. In this study, we report the first determination of the crystal structure of 3Cpro from an enterovirus B, EV-93, a recently identified pathogen, alone and in complex with the anti-HRV molecules compound 1 (AG7404) and rupintrivir (AG7088) at resolutions of 1.9, 1.3, and 1.5 Å, respectively. The EV-93 3Cpro adopts a chymotrypsin-like fold with a canonically configured oxyanion hole and a substrate binding pocket similar to that of rhino-, coxsackie- and poliovirus 3C proteases. We show that compound 1 and rupintrivir are both active against EV-93 in infected cells and inhibit the proteolytic activity of EV-93 3Cpro in vitro. These results provide a framework for further structure-guided optimization of the tested compounds to produce antiviral drugs against a broad range of EV species. PMID:21835784

Costenaro, Lionel; Kaczmarska, Zuzanna; Arnan, Carme; Janowski, Robert; Coutard, Bruno; Sola, Maria; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Norder, Helene; Canard, Bruno; Coll, Miquel

2011-01-01

197

Outbreak of herpangina in the Brazilian Amazon in 2009 caused by Enterovirus B.  

PubMed

In October 2009, our laboratory was contacted by a Brazilian Public Health organization regarding a severe community outbreak of an acute exanthematic and febrile disease in the Brazilian Amazon that primarily affected children. A total of 44 patients with febrile disease were identified by the local public health system, 37 of whom were children between 1 and 9 years of age. Molecular virological and phylogenetic characterization revealed that enterovirus B was the etiological agent of this outbreak, which was characterized by a clinical presentation known as herpangina. PMID:24197788

Oliveira, D B; Campos, R K; Soares, M S; Barros, R B; Batista, T C A; Ferreira, P C P; Bonjardim, C A; Trindade, G S; Abrahão, J S; Kroon, Erna Geessien

2014-05-01

198

Characterization and specificity of the linear epitope of the enterovirus 71 VP2 protein  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease in the Asia-Pacific region over the last decade. Hand, foot and mouth disease can be caused by different etiological agents from the enterovirus family, mainly EV71 and coxsackieviruses, which are genetically closely related. Nevertheless, infection with EV71 may occasionally lead to high fever, neurologic complications and the emergence of a rapidly fatal syndrome of pulmonary edema associated with brainstem encephalitis. The rapid progression and high mortality of severe EV71 infection has highlighted the need for EV71-specific diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Monoclonal antibodies are urgently needed to specifically detect EV71 antigens from patient specimens early in the infection process. Furthermore, the elucidation of viral epitopes will contribute to the development of targeted therapeutics and vaccines. Results We have identified the monoclonal antibody 7C7 from a screen of hybridoma cells derived from mice immunized with the EV71-B5 strain. The linear epitope of 7C7 was mapped to amino acids 142-146 (EDSHP) of the VP2 capsid protein and was characterized in detail. Mutational analysis of the epitope showed that the aspartic acid to asparagine mutation of the EV71 subgenogroup A (BrCr strain) did not interfere with antibody recognition. In contrast, the serine to threonine mutation at position 144 of VP2, present in recently emerged EV71-C4 China strains, abolished antigenicity. Mice injected with this virus strain did not produce any antibodies against the VP2 protein. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting confirmed that 7C7 specifically recognized EV71 subgenogroups and did not cross-react to Coxsackieviruses 4, 6, 10, and 16. 7C7 was successfully used as a detection antibody in an antigen-capture ELISA assay. Conclusions Detailed mapping showed that the VP2 protein of Enterovirus 71 contains a single, linear, non-neutralizing epitope, spanning amino acids 142-146 which are located in the VP2 protein's E-F loop. The S/T(144) mutation in this epitope confers a loss of VP2 antigenicity to some newly emerged EV71-C4 strains from China. The corresponding monoclonal antibody 7C7 was used successfully in an AC-ELISA and did not cross-react to coxsackieviruses 4, 6, 10, and 16 in immunofluorescence assay and Western blots. 7C7 is the first monoclonal antibody described, that can differentiate Coxsackievirus 16 from Enterovirus 71. PMID:22361222

2012-01-01

199

Detection of enterovirus 68 in serum from pediatric patients with pneumonia and their clinical outcomes  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 68 (EV68) infection occasionally manifests with fatal outcomes. However, detection of EV68 in serum and its clinical outcomes are yet to be determined. In this study, we retrospectively tested stored serum samples collected from pediatric pneumonia patients whose nasopharyngeal specimens were positive for EV68. Of total 28 nasopharyngeal sample-positive patients, EV68 was detected in serum samples among 12 (43%) patients aged between 1 and 4 years. Our results suggest that EV68 can cause viremia by which the virus may exhibit systemic manifestations. PMID:24209770

Imamura, Tadatsugu; Suzuki, Akira; Lupisan, Socorro; Kamigaki, Taro; Okamoto, Michiko; Roy, Chandra Nath; Olveda, Remigio; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2014-01-01

200

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens  

PubMed Central

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

2012-01-01

201

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

2012-10-12

202

Microparticles and infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Membrane shedding with microvesicle (MV) release after membrane budding due to cell stimulation is a highly conserved intercellular interplay. MV can be released by micro-organisms or by host cells in the course of infectious diseases. Host MVs are divided according to cell compartment origin in microparticles (MPs) from plasma membrane and exosomes from intracellular membranes. MPs are cell fragments resulting from plasma membrane reorganization characterized by phosphatidylserine (PhtdSer) content and parental cell antigens on membrane. The role of MPs in physiology and pathophysiology is not yet well elucidated; they are a pool of bioactive molecules able to transmit a pro-inflammatory message to neighboring or target cells. The first acknowledged function of MP was the dissemination of a procoagulant potential via PhtdSer and it is now obvious than MPs bear tissue factor (TF). Such MPs have been implicated in the coagulation disorders observed during sepsis and septic shock. MPs have been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone and cardiac dysfunction in experimental sepsis. Beside a non-specific role, pathogens such as Neisseria meningitidis and Ebola Virus can specifically activate blood coagulation after TF-bearing MPs release in the bloodstream with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and Purpura fulminans. The role of MPs in host-pathogen interactions is also fundamental in Chagas disease, where MPs could allow immune evasion by inhibiting C3 convertase. During cerebral malaria, MPs play a complex role facilitating the activation of brain endothelium that contributes to amplify vascular obstruction by parasitized erythrocytes. Phagocytosis of HIV induced MPs expressing PhtdSer by monocytes/macrophages results in cellular infection and non-inflammatory response via up-regulation of TGF-?. PMID:22766273

Delabranche, X; Berger, A; Boisramé-Helms, J; Meziani, F

2012-08-01

203

Sex and Reproduction in the Transmission of Infectious Uveitis  

PubMed Central

Current data permit only speculations regarding sex differences in the prevalence of infectious uveitis between women and men because uveitis case surveys do not uniformly report gender data. Differences in prevalence that are reported in the literature could relate to simple differences in the number of women and men at risk for infection or to biological differences between men and women. Compared to other types of uveitis, infectious uveitis may be directly related to occupational exposures or sexual behaviors, which differ between women and men, and may mask actual biological differences in susceptibility to ocular manifestations of the infection and its prognosis. In infectious uveitis for which there is no element of sexual transmission and data is available, prevalence of ocular disease is roughly equal between women and men. Women also have a unique relationship with infectious uveitis in their role as mothers. Vertical transmission of infections such as herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus can produce severe chorioretinitis in neonates. PMID:25105020

Davis, Janet L.

2014-01-01

204

Emerging infectious disease: global response, global alert.  

PubMed

Despite spectacular progress in the eradication of infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis are making a comeback in many parts of the world. After years of decline, plague, diphtheria, dengue, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, and cholera have reappeared as public health threats. In the last 20 years [before 1997] more than 30 new and highly infectious diseases have been identified, including Ebola-type hemorrhagic fever, HIV/AIDs, and hepatitis C. Antibiotic resistance has also emerged during this period, and fewer new antibiotics are being produced because of high development costs and licensing. Drugs no longer offer protection or cure for many infectious diseases, and consequently more people need hospitalization with higher treatment costs. The causes of the appearance of new diseases and the resurgence of old ones include the rapid increase in international travel, the growth of mega-cities with high population densities, inadequate safe water and sanitation, food-borne diseases by the globalization of trade, and human penetration into remote animal and insect habitats. Meanwhile, resources for public health are being reduced, with the result that either the appearance of new diseases or resistance to drugs go unnoticed. A recent example is the human immunodeficiency virus, which went unrecognized until a large number of people got infected. For this very reason the 1997 World Health Day featured the theme of emerging infectious diseases and global response. Such forums are held to help countries rebuild the foundations of disease surveillance and control, while the public and private sectors may be encouraged to develop better techniques for surveillance to confront a common global threat. PMID:12348002

Nakajima, H

1997-01-01

205

Characterization of an Enterovirus species E isolated from naturally infected bovine in China.  

PubMed

Bovine enteroviruses, which belong to the Picornaviridae family, can cause clinical symptoms in cattle and are excreted in feces. In this study, a cytolytic virus was isolated from Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from fecal samples of bovine with severe diarrhea and hemorrhagic intestinal mucosa that had been originally diagnosed with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) by a bovine viral diarrhea virus Ag point-of-care test (IDEXX, American). Random priming PCR was used to amplify underlying viral sequences and identify the isolated virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolated virus closely matches the EV-E2 species, which is different from other Chinese strains previously isolated. The newly identified virus was named HLJ-3531/2013. We infected the sulking mice with the isolated virus. Reverse-transcription PCR, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, serum neutralization (SN) test, and virus isolation from various tissues revealed that HLJ-3531/2013 can infect the intestine, liver, and lung of suckling mice. The present work is the first to report the reproduction of clinical symptoms by an isolated virus in an experimental infection model of animals and lays a solid foundation for the development of the pathogenesis of bovine enteroviruses. PMID:25102330

Zhang, Haili; Liu, Hongtao; Bao, Jun; Guo, Yongli; Peng, Tongquan; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei; Gao, Mingchun

2014-10-13

206

Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 strains isolated from children in Yamagata, Japan, between 1990 and 2013.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 infections have become a major public issue in the Asia-Pacific region due to the large number of fatal cases. To clarify the longitudinal molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 (EV71) in a community, we isolated 240 strains from children, mainly with hand-foot-and-mouth diseases, between 1990 and 2013 in Yamagata, Japan. We carried out a sequence analysis of the VP1 region (891 bp) using 223 isolates and identified six subgenogroups (B2, B4, B5, C1, C2 and C4) during the study period. Subgenogroups C1 and B2 were found only between 1990 and 1993 and have not reappeared since. In contrast, strains in subgenogroups C2, C4 and B5 appeared repeatedly with genomic variations. Recent reports from several local communities in Japan have suggested that identical predominant subgenogroup strains, which have also been found in the Asia-Pacific region, have been circulating in a wide area in Japan. However, it is likely that there is a discrepancy between the major subgenogroups circulating in the Asia-Pacific region and those in Europe. It is necessary to continue the analysis of the longitudinal epidemiology of EV71 in local communities, as well as on regional and global levels, to develop strategies against severe EV71 infections. PMID:25053796

Mizuta, Katsumi; Aoki, Yoko; Matoba, Yohei; Yahagi, Kazue; Itagaki, Tsutomu; Katsushima, Fumio; Katsushima, Yuriko; Ito, Sueshi; Hongo, Seiji; Matsuzaki, Yoko

2014-10-01

207

Recombination strategies and evolutionary dynamics of the Human enterovirus A global gene pool.  

PubMed

We analysed natural recombination in 79 Human enterovirus A strains representing 13 serotypes by sequencing of VP1, 2C and 3D genome regions. The half-life of a non-recombinant tree node in coxsackieviruses 2, 4 and 10 was only 3.5 years, and never more than 9 years. All coxsackieviruses that differed by more than 7?% of the nucleotide sequence in any genome region were recombinants relative to each other. Enterovirus 71 (EV71), on the contrary, displayed remarkable genetic stability. Three major EV71 clades were stable for 19-29 years, with a half-life of non-recombinant viruses between 13 and 18.5 years in different clades. Only five EV71 strains out of over 150 recently acquired non-structural genome regions from coxsackieviruses, while none of 80 contemporary coxsackieviruses had non-structural genes transferred from the three EV71 clades. In contrast to earlier observations, recombination between VP1 and 2C genome regions was not more frequent than between 2C and 3D regions. PMID:24425417

Lukashev, Alexander N; Shumilina, Elena Yu; Belalov, Ilya S; Ivanova, Olga E; Eremeeva, Tatiana P; Reznik, Vadim I; Trotsenko, O E; Drexler, Jan Felix; Drosten, Christian

2014-04-01

208

http://infection.thelancet.com Vol 8 July 2008 415 Modelling infectious diseases in humans and animals  

E-print Network

http://infection.thelancet.com Vol 8 July 2008 415 MediaWatch Books Modelling infectious diseases in humans and animals An informative textbook, Modeling infectious diseases in humans and animals is written with a few examples of the application of this type of model to a specific infectious disease of animals

Rohani, Pej

209

Molecular Surveillance of Enterovirus and Norwalk-Like Virus in Oysters Relocated to a Municipal-Sewage-Impacted Gulf Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 18-month survey was conducted to examine the prevalence of enteric viruses and their relationship to indicators in environmentally polluted shellfish. Groups of oysters, one group per 4 weeks, were relocated to a coastal water area in the Gulf of Mexico that is impacted by municipal sewage and were analyzed for enteroviruses, Norwalk-like viruses (NLV), and indicator microorganisms (fecal coliform,

Y. Carol Shieh; Ralph S. Baric; Jacquelina W. Woods; Kevin R. Calci

2003-01-01

210

The Seroprevalence and Seroincidence of Enterovirus71 Infection in Infants and Children in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot and mouth disease has emerged as a serious public health problem in South East Asia over the last decade. To better understand the prevalence of EV71 infection, we determined EV71 seroprevalence and seroincidence amongst healthy infants and children in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. In a cohort of 200 newborns, 55% of cord blood

Chau Bich Nguyen Tran; Hieu Trong Nguyen; Ha Thanh Thi Phan; Ngoc Van Tran; Bridget Wills; Jeremy Farrar; Joseph D. Santangelo; Cameron P. Simmons

2011-01-01

211

Human enteroviruses are not the cause of neurological impairments in children at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital  

PubMed Central

Introduction Convulsions associated with fever and acute onset of unknown aetiology with case fatalities have become a long observed medical condition at the Child Health Department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Children admitted to the department with seizures of undetermined origin and fever has been a source of diagnostic confusion. Studies from the Asia Pacific region suggest a link with non-polio enteroviruses. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between non-polio enterovirus and acute encephalopathy causing neurological morbidity in children. Methods One hundred and fifty cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), throat swab and serum samples were collected from participants at the Child Health Department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital for virus isolation and characterization. Samples were cultured on cells and positive culture assayed by microneutralisation. Direct PCR as well as multiplex PCR were used to detect other viral agents present. Results Enterovirus isolation rate was approximately 0.67%. Intratypic differentiation by molecular characterization identified a poliovirus from vaccine origin. Further screening by real-time RT-PCR identified the virus as normal Sabin and not vaccine-derive poliovirus. No arbovirus was however detected. Conclusion Non-polio enteroviruses and chikugunya virus were found not to be the etiologic agent responsible for the convulsion with neurologic morbidity observed in the Ghanaian children. Investigation for other viral agents is recommended.

Tettey, Prudence; Badoe, Ebenezer; Adiku, Theophilus; Obodai, Eva; Odoom, John Kofi

2014-01-01

212

Molecular surveillance of non-polio enterovirus infections in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Western India: 2004-2009.  

PubMed

Acute gastroenteritis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Rotavirus (RV) and Norovirus (NoV) are the leading cause of the disease. Despite the use of improved diagnostic methods a significant proportion of gastroenteritis cases remained undiagnosed. Though nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs) have been reported frequently in children with acute gastroenteritis, their etiologic role has not been established. To investigate the epidemiology of NPEVs in gastroenteritis cases which remained negative for leading causative agents, 955 RV and NoV negative stool specimens from children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis were included in the study. A case control study was conducted which includes stool specimens from 450 children with gastroenteritis and 162 asymptomatic control subjects to determine the association of NPEVs with the disease. NPEV detection and typing was carried out by RT-PCR and sequencing. Presence of RV, NoV, Adenovirus, and Astrovirus was confirmed by ELISA or PCR/RT-PCR. Overall 14% NPEV prevalence was noted. The percentage of children with NPEV infection differed significantly between gastroenteritis and non-gastroenteritis patients (13.7% vs. 4.9%). NPEV was more prevalent among patients with gastroenteritis of undetectable etiology as compared to those detected positive for other viruses (17.9% vs. 7%) (P?

Patil, Pooja R; Chitambar, Shobha D; Gopalkrishna, V

2015-01-01

213

A Retrospective Overview of Enterovirus Infection Diagnosis and Molecular Epidemiology in the Public Hospitals of Marseille, France (1985-2005)  

PubMed Central

Human enteroviruses (HEV) are frequent human pathogens and, associated in particular with large outbreaks of aseptic meningitis. Here, we have compiled a database of clinical HEV isolates from the Public Hospitals of Marseille, from 1985 to 2005. Amongst 654 isolates that could be characterized by complete sequencing of the VP1 gene, 98% belonged to species HEV-B; the most frequently isolated serotypes were Echovirus E30, E11, E7, E6 and E4. The high incidence of E30 and the recent emergence of E13 are consistent with reports worldwide and peak HEV isolation occurred mostly in the late spring and summer months. The proportion of echoviruses has decreased across the years, while that of coxsackieviruses has increased. Stool (the most frequent sample type) allowed detection of all identified serotypes. MRC5 (Human lung fibroblasts) cell line was the most conducive cell line for HEV isolation (84.9% of 10 most common serotype isolates, 96.3% in association with BGM (Buffalo green monkey kidney cells)). Previous seroneutralization-based serotype identification demonstrated 55.4% accuracy when compared with molecular VP1 analysis. Our analysis of a large number of clinical strains over 20 years reinforced the validity of VP1 serotyping and showed that comparative p-distance scores can be coupled with phylogenetic analysis to provide non-ambiguous serotype identification. Phylogenetic analysis in the VP1, 2C and 3D regions also provided evidence for recombination events amongst clinical isolates. In particular, it identified isolates with dissimilar VP1 but almost identical nonstructural regions. PMID:21437207

Tan, Charlene Y. Q.; Ninove, Laetitia; Gaudart, Jean; Nougairede, Antoine; Zandotti, Christine; Thirion-Perrier, Laurence; Charrel, Remi N.; de Lamballerie, Xavier

2011-01-01

214

Enterovirus-71 Virus-Like Particles Induce the Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through TLR4 Signaling  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes seasonal epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has a high mortality rate among young children. We recently demonstrated potent induction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response in monkeys immunized with EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs), with a morphology resembling that of infectious EV71 virions but not containing a viral genome, which could potentially be safe as a vaccine for EV71. To elucidate the mechanisms through which EV71 VLPs induce cell-mediated immunity, we studied the immunomodulatory effects of EV71 VLPs on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), which bind to and incorporate EV71 VLPs. DC treatment with EV71 VLPs enhanced the expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, CD40, CD54, and HLA-DR on the cell surface; increased the production of interleukin (IL)-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs; and suppressed the capacity of DCs for endocytosis. Treatment with EV71 VLPs also enhanced the ability of DCs to stimulate naïve T cells and induced secretion of interferon (IFN)-? by T cells and Th1 cell responses. Neutralization with antibodies against Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 suppressed the capacity of EV71 VLPs to induce the production of IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs and inhibited EV71 VLPs binding to DCs. Our study findings clarified the important role for TLR4 signaling in DCs in response to EV71 VLPs and showed that EV71 VLPs induced inhibitor of kappaB alpha (I?B?) degradation and nuclear factor of kappaB (NF-?B) activation. PMID:25360749

Lin, Yu-Li; Hu, Yu-Chen; Liang, Cheng-Chao; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Liang, Yu-Chih; Yuan, Hui-Ping; Chiang, Bor-Luen

2014-01-01

215

Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

2013-01-01

216

How to understand the efficacy measurements for enterovirus type 71 vaccine?  

