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1

Detection of Infectious Enteroviruses, Enterovirus Genomes, Somatic Coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis Phages in Treated Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, three types of treated wastewater were tested for infectious enteroviruses, the enterovirus genome, somatic coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis phages. The aim of this work was to determine whether the presence of the two types of bacteriophages or of the enterovirus genome was a good indicator of infectious enterovirus contamination. The enterovirus genome was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase

C. GANTZER; A. MAUL; J. M. AUDIC; L. SCHWARTZBROD; Facultede Pharmacie

1998-01-01

2

Detection of somatic phages, infectious enteroviruses and enterovirus genomes as indicators of human enteric viral pollution in surface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we aimed to determine whether the concentrations of somatic coliphages, infectious enteroviruses or the detection of enterovirus genomes were associated with the detection of human pathogenic viruses in surface water. Four French rivers were sampled monthly or semimonthly for the quantitative detection of somatic coliphages, infectious enteroviruses and the qualitative RT-PCR detection of enterovirus, hepatitis A

D. Hot; O. Legeay; J. Jacques; C. Gantzer; Y. Caudrelier; K. Guyard; M. Lange; L. Andréoletti

2003-01-01

3

Construction and characterization of an infectious cDNA clone of enterovirus type 71 subgenotype C4.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and induces fatal neurological complications. In recent years, this virus has become a major threat to public health in the Asia-Pacific region, while no effective antiviral therapies and vaccines are currently available. In this study, we constructed and characterized for the first time an infectious full-length EV71 cDNA clone derived from the SHZH98 strain, which was the first subgenotype C4 strain isolated in China. Our data demonstrate that the rescued EV71 viruses exhibited growth kinetics in vitro and morphologies similar to those of the BrCr-TR strain and reached a maximum titer of 10(7.5) TCID50/ml. Although the rescued viruses were able to infect suckling mice, no typical symptoms of EV71 infection were observed for up to 18 days post-inoculation. Taken together our research provides an important tool to study the epidemic strains of EV71 in the Asia-Pacific region and promote the development of vaccines. PMID:23877719

Zhang, Yong-Xin; Wei, Tao; Li, Xiao-Yu; Yin, Xiao; Li, Yu-Huan; Ding, Ji-Wei; Zhou, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Guang-Zhou; Jin, Qi; Cen, Shan

2013-07-23

4

Detection of Infectious Enteroviruses by an Integrated Cell Culture-PCR Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid detection of infectious enteroviruses in environmental samples was made possible by utilizing an integrated cell culture-reverse transcriptase PCR approach. By this method, the presence of infectious entero- virus was confirmed within 24 h, compared with >3 days by cell culture alone. The combined methodology eliminated typical problems normally associated with direct reverse transcriptase PCR by increasing the equivalent volume

KELLY A. REYNOLDS; CHARLES P. GERBA; ANDIAN L. PEPPER

5

Production of Enterovirus Antigens for Human Enterovirus Types.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program has a four-fold purpose: (1) to produce reference seeds of various enteroviruses; (2) to produce seed virus and antiserum to specific simian viruses; (3) to ampoule and test designated reference human picornaviruses; and (4) to test certain si...

S. S. Kalter

1966-01-01

6

Detection of infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses in tap water in urban areas in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the viral contamination of tap water at 11 urban sites in Korea between 1997 and 1998 over a period of 11 months. A total of 23 tap water samples were examined for infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses by a cell culture technique followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. To identify the recovered viruses, sequence analysis of PCR products

Seung-Hoon Lee; Sang-Jong Kim

2002-01-01

7

Enteroviruses in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

The question if enteroviruses could cause beta-cell damage and type 1 diabetes has become more and more relevant when recent studies have provided new evidence supporting this scenario. One important observation is the recent discovery of IFIH1 as a risk gene for type 1 diabetes. This gene is an innate immune system receptor for enteroviruses offering one possible mechanism for the diabetogenic effect of enteroviruses. This is further emphasized by the observations suggesting that the innate immune system is activated in the pancreatic islets of type 1 diabetic patients and that the innate immune system is important for the defense against the virus and for the regulation of adaptive immune system. Important progress has also been gained in studies analyzing pancreas tissue for possible presence of enteroviruses. Several studies have found enteroviruses in the pancreatic islets of type 1 diabetic patients using various methods. The virus seems to be located in the islets while exocrine pancreas is mostly uninfected. One recent study found the virus in the intestinal mucosa in the majority of diabetic patients. Enteroviruses can also infect cultured human pancreatic islets causing either rapid cell destruction or a persistent-like noncytolytic infection. Combined with all previous, epidemiological findings indicating the risk effect of enteroviruses in cross-sectional and prospective studies, these observations fit to a scenario where certain diabetogenic enterovirus variants establish persistent infection in gut mucosa and in the pancreatic islets. This in turn could lead to a local inflammation and the breakdown of tolerance in genetically susceptible individuals. This is also supported by mouse experiments showing that enteroviruses can establish prolonged infection in the pancreas and intestine, and some virus strains cause beta-cell damage and diabetes. In conclusion, recent studies have strengthened the hypothesis that enteroviruses play a role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. These findings open also new opportunities to explore the underlying mechanism and get closer to causal relationship. PMID:20424841

Tauriainen, Sisko; Oikarinen, Sami; Oikarinen, Maarit; Hyöty, Heikki

2010-04-28

8

Molecular Typing of Enteroviruses: Current Status and Future Requirements  

PubMed Central

Human enteroviruses have traditionally been typed according to neutralization serotype. This procedure is limited by the difficulty in culturing some enteroviruses, the availability of antisera for serotyping, and the cost and technical complexity of serotyping procedures. Furthermore, the impact of information derived from enterovirus serotyping is generally perceived to be low. Enteroviruses are now increasingly being detected by PCR rather than by culture. Classical typing methods will therefore no longer be possible in most instances. An alternative means of enterovirus typing, employing PCR in conjunction with molecular genetic techniques such as nucleotide sequencing or nucleic acid hybridization, would complement molecular diagnosis, may overcome some of the problems associated with serotyping, and would provide additional information regarding the epidemiology and biological properties of enteroviruses. We argue the case for developing a molecular typing system, discuss the genetic basis of such a system, review the literature describing attempts to identify or classify enteroviruses by molecular methods, and suggest ways in which the goal of molecular typing may be realized.

Muir, Peter; Kammerer, Ulrike; Korn, Klaus; Mulders, Mick N.; Poyry, Tuija; Weissbrich, Benedikt; Kandolf, Reinhard; Cleator, Graham M.; van Loon, Anton M.

1998-01-01

9

Enteroviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteroviruses (EVs) comprise a genus in the Picornaviridae family, so named because they are small, single-stranded ribonucleic\\u000a acid (RNA)-containing viruses. The EVs are divided into the subgroups of polioviruses, coxsackie A viruses, coxsackie B viruses,\\u000a and echoviruses based on replication properties in tissue culture and animal models. Newer EVs are simply designated by number\\u000a (e.g., EV 71), rather than by

Mark J. Abzug

10

Molecular identification of 13 new enterovirus types, EV79–88, EV97, and EV100–101, members of the species Human Enterovirus B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular methods have enabled the rapid identification of new enterovirus (EV) serotypes that are untypeable using existing neutralizing antisera. As a result, sequencing of the VP1 capsid gene has been developed as a surrogate for antigenic typing to distinguish enterovirus types. In this study, 17 enterovirus isolates from four countries were identified as members of 13 new types within the

M. Steven Oberste; Kaija Maher; William A. Nix; Suzanne M. Michele; Moyez Uddin; David Schnurr; Suleiman al-Busaidy; Chantal Akoua-Koffi; Mark A. Pallansch

2007-01-01

11

Detection of enteroviruses in the intestine of type 1 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

Enterovirus infections have been diagnosed more frequently in type 1 diabetic patients than in the healthy population, and enteroviruses have also been found in the pancreas of diabetic patients. Primary replication of the virus occurs in the gut, but there are no previous studies evaluating possible presence of virus in the intestine of diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate if enteroviruses can be found in small intestinal tissue of type 1 diabetic patients. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded upper intestinal biopsy samples were analysed for the presence of enterovirus using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Enterovirus was detected by in situ hybridization in six (50%) of the type 1 diabetic patients (n = 12) but in none of the control subjects (n = 10, P = 0.015). Immunohistochemistry identified enterovirus in nine (75%) of the patients and one (10%) control subject (P = 0.004). The presence of the virus was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in one of the four patients from whom a frozen and unfixed sample was available. Intestinal morphology was normal in all study subjects. The results suggest that a substantial proportion of type 1 diabetic patients have an ongoing enterovirus infection in gut mucosa, possibly reflecting persistent enterovirus infection. This observation opens new avenues for further studies on the possible role of enteroviruses in human type 1 diabetes. PMID:17991291

Oikarinen, M; Tauriainen, S; Honkanen, T; Oikarinen, S; Vuori, K; Kaukinen, K; Rantala, I; Mäki, M; Hyöty, H

2007-11-07

12

The essential role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in the infectious entry of human enterovirus 71.  

PubMed

Little is currently known about the infectious entry process of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) into host cells, which may represent potential anti-viral targeting sites. In this study a targeted small-interfering RNA (siRNA) screening platform assay was established and validated to identify and profile key cellular genes involved in processes of endocytosis, cytoskeletal dynamics, and endosomal trafficking essential for HEV71 infection. Screen evaluation was conducted via the expression of well characterized dominant-negative mutants, bioimaging studies (double-labeled immunofluorescence assays, transmission electron microscopy analysis), secondary siRNA-based dosage dependence studies, and drug inhibition assays. The infectious entry of HEV71 into rhabdomyosarcoma cells was shown to be significantly inhibited by siRNAs targeting genes associated with clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) that include AP2A1, ARRB1, CLTC, CLTCL1, SYNJ1, ARPC5, PAK1, ROCK1, and WASF1. The functional role of CME was verified by the observation of strong co-localization between HEV71 particles and clathrin as well as dose-dependent inhibition of HEV71 infection upon siRNA knockdown of CME-associated genes. HEV71 entry by CME was further confirmed via inhibition by dominant-negative EPS15 mutants and treatment of CME drug inhibitors, with more than 80% inhibition observed at 20 ?m chlorpromazine. Furthermore, HEV71 infection was shown to be sensitive to the disruption of human genes in regulating early to late endosomal trafficking as well as endosomal acidic pH. The identification of clathrin-mediated endocytosis as the entry pathway for HEV71 infection of susceptible host cells contributes to a better understanding of HEV71 pathogenesis and enables future development of anti-viral strategies against HEV71 infection. PMID:20956521

Hussain, Khairunnisa' Mohamed; Leong, Kim Lian Janet; Ng, Mary Mah-Lee; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

2010-10-18

13

The Essential Role of Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis in the Infectious Entry of Human Enterovirus 71*  

PubMed Central

Little is currently known about the infectious entry process of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) into host cells, which may represent potential anti-viral targeting sites. In this study a targeted small-interfering RNA (siRNA) screening platform assay was established and validated to identify and profile key cellular genes involved in processes of endocytosis, cytoskeletal dynamics, and endosomal trafficking essential for HEV71 infection. Screen evaluation was conducted via the expression of well characterized dominant-negative mutants, bioimaging studies (double-labeled immunofluorescence assays, transmission electron microscopy analysis), secondary siRNA-based dosage dependence studies, and drug inhibition assays. The infectious entry of HEV71 into rhabdomyosarcoma cells was shown to be significantly inhibited by siRNAs targeting genes associated with clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) that include AP2A1, ARRB1, CLTC, CLTCL1, SYNJ1, ARPC5, PAK1, ROCK1, and WASF1. The functional role of CME was verified by the observation of strong co-localization between HEV71 particles and clathrin as well as dose-dependent inhibition of HEV71 infection upon siRNA knockdown of CME-associated genes. HEV71 entry by CME was further confirmed via inhibition by dominant-negative EPS15 mutants and treatment of CME drug inhibitors, with more than 80% inhibition observed at 20 ?m chlorpromazine. Furthermore, HEV71 infection was shown to be sensitive to the disruption of human genes in regulating early to late endosomal trafficking as well as endosomal acidic pH. The identification of clathrin-mediated endocytosis as the entry pathway for HEV71 infection of susceptible host cells contributes to a better understanding of HEV71 pathogenesis and enables future development of anti-viral strategies against HEV71 infection.

Hussain, Khairunnisa' Mohamed; Leong, Kim Lian Janet; Ng, Mary Mah-Lee; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

2011-01-01

14

Evidence of association between type 1 diabetes and exposure to enterovirus in Cuban children and adolescents.  

PubMed

A possible etiologic role of enteroviruses for type 1 diabetes has been researched for 40 years, but evidence to date is inconclusive. This article summarizes new evidence from Cuban research supporting a role for enteroviruses, both in preclinical stages of autoimmune reactions against pancreatic ? cells and at clinical onset, in a population with low type 1 diabetes incidence. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms are also discussed, such as acute cytolytic damage and molecular mimicry. Although direct causal effects of enteroviruses in type 1 diabetes are difficult to demonstrate, arguments supporting their role in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis should not be ignored; and confirmation could contribute to development of more effective preventive strategies. PMID:23396239

Sarmiento, Luis; Cubas-Dueńas, Ileana; Cabrera-Rode, Eduardo

2013-01-01

15

Enterovirus RNA in Blood Is Linked to the Development of Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess whether the detection of enterovirus RNA in blood predicts the development of clinical type 1 diabetes in a prospective birth cohort study. Further, to study the role of enteroviruses in both the initiation of the process and the progression to type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a nested case-control study where all case children (N = 38) have progressed to clinical type 1 diabetes. Nondiabetic control children (N = 140) were pairwise matched for sex, date of birth, hospital district, and HLA-DQ–conferred genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Serum samples, drawn at 3- to 12-month intervals, were screened for enterovirus RNA using RT-PCR. RESULTS Enterovirus RNA–positive samples were more frequent among the case subjects than among the control subjects. A total of 5.1% of the samples (17 of 333) in the case group were enterovirus RNA–positive compared with 1.9% of the samples (19 of 993) in the control group (P < 0.01). The strongest risk for type 1 diabetes was related to enterovirus RNA positivity during the 6-month period preceding the first autoantibody-positive sample (odds ratio 7.7 [95% CI 1.9–31.5]). This risk effect was stronger in boys than in girls. CONCLUSIONS The present study supports the hypothesis that enteroviruses play a role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, especially in the initiation of the ?-cell damaging process. The enterovirus-associated risk for type 1 diabetes may be stronger in boys than in girls.

Oikarinen, Sami; Martiskainen, Mika; Tauriainen, Sisko; Huhtala, Heini; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Hyoty, Heikki

2011-01-01

16

Identification and Typing of Human Enterovirus: A Genomic Barcode Approach  

PubMed Central

Identification and typing of human enterovirus (HEVs) are important to pathogen detection and therapy. Previous phylogeny-based typing methods are mainly based on multiple sequence alignments of specific genes in the HEVs, but the results are not stable with respect to different choices of genes. Here we report a novel method for identification and typing of HEVs based on information derived from their whole genomes. Specifically, we calculate the k-mer based barcode image for each genome, HEV or other human viruses, for a fixed k, 1typing results by the two methods indicate that our results are in better agreement with known information about the HEVs.

Chen, Xin; Huang, Honglan; Liu, Bin; Xu, Ying; Li, Fan

2011-01-01

17

Type 1 diabetes is associated with enterovirus infection in gut mucosa.  

PubMed

Enterovirus infections have been linked to type 1 diabetes in several studies. Enteroviruses also have tropism to pancreatic islets and can cause ?-cell damage in experimental models. Viral persistence has been suspected to be an important pathogenetic factor. This study evaluates whether gut mucosa is a reservoir for enterovirus persistence in type 1 diabetic patients. Small-bowel mucosal biopsy samples from 39 type 1 diabetic patients, 41 control subjects, and 40 celiac disease patients were analyzed for the presence of enterovirus using in situ hybridization (ISH), RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. The presence of virus was compared with inflammatory markers such as infiltrating T cells, HLA-DR expression, and transglutaminase 2-targeted IgA deposits. Enterovirus RNA was found in diabetic patients more frequently than in control subjects and was associated with a clear inflammation response in the gut mucosa. Viral RNA was often detected in the absence of viral protein, suggesting defective replication of the virus. Patients remained virus positive in follow-up samples taken after 12 months' observation. The results suggest that a large proportion of type 1 diabetic patients have prolonged/persistent enterovirus infection associated with an inflammation process in gut mucosa. This finding opens new opportunities for studying the viral etiology of type 1 diabetes. PMID:22315304

Oikarinen, Maarit; Tauriainen, Sisko; Oikarinen, Sami; Honkanen, Teemu; Collin, Pekka; Rantala, Immo; Mäki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri; Hyöty, Heikki

2012-02-07

18

Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated With Enterovirus Infection in Gut Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus infections have been linked to type 1 diabetes in several studies. Enteroviruses also have tropism to pancreatic islets and can cause ?-cell damage in experimental models. Viral persistence has been suspected to be an important pathogenetic factor. This study evaluates whether gut mucosa is a reservoir for enterovirus persistence in type 1 diabetic patients. Small-bowel mucosal biopsy samples from 39 type 1 diabetic patients, 41 control subjects, and 40 celiac disease patients were analyzed for the presence of enterovirus using in situ hybridization (ISH), RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. The presence of virus was compared with inflammatory markers such as infiltrating T cells, HLA-DR expression, and transglutaminase 2–targeted IgA deposits. Enterovirus RNA was found in diabetic patients more frequently than in control subjects and was associated with a clear inflammation response in the gut mucosa. Viral RNA was often detected in the absence of viral protein, suggesting defective replication of the virus. Patients remained virus positive in follow-up samples taken after 12 months’ observation. The results suggest that a large proportion of type 1 diabetic patients have prolonged/persistent enterovirus infection associated with an inflammation process in gut mucosa. This finding opens new opportunities for studying the viral etiology of type 1 diabetes.

Oikarinen, Maarit; Tauriainen, Sisko; Oikarinen, Sami; Honkanen, Teemu; Collin, Pekka; Rantala, Immo; Maki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri; Hyoty, Heikki

2012-01-01

19

Maternal Enterovirus Infection as a Risk Factor for Type 1 Diabetes in the Exposed Offspring  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Maternal enterovirus infections during pregnancy have been linked to an increased risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association in a unique series of pregnant mothers whose child progressed to clinical type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Maternal and in utero enterovirus infections were studied in 171 offspring who presented with type 1 diabetes before the age of 11 years and in 316 control subjects matched for date and place of birth, sex, and HLA-DQ risk alleles for diabetes. Acute enterovirus infections were diagnosed by increases in enterovirus IgG and IgM in samples taken from the mother at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy and cord blood samples taken at delivery. RESULTS Signs of maternal enterovirus infection were observed in altogether 19.3% of the mothers of affected children and in 12.0% of the mothers of control children (P = 0.038). This difference was seen in different HLA risk groups and in both sexes of the offspring, and it was unrelated to the age of the child at the diagnosis of diabetes or the age of the mother at delivery. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that an enterovirus infection during pregnancy is not a major risk factor for type 1 diabetes in childhood but may play a role in some susceptible subjects.

Viskari, Hanna; Knip, Mikael; Tauriainen, Sisko; Huhtala, Heini; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Hyoty, Heikki

2012-01-01

20

Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus: interplay between enterovirus and host.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In this Review, the interplay between infection with enteroviruses, the immune system and host genes is discussed. Data from retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies strongly suggest the involvement of enteroviruses, such as coxsackievirus B, in the development of T1DM. Enteroviral RNA and/or proteins can be detected in tissues of patients with T1DM. Isolation of coxsackievirus B4 from the pancreas of patients with T1DM or the presence of enteroviral components in their islets strengthens the hypothesis of a relationship between the virus and the disease. Enteroviruses can play a part in the early phase of T1DM through the infection of beta cells and the activation of innate immunity and inflammation. In contrast with its antiviral role, virus-induced interferon alpha can be deleterious, acting as an initiator of the autoimmunity directed against beta cells. Enteroviruses, through persistent and/or successive infections, can interact with the adaptive immune system. Host genes, such as IFIH1, that influence susceptibility to T1DM are associated with antiviral activities. An increased activity of the IFIH1 protein may promote the development of T1DM. An improved knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of enterovirus infections should help to uncover preventive strategies for T1DM. PMID:20351698

Hober, Didier; Sauter, Pierre

2010-03-30

21

Enteroviruses, type 1 diabetes and hygiene: a complex relationship.  

PubMed

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system mounts an attack on the host's insulin-producing beta cells. Because most cases of T1D cannot be attributed only to individual genetics, it is strongly inferred that there is a significant environmental contribution, such as infection, impacting disease development. The human enteroviruses (HEV) are common picornaviruses often implicated as triggers of human T1D, although precisely which of the numerous HEV may be involved in human T1D development is unknown. Experiments using non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, commonly used to model T1D, show that induction of T1D by HEV infection in NOD mice is a multifactorial process involving both the virus and the host. Interestingly, results demonstrate that HEV infection of NOD mice can also induce long-term protection from T1D under certain conditions, suggesting that a similar mechanism may occur in humans. Based upon both experimental animal and observational human studies, we postulate that HEV have a dual role in T1D development and can either cause or prevent autoimmune disease. Whichever outcome occurs depends upon multiple variables in the host-virus equation, many of which can be deduced from results obtained from NOD mouse studies. We propose that the background to the sharply rising T1D incidences observed in the 20th century correlates with increased levels of hygiene in human societies. Viewing T1D in this perspective suggests that potential preventative options could be developed. PMID:20049905

Tracy, S; Drescher, K M; Jackson, J D; Kim, K; Kono, K

2010-03-01

22

Enterovirus markers and serum CXCL10 in children with type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Most patients with type 1 diabetes are considered to have a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease. The chemokine CXCL10 promotes the migration of activated T-cells. Virus infections might contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and enterovirus protein and/or genome have been detected in beta-cells from a majority of tested newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes. The chemokine CXCL10 is induced in human islet cells by enterovirus infections in vivo and in vitro, but is not expressed in islets from normal organ donors. Since CXCL10 is a chemokine known to be induced by virus infections and/or cellular damage, our aim was to study if levels of CXCL10 are elevated in serum from children with type 1 diabetes and whether it correlates to the presence of enterovirus markers. CXCL10, neutralizing antibody titer rises against certain enterovirus, and antibodies against GAD65 were measured in serum, and enterovirus PCR was performed on whole blood from 83 type 1 diabetes patients at onset, 48 siblings and 69 controls. CXCL10 was also measured in serum from 46 patients with proven enterovirus infection and in serum from 46 patients with other proven virus infections. The CXCL10 serum levels were not elevated in children at onset of type 1 diabetes and there was a considerable overlap between the groups with 99 (8-498) pg/ml in serum from children with type 1 diabetes, 120 (17-538) pg/ml in serum from controls, and 117 (7-448) pg/ml in siblings of the children with type 1 diabetes. The CXCL10 serum levels in patients with proven enterovirus infection were slightly increased compared to the levels in the other groups, 172 (0-585) pg/ml but there was no statistically significant difference. In contrast, CXCL10 serum levels in patients with other proven virus infections were clearly elevated 418 (34-611) pg/ml. Despite that elevated CXCL10 levels have been demonstrated in some groups of patients with type 1 diabetes, in this study the mean CXCL10 serum levels were not elevated in patients with type 1 diabetes neither in patients with proven enterovirus infection. In contrast, in patients with other virus infections the CXCL10 levels were elevated, presumably reflecting the severity or the site of infection. This suggests that local production of CXCL10 in the affected organ cannot be measured reproducible in serum and that its potential use in clinical practice is limited. PMID:20648615

Berg, Anna-Karin; Tuvemo, Torsten; Frisk, Gun

2010-09-01

23

Enteroviruses and type 1 diabetes: towards a better understanding of the relationship.  

PubMed

Environmental factors, especially viruses, are involved in the initiation or the acceleration of type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Epidemiological data strongly suggest that enteroviruses, such as coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4), can be associated with T1D. It has been demonstrated that enterovirus infections were significantly more prevalent in at risk individuals, such as siblings of diabetic patients, when they developed anti-beta-cell autoantibodies or T1D, and in recently diagnosed diabetic patients, compared with control subjects. The isolation of CV-B4 from the pancreas of diabetic patients strengthened the hypothesis of a relationship between the virus and the disease. Studies performed in vitro and in vivo in animal models helped to discover mechanisms of the infection of pancreas and other tissues, potentially able to play a role in the pathogenesis of T1D. Interestingly, it cannot be excluded that enteroviruses behave as half-devil half-angel since experimental studies suggest that, in certain conditions, these agents would be able to protect individuals against the disease. All of the plausible mechanisms by which enterovirus may be related to T1D will be reviewed here. PMID:20629044

Jaļdane, Hela; Sauter, Pierre; Sane, Famara; Goffard, Anne; Gharbi, Jawhar; Hober, Didier

2010-09-01

24

DETERMINATION OF MINIMAL INFECTIOUS DOSE OF AN ENTEROVIRUS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The goals of this project were to determine the minimal infectious dose and medical significance of an enteric virus ingested in drinking water. The study was conducted under double-blind, placebo-controlled, random-selection conditions. A total of 149 susceptible (antibody-free)...

25

Maternal enterovirus infection during pregnancy as a risk factor in offspring diagnosed with type 1 diabetes between 15 and 30 years of age.  

PubMed

Maternal enterovirus infections during pregnancy may increase the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gestational enterovirus infections increase the offspring's risk of type 1 diabetes later in life. Serum samples from 30 mothers without diabetes whose offspring developed type 1 diabetes between 15 and 25 years of age were analyzed for enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and enterovirus genome (RNA), and compared to a control group. Among the index mothers, 9/30 (30%) were enterovirus IgM-positive, and none was positive for enterovirus RNA. In the control group, 14/90 (16%) were enterovirus IgM-positive, and 4/90 (4%) were positive for enterovirus RNA (n.s.). Boys of enterovirus IgM-positive mothers had approximately 5 times greater risk of developing diabetes (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.22-17.6), as compared to boys of IgM-negative mothers (P < .025). These results suggest that gestational enterovirus infections may be related to the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes in adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:18670622

Elfving, Maria; Svensson, Johan; Oikarinen, Sami; Jonsson, Björn; Olofsson, Per; Sundkvist, Göran; Lindberg, Bengt; Lernmark, Ake; Hyöty, Heikki; Ivarsson, Sten-Anders

2008-01-01

26

Infectious triggers in type 1 diabetes: is there a case for epitope mimicry?  

PubMed

Environmental factors are the main contributors to type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis, yet they remain unidentified. Enteroviruses are proposed candidate triggers due to temporal correlations between infection and T1D autoimmunity and to detection of viral proteins in diseased islets. However, such correlations are not universal and may be relatively uncommon. Furthermore, evidence of a cause-effect relationship is lacking, as infection of non-obese diabetic mice with Coxsackie enteroviruses can either trigger or blunt disease. The proposed mechanisms are either non-antigen-specific (i.e. ?-cell destruction and release of sequestered antigens, islet inflammation) or antigen-specific (i.e. epitope mimicry, by which immune responses to enteroviruses may be diverted against homologous ?-cell antigens). The case for the latter mechanisms is even less stringent, as there is little evidence of promiscuous antigen recognition at the single T-cell level. Other infectious agents may thus be implicated. Demonstration of their role will require fulfilling the Koch's postulates, namely isolation of the agent preferentially in T1D patients, including before disease onset; and T1D induction when the agent is inoculated into mice. The same is needed for cross-reactive T cells to support epitope mimicry mechanisms. Generation of alternative (humanized) mouse models that could be challenged with candidate microbes is needed. PMID:24003924

Afonso, G; Mallone, R

2013-09-01

27

Enterovirus infection and type 1 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational molecular studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the association between current enterovirus infection diagnosed with molecular testing and development of autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, analysed with random effects models. Data sources PubMed (until May 2010) and Embase (until May 2010), no language restrictions, studies in humans only; reference lists of identified articles; and contact with authors. Study eligibility criteria Cohort or case-control studies measuring enterovirus RNA or viral protein in blood, stool, or tissue of patients with pre-diabetes and diabetes, with adequate data to calculate an odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Results The 24 papers and two abstracts (all case-control studies) that met the eligibility criteria included 4448 participants. Study design varied greatly, with a high level of statistical heterogeneity. The two separate outcomes were diabetes related autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between enterovirus infection and type 1 diabetes related autoimmunity (odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval 2.1 to 6.8; heterogeneity ?2/df=1.3) and clinical type 1 diabetes (9.8, 5.5 to 17.4; ?2/df=3.2). Conclusions There is a clinically significant association between enterovirus infection, detected with molecular methods, and autoimmunity/type 1 diabetes. Larger prospective studies would be needed to establish a clear temporal relation between enterovirus infection and the development of autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes.

2011-01-01

28

Enterovirus Infection and Progression From Islet Autoimmunity to Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To investigate whether enterovirus infections predict progression to type 1 diabetes in genetically predisposed children repeatedly positive for islet autoantibodies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Since 1993, the Diabetes and Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) has followed 2,365 genetically predisposed children for islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. Venous blood and rectal swabs were collected every 3–6 months after seroconversion for islet autoantibodies (against GAD, insulin, or insulinoma-associated antigen-2 [IA-2]) until diagnosis of diabetes. Enteroviral RNA in serum or rectal swabs was detected using reverse transcriptase PCR with primers specific for the conserved 5? noncoding region, detecting essentially all enterovirus serotypes. RESULTS Of 140 children who seroconverted to repeated positivity for islet autoantibodies at a median age of 4.0 years, 50 progressed to type 1 diabetes during a median follow-up of 4.2 years. The risk of progression to clinical type 1 diabetes in the sample interval following detection of enteroviral RNA in serum (three diabetes cases diagnosed among 17 intervals) was significantly increased compared with that in intervals following a negative serum enteroviral RNA test (33 cases diagnosed among 1,064 intervals; hazard ratio 7.02 [95% CI 1.95–25.3] after adjusting for number of autoantibodies). Results remained significant after adjustment for ZnT8-autoantibodies and after restriction to various subgroups. Enteroviral RNA in rectal swabs was not predictive of progression to type 1 diabetes. No evidence for viral persistence was found. CONCLUSIONS This novel observation suggests that progression from islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes may increase after an enterovirus infection characterized by the presence of viral RNA in blood.

Stene, Lars C.; Oikarinen, Sami; Hyoty, Heikki; Barriga, Katherine J.; Norris, Jill M.; Klingensmith, Georgeanna; Hutton, John C.; Erlich, Henry A.; Eisenbarth, George S.; Rewers, Marian

2010-01-01

29

Enterovirus 71 blocks selectively type I interferon production through the 3C viral protein in mice.  

PubMed

Type I interferons (IFNs) represent an essential innate defense mechanism for controlling enterovirus 71 (EV 71) infection. Mice inoculated with EV 71 produced a significantly lower amount of type I IFNs than those inoculated with poly (I:C), adenovirus type V, or coxsackievirus B3 (CB3). EV 71 infection, however, mounted a proinflammatory response with a significant increase in the levels of serum and brain interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor, and IFN-?. EV 71 infection abolished both poly (I:C)- and CB3-induced type I IFN production of mice. Such effect was not extended to other enteroviruses including coxsackievirus A24, B2, B3, and echovirus 9, as mice infected with these viruses retained type I IFN responsiveness upon poly (I:C) challenge. In addition, EV 71-infected RAW264.7 cells produced significantly lower amount of type I IFNs than non-infected cells upon poly (I:C) stimulation. The inhibitory effect of EV 71 on type I IFN production was attributed to the viral protein 3C, which was confirmed using over-expression systems in both mice and RAW264.7 cells. The 3C over-expression, however, did not interfere with poly (I:C)-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. These findings indicate that EV 71 can hamper the host innate defense by blocking selectively type I IFN synthesis through the 3C viral protein. PMID:22997081

Lee, Yi-Ping; Wang, Ya-Fang; Wang, Jen-Ren; Huang, Szu-Wei; Yu, Chun-Keung

2012-11-01

30

Detection of enterovirus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of type 1 diabetic patients beyond the stage of acute infection.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that enteroviral RNA can be detected in blood at the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The infection may play a role in triggering T1D and genetic host factors may contribute to this process. We investigated (1) whether enterovirus is present at the onset of T1D in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma, throat, or stool, and (2) whether enteroviral presence is linked with HLA-DR type and/or polymorphisms in melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1), factors of antiviral immunity. To this end, PBMC, plasma, throat, and stool samples from 10 T1D patients and 20 unrelated controls were tested for the presence of enteroviruses (RT-PCR), for HLA-DR type, and polymorphisms in MDA5 and OAS1. Enterovirus RNA was detected in PBMC of 4/10 T1D patients, but none of 20 controls. Plasma was positive in 2/10 T1D patients and none of 20 controls, suggesting that enteroviruses found at the onset of T1D are mainly present in PBMC. All throat samples from positive T1D patients were virus-negative and only 1 fecal sample was positive. The negative results for all throat and most stool samples argues against acute infection. Enterovirus presence was linked with HLA-DR4, but not with polymorphisms in MDA5 or OAS1. PMID:20121407

Schulte, Barbara M; Bakkers, Judith; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; Melchers, Willem J G; Westerlaken, Ciska; Allebes, Wil; Aanstoot, Henk-Jan; Bruining, G Jan; Adema, Gosse J; Van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Galama, Jochem M D

2010-02-01

31

Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: the enterovirus link to type 1 diabetes: critical review of human studies.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that under some circumstances enteroviral infections can lead to type 1 diabetes (T1D) was proposed several decades ago, based initially on evidence from animal studies and sero-epidemiology. Subsequently, enterovirus RNA has been detected more frequently in serum of patients than in control subjects, but such studies are susceptible to selection bias and reverse causality. Here, we review critically recent evidence from human studies, focusing on longitudinal studies with potential to demonstrate temporal association. Among seven longitudinal birth cohort studies, the evidence that enterovirus infections predict islet autoimmunity is quite inconsistent in our interpretation, due partially, perhaps, to heterogeneity in study design and a limited number of subjects studied. An association between enterovirus and rapid progression from autoimmunity to T1D was reported by one longitudinal study, but although consistent with evidence from animal models, this novel observation awaits replication. It is possible that a potential association with initiation and/or progression of islet autoimmunity can be ascribed to a subgroup of the many enterovirus serotypes, but this has still not been investigated properly. There is a need for larger studies with frequent sample intervals and collection of specimens of sufficient quality and quantity for detailed characterization of enterovirus. More research into the molecular epidemiology of enteroviruses and enterovirus immunity in human populations is also warranted. Ultimately, this knowledge may be used to devise strategies to reduce the risk of T1D in humans. PMID:22385232

Stene, L C; Rewers, M

2012-04-01

32

Virological diagnosis of enterovirus type 71 infections: Experiences gained during an epidemic of acute CNS diseases in Hungary in 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In 1978 a severe epidemic of acute CNS diseases occurred in Hungary. Enterovirus type 71 (E71) proved to be the main aetiological agent. This could, however, be established only by special investigations, since the usual laboratory tests proved inefficient for diagnosis of E71 infections.