PubMed

The choice of endpoint was most important for an efficacy vaccine trial. The objective of this paper is to gear toward answering questions about the rationality and scientificity of the primary endpoints choosing, case capturing and diagnosis strategy in our recently reported EV71 vaccine efficacy phase 3 trial. In order to obtain both high sensitivity and specificity in the case detecting, EV71-associated disease had been chosen as primary endpoint, a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms was surveyed, both the real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation were combined for the laboratory diagnosis, and serial specimens since disease onset were collected for assays. Though, the EV71 vaccine efficacy was well measured in the phase 3 trial, several potential factors could also have influences on the cases confirming. More evidence of EV71 vaccine efficacy will be demanded in post-marketing studies in the future. PMID:24280898

Li, Jing-Xin; Meng, Fan-Yue; Liang, Zheng-Lun; Mao, Qun-Ying; Zhu, Feng-Cai

2014-03-01

217

Quantitative Genomic and Antigenomic Enterovirus RNA Detection in Explanted Heart Tissue Samples from Patients with End-Stage Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Standardized one-step real-time RT-PCR assay detected enterovirus RNA in cardiac biopsy samples from 4 of 20 patients suffering from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). The median viral load was 287 copies per microgram of total extracted nucleic acids, with positive- to negative-strand RNA ratios ranging from 2 to 20. These results demonstrate enterovirus persistence in the heart of IDCM patients, characterized by low viral loads and low positive- to negative-RNA ratios. PMID:22837323

Renois, Fanny; Talmud, Deborah; Nguyen, Yohan; Lesaffre, Francois; Boulagnon, Camille; Bruneval, Patrick; Fornes, Paul; Andreoletti, Laurent

2012-01-01

218

Changing patterns of infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a century of often successful prevention and control efforts, infectious diseases remain an important global problem in public health, causing over 13 million deaths each year. Changes in society, technology and the microorganisms themselves are contributing to the emergence of new diseases, the re-emergence of diseases once controlled, and to the development of antimicrobial resistance. Two areas of special

Mitchell L. Cohen

2000-01-01

219

Global Spread of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

We develop simple models for the global spread of infectious diseases, emphasizing human mobility via air travel and the variation of public health infrastructure from region to region. We derive formulas relating the total and peak number of infections in two countries to the rate of travel between them and their respective epidemiological parameters.

S. Hsu; A. Zee

2003-06-25

220

Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

Howe, Warren B.

2003-01-01

221

The Mathematics of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many models for the spread of infectious diseases in populations have been analyzed math- ematically and applied to specific diseases. Threshold theorems involving the basic repro- duction number R0, the contact number ?, and the replacement number R are reviewed for the classic SIR epidemic and endemic models. Similar results with new expressions for R0 are obtained for MSEIR and

Herbert W. Hethcote

222

The Infectious Range of Flu  

E-print Network

The Infectious Range of Flu Since the H5N1 strain of avian flu started crossing into people since 1990. In graduate school, he studied the molecular complex that allows the flu virus to replicate strain of avian flu had never been known to cross into humans. The infections immediately raised alarm

Hill, Wendell T.

223

Design and validation of a real-time RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection of enteroviruses and parechoviruses in clinical samples.  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses (EVs) and parechoviruses (HPeVs) are important etiological agents causing infections such as meningitis, encephalitis and sepsis-like disease in neonates and young children. We have developed a real-time RT-PCR for simultaneous detection of EV and HPeV in clinical samples. Primers and probe sets were designed from the conserved 5'-noncoding region of the genomes. The sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the technique were measured using a set of 25 EV and 6 HPeV types. All EVs but no HPeVs were detected with the EV primers-probe set. The HPeV primers-probe set detected only the 6 HPeV types. The lower detection limit was found to be 4 and 40CCID50/ml for HPeV and EV respectively, demonstrating high sensitivity of the technique for both viruses. The threshold cycle values were highly reproducible on repeat testing of positive controls among assay runs. The assay was evaluated in 53 clinical samples of suspected meningitis, sepsis or febrile syndromes from children under 3 years. In 11 of these (21%) EVs were detected, while 4, i.e. 7.5%, were HPeV positive. Molecular typing was carried out for 73% of the viruses. In summary, the RT-PCR method developed demonstrated effectively both EV and HPeV detection, which can cause similar clinical symptoms in infants. PMID:25152526

Cabrerizo, María; Calvo, Cristina; Rabella, Nuria; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Del Amo, Eva; Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Sara; Moreno-Docón, Antonio; Otero, Almudena; Trallero, Gloria

2014-11-01

224

on Infectious & Reportable Diseases HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT MAY 2009  

E-print Network

.............................................................................. 3 4.1 Infectious Diseases ................................................................................... 3 4.2. Notifiable Infectious Diseases .......................................................................................... 6 5.2 Public Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations 1988 ............................. 6 5

225

Computational Modeling and Simulation of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Computational Modeling and Simulation of Infectious Diseases May 21­July 27, 2012 Receive a 10-week of Public Health Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS) National Center of Excellence #12;

Sibille, Etienne

226

Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Exposure Control Plan  

E-print Network

Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Exposure Control Plan Pursuant to the requirements of the MIOSHA Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Standard (R 325.70001 through R 325.700018) Wayne State University Office

Berdichevsky, Victor

227

Review article Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

Review article Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France Barbara DUFOUR according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases Centres nationaux de référence (CNRs). Most human infectious diseases are monitored by one or more

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

228

Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases C. Jewel, T. Kypraios, P. Neal & G. Roberts of Mathematics, The University of Manchester #12;Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases. C. Jewell Infectious diseases both within human and animal polulations often pose serious health and socio- economic

Sidorov, Nikita

229

BIOLOGICAL/INFECTIOUS/BIOHAZARDOUS/ MEDICAL WASTE DISPOSAL  

E-print Network

BIOLOGICAL/INFECTIOUS/BIOHAZARDOUS/ MEDICAL WASTE DISPOSAL Overview Infectious waste is defined in an infectious disease. You may hear terms such as "medical waste," "biohazardous waste," "pathological waste and associated biologicals · Any recombinant DNA-containing materials · Blood and blood products · Pathology

Subramanian, Venkat

230

Rapid Detection of Enteroviruses in Small Volumes of Natural Waters by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite viral contamination of recreational waters, only bacterial, not viral, indicators are monitored routinely, due to a lack of rapid and cost-effective assays. We used negatively charged filters to capture enteroviruses from seawater and freshwater. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Poliovirus (6.6 to 330,000 virus

Jed A. Fuhrman; Xiaolin Liang; Rachel T. Noble

2005-01-01

231

Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrPC) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrPC causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrPC sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrPC sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrPC mutations. PMID:24274622

Castilla, Joaquin; Pintado, Belen; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Andreoletti, Olivier; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Arroba, Ana-Isabel; Parra-Arrondo, Beatriz; Ferrer, Isidro; Manzanares, Jorge; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos

2013-01-01

232

Non-infectious pulmonary complications after bone marrow transplantation  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a successful and recognised treatment option for patients with a number of haematological and non-haematological malignant and non-malignant conditions. Pulmonary complications both infectious and non-infectious are common after BMT. Multiple factors are thought to contribute to pulmonary complications, including the type and duration of immunological defects produced by the underlying disease and treatment, the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and the conditioning regimens employed. These complications are classified as early or late, depending on whether they occur before or after 100 days from transplantation. Early non-infectious pulmonary complications typically include pulmonary oedema, upper airway complications, diffuse alveolar haemorrhage, cytolytic thrombi, and pleural effusion. Bronchiolitis obliterans, veno-occlusive disease, and secondary malignancies occur late after BMT. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome, GVHD, and radiation induced lung injury can occur in early or late period after BMT. PMID:12151565

Khurshid, I; Anderson, L

2002-01-01

233

Infectious spondylodiscitis: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Infectious spondylodiscitis presents a diagnostic conundrum, and establishing the diagnosis often requires expensive testing and workup. But because of the potentially irreversible neurologic consequences and the great expense and time required to adequately treat this rare infection, establishing a diagnosis is paramount. Below, we present a representative case from clinical practice and examine the prevalence of certain signs and symptoms and the utility of various diagnostic modalities health care providers can use to accurately diagnose afflicted patients and avoid disastrous complications. PMID:23457758

Amini, Michael H; Salzman, Gary A

2013-01-01

234

Identification of a Novel Enterovirus E Isolates HY12 from Cattle with Severe Respiratory and Enteric Diseases  

PubMed Central

In this study, a virus strain designated as HY12 was isolated from cattle with a disease of high morbidity and mortality in Jilin province. Biological and physiochemical properties showed that HY12 isolates is cytopathic with an extremely high infectivity. HY12 is resistant to treatment of organic solvent and acid, and unstable at 60°C for 1 h. Electron microscopy observation revealed the virus is an approximately 22–28 nm in diameter. The complete genome sequence of HY12 consists of 7416 nucleotides, with a typical picornavirus genome organization including a 5?-untranslated region (UTR), a large single ORF encoding a polyprotein of 2176 amino acids, and a 3?-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis clustered HY12 isolates to a new serotype/genotype within the clade of enterovirus E (formerly BEV-A). Alignment analysis revealed a unique insertion of 2 amino acid residues (NF) at the C-terminal of VP1 protein between aa 825 and 826, and several rare mutations in VP1 and VP4 of HY12 isolates in relation to known bovine enterovirus (BEV) strains. This is the first report of an enterovirus E in China, which is potentially associated with an outbreak in cattle with severe respiratory and enteric diseases. PMID:24830424

Li, Sujing; San, Zhihao; Wang, Xinping

2014-01-01

235

[Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans].  

PubMed

Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic lesions of small airways following a pulmonary infection and leading to some degree of airway obstruction. It represents a rare cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and is probably underestimated, especially when the lesions affect small areas of the lungs. The clinical features differ between children and adults. In children, adenovirus is the most frequently involved infectious agent, especially the more virulent serotypes 3, 7 and 21. The clinical and radiological signs vary widely and the functional outcome depends on the extent of the lung injury. The diagnosis is based on the medical history, the CT-scan and functional data. The treatment is symptomatic. The most severe forms may result in chronic respiratory insufficiency. In adults, the frequency of obstructive injuries of the small airways in the context of lung infection is unclear. Parenchymal lesions are often present, resulting in BO with organizing pneumonia. These lesions alter the clinical presentation and the radiographic features of the initial infectious disease and often prove difficult to diagnose and manage. Several authors have published clinical cases describing presumed efficacy of systemic corticosteroids but the data are scarce. PMID:23419446

de Blic, J; Deschildre, A; Chinet, T

2013-02-01

236

Chimeric Porcine Circoviruses (PCV) Containing Amino Acid Epitope Tags in the C Terminus of the Capsid Gene Are Infectious and Elicit both Anti-Epitope Tag Antibodies and Anti-PCV Type 2 Neutralizing Antibodies in Pigs?  

PubMed Central

A chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV1-2) with the capsid gene of pathogenic PCV2 cloned into the genomic backbone of nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in pigs but elicits protective immunity against PCV2. In this study, short epitope tags were inserted into the C terminus of the capsid protein of the chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine virus, resulting in a tractable marker virus that is infectious both in vitro and in vivo. Pigs experimentally infected with the epitope-tagged PCV1-2 vaccine viruses produced tag-specific antibodies, as well as anti-PCV2 neutralizing antibodies, indicating that the epitope-tagged viruses could potentially serve as a positive-marker modified live-attenuated vaccine. PMID:21307200

Beach, Nathan M.; Smith, Sara M.; Ramamoorthy, Sheela; Meng, Xiang-Jin

2011-01-01

237

A Sabin 2-related poliovirus recombinant contains a homologous sequence of human enterovirus species C in the viral polymerase coding region.  

PubMed

A type 2 vaccine-related poliovirus (strain CHN3024), differing from the Sabin 2 strain by 0.44% in the VP1 coding region was isolated from a patient with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. Sequences downstream of nucleotide position 6735 (3D(pol) coding region) were derived from an unidentified sequence; no close match for a potential parent was found, but it could be classified into a non-polio human enteroviruses species C (HEV-C) phylogeny. The virus differed antigenically from the parental Sabin strain, having an amino acid substitution in the neutralizing antigenic site 1. The similarity between CHN3024 and Sabin 2 sequences suggests that the recombination was recent; this is supported by the estimation that the initiating OPV dose was given only 36-75 days before sampling. The patient's clinical manifestations, intratypic differentiation examination, and whole-genome sequencing showed that this recombinant exhibited characteristics of neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV), which may, thus, pose a potential threat to a polio-free world. PMID:19946714

Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Shuangli; Chen, Li; Yan, Dongmei; Wang, Dongyan; Tang, Ruiyan; Zhu, Hui; Hou, Xiaohui; An, Hongqiu; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Wenbo

2010-02-01

238

Infectious Cellular Load in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-Infected Individuals and Susceptibility of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Their Exposed Partners to Non-Syncytium-Inducing HIV-1 as Major Determinants for HIV-1 Transmission in Homosexual Couples  

PubMed Central

To study risk factors for homosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we compared 10 monogamous homosexual couples between whom transmission of HIV-1 had occurred with 10 monogamous homosexual couples between whom HIV-1 transmission had not occurred despite high-risk sexual behavior. In the group of individuals who did not transmit virus, peripheral cellular infectious load was lower and the CD4+ T-cell counts were higher than in the group of transmitters. HIV-1 RNA levels in serum did not differ between transmitters and nontransmitters. Compared with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal healthy blood donors, 8 of 10 nonrecipients and only 3 of 8 recipients had PBMC with reduced susceptibility to in vitro infection with non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) HIV-1 variants isolated from either their respective partners or an unrelated individual. No difference in susceptibility was observed for infection with a syncytium-inducing variant. Among the individuals who had PBMC with reduced susceptibility, five nonrecipients and one recipient had PBMC that were equally or even less susceptible to NSI variants than PBMC that had low susceptibility and that were derived from healthy blood donors that were heterozygous for a 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5 ?32). Three of these individuals (all nonrecipients) had a CCR5 ?32 heterozygous genotype themselves, confirming an association between low susceptibility to NSI variants and CCR5 ?32 heterozygosity. All three recipients with less susceptible PBMC had partners with a high infectious cellular load; inversely, both nonrecipients with normally susceptible PBMC had partners with a very low infectious cellular load. These results suggest that a combination of susceptibility of target cells and inoculum size upon homosexual exposure largely determines whether HIV-1 infection is established. PMID:9420218

Blaak, Hetty; van't Wout, Angelique B.; Brouwer, Margreet; Cornelissen, Marion; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Albrecht-van Lent, Nel; Keet, Rene P. M.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Coutinho, Roel A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

1998-01-01

239

Postexposure prophylaxis for common infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is effective in preventing illness after potential or documented exposure to a variety of microbial pathogens and in reducing the risk of secondary spread of infection. Guidelines have been published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for proper use of PEP for bloodborne pathogens, for microorganisms transmitted by either airborne or droplet spread or through direct contact, and for infections acquired after traumatic injuries. Depending on the type of exposure, different forms of PEP are available, including vaccines, immune globulins, antibiotics, and antiviral medications. Physicians should assess a patient's potential need for PEP based on several factors, including the type of exposure, the timing and severity of illness in the source patient, the exposed person's susceptibility to infectious diseases of concern, and the relative risks and benefits of the PEP regimen in an individual situation. Immunity to certain infectious diseases can be ensured with prior infection or vaccination, and by serologic testing in patients with a negative or uncertain history. PEP should be given to persons exposed to index cases of pertussis and invasive meningococcal infection regardless of immunization history, and should be given following rabies and tetanus exposure regardless of the length of delay. In general, PEP should be given as soon as possible following a high-risk exposure. Persons exposed to bloodborne pathogens should have baseline testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus antibodies, and follow-up testing at six weeks, three months, and six months postexposure. PMID:23939603

Bader, Mazen S; McKinsey, David S

2013-07-01

240

Infectious Endogenous Retroviruses in Cats and Emergence of Recombinant Viruses  

PubMed Central

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise a significant percentage of the mammalian genome, and it is poorly understood whether they will remain as inactive genomes or emerge as infectious retroviruses. Although several types of ERVs are present in domestic cats, infectious ERVs have not been demonstrated. Here, we report a previously uncharacterized class of endogenous gammaretroviruses, termed ERV-DCs, that is present and hereditary in the domestic cat genome. We have characterized a subset of ERV-DC proviral clones, which are numbered according to their genomic insertions. One of these, ERV-DC10, located in the q12-q21 region on chromosome C1, is an infectious gammaretrovirus capable of infecting a broad range of cells, including human. Our studies indicate that ERV-DC10 entered the genome of domestic cats in the recent past and appeared to translocate to or reintegrate at a distinct locus as infectious ERV-DC18. Insertional polymorphism analysis revealed that 92 of 244 domestic cats had ERV-DC10 on a homozygous or heterozygous locus. ERV-DC-like sequences were found in primate and rodent genomes, suggesting that these ERVs, and recombinant viruses such as RD-114 and BaEV, originated from an ancestor of ERV-DC. We also found that a novel recombinant virus, feline leukemia virus subgroup D (FeLV-D), was generated by ERV-DC env transduction into feline leukemia virus in domestic cats. Our results indicate that ERV-DCs behave as donors and/or acceptors in the generation of infectious, recombinant viruses. The presence of such infectious endogenous retroviruses, which could be harmful or beneficial to the host, may affect veterinary medicine and public health. PMID:22674983

Anai, Yukari; Ochi, Haruyo; Watanabe, Shinya; Nakagawa, So; Kawamura, Maki; Gojobori, Takashi

2012-01-01

241

Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis.  

PubMed

Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mount, Gram's stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. PMID:18417821

Gupta, Noopur; Tandon, Radhika

2008-01-01

242

Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Since 1990, Mongolia’s health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcus, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

2003-01-01

243

[Blood transfusion and infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Blood transfusion is essential in current medical treatment. In the era of selling blood, around 50% of recipients seemed to be infected by hepatitis virus. After the establishment of the blood donation system and many safety measures, the risk of blood contamination has decreased markedly; however, blood products still have a risk of known and unknown pathogens. In this manuscript, we discuss the remaining problems of HBV and HIV-1. As emerging infectious diseases, we examine Trypanosoma crusi, West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, and Dengue virus. Finally, XMRV is exemplified as a rumored virus. Gathering accurate information about pathogens and preparing for outbreaks in advance are crucial for blood safety. PMID:23947180

Hamaguchi, Isao

2013-05-01

244

What we are watching--five top global infectious disease threats, 2012: a perspective from CDC's Global Disease Detection Operations Center.  

PubMed

Disease outbreaks of international public health importance continue to occur regularly; detecting and tracking significant new public health threats in countries that cannot or might not report such events to the global health community is a challenge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Global Disease Detection (GDD) Operations Center, established in early 2007, monitors infectious and non-infectious public health events to identify new or unexplained global public health threats and better position CDC to respond, if public health assistance is requested or required. At any one time, the GDD Operations Center actively monitors approximately 30-40 such public health threats; here we provide our perspective on five of the top global infectious disease threats that we were watching in 2012: 1 avian influenza A (H5N1), 2 cholera, 3 wild poliovirus, 4 enterovirus-71, and 5 extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis11†Current address: Division of Integrated Biosurveillance, Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, US Department of Defense, Silver Spring, MD, USA. PMID:23827387

Christian, Kira A; Ijaz, Kashef; Dowell, Scott F; Chow, Catherine C; Chitale, Rohit A; Bresee, Joseph S; Mintz, Eric; Pallansch, Mark A; Wassilak, Steven; McCray, Eugene; Arthur, Ray R

2013-01-01

245

Seroepidemiology of human enterovirus71 and coxsackievirusA16 among children in Guangdong province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness. Mainly induced by the Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A 16 infections, the frequently occurred HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public health problem in Southeast Asia. Currently,only a few studies have investigated the human immunity to HFMD in China. In this study, we conducted a cohort study in Guangdong province, China. Methods Stored serum samples from children less than 10 years old were analyzed. The levels of EV71 and CA16 specific antibodies before, during and shortly after the 2008 large outbreak of HFMD were evaluated by the microneutralization test. The geometric mean titer (GMT) was calculated and compared. Statistical significance was taken as P?

2013-01-01

246

Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits the Replication and Viability of Enterovirus 71 In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an etiology for a number of diseases in humans. Traditional Chinese herbs have been reported to be effective for treating EV71 infection. However, there is no report about the antiviral effects of CHA against EV71. In this study, plaque reduction assay demonstrated that the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of CHA on EV71 replication is 6.3 µg/ml. When both CHA (20 µg/ml) and EV71 were added, or added post-infection at different time points, CHA was able to effectively inhibit EV71 replication between 0 and 10 h. In addition, CHA inhibited EV71 2A transcription and translation in EV71-infected RD cells, but did not affect VP1, 3C, and 3D expression. Furthermore, CHA inhibited secretions of IL-6, TNF-?, IFN-? and MCP-1 in EV71-infected RD cells. Altogether, these results revealed that CHA may have antiviral properties for treating EV71 infection. PMID:24098754

Hou, Xueling; Peng, Hongjun; Zhang, Li; Shi, Mei; Ji, Yun; Wang, Yuyue

2013-01-01

247

Detection of enterovirus 71 using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP).  