G. Nagy; Susanna Takįtsy; Esther Kukįn; Ilona Mihįly; I. Dömök

1982-01-01

33

Enterovirus RNA in Peripheral Blood May Be Associated with the Variants of rs1990760, a Common Type 1 Diabetes Associated Polymorphism in IFIH1  

PubMed Central

Objective Polymorphisms in the IFIH1 (common rs1990760 and four rare rs35667974, rs35337543, rs35744605, rs35732034) have been convincingly associated with type 1 diabetes. The encoded protein (interferon-induced helicase C domain-containing protein 1) senses double-stranded RNA during replication of Picornavirales, including Enterovirus, a genus suspected in the etiology of type 1 diabetes. We therefore investigated whether the polymorphisms are associated with differences in the frequency of enterovirus RNA in blood. Research Design and Methods The study included 1001 blood samples, each from a child participating in the Norwegian ‘Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes: the MIDIA study’. The enterovirus RNA was tested using qualitative semi-nested real-time reverse transcriptase PCR on RNA extracted from frozen cell packs after removal of plasma. Stool samples previously analyzed for enterovirus RNA were available in 417 children. Results The genotypes of IFIH1 rs1990760 were associated with different frequencies of enterovirus RNA in blood (7.0%, 14.4% and 9.5% bloods were enterovirus positive among children carrying the Ala/Ala, Ala/Thr and Thr/Thr genotypes, respectively, p?=?0.012). This association remained essentially unchanged after adjustment for age and calendar year. The presence of enterovirus in the concomitantly sampled stool further increased the likelihood of enterovirus RNA in blood (odds ratio 2.40, CI 95% 1.13–4.70), but did not affect the association with IFIH1 rs1990760. The rare polymorphisms (individually, or pooled) were not significantly associated with enterovirus RNA in blood. Conclusions The common IFIH1 SNP may modify the frequency of enterovirus RNA in blood of healthy children. This effect can help explain the association of IFIH1 with type 1 diabetes.

Cinek, Ondrej; Tapia, German; Wits?, Elisabet; Kramna, Lenka; Holkova, Katerina; Rasmussen, Trond; Stene, Lars C.; R?nningen, Kjersti S.

2012-01-01

34

Enteroviruses and the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes revisited: cross-reactivity of enterovirus capsid protein (VP1) antibodies with human mitochondrial proteins.  

PubMed

Current or recent enteroviral infections show an association with type 1 diabetes. However, evidence for this has mainly been generated using a particular mouse monoclonal antibody (clone 5-D8/1) which binds the viral capsid protein VP1. Difficulty in confirming these findings using other independent methods has led to the concern that this might be artefactual. To address this, we examined the potential cross-reactivity of clone 5-D8/1 with normal islet proteins. Western blotting, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry were used to identify human islet proteins bound by the clone 5-D8/1. We found a distinct reactivity with two mitochondrial proteins, creatine kinase B-type and ATP synthase beta subunit. Immunohistochemistry using the clone 5-D8/1 revealed a granular cytoplasmic staining pattern in mitochondria-rich cells, ie hepatocytes, ductal epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells, skeletal muscle cells, and the neoplastic salivary gland oncocytoma cells, whereas connective tissue and infiltrating immune cells were negative. Staining on islets of Langerhans from subjects with recent-onset type 1 diabetes, but not on isolated human islets infected in vitro with enteroviruses, could be blocked after mixing the clone 5-D8/1 with the mitochondrial proteins. Collectively, our data show that the clone 5-D8/1 detects two human mitochondrial enzymes in addition to enteroviral VP1. The notion that the previously reported VP1 positivity in islets of recent-onset type 1 diabetes patients could reflect cross-reactivity to native islet proteins and not the presence of EV is supported by difficulties in demonstrating EV infection by independent techniques such as PCR or in situ hybridization. These findings call for revisiting the presence of enteroviruses in pancreatic islets of patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23335350

Hansson, Sara F; Korsgren, Stella; Pontén, Fredrik; Korsgren, Olle

2013-04-01

35

Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: enterovirus, thymus and type 1 diabetes pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES Metabolic diseases, host responses, cancer, autoinflammatory diseases, allergy. Thymus dysfunction, especially immune suppression, is frequently associated with various virus infections. Whether viruses may disturb the thymus function and play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is an open issue. Enteroviruses, especially Coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4), have been largely suggested as potential inducers or aggravating factors of type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis in genetically predisposed individuals. Several pathogenic mechanisms of enterovirus-induced T1D have been suggested. One of these mechanisms is the impairment of central self-tolerance due to viral infections. Coxsackievirus-B4 is able to infect murine thymus in vitro and in vivo and to infect human thymus in vitro. Thymic epithelial cells and thymocytes are targets of infection with this virus, and several abnormalities, especially disturbance of maturation/differentiation processes, were observed. Altogether, these data suggest that CV-B infection of thymus may be involved in the pathogenesis of T1D. Further investigations are needed to explore this hypothesis.

Jaidane, H; Sane, F; Hiar, R; Goffard, A; Gharbi, J; Geenen, V; Hober, D

2012-01-01

36

Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: enterovirus, thymus and type 1 diabetes pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Thymus dysfunction, especially immune suppression, is frequently associated with various virus infections. Whether viruses may disturb the thymus function and play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is an open issue. Enteroviruses, especially Coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4), have been largely suggested as potential inducers or aggravating factors of type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis in genetically predisposed individuals. Several pathogenic mechanisms of enterovirus-induced T1D have been suggested. One of these mechanisms is the impairment of central self-tolerance due to viral infections. Coxsackievirus-B4 is able to infect murine thymus in vitro and in vivo and to infect human thymus in vitro. Thymic epithelial cells and thymocytes are targets of infection with this virus, and several abnormalities, especially disturbance of maturation/differentiation processes, were observed. Altogether, these data suggest that CV-B infection of thymus may be involved in the pathogenesis of T1D. Further investigations are needed to explore this hypothesis. PMID:22385235

Jaļdane, H; Sané, F; Hiar, R; Goffard, A; Gharbi, J; Geenen, V; Hober, D

2012-04-01

37

Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: the innate immune response to enteroviruses and its possible role in regulating type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease arising as a consequence of a misdirected T cell response to the pancreatic beta cell. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the innate immune system as a regulator of disease development. Genome-wide association studies have identified diabetes-associated polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins with functions related to the innate immune response. Moreover, enteroviruses, known to activate a strong innate immune response, have been implicated in the disease pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the innate immune response elicited by enteroviruses and how this response may regulate T1D development. PMID:22385234

Lind, K; Hühn, M H; Flodström-Tullberg, M

2012-04-01

38

Global transcriptomic analysis of human neuroblastoma cells in response to enterovirus type 71 infection.  

PubMed

Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and has been associated with severe neurological disease and even death in infants and young children. The pathogenesis of EV71 infection in the human central nervous system remains unclear. In this study, human whole genome microarray was employed to perform transcriptome profiling in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells infected with EV71. The results indicated that EV71 infection lead to altered expression of 161 human mRNAs, including 74 up-regulated genes and 87 down-regulated genes. Bioinformatics analysis indicated the possible roles of the differentially regulated mRNAs in selected pathways, including cell cycle/proliferation, apoptosis, and cytokine/chemokine responses. Finally, the microarray results were validated using real-time RT-PCR with high identity. Overall, our results provided fundamental information regarding the host response to EV71 infection in human neuroblastoma cells, and this finding will help explain the pathogenesis of EV71 infection and virus-host interaction. PMID:23861741

Xu, Li-Juan; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Fu-Jun; Han, Jian-Feng; Liu, Juan; Zhao, Hui; Li, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Rui-Ju; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Qin, E-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng

2013-07-05

39

Protection against Enterovirus 71 with Neutralizing Epitope Incorporation within Adenovirus Type 3 Hexon  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with high mortality among children. Various neutralizing B cell epitopes of EV71 have been identified as potential vaccine candidates. Capsid-incorporation of antigens into adenovirus (Ad) has been developed for a novel vaccine approach. We constructed Ad3-based EV71 vaccine vectors by incorporating a neutralizing epitope SP70 containing 15 amino acids derived from capsid protein VP1 of EV71 within the different surface-exposed domains of the capsid protein hexon of Ad3EGFP, a recombinant adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein. Thermostability and growth kinetic assays suggested that the SP70 epitope incorporation into hypervariable region (HVR1, HVR2, or HVR7) of the hexon did not affect Ad fitness. The SP70 epitopes were thought to be exposed on all hexon-modified intact virion surfaces. Repeated administration of BALB/c mice with the modified Ads resulted in boosting of the anti-SP70 humoral immune response. Importantly, the modified Ads immunization of mother mice conferred protection in vivo to neonatal mice against the lethal EV71 challenge, and the modified Ads-immunized mice serum also conferred passive protection against the lethal challenge in newborn mice. Compared with the recombinant GST-fused SP70 protein immunization, immunization with the Ads containing SP70 in HVR1 or HVR2 elicited higher SP70-specific IgG titers, higher neutralization titers, and conferred more effective protection to neonatal mice. Thus, this study provides valuable information for hexon-modified Ad3 vector development as a promising EV71 vaccine candidate and as an epitope-delivering vehicle for other pathogens.

Tian, Xingui; Su, Xiaobo; Li, Xiao; Li, Haitao; Li, Ting; Zhou, Zhichao; Zhong, Tianhua; Zhou, Rong

2012-01-01

40

Recent enterovirus infection in type 1 diabetes: evidence with a novel IgM method.  

PubMed

Enterovirus (EV) infection has been associated with Type 1 (T1D) diabetes and on a few occasions virus could be isolated at onset of the disease. Using two such isolates as antigens in a quantitative PCR enhanced immunoassay (T1D-EV-QPIA) we have measured IgM antibodies against such potentially diabetogenic viruses in serum from 33 newly diagnosed T1D children, 24 siblings, and 27 healthy children. Sera were also analysed with regard to autoantibodies against GAD65, the cytokine TNF-alpha and the chemokine IP-10. EV-RNA detection was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). IgM antibodies against this "new" EV antigen were more frequent in serum from T1D children than in serum from siblings and/or controls (P < 0.001). EV-RNA was detected more frequently in PBMC from T1D children than in healthy control children (P < 0.001) and also compared to the siblings (P < 0.003). The cytokine TNF-alpha was less frequently detected in serum from the T1D children compared with serum from siblings and/controls (P < 0.001). A positive correlation was found between the results obtained with the T1D-EV-QPIA and the EV-PCR (P < 0.001). These findings are in line with earlier findings of an increased frequency of enteroviral infections in newly diagnosed T1D patients. In addition, we found that T1D children at onset of the disease had lower frequencies of the chemokine TNF-alpha in their serum than age- and sex-matched controls had, suggesting an impaired immune response. PMID:17935175

Elfaitouri, A; Berg, A-K; Frisk, G; Yin, H; Tuvemo, T; Blomberg, J

2007-12-01

41

Serologic Evidence of an Association between Enteroviruses and the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum was collected from 128 patients ?18 years of age admitted to the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh with new-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and from 120 control-patients who were frequency-matched to case-patients for age, sex, and date of bleed. Serum was tested for IgM against 14 enterovirus serotypes: coxsackieviruses B1-B6 and A9, echoviruses 4, 6, 9, 11, 30, and 34,

Rita F. Helfand; Howard E. Gary Jr.; Charlotte Y. Freeman; Larry J. Anderson; Mark A. Pallansch

1995-01-01

42

RT-PCR, nucleotide, amino acid and phylogenetic analyses of enterovirus type 71 strains from Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specific and sensitive method based on RT-PCR was developed to detect enterovirus 71 (EV71) from patients with hand, foot and mouth disease, myocarditis, aseptic meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis. RT-PCR primers from conserved parts of the VP1 capsid gene were designed on the basis of good correlation with sequences of EV71 strains. These primers successfully amplified 44 strains of

Sunita Singh; Vincent T. K. Chow; K. P. Chan; A. E. Ling; C. L. Poh

2000-01-01

43

Environmental surveillance of non-polio enteroviruses in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Enteroviruses can shed in feces for several weeks, so many excrete viruses can remain infectious for a long time in environment. Therefore, by detecting enteroviruses in environmental specimens and sewage, we can understand this virus circulation, the approximate ratio of contaminated persons in society and they are suitable indicators for environmental surveillance. METHODS: Since March 2006 to February 2007,

Mohammad Kargar; Sara Sadeghipour; Rakhshandeh Nategh

2009-01-01

44

Resequencing microarray probe design for typing genetically diverse viruses: human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

Background Febrile respiratory illness (FRI) has a high impact on public health and global economics and poses a difficult challenge for differential diagnosis. A particular issue is the detection of genetically diverse pathogens, i.e. human rhinoviruses (HRV) and enteroviruses (HEV) which are frequent causes of FRI. Resequencing Pathogen Microarray technology has demonstrated potential for differential diagnosis of several respiratory pathogens simultaneously, but a high confidence design method to select probes for genetically diverse viruses is lacking. Results Using HRV and HEV as test cases, we assess a general design strategy for detecting and serotyping genetically diverse viruses. A minimal number of probe sequences (26 for HRV and 13 for HEV), which were potentially capable of detecting all serotypes of HRV and HEV, were determined and implemented on the Resequencing Pathogen Microarray RPM-Flu v.30/31 (Tessarae RPM-Flu). The specificities of designed probes were validated using 34 HRV and 28 HEV strains. All strains were successfully detected and identified at least to species level. 33 HRV strains and 16 HEV strains could be further differentiated to serotype level. Conclusion This study provides a fundamental evaluation of simultaneous detection and differential identification of genetically diverse RNA viruses with a minimal number of prototype sequences. The results demonstrated that the newly designed RPM-Flu v.30/31 can provide comprehensive and specific analysis of HRV and HEV samples which implicates that this design strategy will be applicable for other genetically diverse viruses.

Wang, Zheng; Malanoski, Anthony P; Lin, Baochuan; Kidd, Carolyn; Long, Nina C; Blaney, Kate M; Thach, Dzung C; Tibbetts, Clark; Stenger, David A

2008-01-01

45

First-degree relatives of persons with type 1 diabetes: insulin resistance and enterovirus infection are associated with different patterns of islet cell autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies indicate an association\\u000a between detection of Enterovirus (EV) genome in blood and the clinical onset of T1D. Insulin resistance can also represent\\u000a a risk factor for progression to clinically overt T1D. This study aimed at evaluating whether there is association between\\u000a both EV infection and

Ileana Cubas-Dueńas; Eduardo Cabrera-Rode; Luis Sarmiento; Gisela Molina; Magilé Fonseca; Celeste Arranz; Emma Domķnguez; Pedro Gonzįlez; Manuel Vera; Oscar Dķaz-Horta

46

Cellular tropism of human enterovirus D species serotypes EV-94, EV-70, and EV-68 in vitro: implications for pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 94 (EV-94) is an enterovirus serotype described recently which, together with EV-68 and EV-70, forms human enterovirus D species. This study investigates the seroprevalences of these three serotypes and their abilities to infect, replicate, and damage cell types considered to be essential for enterovirus-induced diseases. The cell types studied included human leukocyte cell lines, primary endothelial cells, and pancreatic islets. High prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against EV-68 and EV-94 was found in the Finnish population. The virus strains studied had wide leukocyte tropism. EV-94 and EV-68 were able to produce infectious progeny in leukocyte cell lines with monocytic, granulocytic, T-cell, or B-cell characteristics. EV-94 and EV-70 were capable of infecting primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells, whereas EV-68 had only marginal progeny production and did not induce cytopathic effects in these cells. Intriguingly, EV-94 was able to damage pancreatic islet ?-cells, to infect, replicate, and cause necrosis in human pancreatic islets, and to induce proinflammatory and chemoattractive cytokine expression in endothelial cells. These results suggest that HEV-D viruses may be more prevalent than has been thought previously, and they provide in vitro evidence that EV-94 may be a potent pathogen and should be considered a potentially diabetogenic enterovirus type. PMID:20872722

Smura, Teemu; Ylipaasto, Petri; Klemola, Päivi; Kaijalainen, Svetlana; Kyllönen, Lauri; Sordi, Valeria; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Roivainen, Merja

2010-11-01

47

Extending the type reproduction number to infectious disease control targeting contacts between types.  

PubMed

A new quantity called the target reproduction number is defined to measure control strategies for infectious diseases with multiple host types such as waterborne, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. The target reproduction number includes as a special case and extends the type reproduction number to allow disease control targeting contacts between types. Relationships among the basic, type and target reproduction numbers are established. Examples of infectious disease models from the literature are given to illustrate the use of the target reproduction number. PMID:22941454

Shuai, Zhisheng; Heesterbeek, J A P; van den Driessche, P

2012-09-02

48

Genetic diversity of enterovirus subgroups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Enterovirus serotypes were studied using nucleic acid hybridization and nucleotide sequence analysis. A great majority of enteroviruses could be roughly divided into two larger subgroups the first consisting of poliovirus and certain coxsackievirus A serotypes. The second subgroup included coxsackie B viruses, most ECHO viruses, enterovirus 71 and representatives of coxsackie A viruses. Enterovirus 70 showed low homology to

P. Auvinen; G. Stanway; T. Hyypiä

1989-01-01

49

Production of Enterovirus Antisera.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of enterovirus antisera in horses and of rhinovirus antisera in goats is reported. Eight other coxsackie virus, one echo virus, and eight rhinovirus antigens are in progress. Data on inoculations, bleedings, and stored and transferred sera ...

R. W. Brown

1967-01-01

50

First-degree relatives of persons with type 1 diabetes: insulin resistance and enterovirus infection are associated with different patterns of islet cell autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies indicate an association between detection of Enterovirus (EV) genome in blood and the clinical onset of T1D. Insulin resistance can also represent a risk factor for progression to clinically overt T1D. This study aimed at evaluating whether there is association between both EV infection and insulin resistance with islet autoantibodies in first-degree relatives of persons with type 1 diabetes. We collected sera from 94 first-degree relatives with (32) or without (64) islet cell antibodies (ICA) from the Cuban T1D prediction program. Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were determined. Antibodies to GAD65 and IA-2 were determined by radioimmunoassay. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). EV-RNA was detected in serum using a highly sensitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method. The occurrence of EV-RNA was higher in ICA-positive relatives than in ICA-negative ones [15.6% (5/32) vs. 1.6% (1/62), P = 0.016]. GAD65 autoantibodies were more frequent in subjects with insulin resistance [34.5% (10/29) vs. 13.9% (9/65), P = 0.028] as defined by the HOMA-IR value. GAD65 autoantibodies also positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r.bis = 0.28, P < 0.01). IA-2 autoantibodies did correlate neither with EV-RNA nor with insulin resistance. There was no association between the presence of EV-RNA and insulin resistance. Our data suggest that enterovirus infection and insulin resistance are two independent events associated with ICA and GAD65 autoantibodies, respectively. These observations support the multifactorial nature of T1D. PMID:21604002

Cubas-Dueńas, Ileana; Cabrera-Rode, Eduardo; Sarmiento, Luis; Molina, Gisela; Fonseca, Magilé; Arranz, Celeste; Domķnguez, Emma; Gonzįlez, Pedro; Vera, Manuel; Dķaz-Horta, Oscar

2011-05-21

51

Stanford Type A Aortic Dissection Secondary to Infectious Aortitis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, infectious aortitis has become a rare disease thanks to antibiotics, but remains life-threatening. We present a case of a patient with acupuncture-induced infectious aortitis leading to aortic dissection. Chest computed-tomogram scan revealed Stanford type A dissection with pericardial effusion. Under the impression of an impending rupture, emergent surgery was performed. During surgery, infectious aortitis was identified incidentally, so she underwent resection of the infected aorta including surrounding tissues. Then the ascending aorta and hemi-arch were replaced with a prosthetic graft as an in situ fashion. The resected tissue and blood cultures revealed Staphylococcus aureus, so prolonged antibiotherapy was prescribed.

Park, Bong Soo; Kang, Do Kyun; Jun, Hee Jae; Hwang, Youn-Ho; Jang, Eun Jeong; Jin, Kyubok; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Jang, Hang Jea; Song, Jong Woon

2013-01-01

52

Echovirus 22 is an atypical enterovirus.  

PubMed Central

Although echovirus 22 (EV22) is classified as an enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae, it is atypical of the enterovirus paradigm, typified by the polioviruses and the coxsackie B viruses. cDNA reverse transcribed from coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) RNA does not hybridize to genomic RNA of EV22, and conversely, cDNA made to EV22 does not hybridize to CVB3 genomic RNA or to molecular clones of CVB3 or poliovirus type 1. EV22 cDNA does not hybridize to viral RNA of encephalomyocarditis virus or to a molecular clone of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, members of the cardiovirus genus. The genomic RNA of EV22 cannot be detected by the polymerase chain reaction using generic enteroviral primers. EV22 does not shut off host cell protein synthesis, and the RNA of EV22 is efficiently translated in vitro in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Murine enterovirus-immune T cells recognize and proliferate against EV22 as an antigen in vitro, demonstrating that EV22 shares an epitope(s) common to enteroviruses but not found among other picornaviruses. Images

Coller, B A; Chapman, N M; Beck, M A; Pallansch, M A; Gauntt, C J; Tracy, S M

1990-01-01

53

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphaėle Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

54

Prevalence of feline coronavirus types I and II in cats with histopathologically verified feline infectious peritonitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) vary widely in virulence causing a spectrum of clinical manifestations reaching from subclinical course to fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Independent of virulence variations they are separated into two different types, type I, the original FCoV, and type II, which is closely related to canine coronavirus (CCV). The prevalence of FCoV types in Austrian cat populations without

Viviane Benetka; Anna Kübber-Heiss; Jolanta Kolodziejek; Norbert Nowotny; Margarete Hofmann-Parisot; Karin Möstl

2004-01-01

55

Improvement of Enterovirus Neutralization by Treatment with Sodium Deoxycholate or Chloroform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Enterovirus strains which could be neutralized only partially or not at all by specific antiserum were readily accessible to the antibodies after treatment with sodium deoxycholate or chloroform. The latter treatment is simple and can be performed with crude virus suspensions of low titer. The method was particularly successful for routine typing of enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus types A7

Jacoba G. Kapsenberg; Albert Ras; Jantje Korte

1979-01-01

56

Fatal enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an outbreak of hand-foot-mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 (EV-71) in 1997, 4 children presented with sudden cardiopulmonary collapse and minimal neurologic features. All children received cardiopulmonary resuscitation but died within a few hours of admission. Postmortem studies showed infection by EV-71 with extensive damage to the medulla and pons. We postulate an etiologic link between EV-71 and brainstem

Lucy C. S. Lum; K. T. Wong; S. K. Lam; K. B. Chua; A. Y. T. Goh; W. L. Lim; B. B. Ong; G. Paul; S. AbuBakar; M. Lambert

1998-01-01

57

Occurrence of different types of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virion protein patterns of 71 isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from the Pacific Northwest were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of (Ā³āµS)-methionine-labeled virus. This analysis led to the classification of these virus isolates into four or more types. Type 1 virus was characterized by a nucleocapsid protein with an approximate molecular weight of 40,500. Type

Y. Hsu; H. M. Engelking; J. C. Leong

1986-01-01

58

Diabetogenic effects of the most prevalent enteroviruses in Finnish sewage.  

PubMed

Common enterovirus infections appear to initiate or facilitate the pathogenetic processes leading to type 1 diabetes (T1D) and also sometimes precipitate the clinical disease. We have recently demonstrated that (1) enterovirus-positive islet cells were seen on postmortem pancreatic specimens of several T1D patients but not in the corresponding samples of nondiabetic controls, and (2) several different enteroviruses can be associated with T1D. Enterovirus infections are transmitted from person to person by fecal-oral or respiratory routes, which means that infections usually start from the respiratory or gastrointestinal mucosa. Regardless of the clinical symptoms of the disease, viral replication continues in the submucosal lymphatic tissue for several weeks, up to a couple of months, and during that time the virus is excreted into the feces and translocated to the environment. Monitoring of sewage samples for enteroviruses can be used as a tool in epidemiologic studies of enterovirus. Finland has successfully used environmental control data in poliovirus surveillance for decades. About 24 samples have been collected annually from the Helsinki region, which covers about 20% of the population. In the present study, we have reanalyzed the sewage samples of the years 1993-2004 for nonpolio enteroviruses by inoculating them into five different continuous cell lines known to cover a wide range of serotypes. Isolated strains were identified by RT-PCR and VP1 sequencing. The most commonly detected serotypes were coxsackie B viruses (CBV1-5) and echoviruses (E6, 7, 11, 25, 30). Diabetogenic effects of the most prevalent enterovirus serotypes were studied in primary human beta cells. PMID:19120297

Klemola, Paivi; Kaijalainen, Svetlana; Ylipaasto, Petri; Roivainen, Merja

2008-12-01

59

A Study of Porcine Enteroviruses Isolated from Swine in the Toronto Area  

PubMed Central

A number of enteric viruses isolated from swine in the Connaught Medical Research Laboratories and the Mimico Reformatory herds were grouped serologically and compared with previously described porcine enteroviruses. Four of five antigenic types defined were related to other porcine enteroviruses. The fifth was unrelated to any viruses with which it was compared in this study.

Thorsen, J.; Macpherson, L. W.

1966-01-01

60

Serological and molecular evidence of enterovirus infection in patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To study the relative diagnostic value of enterovirus-specific molecular biological and serological assays in patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy, and to investigate the possible role of other cardiotropic viruses in dilated cardiomyopathy. DESIGN: Analysis of recipient myocardial tissue and serum from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and controls undergoing cardiac transplantation for end-stage cardiac disease. SETTING: University virology department and transplantation unit. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequence analysis of myocardial RNA and DNA; enterovirus-specific in situ hybridization; enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M detection. RESULTS: Enterovirus RNA was detected in myocardial tissue from only a small proportion of (five of 75) hearts. However, although enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M responses were detected in 22 (28%) of 39 controls patients, a significantly higher prevalence was observed among patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (22 (56%) of 39 patients; P < 0.005). All enteroviruses detected in myocardium showed greatest nucleotide sequence homology with coxsackievirus type B3. Detection of enterovirus RNA in myocardium by the polymerase chain reaction and by in situ hybridisation gave comparable results. Other potentially cardiotropic virus genomes, including human cytomegalovirus, influenzaviruses, and coronaviruses were not detected in myocardium. CONCLUSION: This study found that enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M responses provided the strongest evidence of enterovirus involvement in patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the high background prevalence of these responses limits their diagnostic value. The finding that enteroviruses detected in myocardium were coxsackievirus type B3 accords with recent findings in patients with acute myocarditis, and indicates that this serotype is the major cardiotropic human enterovirus. Images

Muir, P.; Nicholson, F.; Illavia, S. J.; McNeil, T. S.; Ajetunmobi, J. F.; Dunn, H.; Starkey, W. G.; Reetoo, K. N.; Cary, N. R.; Parameshwar, J.; Banatvala, J. E.

1996-01-01

61

Isolation from the Asian Mouse Mus caroli of an Endogenous Type C Virus Related to Infectious Primate Type C Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of a cell line derived from the Asian feral mouse Mus caroli with 5-bromodeoxyuridine induces an infectious, xenotropic type C virus. This virus shares strongly cross-reactive reverse transcriptase (RNA-dependent DNA polymerase) and p30 antigens and cross-interferes with type C viruses isolated from a woolly monkey (SSAV) and gibbon apes (GALV). By similar criteria, the caroli virus is much less

Michael M. Lieber; Charles J. Sherr; George J. Todaro; Raoul E. Benveniste; Robert Callahan; Hayden G. Coon

1975-01-01

62

[Enteroviruses responsible for acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis].  

PubMed

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is an epidemic form of highly contagious conjunctivitis, characterized by conjunctival hemorrhages. The first AHC outbreak was described in 1969 in Ghana, West Africa, and was called Apollo disease, from the Apollo landing on the moon. This outbreak was caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV70) together with a Coxsackievirus A24 (CVA24v) variant, which are the major etiological agents involved in AHC outbreaks worldwide. AHC is known to be directly transmitted by close person-to-person contact or indirectly through soiled ophthalmological materials or unsafe recreational water. Recently, a possible airborne virus spread was suggested which could explain the high transmission rate of the disease. In the absence of a specific antiviral therapy, a rapid diagnosis of the causative agent is required to distinguish AHC due to enteroviruses from other ocular infectious diseases, for there are active drugs, or to quickly implement proper public health measures to limit the extension of the outbreak. However, virus identification remains difficult and time-consuming. Moreover, virological diagnosis is difficult to implement in developing countries where AHC has recently become a major problem for public health. PMID:19836177

Lévźque, N; Huguet, P; Norder, H; Chomel, J-J

2010-04-01

63

Animal "orphan" enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery, some ten years ago, of the pathogenic effect of polioviruses on non-nervous-tissue cells, tissue-culture methods have come to be widely used in virological research. Through these improved techniques for studying viruses, a large number of new cytopathogenic agents have been isolated from the intestinal tract of man. Many of these agents have been obtained from persons suffering from polio-like disease, but others have been isolated from apparently normal persons. The term ”orphans” is used to designate those viruses which cannot definitely be associated with any recognized disease syndrome. The existence of these enteric pathogenic human orphan (ECHO) viruses, and their association with clinical disease in certain cases, stimulated interest in their animal counter-parts, which might constitute a serious threat to both human and animal health. In this paper, the author reviews the information at present available on the occurrence of the so-called ”orphan” enteroviruses in monkeys, cattle, swine, and other animals in various parts of the world, and discusses the possible interrelationships of these animal viruses with each other and with the human enteroviruses. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3

Kalter, Seymour S.

1960-01-01

64

Experimental human rhinovirus and enterovirus interspecies recombination.  

PubMed

Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and enteroviruses (HEVs), two important human pathogens, are non-enveloped, positive-sense RNA viruses of the genus Enterovirus within the family Picornaviridae. Intraspecies recombination is known as a driving force for enterovirus and, to a lesser extent, rhinovirus evolution. Interspecies recombination is much less frequent among circulating strains, and supporting evidence for such recombination is limited to ancestral events, as shown by recent phylogenetic analyses reporting ancient HRV-A/HRV-C, HEV-A/HEV-C and HEV-A/HEV-D recombination mainly at the 5'-untranslated region (5' UTR)-polyprotein junction. In this study, chimeric genomes were artificially generated using the 5' UTR from two different clinical HRV-C strains (HRV-Ca and HRV-Cc), an HRV-B strain (HRV-B37) and an HEV-A strain (HEV-A71), and the remaining part of the genome from an HRV-A strain (HRV-A16). Whilst the chimeric viruses were easily propagated in cell culture, the wild-type HRV-A16 retained a replication advantage, both individually and in competition experiments. Assessment of protein synthesis ability did not show a correlation between translation and replication efficiencies. These results reflect the interchangeability of the 5' UTR, including its functional RNA structural elements implicated in both genome translation and replication among different enterovirus species. The 5' UTR-polyprotein junction therefore represents a theoretic interspecies recombination breakpoint. This recombination potential is probably restricted by the need for co-infection opportunities and the requirement for the progeny chimera to outcompete the parental genomes' fitness, explaining the rare occurrence of such events in vivo. PMID:21940413

Schibler, Manuel; Gerlach, Daniel; Martinez, Yannick; Belle, Sandra Van; Turin, Lara; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

2011-09-21

65

Detection of naturally occurring enteroviruses in waters using direct RT-PCR and integrated cell culture-RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses detected by rapid molecular assays are not always infectious. In this study we compared enterovirus levels in natural waters using culture and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques to determine whether molecular units of naturally occurring enteroviruses can be utilized to predict viral infectivity. Viruses were concentrated from 12 river water and effluent samples using 1MDS filter–filtration and beef

Y. C. Shieh; C. I. Wong; J. A. Krantz; F. C. Hsu

2008-01-01

66

Comparative genomics of the coxsackie B viruses and related enteroviruses.  

PubMed

Genomic analysis of the group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) has improved our understanding of CVB evolution, epidemiology, and pathogenesis. Comparison of capsid sequence alignments and virion structures allows correlation of capsid diversity with surface features, such as loops, the receptor canyon, and antigenic sites. Pairwise sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses can be used to rapidly identify and classify enteroviruses. Enteroviruses are monophyletic by type only within the capsid region. The CVBs as a group are monophyletic in the capsid region, probably due to their shared use of the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (other members of HEV-B use different receptors). Outside the capsid region, enteroviruses are monophyletic only by species (not by type), reflecting a high frequency of intertypic recombination within a species. Further genomic studies, accompanied by well-characterized clinical outcome/disease data, will facilitate fine-scale mapping of genetic determinants that contribute to virulence. PMID:18357764

Oberste, M S

2008-01-01

67

Association of incidence of type 1 diabetes with mortality from infectious disease and with antibiotic susceptibility at a country level.  

PubMed

To investigate the association between country incidence of type 1 diabetes and mortality from infectious disease and antibiotic susceptibility. An ecological study to explore the relationship at a country level of the reported incidence of type 1 diabetes (DiaMond) to infectious disease mortality (World Health Organisation) and to antibiotic susceptibility (Alexander Project). There were significant negative correlations between the incidence of type 1 diabetes and mortality for all infectious diseases studied. There were also significant positive correlations between the incidence of type 1 diabetes and antibiotic susceptibilities of Strep. pneumoniae, but not to those of Haem. influenzae. Since infectious disease mortality and antibiotic susceptibility are surrogate markers for bacterial exposure, our results provide support for a negative association between bacterial exposure in a community and its incidence of type 1 diabetes. The consistency of our results as well as the highly statistically significant results of most of the associations studied reinforces the validity of our findings. PMID:23512474

Abela, Alexia-Giovanna; Fava, Stephen

2013-03-20

68

CoMorbidity between Early-Onset Leukemia and Type 1 Diabetes – Suggestive of a Shared Viral Etiology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAcute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are common early-onset malignancies. Their causes are largely unknown but infectious etiology has been implicated. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease for which infectious triggers of disease onset have been sought and increasing pointing to enteroviruses. Based on our previous results on co-morbidity between leukemia and T1D, we updated

Kari Hemminki; Richard Houlston; Jan Sundquist; Kristina Sundquist; Xiaochen Shu

2012-01-01

69

Enterovirus 75 Encephalitis in Children, Southern India  

PubMed Central

Recent outbreaks of enterovirus in Southeast Asia emphasize difficulties in diagnosis of this infection. To address this issue, we report 5 (4.7%) children infected with enterovirus 75 among 106 children with acute encephalitis syndrome during 2005–2007 in southern India. Throat swab specimens may be useful for diagnosis of enterovirus 75 infection.

Perera, David; Ooi, Mong How; Last, Anna; Kumar, Ravi; Desai, Anita; Begum, Ashia; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Shankar, M. Veera; Tio, Phaik Hooi; Cardosa, Mary Jane; Solomon, Tom

2010-01-01

70

Identification of Bulgarian Strain 258 of Enterovirus 71  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In 1975 in Bulgaria a severe epidemic of central nervous system (CNS) disease occurred. Clinically, histopathologically, and epidemiologically the cases resembled poliomyelitis, aseptic meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and, in some cases, encephalomyocarditis. About 21% of the 700 reported cases developed paralysis, 44 with fatal outcome [ref. 1]. In 65 cases, 92 strains of enterovirus of the same serologic type were isolated:

J. L. Melnick; N. J. Schmidt; R. R. Mirkovic; M. P. Chumakov; I. K. Lavrova; M. K. Voroshilova

1979-01-01

71

Physical map of infectious baboon type C viral DNA and sites of integration in infected cells.  

PubMed Central

Three species of unintegrated viral DNAs were found in permissive cells infected with baboon type C virus. The major species was a 9.0-kilobase (kb) linear DNA that was infectious. A restriction endonuclease map of this DNA was constructed and oriented with respect to the viral RNA. The linear DNA had a 0.6-kb sequence repeated at each terminus. These terminal repeat sequences were required for infectivity of the viral DNA. The minor species of the unintegrated viral DNAs were covalently closed circles of 9.0 and 8.4 kb. The smaller circle was in two- to threefold excess over the larger circle. The difference appeared to be that the smaller circle lacked one of the two 0.6-kb repeat sequences found in the larger circle. Restriction endonuclease maps of the integrated viral DNAs were constructed, and the sequences on both viral DNA and cellular DNA that are involved in integration were determined. The integrated viral DNA map was identical to that of the unintegrated infectious 9.0-kb linear DNA. Therefore, a specific site in the terminal repeat sequence of the viral DNA was used to integrate with the host cell DNA. The sizes of the cellular DNA fragments were different from clone to clone but stable with cell passage. Therefore, many sites in the cell DNA can recombine with the viral DNA. Images

Battula, N; Todaro, G J

1980-01-01

72

Symmetry-Related Clustering of Positive Charges Is a Common Mechanism for Heparan Sulfate Binding in Enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

Coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9), a member of the Picornaviridae family, uses an RGD motif in the VP1 capsid protein to bind to integrin ?v?6 during cell entry. Here we report that two CAV9 isolates can bind to the heparan sulfate/heparin class of proteoglycans (HSPG). Sequence analysis identified an arginine (R) at position 132 in VP1 in these two isolates, rather than a threonine (T) as seen in the nonbinding strains tested. We introduced a T132R substitution into the HSPG-nonbinding strain Griggs and recovered infectious virus capable of binding to immobilized heparin, unlike the parental Griggs strain. The known CAV9 structure was used to identify the location of VP1 position 132, 5 copies of which were found to cluster around the 5-fold axis of symmetry, presumably producing a region of positive charge which can interact with the negatively charged HSPG. Analysis of several enteroviruses of the same species as CAV9, Human enterovirus B (HEV-B), identified examples from 5 types in which blocking of infection by heparin was coincident with an arginine (or another basic amino acid, lysine) at a position corresponding to 132 in VP1 in CAV9. Together, these data show that membrane-associated HSPG can serve as a (co)receptor for some CAV9 and other HEV-B strains and identify symmetry-related clustering of positive charges as one mechanism by which HSPG binding can be achieved. This is a potentially powerful mechanism by which a single amino acid change could generate novel receptor binding capabilities, underscoring the plasticity of host-cell interactions in enteroviruses.

McLeish, Nigel J.; Williams, Cigdem H.; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Roivainen, Merja M.

2012-01-01

73

World Health Organization International Reference Centre for Enteroviruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Coordination of and participation in studies on reference reagents; Testing program on enterovirus horse sera; Other enterovirus horse sera for further cooperative testing; Identification and characterization of candidates for new enterovirus ty...

J. L. Melnick

1966-01-01

74

21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225...Serological Reagents Ā§ 866.3225 Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification . An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device...

2009-04-01

75

21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225...Serological Reagents Ā§ 866.3225 Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification . An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device...

2010-04-01

76

Enterovirus infections: Diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteroviruses cause infections that present in diverse ways and affect people of all ages. Infections peak during summer and fall epidemics and cause 10 to 15 million symptomatic infections annually in the United States. The 70 enteroviral serotypes cause illness that ranges from nonspecific fevers and rashes to life-threatening myocarditis or central nervous system disease. These common infections create a

Mark H Sawyer

2002-01-01

77

Longitudinal field studies of infectious bronchitis virus and avian pneumovirus in broilers using type-specific polymerase chain reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In longitudinal studies, 13 flocks were swabbed twice each week for the life of the flock (up to 46 days). The swabs were analyzed by type-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. Massachusetts type vaccinal infectious bronchitis virus (IBVs), applied at the hatchery, were usually maximal during the first week, as expected and, notably, remained detectable for 3 to 4 weeks,

K. Mawditt; P. Britton; C. J. Naylor

1999-01-01

78

Type 1 and type 2 cytokine dysregulation in human infectious, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed Central

In the mid-1980s, Mosmann, Coffman, and their colleagues discovered that murine CD4+ helper T-cell clones could be distinguished by the cytokines they synthesized. The isolation of human Th1 and Th2 clones by Romagnani and coworkers in the early 1990s has led to a large number of reports on the effects of Th1 and Th2 on the human immune system. More recently, cells other than CD4+ T cells, including CD8+ T cells, monocytes, NK cells, B cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and other cells, have been shown to be capable of producing "Th1" and "Th2" cytokines. In this review, we examine the literature on human diseases, using the nomenclature of type 1 (Th1-like) and type 2 (Th2-like) cytokines, which includes all cell types producing these cytokines rather than only CD4+ T cells. Type 1 cytokines include interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor beta, while type 2 cytokines include IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13. In general, type 1 cytokines favor the development of a strong cellular immune response whereas type 2 cytokines favor a strong humoral immune response. Some of these type 1 and type 2 cytokines are cross-regulatory. For example, gamma interferon and IL-12 decrease the levels of type 2 cytokines whereas IL-4 and IL-10 decrease the levels of type 1 cytokines. We use this cytokine perspective to examine human diseases including infections due to viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, as well as selected neoplastic, atopic, rheumatologic, autoimmune, and idiopathic-inflammatory conditions. Clinically, type 1 cytokine-predominant responses should be suspected in any delayed-type hypersensitivity-like granulomatous reactions and in infections with intracellular pathogens, whereas conditions involving hypergammaglobulinemia, increased immunoglobulin E levels, and/or eosinophilia are suggestive of type 2 cytokine-predominant conditions. If this immunologic concept is relevant to human diseases, the potential exists for novel cytokine-based therapies and novel cytokine-directed preventive vaccines for such diseases.

Lucey, D R; Clerici, M; Shearer, G M

1996-01-01

79

Detection of Precytopathic Effect of Enteroviruses in Clinical Specimens by Centrifugation-Enhanced Antigen Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid enterovirus detection is important for decisions about antibiotic administration and length of hospital stay. The efficacy of rapid antigen detection-cell culture amplification (Ag-CCA) was evaluated with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 5-D8\\/1 (DAKO) and Pan-Enterovirus clone 2E11 (Chemicon) with 10 poliovirus, echovirus, and coxsackievirus type A and B stock isolates and College of American Pathologists check samples. By using Ag-CCA technology,

STEVEN M. LIPSON; KATHRYN DAVID; FATIMA SHAIKH; LIAN QIAN

2001-01-01

80

Characterization of a novel porcine enterovirus in domestic pig in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) of genus Enterovirus are small, non-enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive sense genomic RNA, belonging to the family Picornaviridae. The discovery of two distinct serotypes (PEV9 and 10) was first reported in 1979. Despite the sporadic detection and partial genome sequences of these viruses our knowledge about the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of PEV types in domestic pigs

Įkos Boros; Péter Pankovics; Gįbor Reuter

2011-01-01

81

Enteroviral pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the disturbance of pancreatic insulin-producing cells, which results in hyperglycemia. The disease is associated with severe complications that impair the quality of life of individuals. The cause of T1D is unknown. Development of the disease is the result of interactions between immunological, genetic, and environmental factors. Viruses are thought to play an important role in the initiation or acceleration of the disease. This is an important issue since it opens the possibility to develop new preventive and therapeutic strategies to fight the disease. The role of enteroviruses in the development of T1D, in particular type B coxsackieviruses, is supported by epidemiological observations. It has been demonstrated that enterovirus infections were significantly more common in recently diagnosed diabetic patients, compared with control subjects. Enteroviral RNA and/or proteins can be detected in blood samples and intestine biopsies of patients with T1D. The hypothesis of a relationship between enteroviruses and the disease has been strengthened by the presence of enteroviral components or infectious particles in the pancreas of patients with T1D. In this review, arguments in favor of a relationship between enterovirus infections and T1D and the mechanisms of the enteroviral pathogenesis of the disease are presented. PMID:20807476

Hober, Didier; Sane, Famara

2010-08-01

82

Enterovirus 74 Infection in Children  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 74 (EV74) is a rarely detected viral infection of children. In 2010, EV74 was identified in New Zealand in a 2 year old child with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) through routine polio AFP surveillance. A further three cases of EV74 were identified in children within six months. These cases are the first report of EV74 in New Zealand. In this study we describe the near complete genome sequence of four EV74 isolates from New Zealand, which shows only limited sequence identity in the non-structural proteins when compared to the other two known EV74 sequences. As is typical of enteroviruses multiple recombination events were evident, particularly in the P2 region and P3 regions. This is the first complete EV74 genome sequenced from a patient with acute flaccid paralysis.

Peacey, Matthew; Hall, Richard J.; Wang, Jing; Todd, Angela K.; Yen, Seiha; Chan-Hyams, Jasmine; Rand, Christy J.; Stanton, Jo-Ann; Huang, Q. Sue

2013-01-01

83

Enterovirus 74 infection in children.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 74 (EV74) is a rarely detected viral infection of children. In 2010, EV74 was identified in New Zealand in a 2 year old child with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) through routine polio AFP surveillance. A further three cases of EV74 were identified in children within six months. These cases are the first report of EV74 in New Zealand. In this study we describe the near complete genome sequence of four EV74 isolates from New Zealand, which shows only limited sequence identity in the non-structural proteins when compared to the other two known EV74 sequences. As is typical of enteroviruses multiple recombination events were evident, particularly in the P2 region and P3 regions. This is the first complete EV74 genome sequenced from a patient with acute flaccid paralysis. PMID:24098514

Peacey, Matthew; Hall, Richard J; Wang, Jing; Todd, Angela K; Yen, Seiha; Chan-Hyams, Jasmine; Rand, Christy J; Stanton, Jo-Ann; Huang, Q Sue

2013-10-02

84

The effect of using different types of periodic contact rate on the behaviour of infectious diseases: A simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the effect of using different types of seasonally varying contact rate on the behaviour of the seasonally varying infectious diseases for an SEIR epidemic model. Our target is to investigate the long term behaviour of the system in response to changes in ?1, the amplitude parameter of the seasonal contact rate, which is our bifurcation parameter. This

I. A. Moneim

2007-01-01

85

Establishment of an infectious RNA transcription system for Striped jack nervous necrosis virus, the type species of the betanodaviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system has been established to produce infectious RNA transcripts for Striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), the type species of the betanodaviruses, which infect fish. An enzymological analysis suggested that both RNA1 and RNA2 of SJNNV have a 5« cap. Both RNAs were largely resistant to 3« polyadenylation and ligation, suggesting the presence of an interfering 3« structure, while

Tokinori Iwamoto; Kazuyuki Mise; Koh-ichiro Mori; Misao Arimoto; Toshihiro Nakai

86

Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout.  

PubMed

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. PMID:23759556

Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

2013-06-13

87

Production of Enterovirus Antigens for Human Enterovirus Types.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program has a three-fold purpose: (1) to produce reference seeds for Echo viruses 9, 13, 15, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30 and 31 and Coxsackieviruses A-20A, 2, 3, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 16; (2) to produce seed virus and antiserum in rabbits to specific s...

S. S. Kalter

1965-01-01

88

The persistence of infectious adenovirus (type 35) in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to provide information for improving risk assessment of viral contaminants in bivalves. The persistence of viable adenovirus type 35 (Ad35) after controlled contaminations of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, and oysters, Ostrea edulis, was studied. Bivalves, kept in running seawater at two different temperatures (4 and 18 degrees C) were sampled after 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 35, 42, 49, 56, and 70 days. Virus particles were separated from the gills and the digestive gland through ultra high-speed centrifugation. Qualitative PCR analyses of DNA in the virus extracts showed that Ad35 was detectable for 6-10 weeks and quantitative real-time PCR verified a gradual but not linear decrease in copy numbers, within this time interval. The virus genome was detectable to the same degree on the gills as in the digestive gland. When viral extractions were inoculated on A549 cells to investigate the cytopathic effect (CPE) it was shown that Ad35 stayed infectious in oysters, kept at 4 degrees C, for about six weeks, which was double the time compared to that for mussels. The detection of the viral genome exceeded the persistence of their infectivity, in most cases with 4-6 weeks. The data were highly variable and the sporadic occurrence of high numbers of accumulated viruses and their remaining infectivity is seemingly a significant factor regarding food safety. PMID:17141347

Hernroth, Bodil; Allard, Annika

2006-12-01

89

Development of an enterovirus specific PCR method for the quantification of enterovirus genomes in blood of diabetes patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes is a disease with a diverse aetiology. Epidemiological studies examining newly diagnosed, recent onset IDDM patients have suggested a role for viruses in the aetiology of IDDM (Yoon, 1995, Diabetes\\/Metabolism Reviews 11, 83–107). Important candidates are the enteroviruses, in particular coxsackieviruses B3 and B4. The latter can cause diabetes in animals (Clements

S Lauwers; V Bissay; B Rombaut

1998-01-01

90

[Fruit of the emergence of an enterovirus: acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis].  

PubMed

First seen in Ghana and Indonesia in the early 70's, acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis or "Apollo 11" disease is an eye infection caused by Enterovirus type 70 (EV70). The disease appeared to be a highly contagious conjunctivitis which spread rapidly all over the world. EV70 has been considered as an emerging virus and was classified as a new Enterovirus. No human or animal virus genetically similar to EV70 was known before the sudden outcome of the disease in Ghana, West Africa. EV70 appeared as a pretty demonstrative example of virus emergence and virus spreading. Studies of virus genetic mutations emphasized the variations of RNA virus within a short time period. The current review presents the EV70 infection and the genetic profile of the virus from its emergence to nowadays. PMID:18957336

Sane, F; Sauter, P; Fronval, S; Goffard, A; Dewilde, A; Hober, D

91

High Susceptibility for Enterovirus Infection and Virus Excretion Features in Tunisian Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies  

PubMed Central

To estimate the susceptibility to enterovirus infection and the frequency of long-term poliovirus excreters in Tunisian patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), enteroviruses were assessed in stool specimens of 82 patients with humoral, combined, and other PIDs. Isolated viruses were typed and intratyped by standard molecular techniques, and the whole VP1 region of poliovirus isolates was sequenced. Polioviruses were detected in 6 patients; all isolates were vaccine related. Five patients rapidly stopped excretion; one excreted a poliovirus type 1 isolate for several months, and the isolate accumulated up to 14 mutations in the VP1 region. Nonpolio enteroviruses were identified in 6 patients; 4 of them kept excreting the same strain for more than 6 months. The rate of enterovirus infection was 13.4% of the PID patients and 20.7% of those with an IgG defect; it greatly exceeded the rates generally found in Tunisian supposed-immunocompetent individuals (4.1% during the study period; P = 0.001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Interestingly, patients with combined immunodeficiencies were at a higher risk for enterovirus infection than those with an exclusively B cell defect. A major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen expression defect was found in 54% of enterovirus-positive patients and in the unique long-term poliovirus excreter. The study results also suggest that substitutive immunoglobulin therapy may help clearance of a poliovirus infection and that most PID patients have the ability to stop poliovirus excretion within a limited period. However, the high susceptibility of these patients to enterovirus infection reinforces the need for enhanced surveillance of these patients until the use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is stopped.

Driss, Nadia; Ben-Mustapha, Imen; Mellouli, Fethi; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Touzi, Henda; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Ben Ghorbel, Mohamed; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha

2012-01-01

92

Relationships between Infectious Titer, Capsid Protein Levels, and Reverse Transcriptase Activities of Diverse Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication kinetics or fitness must rely on a particular assay to initially standardize inocula from virus stocks. The most accurate measure of infectious HIV-1 titers involves a limiting dilution-infection assay and a calculation of the dose required for 50% infectivity of susceptible cells in tissue culture (TCID50). Surrogate assays are now

Andre J. Marozsan; Erika Fraundorf; Awet Abraha; Heather Baird; Dawn Moore; Ryan Troyer; Immaculate Nankja; Eric J. Arts

2004-01-01

93

Infectious Subvirion Particles of Reovirus Type 3 Dearing Exhibit a Loss in Infectivity and Contain a Cleaved s1 Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian reoviruses exhibit differences in the capacity to grow in intestinal tissue: reovirus type 1 Lang (T1L),butnottype3Dearing(T3D),canberecoveredinhightiterfromintestinaltissueofnewbornmiceafter oral inoculation. We investigated whether in vitro protease treatment of virions of T1L and T3D, using conditions to generate infectious subvirion particles (ISVPs) as occurs in the intestinal lumen of mice (D. K. Bodkin, M. L. Nibert, and B. N. Fields, J. Virol.

MAX L. NIBERT; JAMES D. CHAPPELL; ANDTERENCE S. DERMODY; Elizabeth B. Lamb

1995-01-01

94

Density of Infectious Virus and Complement-Fixing Antigens of Two Rhinovirus Strains  

PubMed Central

Dans, P. E. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Md.), B. R. Forsyth, and R. M. Chanock. Density of infectious virus and complement-fixing antigens of two rhinovirus strains. J. Bacteriol. 91:1605–1611. 1966.—Two rhinovirus serotypes (echovirus 28 and HGP) and poliovirus type 1 were banded by isopycnic centrifugation in cesium chloride. The rhinovirus virions had a density of 1.41 g/ml, whereas that of poliovirus was 1.34. Since a number of other enteroviruses also have a density of 1.34 g/ml in cesium chloride, a basic difference in density may exist between the rhinovirus and enterovirus subgroups of the picornavirus family. Whether this difference reflects differences in ribonucleic acid content or binding of cesium ions remains to be determined. In tests with echovirus 28 two peaks of CF activity were detected: one in association with the virion (1.41 g/ml), and a larger peak of lower density (1.30 g/ml). With echovirus 28 antiserum, a heterotypically reactive complement-fixing (CF) antigen was detected in the HGP virus suspension at a density less than that of the virion (1.30 g/ml). This antigen corresponded in density to the less dense CF antigen of echovirus 28.

Dans, P. E.; Forsyth, B. R.; Chanock, R. M.

1966-01-01

95

Infectious human papillomavirus type 31b: purification and infection of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are aetiological agents of human malignancies, most notably cervical cancers. The life-cycles of HPVs are dependent on epithelial differentiation, and this has impeded many basic studies of HPV biology. The organotypic (raft) culture system supports epithelial differentiation such that infectious virions are synthesized in raft tissues from epithelial cells that replicate extrachromosomal HPV genomes. The CIN-612 9E

Michelle A. Ozbun

2002-01-01

96

Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

97

Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Taiwan suffered a severe and widespread outbreak of enterovirus infection in 1998. More than 400 children were hospitalized,\\u000a with seventy-eight fatalities due to central nerve system (CNS) involvement and cardiopulmonary collapse. Enterovirus 71 (EV71)\\u000a was incriminated as the causative agent for the fatal cases. To understand the viral molecular epidemiology in this outbreak,\\u000a fragments of 207-bp length of the VP4

P.-Y. Chu; K.-H. Lin; K.-P. Hwang; L.-C. Chou; C.-F. Wang; S.-R. Shih; J.-R. Wang; Y. Shimada; H. Ishiko

2001-01-01

98

Risk of Infectious Diseases in Children Attending Different Types of Day-Care Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This population-based prospective cohort study compared the risk of recurrent infections in children attending family day care ( < 3 children per family), small (10-20 children) day-care centers (DCCs), and large ( > 40 children) DCCs. The parents of a total of 1,242 children participated in the study (97% of the families initially contacted). An infectious episode was defined as

J. P. Collet; P. Burtin; J. Gillet; N. Bossard; T. Ducruet; F. Dürr

1994-01-01

99

A novel enterovirus and parechovirus multiplex one-step real-time PCR-validation and clinical experience.  

PubMed

As the number of new enteroviruses and human parechoviruses seems ever growing, the necessity for updated diagnostics is relevant. We have updated an enterovirus assay and combined it with a previously published assay for human parechovirus resulting in a multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay. The multiplex assay was validated by analysing the sensitivity and specificity of the assay compared to the respective monoplex assays, and a good concordance was found. Furthermore, the enterovirus assay was able to detect 42 reference strains from all 4 species, and an additional 9 genotypes during panel testing and routine usage. During 15 months of routine use, from October 2008 to December 2009, we received and analysed 2187 samples (stool samples, cerebrospinal fluids, blood samples, respiratory samples and autopsy samples) were tested, from 1546 patients and detected enteroviruses and parechoviruses in 171 (8%) and 66 (3%) of the samples, respectively. 180 of the positive samples could be genotyped by PCR and sequencing and the most common genotypes found were human parechovirus type 3, echovirus 9, enterovirus 71, Coxsackievirus A16, and echovirus 25. During 2009 in Denmark, both enterovirus and human parechovirus type 3 had a similar seasonal pattern with a peak during the summer and autumn. Human parechovirus type 3 was almost invariably found in children less than 4 months of age. In conclusion, a multiplex assay was developed allowing simultaneous detection of 2 viruses, which can cause similar clinical symptoms. PMID:23845901

Nielsen, Alex Christian Yde; Böttiger, Blenda; Midgley, Sofie Elisabeth; Nielsen, Lars Peter

2013-07-08

100

Environmental surveillance of enterovirus in Northern India using an integrated shell vial culture with a semi-nested RT PCR and partial sequencing of the VP1 gene.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses have been reported in epidemic form during last 10 years in northern India. Environmental surveillance of sewage is the method of choice in limited resources countries for detection of enterovirus serotypes circulating in the community. Twenty-four sewage samples collected between January, 2009 and December, 2010 were tested for enterovirus by using a new modified integrated shell vial culture (ISVC) with a semi-nested RT-PCR of a partial VP1 gene and virus isolation integrated with semi-nested RT-PCR of a partial VP1 gene. Twenty-one (87.5%) out of 24 samples were positive for enterovirus by the conventional method and all samples (100%) by the ISVC-RT-PCR. The additional positive samples detected by ISVC-RT-PCR was typed as six different enterovirus serotypes (Sabin poliovirus 3, Coxsackievirus B3, Coxsackievirus A13, Coxsackievirus A17, Echovirus 33, and Enterovirus 75). Phylogenetic analysis of a partial VP1 gene of Echovirus 19 showed that one genetic lineage clustered with isolates from Georgia suggesting their importation into northern India. Detection of wild poliovirus in the absence of clinical cases with 16 different co-circulating enterovirus serotypes supports the need of increased molecular surveillance of sewage. Rapid identification and characterization of enterovirus serotypes is necessary to study their transmission and evolution in different geographical regions to prevent future outbreak. PMID:23341372

Shukla, Deepti; Kumar, Arvind; Srivastava, Shalini; Idris, Mohammad Z; Dhole, Tapan N

2013-03-01

101

Fatal Case of Enterovirus 71 Infection, France, 2007  

PubMed Central

A fatal case of enterovirus 71 infection with pulmonary edema and rhombencephalitis occurred in Brest, France, in April 2007. The virus was identified as subgenogroup C2. This highly neurotropic enterovirus merits specific surveillance outside the Asia-Pacific region.

Legrand-Quillien, Marie-Christine; Dailland, Thomas; Podeur, Gaetan; Gouriou, Stephanie; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Payan, Christopher; Marcorelles, Pascale

2009-01-01

102

21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...from individuals who have signs and symptoms consistent with meningitis or meningoencephalitis. The detection of enterovirus RNA...tests, aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis caused by enterovirus. (b) Classification . Class...

2013-04-01

103

Human papillomavirus type 18 chimeras containing the L2/L1 capsid genes from evolutionarily diverse papillomavirus types generate infectious virus  

PubMed Central

Papillomaviruses (PVs) comprise a large family of viruses infecting nearly all vertebrate species, with more than 100 human PVs identified. Our previous studies showed that a mutant chimera HPV18/16 genome, consisting of the upper regulatory region and early ORFs of HPV18 and the late ORFs of HPV16, was capable of producing infectious virus in organotypic raft cultures. We were interested in determining whether the ability of this chimeric genome to produce infectious virus was the result of HPV18 and HPV16 being similarly oncogenic, anogenital types and whether more disparate PV types could also interact functionally. To test this we created a series of HPV18 chimeric genomes where the ORFs for the HPV18 capsid genes were replaced with the capsid genes of HPV45, HPV39, HPV33, HPV31, HPV11, HPV6b, HPV1a, CRPV, and BPV1. All chimeras were able to produce infectious chimeric viral particles, although with lower infectivity than wild-type HPV18. Steps in the viral life cycle and characteristics of the viral particles were examined to identify potential causes for the decrease in infectivity.

Bowser, Brian S.; Chen, Horng-Shen; Conway, Michael J.; Christensen, Neil D.; Meyers, Craig

2011-01-01

104

MRI characteristics of brainstem encephalitis in hand-foot-mouth disease induced by enterovirus type 71--will different MRI manifestations be helpful for prognosis?  

PubMed

The MRI characteristics of 21 HFMD patients with brainstem encephalitis resulting from EV71 infection were examined to identify lesion patterns helpful in disease classification and prognosis. The author reviewed the clinical and MRI data of 21 children with brainstem encephalitis infected during the EV71 outbreak in Hainan, China from May 2008 to September 2010. Thirteen cases of brainstem encephalitis were classified as type I based on unilateral or bilateral symmetrical patch-like hyperintense T? and T? MRI signals restricted to the posterior brainstem. In a significant minority of these cases (6/13), damage to the spinal ventral horn was also found. Among these 13 type I cases, 2 patients died, 7 recovered fully, and 4 suffered from various neurological sequelae. Eight cases were classified with type II brainstem encephalitis based on a vague, speckled hyperintense T? and T? signal pattern in the posterior brainstem. Six of these patients recovered fully, and 2 cases suffered from mild sequelae. Reexamination by MRI revealed an enduring lesion in only one type II case, restricted to the medulla oblongata. The prognosis of type II cases was better than that of type I cases. The lesion pattern revealed by MRI can distinguish type I from type II brainstem encephalitis due to EV71 infection and may prove valuable for prognosis. While lesions were usually located in the tegmental part of the brainstem in both patient groups, type I cases also demonstrated spinal, thalamic, and cortical lesions. PMID:23561930

Chen, Feng; Li, Jianjun; Liu, Tao; Wang, Ling; Li, Yan

2013-04-02

105

An infectious molecular clone of an unusual macrophage-tropic and highly cytopathic strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.  

PubMed Central

We isolated and molecularly cloned a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain (89.6) which is unusual because it is both macrophage-tropic and extremely cytopathic in lymphocytes. Moreover, this is the first well-characterized infectious molecularly cloned macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain derived from peripheral blood. HIV-1 89.6 differs markedly from other macrophage-tropic isolates within the envelope V3 region, which is important in determining cell tropism and cytopathicity. HIV-1 89.6 may thus represent a transitional isolate between noncytopathic macrophage-tropic viruses and cytopathic lymphocyte-tropic viruses. Images

Collman, R; Balliet, J W; Gregory, S A; Friedman, H; Kolson, D L; Nathanson, N; Srinivasan, A

1992-01-01

106

Serotype-specific identification of enterovirus 71 by PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 are closely related genetically and are causative agents of hand foot and mouth disease. Because enterovirus 71 is more often associated with severe neurological disease, there is a need to rapidly discriminate between enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 during hand, foot, and mouth disease outbreaks. Objectives: Our goal was to develop and evaluate a

Betty A Brown; David R Kilpatrick; M. Steven Oberste; Mark A Pallansch

2000-01-01

107

Multicenter Quality Assessment of PCR Methods for Detection of Enteroviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a multicenter evaluation of commercial and in-house PCR methods for the detection of enteroviruses. Three coded panels of test and control RNA samples, artificial clinical specimens, and repre- sentative enterovirus serotypes were used to assess amplification methods, RNA extraction methods, and reactivities with different enterovirus serotypes. Despite several differences between PCR methods, there was good agreement, although some

PETER MUIR; ALBERT RAS; PAUL E. KLAPPER; GRAHAM M. CLEATOR; KLAUS KORN; CHRISTIAN AEPINUS; ANDERS FOMSGAARD; PIERRE PALMER; AGNETA SAMUELSSON; ANTONIO TENORIO; BENEDIKT WEISSBRICH; A. M. VAN LOON

1999-01-01

108

Species-specific RT-PCR amplification of human enteroviruses: a tool for rapid species identification of uncharacterized enteroviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 65 serotypes of human enteroviruses are classified into four species, Human enterovirus (HEV) A to D, based largely on phylogenetic relationships in multiple genome regions. The 39-non-translated region of enteroviruses is highly conserved within a species but highly divergent between species. From this information, species-specific RT-PCR primers were developed that can be used to rapidly screen collections of enterovirus

M. Steven Oberste; Kaija Maher; Alford J. Williams; Naomi Dybdahl-Sissoko; Betty A. Brown; Michelle S. Gookin; Silvia Penaranda; Nada Mishrik; Moyez Uddin; Mark A. Pallansch

2006-01-01

109

Management of Atrial Tachycardia in the Newborn With Enterovirus Myocarditis  

PubMed Central

Neonatal enterovirus myocarditis is a rare but serious infection that is often an underrecognized cause of cardiovascular collapse. Enterovirus myocarditis in patients with such collapse should be suspected when signs of congestive heart failure and tachyarrhythmia are present. The majority of reported electrical disturbances associated with enterovirus myocarditis are ventricular in origin, but the infection can present as atrial tachyarrhythmia. Atrial tachyarrhythmias associated with enterovirus myocarditis are difficult to manage because of their resistance to conventional antiarrhythmic therapy. We present 2 cases of neonates with atrial tachycardia associated with enterovirus myocarditis who responded to a combination of amiodarone and flecainide.