PubMed

Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), which is a visual assay for nucleic acids, is performed in a single step using one tube at 65 °C for 1.5 h. In this study, RT-LAMP was established as a method for the detection of enterovirus 71 (EV71). The detection limit of the assay was approximately 10 copies, and no cross-reactivity was noted with Coxsackievirus A16, echovirus, human rotavirus (HRV) or norovirus. This assay, which offers greater sensitivity at a lower cost compared with the conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was validated using 252 clinical specimens that had been confirmed by laboratory diagnosis using RT-PCR. Both methods produced the same results with 52 positive samples. The RT-LAMP-based assay does not require specialised equipment, and therefore, it can be performed conveniently during an outbreak or under field conditions. In brief, the RT-LAMP-based assay provided a simple, rapid and efficient method for the detection of EV71 nucleic acid under field conditions. PMID:22155579

Wang, Xiang; Zhu, Jun-ping; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Zi-gang; Zhang, Fang; Zhao, Zhi-hui; Zheng, Wen-zhi; Zheng, Li-shu

2012-02-01

248

Immunization of N terminus of enterovirus 71 VP4 elicits cross-protective antibody responses  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease. Large epidemics of EV71 infection have been recently reported in the Asian-Pacific region. Currently, no vaccine is available to prevent EV71 infection. Results The peptide (VP4N20) consisting of the first 20 amino acids at the N-terminal of VP4 of EV71 genotype C4 were fused to hepatitis B core (HBcAg) protein. Expression of fusion proteins in E. coli resulted in the formation of chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs). Mice immunized with the chimeric VLPs elicited anti-VP4N20 antibody response. In vitro microneutralization experiments showed that anti-chimeric VLPs sera were able to neutralize not only EV71 of genotype C4 but also EV71 of genotype A. Neonatal mice model confirmed the neutralizing ability of anti-chimeric VLPs sera. Eiptope mapping led to the identification of a “core sequence” responsible for antibody recognition within the peptide. Conclusions Immunization of chimeric VLPs is able to elicit antibodies displaying a broad neutralizing activity against different genotypes of EV71 in vitro. The “core sequence” of EV71-VP4 is highly conserved across EV71 genotypes. The chimeric VLPs have a great potential to be a novel vaccine candidate with a broad cross-protection against different EV71 genotypes. PMID:24320792

2013-01-01

249

Association of IP-10 gene polymorphism with susceptibility to Enterovirus 71 infection  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) often causes large outbreaks of diseases among children worldwide and its pathogenesis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) polymorphism in children with EV71 infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were performed to analyze the gene polymorphisms of IP-10 (?1596C/T) in 58 EV71-infected and 48 control patients. The results showed that in EV71-infected patients the frequency of carrying CT + TT genotype and T allele is 10.3 and 6.0%, respectively, which is significantly lower than that of the controls (29.2 and 15.6%, respectively). Individuals with T allele had a lower risk of EV71 infection [odds ratio (OR) = 0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.13–0.89]. The results of this study indicated that ?1596T allele for the IP-10 gene may be a beneficial factor for EV71 infection. PMID:24648959

YANG, JING; CHEN, ZHEN-ZHEN; LV, TIE-GANG; LIU, PEI-PEI; CHEN, ZONG-BO

2013-01-01

250

Rupintrivir is a promising candidate for treating severe cases of Enterovirus-71 infection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the suitability of rupintrivir against Enterovirus 71 (EV71) induced severe clinical symptoms using computational methods. METHODS: The structure of EV71 3C protease was predicted by homology modeling. The binding free energies between rupintrivir and EV71 3C and human rhinovirus 3C protease were computed by molecular dynamics and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann/surface area and molecular mechanics generalized-born/surface area methods. EV71 3C fragments obtained from clinical samples collected during May to July 2008 in Shanghai were amplified by reverse-transcription and polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. RESULTS: We observed that rupintrivir had favorable binding affinity with EV71 3C protease (-10.76 kcal/mol). The variability of the 3C protein sequence in isolates of various outbreaks, including those obtained in our hospital from May to July 2008, were also analyzed to validate the conservation of the drug binding pocket. CONCLUSION: Rupintrivir, whose safety profiles had been proved, is an attractive candidate and can be quickly utilized for treating severe EV71 infection. PMID:20066739

Zhang, Xiao-Nan; Song, Zhi-Gang; Jiang, Ting; Shi, Bi-Sheng; Hu, Yun-Wen; Yuan, Zheng-Hong

2010-01-01

251

Incorporating susceptible subpopulations in microbial risk assessment: pediatric exposures to enteroviruses in river water.  

PubMed

The City of Stockton, California operates a wastewater treatment facility that discharges treated effluent to the San Joaquin River. During a recent discharge permit renewal, the question was raised whether pathogenic microorganisms in the effluent may cause an unacceptably high health risk for body contact recreation in the vicinity of the discharge. An investigation was initiated to characterize the risk to public health via body contact recreation in the San Joaquin River under various flow and treatment scenarios. In this investigation, a disease transmission model was applied to quantitatively characterize the relative risk associated with various treatment and flow scenarios for the City of Stockton's wastewater treatment facility. An important component of the investigation was to assess the feasibility of quantitatively characterizing the risk to highly susceptible subpopulations for effluent-related exposures to enteroviruses. This paper presents the methods used to conduct the feasibility assessment, the conclusions drawn for this project, and our recommendations to improve exposure assessments of susceptible subpopulations' contact with microbial pathogens in recreational water. PMID:12679796

Parkin, Rebecca T; Soller, Jeffrey A; Olivieri, Adam W

2003-03-01

252

Antibody dependent enhancement infection of Enterovirus 71 in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a significant cause of acute encephalitis and deaths in young children. The clinical manifestations caused by EV71 varied from mild hand, foot and mouth disease to severe neurological complications and deaths, but its pathogenesis remains elusive. Antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) infection has been reported in various viruses and has been shown to contribute to disease severity. Results In this study, the presence of sub-neutralizing antibody was demonstrated to enhance EV71 infection in THP-1 cells and increase the mortality of EV71 infection in a suckling mouse model. Further, a secondary infection model was established to characterize the correlation between ADE and disease severity, and primary asymptomatic EV71 infection was shown to increase the mortality of the secondary EV71 infection in suckling mice. Conclusions Together, these in vitro and in vivo experiments strongly supported the hypothesis of ADE infection of EV71. The present findings indicate ADE might contribute to the pathogenesis of severe EV71 infection, and raise practical issues of vaccine development and antibody-based therapy. PMID:21385398

2011-01-01

253

Infectious Diseases Subdue Serengeti Lions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Infectious diseases stalk wildlife in the Serengeti, and climate change may be an accessory. Lions face serious threats to their future, some head-on, others lurking in the grasses, unseen until it's almost too late. From growing numbers of people living along the Serengeti perimeter to the effects of infectious diseases and climate change, the king of beasts (Panthera leo) leads an uneasy life. For example, lions are subject to simultaneous outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) and babesiosis. CDV, a disease that results in encephalitis and pneumonia, is transmitted by domestic dogs; babesiosis is carried by a tick-borne blood parasite called Babesia. If extreme weather events become more frequent as a result of global climate change, disease may become a major threat to animal populations that have been historically stable. Diseases once thought to have limited impacts, such as babesiosis, should be watched closely. Environmental conditions may tip the scales and result in significantly greater impacts, even in wide open places like the Serengeti.

Cheryl Dybas (Freelance;)

2009-01-01

254

[Infectious complications after esophageal surgery].  

PubMed

The incidence of wound infection, which is an intrasurgical field infection, is lower than the incidence of pneumonia, which is an extrasurgical field infection, after esophageal cancer surgery. Several trials predicting postoperative infectious complications have been reported. One measured the phytohemagglutinin- and concanavalin A-induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients; one measured the white blood cell (WBC) count 2 h after surgery and the decrease in WBC count on first postoperative day; and another showed that the decrease in serum IgG2 level can predict the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Useful strategies for managing infectious complications have also been reported. Applying mupirocin calcium hydrate ointment to the nasal cavity decreases the incidence of MRSA infections. Autologous blood collection reduces the need for allogeneic transfusion in patients undergoing resection of esophageal cancer, and avoidance of allogeneic transfusion may reduce the risk of postoperative infection. The total exposure to preoperative chemoradiotherapy should be limited to 40 Gy or less to prevent postoperative pneumonia. PMID:12599924

Ozawa, Soji; Kitagawa, Yuko; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Shimizu, Yoshimasa; Kitajima, Masaki

2002-12-01

255

Infectious Diseases and the Immune System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson is design to explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. Primarily, it focuses on infectious diseases and how the immune system defend the body against infectious diseases. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engage, analytical and inquisitive in learning about infectious diseases and the immune system.

Cruz, Arnel D.

2012-06-28

256

Infectious particles, stress, and induced prion amyloids: a unifying perspective.  

PubMed

Transmissible encephalopathies (TSEs) are believed by many to arise by spontaneous conversion of host prion protein (PrP) into an infectious amyloid (PrP-res, PrP (Sc) ) without nucleic acid. Many TSE agents reside in the environment, with infection controlled by public health measures. These include the disappearance of kuru with the cessation of ritual cannibalism, the dramatic reduction of epidemic bovine encephalopathy (BSE) by removal of contaminated feed, and the lack of endemic scrapie in geographically isolated Australian sheep with susceptible PrP genotypes. While prion protein modeling has engendered an intense focus on common types of protein misfolding and amyloid formation in diverse organisms and diseases, the biological characteristics of infectious TSE agents, and their recognition by the host as foreign entities, raises several fundamental new directions for fruitful investigation such as: (1) unrecognized microbial agents in the environmental metagenome that may cause latent neurodegenerative disease, (2) the evolutionary social and protective functions of different amyloid proteins in diverse organisms from bacteria to mammals, and (3) amyloid formation as a beneficial innate immune response to stress (infectious and non-infectious). This innate process however, once initiated, can become unstoppable in accelerated neuronal aging. PMID:23633671

Manuelidis, Laura

2013-07-01

257

Oligonucleotide fingerprint analysis of enterovirus 70 isolates from the 1980 to 1981 pandemic of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis: evidence for a close genetic relationship among Asian and American strains.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 70 isolates obtained in Asia and the Americas between 1980 and 1981 from cases of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis were found to be very closely related by RNase T1 oligonucleotide fingerprinting. Two closely related isolates from the first acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic (1969 to 1972) differed by many oligonucleotides from the 1980 to 1981 pandemic strains. The strong similarities of oligonucleotide patterns of isolates from the same epidemic but from distant regions of the world suggest that the genome of enterovirus 70 tends to be conserved during natural infection, a possible consequence of the transient nature of the disease. PMID:6307877

Kew, O M; Nottay, B K; Hatch, M H; Hierholzer, J C; Obijeski, J F

1983-08-01

258

Toll-like receptor 9-mediated protection of enterovirus 71 infection in mice is due to the release of danger-associated molecular patterns.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a positive-stranded RNA virus, is the major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with severe neurological symptoms. Antiviral type I interferon (alpha/beta interferon [IFN-?/?]) responses initiated from innate receptor signaling are inhibited by EV71-encoded proteases. It is less well understood whether EV71-induced apoptosis provides a signal to activate type I interferon responses as a host defensive mechanism. In this report, we found that EV71 alone cannot activate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling, but supernatant from EV71-infected cells is capable of activating TLR9. We hypothesized that TLR9-activating signaling from plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) may contribute to host defense mechanisms. To test our hypothesis, Flt3 ligand-cultured DCs (Flt3L-DCs) from both wild-type (WT) and TLR9 knockout (TLR9KO) mice were infected with EV71. More viral particles were produced in TLR9KO mice than by WT mice. In contrast, alpha interferon (IFN-?), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), IFN-?, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-10 levels were increased in Flt3L-DCs from WT mice infected with EV71 compared with TLR9KO mice. Seven-day-old TLR9KO mice infected with a non-mouse-adapted EV71 strain developed neurological lesion-related symptoms, including hind-limb paralysis, slowness, ataxia, and lethargy, but WT mice did not present with these symptoms. Lung, brain, small intestine, forelimb, and hind-limb tissues collected from TLR9KO mice exhibited significantly higher viral loads than equivalent tissues collected from WT mice. Histopathologic damage was observed in brain, small intestine, forelimb, and hind-limb tissues collected from TLR9KO mice infected with EV71. Our findings demonstrate that TLR9 is an important host defense molecule during EV71 infection. Importance: The host innate immune system is equipped with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are useful for defending the host against invading pathogens. During enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection, the innate immune system is activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which include viral RNA or DNA, and these PAMPs are recognized by PRRs. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR7/8 recognize viral nucleic acids, and TLR9 senses unmethylated CpG DNA or pathogen-derived DNA. These PRRs stimulate the production of type I interferons (IFNs) to counteract viral infection, and they are the major source of antiviral alpha interferon (IFN-?) production in pDCs, which can produce 200- to 1,000-fold more IFN-? than any other immune cell type. In addition to PAMPs, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are known to be potent activators of innate immune signaling, including TLR9. We found that EV71 induces cellular apoptosis, resulting in tissue damage; the endogenous DNA from dead cells may activate the innate immune system through TLR9. Therefore, our study provides new insights into EV71-induced apoptosis, which stimulates TLR9 in EV71-associated infections. PMID:25078697

Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Lin, Su-I; Chen, I-Hua; Lien, Shu-Pei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chong, Pele; Liu, Shih-Jen

2014-10-01

259

The return of infectious disease.  

PubMed

This article presents the history of efforts to control the spread of infectious disease from the post-antibiotic era to 1995. Since World War II, public health strategy has focused on the eradication of microbes using powerful medical weaponry. The goal was to push humanity through a ¿health transition,¿ leaving the age of infectious disease permanently behind. But recent developments have shown that this grandiose optimism was premature. As people move across international borders, unwanted microbial hitch-hikers tag along, as happened in the case of Ebola. In large cities, sex industries arise and multiple-partner sex becomes more common, prompting rapid increases in sexually transmitted disease. Moreover, the practice of sharing syringes is a ready vehicle for the transmission of microbes while unhygienic health facilities become centers for the dissemination of disease rather than its control. Black market access to antimicrobials has led to overuse or outright misuse of the drugs and the emergence of resistant bacteria and parasites. Consequently, old organisms, aided by mankind's misuse of disinfectants and drugs, may take on new and more lethal forms. Even when allegations of biological warfare are not flying, it is often difficult to obtain accurate information about outbreaks of disease, particularly in countries dependent on foreign investment or tourism or both. Unfortunately, only 6 laboratories in the world meet security and safety standards that would make them suitable sites for research on the world's deadliest microbes. National security warrants bolder steps involving focusing not only on microbes directly dangerous to humans, but also on those that could pose major threats to crops or livestock. Unfortunately, economic crises have led to budget cuts, particularly in health care, at all levels of government in the US. PMID:12349255

Garrett, L

1996-11-01

260

Infectious Waste Management Plan Page 1 University of Washington  

E-print Network

Infectious Waste Management Plan Page 1 University of Washington Infectious/Biomedical Waste #12;Infectious Waste Management Plan Page 2 Both the University of Washington Infectious Waste/Biomedical Waste Management Plan. This plan covers all aspects of the University of Washington's Infectious

Wilcock, William

261

Examining unmet needs in infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 30 years, more than 30 new aetiological agents of infectious disease have been identified. Some of these are responsible for entirely novel and life-threatening disorders, such as AIDS, Ebola fever, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and Nipah virus encephalitis. During the same period, some longstanding infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis) have became resurgent, as a result of a combination

Noel J. C Snell

2003-01-01

262

Rapid molecular theranostics in infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing availability of rapid and sensitive nucleic acid testing assays for infectious diseases will revolutionize the practice of medicine by gradually reducing the need for standard culture-based microbiological methods that take at least two days. Molecular theranostics in infectious diseases is an emerging concept in which molecular biology tools are used to provide rapid and accurate diagnostic assays to

François J Picard; Michel G Bergeron

2002-01-01

263

An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

2001-01-01

264

Stress and infectious disease in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on the role of stress in infectious disease as measured either by illness behaviors (symptoms and use of health services) or by verified pathology. Substantial evidence was found for an association between stress and increased illness behavior, and less convincing but provocative evidence was found for a similar association between stress and infectious pathology. Introverts, isolates,

Sheldon Cohen; Gail M. Williamson

1991-01-01

265

Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases…

Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

1970-01-01

266

Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a

Peter Daszak; Lee Berger; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt; D. Earl Green; Rick Speare

1999-01-01

267

Confl ict and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in confl ict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well

Michelle Gayer; Dominique Legros; Pierre Formenty; Maire A. Connolly

2007-01-01

268

Genetics of susceptibitlity to human infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before Robert Koch's work in the late nineteenth century, diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy were widely believed to be inherited disorders. Heritability of susceptibility to several infectious diseases has been confirmed by studies in the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, old and new, continue to be an important cause of mortality worldwide. A greater understanding of disease processes is needed

Graham S. Cooke; Adrian V. S. Hill

2001-01-01

269

Infectious diseases and daycare and preschool education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases associated with out-of-home childcare and the effectiveness of measures for the control and prevention of diseases transmission at daycare and preschool education centers. Sources: A review of literature in the MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases, found using the descriptors daycare, infection, infection control and infectious diseases and focusing on

Maria M. M. Nesti; Moisés Goldbaum

2007-01-01

270

Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process  

PubMed Central

We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:25024856

To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

2014-01-01

271

Single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses generated in days using infectious subgenomic amplicons.  

PubMed

Reverse genetics is a key methodology for producing genetically modified RNA viruses and deciphering cellular and viral biological properties, but methods based on the preparation of plasmid-based complete viral genomes are laborious and unpredictable. Here, both wild-type and genetically modified infectious RNA viruses were generated in days using the newly described ISA (infectious-subgenomic-amplicons) method. This new versatile and simple procedure may enhance our capacity to obtain infectious RNA viruses from PCR-amplified genetic material. PMID:25053561

Aubry, Fabien; Nougairède, Antoine; de Fabritus, Lauriane; Querat, Gilles; Gould, Ernest A; de Lamballerie, Xavier

2014-11-01

272

Single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses generated in days using infectious subgenomic amplicons  

PubMed Central

Reverse genetics is a key methodology for producing genetically modified RNA viruses and deciphering cellular and viral biological properties, but methods based on the preparation of plasmid-based complete viral genomes are laborious and unpredictable. Here, both wild-type and genetically modified infectious RNA viruses were generated in days using the newly described ISA (infectious-subgenomic-amplicons) method. This new versatile and simple procedure may enhance our capacity to obtain infectious RNA viruses from PCR-amplified genetic material. PMID:25053561

Nougairede, Antoine; de Fabritus, Lauriane; Querat, Gilles; Gould, Ernest A.; de Lamballerie, Xavier

2014-01-01

273

Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another—the focus of this theme issue—has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick—stigmatization—and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process—moralization—can be co-opted to promote human health. PMID:22042913

Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Oaten, Megan J.

2011-01-01

274

[Expression and activity analysis of Enterovirus 71 3C protease in Escherichia coli].  

PubMed

The recombinant plasmid carrying the gene encoding 3C protease of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) was constructed, the recombinant protein was then expressed and purified, the functional activity was also measured. Firstly, the 3C protease gene was inserted into pET28a vector, the constructed recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) for expression under the induction of IPTG. The expressed protein was purified by affinity chromatography (Ni-NTA) and the N-terminus His-tag was cleaved by enterokinase from 3C protease. The activity of 3C protease was evaluated with fluorescent peptide substrates. It was verified by restriction analysis and sequencing that recombinant plasmid pET28a-3C was constructed correctly and functionally expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) resulting in the production of recombinant 3C protease with a size of 22kD. Both His-tag and non-His-tag (cleaved by enterokinase) 3C protease exhibited similar enzyme activity to 3B-3C fluorescent peptide with Km, Vmax and Kcat values of 22 microM, 434nM. Min(-1) and 0.0669 Min(-1), respectively. The optimial pH and temperature were 7.0 and 30-37 degrees C, respectively. The acquirement of recombinant purified 3C protease with high activity has paved the way of further studies on anti-viral inhibitors, structural protein assembly, vaccine development and detection methods of EV71. PMID:22764519

Chen, Li; Yang, Zhi-Jian; Zhou, Zheng; Cai, Wei-Te; Teng, Xin-Ze; Zhang, Gao-Xia

2012-05-01

275

Structures of the Procapsid and Mature Virion of Enterovirus 71 Strain 1095  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important emerging human pathogen with a global distribution and presents a disease pattern resembling poliomyelitis with seasonal epidemics that include cases of severe neurological complications, such as acute flaccid paralysis. EV71 is a member of the Picornaviridae family, which consists of icosahedral, nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses. Here we report structures derived from X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) for the 1095 strain of EV71, including a putative precursor in virus assembly, the procapsid, and the mature virus capsid. The cryo-EM map of the procapsid provides new structural information on portions of the capsid proteins VP0 and VP1 that are disordered in the higher-resolution crystal structures. Our structures solved from virus particles in solution are largely in agreement with those from prior X-ray crystallographic studies; however, we observe small but significant structural differences for the 1095 procapsid compared to a structure solved in a previous study (X. Wang, W. Peng, J. Ren, Z. Hu, J. Xu, Z. Lou, X. Li, W. Yin, X. Shen, C. Porta, T. S. Walter, G. Evans, D. Axford, R. Owen, D. J. Rowlands, J. Wang, D. I. Stuart, E. E. Fry, and Z. Rao, Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 19:424–429, 2012) for a different strain of EV71. For both EV71 strains, the procapsid is significantly larger in diameter than the mature capsid, unlike in any other picornavirus. Nonetheless, our results demonstrate that picornavirus capsid expansion is possible without RNA encapsidation and that picornavirus assembly may involve an inward radial collapse of the procapsid to yield the native virion. PMID:23637404

Cifuente, Javier O.; Lee, Hyunwook; Yoder, Joshua D.; Shingler, Kristin L.; Carnegie, Michael S.; Yoder, Jennifer L.; Ashley, Robert E.; Makhov, Alexander M.; Conway, James F.