Petroni, Daniel H.; Yang, Song G.; Kattash, Mudar M.; Snyder, Christopher S.

2012-01-01

110

Non-polio enteroviruses and their association with acute diarrhea in children in India.  

PubMed

A causative agent in approximately 40% of diarrheal cases still remains unidentified. Though many enteroviruses (EVs) are transmitted through fecal-oral route and replicate in the intestinal cells, their association with acute diarrhea has not so far been recognized due to lack of detailed epidemiological investigations. This long-term, detailed molecular epidemiological study aims to conclusively determine the association of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with acute diarrhea in comparison with rotavirus (RV) in children. Diarrheal stool specimens from 2161 children aged 0-2 years and 169 children between 2 and 9 years, and 1800 normal stool samples from age-matched healthy children between 0 and 9 years were examined during 2008-2012 for enterovirus (oral polio vaccine strains (OPVs) and NPEVs). Enterovirus serotypes were identified by complete VP1 gene sequence analysis. Enterovirus and rotavirus were detected in 19.01% (380/2330) and 13.82% (322/2330) diarrheal stools. During the study period, annual prevalence of EV- and RV-associated diarrhea ranged between 8% and 22%, but with contrasting seasonal prevalence with RV predominating during winter months and NPEV prevailing in other seasons. NPEVs are associated with epidemics-like outbreaks during which they are detected in up to 50% of diarrheic children, and in non-epidemic seasons in 0-10% of the patients. After subtraction of OPV-positive diarrheal cases (1.81%), while NPEVs are associated with about 17% of acute diarrhea, about 6% of healthy children showed asymptomatic NPEV excretion. Of 37 NPEV serotypes detected in diarrheal children, seven echovirus types 1, 7, 11, 13, 14, 30 and 33 are frequently observed, with E11 being more prevalent followed by E30. In conclusion, NPEVs are significantly associated with acute diarrhea, and NPEVs and rotavirus exhibit contrasting seasonal predominance. This study signifies the need for a new direction of research on enteroviruses involving systematic analysis of their contribution to diarrheal burden. PMID:23602838

Rao, Durga C; Ananda Babu, M; Raghavendra, A; Dhananjaya, D; Kumar, Sudheendra; Maiya, P P

2013-04-17

111

Molecular identification of new picornaviruses and characterization of a proposed enterovirus 73 serotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteroviruses (EV) have traditionally been identified by using serotype-specific antisera in a virus- neutralization test. Three EV strains isolated in California, USA, in 1955, 1964 and 1978, and a 1995 Oman isolate, were found to be antigenically related to one another; however, the strains were not neutralized by standard EV typing antisera, suggesting that they may represent a new EV

M. Steven Oberste; David Schnurr; Kaija Maher; Mark A. Pallansch

112

Mapping ongoing European research activities examining the infectious aetiology of chronic conditions.  

PubMed

Chronic conditions contribute to the majority of the mortality and morbidity burden in Europe. The extent to which infectious agents are responsible for the chronic disease burden remains elusive. The complex nature of the natural history of chronic conditions calls for an overview of ongoing research activities linking infectious agents with these conditions in order to guide research endeavours, direct research funding, steer prevention efforts, and point health policy towards promising interventions. A selection of websites hosted by institutions either financing or conducting research within the European Union was screened for ongoing research activities examining infectious aetiology of chronic conditions. The searches were conducted until September 2011, applying search strategies and inclusion criteria predefined in a study protocol. In total, 25 research activities met the inclusion criteria. Of those, ten activities were focused to investigate infectious aetiology of cancer, four focused on type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 11 focused on a wide spectrum of other chronic conditions. The identified research projects did not cover areas such as mental and behavioural disorders. Infectious agents analysed included enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, human rhinoviruses, P. gingivalis, human papillomaviruses, cytomegalovirus, Helicobacter spp. and human parvovirus. Only three projects specifically addressed therapeutic interventions. Ultimately, linking infectious agents with chronic conditions may translate into prevention efforts with vaccinations or treatment strategies with antimicrobial agents, and could, thus, eventually reduce the heavy disease burden from chronic conditions. However, little translational research on therapeutic interventions was found in our search and should be fostered, particularly for more established infectious-chronic disease associations. PMID:23046318

Semenza, J C; Svederud, I; Medin, E; Orrskog, S; Tsolova, S

2012-10-10

113

Detection of wild- and vaccine-type avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus in clinical samples and feather shafts of commercial chickens.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of poultry caused by an alphaherpesvirus (ILTV). To evaluate differential detection of ILTVs belonging to the two types, wild-type or vaccine-type, both causing clinical signs, five PCRs were evaluated to detect wild-type and vaccine-type ILTV in clinical samples. By directly sampling the organs, we aimed to avoid changes in the virus genome and to facilitate a fast diagnosis. The samples were tracheal and spleen homogenates and feather shafts. The latter are easy to collect, nonlethal for the bird, and advantageous for monitoring purposes. We investigated the time interval for vaccine virus detection following commercial vaccination by the vent application, which is successfully practiced in Israel. The study indicated that ILTV amplification from feather shafts was possible in clinical cases for about a one-month period after vaccination. Vaccine strains were identified by nested PCR for the ILTV-gE gene and differed from wild-type ILTV strains by two criteria: (1) While avirulent vaccines could be detected for about a month after the vent application, wild-type virus could be detected, in conjunction with clinical signs, for an unlimited time period; and (2) The ILTV vaccine was present in the bird in minute quantities compared to the wild-type virus. We assessed the virus type that appeared in conjunction with the clinical signs and determined that the clinical signs appeared in conjunction with both molecular forms of ILTV. The vaccine virus-type and the wild-type ILTV differed by their distinct restriction pattern when using the HaeIII restriction enzyme digestion of the nested amplification product. PMID:20095166

Davidson, Irit; Nagar, Sagit; Ribshtein, Israel; Shkoda, Irena; Perk, Shimon; Garcia, Maricarmen

2009-12-01

114

Coxsackievirus B1-based antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA with broad specificity for enteroviruses.  

PubMed Central

An antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with coxsackievirus B1 as the antigen was evaluated for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies and showed broad specificity for enteroviruses. In total, 116 serum or cerebrospinal fluid samples from 62 patients were tested by ELISA and the complement fixation test (CFT). Additionally, 15 serum samples that contained poliovirus-specific IgM antibody were tested. Serum samples from 200 healthy blood donors were used for standardization of the assays. The sensitivity of the ELISA varied with time of serum sampling, with a relatively low sensitivity when serum was collected within 3 days after the onset of symptoms (23%; 5 of 22) but good sensitivity when serum was collected later (83%; 20 of 24). The sensitivity was better than that of the CFT. The ELISAs were broadly reactive as concluded from typing of virus isolates that were simultaneously obtained. The assay did, furthermore, detect antibody against poliovirus type 3. Sera that contained rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, or cardiolipin antibody (by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test) did not react in this ELISA. Nonspecific reactivity did occur, however, in cases of infectious mononucleosis and in Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The enterovirus-specific ELISA is found to be simple to perform, more sensitive than the CFT, and far less laborious than the neutralization test.

Swanink, C M; Veenstra, L; Poort, Y A; Kaan, J A; Galama, J M

1993-01-01

115

Detection of adenoviruses and enteroviruses in polluted waters by nested PCR amplification.  

PubMed Central

A procedure has been developed for the rapid detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses in environmental samples. Several systems for virus concentration and extraction of nucleic acid were tested by adding adenovirus type 2 and poliovirus type 1 to different sewage samples. The most promising method for virus recovery involved the concentration of viruses by centrifugation and elution of the virus pellets by treatment with 0.25 N glycine buffer, pH 9.5. Nucleic acid extraction by adsorption of RNA and DNA to silica particles was the most efficient. One aliquot of the extracted nucleic acids was used for a nested two-step PCR, with specific primers for all adenoviruses; and another aliquot was used to synthesize cDNA for a nested two-step PCR with specific primers for further detection of seeded polioviruses or all enteroviruses in the river water and sewage samples. The specificity and sensitivity were evaluated, and 24 different enterovirus strains and the 47 human adenovirus serotypes were recognized by the primers used. The sensitivity was estimated to be between 1 and 10 virus particles for each of the species tested. Twenty-five samples of sewage and polluted river water were analyzed and showed a much higher number of positive isolates by nested PCR than by tissue culture analysis. The PCR-based detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses shows good results as an indicator of possible viral contamination in environmental wastewater. Images

Puig, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Allard, A; Wadell, G; Girones, R

1994-01-01

116

Enteroviruses and Bacteriophages in Bathing Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new procedure for detecting and counting enteroviruses based on the VIRADEN method applied to 10 liters of seawater was examined. It improved the efficiency of detection by taking into account both the number of positive isolations and numbers found with traditional methods. It was then used to quantify viruses in bathing waters. A number of bacterial indicators and bacteriophages

L. Moce-Llivina; Francisco Lucena; Juan Jofre

2005-01-01

117

Enterovirus 71 Outbreaks, Taiwan: Occurrence and Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) caused a large outbreak in Taiwan in 1998 with 78 deaths, and smaller outbreaks recurred in 2000 and 2001. The outbreak was recognized because of a large number of hand, foot, and mouth disease cases and the rapid deaths of children with the disease. Virologic and pathologic studies indicated that EV71 was the most important agent relat-

Tzou-Yien Lin; Shiing-Jer Twu; Mei-Shang Ho; Luan-Yin Chang; Chin-Yun Lee

2003-01-01

118

Enterovirus infection induces cytokine and chemokine expression in insulin-producing cells.  

PubMed

Despite evidence supporting an association between enterovirus (EV) infection and type 1 diabetes, the etiological mechanism(s) for EV-induced beta cell destruction is(are) not well understood. In this study, the effects of Coxsackievirus B (CVB) 1-6 on cell lysis and cytokine/chemokine expression in the insulinoma-1 (INS-1) beta cell line were investigated. Cytolysis was assessed using tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID(50)). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure viral RNA and mRNA of cytokines interferon (IFN)-?, IFN-?, IFN-?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) in infected INS-1 cells. CVB2, 4, 5, and 6 lysed and replicated in INS-1 cells; TCID(50) was lowest for CVB5 and highest for CVB6. IFN-?, CXCL10, and CCL5 mRNA levels all increased significantly following infection with CVB2, 4, 5, and 6 (P<0.05). CCL2 mRNA increased with CVB2, 5, and 6 (P<0.05), IFN-? mRNA increased with CVB5 infection (P<0.05), while TNF-? mRNA and IFN-? mRNA (P<0.001) increased with CVB2 infection. Dose-dependent effects of infection on cytokine mRNA levels were observed for all (P<0.01) except IFN-?. Following inoculation of INS-1 cells with CVB1 and 3, viral RNA was not detected and cytokine/chemokine mRNA levels were unchanged. In conclusion, CVB2, 4, 5, and 6 induce dose-dependent cytokine and chemokine mRNA production from INS-1 cells suggesting that pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine secretion by beta cells is a potential mechanism for EV-induced beta cell damage in type 1 diabetes. PMID:20872723

Nair, Sandhya; Leung, Kin-Chuen; Rawlinson, William D; Naing, Zin; Craig, Maria E

2010-11-01

119

Enteroviruses in water environment--a potential threat to public health.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses belong to the Picornaviridae family and are the smallest, nonenveloped viruses known to infect both humans and animals. The spread of enteroviral infections is mainly by the faecal-oral and oral-oral route, but also through direct contact with secretions from ophthalmic and dermal lesions. Water, food and soil contaminated by infected faeces are an exogenous infection source which creates many opportunities for the transfer of the infection, and cause an epidemic outbreak in a short period of time. Enteroviruses are being isolated from all types of water: ground, sea, sewage and fresh water environments but also--and what is the most important from the epidemiological point of view--drinking water. They are resilient organisms, able to withstand high concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) and large changes in temperature. These abilities allow the viruses to flourish in a water environment, their natural reservoir. The number of infections in temperate climate regions peak in summer months and early autumn. Detection of enteroviruses in the water environment is performed by virus isolation in cell cultures and the use of molecular techniques. Many researches conducted in different countries with the use of methods mentioned above, reveal widespread environmental contamination by enteroviruses. PMID:19061255

Rajtar, Barbara; Majek, Magdalena; Pola?ski, ?ukasz; Polz-Dacewicz, Ma?gorzata

2008-12-01

120

Molecular and functional characterization of two infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) proteins with type I interferon antagonizing activity.  

PubMed

In this study we characterize two proteins encoded by the two smallest genomic segments of the piscine orthomyxovirus infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Both proteins, encoded by the un-spliced ORF from genomic segment 7 (s7ORF1) and the larger ORF from segment 8 (s8ORF2), are involved in modulation of the type I interferon (IFN) response. The data suggests that the s7ORF1 protein is collinearly encoded, non-structural, contains no nuclear localisation signals, localises mainly to the cytoplasmic perinuclear area and does not bind single- or double-stranded RNA. On the other hand, genomic segment 8 uses a bicistronic coding strategy and the encoded s8ORF2 protein is a structural component of the viral particle. This protein contains two nuclear localisation signals, has a predominantly nuclear localisation, binds both double-stranded RNA and poly-A tailed single-stranded RNA, but not double-stranded DNA. In poly I:C stimulated salmon cells both ISAV proteins independently down-regulate the type I IFN promoter activity. Thus, ISAV counteracts the type I IFN response by the action of at least two of its gene products, rather than just one, as appears to be the case for other known members of the Orthomyxoviridae. PMID:18304672

Garcķa-Rosado, Esther; Markussen, Turhan; Kileng, Oyvind; Baekkevold, Espen S; Robertsen, Bųrre; Mjaaland, Siri; Rimstad, Espen

2008-03-04

121

The persistence of infectious adenovirus (type 35) in mussels ( Mytilus edulis) and oysters ( Ostrea edulis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to provide information for improving risk assessment of viral contaminants in bivalves. The persistence of viable adenovirus type 35 (Ad35) after controlled contaminations of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, and oysters, Ostrea edulis, was studied. Bivalves, kept in running seawater at two different temperatures (4 and 18 °C) were sampled after 1, 3, 7, 14, 21,

Bodil Hernroth; Annika Allard

2007-01-01

122

Diverse apoptotic pathways in enterovirus 71-infected cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms related to the neuropathogenesis of enterovirus 71 infection remain unclear. This investigation conducts a comprehensive\\u000a study of the apoptotic pathways in neural and non-neural cells following enterovirus 71 infection. Infections with enterovirus\\u000a 71 not only induce classical cytopathic effects in SF268 (human glioblastoma), SK-N-MC (human neuroblastoma), RD, and Vero\\u000a cells, but also induce classic signs of apoptosis in all

Shih-Cheng Chang; Jing-Yi Lin; Lily Yen-Cheng Lo; Mei-Ling Li; Shin-Ru Shih

2004-01-01

123

CD63 Is Not Required for Production of Infectious Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Human Macrophages?  

PubMed Central

During the assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles, the tetraspanin CD63 can be incorporated into the viral membrane. Indeed, cell surface tetraspanin microdomains that include CD63 have been proposed as sites for virus release. In addition, antibodies against CD63 can inhibit HIV infection of macrophages. In this cell type, HIV assembles into intracellularly sequestered plasma membrane domains that contain several other tetraspanins, including CD81, CD9, and CD53. CD63 is recruited to this domain following HIV infection. Together, these observations suggest that CD63 may have some function in the assembly of infectious virus particles and/or the infectivity of assembled virions. Here we have used RNA interference to knock down CD63 expression in monocyte-derived primary macrophages. We show that in the absence of CD63, HIV assembly is quantitatively comparable to that seen in CD63-expressing macrophages and that virus assembly occurs on compartments positive for CD81, CD9, and CD53. Moreover, the infectivity of macrophage-derived virus is unaffected by the loss of CD63. Together, our results indicate that at least in tissue culture, CD63 expression is not required for either the production or the infectivity of HIV-1.

Ruiz-Mateos, Ezequiel; Pelchen-Matthews, Annegret; Deneka, Magdalena; Marsh, Mark

2008-01-01

124

Enterovirus 70 Receptor Utilization Is Controlled by Capsid Residues That Also Regulate Host Range and Cytopathogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus type 70, an etiologic agent of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, may bind different cellular receptors depending on cell type. To understand how EV70-receptor interaction is controlled, we studied two variants of the virus with distinct receptor utilization. EV70-Rmk, derived by passage in rhesus monkey kidney cells, replicates poorly in HeLa cells and does not cause cytopathic effects. Decay accelerating factor

Melissa Stewart Kim; Vincent R. Racaniello

2007-01-01

125

Infectious Encephalomyelitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infectious encephalomyelitis (IEM) of horses is an acute infectious disease. It is caused by a neurotropic filterable virus and is accompanied by a disruption of the activity of the nervous system, jaundice of the mucous membranes and with a distinctly ex...

V. M. Lekareva

1968-01-01

126

Polymorphisms in the Innate Immune IFIH1 Gene, Frequency of Enterovirus in Monthly Fecal Samples during Infancy, and Islet Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) senses and initiates antiviral activity against enteroviruses. Genetic variants of IFIH1, one common and four rare SNPs have been associated with lower risk for type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to test whether these type 1 diabetes-associated IFIH1 polymorphisms are associated with the occurrence of enterovirus infection in the gut of healthy children, or influence the lack of association between gut enterovirus infection and islet autoimmunity. After testing of 46,939 Norwegian newborns, 421 children carrying the high risk genotype for type 1 diabetes (HLA-DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2) as well as 375 children without this genotype were included for monthly fecal collections from 3 to 35 months of age, and genotyped for the IFIH1 polymorphisms. A total of 7,793 fecal samples were tested for presence of enterovirus RNA using real time reverse transcriptase PCR. We found no association with frequency of enterovirus in the gut for the common IFIH1 polymorphism rs1990760, or either of the rare variants of rs35744605, rs35667974, rs35337543, while the enterovirus prevalence marginally differed in samples from the 8 carriers of a rare allele of rs35732034 (26.1%, 18/69 samples) as compared to wild-type homozygotes (12.4%, 955/7724 samples); odds ratio 2.5, p?=?0.06. The association was stronger when infections were restricted to those with high viral loads (odds ratio 3.3, 95% CI 1.3–8.4, p?=?0.01). The lack of association between enterovirus frequency and islet autoimmunity reported in our previous study was not materially influenced by the IFIH1 SNPs. We conclude that the type 1 diabetes-associated IFIH1 polymorphisms have no, or only minor influence on the occurrence, quantity or duration of enterovirus infection in the gut. Its effect on the risk of diabetes is likely to lie elsewhere in the pathogenic process than in the modification of gut infection.

Wits?, Elisabet; Tapia, German; Cinek, Ondrej; Pociot, Flemming Michael; Stene, Lars C.; R?nningen, Kjersti S.

2011-01-01

127

Polymorphisms in the innate immune IFIH1 gene, frequency of enterovirus in monthly fecal samples during infancy, and islet autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) senses and initiates antiviral activity against enteroviruses. Genetic variants of IFIH1, one common and four rare SNPs have been associated with lower risk for type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to test whether these type 1 diabetes-associated IFIH1 polymorphisms are associated with the occurrence of enterovirus infection in the gut of healthy children, or influence the lack of association between gut enterovirus infection and islet autoimmunity.After testing of 46,939 Norwegian newborns, 421 children carrying the high risk genotype for type 1 diabetes (HLA-DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2) as well as 375 children without this genotype were included for monthly fecal collections from 3 to 35 months of age, and genotyped for the IFIH1 polymorphisms. A total of 7,793 fecal samples were tested for presence of enterovirus RNA using real time reverse transcriptase PCR.We found no association with frequency of enterovirus in the gut for the common IFIH1 polymorphism rs1990760, or either of the rare variants of rs35744605, rs35667974, rs35337543, while the enterovirus prevalence marginally differed in samples from the 8 carriers of a rare allele of rs35732034 (26.1%, 18/69 samples) as compared to wild-type homozygotes (12.4%, 955/7724 samples); odds ratio 2.5, p?=?0.06. The association was stronger when infections were restricted to those with high viral loads (odds ratio 3.3, 95% CI 1.3-8.4, p?=?0.01). The lack of association between enterovirus frequency and islet autoimmunity reported in our previous study was not materially influenced by the IFIH1 SNPs.We conclude that the type 1 diabetes-associated IFIH1 polymorphisms have no, or only minor influence on the occurrence, quantity or duration of enterovirus infection in the gut. Its effect on the risk of diabetes is likely to lie elsewhere in the pathogenic process than in the modification of gut infection. PMID:22110759

Witsų, Elisabet; Tapia, German; Cinek, Ondrej; Pociot, Flemming Michael; Stene, Lars C; Rųnningen, Kjersti S

2011-11-14

128

Les Enterovirus responsables de conjonctivite aiguė hémorragique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is an epidemic form of highly contagious conjunctivitis, characterized by conjunctival hemorrhages. The first AHC outbreak was described in 1969 in Ghana, West Africa, and was called Apollo disease, from the Apollo landing on the moon. This outbreak was caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV70) together with a Coxsackievirus A24 (CVA24v) variant, which are the major etiological agents

N. Lévźque; P. Huguet; H. Norder; J.-J. Chomel

2010-01-01

129

Attempts to reproduce a runting/stunting-type syndrome using infectious agents isolated from affected Mississippi broilers.  

PubMed

Various organisms, including 12 aerobic and 2 anaerobic bacteria, an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a reovirus, and 2 bacteriophages, were isolated from intestinal tracts of commercial broiler chicks undergoing a runting/stunting-type condition. In a series of trials, these agents were given alone and in combination to 1-day-old chicks in an attempt to reproduce the field condition. Because the agents were isolated and evaluated over time, an augmented designs variation of the analysis of variance proved particularly useful in analyzing the data collected and minimizing bird usage. Chicks inoculated with tryptose phosphate broth served as negative controls, and those inoculated with the original intestinal tract material were positive controls. Relative to the negative control chicks, body weights of the positive control chicks and of chicks inoculated with several of the agent combinations were depressed at 7, 14, and 21 days postinoculation. Common to combinations that most consistently caused weight depression were reovirus + IBV + others of the agents isolated. However, because none of the agent combinations reproduced the lethargy or dry feces seen in the positive controls, none was considered to be the ultimate cause of this particular runting/stunting-type condition. Further characterization of the disease syndrome was based on the positive control chicks. These chicks consistently had lowered body weights and transient lethargy and dry fecal pellets. Microscopic lesions consisted of lymphocytic renal and pancreatic interstitial infiltrates, dilated or cystic duodenal and jejunal crypts of Lieberkühn, increased crypt depth, and increased cellularity in the intestinal lamina propria. Electron microscopy revealed regular arrays of 26-nm viral particles, usually in association with membrane debris, in intestinal epithelial cells and crypt lumens and in intestinal and renal mesenchymal cells. These viral particles were theorized to be essential to reproduction of the complete malady seen. PMID:9087323

Montgomery, R D; Boyle, C R; Maslin, W R; Magee, D L

130

Fatal case of enterovirus 71 infection, France, 2007.  

PubMed

A fatal case of enterovirus 71 infection with pulmonary edema and rhombencephalitis occurred in Brest, France, in April 2007. The virus was identified as subgenogroup C2. This highly neurotropic enterovirus merits specific surveillance outside the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:19891879

Vallet, Sophie; Legrand Quillien, Marie Christine; Dailland, Thomas; Podeur, Gaėtan; Gouriou, Stéphanie; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Payan, Christopher; Marcorelles, Pascale

2009-11-01

131

Outbreak of severe neurologic involvement associated with enterovirus 71 infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus 71 has been associated with several outbreaks, as well as sporadic cases, of central nervous system infection and has a worldwide distribution. Seven children with encephalitis and five with aseptic meningitis caused by Enterovirus 71 were seen at Otsu Municipal Hospital during the summer of 1997. The infections were confirmed serologically, although detection of the viral genome in cerebrospinal

Hiroshi Komatsu; Yoshitaka Shimizu; Yoshihiro Takeuchi; Hiroaki Ishiko; Hiroshi Takada

1999-01-01

132

Passive protection effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins on enterovirus 71 infected mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to evaluate the passive protective efficiency of immunoglobulin in yolk (IgY) specific against human enterovirus type 71 (EV71). The antibody was raised by intramuscular immunization to 10 White Leghorn hens, with inactivated human EV71 serving as the antigen. The titer and specificity of the antibody were analyzed from purified IgY in the egg yolks

Jenn-Fa Liou; Chih-Wei Chang; Jui-jane Tailiu; Chun-Keung Yu; Huan-Yao Lei; Lih-Ren Chen; Chein Tai

2010-01-01

133

Infectious Co-factors in HIV-1 transmission Herpes Simplex Virus type-2 and HIV-1: New Insights and interventions  

PubMed Central

Over the last thirty years, epidemiologic and molecular studies indicate a strong and synergist relationship between the dual epidemics of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) and HIV-1 infection. While prospective studies show that HSV-2 infection increases the risk for HIV-1 acquisition by two-three fold, HSV-2 suppression with standard prophylactic doses of HSV-2 therapy did not prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Reconciling these discrepancies requires understanding recent HSV-2 pathogenesis research, which indicates HSV-2 infection is not a latent infection with infrequent recurrence but a near constant state of reactivation and viral shedding which is not completely suppressed by standard antivirals. Because current antivirals do not prevent or fully suppress HSV-2 replication, priorities are HSV-2 vaccine development and antivirals that reach high concentrations in the genital mucosa and suppress the persistent genital inflammation associated with genital herpes reactivation in order to reduce the increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection associated with HSV-2. HIV-1 and HSV-2 synergy is also seen among co-infected individuals who exhibit higher HIV-1 viral load compared to HSV-2 uninfected individuals. Standard HSV-2 therapy modestly lowers HIV-1 viral load and is associated with slower HIV-1 disease progression. A promising area of research is higher doses of HSV-2 suppressive therapy achieving a greater reduction in plasma HIV-1 RNA, which could translate to greater reductions in HIV-1 disease progression and infectiousness. However, many questions remain to be answered including potential effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of higher dose HSV-2 suppressive therapy. Mathematical models of HSV-2 and HIV-1 at a population level would be useful tools to estimate the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of higher dose HSV-2 suppressive therapy.

Barnabas, Ruanne V; Celum, Connie

2013-01-01

134

Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) replication is transiently inhibited by Atlantic salmon type I interferon in cell culture.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is a piscine orthomyxovirus, which causes multisystemic disease in farmed Atlantic salmon that may result in large losses. Previous work has suggested that ISAV is able to resist the antiviral state induced in cells by type I interferon (IFN). These studies were, however, mainly based on cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assays. Here we have investigated the antiviral activity of Atlantic salmon IFNa1, IFNb and IFNc against ISAV using quantitative PCR (qPCR) of segment 6, Western blot analysis of ISAV proteins and viral yield reduction assays, in addition to CPE reduction assays. Antiviral effects of IFNs were tested against the high virulent strain ISAV4 and the low virulent strain ISAV7 both at the optimum growth temperature 15°C and at 20°C. As expected, IFNa1 showed little protection against CPE development in cells after infection with both strains at 15°C. However, the qPCR and Western blot analysis clearly showed strong inhibition of replication of the virus strains by IFNa1 between 24 and 72h after infection. The inhibitory effect declined four to five days post-infection, which explains the low protection against CPE development 7-10 days later. At 20°C, IFNa1 showed strong protection against CPE development, probably due to slower virus growth. IFNc showed similar antiviral activity as IFNa1 against ISAV4 while IFNb showed lower activity. There were observed differences between ISAV4 and ISAV7 both with respect inhibition by IFNa1 and ability to induce the two IFN-inducible antiviral effector proteins, Mx and ISG15, which may be related to differences in virulence properties and/or adaption to growth in cell culture. PMID:23973914

Svingerud, Tina; Holand, Jenni Kristin; Robertsen, Bųrre

2013-08-20

135

Vaccine candidates derived from a novel infectious cDNA clone of an American genotype dengue virus type 2  

PubMed Central

Background A dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2 Tonga/74) isolated from a 1974 epidemic was characterized by mild illness and belongs to the American genotype of DEN-2 viruses. To prepare a vaccine candidate, a previously described 30 nucleotide deletion (?30) in the 3' untranslated region of DEN-4 has been engineered into the DEN-2 isolate. Methods A full-length cDNA clone was generated from the DEN-2 virus and used to produce recombinant DEN-2 (rDEN-2) and rDEN2?30. Viruses were evaluated for replication in SCID mice transplanted with human hepatoma cells (SCID-HuH-7 mice), in mosquitoes, and in rhesus monkeys. Neutralizing antibody induction and protective efficacy were also assessed in rhesus monkeys. Results The rDEN2?30 virus was ten-fold reduced in replication in SCID-HuH-7 mice when compared to the parent virus. The rDEN-2 viruses were not infectious for Aedes mosquitoes, but both readily infected Toxorynchites mosquitoes. In rhesus monkeys, rDEN2?30 appeared to be slightly attenuated when compared to the parent virus as measured by duration and peak of viremia and neutralizing antibody induction. A derivative of rDEN2?30, designated rDEN2?30-4995, was generated by incorporation of a point mutation previously identified in the NS3 gene of DEN-4 and was found to be more attenuated than rDEN2?30 in SCID-HuH-7 mice. Conclusions The rDEN2?30 and rDEN2?30-4995 viruses can be considered for evaluation in humans and for inclusion in a tetravalent dengue vaccine.

Blaney, Joseph E; Hanson, Christopher T; Hanley, Kathryn A; Murphy, Brian R; Whitehead, Stephen S

2004-01-01

136

Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52\\/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection of a suitable internal control gene, real time PCR parameters were evaluated for three candidate

Y. P. Li; K. J. Handberg; S. Kabell; M. Kusk; M. F. Zhang; P. H. Jųrgensen

2007-01-01

137

Genetic diversity and correlation with feline infectious peritonitis of feline coronavirus type I and II: A 5-year study in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcomes of feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection vary greatly from asymptomatic or mild enteric infection to fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). On the basis of in vitro neutralization tests, FCoVs can be divided into two serotypes. To explore the correlation between different types of FCoV and FIP, clinical specimens collected from 363 naturally infected cats during 2003–2007 were analyzed. Amplification

Chao-Nan Lin; Bi-Ling Su; Ching-Ho Wang; Ming-Wei Hsieh; Ti-Jen Chueh; Ling-Ling Chueh

2009-01-01

138

[Infectious etiology of acute idiopathic intussusception in children].  

PubMed

The intussusception (IIA) is an invagination of the immediate part of the intestine. She is responsible for a syndrome with an occlusive venous compression and swelling that can rapidly progress to intestinal necrosis. Most cases occur in children aged 6 to 18 months and occur more frequently in boys than girls. There are two types of IIA: the IIA idiopathic representing 90-95% of invaginations of the child and the IIA secondary to local injury of the gastrointestinal tract or occurring in a particular context whose frequency are between 5 and 10%. The pathogenesis of the IIA remains uncertain, but the infectious origin is criminalized in most idiopathic invaginations. This component is dominated by viral agents including adenovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, human herpesvirus 6 and 7, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barrvirus. Bacterial agents are rather found and include Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157, H7, Salmonella and Campylobacter. In a small proportion parasitic agents may be reported in the IIA, the most frequently found are Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichuira, Ascaris lumbricoides, Ankylostoma and Giardia. PMID:23906565

Khalifa, Anis Ben Haj; Jebali, Amira; Kedher, Mohamed; Trabelsi, Abdelhalim

139

Fluorescent-Antibody Studies with Antisera Against Heated and Unheated Poliovirus Type 1  

PubMed Central

Fluorescent-antibody (FA) reagents were prepared from sera of guinea pigs immunized with either native infectious poliovirus type 1 or poliovirus type 1 which had been heated at 56 C for 30 min. Conjugates made from sera of animals immunized with heated virus gave higher direct FA staining titers on air-dried, acetone-fixed, infected cells than conjugates made from sera of animals immunized with native infectious virus. Evidence was obtained that complement-fixing antibody reactive with heated antigen was responsible for the FA staining. Two conjugates prepared from sera of guinea pigs immunized with heated poliovirus type 1 were successfully used to identify 21 type 1 viruses isolated from a group of 44 stool suspensions studied as unknowns. These conjugates did not stain any of 23 heterologous enteroviruses present in the remainder of the stools and gave minimal non-specific staining.

Hatch, Milford H.

1969-01-01

140

Cytokine and chemokine production by human pancreatic islets upon enterovirus infection.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses of the human enterovirus B species (HEV-Bs) (e.g., coxsackie B viruses [CVBs] and echoviruses) have been implicated as environmental factors that trigger/accelerate type 1 diabetes, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the cytokines and chemokines that are produced by human pancreatic islets upon infection with CVBs. To this end, we studied the response of human islets of Langerhans upon mock or CVB3 infection. Using quantitative PCR, we showed that upon CVB3 infection, transcription of interferon (IFN), IFN-stimulated genes, and inflammatory genes was induced. Analysis of secreted cytokines and chemokines by Luminex technology confirmed production and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?) as well as various chemotactic proteins, such as IFN-?-induced protein 10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?, MIP-1?, and IL-8. Infection with other HEV-Bs induced similar responses, yet their extent depended on replication efficiency. Ultra violet-inactivated CVB3 did not induce any response, suggesting that virus replication is a prerequisite for antiviral responses. Our data represent the first comprehensive overview of inflammatory mediators that are secreted by human islets of Langerhans upon CVB infection and may shed light on the role of enteroviruses in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:22596052

Schulte, Barbara M; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; Piganelli, Jon D; Kers-Rebel, Esther D; Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo; Huijbens, Richard J F; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Engelse, Marten A; de Koning, Eelco J P; Galama, Jochem M; Adema, Gosse J; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

2012-05-17

141

The detection of enteroviruses in sewage using Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

The work presented here demonstrates the utility of Caco-2 cells to detect enteroviruses in sewage. Viruses were concentrated by beef extract elution and organic flocculation prior to analysis by cell culture assays and RT-PCR. Enteroviruses were detected in all sewage samples, but only one sample was positive solely in RT-PCR assay. We proved that Caco-2 cells were more effective than RD and L20B cells in enterovirus isolation, depending on procedures used in the inoculation process. PMID:23829085

Wieczorek, Magdalena; Kuryk, ?ukasz; Witek, Agnieszka; Diuwe, Anna; Litwi?ska, Bogumi?a

2013-01-01

142

Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the threat of a warmer, wetter world and a larger global population, scientists are researching how climate change may impact the spread of infectious diseases,Āsuch as cholera and dengue fever, and how outbreaks may be prevented.Ā "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

143

Molecular Determinants of Enterovirus 71 Viral Entry  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major pathogens that cause hand, foot, and mouth disease outbreaks in young children in the Asia-Pacific region in recent years. Human scavenger receptor class B 2 (SCARB2) is the main cellular receptor for EV71 on target cells. The requirements of the EV71-SCARB2 interaction have not been fully characterized, and it has not been determined whether SCARB2 serves as an uncoating receptor for EV71. Here we compared the efficiency of the receptor from different species including human, horseshoe bat, mouse, and hamster and demonstrated that the residues between 144 and 151 are critical for SCARB2 binding to viral capsid protein VP1 of EV71 and seven residues from the human receptor could convert murine SCARB2, an otherwise inefficient receptor, to an efficient receptor for EV71 viral infection. We also identified that EV71 binds to SCARB2 via a canyon of VP1 around residue Gln-172. Soluble SCARB2 could convert the EV71 virions from 160 S to 135 S particles, indicating that SCARB2 is an uncoating receptor of the virus. The uncoating efficiency of SCARB2 significantly increased in an acidic environment (pH 5.6). These studies elucidated the viral capsid and receptor determinants of enterovirus 71 infection and revealed a possible target for antiviral interventions.

Chen, Pan; Song, Zilin; Qi, Yonghe; Feng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Naiqing; Sun, Yinyan; Wu, Xing; Yao, Xin; Mao, Qunyin; Li, Xiuling; Dong, Wenjuan; Wan, Xiaobo; Huang, Niu; Shen, Xinliang; Liang, Zhenglun; Li, Wenhui

2012-01-01

144

Development and assay of RNA transcripts of enterovirus species A to D, rhinovirus species a to C, and human parechovirus: assessment of assay sensitivity and specificity of real-time screening and typing methods.  

PubMed

Nucleic acid amplification methods such as the PCR have had a major impact on the diagnosis of viral infections, often achieving greater sensitivities and shorter turnaround times than conventional assays and an ability to detect viruses refractory to conventional isolation methods. Their effectiveness is, however, significantly influenced by assay target sequence variability due to natural diversity and rapid sequence changes in viruses that prevent effective binding of primers and probes. This was investigated for a diverse range of enteroviruses (EVs; species A to D), human rhinoviruses (HRVs; species A to C), and human parechovirus (HPeV) in a multicenter assay evaluation using a series of full-length prequantified RNA transcripts. RNA concentrations were quantified by absorption (NanoDrop) and fluorescence methods (RiboGreen) prior to dilution in buffer supplemented with RNase inhibitors and carrier RNA. RNA transcripts were extremely stable, showing minimal degradation after prolonged storage at temperatures between ambient and -20°C and after multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Transcript dilutions distributed to six referral laboratories were screened by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays using different primers and probes. All of the laboratories reported high assay sensitivities for EV and HPeV transcripts approaching single copies and similar amplification kinetics for all four EV species. HRV detection sensitivities were more variable, often with substantially impaired detection of HRV species C. This could be accounted for in part by the placement of primers and probes to genetically variable target regions. Transcripts developed in this study provide reagents for the ongoing development of effective diagnostics that accommodate increasing knowledge of genetic heterogeneity of diagnostic targets. PMID:22740708

McLeish, Nigel J; Witteveldt, Jeroen; Clasper, Lucy; McIntyre, Chloe; McWilliam Leitch, E Carol; Hardie, Alison; Bennett, Susan; Gunson, Rory; Carman, William F; Feeney, Susan A; Coyle, Peter V; Vipond, Barry; Muir, Peter; Benschop, Kimberley; Wolthers, Katja; Waris, Matti; Osterback, Riikka; Johannessen, Ingo; Templeton, Kate; Harvala, Heli; Simmonds, Peter

2012-06-27

145

Relationship between infectious cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 load, T lymphocyte subsets, and stage of infection in homosexual men.  

PubMed

The relationship between cell-associated infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) load (infectious units/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells [IUPM]) and phenotypes of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes was studied. IUPM were measured in 242 HIV-infected homosexual men by quantitative microculture and T cell subsets by two-color flow cytometry. In multivariate analysis, IUPM correlated negatively with CD4+ lymphocyte level and with a diagnosis of AIDS and positively with the proportion of CD8+ lymphocytes expressing the activation marker CD38. After adjusting for level of CD4+ lymphocytes, men with AIDS had significantly lower IUPM than those without AIDS. The correlation between IUPM and CD4+ lymphocyte level was largely explained by correlation with level of CD4+ lymphocytes with resting phenotypes (HLA-DR-, CD38-) rather than with those expressing HLA-DR and CD38. Thus, subsets of CD4+ lymphocytes may vary in cell-associated infectious HIV content at different stages of HIV infection. PMID:8568314

Margolick, J B; Farzadegan, H; Hoover, D R; Saah, A J

1996-02-01

146

Infectious Diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The mechanisms of disease production by enteric pathogens include mucosal adherence, mucosal invasion, and the effect of toxins\\u000a and destruction of absorptive cells.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical syndromes of infectious diarrhea include food poisoning, viral gastroenteritis, diarrhea in the returning traveler,\\u000a community-acquired infectious diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infection, and subacute to chronic diarrhea due to parasitic diseases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Bloody diarrhea in an

Manie Beheshti; W. Lance George

147

Prognostic implications of myoclonic jerk in children with enterovirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the prognostic value of myoclonic jerk in children with enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection, a retrospective study was conducted on 665 enterovirus culture-confirmed patients admitted to Chang Gung Children's Hospital from January 2000 to September 2001. The mean age was 35.0 months ± 32.2 months, ranging from 1 day to 15 years and 416 (62.6%) of them were male.

Hsiao-Kuo Lu; Tzou-Yien Lin; Shao-Hsuan Hsia; Cheng-Hsun Chiu; Yhu-Chering Huang; Kuo-Chien Tsao; Luan-Yin Chang

148

Complete nucleotide sequence of enterovirus 71 is distinct from poliovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is capable of causing paralytic disease indistinguishable from poliomyelitis due to poliovirus. To determine the relationship of EV71 to poliovirus and other enteroviruses, two strains of EV71 have been cloned and sequenced. The EV71 strains had only 46% amino acid identity with the polioviral P1 capsid region and 55% with the entire polyprotein. There were no regions

Betty A. Brown; Mark A. Pallansch

1995-01-01

149

Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Detection and identification of infectious ­microorganisms involve the use of conventional immunohistochemistry in addition\\u000a to many other techniques, including culture, serology, histochemistry, in situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction, and\\u000a direct fluorescence antibody assays. This chapter takes into consideration all of these techniques while answering questions\\u000a about bacterial, mycobacterial viral, fungal, and protozoan testing. The best techniques and testing conditions are

Dirk M. Elston; Lawrence E. Gibson; Heinz Kutzner

150

Passive Immunity in Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Antibodies have been used for over a century in the prevention and treatment of infectious disease. They are used most commonly for the prevention of measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, varicella, rabies, and vaccinia. Although their use in the treatment of bacterial infection has largely been supplanted by antibiotics, antibodies remain a critical component of the treatment of diptheria, tetanus, and botulism. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin can be used to treat certain viral infections in immunocompromised patients (e.g., cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, and enterovirus infections). Antibodies may also be of value in toxic shock syndrome, Ebola virus, and refractory staphylococcal infections. Palivizumab, the first monoclonal antibody licensed (in 1998) for an infectious disease, can prevent respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants. The development and use of additional monoclonal antibodies to key epitopes of microbial pathogens may further define protective humoral responses and lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.

Keller, Margaret A.; Stiehm, E. Richard

2000-01-01

151

HLA-DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 genotype and frequency of enterovirus in longitudinal monthly fecal samples from healthy infants.  

PubMed

Enterovirus infections may be involved in the etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D), which is strongly associated with certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II haplotypes. Our aim was to assess whether HLA genotypes conferring varying degrees of risk for T1D were associated with enterovirus gut infections. From the general Norwegian population, 190 healthy infants at high-risk for T1D (DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2), and 383 infants without this genotype were identified. Non-DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2 genotypes were further categorized as conferring either an increased-to-moderate risk (DR4-DQ8 or DR3-DQ2), were protective (DQB1*06:02), or were neutral (all other genotypes). A total of 4626 monthly fecal samples taken between age 3 and 12?mo were tested for enterovirus RNA using real-time PCR. Enterovirus prevalence was 11.5% among high-risk children, and 12.2% in other children (adjusted odds ratio: 1.23, p=0.12). The prevalence was 11.3% in those with increased-to-moderate risk, 13.0% in the protective group, and 12.6% in the neutral group (likelihood ratio test, 3 d.f.: p=0.37). In conclusion, there was no statistically significant association between HLA genotype and the occurrence of human enterovirus gut infections. PMID:22691100

Witsų, Elisabet; Cinek, Ondrej; Tapia, German; Rasmussen, Trond; Stene, Lars C; Rųnningen, Kjersti S

2012-06-01

152

Persistence of enteroviruses in sewage sludge*  

PubMed Central

Sewage from residential areas often contains viruses pathogenic for man and significant amounts are probably associated with solids in sewage sludge. Information on the survival of viruses in sewage sludge is necessary in order to develop guidelines for recycling programmes that involve spreading the sludge on land. In the present study, a number of enteroviruses were added to sewage sludge and the artificially contaminated sludges were tested for viruses at intervals over a 12-week period. Most of the viruses survived for many weeks at room temperature. It is clear that sewage sludge destined for land application should be adequately treated for virus inactivation. In interpreting these results, it should be borne in mind that the survival of hepatitis A virus might be similar. Recent reports about the reappearance of poliomyelitis in regions with immunization programmes should also be taken into consideration.

Subrahmanyan, T. P.

1977-01-01

153

Rapid detection of enteroviruses in small volumes of natural waters by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR.  

PubMed

Despite viral contamination of recreational waters, only bacterial, not viral, indicators are monitored routinely, due to a lack of rapid and cost-effective assays. We used negatively charged filters to capture enteroviruses from seawater and freshwater. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Poliovirus (6.6 to 330,000 virus particles/ml) was added to samples from watersheds in Los Angeles, California, and analysis showed that with 50-ml samples, a cellulose acetate/nitrate (HA) filter yielded final recovery of 51% (r2= 0.99) in fresh water and 23% (r2= 0.90) in seawater. However, for additions of low levels of virus (more likely to represent field samples; <10(4) enterovirus particles/ml), the recovery was lower and more variable, with HA being best in freshwater (17%, r2= 0.97) and the type GF/F glass filter having higher average recovery in seawater (GF/F, 17%; r2= 0.93; HA 12%, r2= 0.87). The optimized method was used with 1-liter field samples from two very different freshwater "creeks" that drain into Santa Monica Bay, California: Topanga Creek (TC), a relatively pristine mountain creek, and Ballona Creek (BC), a concrete-lined urban storm drain. One TC site out of 10 and 2 BC sites out of 7 tested significantly positive for enteroviruses, with higher enterovirus concentrations in BC than in TC (ca. 10 to 25 versus 1 equivalent enterovirus particle/ml). The presented filtration-qRT-PCR approach is fast (<8 h from sampling to results), sensitive, and cost efficient and is promising for monitoring viral contamination in environmental water samples. PMID:16085845

Fuhrman, Jed A; Liang, Xiaolin; Noble, Rachel T

2005-08-01

154

Rapid Detection of Enteroviruses in Small Volumes of Natural Waters by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR  

PubMed Central

Despite viral contamination of recreational waters, only bacterial, not viral, indicators are monitored routinely, due to a lack of rapid and cost-effective assays. We used negatively charged filters to capture enteroviruses from seawater and freshwater. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Poliovirus (6.6 to 330,000 virus particles/ml) was added to samples from watersheds in Los Angeles, California, and analysis showed that with 50-ml samples, a cellulose acetate/nitrate (HA) filter yielded final recovery of 51% (r2 = 0.99) in fresh water and 23% (r2 = 0.90) in seawater. However, for additions of low levels of virus (more likely to represent field samples; <104 enterovirus particles/ml), the recovery was lower and more variable, with HA being best in freshwater (17%, r2 = 0.97) and the type GF/F glass filter having higher average recovery in seawater (GF/F, 17%; r2 = 0.93; HA 12%, r2 = 0.87). The optimized method was used with 1-liter field samples from two very different freshwater “creeks” that drain into Santa Monica Bay, California: Topanga Creek (TC), a relatively pristine mountain creek, and Ballona Creek (BC), a concrete-lined urban storm drain. One TC site out of 10 and 2 BC sites out of 7 tested significantly positive for enteroviruses, with higher enterovirus concentrations in BC than in TC (ca. 10 to 25 versus 1 equivalent enterovirus particle/ml). The presented filtration-qRT-PCR approach is fast (<8 h from sampling to results), sensitive, and cost efficient and is promising for monitoring viral contamination in environmental water samples.

Fuhrman, Jed A.; Liang, Xiaolin; Noble, Rachel T.

2005-01-01

155

Multiple heparan sulfate binding site engagements are required for the infectious entry of human papillomavirus type 16.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) entry is accompanied by multiple receptor-induced conformational changes (CCs) affecting both the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Interaction of heparan sulfate (HS) with L1 is essential for successful HPV16 entry. Recently, cocrystallization of HPV16 with heparin revealed four distinct binding sites. Here we characterize mutant HPV16 to delineate the role of engagement with HS binding sites during infectious internalization. Site 1 (Lys278, Lys361), which mediates primary binding, is sufficient to trigger an L2 CC, exposing the amino terminus. Site 2 (Lys54, Lys356) and site 3 (Asn57, Lys59, Lys442, Lys443) are engaged following primary attachment and are required for infectious entry. Site 2 mutant particles are efficiently internalized but fail to undergo an L1 CC on the cell surface and subsequent uncoating in the endocytic compartment. After initial attachment to the cell, site 3 mutants undergo L1 and L2 CCs and then accumulate on the extracellular matrix (ECM). We conclude that the induction of CCs following site 1 and site 2 interactions results in reduced affinity for the primary HS binding site(s) on the cell surface, which allows engagement with site 3. Taken together, our findings suggest that HS binding site engagement induces CCs that prepare the virus for downstream events, such as the exposure of secondary binding sites, CCs, transfer to the uptake receptor, and uncoating. PMID:23966387

Richards, Kathleen F; Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Dasgupta, Jhimli; Chen, Xiaojiang S; Sapp, Martin

2013-08-21

156

Enterovirus infection in Korean children and anti-enteroviral potential candidate agents.  

PubMed

Although most enterovirus infections are not serious enough to be life threatening, several enteroviruses such as enterovirus 71 are responsible for severe, potentially life-threatening disease. The epidemic patterns of enteroviruses occur regularly during the year, but they may change due to environmental shifts induced by climate change due to global warming. Therefore, enterovirus epidemiological studies should be performed continuously as a basis for anti-viral studies. A great number of synthesized antiviral compounds that work against enteroviruses have been developed but only a few have demonstrated effectiveness in vivo. No proven effective antiviral agents are available for enterovirus disease therapy. The development of a new antiviral drug is a difficult task due to poor selective toxicity and cost. To overcome these limitations, one approach is to accelerate the availability of other existing antiviral drugs approved for antiviral effect against enteroviruses, and the other way is to screen traditional medicinal plants. PMID:23133481

Park, Kwi Sung; Choi, Young Jin; Park, Joon Soo

2012-10-29

157

Detection and whole genome sequence analysis of an enterovirus 68 cluster  

PubMed Central

Background Enteroviruses are a common cause of human disease and are associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations. Enterovirus 68 is rarely detected yet was reported in many countries in 2010. Here enterovirus 68 was identified for the first time in New Zealand in 2010 and was detected in a further fourteen specimens over a six month period. Objectives To genetically characterise enterovirus 68 specimens identified in New Zealand in 2010. Study design The genome sequence of a New Zealand representative enterovirus 68 isolate was obtained. Ten clinical specimens were analysed by sequencing the VP1 region of the enterovirus 68 genome. Results Based on sequence analysis of the VP1 region and the full genome of one representative isolate, the New Zealand enterovirus 68 isolates clustered with contemporary enterovirus 68 viruses and do not show any clear distinguishing genetic diversity when compared to other strains. All fifteen specimens showed high similarity with enterovirus 68 by VP1 sequencing. The majority of New Zealand patients suffered from bronchiolitis, were less than two years of age and were of Pacific Island or Maori descent. Conclusions We document the rare occurrence of an enterovirus 68 cluster in New Zealand in 2010. These viruses shared similarity with other clusters of enterovirus 68 that occurred globally in 2010. A greater awareness in enterovirus 68 infection may help detect this virus with increased frequency and enable us to better understand the role this strain plays in disease and the reasons behind this global emergence in 2010.

2013-01-01

158

Human papillomavirus type 18 chimeras containing the L2\\/L1 capsid genes from evolutionarily diverse papillomavirus types generate infectious virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papillomaviruses (PVs) comprise a large family of viruses infecting nearly all vertebrate species, with more than 100 human PVs identified. Our previous studies showed that a mutant chimera HPV18\\/16 genome, consisting of the upper regulatory region and early ORFs of HPV18 and the late ORFs of HPV16, was capable of producing infectious virus in organotypic raft cultures. We were interested

Brian S. Bowser; Horng-Shen Chen; Michael J. Conway; Neil D. Christensen; Craig Meyers

2011-01-01

159

Survival of enteroviruses and coliform bacteria in a sludge lagoon.  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses associate with aerobically and anaerobically digested sludge were determined before the addition of the sludge to a sludge lagoon. The fate of sludge-associated viruses was followed during detention of sludge in the lagoon and after application of sludge to land for disposal. While digested sludge was being added to the lagoon, enteroviruses were readily detected in grab samples of sludge from the lagoon. Sludge-associated viruses dropped to low or undetectable levels after disposal of sludge on land and during periods when addition of digested sludge to the lagoon was suspended. Changes in the levels of fecal coliforms in the lagooned sludge paralleled changes in the numbers of enteroviruses. Enteroviruses were not detected in water from deep wells located on the sludge disposal site or near the lagoon. During the initial part of the study, poliovirus serotypes accounted for greater than 90% of the viruses identified. Later, poliovirus serotypes comprised less than 40% of the virus isolates, and echoviruses and Coxsackieviruses were the most common enteroviruses identified.

Farrah, S R; Bitton, G; Hoffmann, E M; Lanni, O; Pancorbo, O C; Lutrick, M C; Bertrand, J E

1981-01-01

160

Co-circulation and evolution of polioviruses and species C enteroviruses in a district of Madagascar.  

PubMed

Between October 2001 and April 2002, five cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) were reported in the southern province of the Republic of Madagascar. To determine viral factors that favor the emergence of these pathogenic VDPVs, we analyzed in detail their genomic and phenotypic characteristics and compared them with co-circulating enteroviruses. These VDPVs appeared to belong to two independent recombinant lineages with sequences from the type 2 strain of the oral poliovaccine (OPV) in the 5'-half of the genome and sequences derived from unidentified species C enteroviruses (HEV-C) in the 3'-half. VDPV strains showed characteristics similar to those of wild neurovirulent viruses including neurovirulence in poliovirus-receptor transgenic mice. We looked for other VDPVs and for circulating enteroviruses in 316 stools collected from healthy children living in the small area where most of the AFP cases occurred. We found vaccine PVs, two VDPVs similar to those found in AFP cases, some echoviruses, and above all, many serotypes of coxsackie A viruses belonging to HEV-C, with substantial genetic diversity. Several coxsackie viruses A17 and A13 carried nucleotide sequences closely related to the 2C and the 3D(pol) coding regions of the VDPVs, respectively. There was also evidence of multiple genetic recombination events among the HEV-C resulting in numerous recombinant genotypes. This indicates that co-circulation of HEV-C and OPV strains is associated with evolution by recombination, resulting in unexpectedly extensive viral diversity in small human populations in some tropical regions. This probably contributed to the emergence of recombinant VDPVs. These findings give further insight into viral ecosystems and the evolutionary processes that shape viral biodiversity. PMID:18085822

Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mala; Guillot, Sophie; Iber, Jane; Balanant, Jean; Blondel, Bruno; Riquet, Franck; Martin, Javier; Kew, Olen; Randriamanalina, Bakolalao; Razafinimpiasa, Lalatiana; Rousset, Dominique; Delpeyroux, Francis

2007-12-01

161

Human enterovirus 71 epidemics: what's next?  

PubMed

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) epidemics have affected various countries in the past 40 years. EV71 commonly causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, but can result in neurological and cardiorespiratory complications in severe cases. Genotypic changes of EV71 have been observed in different places over time, with the emergence of novel genotypes or subgenotypes giving rise to serious outbreaks. Since the late 1990s, intra- and inter-typic recombination events in EV71 have been increasingly reported in the Asia-Pacific region. In particular, 'double-recombinant' EV71 strains belonging to a novel genotype D have been predominant in mainland China and Hong Kong over the last decade, though co-circulating with a minority of other EV71 subgenotypes and coxsackie A viruses. Continuous surveillance and genome studies are important to detect potential novel mutants or recombinants in the near future. Rapid and sensitive molecular detection of EV71 is of paramount importance in anticipating and combating EV71 outbreaks. PMID:24119538

Yip, Cyril C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2013-09-10

162

Virus Infections in Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

The precise etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still unknown, but viruses have long been suggested as a potential environmental trigger for the disease. However, despite decades of research, the body of evidence supporting a relationship between viral infections and initiation or acceleration of islet autoimmunity remains largely circumstantial. The most robust association with viruses and T1D involves enterovirus species, of which some strains have the ability to induce or accelerate disease in animal models. Several hypotheses have been formulated to mechanistically explain how viruses may affect islet autoimmunity and ?-cell decay. The recent observation that certain viral infections, when encountered at the right time and infectious dose, can prevent autoimmune diabetes illustrates that potential relationships may be more complex than previously thought. Here, we provide a concise summary of data obtained in mouse models and humans, and identify future avenues toward a better characterization of the association between viruses and T1D.

Coppieters, Ken T.; Boettler, Tobias; von Herrath, Matthias

2012-01-01

163

Virus infections in type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

The precise etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still unknown, but viruses have long been suggested as a potential environmental trigger for the disease. However, despite decades of research, the body of evidence supporting a relationship between viral infections and initiation or acceleration of islet autoimmunity remains largely circumstantial. The most robust association with viruses and T1D involves enterovirus species, of which some strains have the ability to induce or accelerate disease in animal models. Several hypotheses have been formulated to mechanistically explain how viruses may affect islet autoimmunity and ?-cell decay. The recent observation that certain viral infections, when encountered at the right time and infectious dose, can prevent autoimmune diabetes illustrates that potential relationships may be more complex than previously thought. Here, we provide a concise summary of data obtained in mouse models and humans, and identify future avenues toward a better characterization of the association between viruses and T1D. PMID:22315719

Coppieters, Ken T; Boettler, Tobias; von Herrath, Matthias

2012-01-01

164

Seroconversion to islet autoantibodies after enterovirus infection in early pregnancy.  

PubMed

Gestational enterovirus (EV) infections have been associated with an increased risk for type 1 diabetes in the offspring. We therefore analyzed non-diabetic mothers for EV exposure in early pregnancy in relation to type 1 diabetes HLA-DQ risk genotypes and seroconversion to islet autoantibodies during pregnancy. Non-diabetic mothers who had islet autoantibodies (n=365) against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), islet antigen-2 autoantibodies (IA-2A), or insulin autoantibodies (IAA), in early pregnancy and at delivery were compared to islet autoantibody-negative mothers (n=1457) matched for age and sampling date. Mothers were genotyped for HLA-DQ and analyzed for both EV-RNA and EV-IgM. EV-IgM, but not EV-RNA, was detected during early pregnancy in 12% of islet autoantibody-positive mothers compared to 11% of the controls. In early pregnancy, mothers with HLA-DQ 2/2 or 2/X genotypes showed an increased risk for islet autoantibodies at delivery (OR 1.85; p=0.001). After adjusting for parity, maternal age, year of birth, and season of early pregnancy, early pregnancy EV-IgM combined with DQ2/2 or 2/X increased the risk for islet autoantibodies (OR 3.10; 95% CI 1; p=0.008). EV-IgM in early pregnancy increased the risk for islet autoantibodies at delivery in non-diabetic mothers with HLA-DQ 2/2 or 2/X type 1 diabetes risk genotypes. PMID:22746839

Reši? Lindehammer, Sabina; Honkanen, Hanna; Nix, William Allan; Oikarinen, Maarit; Lynch, Kristian Francis; Jönsson, Ida; Marsal, Karel; Oberste, Steven; Hyöty, Heikki; Lernmark, Åke

2012-07-02

165

RT-PCR and cell culture infectivity assay to detect enteroviruses during drinking water treatment processes.  

PubMed

In this study, 62 water samples were collected from two water treatment plants (WTPs) in Suez Canal cities (Port Said and Ismaillia) and one plant in Cairo (Giza WTP) in addition to the beginning of the two Nile river branches (Rosetta and Damietta). Viruses were concentrated by adsorption-elution ethod sing 142 mm-diameter nitrocellulose membrane of 0.45 microm pore size and eluted with 3% beef extract at pH 9.5. The concentrated samples were inoculated for 3 successive passages in three cell culture types (Vero, BGM and RD). Enterovirus RNAs in CPE-induced samples were extracted by guanidinium thiocyanate/ phenol/chloroform and heat shock methods and detected by RT-PCR and neutralization test. The results showed that eight samples [14.5% (8/62)] contained enteroviruses most of them were polioviruses [87.5% (7/8)] and coxsackievirus type B2 [12.5% (1/8)]. The three cell cultures were of the same sensitivity to detect the isolated viruses. Also, RT-PCR followed by neutralization assay facilitates and accelerate the results. The guanidinium thiocyanate extraction method was more sensitive than heat shock method. The results turned our attention to review our technology of water treatment and disinfection step in addition to the selection of suitable intake for the drinking water treatment plants. PMID:17219867

Ali, M A; El-Esnawy, N A; Shoaeb, A R; Ibraheim, M; El-Hawaary, S E

1999-01-01

166

An outbreak of feline infectious peritonitis in a Taiwanese shelter: epidemiologic and molecular evidence for horizontal transmission of a novel type II feline coronavirus.  

PubMed

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection. FCoV can be divided into serotypes I and II. The virus that causes FIP (FIPV) is believed to occur sporadically and spread infrequently from cat to cat. Recently, an FIP outbreak from an animal shelter was confirmed in Taiwan. FCoV from all the cats in this shelter were analyzed to determine the epidemiology of this outbreak. Thirteen of 46 (28.2%) cats with typical signs of FIP were identified. Among them, seven cats were confirmed by necropsy and/or histopathological examinations. Despite the fact that more than one FCoV was identified in this multi-cat environment, the eight FIP cats were invariably found to be infected with a type II FCoV. Sequence analysis revealed that the type II FIPV detected from fecal samples, body effusions and granulomatous tissue homogenates from the cats that succumbed to FIP all harbored an identical recombination site in their S gene. Two of the cats that succumbed to FIP were found to harbor an identical nonsense mutation in the 3c gene. Fecal shedding of this type II virus in the effusive form of FIP can be detected up to six days before death. Taken together, our data demonstrate that horizontal transmission of FIPV is possible and that FIP cats can pose a potential risk to other cats living in the same environment. PMID:23865689

Wang, Ying-Ting; Su, Bi-Ling; Hsieh, Li-En; Chueh, Ling-Ling

2013-07-17

167

The Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a Bovine Enterovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a bovine enterovirus (strain VG- 5-27) has been determined using molecular cloning and DNA sequencing techniques. Excluding the poly(A) tract the genome was 7414 nucleotides long and contained a 5\\

J. A. P. Earle; R. A. Skuce; C. S. Fleming; E. M. Hoey; S. J. Martin

1988-01-01

168

ENTEROVIRUSES IN SLUDGE: MULTIYEAR EXPERIENCE WITH FOUR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors describe their experience with the isolation of viruses from four treatment plants located in different geographic areas. Over a period of 3 years, 297 enteroviruses were isolated from 307 sludge samples. The highest frequency of viral isolation (92%), including multi...

169

Natural genetic recombination between co-circulating heterotypic enteroviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural recombination in poliovirus is a frequent phenomenon. In practice, whenever different genotypes have the opportunity to infect the same individual, a high proportion of viruses with recombinant genomes are excreted. To determine whether enteroviruses other than poliovirus can naturally produce viable virions with recombinant genomes, we studied the molecular features of two distant regions of the viral genomes -

Gabriela Oprisan; Mariana Combiescu; Sophie Guillot; Valerie Caro; Andrei Combiescu; Francis Delpeyroux; Radu Crainic

2002-01-01

170

RapidDiagnosis ofEnterovirus Infection byMagneticBead Extraction andPolymerase ChainReaction Detection of Enterovirus RNA inClinical Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a rapid methodforextraction anddetection ofenterovirus RNA inclinical samples. Byusing magnetic beadtechnology, enterovirus RNA was efficiently andrapidly extracted fromcerebrospinal fluid, stool, saliva, blood, pericardial fluid, urine, andcryopreserved orformalin-fixed solid tissue. Enterovirus RNA was thendetected byreversetranscription followed bypolymerase chainreaction amplification withprimers designed toallow detection ofmostenterovirus serotypes. Fordetection ofenteroviruses inspecimens from patients withacuteenteroviral disease, theoverallsensitivity ofenzymatic RNA amplification was greater than

PETER MUIR; FELICITY NICHOLSON; MAHMOOD JHETAM; SHEILA NEOGI; JANGU E. BANATVALA

1993-01-01

171

Effect of enteroviruses on adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells by Campylobacter isolates.  

PubMed Central

Coinfection of HEp-2 epithelial cells with coxsackievirus B3, echovirus 7, poliovirus (LSc type 1), porcine enterovirus, and Campylobacter isolates was performed to determine if a synergistic effect could be obtained. The invasiveness of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33560 was significantly increased for HEp-2 cells preinfected with echovirus 7, coxsackievirus B3, and UV-inactivated (noninfectious) coxsackievirus B3 particles. Additionally, the invasiveness of C. jejuni M96, a clinical isolate, was significantly increased for HEp-2 cells preinfected with coxsackievirus B3. Poliovirus and porcine enterovirus had no effect on C. jejuni ATCC 33560 adherence and invasiveness. Furthermore, poliovirus had no effect on the ability of C. jejuni M96 to adhere to and invade HEp-2 cells. Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Campylobacter mucosalis, two noninvasive isolates, did not invade virus-infected HEp-2 cells. The increase in the invasiveness of C. jejuni appeared to be the result of specific interactions between the virus and the HEp-2 cell membrane. The data suggest that the invasiveness of Campylobacter spp. is dependent upon the inherent properties of the organism. Virus-induced cell alterations can potentiate the invasiveness of virulent Campylobacter spp. but are not sufficient to allow internalization of noninvasive bacteria.