2013-01-01

276

The changing seroepidemiology of enterovirus 71 infection among children and adolescents in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused recurrent epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease among children in Singapore. Between August 2008 and July 2010, we conducted a survey to estimate the seroprevalence of EV71 infection among children and adolescents aged 1-17 years. We compared our EV71 seroepidemiologic findings with a previous study conducted in 1996-1997. Methods The survey involved the prospective collection of 1,200 residual sera from Singapore residents aged 1-17 years in two hospitals. Neutralizing antibodies to EV71 were detected by the microneutralization test. The geometric mean titer (GMT) of EV71 antibodies and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and compared by age groups. Statistical significance was taken as P < 0.05. Results The overall EV71 antibody prevalence was 26.9% (95% CI: 24.5-29.5%). It increased significantly from 14.3% in children aged 1-6 years to 27.8% in those aged 7-12 years, and reached 38.8% in adolescents aged 13-17 years. The seroconversion rate differed by about 12% between the consecutive age groups. The GMT of EV71 antibodies was higher among primary school children aged 7-12 years in our study than that among the 6-12 year age group in the 1996-1997 study. Conclusions Higher antibody titers were observed in children aged 1-6 years than those in the other two age groups, indicating that most of the infections had been acquired during early childhood. EV71 infection is common among children and adolescents in Singapore, with 39% infected by the time they are in secondary school (13-17 years of age). PMID:21988931

2011-01-01

277

Antigenic and Genetic Diversity of Human Enterovirus 71 from 2009 to 2012, Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Different subgenogroups of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) have caused numerous outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease worldwide, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. During the development of a vaccine against EV-71, the genetic and antigenic diversities of EV-71 isolates from Taiwan were analyzed by phylogenetic analyses and neutralization tests. The results showed that the dominant genogroups had changed twice, from B to C and from C to B, between 2009 and 2012. The subgenogroup B5 (B5b cluster) was dominant in 2008-2009 but was replaced by subgenogroup C4 in 2010-2011. From the end of 2011 to 2012, the re-emerging subgenogroup B5 (B5c cluster) was identified as the dominant subgenogroup of EV-71 outbreaks, and subgenogroups C2 and C4 were detected in sporadic cases. Interestingly, the amino acid substitution at position 145 in the VP1 gene was observed in some strains isolated from patients with acute flaccid paralysis. Furthermore, thirty-five strains and their corresponding serum samples were used to analyze the cross-protections and antigenic diversities among different subgenogroups (C4a, C5, B4, B5b, B5c, and C2-like) of EV-71. Evident antigenic diversity existed only for the C2-like subgenogroup, which was not effectively neutralized by other serum samples. In contrast, the anti-C2-like serum sample showed broad cross-reactivity against all other subgenogroups. Therefore, these results may provide valuable information for the selection of EV-71 vaccine candidates and the evolution of EV-71 subgenogroups in Taiwan from 2009 to 2012. PMID:24348916

Lin, Ting-Han; Wu, Ho-Sheng

2013-01-01

278

Clinical severity of rhinovirus/enterovirus compared to other respiratory viruses in children  

PubMed Central

Background Human rhinovirus/enterovirus (HRV/ENT) infections are commonly identified in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs), but data on their clinical severity remain limited. Objectives We compared the clinical severity of HRV/ENT to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A/B (FLU), and other common respiratory viruses in children. Patients/Methods Retrospective study of children with ARIs and confirmed single positive viral infections on mid-turbinate swabs by molecular assays. Outcome measures included hospital admission and, for inpatients, a composite endpoint consisting of intensive care admission, hospitalization >5 days, oxygen requirements or death. Results A total of 116 HRV/ENT, 102 RSV, 99 FLU, and 64 other common respiratory viruses were identified. Children with single HRV/ENT infections presented with significantly higher rates of underlying immunosuppressive conditions compared to those with RSV (37·9% versus 13·6%; P < 0·001), FLU (37·9% versus 22%; P = 0·018) or any other single viral infection (37·9% versus 22·5%; P = 0·024). In multivariable analysis adjusted for underlying conditions and age, children with HRV/ENT infections had increased odds of hospitalization compared to children with RSV infections (OR 2·6; 95% CI 1·4, 4·8; P < 0·003) or FLU infections (OR 3·0; 95% CI 1·6, 5·8; <0·001) and increased odds of severe clinical disease among inpatients (OR 3·0; 95% CI 1·6,5·6; P = 0·001) when compared to those with FLU infections. Conclusions Children with HRV/ENT had a more severe clinical course than those with RSV and FLUA/B infections and often had significant comorbidities. These findings emphasize the importance of considering HRV/ENT infection in children presenting with severe acute respiratory tract infections. PMID:24801963

Asner, Sandra A; Petrich, Astrid; Hamid, Jemila S; Mertz, Dominik; Richardson, Susan E; Smieja, Marek

2014-01-01

279

Antiviral effects of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids against enterovirus 71 infection.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and fatal neurological and systemic complications in children. However, there is currently no clinical approved antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of the viral infection. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activities of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids (GLTs), Lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3-one,15;26-dihydroxy (GLTA) and Ganoderic acid Y (GLTB), against EV71 infection. The results showed that the two natural compounds display significant anti-EV71 activities without cytotoxicity in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells as evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay. The mechanisms by which the two compounds affect EV71 infection were further elucidated by three action modes using Ribavirin, a common antiviral drug, as a positive control. The results suggested that GLTA and GLTB prevent EV71 infection through interacting with the viral particle to block the adsorption of virus to the cells. In addition, the interactions between EV71 virion and the compounds were predicated by computer molecular docking, which illustrated that GLTA and GLTB may bind to the viral capsid protein at a hydrophobic pocket (F site), and thus may block uncoating of EV71. Moreover, we demonstrated that GLTA and GLTB significantly inhibit the replication of the viral RNA (vRNA) of EV71 replication through blocking EV71 uncoating. Thus, GLTA and GLTB may represent two potential therapeutic agents to control and treat EV71 infection. PMID:24845570

Zhang, Wenjing; Tao, Junyan; Yang, Xiaoping; Yang, Zhuliang; Zhang, Li; Liu, Hongsheng; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

2014-07-01

280

Human enterovirus 71 subgenotype B3 lacks coxsackievirus A16-like neurovirulence in mice infection  

PubMed Central

Background At least three different EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from an outbreak in Malaysia in 1998. The subgenotypes C2 and B4 were associated with the severe and fatal infections, whereas the B3 virus was associated with mild to subclinical infections. The B3 virus genome sequences had ?85% similarity at the 3' end to CV-A16. This offers opportunities to examine if there are characteristic similarities and differences in virulence between CV-A16, EV-71 B3 and EV-71 B4 and to determine if the presence of the CV-A16-liked genes in EV-71 B3 would also confer the virus with a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection. Results Analysis of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) subgenotype B3 genome sequences revealed that the 3D RNA polymerase and domain Z of the 3'-untranslating region RNA secondary structure had high similarity to CV-A16. Intracerebral inoculation of one-day old mice with the virus resulted in 16% of the mice showing swollen hind limbs and significantly lower weight gain in comparison to EV-71 B4-infected mice. None of the mice presented with hind leg paralysis typical in all the CV-A16 infected mice. CV-A16 genome sequences were amplified from the CV-A16-infected mice brain but no amplification was obtained from all the EV-71-inoculated mice suggesting that no replication had taken place in the suckling mice brain. Conclusion The findings presented here suggest that EV-71 B3 viruses had CV-A16-liked non-structural gene features at the 3'-end of the genome. Their presence could have affected virulence by affecting the mice general health but was insufficient to confer the EV-71 B3 virus a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection. PMID:16122396

Chan, Yoke-Fun; AbuBakar, Sazaly

2005-01-01

281

Recombinant tandem multi-linear neutralizing epitopes of human enterovirus 71 elicited protective immunity in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as the leading cause of viral encephalitis in children, especially in the Asia-Pacific regions. EV71 vaccine development is of high priority at present, and neutralization antibodies have been documented to play critical roles during in vitro and in vivo protection against EV71 infection. Results In this study, a novel strategy to produce EV71 vaccine candidate based on recombinant multiple tandem linear neutralizing epitopes (mTLNE) was proposed. The three well identified EV71 linear neutralizing epitopes in capsid proteins, VP1-SP55, VP1-SP70 and VP2-SP28, were sequentially linked by a Gly-Ser linker ((G4S)3), and expressed in E.coli in fusion with the Trx and His tag at either terminal. The recombinant protein mTLNE was soluble and could be purified by standard affinity chromatography. Following three dosage of immunization in adult mice, EV71-specific IgG and neutralization antibodies were readily induced by recombinant mTLNE. IgG subtyping demonstrated that lgG1 antibodies dominated the mTLNE-induced humoral immune response. Especially, cytokine profiling in spleen cells from the mTLNE-immunized mice revealed high production of IL-4 and IL-6. Finally, in vivo challenge experiments showed that passive transfer with anti-mTLNE sera conferred full protection against lethal EV71 challenge in neonatal mice. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that this rational designed recombinant mTLNE might have the potential to be further developed as an EV71 vaccine in the future. PMID:24885030

2014-01-01

282

Beyond tumor necrosis factor inhibition: the expanding pipeline of biologic therapies for inflammatory diseases and their associated infectious sequelae.  

PubMed

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases are at higher risk for infectious morbidity and mortality, partially due to the therapies used to treat these conditions. Both prednisone and targeted biologic therapies such as tumor necrosis factor antagonists have been implicated to various degrees, although in some cases firm data are lacking with regard to certain types of infections. To date, there is a paucity of information regarding the infectious risks associated with the newer biologic agents. As new biologic agents become available for use, their potential infectious risks will challenge infectious disease clinicians who must work to prevent, diagnose, and treat infections in this setting. This article reviews our current understanding of infectious risk in the setting of targeted therapies and provides an update of the immune system targets and potential infectious sequelae of both current and emerging biologic therapies. PMID:24585557

Novosad, S A; Winthrop, K L

2014-06-01

283

Occupational assessment, screening and vaccination against specified infectious diseases PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

Occupational assessment, screening and vaccination against specified infectious diseases PROCEDURES the infectious diseases specified in this policy directive. Part 1 I have read and understand the requirements of the NSW Health Occupational Assessment, Screening and Vaccination against Specified Infectious Diseases

Viglas, Anastasios

284

DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE  

E-print Network

DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE 300 PASTEUR DRIVE, S infectious disease clinic will be decreased considerably. We also hope to facilitate, MD, FACP, FIDSA Professor of Medicine Division of Infectious Diseases

Kay, Mark A.

285

76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-05-10

286

Development and large-scale use of recombinant VP2 vaccine for the prevention of infectious bursal disease of chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of Gumboro disease, an infectious disease of global economic importance in poultry. One of the most effective types of inactivated IBDV vaccine is produced by infecting young chickens with a virulent strain, sacrificing them and extracting the virus from the bursa of Fabricius. The goal of this study was to produce

Jacob Pitcovski; Bezalel Gutter; Gilad Gallili; Martin Goldway; Beny Perelman; Gideon Gross; Simha Krispel; Marisa Barbakov; Amnon Michael

2003-01-01

287

The effect of heterogeneous infectious period and contagiousness on the dynamics of Salmonella transmission in dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to address the impact of heterogeneity of infectious period and contagiousness on Salmonella transmission dynamics in dairy cattle populations. We developed three deterministic SIR-type models with two basic infected stages (clinically and subclinically infected). In addition, model 2 included long-term shedders, which were defined as individuals with low contagiousness but long infectious period, and

Cristina Lanzas; S. BRIEN; R. IVANEK; Y. LO; P. AYSCUE

2008-01-01

288

A Novel Universal Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody against Enterovirus 71 That Targets the Highly Conserved "Knob" Region of VP3 Protein  

PubMed Central

Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71(EV71) leads to the majority of neurological complications and death in young children. While putative inactivated vaccines are only now undergoing clinical trials, no specific treatment options exist yet. Ideally, EV71 specific intravenous immunoglobulins could be developed for targeted treatment of severe cases. To date, only a single universally neutralizing monoclonal antibody against a conserved linear epitope of VP1 has been identified. Other enteroviruses have been shown to possess major conformational neutralizing epitopes on both the VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins. Hence, we attempted to isolate such neutralizing antibodies against conformational epitopes for their potential in the treatment of infection as well as differential diagnosis and vaccine optimization. Here we describe a universal neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved conformational epitope of EV71 which was mapped using escape mutants. Eight escape mutants from different subgenogroups (A, B2, B4, C2, C4) were rescued; they harbored three essential mutations either at amino acid positions 59, 62 or 67 of the VP3 protein which are all situated in the “knob” region. The escape mutant phenotype could be mimicked by incorporating these mutations into reverse genetically engineered viruses showing that P59L, A62D, A62P and E67D abolish both monoclonal antibody binding and neutralization activity. This is the first conformational neutralization epitope mapped on VP3 for EV71. PMID:24875055

Meng, Tao; Chow, Vincent Tak Kwong; Kwang, Jimmy

2014-01-01

289

A novel universal neutralizing monoclonal antibody against enterovirus 71 that targets the highly conserved "knob" region of VP3 protein.  

PubMed

Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71(EV71) leads to the majority of neurological complications and death in young children. While putative inactivated vaccines are only now undergoing clinical trials, no specific treatment options exist yet. Ideally, EV71 specific intravenous immunoglobulins could be developed for targeted treatment of severe cases. To date, only a single universally neutralizing monoclonal antibody against a conserved linear epitope of VP1 has been identified. Other enteroviruses have been shown to possess major conformational neutralizing epitopes on both the VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins. Hence, we attempted to isolate such neutralizing antibodies against conformational epitopes for their potential in the treatment of infection as well as differential diagnosis and vaccine optimization. Here we describe a universal neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved conformational epitope of EV71 which was mapped using escape mutants. Eight escape mutants from different subgenogroups (A, B2, B4, C2, C4) were rescued; they harbored three essential mutations either at amino acid positions 59, 62 or 67 of the VP3 protein which are all situated in the "knob" region. The escape mutant phenotype could be mimicked by incorporating these mutations into reverse genetically engineered viruses showing that P59L, A62D, A62P and E67D abolish both monoclonal antibody binding and neutralization activity. This is the first conformational neutralization epitope mapped on VP3 for EV71. PMID:24875055

Kiener, Tanja K; Jia, Qiang; Meng, Tao; Chow, Vincent Tak Kwong; Kwang, Jimmy

2014-05-01

290

Seroprevalence of Human Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in Guangdong, China, in Pre- and Post-2010 HFMD Epidemic Period  

PubMed Central

Background Human Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackie A16 have caused many outbreaks in the last decade in mainland China, resulting in thousands of fatal cases. Seroepidemiology which provides important information to document population immunity is rare in China. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross sectional study of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackie A16 (CA16) seroprevalence was carried out in Guangdong, China, pre- and post- the 2010 hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemic period. The levels of EV71 and CA16 specific antibodies were evaluated by a microneutralization test and the geometric mean titer (GMT) was calculated and compared. Our results indicated frequent infection by EV71 and CA16 in Guangdong before the 2010 epidemic. Only EV71 neutralizing antibody but not CA16 seroprevalence was significantly increased after the 2010 HFMD epidemic. Children less than 3 years old especially those aged 2 years showed the lowest positive rates for EV71 and CA16 NA before epidemic and the most significantly increased EV71 seroprevalence after epidemic. CA16 GMT values declined after the 2010 epidemic. Conclusions These results indicate EV71 was the major pathogen of HFMD in Guangdong during the 2010 epidemic. The infection occurs largely in children less than 3 years, who should have first priority to receive an EV71 vaccine. PMID:24324604

Su, Juan; Lu, Jing; Ke, Changwen; Zeng, Hanri; Guan, Dawei; Ma, Cong; Zhang, Wanly; Xiao, Hong; Li, Hui; Lin, Jinyan; Zhang, Yonghui

2013-01-01

291

Enterovirus 71 Can Directly Infect the Brainstem via Cranial Nerves and Infection Can Be Ameliorated by Passive Immunization.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease may be complicated by encephalomyelitis. We investigated EV71 brainstem infection and whether this infection could be ameliorated by passive immunization in a mouse model. Enterovirus 71 was injected into unilateral jaw/facial muscles of 2-week-old mice, and hyperimmune sera were given before or after infection. Harvested tissues were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and viral titration. In unimmunized mice, viral antigen and RNA were detected within 24 hours after infection only in ipsilateral cranial nerves, motor trigeminal nucleus, reticular formation, and facial nucleus; viral titers were significantly higher in the brainstem than in the spinal cord samples. Mice given preinfection hyperimmune serum showed a marked reduction of ipsilateral viral antigen/RNA and viral titers in the brainstem in a dose-dependent manner. With optimum hyperimmune serum given after infection, brainstem infection was significantly reduced in a time-dependent manner. A delay in disease onset and a reduction of disease severity and mortality were also observed. Thus, EV71 can directly infect the brainstem, including the medulla, via cranial nerves, most likely by retrograde axonal transport. This may explain the sudden cardiorespiratory collapse in human patients with fatal encephalomyelitis. Moreover, our results suggest that passive immunization may still benefit EV71-infected patients who have neurologic complications. PMID:25289894

Tan, Soon Hao; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

2014-11-01

292

Development of A Sensitive and Specific Epitope-Blocking ELISA for Universal Detection of Antibodies to Human Enterovirus 71 Strains  

PubMed Central

Background Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. It is often associated with severe neurological diseases and mortalities in recent outbreaks across the Asia Pacific region. Currently, there is no efficient universal antibody test available to detect EV71 infections. Methodology/Principal Finding In the present study, an epitope-blocking ELISA was developed to detect specific antibodies to human EV71 viruses in human or animal sera. The assay relies on a novel monoclonal antibody (Mab 1C6) that specifically binds to capsid proteins in whole EV71 viruses without any cross reaction to any EV71 capsid protein expressed alone. The sensitivity and specificity of the epitope-blocking ELISA for EV71 was evaluated and compared to microneutralization using immunized animal sera to multiple virus genotypes of EV71 and coxsackieviruses. Further, 200 serum sample from human individuals who were potentially infected with EV71 viruses were tested in both the blocking ELISA and microneutralization. Results indicated that antibodies to EV71 were readily detected in immunized animals or human sera by the epitope blocking ELISA whereas specimens with antibodies to other enteroviruses yielded negative results. This assay is not only simpler to perform but also shows higher sensitivity and specificity as compared to microneutralization. Conclusion The epitope-blocking ELISA based on a unique Mab 1C6 provided highly sensitive and 100% specific detection of antibodies to human EV71 viruses in human sera. PMID:23383215

He, Fang; Kiener, Tanja K.; Lim, Xiao Fang; Tan, Yunrui; Raj, Kattur Venkatachalam Ashok; Tang, Manli; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Chen, Qingfeng; Kwang, Jimmy

2013-01-01

293

Assessment of an Enterovirus Sewage Surveillance System by Comparison of Clinical Isolates with Sewage Isolates from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Collected August 1994 to December 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity and serotypes of enteroviruses (EVs) in the influent of a local sewage treatment plant were compared to local clinical EV cases to determine if testing of sewage is adequate for an EV surveillance system. The study was carried out from August 1994 to December 2002. Monthly influent specimens were processed by organic flocculation, and dilutions of concentrate were

Gerald Sedmak; David Bina; Jeffrey MacDonald

2003-01-01

294

Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that each disease is characterized by a unique multifractal signature, which distinguishes that particular disease from the others. The wavelet scaling functions confirm that the time series of measles, rubella and whooping cough are clearly multifractal, while chicken pox has a more monofractal structure in time. The stochastic SEIR epidemic model is unable to reproduce the qualitative singularity structure of the reported incidence data: it is too smooth and does not appear to have a multifractal singularity structure. The precise reasons for the failure of the SEIR epidemic model to reproduce the correct multiscale structure of the reported incidence data remain unclear. PMID:22442094

Holdsworth, Amber M.; Kevlahan, Nicholas K.-R.; Earn, David J. D.

2012-01-01

295

Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that each disease is characterized by a unique multifractal signature, which distinguishes that particular disease from the others. The wavelet scaling functions confirm that the time series of measles, rubella and whooping cough are clearly multifractal, while chicken pox has a more monofractal structure in time. The stochastic SEIR epidemic model is unable to reproduce the qualitative singularity structure of the reported incidence data: it is too smooth and does not appear to have a multifractal singularity structure. The precise reasons for the failure of the SEIR epidemic model to reproduce the correct multiscale structure of the reported incidence data remain unclear. PMID:22442094

Holdsworth, Amber M; Kevlahan, Nicholas K-R; Earn, David J D

2012-09-01

296

[Post-infectious demyelinating diseases].  