Konkel, M E; Joens, L A

1990-01-01

172

Studies on Infectious Mononucleosis  

PubMed Central

Viral studies were carried out on throat swabs, rectal swabs and washed white blood cells from 27 cases of infectious mononucleosis (positive Paul-Bunnell-David-sohn test), and from 22 controls. Four cytopathic agents were isolated in the test group, two of which were readily subcultured for at least three successive passages. Three cytopathic agents were recovered in the control group, two of which have been identified as adenovirus type 5 and adenovirus type 3. The unidentified agents tested so far are sensitive to ether and to pH 3. The results of acridine-orange staining and the immunofluorescence technique, using a conjugated control serum and two conjugated convalescent infectious mononucleosis sera, indicate that the isolated agent or agents in the test group are RNA-type agents with a cytoplasmic cycle of development. The overall results of this study lead the authors to suspect a respiratory syncytial-like myxovirus as the as yet unidentified agent which they recovered. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 1bFig. 1cFig. 1dFig. 2aFig. 2bFig. 2cFig. 2dFig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 3cFig. 3dFig. 3eFig. 3f

Joncas, J.; Chagnon, A.; Pavilanis, V.

1966-01-01

173

Effect of early infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) infection on expression of MHC pathway genes and type I and II interferon in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) tissues.  

PubMed

A number of viral diseases affecting teleost fish are characterized but few studies have addressed the effects of viral infection on gene expression in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effect of the early stages of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) infection on important components of the innate and adaptive immune response by monitoring expression of five genes in the MHC class I pathway, MHC class IIbeta, type I IFN-alpha, Mx, and type II IFN-gamma from cohabitant-infected Atlantic salmon tissues using quantitative real-time PCR. There was an increased expression of type I IFN-alpha in all tissues analyzed in response to infection that was proportional to viral load (relative to virus RNA levels) in gills and head kidney. Basal expression of IFN-gamma was modest or absent in all tissues, but expression was strongly induced and proportional to ISAV RNA levels in heart, spleen and head kidney. A 10-fold or higher level of virally induced IFN-alpha, in addition to significantly elevated levels of IFN-gamma, enhanced transcription of MHC class I pathway genes in heart, spleen and head kidney. In gills, the main entry site for ISAV, there was no induction of MHC class I pathway genes. MHC IIbeta and PSMB9 were not significantly induced in any tissue. Thus, by analysing various immune genes in a range of tissues from early cohabitant ISAV-infected salmon, we demonstrate that ISAV infection induced a rapid type I and II IFN response in the major infected lymphoid tissues, which was concurrent with induced expression of MHC class I pathway genes but not MHC IIbeta. This may suggest that CD8(+) T cell responses are more important than CD4(+) T cell responses during early ISAV viraemia. PMID:17478098

Jųrgensen, Sven Martin; Hetland, Dyveke Lem; Press, Charles McL; Grimholt, Unni; Gjųen, Tor

2007-01-20

174

Antiviral Activity of Salmonid Gamma Interferon against Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus and Salmonid Alphavirus and Its Dependency on Type I Interferon?  

PubMed Central

We investigated the antiviral activity and gene induction properties of interferon gamma (IFN-?) compared to type I IFN (IFNa1) in Atlantic salmon. IFN-? protected salmon cells against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV)-induced cytopathic effect (CPE), reduced virus titers, and inhibited the synthesis of the viral structural protein VP3. Moreover, IFN-? showed potent antiviral activity against salmonid alphavirus 3 (SAV3) measured as a reduction in virus nsP1 transcripts. IFN-? (a type II IFN) had less specific antiviral activity against IPNV than IFNa1, showing a half-maximal effective concentration of 1.6 ng/ml versus 31 pg/ml determined in the CPE reduction assay. Compared to IFNa1, IFN-? was a more effective inducer of the antiviral protein GBP, several interferon regulatory transcription factors (IRFs), and the chemokine IP-10. The antiviral activity of IFN-? may also in part be ascribed to upregulation of Mx, ISG15, and viperin. These are typical type I IFN-induced genes in mammals and were also more strongly induced by IFNa1 than by IFN-? in salmon cells. Fish and mammalian IFN-? thus show strikingly similar gene induction properties. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of IFN-? against IPNV and SAV3 and its ability to induce Mx and ISG15 markedly decreased in the presence of neutralizing antiserum against IFNa1. In contrast, antiIFNa1 had no effect on the induction of IRF-1 and IP-10 by IFN-?. This suggests that the antiviral activity of IFN-? is partially dependent on IFNa induction. However, because antiIFNa1 could not abolish the IFN-?-mediated induction of Mx and ISG15 completely, IFN-? may possibly also induce such genes directly.

Sun, Baojian; Skjaeveland, Ingrid; Svingerud, Tina; Zou, Jun; J?rgensen, Jorunn; Robertsen, B?rre

2011-01-01

175

Typing hepatitis C virus by polymerase chain reaction with type-specific primers: application to clinical surveys and tracing infectious sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on variation in nucleotide sequence within restricted regions in the putative C (core) gene of hepatitis C virus (HCV), four groups of HCV have been postulated in a panel of 44 HCV isolates. They were provisionally designated types I, II, III and IV. A method for typing HCV was developed, depending on the amplification of a C gene sequence

Hiroaki Okamoto; Yasushi Sugiyama; Shunichi Okada; Kiyohiko Kurai; Yoshihiro Akahane; Yoshiki Sugai; Takeshi Tanaka; Koei Sato; Fumio Tsuda; Yuzo Miyakawa; M. Mayumi

1992-01-01

176

Expression of the C-type lectins DC-SIGN or L-SIGN alters host cell susceptibility for the avian coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus  

PubMed Central

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), an avian coronavirus, is a cause of great economic loss in the poultry industry. The virus mainly infects respiratory epithelium, but can be also detected in other organs. The functional receptor for the virus has not been found and field strains of IBV do not infect conventional cell lines. Recently, it has been shown that the C-type lectins DC-SIGN/L-SIGN can promote entry of several coronaviruses. Here we examine whether DC-SIGN/L-SIGN are entry determinants for IBV. We show that by introducing human DC-SIGN/L-SIGN into non-permissive cells, infection by the IBV is dramatically increased. DC-SIGN mediated infection was inhibited by mannan and anti-lectin antibodies, and was independent of sialic acid levels on the cell. Enhancement of IBV infection also occurred for different serotypes of IBV. Our findings demonstrated that even in the absence of avian-specific receptor, DC-SIGN-like lectins are capable of mediating efficient IBV infection.

Zhang, Yueting; Buckles, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Gary R.

2013-01-01

177

Expression of the C-type lectins DC-SIGN or L-SIGN alters host cell susceptibility for the avian coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus.  

PubMed

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), an avian coronavirus, is a cause of great economic loss in the poultry industry. The virus mainly infects respiratory epithelium, but can be also detected in other organs. The functional receptor for the virus has not been found and field strains of IBV do not infect conventional cell lines. Recently, it has been shown that the C-type lectins DC-SIGN/L-SIGN can promote entry of several coronaviruses. Here we examine whether DC-SIGN/L-SIGN are entry determinants for IBV. We show that by introducing human DC-SIGN/L-SIGN into non-permissive cells, infection by the IBV is dramatically increased. DC-SIGN mediated infection was inhibited by mannan and anti-lectin antibodies, and was independent of sialic acid levels on the cell. Enhancement of IBV infection also occurred for different serotypes of IBV. Our findings demonstrated that even in the absence of avian-specific receptor, DC-SIGN-like lectins are capable of mediating efficient IBV infection. PMID:22340967

Zhang, Yueting; Buckles, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Gary R

2012-01-17

178

Parallelization: Infectious Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Epidemiology is the study of infectious disease. Infectious diseases are said to be "contagious" among people if they are transmittable from one person to another. Epidemiologists can use models to assist them in predicting the behavior of infectious diseases. This module will develop a simple agent-based infectious disease model, develop a parallel algorithm based on the model, provide a coded implementation for the algorithm, and explore the scaling of the coded implementation on high performance cluster resources.

Weeden, Aaron

179

High frequency and diversity of species C enteroviruses in Cameroon and neighboring countries.  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are endemic worldwide and among the most common viruses infecting humans. Nevertheless, there are very limited data on the circulation and genetic diversity of HEVs in developing countries and sub-Saharan Africa in particular. We investigated the circulation and genetic diversity of HEVs among 436 healthy children in a limited area of the far north region of Cameroon in 2008 and 2009. We also characterized the genetic biodiversity of 146 nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) isolates obtained throughout the year 2008 from stool specimens of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Cameroon, Chad, and Gabon. We found a high rate of NPEV infections (36.9%) among healthy children in the far north region of Cameroon. Overall, 45 different HEV types were found among healthy children and AFP patients. Interestingly, this study uncovered a high rate of HEVs of species C (HEV-C) among all typed NPEVs: 63.1% (94/149) and 39.5% (49/124) in healthy children and AFP cases, respectively. Besides extensive circulation, the most prevalent HEV-C type, coxsackievirus A-13, featured a tremendous intratypic diversity. Africa-specific HEV lineages were discovered, including HEV-C lineages and the recently reported EV-A71 "genogroup E." Virtually all pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) that have been fully characterized were recombinants between oral poliovaccine (OPV) strains and cocirculating HEV-C strains. The extensive circulation of diverse HEV-C types and lineages in countries where OPV is massively used constitutes a major viral factor that could promote the emergence of recombinant cVDPVs in the Central African subregion. PMID:23254123

Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Bessaud, Maėl; Massenet, Denis; Joffret, Marie-Line; Endegue, Marie-Claire; Njouom, Richard; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Rousset, Dominique; Delpeyroux, Francis

2012-12-19

180

Rapid and highly sensitive detection of Enterovirus 71 by using nanogold-enhanced electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is an emerging infectious disease causing neurological complications and/or death within two to three days after the development of fever and rash. A low viral titre in clinical specimens makes the detection of EV71 difficult. Conventional approaches for detecting EV71 are time consuming, poorly sensitive, or complicated, and cannot be used effectively for clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, EV71 and Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) may cross react in conventional assays. Therefore, a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and user-friendly test is needed. We developed an EV71-specific nanogold-modified working electrode for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the detection of EV71. Our results show that EV71 can be distinguished from CA16, Herpes simplex virus, and lysozyme, with the modified nanogold electrode being able to detect EV71 in concentrations as low as 1 copy number/50 ?l reaction volume, and the duration between sample preparation and detection being 11 min. This detection platform may have the potential for use in point-of-care diagnostics.

Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Lu, Yu-Ning; Wang, Fang-Yu; Tsai, Li-Yun; Shieh, Juo-Yu; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Juan, Chien-Chang; Tu, Lung-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ching

2013-07-01

181

Morphogenesis of picornaviruses: characterization and assembly of bovine enterovirus subviral particles.  

PubMed

Bovine enterovirus-I (BEV-I) infection results in the production of a low amount of infective virus. A large number of non-infectious virus particles can be detected in BEV-I lysates by haemagglutination. Attempts to isolate DI particles that might be responsible for this effect failed. However, infected cells were shown to contain large amounts of 80S particles as well as lesser amounts of 160S, 130S, 45S, 14S and 5S particles. The proportion of these subviral particles detectable by density gradient sedimentation depended on the ionic strength of the gradient buffer. At high ionic strength 130S particles were transformed into 160S particles, and 45S into 80S particles. The polypeptide composition of each virus particle was examined. Pulse-chase experiments confirmed that 80S particles were the predominant virus particles accumulating. No precursor-product relationship could be established for the 80S particle, although 5S and 14S particles were shown to be precursors of mature virus particles. PMID:176313

Su, R T; Taylor, M W

1976-03-01

182

Adoptive transfer of macrophages from adult mice reduces mortality in mice infected with human enterovirus 71.  

PubMed

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease in children under 6 years of age, and the neurological complications of this virus can lead to death. Until now, no vaccines or drugs have been available for the clinical control of this epidemic. Macrophages can engulf pathogens and mediate a series of host immune responses that play a role in the defence against infectious diseases. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed the localizations of virus in muscle tissues of EV71-infected mice. The macrophages isolated from the adult mice could kill the virus gradually in vitro, as shown using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and virus titration. Co-localisation of lysosomes and virus within macrophages suggested that the lysosomes were possibly responsible for the phagocytosis of EV71. Activation of the macrophages in the peritoneal cavity of mice four days pre-infection reduced the mortality of mice upon lethal EV71 infection. The adoptive transfer of macrophages from adult mice inhibited virus replication in the muscle tissues of infected mice, and this was followed by a relief of symptoms and a significant reduction of mortality, which suggested that the adoptive transfer of macrophages from adult humans represents a potential strategy to treat EV71-infected patients. PMID:23065110

Liu, Jiangning; Li, Xiaoying; Fan, Xiaoxu; Ma, Chunmei; Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Lianfeng

2012-10-11

183

Genetic and phenotypic diversity of echovirus 30 strains and pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Several enterovirus serotypes should be considered as potentially diabetogenic. The capacity of an enterovirus to kill or impair the functions of human beta-cells can vary among the strains within a given serotype as shown previously for echovirus 9 and 30 (E-30). The evolution of E-30 has also shown patterns correlating with the global increase of type 1 diabetes incidence. In the present study, antigenic properties of a set of E-30 isolates were investigated and the results correlated with the previously documented beta-cell destructive phenotype of the strains, or to genetic clustering of the strains. No simple correlation between the three properties was observed. A full-length infectious clone was constructed and sequenced from one of the isolates found to be most destructive to beta-cells (E-30/14916net87). Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that this strain was closely related to the E-30 prototype strain at the capsid coding region while outside the capsid region prototype strains of several other human enterovirus B serotypes clustered more closely. This suggests that the relatively greater pathogenicity of the strain might be based on properties of the genome outside of the structural protein coding region. Neutralizing antibody assays on sera from 100 type 1 diabetic patients and 100 controls using three different E-30 strains did not reveal differences between the groups. This finding does not support a previous proposition of aberrant antibody responses to E-30 in diabetic patients. It is concluded that identification of the genetic counterparts of pathogenicity of E-30 strains requires further studies. PMID:17516516

Paananen, A; Savolainen-Kopra, C; Kaijalainen, S; Vaarala, O; Hovi, T; Roivainen, M

2007-07-01

184

Diagnosis of neonatal enterovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 5-hour colorimetric polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was more sensitive than viral culture in identifying viral infection in initial serum (13\\/16 vs 5\\/16; p = 0.008) and urine (10\\/16 vs 5\\/16; p = 0.2) specimens from 16 enterovirus- infected newborn infants, and remained more sensitive throughout their illnesses. Combined sensitivity of serum and urine PCR was 14 of 16

Mark J. Abzug; Michael Loeffelholz; Harley A. Rotbart

1995-01-01

185

Reverse transcription PCR to detect enteroviruses in surface water.  

PubMed Central

We have developed a simple, fast, and efficient procedure to detect enteroviruses in water samples. Aliquots of water are subjected to two-step filtration, with the second filter containing a positively charged nylon membrane that holds back virus particles. Viruses thus adsorbed are directly lysed, and RNA is isolated by hybridization to specific oligonucleotides bound to magnetic beads. The solution used contains guanidine thiocyanate, which lyses virus particles, inactivates enzymes, e.g., RNases, allows mild hybridization conditions, and does not influence biotin-streptavidin interaction on magnetic beads. Detection and specific identification are accomplished by reverse transcription PCR of the highly conserved noncoding region at the 5' end of virus RNA combined with Southern hybridization. The system was tested with tap water artificially spiked with poliovirus vaccine and yielded a detection limit of 20 50% tissue culture infective doses per liter. We used the same procedure to investigate the water quality of surface water at public beaches by rivers and lakes. Of 40 samples tested, 7 were positive for enteroviruses. A comparison with enterobacterial contamination determined by PCR and classical microbiological methods in parallel showed that enteroviruses were found only in samples also positive for Escherichia coli. In conclusion, this procedure can easily be adapted to test large water samples and is simple enough to be used for routine determinations of water quality in terms of virus contamination.

Gilgen, M; Wegmuller, B; Burkhalter, P; Buhler, H P; Muller, U; Luthy, J; Candrian, U

1995-01-01

186

T cell Responses to Enterovirus Antigens and to ?-cell Autoantigens in Unaffected Children Positive for IDDM-Associated Autoantibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IDDM in a number of studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the cellular immune response to enterovirus antigens is abnormal in children who test positive for IDDM-associated autoantibodies. Lymphocyte proliferation responses were analysed to enterovirus antigens and to a panel of ?-cell autoantigen preparations in 31

S Juhela; H Hyöty; A Hinkkanen; J Elliott; M Roivainen; P Kulmala; J Rahko; M Knip; J Ilonen

1999-01-01

187

Early human enterovirus infections in healthy Swedish children participating in the PRODIA pilot study.  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses (HEV) are common, especially in childhood and during the enterovirus season, causing mainly asymptomatic infections but also mild and severe illnesses. Numerous studies have shown the association between HEV infections and type 1 diabetes. Here, the prevalence of HEV infections was studied in healthy Swedish children with increased HLA-associated risk for type 1 diabetes participating in the PRODIA pilot study in which children were randomized to receive probiotics or placebo during the first 6 months of life. Stool specimens collected from 197 children in every 3 months from the age of 3 to 24 months were screened for HEV using traditional viral culturing method and identified with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing of the partial VP1 coding part of the viral genome. Altogether 4.8% (52/1,094) of the specimens were HEV-positive and 22.3% (44/197) of the children excreted HEV during the follow-up. HEV-A and HEV-B were present in 2.1 and 2.7% of the specimens, respectively. HEV-C and HEV-D viruses were not detected. In total, 17 different HEV serotypes were detected and the most common findings were CV-A9 (13.5%), CV-A16 (11.5%), and CV-A2 (9.6%). The majority of the infections (92.3%) were during the enterovirus season extending from July to December. Probiotic treatment did not affect significantly the risk of HEV infections during the 2-year follow-up although a trend for transient decrease for HEV positivity (HEV-A and/or HEV-B) by the age of 12 months was observed in children who received probiotics [OR 0.40; 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 1.08; P-value 0.071, generalized estimating (GEE) analysis]. According to the results, HEV-A findings were nearly as common as HEV-B findings among the healthy children participating in this study. Also it was shown that serotypes belonging to HEV-A species can be detected by means of viral culturing. PMID:22499016

Simonen-Tikka, Marja-Leena; Hiekka, Anna-Kaisa; Klemola, Päivi; Poussa, Tuija; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Korpela, Riitta; Vaarala, Outi; Roivainen, Merja

2012-06-01

188

Herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein B requires a cysteine residue at position 633 for folding, processing, and incorporation into mature infectious virus particles.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein B (gB) resides in the virus envelope in an oligomeric form and plays an essential role in virus entry into susceptible host cells. The oligomerizing domain is a movable element consisting of amino acids 626 to 653 in the gB external domain. This domain contains a single cysteine residue at position 633 (Cys-633) that is predicted to form an intramolecular disulfide bridge with Cys-596. In this study, we examined gB oligomerization, processing, and incorporation into mature virus during infection by two mutant viruses in which either the gB Cys-633 [KgB(C633S)] or both Cys-633 and Cys-596 [KgB(C596S/C633S)] residues were mutated to serine. The result of immunofluorescence studies and analyses of released virus particles showed that the mutant gB molecules were not transported to the cell surface or incorporated into mature virus envelopes and thus infectious virus was not produced. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the mutant gB molecules were in an oligomeric configuration and that these mutants produced hetero-oligomers with a truncated form of gB consisting of residues 1 to 43 and 595 to 904, the latter containing the oligomerization domain. Pulse-chase experiments in combination with endoglycosidase H treatment determined that the mutant molecules were improperly processed, having been retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that the cysteine mutations resulted in gB misfolding and retention by the molecular chaperones calnexin, calreticulin, and Grp78 in the ER. The altered conformation of the gB mutant glycoproteins was directly detected by a reduction in monoclonal antibody recognition of two previously defined distinct antigenic sites located within residues 381 to 441 and 595 to 737. The misfolded molecules were not transported to the cell surface as hetero-oligomers with wild-type gB, suggesting that the conformational change could not be corrected by intermolecular interactions with the wild-type molecule. Together, these experiments confirmed that a disulfide bridge involving Cys-633 and Cys-596 is not essential for oligomerization but rather is required for proper folding and maintenance of a gB domain essential to complete posttranslational modification, transport, and incorporation into mature virus particles. PMID:9573262

Laquerre, S; Anderson, D B; Argnani, R; Glorioso, J C

1998-06-01

189

Left ventricular dysfunction in children with fulminant enterovirus 71 infection: an evaluation of the clinical course.  

PubMed

We describe 2 children with typical hand, foot, and mouth disease due to enterovirus 71 infection, 1 of whom died. Both cases were complicated by acute fulminant shock syndrome; the patients had remarkable acute left ventricular dysfunction. The clinical experience indicates that the rapid death associated with fulminant enterovirus rhombencephalitis is the result of rapid cardiogenic shock rather than neurogenic pulmonary edema. PMID:11880970

Huang, Fang-Liang; Jan, Sheng-Ling; Chen, Po-Yen; Chi, Ching-Shiang; Wang, Teh-Ming; Fu, Yun-Ching; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Yan

2002-03-04

190

Relationship between numbers of enteroviruses and bacteriophages infecting bacterowes fragilis in different environmental samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis HSP40 have been detected in waters and sediments with varying levels of domestic sewage pollution. They were not found in environmental samples without human pollution. Usually they outnumbered enteroviruses by at least a factor of ten. Although there was not any correlation among the values of phages and enteroviruses, there was a significant concurrence of the

C. Tartera; J. Jofre; F. Lucena

1988-01-01

191

Rapid Diagnosis of Enterovirus Infection by a New One-Step Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AMPLICOR Enterovirus Test was evaluated with 103 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. Twenty- seven CSF specimens were culture positive. With the AMPLICOR test, enterovirus RNA was detected in 34 specimens. Compared with culture, the AMPLICOR test gave a sensitivity of 96.3% and a specificity of 100%. The sensitivity of culture was 79.4% in comparison with the AMPLICOR test. Clinical presentation

HARALD H. KESSLER; BRIGITTE SANTNER; HOLGER RABENAU; ANNEMARIE BERGER; ADRIANA VINCE; CAROL LEWINSKI; BERNARD WEBER; KAREN PIERER; DORIS STUENZNER; EGON MARTH; ANDHANS W. DOERR

192

Enterovirus 71 isolated from cases of epidemic poliomyelitis-like disease in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Virological and serological studies of an epidemic disease in Bulgaria, 1975, were carried out. Epidemiologically, clinically and pathomorphologically, the disease simulated almost all known forms of poliomyelitis, acute stem encephalitis, encephalomyocarditis and aseptic meningitis. The studies completely ruled out the participation of polioviruses and provided comprehensive evidence for the etiological role of a peculiar enterovirus subsequently identified as enterovirus

M. Chumakov; M. VOROSttILOVA; L. Shindarov; I. Lavrova; L. Gracheva; G. Koroleva; S. Vasilenko; I. Brodvarova; M. Nikolova; S. Gyurova; M. Gacheva; G. Mitov; N. Ninov; E. Tsylka; I. Robinson; M. Frolova; V. Bashkirtsev; L. Martiyanova; V. Rodin

1979-01-01

193

Epidemic of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Associated with Enterovirus 71 Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Viruses isolated from patients with hand, foot and mouth disease in widespread outbreaks in Japan in 1973 were identified as enterovirus 71. Although cases with aseptic meningitis were observed concurrently, the main clinical symptom associated with enterovirus 71 infection was hand, foot and mouth disease.Copyright © 1978 S. Karger AG, Basel

Akio Hagiwara; Isamu Tagaya; Tetsuo Yoneyama

1978-01-01

194

Detection of enterovirus specific RNA sequences in muscle biopsy specimens from patients with adult onset myositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subgenomic cDNA probe with broad specificity for a range of enteroviruses was used to test by an in situ hybridisation technique for the presence of enterovirus specific genomic sequences in muscle biopsy samples obtained from patients with chronic adult myositis. Virus specific RNA sequences were detected in 6\\/13 (46%) patients with idiopathic polymyositis or dermatomyositis. Control samples obtained from

G E Yousef; D A Isenberg; J F Mowbray

1990-01-01

195

Reverse Transcription Multiplex PCR for Differentiation between Polio and Enteroviruses from Clinical and Environmental Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the rapid detection of polioviruses and their differentiation from nonpoliovirus enteroviruses, we developed a protocol in which clinical or environmental specimens are first inoculated onto cell cultures in tubes. After overnight incubation, the cultures are subjected to reverse transcription multiplex PCR with a primer pair which detects all enteroviruses (T. HyypiaØ, P. Auvinen, and M. Maaronen, J. Gen. Virol.

DENISE EGGER; LUIS PASAMONTES; MARIANNE OSTERMAYER; ANDKURT BIENZ

1995-01-01

196

Rapid and sensitive detection of enteroviruses in specimens from patients with aseptic meningitis.  

PubMed Central

A 5-h PCR assay (Amplicor enterovirus test) was compared with viral culture for the detection of enteroviruses in cerebrospinal fluid. Of the cerebrospinal fluid specimens collected during a summer outbreak of aseptic meningitis, 34% were positive by viral culture whereas 66% were positive by the Amplicor PCR, suggesting that this technique improves the diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis.

Yerly, S; Gervaix, A; Simonet, V; Caflisch, M; Perrin, L; Wunderli, W

1996-01-01

197

Enterovirus Co-infections and Onychomadesis after Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, Spain, 2008  

PubMed Central

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), a common disease caused by enteroviruses (EVs), usually affects children. Clustered and sporadic HFMD cases, followed by onychomadesis (nail shedding), occurred during summer and fall 2008 in Valencia, Spain. Fecal samples from onychomadesis patients, who did or did not have previous HFMD, and from healthy children exposed to onychomadesis patients tested positive for EV. The complete viral protein 1 capsid gene sequence was obtained for typing and phylogenetic analysis. Two EV serotypes, coxsackievirus A10 and coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1), were mainly detected as a monoinfection or co-infection in a childcare center where an onychomadesis outbreak occurred. On the basis of our results, and detection of CVB1 in 2 other contemporary onychomadesis outbreaks in childcare centers in Spain, we propose that mixed infection of an EV serotype that causes HFMD, plus the serotype CVB1, could explain the emergence after HFMD of onychomadesis, a rare and late complication.

Gonzalez-Candelas, Fernando; Valero, Ana; Cordoba, Juan; Salazar, Antonio

2011-01-01

198

Antiviral effect of geraniin on human enterovirus 71 in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Human enterovirus 71 infection causes hand, foot and mouth disease in children under 6 years of age and has caused mortalities in large-scale outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region. No effective vaccine or antiviral drugs currently exist against enterovirus 71 in the clinic. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effect of geraniin on enterovirus 71 both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that geraniin effectively inhibited virus replication in rhabdomyosarcoma cells with an IC(50) of 10 ?g/ml. Moreover, geraniin treatment of mice that were challenged with a lethal dose of enterovirus 71 resulted in a reduction of mortality, relieved clinical symptoms, and inhibited virus replication in muscle tissues. The results suggest that geraniin may be used as a potential drug for anti-enterovirus 71. PMID:22342145

Yang, Yajun; Zhang, Lianfeng; Fan, Xiaoxu; Qin, Chuan; Liu, Jiangning

2012-02-02

199

Multicenter intervention study on glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum, high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) after local anti-infectious periodontal treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine whether periodontal treatment incorporating topical antibiotic therapy affects on levels of glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontal disease, and to explore the relationship between CRP and glycemic control. The whole intervention group (n=32), which underwent anti-infectious periodontal treatment, showed only transient reduction in

S. Katagiri; H. Nitta; T. Nagasawa; I. Uchimura; H. Izumiyama; K. Inagaki; T. Kikuchi; T. Noguchi; M. Kanazawa; A. Matsuo; H. Chiba; N. Nakamura; N. Kanamura; S. Inoue; I. Ishikawa; Y. Izumi

2009-01-01

200

Target Peptide Sequence within Infectious Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Does Not Ensure Envelope-Specific T-Helper Cell Reactivation: Influences of Cysteine Protease and Gamma Interferon-Induced Thiol Reductase Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent clinical trials have shown that the presence of a robust human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T-cell response may not be sufficient to prevent or control HIV-1 infection. Studies of antigen processing in the context of infectious HIV-1 are therefore warranted. Envelope-specific, major histocompat- ibility complex class II-restricted murine T-cell hybridomas were tested for responsiveness to splenic antigen- presenting

Robert Sealy; Wendy Chaka; Sherri Surman; Scott A. Brown; Peter Cresswell; Julia L. Hurwitz

2008-01-01

201

Cooperative Effect of the Attenuation Determinants Derived from Poliovirus Sabin 1 Strain Is Essential for Attenuation of Enterovirus 71 in the NOD\\/SCID Mouse Infection Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and is also associated with serious neurological disorders. An attenuated EV71 strain (EV71(S1-3)) has been established in the cyno- molgus monkey infection model; this strain contains the attenuation determinants derived from the type 1 poliovirus vaccine strain, Sabin 1 (PV1(Sabin)), in the 5 nontranslated region (NTR), 3D

Minetaro Arita; Yasushi Ami; Takaji Wakita; Hiroyuki Shimizu

2008-01-01

202

25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS Ā§ 140.26 Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is...

2013-04-01

203

Simian AIDS type D serogroup 2 retrovirus: isolation of an infectious molecular clone and sequence analyses of its envelope glycoprotein gene and 3' long terminal repeat.  

PubMed Central

We describe the molecular cloning of a serogroup 2 simian retrovirus (SRV; D2/RHE/OR) and present the sequence of its envelope (env) glycoprotein gene and 3' long terminal repeat region. This report documents the first infectious molecular clone of a serogroup 2 SRV and provides env sequence verification of genetic diversity among serogroup 2 SRV isolates.

Marracci, G H; Kelley, R D; Pilcher, K Y; Crabtree, L; Shiigi, S M; Avery, N; Leo, G; Webb, M C; Hallick, L M; Axthelm, M K

1995-01-01

204

Development and Evaluation of EPA Method 1615 for Detection of Enterovirus and Norovirus in Water  

PubMed Central

The U.S. EPA developed a sample concentration and preparation assay in conjunction with the total culturable virus assay for concentrating and measuring culturable viruses in source and drinking waters as part of the Information Collection Rule (ICR) promulgated in 1996. In an effort to improve upon this method, the U.S. EPA recently developed Method 1615: Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Method 1615 uses a culturable virus assay with reduced equipment and labor costs compared to the costs associated with the ICR virus method and introduces a new molecular assay for the detection of enteroviruses and noroviruses by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. In this study, we describe the optimization of several new components of the molecular assay and examine virus recovery from ground, reagent-grade, and surface water samples seeded with poliovirus type 3 and murine norovirus. For the culturable virus and molecular assays, mean poliovirus recovery using the complete method was 58% and 20% in groundwater samples, 122% and 39% using low-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, 42% and 48% using high-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, and 11% and 10% in surface water with high turbidity, respectively. Murine norovirus recovery by the molecular assay was 30% in groundwater samples, less than 8% in both low- and high-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, and 6% in surface water with high turbidity. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of Method 1615 for use with groundwater samples and highlights the need for further research into its effectiveness with surface water.

Brinkman, Nichole E.; Griffin, Shannon M.; McMinn, Brian R.; Rhodes, Eric R.; Varughese, Eunice A.; Grimm, Ann C.; Parshionikar, Sandhya U.; Wymer, Larry; Fout, G. Shay

2013-01-01

205

Accuracy of Diagnostic Methods and Surveillance Sensitivity for Human Enterovirus, South Korea, 1999-2011  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999–2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results increased. A seasonal trend of outbreaks was documented. Genotypes enterovirus 71, echovirus 30, coxsackievirus B5, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B2 were the most common genotypes identified. Accurate test results correlated clinical syndromes to enterovirus genotypes: aseptic meningitis to echovirus 30, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B5; hand, foot and mouth disease to coxsackievirus A16; and hand, foot and mouth disease with neurologic complications to enterovirus 71. There are currently no treatments specific to human EV infections; surveillance of enterovirus infections such as this study provides may assist with evaluating the need to research and develop treatments for infections caused by virulent human EV genotypes.

Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyejin; Song, Jaehyoung; Ahn, Jeongbae; Kang, Byunghak; Kim, Kisoon; Choi, Wooyoung; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Cheon-Hyun; Cho, Kyungsoon; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Min-Ji

2013-01-01

206

The microbiology of human hygiene and its impact on type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D), as with several other autoimmune diseases and conditions, began to notably rise in the latter half of the last century. Most cases of T1D are not solely attributable to genetics and therefore, environmental influences are proposed to account for the difference. Humans live today in general under much more hygienic conditions than their ancestors. Although human enteroviruses (HEV) have been strongly implicated as causative environmental agents of T1D, recent work has shown that the bacterial genera in the gut of diabetics compared with non-diabetics, can vary significantly. Here, we consider these data in light of our non-hygienic human past in order to discuss a possible relationship between the resident bacterial biome and acute infectious events by HEV, suggesting how this may have influenced T1D incidences in the past and the risk for developing T1D today.

Chapman, Nora M.; Coppieters, Ken; von Herrath, Matthias; Tracy, Steven

2012-01-01

207

Immunosenescence and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases are major causes, with malignancies, of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Increased susceptibility to infections may result from underlying dysfunction of an aged immune system; moreover, inappropriate immunologic functions associated with aging can determine an insufficient response to vaccines. Impairments of cellular, humoral and innate immunity in the elderly, contributing to increased incidence of infectious diseases, are

Lia Ginaldi; Maria Francesca Loreto; Maria Pia Corsi; Marco Modesti; Massimo De Martinis

2001-01-01

208

Infectious Waste in Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of new federal regulations, camps are revising procedures for waste disposal from their health centers. Discusses the importance of properly handling infectious material and developing written policies; determining how infectious waste can be incorporated safely into the general waste stream; and arranging for disposal. (LP)

Erceg, Linda Ebner

1993-01-01

209

Effects of Extreme Precipitation to the Distribution of Infectious Diseases in Taiwan, 1994-2008  

PubMed Central

The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships in the main island of Taiwan was analysed for the period from 1994 to 2008. Four precipitation levels, <130 mm, 130–200 mm, 200–350 mm and >350 mm, were categorized to represent quantitative differences, and their associations with each specific disease was investigated using the Generalized Additive Mixed Model and afterwards mapped on to the Geographical Information System. Daily precipitation levels were significantly correlated with all 8 mandatory-notified infectious diseases in Taiwan. For water-borne infections, extreme torrential precipitation (>350 mm/day) was found to result in the highest relative risk for bacillary dysentery and enterovirus infections when compared to ordinary rain (<130 mm/day). Yet, for vector-borne diseases, the relative risk of dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis increased with greater precipitation only up to 350 mm. Differential lag effects following precipitation were statistically associated with increased risk for contracting individual infectious diseases. This study’s findings can help health resource sector management better allocate medical resources and be better prepared to deal with infectious disease outbreaks following future extreme precipitation events.

Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Wu, Yi-Ting; Wu, Pei-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun; Su, Huey-Jen

2012-01-01

210

Diagnosis of Enterovirus Infection by Genus-Specific PCR and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays  

PubMed Central

PCR for the diagnosis of enterovirus infections is resource intensive but is increasingly used due to wide availability. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that detect heterotypical antibodies against enterovirus immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG were compared with reverse transcription-PCR by using primers specific to the 5? untranslated regions of 60 enterovirus species. The ELISAs were less sensitive than the PCR, and only the ELISA for IgM was highly specific. When retrospective diagnosis is important or when specimens are unsuitable for PCR, the ELISA has a limited role if PCR is not available.

Craig, Maria E.; Robertson, Peter; Howard, Neville J.; Silink, Martin; Rawlinson, William D.

2003-01-01

211

Presence of enteroviruses in recreational water in Wuhan, China.  

PubMed

Contaminated recreational waters pose a public health concern, as the potential for waterborne diseases exists in water contaminated with human fecal waste. Worldwide, bacterial indicators such as Escherichia coli, enterococci, and total and fecal coliform are used as indicators of water quality. However, enteric viruses also present a public health concern and their presence cannot always be determined based on bacterial indicators. This study explores the use of molecular detection methods of enteric viruses as indicators of fecal contamination. Four viruses, enterovirus, norovirus genogroups I and II, and male-specific FRNA coliphage, were tested in this study. Highly sensitive RT-PCR methods developed at the University of Hawaii at Manoa were utilized to evaluate environmental samples collected from three lakes in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Sixteen of twenty-five sites tested positive for at least one virus. Enterovirus was the most commonly detected virus, followed by norovirus genogroup I. These findings support the use of molecular detection methods to test for enteric virus presence in recreational freshwater sources in China as alternative water quality indicators, and utilize recently developed, highly sensitive methods of detection of these viruses. In addition, these findings suggest that there is substantial fecal contamination of the three lakes tested in this study. PMID:23827950

Allmann, Erin; Pan, Lei; Li, Lu; Li, Dejia; Wang, Suqing; Lu, Yuanan

2013-07-01

212

Enhancement of enterovirus infectivity in vitro by pretreating host cell monolayers with the cationic polymer polyethyleneimine.  

PubMed Central

Laboratory strains of enteroviruses, as well as viruses isolated from raw wastewater, were found to exhibit enhanced infectivity in vitro when BGM cell monolayers were pretreated with the cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI). Viruses were assayed by the cytopathic effect technique and as PFU under methylcellulose and agar overlays with monolayers treated with 0 to 5.0 x 10(-3)% (wt/vol) PEI in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 2% fetal bovine serum. Poliovirus type 1 cytopathic effect occurred at an enhanced rate in cells treated with 5.0 x 10(-3)% PEI compared with untreated cells. PEI-treated cells were found to adsorb viruses much more effectively than untreated cells did. When the methylcellulose overlay procedure was used, rates of infectivity were enhanced as follows: poliovirus type 1, 5.5-fold; echovirus type 1, 1.2-fold; echovirus type 5, 5.2-fold; and coxsackievirus type B5, 4.9-fold. Viruses concentrated from raw wastewater showed a 3.8-fold increase in titer when quantitated by the most-probable-number method and a 3.3-fold increase when quantitated as PFU under an agar overlay.

Preston, D R; Bitton, G; Farrah, S R

1990-01-01

213

Detection of herpes simplex virus (1 and 2), varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6 and enterovirus in immunocompetent Tunisian patients with acute neuromeningeal disorder.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses (EVs) and human herpesviruses (HHVs) are involved frequently in acute neurological disorders of viral etiology. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of herpes simplex virus types-1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and human enteroviruses (EVs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of Tunisian immunocompetent patients with neuromeningeal disorders. The patients had been hospitalized at the Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital (Monastir, Tunisia) between September 2007 and June 2009. At least one viral genome was detected in 58 (46%) out of 126 CSF samples collected. Enterovirus was detected in 31 of the positive samples (53.4%), CMV in 20 (34.5%), HSV-1 in 3 (5.2%), HSV-2 in 6 (10.3%), VZV in 4 (6.9%), HHV-6 in 2 (3.4%). More than one viral genome was detected in seven CSF samples, including CMV DNA in six of the samples. The high frequency of enteroviral infections in aseptic meningitis was confirmed. The detection of CMV DNA only suggests a direct role of this virus in the etiology of acute neuromeningeal disorder. PMID:22170549

Nahdi, Imen; Boukoum, Hanen; Nabil Ben Salem, Abid; Ben Romdane, Fouad; Hammami, Saber; Chebel, Saber; Mahbouba, Frih-Ayed; Guediche, Mohamed Neji; Chakroun, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub; Imbert-Marcille, Berthe-Marie; Bressollette-Bodin, Celine

2012-02-01

214

AN INTEGRATED CELL CULTURE/RT-PCR METHOD FOR DETECTING ENTEROVIRUS IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Echovirus and coxsackievirus can cause mild to severe disease following consumption of contaminated drinking water. However, comprehensive occurrence studies of enteroviruses in drinking water matrices are limited, in part because of the lack of available methods that are rapid, ...

215

Combined 5' UTR RFLP analysis and VP1 sequencing for epidemic investigation of enteroviruses.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses, the main cause of aseptic meningitis, consist of 100 serotypes, and many of them have been associated with large outbreaks. In the present study, a comparison of RFLP analysis of the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and sequencing of both the 5'UTR and VP1 regions was conducted for epidemiological linkage of 27 clinical enterovirus strains. The clinical enterovirus strains were clustered into five restriction profile groups. Even though the restriction profile clusters of clinical isolates were not related to those of the respective prototype strains, epidemiological relationships between the members of each cluster were observed. The restriction profile clusters in the 5'UTR corresponded to the phylogenetic clusters in the VP1 genomic region. The incongruence between the topology of Gior strain in 5'UTR and VP1 phylogenetic trees indicates a recombination event. The proposed RFLP assay in combination with VP1 sequencing can offer crucial epidemiological information about the circulating enteroviruses. PMID:22983155

Kyriakopoulou, Zaharoula; Tsolis, Kostas; Pliaka, Vaia; Tsakogiannis, Dimitris; Ruether, Irina Georgia Anna; Gartzonika, Constantina; Levidiotou-Stefanou, Stamatina; Markoulatos, Panayotis

2012-09-16

216

Structure of human enterovirus 71 in complex with a capsid-binding inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus causing hand, foot, and mouth disease that may progress to fatal encephalitis in infants and small children. As of now, no cure is available for enterovirus 71 infections. Small molecule inhibitors binding into a hydrophobic pocket within capsid viral protein 1 were previously shown to effectively limit infectivity of many picornaviruses. Here we report a 3.2-Å-resolution X-ray structure of the enterovirus 71 virion complexed with the capsid-binding inhibitor WIN 51711. The inhibitor replaced the natural pocket factor within the viral protein 1 pocket without inducing any detectable rearrangements in the structure of the capsid. Furthermore, we show that the compound stabilizes enterovirus 71 virions and limits its infectivity, probably through restricting dynamics of the capsid necessary for genome release. Thus, our results provide a structural basis for development of antienterovirus 71 capsid-binding drugs.

Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Yap, Moh Lan; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

2013-01-01

217

A sensor-adaptor mechanism for enterovirus uncoating from structures of EV71  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children, can cause severe central nervous system disease and mortality. At present no vaccine or antiviral therapy is available. We have determined high-resolution structures for the mature virus and natural empty particles. The structure of the mature virus is similar to that of other enteroviruses, whilst the empty particles are dramatically expanded, with notable fissures, resembling elusive enterovirus uncoating intermediates not previously characterized in atomic detail. Hydrophobic capsid pockets within the EV71 capsid are collapsed in this expanded particle, providing a detailed explanation of the mechanism for receptor-binding triggered virus uncoating. The results provide a paradigm for enterovirus uncoating, in which the VP1 GH loop acts as an adaptor-sensor for the attachment of cellular receptors, converting heterologous inputs to a generic uncoating mechanism, spotlighting novel points for therapeutic intervention.

Wang, Xiangxi; Peng, Wei; Ren, Jingshan; Hu, Zhongyu; Xu, Jiwei; Lou, Zhiyong; Li, Xumei; Yin, Weidong; Shen, Xinliang; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Evans, Gwyndaf; Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin; Rowlands, David J.; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Rao, Zihe

2012-01-01

218

Comparison of Heart Failure in Children with Enterovirus 71 Rhombencephalitis and Cats with Norepinephrine Cardiotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of heart failure in patients with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis (brain stem encephalitis) remains unknown.\\u000a Our previous reports hypothesized that a catecholamine storm induced by rhombencephalitis may account for the heart failure.\\u000a The aim of this study was to develop a novel feline model of norepinephrine cardiotoxicity and compare the resulting heart\\u000a failure to that in children with enterovirus

Y.-C. Fu; C. Cheng; N.-N. Lin; S.-L. Jan; B. Hwang; S.-L. Hsu; C.-L. Gong; Y.-T. Chen; Y.-T. Chiu

2006-01-01

219

Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 in peninsular Malaysia, 1997–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) (genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae) has been responsible for sporadic cases and outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), aseptic meningitis, encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like disease in Europe, the U.S.A., Australia and Asia. Recently, there has been an increase in EV71 activity in the Asia-Pacific region, with many outbreaks of HFMD associated with brainstem encephalitis manifesting as neurogenic pulmonary

L. J. Herrero; C. S. M. Lee; R. J. Hurrelbrink; B. H. Chua; K. B. Chua; P. C. McMinn

2003-01-01

220

Infectious Diseases Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioMedNet (BMN) presents the Infectious Diseases Gateway "featuring expertly selected content from the leading publications in infectious diseases." Users will find research articles, reviews, and other resources from the Elsevier family of journals and books; all freely available to any reader (free registration required). The Web site also offers related BMN news features, links to other BMN Gateways, and a special supplement to the upcoming Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

221

Infectious disease in athletes.  

PubMed

While orthopedic injuries most commonly are associated with sports, infectious diseases cause significant morbidity in athletes. Exercise improves immunity at moderate intensity but impairs immune function at extremes of duration and intensity. Respiratory infections are the most common, but skin, blood borne, sexually transmitted, and even cardiac infections occur. Infectious disease outbreaks are a constant concern. Treatment of such infections resembles those used in the general population. Return to play issues and prevention of infection are especially important in athletes. PMID:21623289

Harris, Mark D

222

Evidence for an enterovirus as the cause of encephalitis lethargica  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemic of encephalitis lethargica (EL), called classical EL, was rampant throughout the world during 1917–1926, affecting half a million persons. The acute phase was lethal for many victims. Post-encephalitic parkinsonism (PEP) affected patients for decades. Our purpose was to investigate the cause of classical EL by studying the few available brain specimens. Cases of PEP and modern EL were also studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunohistochemistry were employed to examine brain from four classical EL cases, two modern EL cases and one PEP case. Methods Standard methods for TEM, immunohistochemistry and RTPCR were applied. Results 27?nm virus-like particles (VLP) were observed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of midbrain neurons in all classical EL cases studied. Large (50?nm) VLP and 27?nm intranuclear VLP were observed in the modern EL cases and the PEP case. Influenza virus particles were not found. VLP were not observed in the control cases. TEM of cell cultures inoculated with coxsackievirus B4 and poliovirus revealed both small and large intranuclear virus particles and small cytoplasmic particles, similar to the VLP in EL neurons. In the EL brains, nascent VLP were embedded in putative virus factories and on endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The VLP in the cases of classical EL survived, whereas ribosomes underwent autolysis due to the lack of refrigeration and slow formaldehyde fixation of whole brain. The VLP were larger than ribosomes from well preserved brain. Immunohistochemistry of classical EL cases using anti-poliovirus and anti-coxsackievirus B polyclonal antibodies showed significant staining of cytoplasm and nuclei of neurons as well as microglia and neuropil. Purkinje cells were strongly stained. A 97-bp RNA fragment of a unique virus was isolated from brain tissue from acute EL case #91558. Sequence analysis revealed up to 95% identity to multiple human Enteroviruses. Additional cases had Enterovirus positive reactions by real time PCR. Conclusions The data presented here support the hypothesis that the VLP observed in EL tissue is an Enterovirus.

2012-01-01

223

Impaired glutamate uptake and EAAT2 downregulation in an enterovirus chronically infected human glial cell line.  

PubMed

Rapid and efficient uptake of glutamate via the high-affinity glutamate transporter EAAT2 is important for limiting glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity involved in neuronal death. Furthermore, there is evidence of altered glutamate uptake and catabolism in motor neuron diseases. Such a defect has been reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the major motor neuron disease, and was associated with impairment in EAAT2 processing. We recently reported the presence of enterovirus genome specifically in the anterior horn of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases, suggesting the involvement of a chronic/persistent enterovirus infection in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To investigate a putative link between enterovirus infection and the glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity observed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, we developed an in vitro model consisting of a human glial cell line infected with ECHOvirus 6, one of the enteroviruses with sequences closely related to those detected in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In these glial cells, an ECHOvirus 6 chronic infection was established, resulting in altered extracellular glutamate uptake. This correlated with an aberrant splicing of the EAAT2 pre-messenger ribonucleic acid and a significant loss of EAAT2 protein expression, similar to that observed in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These results provide convincing evidence that an enterovirus chronic/persistent infection may alter glial glutamate uptake and catabolism. As enteroviruses are extremely common human pathogens, they may act as a trigger in the development of certain motor neuron diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:12752781

Legay, Vincent; Deleage, Christelle; Beaulieux, Frederik; Giraudon, Pascale; Aymard, Michelle; Lina, Bruno

2003-05-01

224

Enterovirus 71 Disrupts Interferon Signaling by Reducing the Level of Interferon Receptor 1  

PubMed Central

The recent outbreak of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infected millions of children and caused over 1,000 deaths. To date, neither an effective vaccine nor antiviral treatment is available for EV71 infection. Interferons (IFNs) have been successfully applied to treat patients with hepatitis B and C viral infections for decades but have failed to treat EV71 infections. Here, we provide the evidence that EV71 antagonizes type I IFN signaling by reducing the level of interferon receptor 1 (IFNAR1). We show that the host cells could sense EV71 infection and stimulate IFN-? production. However, the induction of downstream IFN-stimulated genes is inhibited by EV71. Also, only a slight interferon response and antiviral effects could be detected in cells treated with recombinant type I IFNs after EV71 infection. Further studies reveal that EV71 blocks the IFN-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT2, Jak1, and Tyk2 by reducing IFNAR1. Finally, we identified the 2A protease encoded by EV71 as an antagonist of IFNs and show that the protease activity is required for reducing IFNAR1 levels. Taken together, our study for the first time uncovers a mechanism used by EV71 to antagonize type I IFN signaling and provides new targets for future antiviral strategies.

Lu, Jing; Yi, Lina; Zhao, Jin; Yu, Jun; Chen, Ying; Lin, Marie C.; Kung, Hsiang-Fu

2012-01-01

225

Enterovirus 71 disrupts interferon signaling by reducing the level of interferon receptor 1.  

PubMed

The recent outbreak of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infected millions of children and caused over 1,000 deaths. To date, neither an effective vaccine nor antiviral treatment is available for EV71 infection. Interferons (IFNs) have been successfully applied to treat patients with hepatitis B and C viral infections for decades but have failed to treat EV71 infections. Here, we provide the evidence that EV71 antagonizes type I IFN signaling by reducing the level of interferon receptor 1 (IFNAR1). We show that the host cells could sense EV71 infection and stimulate IFN-? production. However, the induction of downstream IFN-stimulated genes is inhibited by EV71. Also, only a slight interferon response and antiviral effects could be detected in cells treated with recombinant type I IFNs after EV71 infection. Further studies reveal that EV71 blocks the IFN-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT2, Jak1, and Tyk2 by reducing IFNAR1. Finally, we identified the 2A protease encoded by EV71 as an antagonist of IFNs and show that the protease activity is required for reducing IFNAR1 levels. Taken together, our study for the first time uncovers a mechanism used by EV71 to antagonize type I IFN signaling and provides new targets for future antiviral strategies. PMID:22258259

Lu, Jing; Yi, Lina; Zhao, Jin; Yu, Jun; Chen, Ying; Lin, Marie C; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; He, Ming-Liang

2012-01-18

226

Worldwide emergence of multiple clades of enterovirus 68  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 68 (EV-D68) is a historically rarely reported virus linked with respiratory disease. In the past 3 years, a large increase in respiratory disease associated with EV-D68 has been reported, with documented outbreaks in North America, Europe and Asia. In several outbreaks, genetic differences were identified among the circulating strains, indicating the presence of multiple clades. In this report, we analyse archived and novel EV-D68 strains from Africa and the USA, obtained from patients with respiratory illness. Phylogenetic analysis of all EV-D68 sequences indicates that, over the past two decades, multiple clades of the virus have emerged and spread rapidly worldwide. All clades appear to be currently circulating and contributing to respiratory disease.

Firth, Cadhla; Madhi, Shabir A.; Howie, Stephen R. C.; Wu, Winfred; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Haq, Saddef; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W. Ian

2012-01-01

227

Construction of a bovine enterovirus-based vector expressing a foot-and-mouth disease virus epitope.  

PubMed

A recombinant infectious bovine enterovirus (BEV) vector was constructed to express a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein (VP1) epitope. Sequences encoding the VP1 epitope (amino acid residues 141-160) of FMDV (vaccine strain O1/Manisa/Turkey/69) were inserted into pBLUBEV at the VP1/2A junction. The growth characteristics of the parental virus and viruses derived from recombinant plasmids (pBLUBEV, pBLUBEV-Manisa-epi) were determined by plaque assay and one-step growth curve analysis. There were no significant differences in the growth kinetics and plaque morphologies between transfectant viruses and their parental virus. The expressed VP1 epitope was detected successfully by using indirect immunofluorescence assay with a polyclonal antibody against the FMDV VP1 epitope from Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells infected with BEV-Manisa-epi transfectant virus. This study demonstrated a novel alternative live viral vector that may be utilized as a candidate vaccine vector for veterinary applications. PMID:23391822

Chu, Jia-Qi; Lee, Yeo-Joo; Park, Jeong-Nam; Kim, Su-Mi; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Ko, Young-Joon; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Cho, In-Soo; Kim, Byounghan; Park, Jong-Hyeon

2013-02-04

228

Development of a Virus Concentration Method and Its Application to Detection of Enterovirus and Norwalk Virus from Coastal Seawater  

PubMed Central

We developed a new procedure for concentration of enteric viruses from water using a negatively charged membrane. Rinsing the membrane with 0.5 mM H2SO4 (pH 3.0) in order to elute cations prior to viral elution with 1 mM NaOH (pH 10.5) promoted poliovirus recovery yields from 33 to 95% when applied to pure water and 38 to 89% when applied to natural seawater from Tokyo Bay, Japan, respectively. This method showed average recovery yields of spiked poliovirus of 62% (n = 8) from 1 liter of artificial seawater. This method showed higher recovery yields (>61%) than that of the conventional method using positively charged membrane (6%) when applied to seawater. This method is also free from beef extract elution, which has an inhibitory effect in the subsequent viral genome detection by reverse transcription-PCR. Naturally occurring Norwalk viruses from 2 liters of Tokyo Bay water in winter and infectious enteroviruses from 2 liters of recreational coastal seawater in summer were detected by using this viral concentration method.

Katayama, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Akihiro; Ohgaki, Shinichiro

2002-01-01

229

Molecular epidemiology of enteroviruses with special reference to their potential role in the etiology of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several lines of evidence suggest that enterovirus infections may be involved in the etiology of the insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Often in the literature, a reference is given to specifically diabetogenic strains of enterovirus but there is no systematic assessment about the generation of such strains in the course of evolution or about their abundance among the 64 enterovirus

Tapani Hovi

1998-01-01

230

Molecular phylogeny of all human enterovirus serotypes based on comparison of sequences at the 5? end of the region encoding VP2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-six human enterovirus serotypes have been described using antibody neutralization, with antigenic variants defined within several serotypes. Despite the availability of sequence data for numerous enteroviruses, the molecular basis of serotype is unknown. Previous studies by others have identified four major phylogenetic groups within the human enteroviruses, but there has been no complete database of homologous sequences for all human

M. Steven Oberste; Kaija Maher; Mark A. Pallansch

1998-01-01

231

Nanomedicine and infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The First International Conference on Infectious Diseases and Nanomedicine congress facilitated the mixing of researchers in various fields of nanomedicine and infectious diseases, bringing together researchers from the fields of physics and chemistry, on the production of nanoparticles and researchers from various fields of microbiology where these nanoparticles have practical applications. The manufacture and applications of nanoparticles was one of the main themes of the congress, with much emphasis on the use of nanoparticles for the treatment of cancer. The ever increasing problems and concerns around antibiotic resistance also featured prominently in the congress. Various interesting presentations on human viruses were also presented during this congress. PMID:23566145

Bragg, Robert R; Kock, Lodewyk

2013-04-01

232

Infectious Morbidity After Radical Vulvectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective: This retrospective investigation describes the infectious morbidity of patients following radical vulvectomy with or without inguinal lymph node dissection. Methods: The charts of patients undergoing radical vulvectomy between January 1, 1986, and September 1, 1989, were reviewed for age, weight, cancer type, tumor stage, operative procedure(s), prophylactic antibiotic and its length of use, febrile morbidity, infection site, culture results, significant medical history, and length of use and number of drains or catheters used. Results: The study group was composed of 61 patients, 14 of whom underwent a radical vulvectomy and 47 who also had inguinal lymph node dissection performed. Twenty-nine patients (48%) had at least 1 postoperative infection. Five patients (8%) had 2 or more postoperative infections. The site and incidence of the infections were as follows: urinary tract 23%, wound 23%, lymphocyst 3%, lymphatics (lymphangitis) 5%, and bowel (pseudomembranous colitis) 3%. The most common pathogens isolated from both urine and wound sites were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterococcus, and Escherichia coli. A significant decrease in wound infection was demonstrated when separate incisions were made for inguinal lymph node dissection (P <0.05). The mean number of days to onset of postoperative infection for wound, urine, lymphatics, lymphocyst, and bowel were 11, 8, 57, 48, and 5, respectively. Conclusions: We conclude that the clinical appearance of post-radical vulvectomy infections is delayed when compared with other post-surgical wound infections. Second, utilizing separate inguinal surgical incisions may reduce infectious morbidity. Finally, tumor stage and type do not necessarily increase the infectious morbidity of radical vulvar surgery.

Carson, Linda F.; Brooker, Doris C.; Carter, Jonathan R.; Twiggs, Leo B.

1994-01-01

233

Variation in the spike protein of the 793/B type of infectious bronchitis virus, in the field and during alternate passage in chickens and embryonated eggs.  

PubMed

The degree of variation exhibited within the 793/B serotype (also known as 4/91 and CR88 serotypes) was investigated with nine French and 10 British isolates, collected between 1985 and 1994. The S1 part (1644 nucleotides) of the spike protein gene of the first known isolate of this serotype, FR/CR85131/85, had 95.9% to 97% nucleotide identity with the other isolates. Partial sequencing of isolates from Iran and Saudi Arabia, isolated in 2000, revealed approximately 95% nucleotide identity with European isolates, including the two live 793/B vaccinal strains, showing that they were not re-isolations of vaccinal virus. The data indicates that strains within the 793/B serotype have > or =96% nucleotide identity within the whole S1 gene and > or =93% nucleotide identity within the first 560 nucleotides, and > or =92% and > or =86% amino acid identities in the corresponding protein regions. This is similar to the identities exhibited within the Massachusetts serotype. Sequence analysis of a 793/B field isolate after passage in embryonated eggs, then in chickens and then again in eggs revealed selection for a serine and alanine at S1 amino acid position 95 in chicken-passaged and egg-passaged virus, respectively. There was no change in pathogenicity. This is the first demonstration at gene sequence level of host-driven selection for infectious bronchitis virus. PMID:15763735

Cavanagh, David; Picault, Jean-Paul; Gough, Richard; Hess, Michael; Mawditt, Karen; Britton, Paul

2005-02-01

234

Production of infectious virus and degradation of APOBEC3G are separable functional properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif.  

PubMed

HIV-1 Vif regulates viral infectivity by inhibiting the encapsidation of APOBEC3G (APO3G) through proteasomal degradation of the protein. Here we compared various Vif proteins for their ability to induce APO3G degradation and rescue viral infectivity. We found that Vif expressed from proviral vectors caused relatively inefficient degradation of APO3G in HeLa cells yet was very effective in inhibiting APO3G's antiviral activity. On the other hand, Vif expressed autonomously from a codon-optimized vector caused very efficient APO3G degradation and also effectively inhibited APO3G's antiviral effects. In contrast, a Vif chimera containing an N-terminal fluorescent tag efficiently induced APO3G degradation but was unable to restore viral infectivity. The lack of a direct correlation between APO3G degradation and rescue of viral infectivity suggests that these two properties of Vif are functionally separable. Our data imply that intracellular degradation of APO3G may not be the sole activity of Vif required for the production of infectious virions from APO3G-expressing cells. PMID:17825339

Kao, Sandra; Goila-Gaur, Ritu; Miyagi, Eri; Khan, Mohammad A; Opi, Sandrine; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Strebel, Klaus

2007-09-06

235

[Infectious diseases in Poland in 2001].  

PubMed

In 2001 surveillance system of infectious diseases in Poland remained unchanged. New cases of infectious diseases were recorded in 103 positions including intoxications. Tuberculosis and sexually transmitted infections were registered in separate systems. Influenza was the most frequently reported infectious disease with 576,449 cases, 63.9% less then in the previous year. The next most numerous were foodborne infections, which were reported in 24,393 cases, including 19,788 cases of infections caused by Salmonella sp. An increase in incidence was observed in the following diseases: viral hepatitis type A, rubella, measles and pertussis. Also the number of recorded cases of Lyme boreliosis and tickborne encephalitis were higher then in 2000. Incidence of AIDS remained within the range recorded during the last few years. In 2001 further drop in incidence of viral hepatitis type B was observed reaching the level of 6.2 per 100,000. It was the result of implemented comprehensive program of prophylactic measures, which brought incidence of this disease from the highest in Europe down to the level close to European average. Infectious diseases contributed to 0.75% of deaths. The most frequent cause of death among infectious diseases was tuberculosis and its sequels (1,061 cases). 13 cases of death due to tuberculosis occurred in people below 30 years of age. PMID:12926304

Zieli?ski, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Miros?aw P

2003-01-01

236

Passive protection effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins on enterovirus 71 infected mice.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to evaluate the passive protective efficiency of immunoglobulin in yolk (IgY) specific against human enterovirus type 71 (EV71). The antibody was raised by intramuscular immunization to 10 White Leghorn hens, with inactivated human EV71 serving as the antigen. The titer and specificity of the antibody were analyzed from purified IgY in the egg yolks of immunized hens. Results indicate that the titer of IgY specific against EV71 increased from the third week after the first immunization. The content of total IgY was 190 ± 26 mg/yolk, with an average concentration of specific IgY of 6.34 ± 3.38 mg/yolk in the eggs from 3 to 18 wk after immunization. The results of the neutralization effect of specific IgY in EV71-challenged mice demonstrate that the EV71-specific IgY, either by intraperitoneal injection or oral administration, was able to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality in EV71 infected mice pups. PMID:20937321

Liou, Jenn-Fa; Chang, Chih-Wei; Tailiu, Jui-jane; Yu, Chun-Keung; Lei, Huan-Yao; Chen, Lih-Ren; Tai, Chein

2010-10-29

237

Seasonal infectious disease epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

formally examined. This paper examines the causes and consequences of seasonality, and in so doing derives several new results concerning vaccination strategy and the interpretation of disease outbreak data. It begins with a brief review of published scientific studies in support of different causes of seasonality in infectious diseases of humans, identifying four principal mechanisms and their association with different

Nicholas C. Grassly; Christophe Fraser

2006-01-01

238

An investigation into parametric relationships between enterovirus and faecal indicator organisms in the coastal waters of England and Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has resulted in conflicting conclusions concerning possible statistical relationships between bacterial indicator and enterovirus concentrations in marine waters. Results have suggested either highly significant relationships or no significant correlation. To examine these relationships further, large compliance assessment data sets for identified bathing waters on the English and Welsh coast, between 1988 and 1992, were extended to include enterovirus

Mark D. Wyer; Jay M. Fleisher; Jacqueline Gough; David Kay; Helen Merrett

1995-01-01

239

Cleavage of Poly(A)Binding Protein by Enterovirus Proteases Concurrent with Inhibition of Translation In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many enteroviruses, members of the family Picornaviridae, cause a rapid and drastic inhibition of host cell protein synthesis during infection, a process referred to as host cell shutoff. Poliovirus, one of the best-studied enteroviruses, causes marked inhibition of host cell translation while preferentially allowing translation of its own genomic mRNA. An abundance of experimental evidence has accumulated to indicate that

MICHELLE JOACHIMS; PIETER C. VAN BREUGEL; RICHARD E. LLOYD

1999-01-01

240

[Retinal manifestations of infectious diseases].  

PubMed

The retina and the choroids are richly vascularised structures and can therefore be colonised by germs via the haematogenous route in the course of a systemic infectious disease. The germs responsible for this type of infection can be fungi, viruses, bacteria and parasites. Ocular candidiasis is outstanding amongst these colonisations because of its frequency; it can manifest itself as an endophthalmitis with a slow and hidden course. The so-called ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, although it is infrequent in our setting, is an important cause of choroidal neovascularisation. The viruses that most frequently affect the retina are of the herpes type and can produce devastating symptoms in immunoincompetent patients, named acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Retinitis due to cytomegalovirus is more frequent in immunodepressed patients, as in the case of AIDS, but it must also be contemplated in patients with lymphoma and immunomodulatory treatment. The most frequent bacterial diseases that affect the retina are syphilis and tuberculosis. Disease due to cat scratches, caused by a borrelia, can produce a neuroretinitis. Toxoplasmosis is the most common of the infectious diseases caused by a parasite and gives rise to chorioretinitis. Toxocariasis, also caused by a parasite, is second in importance, giving rise to choroidal granulomas and retinal tractions. PMID:19169295

Pérez de Arcelus, M; Salinas, A; Garcķa Layana, A

2008-01-01

241

Detection of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses in clinical specimens by PCR and liquid-phase hybridization.  