PubMed

Post-infectious demyelinating disorders are uncommon. In the Hospital Pediatrico de la Misericordia de Santafé de Bogotá there were 14 cases in three years. The commonest age group was the new born, as is found in the literature. The infections involved in these neurological changes are probably viral, since at the time the patient is seen most symptoms have cleared up spontaneously. According to several authors, the viruses are most often found to be those of measles or mumps. Between the infection and the development of neurological symptoms there is an interval of approximately two weeks. The main clinical findings are motor changes such as hemiparesis, involvement of cranial nerves and alterations of consciousness. The aetiology is not completely clear. Firm diagnosis is made on histopathological studies which are seldom available. Usually neuroimaging techniques and cerebrospinal fluid analysis are the basis of the diagnosis. Computerized axial tomography and magnetic resonance are the most useful noninvasive techniques for assessing the involvement of the white matter, the extent and sites of the lesions. It is useful to know the classification of the demyelinating disorders so as to prescribe, the most suitable treatment and give the prognosis in each case. There is still no specific treatment for these disorders. Supportive measures, the control of epileptic crises and the prevention of complications are the main aims. This paper reviews the definition, classification, diagnosis and management of these disorders. PMID:9244627

Medina-Malo, C; Castillo, A; Castaño, S

1997-06-01

297

Infectious diseases citation patterns: mapping the literature 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The research identified the publication types and ages most frequently cited in the infectious diseases literature and the most commonly cited journals. Methods: From 2008–2010, 5,056 articles in 5 infectious diseases journals cited 166,650 items. Two random samples were drawn: one (n?=?1,060) from the total set of citations and one (n?=?1,060) from the citations to journal articles. For each sample citation, publication type and date, age of cited item, and inclusion of uniform resource locator (URL) were collected. For each item in the cited journal articles sample, journal title, publication date, and age of the cited article were collected. Bradford zones were used for further analysis. Results: Journal articles (91%, n?=?963) made up the bulk of cited items, followed by miscellaneous items (4.6%, n?=?49). Dates of publication for cited items ranged from 1933–2010 (mean?=?2001, mode?=?2007). Over half (50.2%, n?=?483) of cited journal articles were published within the previous 5 years. The journal article citations included 358 unique journal titles. Discussion: The citations to current and older publications in a range of disciplines, heavy citation of journals, and citation of miscellaneous and government documents revealed the depth and breadth of resources needed for the study of infectious diseases. PMID:23405047

Rethlefsen, Melissa L.; Livinski, Alicia A.

2013-01-01

298

Isolation and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants infectious to brain-derived cells: detection of common point mutations in the V3 region of the env gene of the variants.  

PubMed Central

T-cell-line-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cannot infect CD4-positive, brain-derived cells. We isolated several new variants that readily infected brain-derived cells. Mutation of proline to serine, to alanine, or to threonine in the well-conserved GPGR sequence in the V3 region of the envelope glycoprotein was found in all these variants. This indicates the importance of amino acid sequences at the tip of the V3 region for brain cell tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. PMID:7980782

Shimizu, N S; Shimizu, N G; Takeuchi, Y; Hoshino, H

1994-01-01

299

Identification of 20 common human enterovirus serotypes by use of a reverse transcription-PCR-based reverse line blot hybridization assay.  

PubMed

The more than 100 human enterovirus (HEV) serotypes can also be classified into four species, HEV-A to -D, based on phylogenetic analysis of multiple gene regions. Current molecular typing methods depend largely on reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the entire or 3' half of the VP1 gene. An RT-PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was developed as a rapid and efficient approach to characterize common HEVs. Twenty HEV serotypes accounted for 87.1% of all HEVs isolated at an Australian reference virology laboratory from 1979 to 2007. VP1 sequences of all known HEV prototype strains were aligned to design one sense primer and three antisense primers for RT-PCR. After sequencing of the complete VP1 genes of 37 previously serotyped examples of the commonest 20 serotypes and alignment of these VP1 sequences with GenBank sequences, four serotype-specific probes for each serotype were designed for RLB. The RT-PCR-RLB assay was then applied to 132 HEV isolates, made up of the previously sequenced 37 isolates and another 95 serotyped clinical isolates. The RT-PCR-RLB genotypes corresponded with the serotypes for 131/132 isolates; the one exception was confirmed by VP1 sequencing, and the genotype was confirmed by repeat conventional serotyping. Genotyping by RT-PCR-RLB complements traditional serotyping methods and VP1 sequencing and has the advantages of convenience, speed, and accuracy. RT-PCR-RLB allows detection of specific enteroviral serotypes or genotypes associated with HEV outbreaks and significant disease. PMID:19571022

Zhou, Fei; Kong, Fanrong; McPhie, Kenneth; Ratnamohan, Mala; Donovan, Linda; Zeng, Frank; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Dwyer, Dominic E

2009-09-01

300

Molecular epidemiology of infectious laryngotracheitis: a review.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important respiratory disease of poultry that affects the poultry industry worldwide. The disease is caused by gallid herpesvirus I (GaHV-1), a member of the genus Iltovirus, family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. The current incidence of the disease is heavily influenced by live attenuated vaccines, which have been used extensively since their introduction in the mid-twentieth century. The capability of current live attenuated vaccine viruses to revert to virulence and spread from bird to bird has shaped the molecular epidemiology of ILT. Because of the antigenic homogeneity among GaHV-1 strains, differentiation of strains has been achieved by targeting genomic differences between outbreak-related isolates and vaccine strains. Numerous genes and genomic regions have been utilized in the development of DNA-based diagnostic assays to differentiate outbreak-related isolates from vaccine strains in countries where ILT outbreaks have occurred. More recently, full genome sequences have allowed determination of the origin of some of the outbreak-related isolates circulating in some poultry production countries. Overall, molecular typing data collected worldwide have identified live attenuated vaccine-related isolates as the primary source for outbreaks of the disease. PMID:24460399

Menendez, Kimberly R; García, Maricarmen; Spatz, Stephen; Tablante, Nathaniel L

2014-01-01

301

Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues. PMID:21437001

Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

2011-01-01

302

Global climate change and infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth's atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations. PMID:23022814

Shuman, E K

2011-01-01

303

Bioterrorism Preparedness for Infectious Disease (BTPID) Proposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bioterrorism preparedness for infectious disease (BTPID) as part of homeland defense initiatives continues to advance. Significant opportunities exist for new research and development of bioinformatics and telecommunications solutions for BTPlD that can c...

L. P. Burgess

2007-01-01

304

Eradication of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations  

SciTech Connect

A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.

Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.

1987-04-01

305

[Equine infectious anemia--a review].  

PubMed

This article combines essential facts of equine infectious anemia. Beside etiology and epidemiology, emphasis is put on the clinical course and laboratory diagnosis. Finally, control measures and prophylactic issues are discussed. PMID:25080822

Haas, Ludwig

2014-01-01

306

Infectious proventriculitis causing runting in broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proventriculitis, ranting and poor feed conversion sometimes associated with rachitis, was seen in chickens on a large broiler farm. It was shown that the proventriculitis was caused by an infectious agent.

B. Kouwenhoven; F. G. Davelaar; J. Van Walsum

1978-01-01

307

Infectious Mononucleosis and Mononucleosis Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Infectious mononucleosis (IM) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) mononucleosis are caused by a primary infection with related viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and CMV. Despite the similarity of clinical manifestations, basic differences exist: (1) The heterophil antibody (HA) response is absent in CMV mononucleosis, whereas it is present in IM. (2) In IM atypical lymphocytosis reflects proliferation of B cells early and of T cells later in the disease course; in CMV mononucleosis the situation appears complex. (3) In blood, EBV is restricted to B lymphocytes, whereas CMV is found in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. (4) Complications of CMV mononucleosis such as hepatitis and pneumonitis may be due to virus cytopathic effect in target organs. Prominent tonsillopharyngitis with adenopathy, and visceral complications of IM are related to lymphoproliferation which is self-limited except in males with a rare familial defect in defense against EBV. Immune complex-mediated pathology may occur in both diseases. (5) CMV is frequently transmitted to a fetus in utero or to an infant during or after birth, and this occasionally leads to severe cytomegalic inclusion disease; vertical transmission of EBV appears to be exceptional. (6) Secondary EBV infections are associated with certain malignancies whereas such an association has not been recognized in the case of CMV. Toxoplasma gondii is another cause of HA-negative mononucleosis. Its complications in the heart, in skeletal muscle and in the central nervous system are related to direct invasion by the parasite. Cellular immunity plays an important role in defense against all three agents. PMID:195404

Fiala, Milan; Heiner, Douglas C.; Turner, Jerrold A.; Rosenbloom, Barry; Guze, Lucien B.

1977-01-01

308

Differential apoptosis gene expressions of rhabdomyosarcoma cells in response to enterovirus 71 infection  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can induce the apoptosis of infected cells. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of EV71 infection on apoptosis mechanisms in virus-infected human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. Methods The apoptosis of RD cells was examined using annexin V-FITC/PI by flow cytometry and cytokines were detected by ELISA. Cellular RNA was extracted and transcribed to cDNA. PCR array was employed to analyze the expressions of 84 apoptotic genes from EV71-infected RD cells at 8 and 20 h postinfection, respectively. In addition, the expressions of FasL, caspase, AKT2, JNK1/2, c-Jun and NF-?B proteins were detected by western blotting. Results Flow cytometry demonstrated that the apoptosis or death of EV71-infected RD cells was increased by 37.1% with a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 5 at 20 h postinfection. The production of IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-? was enhanced by the subsequent EV71 infection. PCR array revealed significant changes in the expressions of apoptotic genes. Among 84 genes, 42 genes were down-regulated after EV71 infection at 8 h, whereas 32 genes were up-regulated at 20 h postinfection. Moreover, the ligands of TNF superfamily such as FasL, CD40L and TNF-? were significantly up-regulated and enhanced the expressions of apoptosis-related cysteine peptidases, including caspase-10, -8, -7 and -3. In addition, EV71 infection induces the phosphorylation of AKT2, JNK1/2, c-Jun and NF-?B at 20 h postinfection. Conclusion PCR array for the determination of apoptosis gene expressions is an informative assay in elucidating biological pathways. During the early stage of EV71 infection, the apoptotic process of RD cells is significantly delayed. EV71 infection can also induce the expressions of FasL, TNF-? and CD40L, which contribute to the apoptosis of RD cells. PMID:23191987

2012-01-01

309

Concentration and purification of enterovirus 71 using a weak anion-exchange monolithic column  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is a neurotropic virus causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in infants and children under the age of five. It is a major concern for public health issues across Asia-Pacific region. The most effective way to control the disease caused by EV-71 is by vaccination thus a novel vaccine is urgently needed. Inactivated EV-71 induces a strong, virus-neutralizing antibody response in animal models, protecting them against a lethal EV-71 challenge and it has been shown to elicit cross-neutralizing antibodies in human trials. Hence, the large-scale production of purified EV-71 is required for vaccine development, diagnosis and clinical trials. Methods CIM® Monolith columns are single-piece columns made up of poly(glycidyl methacrylate co-ethylene dimethacrylate) as support matrix. They are designed as porous channels rather than beads with different chemistries for different requirements. As monolithic columns have a high binding capacity, flow rate and resolution, a CIM® DEAE-8f tube monolithic column was selected for purification in this study. The EV-71 infected Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell supernatant was concentrated using 8% PEG 8000 in the presence of 400 mM sodium chloride. The concentrated virus was purified by weak anion exchange column using 50 mM HEPES?+?1 M sodium chloride as elution buffer. Results Highly pure viral particles were obtained at a concentration of 350 mM sodium chloride as confirmed by SDS-PAGE and electron microscopy. Presence of viral proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3 was validated by western blotting. The overall process achieved a recovery of 55%. Conclusions EV-71 viral particles of up to 95% purity can be recovered by a single step ion-exchange chromatography using CIM-DEAE monolithic columns and 1 M sodium chloride as elution buffer. Moreover, this method is scalable to purify several litres of virus-containing supernatant, using industrial monolithic columns with a capacity of up to 8 L such as CIM® cGMP tube monolithic columns. PMID:24884895

2014-01-01

310

Enterovirus 71-induced autophagy increases viral replication and pathogenesis in a suckling mouse model  

PubMed Central

Background We previously reported that Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection activates autophagy, which promotes viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we further investigated whether EV71 infection of neuronal SK-N-SH cells induces an autophagic flux. Furthermore, the effects of autophagy on EV71-related pathogenesis and viral load were evaluated after intracranial inoculation of mouse-adapted EV71 (MP4 strain) into 6-day-old ICR suckling mice. Results We demonstrated that in EV71-infected SK-N-SH cells, EV71 structural protein VP1 and nonstructural protein 2C co-localized with LC3 and mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR, endosome marker) proteins by immunofluorescence staining, indicating amphisome formation. Together with amphisome formation, EV71 induced an autophagic flux, which could be blocked by NH4Cl (inhibitor of acidification) and vinblastine (inhibitor of fusion), as demonstrated by Western blotting. Suckling mice intracranially inoculated with EV71 showed EV71 VP1 protein expression (representing EV71 infection) in the cerebellum, medulla, and pons by immunohistochemical staining. Accompanied with these infected brain tissues, increased expression of LC3-II protein as well as formation of LC3 aggregates, autophagosomes and amphisomes were detected. Amphisome formation, which was confirmed by colocalization of EV71-VP1 protein or LC3 puncta and the endosome marker protein MPR. Thus, EV71-infected suckling mice (similar to EV71-infected SK-N-SH cells) also show an autophagic flux. The physiopathological parameters of EV71-MP4 infected mice, including body weight loss, disease symptoms, and mortality were increased compared to those of the uninfected mice. We further blocked EV71-induced autophagy with the inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA), which attenuated the disease symptoms and decreased the viral load in the brain tissues of the infected mice. Conclusions In this study, we reveal that EV71 infection of suckling mice induces an amphisome formation accompanied with the autophagic flux in the brain tissues. Autophagy induced by EV71 promotes viral replication and EV71-related pathogenesis. PMID:25139436

2014-01-01

311

Functional Comparison of SCARB2 and PSGL1 as Receptors for Enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL1) have been identified to be the cellular receptors for enterovirus 71 (EV71). We compared the EV71 infection efficiencies of mouse L cells that expressed SCARB2 (L-SCARB2) and PSGL1 (L-PSGL1) and the abilities of SCARB2 and PSGL1 to bind to the virus. L-SCARB2 cells bound a reduced amount of EV71 compared to L-PSGL1 cells. However, EV71 could infect L-SCARB2 cells more efficiently than L-PSGL1 cells. The results suggested that the difference in the binding capacities of the two receptors was not the sole determinant of the infection efficiency and that SCARB2 plays an essential role after attaching to virions. Therefore, we examined the viral entry into L-SCARB2 cells and L-PSGL1 cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. In both cells, we detected internalized EV71 virions that colocalized with an early endosome marker. We then performed a sucrose density gradient centrifugation analysis to evaluate viral uncoating. After incubating the EV71 virion with L-SCARB2 cells or soluble SCARB2 under acidic conditions below pH 6.0, we observed that part of the native virion was converted into an empty capsid that lacked both genomic RNA and VP4 capsid proteins. The results suggested that the uncoating of EV71 requires both SCARB2 and an acidic environment and occurs after the internalization of the virus-receptor complex into endosomes. However, the empty capsid formation was not observed after incubation with L-PSGL1 cells or soluble PSGL1 under any of the tested pH conditions. These results indicated that SCARB2 is capable of viral binding, viral internalization, and viral uncoating and that the low infection efficiency of L-PSGL1 cells is due to the inability of PSGL1 to induce viral uncoating. The characterization of SCARB2 as an uncoating receptor greatly contributes to the understanding of the early steps of EV71 infection. PMID:23302872

Yamayoshi, Seiya; Ohka, Seii; Fujii, Ken

2013-01-01

312

Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines.  

PubMed Central

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. PMID:10603206

Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

1999-01-01

313

Environmental disease: environmental alteration and infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have changed their environment to survive and to achieve a safer and more comfortable life. For example, drinking water\\u000a and wastewater infrastructures are indispensable for civilized societies to flourish and to prevent water-borne infectious\\u000a diseases. However, excessive loading on environments might disturb microbial ecosystems, resulting in outbreaks of pathogenic\\u000a microbes and the expansion of infectious diseases. Clarifying the relationship

Nobuyasu Yamaguchi; Tomoaki Ichijo; Masao Nasu

314

Infectious microbial diseases and host defense responses in Sydney rock oysters  

PubMed Central

Aquaculture has long been seen as a sustainable solution to some of the world's growing food shortages. However, experience over the past 50 years indicates that infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes limit the productivity of aquaculture. In extreme cases, these types of infectious agents threaten the viability of entire aquaculture industries. This article describes the threats from infectious diseases in aquaculture and then focuses on one example (QX disease in Sydney rock oysters) as a case study. QX appears to be typical of many emerging diseases in aquaculture, particularly because environmental factors seem to play a crucial role in disease outbreaks. Evidence is presented that modulation of a generic subcellular stress response pathway in oysters is responsible for both resistance and susceptibility to infectious microbes. Understanding and being able to manipulate this pathway may be the key to sustainable aquaculture. PMID:24795701

Raftos, David A.; Kuchel, Rhiannon; Aladaileh, Saleem; Butt, Daniel

2014-01-01

315

Solar disinfection of infectious biomedical waste: a new approach for developing countries.  

PubMed

Poor developing countries cannot afford expensive technologies such as incineration for management of infectious biomedical waste. We assessed solar heating as an alternative technology. We immersed simulated infectious waste with added challenge bacteria in water in a box-type solar cooker, which was left in the sun for 6 h. In 24 sets of observations, the amount of viable bacteria was reduced by about 7 log. We also tested infectious medical waste with a heavy load of bacteria (10(8)-10(9)/g) from our hospital's burn unit for solar heat disinfection in 20 experiments. Our results showed a similar 7 log reduction in the amount of viable bacteria. Solar heating thus seems to be a cheap method to disinfect infectious medical waste in less economically developed countries. PMID:14575975

Chitnis, V; Chitnis, S; Patil, S; Chitnis, D

2003-10-18

316

Route prediction model of infectious diseases for 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many types of respiratory infectious diseases caused by germs, virus, mycetes and parasites. Researchers recently have tried to develop mathematical models to predict the epidemic of infectious diseases. However, with the development of ground transportation system in modern society, the spread of infectious diseases became faster and more complicated in terms of the speed and the pathways. The route of infectious diseases during Vancouver Olympics was predicted based on the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. In this model only the air traffic as an essential factor for the intercity migration of infectious diseases was involved. Here, we propose a multi-city transmission model to predict the infection route during 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea based on the pre-existing SIR model. Various types of transportation system such as a train, a car, a bus, and an airplane for the interpersonal contact in both inter- and intra-city are considered. Simulation is performed with assumptions and scenarios based on realistic factors including demographic, transportation and diseases data in Korea. Finally, we analyze an economic profit and loss caused by the variation of the number of tourists during the Olympics.

Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Lee, Taikjin

2014-03-01

317

Nucleic acid in-situ hybridization detection of infectious agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limitations of traditional culture methods and newer polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for detection and speciation of infectious agents demonstrate the need for more rapid and better diagnostics. Nucleic acid hybridization is a detection technology that has gained wide acceptance in cancer and prenatal cytogenetics. Using a modification of the nucleic acid hybridization technique known as fluorescence in-situ hybridization, infectious agents can be detected in a variety of specimens with high sensitivity and specificity. The specimens derive from all types of human and animal sources including body fluids, tissue aspirates and biopsy material. Nucleic acid hybridization can be performed in less than one hour. The result can be interpreted either using traditional fluorescence microscopy or automated platforms such as micro arrays. This paper demonstrates proof of concept for nucleic acid hybridization detection of different infectious agents. Interpretation within a cytologic and histologic context is possible with fluorescence microscopic analysis, thereby providing confirmatory evidence of hybridization. With careful probe selection, nucleic acid hybridization promises to be a highly sensitive and specific practical diagnostic alternative to culture, traditional staining methods, immunohistochemistry and complicated nucleic acid amplification tests.

Thompson, Curtis T.

2000-04-01

318

Introduction The management of infectious diseases is complex,  

E-print Network

Review Introduction The management of infectious diseases is complex, especially in an intensive review the development of such models applied to infectious disease management. We use the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases Any diagnosis, including that of an infectious disease, is based

Lucas, Peter

319

Infectious Diseases and Extinction Risk in Wild Mammals  

E-print Network

Infectious Diseases and Extinction Risk in Wild Mammals AMY B. PEDERSEN, KATE E. JONES,§ CHARLES L by infectious disease and their parasites to better understand the role of infectious disease in contemporary by parasites were not better studied for infectious diseases than other threatened mammals and did not have

320

Substance Abuse Treatment Clinician Opinions and Infectious Disease Service Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse treatment programs are an important platform for delivery of services for infectious diseases associated with drug and alcohol use. However, important components of infectious disease care are not universally provided. Clinician training often focuses on information about infectious diseases and less attention is paid to provider opinions and attitudes that may be barriers to providing infectious diseases services.

Kathlene Tracy; Lawrence S. Brown; Steven Kritz; Donald Alderson; Jim Robinson; Edmund J. Bini; Michael Levy; Donald Calsyn; Traci Rieckmann; Bret Fuller; Pat McAuliffe; John Rotrosen

2009-01-01

321

INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS Avian Flu, measles, Mumps, SARs, and other infectious diseases can pose a threat to the  

E-print Network

INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS Avian Flu, measles, Mumps, SARs, and other infectious diseases can of infectious disease that threatens the University of South Florida, University officials will collaborate at the University. Information related to any widespread infectious disease outbreak will be available

Meyers, Steven D.

322

Elucidating the host-pathogen interaction between human colorectal cells and invading Enterovirus 71 using transcriptomics profiling  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main etiological agents for Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and has been shown to be associated with severe clinical manifestation. Currently, there is no antiviral therapeutic for the treatment of HFMD patients owing to a lack of understanding of EV71 pathogenesis. This study seeks to elucidate the transcriptomic changes that result from EV71 infection. Human whole genome microarray was employed to monitor changes in genomic profiles between infected and uninfected cells. The results reveal altered expression of human genes involved in critical pathways including the immune response and the stress response. Together, data from this study provide valuable insights into the host–pathogen interaction between human colorectal cells and EV71. PMID:24918057

Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Tan, Tuan Lin; Timms, Peter; Hafner, Louise Marie; Tan, Kian Hwa; Tan, Eng Lee

2014-01-01

323

Prevalence and Management of Invalid GeneXpert Enterovirus Results Obtained with Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples: a 2-Year Study?  

PubMed Central

A total of 525 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples submitted during the 2007 and 2008 enteroviral seasons were included in a study to determine the prevalence of and potential risk factors for invalid Cepheid GeneXpert enterovirus assay (GXEA) results, as well as possible solutions for the problem. The invalid GXEA results were reported for 43 (8.2%) specimens and correlated with increased visibility of red blood cells (P < 0.0001) but not with CSF xanthochromia and clotting. Invalid GXEA result rates were markedly diminished by 82.1% and 96.0% and test sensitivities were minimally decreased by 1.7% and 3.6% when these specimens were tested at a 1:5 dilution and after a freeze-thaw cycle, respectively. PMID:19605580

Sefers, Susan E.; Raymer, Anna K.; Kilby, Jessica T.; Persing, David H.; Tang, Yi-Wei

2009-01-01

324

Enterovirus 71 infection-associated acute flaccid paralysis: a case series of long-term neurologic follow-up.  

PubMed

The authors undertook long-term neurologic outcomes of 27 patients aged 0 to 15 years with enterovirus 71-related acute flaccid paralysis from June 1998 to July 2012. Motor function outcome was graded from class I (complete recovery) to class V (permanent paralytic limbs). Twelve of 20 patients (60%) who received intravenous immunoglobulin for treatment of acute flaccid paralysis had motor function outcomes in classes III to V. The median duration of follow-up was 6 months, during which time 7 of 13 patients (54%) with central nervous system infection, 3 of 6 patients (50%) with autonomic nervous system dysregulation, and 3 of 8 patients (37%) with heart failure showed motor function outcomes in classes III to V. These findings suggested that the usage of intravenous immunoglobulin and the severity of disease staging at disease onset might not be able to predict long-term motor function outcomes. PMID:24453152

Lee, Hsiu-Fen; Chi, Ching-Shiang

2014-10-01

325

Daphne Genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. Water-Soluble Extracts Act on Enterovirus 71 by Inhibiting Viral Entry  

PubMed Central

Dried flowers of Daphne genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (Thymelaeaceae) are a Chinese herbal medicine used as an abortifacient with purgative, diuretic and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the activity of this medicine against enteroviral infections has not been investigated. The water-extract of dried buds of D. genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (DGFW) was examined against various strains of enterovirus 71 (EV71) by neutralization assay, and its initial mode of action was characterized by time-of-addition assay followed by attachment and penetration assays. Pretreatment of DGFW with virus abolished viral replication, indicating that DGFW inhibits EV71 by targeting the virus. GFW exerts its anti-EV71 effects by inhibiting viral entry without producing cytotoxic side effects and thus provides a potential agent for antiviral chemotherapeutics. PMID:22590685

Chang, Chia-Wen; Leu, Yan-Lii; Horng, Jim-Tong

2012-01-01

326

Daphne Genkwa sieb. Et zucc. Water-soluble extracts act on enterovirus 71 by inhibiting viral entry.  

PubMed

Dried flowers of Daphne genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (Thymelaeaceae) are a Chinese herbal medicine used as an abortifacient with purgative, diuretic and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the activity of this medicine against enteroviral infections has not been investigated. The water-extract of dried buds of D. genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (DGFW) was examined against various strains of enterovirus 71 (EV71) by neutralization assay, and its initial mode of action was characterized by time-of-addition assay followed by attachment and penetration assays. Pretreatment of DGFW with virus abolished viral replication, indicating that DGFW inhibits EV71 by targeting the virus. GFW exerts its anti-EV71 effects by inhibiting viral entry without producing cytotoxic side effects and thus provides a potential agent for antiviral chemotherapeutics. PMID:22590685

Chang, Chia-Wen; Leu, Yan-Lii; Horng, Jim-Tong

2012-04-01

327

Protein misfolding cyclic amplification of infectious prions  

PubMed Central

Prions are proteinaceous infectious agents responsible for the transmission of prion diseases. The lack of a procedure for cultivating prions in the laboratory has been a major limitation to the study of the unorthodox nature of this infectious agent and the molecular mechanism by which the normal prion protein (PrPC) is converted into the abnormal isoform (PrPSc). Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA ), described in detail in this protocol, is a simple, fast and efficient methodology to mimic prion replication in the test tube. PMCA involves incubating materials containing minute amounts of infectious prions with an excess of PrPC and boosting the conversion by cycles of sonication to fragment the converting units, thereby leading to accelerated prion replication. PMCA is able to detect the equivalent of a single molecule of infectious PrPSc and propagate prions that maintain high infectivity, strain properties and species specificity. A single PMCA assay takes little more than 3 d to replicate a large amount of prions, which could take years in an in vivo situation. Since its invention 10 years ago, PMCA has helped to answer fundamental questions about this intriguing infectious agent and has been broadly applied in research areas that include the food industry, blood bank safety and human and veterinary disease diagnosis. PMID:22743831

Morales, Rodrigo; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Diaz-Espinoza, Rodrigo; Camacho, Manuel V; Soto, Claudio

2014-01-01

328

Infectious burden and atherosclerosis: A clinical issue  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases of multifactorial etiology, are the leading cause of death worldwide. In the last decade, more infectious agents, labeled as “infectious burden”, rather than any single pathogen, have been showed to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis through different mechanisms. Some microorganisms, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae), human cytomegalovirus, etc. may act directly on the arterial wall contributing to endothelial dysfunction, foam cell formation, smooth muscle cell proliferation, platelet aggregation as well as cytokine, reactive oxygen specie, growth factor, and cellular adhesion molecule production. Others, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), influenza virus, etc. may induce a systemic inflammation which in turn may damage the vascular wall (e.g., by cytokines and proteases). Moreover, another indirect mechanism by which some infectious agents (such as H. pylori, C. pneumoniae, periodontal pathogens, etc.) may play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is molecular mimicry. Given the complexity of the mechanisms by which each microorganism may contribute to atherosclerosis, defining the interplay of more infectious agents is far more difficult because the pro-atherogenic effect of each pathogen might be amplified. Clearly, continued research and a greater awareness will be helpful to improve our knowledge on the complex interaction between the infectious burden and atherosclerosis. PMID:25032197

Sessa, Rosa; Pietro, Marisa Di; Filardo, Simone; Turriziani, Ombretta

2014-01-01

329

How infectious disease outbreaks affect community-based primary care physicians  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To compare how the infectious disease outbreaks H1N1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) affected community-based GPs and FPs. Design A mailed survey sent after the H1N1 outbreak compared with the results of similar survey completed after the SARS outbreak. Setting Greater Toronto area in Ontario. Participants A total of 183 randomly selected GPs and FPs who provided office-based care. Main outcome measures The perceptions of GPs and FPs on how serious infectious disease outbreaks affected their clinical work and personal lives; their preparedness for a serious infectious disease outbreak; and the types of information they want to receive and the sources they wanted to receive information from during a serious infectious disease outbreak. The responses from this survey were compared with the responses of GPs and FPs in the greater Toronto area who completed a similar survey in 2003 after the SARS outbreak. Results After the H1N1 outbreak, GPs and FPs still had substantial concerns about the effects of serious infectious disease outbreaks on the health of their family members. Physicians made changes to various office practices in order to manage and deal with patients with serious infectious diseases. They expressed concerns about the effects of an infectious disease on the provision of health care services. Also, physicians wanted to quickly receive accurate information from the provincial government and their medical associations. Conclusion Serious community-based infectious diseases are a personal concern for GPs and FPs, and have considerable effects on their clinical practice. Further work examining the timely flow of relevant information through different health care sectors and government agencies still needs to be undertaken. PMID:25316747

Jaakkimainen, R. Liisa; Bondy, Susan J.; Parkovnick, Meredith; Barnsley, Jan

2014-01-01

330

Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

Lafferty, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

331

Cocirculation of infectious diseases on networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider multiple diseases spreading in a static configuration model network. We make standard assumptions that infection transmits from neighbor to neighbor at a disease-specific rate and infected individuals recover at a disease-specific rate. Infection by one disease confers immediate and permanent immunity to infection by any disease. Under these assumptions, we find a simple, low-dimensional ordinary differential equations model which captures the global dynamics of the infection. The dynamics depend strongly on initial conditions. Although we motivate this Rapid Communication with infectious disease, the model may be adapted to the spread of other infectious agents such as competing political beliefs, or adoption of new technologies if these are influenced by contacts. As an example, we demonstrate how to model an infectious disease which can be prevented by a behavior change.

Miller, Joel C.

2013-06-01

332

Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases  

E-print Network

Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets ($\\sim 0.4\\ \\mu$m) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets ($\\sim 4\\ \\mu$m) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localised susceptible population...

Robinson, M; Drossinos, Y

2011-01-01

333

Protein Microarrays and Biomarkers of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

Protein microarrays are powerful tools that are widely used in systems biology research. For infectious diseases, proteome microarrays assembled from proteins of pathogens will play an increasingly important role in discovery of diagnostic markers, vaccines, and therapeutics. Distinct formats of protein microarrays have been developed for different applications, including abundance-based and function-based methods. Depending on the application, design issues should be considered, such as the need for multiplexing and label or label free detection methods. New developments, challenges, and future demands in infectious disease research will impact the application of protein microarrays for discovery and validation of biomarkers. PMID:21614200

Natesan, Mohan; Ulrich, Robert G.

2010-01-01

334

Examining unmet needs in infectious disease.  

PubMed

In the past 30 years, more than 30 new aetiological agents of infectious disease have been identified. Some of these are responsible for entirely novel and life-threatening disorders, such as AIDS, Ebola fever, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and Nipah virus encephalitis. During the same period, some longstanding infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis) have became resurgent, as a result of a combination of complacency, increased travel and social dislocation, and also increasing drug resistance. This review looks at some of the key unmet needs in this therapeutic area and discusses strategies to address them. PMID:12546988

Snell, Noel J C

2003-01-01

335

Etiology, diagnosis and treatment of infectious esophagitis.  

PubMed

Infectious esophagitis may be caused by fungal, viral, bacterial or even parasitic agents. Risk factors include antibiotics and steroids use, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, malignancies and immunodeficiency syndromes including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Acute onset of symptoms such as dysphagia and odynophagia is typical. It can coexist with heartburn, retrosternal discomfort, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain, anorexia, weight loss and even cough are present sometimes. Infectious esophagitis is predominantly caused by Candida species. Other important causes include cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus infection. PMID:24868280

Roso?owski, Mariusz; Kierzkiewicz, Maciej

2013-01-01

336

[Present and future of infectious epidemiology].  

PubMed

A revision is made on the important biological phenomenon of microbial emergency, based on model infection diseases in which the author can give the own experimental results and experience. The concept of microbial emergency has shocked the traditional infectious epidemiology since 1983 when the HIV virus was discovered and the informatic network reached an optimum efficiency. In despite of the global risk of contagion it is necessary to consider the proximity effect in a space-time model as the main cause of infectious diseases diffusion. PMID:11209556

Suárez Fernández, G

2000-01-01

337

Treatment of infectious disease: beyond antibiotics.  

PubMed

Several antibiotics have been discovered following the discovery of penicillin. These antibiotics had been helpful in treatment of infectious diseases considered dread for centuries. The advent of multiple drug resistance in microbes has posed new challenge to researchers. The scientists are now evaluating alternatives for combating infectious diseases. This review focuses on major alternatives to antibiotics on which preliminary work had been carried out. These promising anti-microbial include: phages, bacteriocins, killing factors, antibacterial activities of non-antibiotic drugs and quorum quenching. PMID:24661689

Nigam, Anshul; Gupta, Divya; Sharma, Ashwani

2014-01-01

338

Antibodies in human infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of human antibody responses to viral pathogens at the molecular level is revealing novel aspects of the interplay\\u000a of viruses with the humoral immune system. In viral infection, at least two types of human antibody responses exist: a response\\u000a to mature envelope on virions that is neutralizing and a response to immature forms of envelope (viral debris) that is

Paul W. H. I. Parren; Pascal Poignard; Henrick J. Ditzel; R. Anthony Williamson; Dennis R. Burton

2000-01-01

339

MRI characteristics and follow-up findings in patients with neurological complications of enterovirus 71-related hand, foot, and mouth disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and clinical and MRI follow-up findings of patients with neurological complications of enterovirus 71-related hand, foot and mouth disease. Methods: Data were collected from 12 patients who developed neurological complications of enterovirus 71-related hand, foot, and mouth disease during an enterovirus-71 outbreak in Hainan Province, China, from May 2008 to October 2011. Patients were followed up for 2 years. Results: In the six patients with brainstem encephalitis, MRI showed posterior brainstem abnormalities with hyperintense areas on T2-weighted images and hypointense areas on T1-weighted images. In the four patients with acute flaccid paralysis but no brainstem encephalitis, sagittal MRI images showed linear hyperintense areas in the anterior spinal cord, transverse T2-weighted images showed hyperintense areas in the spinal cord, and contrast-enhanced axial T1-weighted images showed strong enhancement of the anterior horns or nerve roots. In the two patients with aseptic meningitis, MRI showed widening of the subarachnoid space and ventricles. The MRI and clinical signs of aseptic meningitis resolved within 4 weeks in both patients. Patients with isolated pontine abnormalities recovered faster than those with multiple brainstem abnormalities, patients with isolated brainstem encephalitis recovered faster than those with associated acute flaccid paralysis, patients with paralysis of one limb recovered faster than those with paralysis of multiple limbs, and patients with isolated thoracolumbar cord abnormalities recovered faster than those with cervical cord abnormalities. Conclusions: MRI is useful for assessment of the neurological complications of enterovirus 71-related hand, foot, and mouth disease. Patients who develop neurological complications characteristically have MRI abnormalities of the posterior brainstem or bilateral anterior horns of parts of the spinal cord. The MRI findings can help to predict prognosis. PMID:25356127

Chen, Feng; Liu, Tao; Li, Jianjun; Xing, Zengbao; Huang, Shixiong; Wen, Guoqiang

2014-01-01

340

Rapid One-Step Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay with Competitive Internal Positive Control for Detection of Enteroviruses in Environmental Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human enteroviruses can serve as a more accurate indicator of human fecal contamination than conven- tional bacteriological fecal indicators. We describe here a quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) assay specifically tailored to detect these viruses in environmental waters. The assay included a competitive internal positive control (CIPC) that allowed the inhibition of qRT-PCRs to be quantitatively assessed. Coamplification of the

Jason B. Gregory; R. Wayne Litaker; Rachel T. Noble

2006-01-01

341

Detection of enterovirus in environmental waters: A new optimized method compared to commercial real-time RT-qPCR kits.  

PubMed

Despite the progress in water and wastewater treatment technologies, waterborne diseases are still a major concern of public health. In the reported water-related outbreaks, viruses constitute one of the main causal agents. Enteroviruses are one of the most viruses monitored in water and are often used as an indicator of viral pollution. Isolation and identification of this virus are now regularly based on molecular tools. However published or commercial protocols for detection of these viruses in water are frequently lacking of validation processes and performance evaluation in such complex samples. A method for enterovirus detection in environmental water has been developed, its performance has been evaluated and compared with several commercial kits. The sensitivity of commercial methods in clinical samples, ranged between 89% and 100%, while the sensitivity in seeded environmental matrices fell between 16% and 91%. This method showed the best performance in environmental samples and was subsequently applied on surface and treated wastewater. The results showed the large dissemination of enteroviruses in an urbanized river. The results also emphasized the importance of good knowledge of the method's limits for its utilization in environmental samples in order to minimize false negatives and to avoid underestimating viral concentration. PMID:25196451

Wurtzer, Sebastien; Prevost, Benoit; Lucas, Francoise S; Moulin, Laurent

2014-12-01

342

Study of infectious virus production from HPV18/16 capsid chimeras.  

PubMed

Using the HPV18 genome as the backbone, we exchanged the HPV18 L2 or L1 genes with those of HPV16. The intertypical exchange of HPV18 L1 with the HPV16 L1 produced genomes that efficiently replicated and produced infectious virus. Genomes containing an intertypical exchange of HPV18 L2 for the HPV16 L2 failed to produce infectious virus in multiple independently derived cell lines. Using chimeric constructs of individual capsid proteins, we identified a type-specific domain at the N-terminus of the HPV18L1 capsid protein, which interferes with its ability to cooperate with the HPV16 L2 protein to form infectious viral particles. Deletion of this domain allows for the cooperation of the HPV18 L1 protein and HPV16 L2 protein and production of infectious progeny. In addition, cooperation of this N-terminal HPV18 L1 deletion mutant protein with the wild-type HPV18 L2 protein efficiently replicates infectious virus but changes occur in the viral structure. PMID:20598725

Chen, Horng-Shen; Bromberg-White, Jennifer; Conway, Michael J; Alam, Samina; Meyers, Craig

2010-09-30

343

Study of Infectious Virus Production from HPV18/16 Capsid Chimeras  

PubMed Central

Using the HPV18 genome as the backbone, we exchanged the HPV18 L2 or L1 genes with those of HPV16. The intertypical exchange of HPV18 L1 with the HPV16 L1 produced genomes that efficiently replicated and produced infectious virus. Genomes containing an intertypical exchange of HPV18 L2 for the HPV16 L2 failed to produce infectious virus in multiple independently derived cell lines. Using chimeric constructs of individual capsid proteins, we identified a type-specific domain at the N-terminus of the HPV18L1 capsid protein, which interferes with its ability to cooperate with the HPV16 L2 protein to form infectious viral particles. Deletion of this domain allows for the cooperation of the HPV18 L1 protein and HPV 16 L2 protein and production of infectious progeny. Additionally, cooperation of this N-terminal HPV18 L1 deletion mutant protein with the wild type HPV18 L2 protein efficiently replicates infectious virus but changes occur in the viral structure. PMID:20598725

Chen, Horng-Shen; Bromberg-White, Jennifer; Conway, Michael J.; Alam, Samina; Meyers, Craig

2010-01-01

344

Infectious Complications in the Renal Transplant Recipient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of infectious diseases in a group of patients who underwent kidney transplantation from January 1, 2004 to September 30, 2004, including 121 operations, with 119 from cadaveric and 2 from living donors. The protocol sought herpes viruses (CMV, VZV, and EBV), hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, T. gondii, M. tubercolosis,

A. Grimaldi; A. Barletta; M. Rascente; F. Pisani; G. Iaria; D. Maccarone; E. Maira; M. D’Angelo; A. Famulari

2005-01-01

345

Plant pathology Vertical distribution and infectious potential  

E-print Network

), and between 0 and 40 cm in the 2 fields with sandier soil textures. The highest nematode count was detected. In Mesnil, with a high nematode density, ie 5 to 120 individuals per kg fine soil, the GFLV infectious. The lowest nematode count was observed between 0 and 25 cm in the field with the highest clay content (Mesnil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

346

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA INFECTIOUS WASTE DISPOSAL  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA INFECTIOUS WASTE DISPOSAL Introduction All biologically the University sends its general wastes. Identification of these materials in the general waste stream could jeopardize the University's use of that landfill facility. Therefore, all such wastes generated on campus

Morgan, Stephen L.

347

Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis.  

PubMed

Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. PMID:16258744

Si?irci, Ahmet; Akinci, Ay?ehan; Ozgen, Unsal; Ozen, Metehan

2006-02-01

348

Opinion: The Pharmacometrics of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The application of pharmacometric principles to the treatment of infectious diseases must address important biological issues across the diversity of pathogenic organisms. Recent applications of pharmacometric tools in this therapeutic area have had important translational impact not only in drug development but on real-world clinical practice. The fruitful fusion of preclinical and population methodologies promises increasingly personalized and mechanistic approaches. PMID:23985968

Davies, G R; Hope, W; Khoo, S

2013-01-01

349

Section of Infectious Diseases Department of Medicine  

E-print Network

Section of Infectious Diseases Department of Medicine PhD studentship in HIV Immunology Research of Medicine of Imperial College London at the St Mary's Campus. Led by Professor Robin Shattock, the main. Professor Robin Shattock (http://www1.imperial.ac.uk/medicine/people/r.shattock/ ) is the academic

350

Infectious disease and amphibian population declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of recent papers have impli- cated pathogens and parasites in amphibian population declines. Here, we review evidence on the link between infectious disease and amphibian population declines. We conclude that available data provide the clearest link for the fungal disease amphibian chytridiomycosis, although other pathogens are also implicated. We suggest additional experimental and observa- tional data that need

Peter Daszak; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt

2003-01-01

351

Global trends in emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID `events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940

Kate E. Jones; Nikkita G. Patel; Marc A. Levy; Adam Storeygard; Deborah Balk; John L. Gittleman; Peter Daszak

2008-01-01

352

Natural regulatory T cells in infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the control exerted by natural CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (natural Treg cells) during infectious processes. Natural Treg cells may limit the magnitude of effector responses, which may result in failure to adequately control infection. However, natural Treg cells also help limit collateral tissue damage caused by vigorous antimicrobial immune responses. We describe here various situations in

Barry T Rouse; Yasmine Belkaid

2005-01-01

353

Infectious and immunologic consequences of blood transfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood transfusions remain common practice in the critical care and surgical settings. Transfusions carry significant risks, including risks for transmission of infectious agents and immune suppression. Transmission of bacterial infections, although rare, is the most common adverse event with transfusion. The risk for transmission of viral infections has decreased over time, clearly because tests are becoming more sensitive in detecting

E Patchen Dellinger; Daniel A Anaya

2004-01-01

354

Rapid detection and identification of infectious agents  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers divided among five sections. Some of the paper titles are: Aspects of Using Nucleic Acid Filter Hybridization to Characterize and Detect Enteroviral RNAs; Rapid Identification of Lesihmania Species using Specific Hybridization of Kinetoplast DNA Sequences; Selection of DNA Probes for use in the Diagnosis of Infectious Disease; and Summary of DNA Probes.

Kingsbury, D.T.; Falkow, S.

1985-01-01

355

Mathematical models of infectious disease transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical analysis and modelling is central to infectious disease epidemiology. Here, we provide an intuitive introduction to the process of disease transmission, how this stochastic process can be represented mathematically and how this mathematical representation can be used to analyse the emergent dynamics of observed epidemics. Progress in mathematical analysis and modelling is of fundamental importance to our growing understanding

Christophe Fraser; Nicholas C. Grassly

2008-01-01

356

Infectious Diseases: Education, Prevention, and Nursing Diagnoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infectious disease process has been studied since the times of Louis Pasteur and Jonas Salk. Three key components comprise any infection: the agent, the spread, and the incubator (host). When considering these three components, it is recognized that the causative agents have remained relatively consistent through the years and include bacterium, spirochetes, virus, fungi, chlamydiae, parasite, ricketsettia, protozoans, and

Barbara Stover Gingerich

1998-01-01

357

Microbial Pathogenesis: Mechanisms of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The FASEB Summer Research Conference on Microbial Pathogenesis: Mechanisms of Infectious Disease was held in Colorado, USA in July 2007. The central theme was the interplay between pathogenic microbes and their mammalian hosts. Here, we review the presented research that highlights this theme, including studies of both short-term and long-term interactions between microbes and their hosts. PMID:18005739

Carruthers, Vern B.; Cotter, Peggy A.; Kumamoto, Carol A.

2009-01-01

358

Travel and the Emergence of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to

Mary E. Wilson

1996-01-01

359

Climate change and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ranges of infectious diseases and vectors are changing in altitude, along with shifts in plant communities and the retreat of alpine glaciers. Additionally, extreme weather events create conditions conducive to ?clusters? of insect-, rodent- and water-borne diseases. Accelerating climate change carries profound threats for public health and society.

Paul R. Epstein

2001-01-01

360

Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission  

PubMed Central

Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit the ability of the rescue effect to ensure locally extinct populations become recolonized and can drive metapopulations down in size so that extinction by mechanisms other than disease may become more likely. It further highlights that, in the context of environmental transmission, the environmental persistence time of pathogens and the probability of acquiring infection by environmental transmission can affect host metapopulations both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additional spillover sources of infection from alternate reservoir hosts are also included in the model and a synthesis of all three types of transmission, acting alone or in combination, is performed revealing that movement-based transmission is the only necessary condition for a decline in the proportion of occupied sites with increasing movement rate, but that the presence of other types of transmission can reverse this qualitative result. By including the previously neglected role of environmental transmission, this work contributes to the general discussion of when dispersal by wild animals is beneficial or detrimental to populations experiencing infectious disease. PMID:22957148

Park, Andrew W

2012-01-01

361

Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission.  

PubMed

Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit the ability of the rescue effect to ensure locally extinct populations become recolonized and can drive metapopulations down in size so that extinction by mechanisms other than disease may become more likely. It further highlights that, in the context of environmental transmission, the environmental persistence time of pathogens and the probability of acquiring infection by environmental transmission can affect host metapopulations both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additional spillover sources of infection from alternate reservoir hosts are also included in the model and a synthesis of all three types of transmission, acting alone or in combination, is performed revealing that movement-based transmission is the only necessary condition for a decline in the proportion of occupied sites with increasing movement rate, but that the presence of other types of transmission can reverse this qualitative result. By including the previously neglected role of environmental transmission, this work contributes to the general discussion of when dispersal by wild animals is beneficial or detrimental to populations experiencing infectious disease. PMID:22957148

Park, Andrew W

2012-07-01

362

Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?  

PubMed

Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk. PMID:24933803

Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

2014-04-01

363

76 FR 2128 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date:...

2011-01-12

364

78 FR 3011 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee....

2013-01-15

365

77 FR 29676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee....

2012-05-18

366

76 FR 55074 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee....

2011-09-06

367

77 FR 2736 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date:...

2012-01-19

368

75 FR 81631 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee....

2010-12-28

369

78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee,...

2013-09-23

370

75 FR 28029 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date:...

2010-05-19

371

Equine infectious anemia and equine infectious anemia virus in 2013: a review.  

PubMed

A detailed description of equine infectious anemia virus and host responses to it are presented. Current control and eradication of the infection are discussed with suggestions for improvements to increase their effectiveness. PMID:24183747

Cook, R F; Leroux, C; Issel, C J

2013-11-29

372

Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks  

E-print Network

Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, ...

Hill, Alison Lynn

373

Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Page Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases By Emily Carlson Posted December 2, 2013 Collecting, ... historical health data shows the incidence of 56 infectious diseases in the United States (top) and the effect ...

374

Editorial Infectious Diseases Drug Targets (in silico special issue)  

E-print Network

Editorial ­ Infectious Diseases ­ Drug Targets (in silico special issue) Alexandre G. de Brevern facilities has given new opportunities to fight against infectious diseases and to identify pertinent drug

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

375

Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in final reclaimed effluent  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples collected throughout several reclamation facilities were analyzed for the presence of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum by the focus detection method-most-probable-number cell culture technique. Results revealed the presence of infectious C. parvum oocysts in 40% of the final disinfected effluent samples. Sampled effluent contained on average seven infectious oocysts per 100 liters. Thus, reclaimed water is not pathogen free but contains infectious C. parvum.

Gennaccaro, A. L.; McLaughlin, M. R.; Quintero-Betancourt, W.; Huffman, D. E.; Rose, J. B.

2003-01-01

376

Mutations in the non-structural protein region contribute to intra-genotypic evolution of enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical manifestations of enterovirus 71 (EV71) range from herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), to severe neurological complications. Unlike the situation of switching genotypes seen in EV71 outbreaks during 1998–2008 in Taiwan, genotype B5 was responsible for two large outbreaks in 2008 and 2012, respectively. In China, by contrast, EV71 often persists as a single genotype in the population and causes frequent outbreaks. To investigate genetic changes in viral evolution, complete EV71 genome sequences were used to analyze the intra-genotypic evolution pattern in Taiwan, China, and the Netherlands. Results Genotype B5 was predominant in Taiwan’s 2008 outbreak and was re-emergent in 2012. EV71 strains from both outbreaks were phylogenetically segregated into two lineages containing fourteen non-synonymous substitutions predominantly in the non-structural protein coding region. In China, genotype C4 was first seen in 1998 and caused the latest large outbreak in 2008. Unlike shifting genotypes in Taiwan, genotype C4 persisted with progressive drift through time. A majority of non-synonymous mutations occurred in residues located in the non-structural coding region, showing annual increases. Interestingly, genotype B1/B2 in the Netherlands showed another stepwise evolution with dramatic EV71 activity increase in 1986. Phylogeny of the VP1 coding region in 1971–1986 exhibited similar lineage turnover with genotype C4 in China; however, phylogeny of the 3D-encoding region indicated separate lineage appearing after 1983, suggesting that the 3D-encoding region of genotype B2 was derived from an unidentified ancestor that contributed to intra-genotypic evolution in the Netherlands. Conclusions Unlike VP1 coding sequences long used for phylogenetic study of enteroviruses due to expected host immune escape, our study emphasizes a dominant role of non-synonymous mutations in non-structural protein regions that contribute to (re-)emergent genotypes in continuous stepwise evolution. Dozens of amino acid substitutions, especially in non-structural proteins, were identified via genetic changes driven through intra-genotypic evolution worldwide. These identified substitutions appeared to increase viral fitness in the population, affording valuable insights not only for viral evolution but also for prevention, control, and vaccine against EV71 infection. PMID:24766641

2014-01-01

377

Characterization of the Non-Polio Enterovirus Infections Associated with Acute Flaccid Paralysis in South-Western India  

PubMed Central

Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) have been reported frequently in association with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases during Polio Surveillance Programs (PSPs) worldwide. However, there is limited understanding on the attributes of their infections. This study reports characteristics of NPEVs isolated from AFP cases, investigated during PSPs held in 2009–2010, in Karnataka and Kerala states of south-western India having varied climatic conditions. NPEV cell culture isolates derived from stool specimens that were collected from 422 of 2186 AFP cases (<1–14 years age) and 17 of 41 asymptomatic contacts; and details of all AFP cases/contacts were obtained from National Polio Laboratory, Bangalore. The distribution of NPEV infections among AFP cases and circulation pattern of NPEV strains were determined by statistical analysis of the data. Genotyping of all NPEV isolates was carried out by partial VP1 gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. NPEV positive AFP cases were significantly higher in children aged <2 years; with residual paralysis; in summer months; and in regions with relatively hot climate. Genotyping of NPEVs identified predominance of human enteroviruses (HEV)-B species [81.9%—Echoviruses (E): 57.3%; coxsackieviruses (CV) B: 15%; numbered EVs: 8.9%; CVA9: 0.7%] and low levels of HEV-A [14.5%—CVA: 6%; numbered EVs: 8.5%] and HEV-C [3.6%—CVA: 2.6%; numbered EVs: 1%] species, encompassing 63 genotypes. EV76 (6.3%) and each of E3, CVB3 and E9 (4.97%) were found frequently during 2009 while E11 (6.7%), CVB1 (6.1%), E7 (5.1%) and E20 (5.1%) were detected commonly in 2010. A marked proportion of AFP cases from children aged <2 years; presenting with fever; and from north and south interior parts of Karnataka state was detected with E/numbered EVs than that found with CVA/CVB. This study highlights the extensive genetic diversity and diverse circulation patterns of NPEV strains in AFP cases from different populations and climatic conditions. PMID:23630606

Laxmivandana, Rongala; Yergolkar, Prasanna; Gopalkrishna, Varanasi; Chitambar, Shobha D.

2013-01-01

378

Observational, Hypothesis-Driven and Genomics Research Strategies for Analyzing Inherited Differences in Responses to Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first phase of research on genetic factors influencing susceptibility to infectious diseases was observational and descriptive. It began with the identification of children and adults with selective and non-selective immunodeficiencies. The types of infections to which these patients are susceptible provided evidence for the roles of T-cells, B-cells, leukocytes, and complement in controlling infectious diseases. Later the biochemical bases

A. C. Allison

2009-01-01

379

Efficient Manipulation of the Human Adenovirus Genome as an Infectious Yeast Artificial Chromosome Clone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing a complete human adenovirus type 2 genome was constructed, and viral DNA derived from the YAC was shown to be infectious upon introduction into mammalian cells. The adenovirus YAC could be manipulated efficiently using homologous recombination-based methods in the yeast host, and mutant viruses, including a variant that expresses the human analog of the

Gary Ketner; Forrest Spencer; Stuart Tugendreich; Carla Connelly; Philip Hieter

1994-01-01

380

Evolution of the Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Long Terminal Repeat during the Alteration of Cell Tropism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus with in vivo cell tropism primarily for tissue macro- phages; however, in vitro the virus can be adapted to fibroblasts and other cell types. Tropism adaptation is associated with both envelope and long terminal repeat (LTR) changes, and findings strongly suggest that these regions of the genome influence cell tropism and virulence.

Wendy Maury; Robert J. Thompson; Quentin Jones; Sarahann Bradley; Tara Denke; Prasith Baccam; Matthew Smazik; J. Lindsay Oaks

2005-01-01

381

Propagation of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus in cell culture  

E-print Network

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) (ThorudPropagation of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus in cell culture BH Dannevig K Falk CMcL Press Summary ― A long-term cell line supporting growth of the infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus has

Boyer, Edmond

382

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases Volume 2011, Article ID 146765, 2 pages doi:10.1155/2011/146765 Editorial Network Perspectives on Infectious Disease on pioneering network perspectives in the field of infectious disease epidemiology, which have already yielded

Myers, Lauren Ancel

383

Integrated Research Facility National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Ci3R Integrated Research Facility National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Center for Infection and Inflammation Im Johns Hopkins University School o Center for Infectious Disease Imaging aging Challenges in Infectious Disease: Need for Imaging Sanjay K. Jain, MD, Johns Hopkins University 09:00-09:25a

384

The Challenge of Infectious Diseases to the Biomedical Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resurgence of infectious diseases and the emergence of infectious diseases raise questions on how to cope with the situation. The germ or clinical approach is the hegemonic biomedical paradigm. In this article, the author argues that the spread of infectious diseases has posted a challenge to the biomedical paradigm and shows how lock-in…

Foladori, Guillermo

2005-01-01

385

Tropical Environments, Human Activities, and the Transmission of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Tropical Environments, Human Activities, and the Transmission of Infectious Diseases LISA diseases than the temperate world. Much of the success of infectious diseases in that region is due to both Throughout recent history, the tropical regions of the world have been affected more severely by infectious

Gottgens, Hans

386

Assistant or Associate Professor Division of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Assistant or Associate Professor Division of Infectious Diseases Department of Medicine The Department of Medicine/Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine at Stanford University of Infectious Diseases will be considered, including those with clinical and bench-based research programs

Quake, Stephen R.

387

Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases Baseline Statistics  

E-print Network

Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases Baseline Statistics October 29, 2013 Number Comparisons for the Discipline of Immunology & Infectious Disease Montana State University National Tenure for the Discipline of Immunology & Infectious Disease Montana State University National Tenure-Track Faculty* Land

Maxwell, Bruce D.

388

Human-Wildlife Contact and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Chapter 4 Human-Wildlife Contact and Emerging Infectious Diseases Michael P. Muehlenbein Abstract diseases. 4.1 Emerging Infectious Diseases The patterns of morbidity and mortality in human populations that it was "time to close the book on infectious diseases, declare the war against pestilence won, and shift

Muehlenbein, Michael

389

REVIEWS AND SYNTHESES Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

REVIEWS AND SYNTHESES Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases Sonia Altizer,1 * Andrew availability are ubiquitous and can exert strong pressures on population dynamics. Infectious diseases provide and persistence of infectious diseases, and that population-level responses can range from simple annual cycles

390

Origins of major human infectious diseases Nathan D. Wolfe1  

E-print Network

REVIEWS Origins of major human infectious diseases Nathan D. Wolfe1 , Claire Panosian Dunavan2 & Jared Diamond3 Many of the major human infectious diseases, including some now confined to humans were the sources of our major infectious diseases, including these `new' ones? Why do so many animal

Boudouresque, Charles F.

391

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change  

E-print Network

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology, Boston, MA 02115, USA Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health for the surveillance and control of plant EIDs. Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are caused by pathogens that: (i

Schweik, Charles M.

392

Mathematical Techniques in the Evolutionary Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

1 Mathematical Techniques in the Evolutionary Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases Troy Day The epidemiology of infectious diseases is a vibrant and growing area of research. Mathematics has come to play of infectious disease stems, in part, from the high levels of genetic variation that are often generated through

Linder, Tamás

393

Sleep, sleep deprivation and infectious disease: Studies in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common perceptions that the desire for sleep is increased during mild infectious diseases like colds and ‘the flu’ have fostered beliefs that sleep promotes recovery from infectious disease and that lack of sleep increases susceptibility to infections. However, until recently, the relationship between infectious disease and vigilance received relatively little systematic study. At present, several model systems provide evidence that

Linda A. Toth

1995-01-01

394

Nurses' Contacts and Potential for Infectious Disease Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nurses' contacts with potentially infectious persons probably place them at higher risk than the general population for infectious diseases. During an influenza pandemic, illness among nurses might result in staff shortage. We aimed to show the value of individual data from the healthcare sector for mathematical modeling of infectious disease transmission. Using a paper diary approach, we compared nurses' daily

Helen Bernard; Richela Fischer; Rafael T. Mikolajczyk; Mirjam Kretzschmar; Manfred Wildner

2009-01-01

395

Optimal evaluation of infectious medical waste disposal companies using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process  

SciTech Connect

Ever since Taiwan's National Health Insurance implemented the diagnosis-related groups payment system in January 2010, hospital income has declined. Therefore, to meet their medical waste disposal needs, hospitals seek suppliers that provide high-quality services at a low cost. The enactment of the Waste Disposal Act in 1974 had facilitated some improvement in the management of waste disposal. However, since the implementation of the National Health Insurance program, the amount of medical waste from disposable medical products has been increasing. Further, of all the hazardous waste types, the amount of infectious medical waste has increased at the fastest rate. This is because of the increase in the number of items considered as infectious waste by the Environmental Protection Administration. The present study used two important findings from previous studies to determine the critical evaluation criteria for selecting infectious medical waste disposal firms. It employed the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to set the objective weights of the evaluation criteria and select the optimal infectious medical waste disposal firm through calculation and sorting. The aim was to propose a method of evaluation with which medical and health care institutions could objectively and systematically choose appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firms.

Ho, Chao Chung, E-mail: ho919@pchome.com.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15

396

Optimal evaluation of infectious medical waste disposal companies using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process.  

PubMed

Ever since Taiwan's National Health Insurance implemented the diagnosis-related groups payment system in January 2010, hospital income has declined. Therefore, to meet their medical waste disposal needs, hospitals seek suppliers that provide high-quality services at a low cost. The enactment of the Waste Disposal Act in 1974 had facilitated some improvement in the management of waste disposal. However, since the implementation of the National Health Insurance program, the amount of medical waste from disposable medical products has been increasing. Further, of all the hazardous waste types, the amount of infectious medical waste has increased at the fastest rate. This is because of the increase in the number of items considered as infectious waste by the Environmental Protection Administration. The present study used two important findings from previous studies to determine the critical evaluation criteria for selecting infectious medical waste disposal firms. It employed the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to set the objective weights of the evaluation criteria and select the optimal infectious medical waste disposal firm through calculation and sorting. The aim was to propose a method of evaluation with which medical and health care institutions could objectively and systematically choose appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firms. PMID:21419613

Ho, Chao Chung

2011-07-01

397

Immune responses to infectious laryngotracheitis virus.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory tract disease in chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus. Despite the extensive use of attenuated, and more recently recombinant, vaccines for the control of this disease, ILT continues to affect the intensive poultry industries worldwide. Innate and cell-mediated, rather than humoral immune responses, have been identified as responsible for protection against disease. This review examines the current understandings in innate and adaptive immune responses towards ILTV, as well as the role of ILTV glycoprotein G in modulating the host immune response towards infection. Protective immunity induced by ILT vaccines is also examined. The increasing availability of tools and reagents for the characterisation of avian innate and cell-mediated immune responses are expected to further our understanding of immunity against ILTV and drive the development of new generation vaccines towards enhanced control of this disease. PMID:23567343

Coppo, Mauricio J C; Hartley, Carol A; Devlin, Joanne M

2013-11-01

398

Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe  

PubMed Central

We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

Suk, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

399

[Update in infectious diseases. Part I: epidemiology].  

PubMed

A number of infectious agents has been newly detected in the last 10 years. Climatic changes and migration have been the most important factors in the emergence of new and old infections. Additionally, new methods for the detection of DNA and RNA have played an important role in the detection of agents difficult to culture. Relevant new bacterial pathogens are Bartonella henselae (cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis), Tropheryma whippeli (Whipple's disease) and new Rickettsiae. Newly detected viral pathogens include Sin-nombre virus (pulmonary Hanta virus syndrome), Nipah- and Hendra virus and avian influenza. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy has been transmitted to humans causing the newly described syndrome of variant Creuzfeldt-Jakob disease. The extent of this new epidemic is not yet clear. These trends from the last years clearly indicate, that further new infections and infectious agents will be detected in the future. PMID:10935415

Salzberger, B; Franzen, C; Fätkenheuer, G

2000-06-15

400

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created over fifty years ago, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NAID) "conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases." In recent years, the scope of the institute's research activities has expanded to include emerging issues such as the possibility of bioterrorism and West Nile virus. The site contains a wealth of information on the activities of NAID, such as the most recent publications, organizational hierarchy, and funding opportunities for researchers and scholars. The newsroom area is quite thorough, as visitors have access to the database of news releases dating back to 1995 and access to SciBites, which features brief summaries of articles about NAID-funded research, updated weekly. The site is notable for its extensive special section on the growing battery of research on biodefense strategies.

401

Rediscovering Biology - Unit 5: Emerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is the jumping-off point for an educational unit on emerging infectious diseases. There are links to a course outline and classroom activity worksheets, a 30-minute video, an online textbook chapter, a collection of relevant images and animations that supplement the chapter, transcripts of interviews with five experts featured in the video, and a glossary and bibliography. The video and textbook chapter cover two main phenomena of emerging diseases - evolution of antibiotic resistance, and mutation of disease organisms due to novel environmental pressures. There are detailed explanations of microbial evolution by mutation and acquisition of new genetic material, as well as case studies of infectious diseases spread by animals. The course outline provides a structure for incorporating the video, the textbook chapter, and five classroom activities into a 2.5hr session appropriate for high school or undergraduate students.

Learner.org, Annenberg M.

402

Burroughs Wellcome Fund Investigators in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases (http://www.bwfund.org/grant-programs/infectious-diseases-0)  

E-print Network

Burroughs Wellcome Fund Investigators in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases (http://www.bwfund.org/grant-programs/infectious-diseases are for five years, at a total level of $500,000. Additional information is available at http://www.bwfund.org/grant-programs/infectious- diseases-0 and through teleconferences on September 16, 2:00 pm and October 14, 2:00 pm. Potential

Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

403

Ruminant Genetics and Infectious Disease Infectious disease in cattle production remains a significant threat to productivity, profitability, animal wel-  

E-print Network

Ruminant Genetics and Infectious Disease Infectious disease in cattle production remains threats is to use genetic selection for cattle with natural resistance to infectious disease. Resistance of immune cells and cytokines, all of which are regulated by genetic factors. Progress in our understanding

404

Center for Infectious Diseases (CID) Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine  

E-print Network

Center for Infectious Diseases (CID) Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine Microbiology (Hotta) Pathogenesis analysis of viruses; Antiviral drugs; Vaccine development Infectious Disease and epidemiology of avian influenza Infectious Disease Control (Kawabata) Epidemiology of infectious diseases

Banbara, Mutsunori

405

Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough  

PubMed Central

Contact tracing (also known as partner notification) is a primary means of controlling infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, little work has been done to determine the optimal level of investment in contact tracing. In this paper, we present a methodology for evaluating the appropriate level of investment in contact tracing. We develop and apply a simulation model of contact tracing and the spread of an infectious disease among a network of individuals in order to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of different levels of contact tracing. We show that contact tracing is likely to have diminishing returns to scale in investment: incremental investments in contact tracing yield diminishing reductions in disease prevalence. In conjunction with a cost-effectiveness threshold, we then determine the optimal amount that should be invested in contact tracing. We first assume that the only incremental disease control is contact tracing. We then extend the analysis to consider the optimal allocation of a budget between contact tracing and screening for exogenous infection, and between contact tracing and screening for endogenous infection. We discuss how a simulation model of this type, appropriately tailored, could be used as a policy tool for determining the appropriate level of investment in contact tracing for a specific disease in a specific population. We present an example application to contact tracing for chlamydia control. PMID:18074967

Brandeau, Margaret L.

2012-01-01

406

Problems and perspectives of molecular epidemiology of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Current tendencies and problems of molecular biology and its application in infectious diseases are discussed. Basic stages of the development of molecular epidemiology as a leading tool for epidemiological studies are reviewed. More than 30 years ago, molecular epidemiology was first used to study nosocomial infections. Special attention is given to the achievements of Russian scientists, especially in the discovery of Astrakhan spotted fever Rickettsia, noncultured forms of Vibrio cholerae, and the microorganism "Montezuma." Also, the development of PCR-based methods of identification and typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Russian specialists and its significant role in strategies for diagnosing and treatment of tuberculosis are discussed. Now, the most important field of application of molecular biology methods is bacterial evolution, especially with regard to pathogenic microorganisms and emerging infections. Searching for the novel pathogenic agents, establishment of the infectious nature of diseases with unclear origin, and determining the precise mechanisms of pathogenicity are most intriguing issues. So, molecular biology should play a major role both in clinical and research fields. PMID:12860718

Tarasevich, I V; Shaginyan, I A; Mediannikov, O Y

2003-06-01

407

Central nervous system infectious complications early after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Infectious complications contribute to significant patient morbidity and mortality in orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients. Early central nervous system (CNS) involvement (within the first month after OLT) by infectious disease is essentially set off by aggressive surgical procedures, severe morbid conditions of the pretransplant period, initial graft dysfunction, permanence of intravascular catheters, and prolonged mechanical ventilation. The type and severity of CNS infection may be determined by many factors, such as posttransplant adverse events; prolonged or repeated surgery with massive intraoperative transfusions, net state of immunosuppression, recurrence of infections by immunomodulating viruses, and retransplantation. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi can spread to the CNS just as they affect the abdomen, blood stream, respiratory tract, urine, drainages, etc. Because immunosuppressive drugs may modify the clinical presentation of CNS infections, it is very important to maintain vigilance and attend to minor neurologic symptoms. Special attention should therefore be given to cerebral investigation in patients with prolonged pulmonary contamination, unresponsive fever, and heavy corticosteroid therapy, primarily when they became disoriented, develop seizures, or exhibit focal neurologic signs. Clinical response to medical therapy may sometimes be poor because of chronic encapsulation of the pathogen, development of resistance, and/or catastrophic hemorrhagic complications. PMID:20534265

Feltracco, P; Barbieri, S; Furnari, M; Milevoj, M; Rizzi, S; Galligioni, H; Salvaterra, F; Zanus, G; Cillo, U; Ori, C

2010-05-01

408

Peripheral nervous system manifestations of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

Brizzi, Kate T; Lyons, Jennifer L

2014-10-01

409

Pediatric infectious diseases — Quo vadis 2015?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern medicine the discipline pediatric infectious diseases is an essential medical specialty. The challenging and complex\\u000a tasks in the next years include meticulous consolidation and careful extension of existing activities aiming at conducting\\u000a high level research, offering high standard teaching, and providing high quality patient management. This can only be accomplished\\u000a by exquisitely dedicated individuals with extraordinary communication and

David Nadal

410

Dealing with Global Infectious Disease Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbes that cause human infectious diseases are complex, dynamic, and constantly evolving. They reproduce rapidly, mutate\\u000a frequently, adapt with relative ease to new environments and hosts, and frequently breach the species barrier between animals\\u000a and humans. Social, economic, and environmental factors linked to a host of human populations and activities can accelerate\\u000a and amplify these natural phenomena. The ability

David L. Heymann

411

Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents.

Brizzi, Kate T.

2014-01-01

412

Combining forces to combat infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Because the threat of infectious diseases can cause widespread fear in a community, these diseases receive much public attention. Collaborations that bring together industry, academia, regulators, and the public can lead to improved and accelerated drug development. The collaborations must be grounded in strong science and expertise in clinical trials. Development of drugs to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria, drugs to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV), and drugs to prevent HIV is taking advantage of these collaborations. PMID:25056386

Reynolds, K S

2014-08-01

413

Foodborne Infectious Disease - The Human Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the human impact of infectious agents potentially transmitted through the food chain is required to establish intervention priorities when considering the on-farm aspects of these agents. Canadian livestock husbandry, food processing and handling systems, and food preparation and consumption are likely sufficiently similar to the U.S. that the following U.S. information applies to the Canadian situation. On the other

John M. Gay

414

IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 are associated with pathogenesis in children with Enterovirus 71 infection  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the aim was to reveal the relationship of serum IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 levels in patient with Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. To elucidate the role of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), we analyzed the cytokine of 112 EV71-infected patients. A significant elevation of serum (interleukin) IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 levels in patients with EV71 infection compare with Un-EV71 infection HFMD patient and Healthy individuals. The production of inflammatory cytokines was increased with disease clinical stage. In addition, the immunological consequences of these cytokine in patient with EV71 infection showed a downward trend after cure. These data suggested that EV71 infection significantly increased the release of circulating IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13. The systemic inflammatory response may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HFMD. Moreover, this study may be designed to evaluate the potential therapeutic of medicine in the treatment of patients with EV71 infection. PMID:25356130

Chen, Zhifeng; Li, Ruiqin; Xie, Zhichao; Huang, Guoqiang; Yuan, Qingchun; Zeng, Jincheng

2014-01-01

415

The variations of VP1 protein might be associated with nervous system symptoms caused by enterovirus 71 infection  

PubMed Central

Background The VP1 protein of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important immunodominant protein which is responsible for host-receptor binding. Nevertheless, the relationship between VP1 and neurovirulence is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the relationship between mutation of VP1 and neurovirulent phenotype of EV71 infection. Methods One hundred and eighty-seven strains from Genbank were included, with a clear clinical background. They were divided into two groups, one with nervous system symptoms and one with no nervous system symptoms. After alignment, the significance of amino acid variation was determined by using the ?2 test and a phylogenetic tree was constructed with MEGA software (version 5.1). Results We showed no significant difference in neurovirulence between genotype B and C. Interestingly, we found that variations of E145G/Q, E164D/K and T292N/K were associated with nervous system infection in genotype B. In the case of genotype C, the N31D mutation increased the risk for nervous complications, whereas I262V mutation decreased the risk of nervous complications. We used a 3D model of VP1 to demonstrate the potential molecular basis for EV71 nervous system tropism. Conclusions Distinct variations are shown to be associated with neurovirulent phenotype in the different genotype. Detection of variation in genotypes and subtypes may be important for the prediction of clinical outcomes. PMID:24886383

2014-01-01

416

Autoprocessing: an essential step for expression and purification of enterovirus 71 3C(pro) in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

A gene encoding the 3BC of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) was cloned and inserted into a derivative of plasmid pET-32a(+) driven by T7 promoter. The expressed 3C protease (3C(pro)) autocatalytically cleaved itself from the recombinant protein Trx-3BC and the mature 3C(pro) partitioned in the soluble fraction of bacterial lysate. The 13-amino-acid peptide substrates with the junction of 3B/3C were used to verify the proteolysis activity of the purified 3C(pro). The EV71 3C(pro) had a Km value of 63 ?M (measured by a continuous fluorescence assay). The other solid-phase activity assay of the EV71 3C(pro) was developed using HPLC to analyze the proteolytic products. The combination of two activity assays contributes to promote the identification of the specific inhibitors targeted to the EV71 3C(pro). PMID:23881322

Huang, Shuqiong; Lyu, Yanning; Qing, Xianyun; Wang, Weiwei; Tang, Liang; Cheng, Kedi; Wang, Wei

2013-11-01

417

Capacity building in pediatric transplant infectious diseases: An international perspective.  

PubMed

Transplant infectious diseases is a rapidly emerging subspecialty within pediatric infectious diseases reflecting the increasing volumes and complexity of this patient population. Incorporating transplant infectious diseases into the transplant process would provide an opportunity to improve clinical outcome and advocacy as well as expand research. The relationship between transplant physicians and infectious diseases (ID) specialists is one of partnership, collaboration, and mutual continuing professional education. The ID CARE Committee of the International Pediatric Transplant Association (IPTA) views the development and integration of transplant infectious diseases into pediatric transplant care as an international priority. PMID:25212948

Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Evans, Helen M; Green, Michael; McCulloch, Mignon; Michaels, Marian G; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Verma, Anita; Allen, Upton

2014-12-01

418

Emerging, evolving, and established infectious diseases and interventions.  

PubMed

Planning, implementing, and evaluating interventions against infectious diseases depend on the nature of the infectious disease; the availability of intervention measures; and logistical, economic, and political constraints. Infectious diseases and vaccine- or drug-based interventions can be loosely categorized by the degree to which the infectious disease and the intervention are well established. Pertussis, polio, and measles are three examples of long-known infectious diseases for which global vaccination has dramatically reduced the public health burden. Pertussis vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, polio vaccination in the 1950s, and measles vaccination in the 1960s, nearly eliminating these diseases in many places. PMID:25214617

Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

2014-09-12

419

Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

Greene, Marjorie

2010-04-01

420

Sex Differences in Pediatric Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The impact of sex hormones on the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 cytokine balance has been proposed to explain the higher severity of most infectious diseases in males. In the minority where greater morbidity and mortality is observed in females, this is hypothesized to arise because of greater immunopathology and/or autoimmunity. However, a number of unexplained exceptions to this rule are described. Studies that have actually measured the sex differences in children in the immune responses to infectious diseases and that would further test these hypotheses, are relatively scarce. PMID:24966192

Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J. R.

2014-01-01

421

Challenges of infectious diseases in the USA.  

PubMed

In the USA, infectious diseases continue to exact a substantial toll on health and health-care resources. Endemic diseases such as chronic hepatitis, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections affect millions of individuals and widen health disparities. Additional concerns include health-care-associated and foodborne infections--both of which have been targets of broad prevention efforts, with success in some areas, yet major challenges remain. Although substantial progress in reduction of the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases has been made, continued cases and outbreaks of these diseases persist, driven by various contributing factors. Worldwide, emerging and reemerging infections continue to challenge prevention and control strategies while the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance needs urgent action. An important priority for control of infectious disease is to ensure that scientific and technological advances in molecular diagnostics and bioinformatics are well integrated into public health. Broad and diverse partnerships across governments, health care, academia, and industry, and with the public, are essential to effectively reduce the burden of infectious diseases. PMID:24996590

Khabbaz, Rima F; Moseley, Robin R; Steiner, Riley J; Levitt, Alexandra M; Bell, Beth P

2014-07-01

422

Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread.  

SciTech Connect

Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of pathogen resistant crop strains in the case of plant diseases. None of these approaches is rapid, and none address the potential persistence of the pathogen in the environment, which could lead to further spread of the agent and damage after quarantine is lifted. Pathogen spread in agricultural environments commonly occurs via transfer on agricultural equipment (transportation trailers, tractors, trucks, combines, etc.), having components made from a broad range of materials (galvanized and painted steel, rubber tires, glass and Plexiglas shields, etc), and under conditions of heavy organic load (mud, soil, feces, litter, etc). A key element of stemming the spread of an outbreak is to ensure complete inactivation of the pathogens in the agricultural environment and on the equipment used in those environments. Through the combination of enhanced agricultural pathogen decontamination chemistry and a validated inactivation verification methodology, important technologies for incorporation as components of a robust response capability will be enabled. Because of the potentially devastating economic impact that could result from the spread of infectious agricultural diseases, the proposed capability components will promote critical infrastructure protection and greater border and food supply security. We investigated and developed agricultural pathogen decontamination technologies to reduce the threat of infectious-agent spread, and thus enhance agricultural biosecurity. Specifically, enhanced detergency versions of the patented Sandia decontamination chemistry were developed and tested against a few surrogate pathogens under conditions of relatively heavy organic load. Tests were conducted on surfaces commonly found in agricultural environments. Wide spectrum decontamination efficacy, low corrosivity, and biodegradability issues were addressed in developing an enhanced detergency formulation. A method for rapid assessment of loss of pathogenic activity (inactivation) was also assessed. This enhanced technology will enable rapid assessment of contamination following an intentional event, and will also be extremely useful in routine assessment of agricultural environments. The primary effort during the second year was progress towards a demonstration of both decontamination and viral inactivation technologies of Foot and Mouth virus (FMDv) using the modified SNL chemistry developed through this project. Lab studies using a surrogate virus (bovine enterovirus) were conducted using DF200, modified DF200 chemistry, and decontaminants currently recommended for use in heavily loaded organic, agricultural environments (VirkonS, 10% bleach, sodium hydroxide and citric acid). Tests using actual FMD virus will be performed at the Department of Homeland Security's Plum Island facilities in the fall of 2005. Success and the insight gained from this project will lead to enhanced response capability, which will benefit agencies such as USDA, DHS, DOD, and the agricultural industry.

Betty, Rita G.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David

2005-10-01

423

Drug repurposing: a better approach for infectious disease drug discovery?  

PubMed

The advent of publicly available databases containing system-wide phenotypic data of the host response to both drugs and pathogens, in conjunction with bioinformatics and computational methods now allows for in silico predictions of FDA-approved drugs as treatments against infection diseases. This systems biology approach captures the complexity of both the pathogen and drug host response in the form of expression patterns or molecular interaction networks without having to understand the underlying mechanisms of action. These drug repurposing techniques have been successful in identifying new drug candidates for several types of cancers and were recently used to identify potential therapeutics against influenza, the newly discovered Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and several parasitic diseases. These new approaches have the potential to significantly reduce both the time and cost for infectious diseases drug discovery. PMID:24011665

Law, G Lynn; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Korth, Marcus J; Katze, Michael G

2013-10-01

424

Drug repurposing: a better approach for infectious disease drug discovery?  

PubMed Central

The advent of publically available databases containing system-wide phenotypic data of the host response to both drugs and pathogens, in conjunction with bioinformatics and computational methods now allows for in silico predictions of FDA-approved drugs as treatments against infection diseases. This systems biology approach captures the complexity of both the pathogen and drug host response in the form of expression patterns or molecular interaction networks without having to understand the underlying mechanisms of action. These drug repurposing techniques have been successful in identifying new drug candidates for several types of cancers and were recently use to identify potential therapeutics against influenza, the newly discovered Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and several parasitic diseases. These new approaches have the potential to significantly reduce both the time and cost for infectious diseases drug discovery. PMID:24011665

Law, G. Lynn; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Korth, Marcus J.; Katze, Michael G.

2014-01-01

425

[Economic evaluation in health: applications in infectious diseases].  

PubMed

The rise in healthcare expenditures due to the incorporation of new diagnostic and therapeutic technologies and increasing life expectancy is a major concern, particularly in developing countries. The role of economic evaluation in health is to optimize the benefits of available resources. This article aims to allow readers to identify the basic characteristics and types of economic evaluation in health and understand its methods, with an emphasis on infectious diseases. We thus review the following concepts: study perspective, analytic scope, costs, and discount rate. We also focus on characteristics of cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-benefit analyses, with examples. The article describes the most popular study designs for economic evaluation, discusses different models, and examines the importance of sensitivity analysis. Our final comments address the importance of adopting economic evaluations in health in Brazil. PMID:20191146

Vanni, Tazio; Luz, Paula Mendes; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Polanczyk, Carisi A

2009-12-01

426

The Role of HIV-1 gp41 Glycoprotein in Infectious Tropism Inferred from Physico-Chemical Properties of its Amino Acid Sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a statistical analysis of the amino acid sequence of the gp41 ectodomain of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1. We found strong correlations between physicochemical properties of highly variable residues and the viral infectious tropism.

Figueroa, E.; Villarreal, C.; Huerta, L.; Cocho, G.

2006-09-01

427

Trends in Notifiable Infectious Diseases in China: Implications for Surveillance and Population Health Policy  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to analyse trends in notifiable infectious diseases in China, in their historical context. Both English and Chinese literature was searched and diseases were categorised according to the type of disease or transmission route. Temporal trends of morbidity and mortality rates were calculated for eight major infectious diseases types. Strong government commitment to public health responses and improvements in quality of life has led to the eradication or containment of a wide range of infectious diseases in China. The overall infectious diseases burden experienced a dramatic drop during 1975–1995, but since then, it reverted and maintained a gradual upward trend to date. Most notifiable diseases are contained at a low endemic level; however, local small-scale outbreaks remain common. Tuberculosis, as a bacterial infection, has re-emerged since the 1990s and has become prevalent in the country. Sexually transmitted infections are in a rapid, exponential growth phase, spreading from core groups to the general population. Together human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), they account for 39% of all death cases due to infectious diseases in China in 2008. Zoonotic infections, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), rabies and influenza, pose constant threats to Chinese residents and remain the most deadly disease type among the infected individuals. Therefore, second-generation surveillance of behavioural risks or vectors associated with pathogen transmission should be scaled up. It is necessary to implement public health interventions that target HIV and relevant coinfections, address transmission associated with highly mobile populations, and reduce the risk of cross-species transmission of zoonotic pathogens. PMID:22359565

Zhang, Lei; Wilson, David P.

2012-01-01

428

Global infectious disease surveillance and health intelligence.  

PubMed

Current concerns about the spread of infectious diseases, especially unexpected ("emerging") infections such as pandemic influenza or severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), have renewed focus on the critical importance of global early warning and rapid response. Although considerable progress has been made, many gaps remain. A number of the gaps can be addressed through increased political will, resources for reporting, improved coordination and sharing of information, raising clinicians' awareness, and additional research to develop more rigorous triggers for action. The increasing availability of communications and information technologies worldwide offers new opportunities for reporting even in low-capacity settings. PMID:17630449

Morse, Stephen S

2007-01-01

429

[Daptomycin in the treatment of infectious endocarditis].  

PubMed

Overcoming polyresistance of pathogens of infectious endocarditis (IE) is only possible through the use of new antibiotics, such as daptomycin, that was successfully used in 4 patients. The clinical features of endocarditis caused by Enterococcus faecalis resistant to penicillin, gentamicin, and streptomycin are described. Cases of IE with negative blood cultures and a failure of previous antibacterial therapy are considered. The literature data on the use of daptomycin in IE caused by oxacillin-resistant S. aureus are presented along with the information on valve prosthetics, peculiarities of IE in pregnant women and patients on hemodialysis. PMID:22896985