PubMed Central

A sensitive method based on PCR followed by liquid-phase hybridization for detection of enterovirus and rhinovirus RNAs in clinical specimens and cell culture supernatants is described. RNA was extracted from stool samples, throat swabs, nasopharyngeal aspirates, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and plasma with a commercial phenol-guanidinium-chloroform reagent and purified on a polysulfone membrane, on which the reverse transcriptase reaction was also done. Two sets of oligonucleotide primers from the 5' noncoding region of picornaviruses were selected for DNA amplification of 153-bp (enterovirus) and 120-bp (rhinovirus) regions. Double-stranded amplicons were digested into single strands with T7 gene 6 exonuclease and quantitated by an assay using a europium-labeled probe, streptavidin- and biotinylated probe-coated microtitration wells, and time-resolved fluorometry. The sensitivity of the assay was about one template molecule when purified coxsackievirus A9 RNA was used. All enterovirus prototype strains, except echoviruses 22 and 23, and clinical isolates grown in cell culture or suckling mice were strongly positive by the enterovirus PCR-hybridization, as were selected prototype strains and untyped isolates of rhinoviruses by the rhinovirus PCR-hybridization. In a series of 100 clinical specimens tested, the results for 92 agreed with virus culture results. The detection method described will be useful in etiopathogenic studies on enteroviruses and rhinoviruses.

Halonen, P; Rocha, E; Hierholzer, J; Holloway, B; Hyypia, T; Hurskainen, P; Pallansch, M

1995-01-01

242

Molecular detection and identification of enteroviruses in children admitted to a university hospital in Greece.  

PubMed

Although enteroviral infections occur frequently during childhood, the circulation of particular serotypes has never been studied in Greece. The objectives of the present report were molecular detection and identification of human enteroviruses in children admitted with nonspecific febrile illness or meningitis to a university hospital during a 22-month period. A one-step Real-Time RT-PCR protocol was used for rapid enterovirus detection in genetic material extracted directly from clinical samples, and a sensitive reverse transcription-semi-nested PCR targeting part of the VP1-coding region was used for genotypic identification of the different serotypes. Twenty-one enterovirus strains were detected and identified in 20 stool samples, one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample, one whole blood sample and one throat swab from 21 out of 134 febrile patients (15.7%). Ten strains belonged to Human Enterovirus Species B (HEV-B) (six serotypes) and eleven to HEV-A (four serotypes). Most of the strains were closely associated with virulent strains circulating in Europe and elsewhere. Detection of the emerging pathogen enterovirus 71 for a first time in Greece was particularly important. PMID:21803150

Siafakas, Nikolaos; Attilakos, Ahilleas; Vourli, Sofia; Stefos, Efstathios; Meletiadis, Joseph; Nikolaidou, Polyxeni; Zerva, Loukia

2011-07-23

243

Meta-analysis of the association of enteroviruses with human heart disease  

PubMed Central

The role of viruses in the genesis of both dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and acute myocarditis remains uncertain. Modern molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridisation are sensitive means of detecting viral genomic material in human myocardial tissue and may help to resolve the quest. Meta-analysis of the papers in the literature records studies of both acute myocarditis and DCM where molecular techniques were used to demonstrate enteroviruses. This review studies information from the published literature as well as statistical analysis of the cumulative molecular data relating enteroviruses to DCM, and to compare these findings with the information available on the role of enteroviruses in acute myocarditis. Twelve papers reported studies in acute myocarditis, of which 11 found higher percentages of enteroviral RNA positivity in the diseased population, giving an overall odds ratio of 4.4. Seventeen papers reported studies in DCM, with 11 recording higher positivity rates in these patients. Cumulative analysis of these data suggests an overall odds ratio of 3.8. The causative role of enteroviruses in acute myocarditis, particularly in children, is supported by meta-analysis of the available literature. The data on DCM is suggestive of an association but a proportion of the studies are negative.?? Keywords: enteroviruses;  dilated cardiomyopathy;  myocarditis;  meta-analyses

Baboonian, C.; Treasure, T.

1997-01-01

244

Adaptation of enterovirus 71 to adult interferon deficient mice.  

PubMed

Non-polio enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71), have caused severe and fatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-Pacific region. The development of a vaccine or antiviral against these pathogens has been hampered by the lack of a reliable small animal model. In this study, a mouse adapted EV71 strain was produced by conducting serial passages through A129 (?/? interferon (IFN) receptor deficient) and AG129 (?/?, ? IFN receptor deficient) mice. A B2 sub genotype of EV71 was inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) into neonatal AG129 mice and brain-harvested virus was subsequently passaged through 12 and 15 day-old A129 mice. When tested in 10 week-old AG129 mice, this adapted strain produced 100% lethality with clinical signs including limb paralysis, eye irritation, loss of balance, and death. This virus caused only 17% mortality in same age A129 mice, confirming that in the absence of a functional IFN response, adult AG129 mice are susceptible to infection by adapted EV71 isolates. Subsequent studies in adult AG129 and young A129 mice with the adapted EV71 virus examined the efficacy of an inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine and determined the role of humoral immunity in protection. Passive transfer of rabbit immune sera raised against the EV71 vaccine provided protection in a dose dependent manner in 15 day-old A129 mice. Intramuscular injections (i.m.) in five week-old AG129 mice with the alum adjuvanted vaccine also provided protection against the mouse adapted homologous strain. No clinical signs of disease or mortality were observed in vaccinated animals, which received a prime-and-boost, whereas 71% of control animals were euthanized after exhibiting systemic clinical signs (P<0.05). The development of this animal model will facilitate studies on EV71 pathogenesis, antiviral testing, the evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates, and has the potential to establish correlates of protection studies. PMID:23527208

Caine, Elizabeth A; Partidos, Charalambos D; Santangelo, Joseph D; Osorio, Jorge E

2013-03-19

245

Adaptation of Enterovirus 71 to Adult Interferon Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Non-polio enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71), have caused severe and fatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-Pacific region. The development of a vaccine or antiviral against these pathogens has been hampered by the lack of a reliable small animal model. In this study, a mouse adapted EV71 strain was produced by conducting serial passages through A129 (?/? interferon (IFN) receptor deficient) and AG129 (?/?, ? IFN receptor deficient) mice. A B2 sub genotype of EV71 was inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) into neonatal AG129 mice and brain-harvested virus was subsequently passaged through 12 and 15 day-old A129 mice. When tested in 10 week-old AG129 mice, this adapted strain produced 100% lethality with clinical signs including limb paralysis, eye irritation, loss of balance, and death. This virus caused only 17% mortality in same age A129 mice, confirming that in the absence of a functional IFN response, adult AG129 mice are susceptible to infection by adapted EV71 isolates. Subsequent studies in adult AG129 and young A129 mice with the adapted EV71 virus examined the efficacy of an inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine and determined the role of humoral immunity in protection. Passive transfer of rabbit immune sera raised against the EV71 vaccine provided protection in a dose dependent manner in 15 day-old A129 mice. Intramuscular injections (i.m.) in five week-old AG129 mice with the alum adjuvanted vaccine also provided protection against the mouse adapted homologous strain. No clinical signs of disease or mortality were observed in vaccinated animals, which received a prime-and-boost, whereas 71% of control animals were euthanized after exhibiting systemic clinical signs (P<0.05). The development of this animal model will facilitate studies on EV71 pathogenesis, antiviral testing, the evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates, and has the potential to establish correlates of protection studies.

Caine, Elizabeth A.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Santangelo, Joseph D.; Osorio, Jorge E.

2013-01-01

246

Target Peptide Sequence within Infectious Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Does Not Ensure Envelope-Specific T-Helper Cell Reactivation: Influences of Cysteine Protease and Gamma Interferon-Induced Thiol Reductase Activities?  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical trials have shown that the presence of a robust human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T-cell response may not be sufficient to prevent or control HIV-1 infection. Studies of antigen processing in the context of infectious HIV-1 are therefore warranted. Envelope-specific, major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted murine T-cell hybridomas were tested for responsiveness to splenic antigen-presenting cells exposed to HIV-1-infected GHOST cells. Interleukin-2 assays showed that the presence of a peptide within HIV-1 did not ensure the reactivation of peptide-specific T cells. Further experiments defined the impact of gamma interferon-induced thiol reductase and cysteine proteases on the processing of HIV-1 peptides. The results highlight potential influences of peptide context on T-cell reactivation by HIV-1 and encourage the continued study of antigen processing as support for improved vaccine design.

Sealy, Robert; Chaka, Wendy; Surman, Sherri; Brown, Scott A.; Cresswell, Peter; Hurwitz, Julia L.

2008-01-01

247

Weather and infectious disease in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence and severity of many diseases of cattle, particularly the endemic enteric and respiratory diseases, appear from clinical impression or epidemiological survey to be associated with particular types of weather. Infectious diseases of cattle (excluding parasitic ones) for which there appears to be a real association between climate, weather and disease are reviewed. Effects of weather on survival and

A. J. F. Webster

1981-01-01

248

Pilot Scale Production of Highly Efficacious and Stable Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Candidates  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Asia and now is being recognized as an important neurotropic virus. Effective medications and prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection are urgently needed. Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate has been developed and currently in human phase 1 clinical trial. Principal Finding In this report, we present the development of a serum-free cell-based EV71 vaccine. The optimization at each step of the manufacturing process was investigated, characterized and quantified. In the up-stream process development, different commercially available cell culture media either containing serum or serum-free was screened for cell growth and virus yield using the roller-bottle technology. VP-SFM serum-free medium was selected based on the Vero cell growth profile and EV71 virus production. After the up-stream processes (virus harvest, diafiltration and concentration), a combination of gel-filtration liquid chromatography and/or sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation down-stream purification processes were investigated at a pilot scale of 40 liters each. Although the combination of chromatography and sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation produced extremely pure EV71 infectious virus particles, the overall yield of vaccine was 7–10% as determined by a VP2-based quantitative ELISA. Using chromatography as the downstream purification, the virus yield was 30–43%. To retain the integrity of virus neutralization epitopes and the stability of the vaccine product, the best virus inactivation was found to be 0.025% formalin-treatment at 37°C for 3 to 6 days. Furthermore, the formalin-inactivated virion vaccine candidate was found to be stable for >18 months at 4°C and a microgram of viral proteins formulated with alum adjuvant could induce strong virus-neutralizing antibody responses in mice, rats, rabbits, and non-human primates. Conclusion These results provide valuable information supporting the current cell-based serum-free EV71 vaccine candidate going into human Phase I clinical trials.

Chang, Cheng-Peng; Guo, Meng-Shin; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Yang, Wen-Hsueh; Chao, Hsin-Ju; Wu, Chien-Long; Huang, Ju-Lan; Lee, Min-Shi; Hu, Alan Yung-Chi; Lin, Sue-Chen; Huang, Yu-Yun; Hu, Mei-Hua; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chiang, Jen-Ron; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Chong, Pele

2012-01-01

249

Infectious diseases: an ecological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the middle of the 20th century, infectious diseases were no longer the major causes of mortality in developed countries. The eradication of smallpox reinforced the perception that infectious diseases could be eliminated. Improved sanitation, clean water, and better living conditions, along with vaccines and antimicrobial agents, brought many infectious diseases under control in industrialised countries, but infections continued to

Mary E Wilson

1995-01-01

250

Molecular Evolution of Enterovirus 68 Detected in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of Enterovirus 68 (EV68) has recently been increased. However, underlying evolutionary mechanism of this increasing trend is not fully understood. Methods Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 5,240 patients with acute respiratory infections in the Philippines from June 2009 to December 2011. EV68 was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting for 5? untranslated region (5?UTR), viral protein 1 (VP1), and VP4/VP2. Phylogenetic trees were generated using the obtained sequences. Results Of the 5,240 tested samples, 12 EV68 positive cases were detected between August and December in 2011 (detection rate, 0.23%). The detection rate was higher among inpatients than outpatients (p<0.0001). Among VP1 sequences detected from 7 patients in 2011, 5 in lineage 2 were diverged from those detected in the Philippines in 2008, however, 2 in lineage 3 were not diverged from strains detected in the Philippines in 2008 but closely associated with strains detected in the United States. Combined with our previous report, EV68 occurrences were observed twice in the Philippines within the last four years. Conclusions EV68 detections might be occurring in cyclic patterns, and viruses might have been maintained in the community while some strains might have been newly introduced.

Imamura, Tadatsugu; Suzuki, Akira; Lupisan, Socorro; Okamoto, Michiko; Aniceto, Rapunzel; Egos, Rutchie J.; Daya, Edgardo E.; Tamaki, Raita; Saito, Mariko; Fuji, Naoko; Roy, Chandra Nath; Opinion, Jaime M.; Santo, Arlene V.; Macalalad, Noel G.; Tandoc, Amado; Sombrero, Lydia; Olveda, Remigio; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2013-01-01

251

Glycosaminoglycans in infectious disease.  

PubMed

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex carbohydrates that are ubiquitously present on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Interactions between GAGs and pathogens represent the first line of contact between pathogen and host cell and are crucial to a pathogen's invasive potential. Their complexity and structural diversity allow GAGs to control a wide array of biological interactions influencing many physiological and pathological processes, including adhesion, cell-to-cell communication, biochemical cascades, and the immune response. In recent years, increasing evidence indicates an extraordinary role for GAGs in the pathogenesis of viruses, bacteria and parasites. Herein, we examine the interface between GAGs and different pathogens, and address the divergent biological functions of GAGs in infectious disease. We consider approaches to use this understanding to design novel therapeutic strategies addressing new challenges in the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:23551941

Kamhi, Eyal; Joo, Eun Ji; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

2013-03-29

252

Bedbugs and Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance.

Blanc, Veronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

2011-01-01

253

What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

... Infectious Diseases Specialists Provide? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists treat a wide range of infectious and immunologic diseases such as those caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Other pediatric infectious diseases specialists are consulted for ...

254

Infectious Gastroenteritis and Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, we discuss the epidemiology, etiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diarrhea in immunocompetent\\u000a persons. The features of small intestinal and ileocolonic disease as related to possible causative agents are presented. Additionally,\\u000a there is an emphasis on specific pathogens, with a comprehensive review of viral, bacterial, and parasitic causes of diarrhea.\\u000a We then discuss the intricacies of

Jennifer M. Newton; Christina M. Surawicz

255

INFECTIOUS PAPILLOMATOSIS OF RABBITS  

PubMed Central

A papilloma has been observed in wild cottontail rabbits and has been found to be transmissible to both wild and domestic rabbits. The clinical and pathological pictures of the condition have been described. It has been found that the causative agent is readily filtrable through Berkefeld but not regularly through Seitz filters, that it stores well in glycerol, that it is still active after heating to 67°C. for 30 minutes, but not after heating to 70°C., and that it exhibits a marked tropism for cutaneous epithelium. The activities and properties of the papilloma-producing agent warrant its classification as a filtrable virus. Rabbits carrying experimentally produced papillomata are partially or completely immune to reinfection and, furthermore, their sera partially or completely neutralize the causative virus. The disease is transmissible in series through wild rabbits and virus of wild rabbit origin is readily transmissible to domestic rabbits, producing in this species papillomata identical in appearance with those found in wild rabbits. However, the condition is not transmissible in series through domestic rabbits. The possible significance of this observation has been discussed. The virus of infectious papillomatosis is not related immunologically to either the virus of infectious fibroma or to that of infectious myxoma of rabbits.

Shope, Richard E.; Hurst, E. Weston

1933-01-01

256

Immunoserology of infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated.

James, K

1990-01-01

257

Genetic and Antigenic Characterization of Enterovirus 71 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2011  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) frequently causes fatal infections in young children in Asia. In 2011, EV71 epidemics occurred in southern Vietnam. We conducted genetic and antigenic analysis of the EV71 isolates and found that 94% of them were genotype C4a related to two lineages circulating in China and 6% were genotype C5 which have circulated in Vietnam since 2003. Antigenic variants were not detected. EV71 vaccines are being developed. Longitudinal enterovirus surveillance data are critical to formulate vaccination policy in Vietnam.

Thoa, Le Phan Kim; Chiang, Pai-Shan; Khanh, Truong Huu; Luo, Shu-Ting; Dan, Tran Ngoc Hanh; Wang, Ya-Fang; Thuong, Tang Chi; Chung, Wan-Yu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Wang, Jen-Ren; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Thinh, Le Quoc; Su, Ih-Jen; Dung, Than Duc; Lee, Min-Shi

2013-01-01

258

Characterization of Full-Length Enterovirus 71 Strains from Severe and Mild Disease Patients in Northeastern China  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has been a leading cause of childhood infection in China since 2008. Epidemic and molecular characteristics of HFMD have been examined in many areas of China, including the central and southern regions. However, clinical and genetic characterization of EV71 in the northeastern region of China is scarce. In this study, a series of analyses were performed on seven full-length EV71 sequences from HFMD patients who had either severe or mild disease. We have determined that these seven circulating EV71 viruses from Changchun, China are actually complex recombinant viruses involving multiple type A human enterovirus (HEV). Classified as EV71 subtype C4 (EV71 C4), these Changchun EV71 viruses contain genetic recombination events between the CA4, CA5, EV71B4 and EV71C1 strains. Most of the structural protein region (P1) of these viruses resembled that of the prototype EV71 C1 strains. The non-structural protein domains (P2 and P3) showed a high degree of similarity with CA4, CA5 and EV71 B4 in different regions. The 5?UTR had unclassified recombination,while partial 3D region of these viruses showed a high degree of similarity to CA16. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length or partial sequences of isolates from severe or mild disease patients in Changchun always formed a single cluster in various phylogenetic analyses of different genomic regions, suggesting that all seven strains originated from one single common ancestor. There was no correlation between viral genomic sequence and virulence. Thus, we found that circulating recombinant forms of EV71 are prevalent among HFMD patients in Northeastern China. The existence of a unique cluster of EV71 related viruses in Northeast China has important implications for vaccine development that would address the increasing prevalence of HFMD.

Bao, Wanguo; Zhao, Ke; Niu, Junqi; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Wenyan

2012-01-01

259

Environmental triggers of type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is perceived as a progressive immune-mediated disease, the clinical diagnosis of which is preceded by an asymptomatic preclinical period of highly variable duration. It has long been postulated that the disease process leading to overt T1D is triggered by an infectious agent, the strongest candidate being a diabetogenic enterovirus. The initiation and progression of the disorder likely requires, in addition to genetic T1D susceptibility, a trigger, an exogenous antigen capable of driving the development of this disease. This may be a dietary antigen similar to gluten in celiac disease. Recent data further suggests that the initiation of autoimmunity is preceded by inflammation reflected by a proinflammatory metabolic serum profile. The cause of the inflammation remains open, but given that the intestinal microbiome appears to differ between individuals who progress to clinical T1D and nonprogressors, one may speculate that changes in the gut microflora might contribute to the inflammatory process. PMID:22762021

Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli

2012-07-01

260

What we are watching--five top global infectious disease threats, 2012: a perspective from CDC's Global Disease Detection Operations Center  

PubMed Central

Disease outbreaks of international public health importance continue to occur regularly; detecting and tracking significant new public health threats in countries that cannot or might not report such events to the global health community is a challenge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Global Disease Detection (GDD) Operations Center, established in early 2007, monitors infectious and non-infectious public health events to identify new or unexplained global public health threats and better position CDC to respond, if public health assistance is requested or required. At any one time, the GDD Operations Center actively monitors approximately 30–40 such public health threats; here we provide our perspective on five of the top global infectious disease threats that we were watching in 2012: (1) avian influenza A (H5N1), (2) cholera, (3) wild poliovirus, (4) enterovirus-71, and (5) extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.

Christian, Kira A.; Ijaz, Kashef; Dowell, Scott F.; Chow, Catherine C.; Chitale, Rohit A.; Bresee, Joseph S.; Mintz, Eric; Pallansch, Mark A.; Wassilak, Steven; McCray, Eugene; Arthur, Ray R.

2013-01-01

261

Banting Memorial Lecture 2010^. Type 2 diabetes as an 'infectious' disease: is this the Black Death of the 21st century?  

PubMed

We are currently facing a global pandemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. In some settings, the population prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is 50%, and half of those affected will die from diabetes-related complications. Eight centuries ago, an epidemic of bubonic plague swept across Europe, killing at least half of its victims. We here draw comparisons between these two pandemics, proposing close analogies between the 'Black Death' of the 14th century and the modern-day equivalent of Type 2 diabetes. Both diseases can be considered in terms of an aetiological agent, a reservoir, a vector and a predisposing toxic environment; populations can be considered as highly susceptible to the transmissable agents of Type 2 diabetes in the setting of calorie excess, inadequate food labelling, poorly regulated advertising and sedentary lifestyles. As for tackling a pandemic of a contagious microbial pathogen, we believe that breaking the cycle of transmission in the diabetes epidemic must be underpinned by political will and prompt, decisive legislation backed by the medical community. Far from fearing that such measures edge us towards a 'nanny state', we believe individuals should expect a responsible government to safeguard them from the toxic milieu that puts them at risk of obesity and its complications, and that communities and populations have the right to have their health protected. PMID:21166840

Matthews, D R; Matthews, P C

2011-01-01

262

The Interplays between Autophagy and Apoptosis Induced by Enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the causative agent of human diseases with distinct severity, from mild hand, foot and mouth disease to severe neurological syndromes, such as encephalitis and meningitis. The lack of understanding of viral pathogenesis as well as lack of efficient vaccine and drugs against this virus impedes the control of EV71 infection. EV71 virus induces autophagy and apoptosis; however, the relationship between EV71-induced autophagy and apoptosis as well as the influence of autophagy and apoptosis on virus virulence remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, it was observed that the Anhui strain of EV71 induced autophagy and apoptosis in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD-A) cells. Additionally, by either applying chemical inhibitors or knocking down single essential autophagic or apoptotic genes, inhibition of EV71 induced autophagy inhibited the apoptosis both at the autophagosome formation stage and autophagy execution stage. However, inhibition of autophagy at the stage of autophagosome and lysosome fusion promoted apoptosis. In reverse, the inhibition of EV71-induced apoptosis contributed to the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-I (LC3-I) to LC3-II and degradation of sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/P62). Furthermore, the inhibition of autophagy in the autophagsome formation stage or apoptosis decreased the release of EV71 viral particles. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, the results of this study not only revealed novel aspect of the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in EV71 infection, but also provided a new insight to control EV71 infection.

Wang, Bei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Ji; Huang, He; Wang, Jianwei; Jin, Qi; Zhao, Zhendong

2013-01-01

263

Transgenic mouse model for the study of enterovirus 71 neuropathogenesis.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) typically causes mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children, but it can also cause severe neurological disease. Recently, epidemic outbreaks of EV71 with significant mortality have been reported in the Asia-Pacific region, and EV71 infection has become a serious public health concern worldwide. However, there is little information available concerning EV71 neuropathogenesis, and no vaccines or anti-EV71 drugs have been developed. Previous studies of this disease have used monkeys and neonatal mice that are susceptible to some EV71 strains as models. The monkey model is problematic for ethical and economical reasons, and mice that are more than a few weeks old lose their susceptibility to EV71. Thus, the development of an appropriate small animal model would greatly contribute to the study of this disease. Mice lack EV71 susceptibility due to the absence of a receptor for this virus. Previously, we identified the human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (hSCARB2) as a cellular receptor for EV71. In the current study, we generated a transgenic (Tg) mouse expressing hSCARB2 with an expression profile similar to that in humans. Tg mice infected with EV71 exhibited ataxia, paralysis, and death. The most severely affected cells were neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebrum. The pathological features in these Tg mice were generally similar to those of EV71 encephalomyelitis in humans and experimentally infected monkeys. These results suggest that this Tg mouse could represent a useful animal model for the study of EV71 infection. PMID:23959904

Fujii, Ken; Nagata, Noriyo; Sato, Yuko; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Shimanuki, Midori; Shitara, Hiroshi; Taya, Choji; Koike, Satoshi

2013-08-19

264

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Fluoxetine Inhibits Replication of Human Enteroviruses B and D by Targeting Viral Protein 2C  

PubMed Central

Although the genus Enterovirus contains many important human pathogens, there is no licensed drug for either the treatment or the prophylaxis of enterovirus infections. We report that fluoxetine (Prozac)—a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor—inhibits the replication of human enterovirus B (HEV-B) and HEV-D but does not affect the replication of HEV-A and HEV-C or human rhinovirus A or B. We show that fluoxetine interferes with viral RNA replication, and we identified viral protein 2C as the target of this compound.

Ulferts, Rachel; van der Linden, Lonneke; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Lanke, Kjerstin H. W.; Leyssen, Pieter; Coutard, Bruno; De Palma, Armando M.; Canard, Bruno; Neyts, Johan

2013-01-01

265

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine inhibits replication of human enteroviruses B and D by targeting viral protein 2C.  

PubMed

Although the genus Enterovirus contains many important human pathogens, there is no licensed drug for either the treatment or the prophylaxis of enterovirus infections. We report that fluoxetine (Prozac)--a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor--inhibits the replication of human enterovirus B (HEV-B) and HEV-D but does not affect the replication of HEV-A and HEV-C or human rhinovirus A or B. We show that fluoxetine interferes with viral RNA replication, and we identified viral protein 2C as the target of this compound. PMID:23335743

Ulferts, Rachel; van der Linden, Lonneke; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; Leyssen, Pieter; Coutard, Bruno; De Palma, Armando M; Canard, Bruno; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

2013-01-18

266

Acute Encephalitis Caused by Intrafamilial Transmission of Enterovirus 71 in Adult  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease and sometimes causes severe neurologic complications, mainly in children. We report a case of adult-onset encephalitis caused by intrafamilial transmission of a subgenogroup C4 strain of EV71. This case elucidates the risk for EV71 encephalitis even in adults.

Fujisawa, Hironori; Sakai, Kenji; Okino, Soichi; Kurosaki, Naoko; Nishimura, Yorihiro; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

2008-01-01

267

Human bocavirus and rhino-enteroviruses in childhood otitis media with effusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundViral respiratory infections play an important role in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. The most common human rhinoviruses (HRVs) have been detected in middle ear effusions (MEE), but there is only limited data available about the closely related human enteroviruses (HEVs). The newly discovered human bocavirus (HBoV) has not, however, been identified in MEE of

Szilįrd Rezes; Maria Söderlund-Venermo; Merja Roivainen; Kaisa Kemppainen; Zsolt Szabó; Istvįn Sziklai; Anne Pitkäranta

2009-01-01

268

Cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5B by enterovirus 3C proteases  

PubMed Central

The enteroviruses poliovirus (PV), Coxsackie B virus (CVB) and rhinovirus (HRV) are members of Picornaviridae that inhibit host cell translation early in infection. Enterovirus translation soon predominates in infected cells, but eventually also shuts off. This complex pattern of modulation of translation suggests regulation by a multifactorial mechanism. We report here that eIF5B is proteolytically cleaved during PV and CVB infection of cultured cells, beginning at 3 hours post-infection and increasing thereafter. Recombinant PV, CVB and HRV 3Cpro cleaved purified native rabbit eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 5B in vitro at a single site (VVEQ?G, equivalent to VMEQ?G479in human eIF5B) that is consistent with the cleavage specificity of enterovirus 3C proteases. Cleavage separates the N-terminal domain of eIF5B from its essential conserved central GTPase and C-terminal domains. 3Cpro-mediated cleavage of eIF5B may thus play an accessory role in the shut-off of translation that occurs in enterovirus-infected cells.

de Breyne, Sylvain; Bonderoff, Jennifer M.; Chumakov, Konstantin M.; Lloyd, Richard E.; Hellen, Christopher U. T.

2008-01-01

269

EFFECT OF PARTICULATES ON DISINFECTION OF ENTEROVIRUSES IN WATER BY CHLORINE DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The inactivation kinetics of ClO2 on two enteroviruses, poliovirus 1 (Mahoney) and coxsackie virus A9, and an enteric indicator of fecal pollution, Escherichia coli, were examined in laboratory studies. In addition, the disinfecting ability of ClO2 as affected by particulates (bo...

270

Demonstration of persistent enterovirus in the pancreas of diabetic mice by in situ polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although Enterovirus (EV) do not persist in the tissue, which is essential to maintain autoimmunity, they have been associated as the cause of chronic autoimmunity in some cases of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Convincing reports, demonstrating persistent EV infections in the pancreases, are rare.Objectives: To determine the role of EV in IDDM, a mouse model was tested and

M. M Berger; D. M See; M Aymard; B Lina

1998-01-01

271

Flow cytometric detection and serotyping of enterovirus for the clinical laboratory.  

PubMed

Culture and serotyping of human enteroviruses by fluorescence microscopy are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Flow cytometry has the potential of being more rapid, sensitive, and objective but has not been used for these purposes in a clinical laboratory. Primary rhesus monkey kidney (PMK) cells were inoculated with several enterovirus serotypes and stained with enterovirus-specific antibodies for flow cytometry and indirect fluorescence antibody testing (IFA). Kinetic studies of coxsackievirus B1 and echovirus 30 infection of PMK cells were performed on days 1-4 after inoculation. Flow cytometry results for echovirus 6, 9, 11, and 30 and coxsackievirus B1 correlated with IFA in all cases. Coxsackievirus B1 and echovirus 30 infections were detected 1 day earlier by flow cytometry than IFA. Flow cytometry can be effectively used for detecting enterovirus-infected cells in a clinical laboratory with the advantages of better quantitation of low levels of infection and earlier detection of virally infected cells in culture systems. PMID:19733594

She, Rosemary C; Preobrazhensky, Sergey N; Taggart, Edward W; Petti, Cathy A; Bahler, David W

2009-09-04

272

An outbreak of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan, 1998: epidemiologic and clinical manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An outbreak of enterovirus infections occurred throughout Taiwan in 1998. The diseases were manifectated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), some associated with meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Objectives: This study is aimed to characterize and analyze the epidermologic and clinical features during the outbreak. Study design: The epidemiologic information was collected from the Ministry of

Ching-Chuan Liu; Hui-Wan Tseng; Shih-Min Wang; Jen-Ren Wang; Ih-Jen Su

2000-01-01

273

Phylogenetic Analysis of Enterovirus 71 Strains Isolated during Linked Epidemics in Malaysia, Singapore, and Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a frequent cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics associated with severe neurological sequelae in a small proportion of cases. There has been a significant increase in EV71 epidemic activity throughout the Asia-Pacific region since 1997. Recent HFMD epidemics in this region have been associated with a severe form of brainstem encephalitis associated with

PETER MCMINN; KATIE LINDSAY; DAVID PERERA; HUNG MING CHAN; KWAI PENG CHAN; MARY JANE CARDOSA

2001-01-01

274

Evaluation of methods using celite to concentrate norovirus, adenovirus and enterovirus from wastewater  

EPA Science Inventory

Enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. These viruses are shed in the feces of infected individuals and can accumulate in wastewater. Therefore, wastewater is a source of a potentially diverse group of enteric viru...

275

Enterovirus 68 in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections, Osaka, Japan  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 68 strains were detected in 14 specimens from children with respiratory tract infections and 1 specimen from a child with febrile convulsions during 2010 in Osaka, Japan. These strains had deletions in the 5? untranslated region and were genetically different from reported strains. This virus is associated with respiratory tract infections in Japan.

Kubo, Hideyuki; Sekiguchi, Jun-ichiro; Kohdera, Urara; Togawa, Masao; Shiomi, Masashi; Nishigaki, Toshinori; Iritani, Nobuhiro

2011-01-01

276

International adoption: infectious diseases issues.  

PubMed

Nearly 220,000 children have been adopted from other countries by American parents since 1986. Approximately 65,000 children have arrived from China and Russia, mostly in the past 6 years. Most of these children reside in orphanages before adoption, where they may experience malnutrition, environmental deprivation, neglect, and exposure to infectious diseases. After arrival to the United States, international adoptees should undergo specialized screening evaluation for infectious diseases and other conditions. Infectious conditions of special concern include hepatitis B and C, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, tuberculosis, and presence of intestinal parasites. Before the adoption occurs, the infectious disease consultant may be asked to assist the primary care provider and the adoptive family with advice about travel and review of preadoptive medical records. After the adoption, the infectious diseases consultant may be asked to assess the adequacy of the child's vaccination record from the birth country and to assist in screening, evaluation, and management of infectious diseases. PMID:15655749

Miller, Laurie C

2004-12-17

277

Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases.

Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

2013-01-01

278

[Globalization and infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat. PMID:22390054

Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Micha?; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

2011-01-01

279

Children with islet autoimmunity and enterovirus infection demonstrate a distinct cytokine profile.  

PubMed

Cytokines are upregulated in prediabetes, but their relationship with Enterovirus (EV) infection and development of islet autoimmunity is unknown. Cytokines (n = 65) were measured using Luminex xMAP technology in a nested case-control study of 67 children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes: 27 with islet autoantibodies (Ab(+)) and 40 age-matched persistently autoantibody negative (Ab(-)) control subjects. Of 74 samples, 37 (50%) were EV-PCR(+) in plasma and/or stool (EV(+)) and the remainder were negative for EV and other viruses (EV(-)). Fifteen cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were elevated (P ? 0.01) in Ab(+) versus Ab(-) children (interleukin [IL]-1?, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12(p70), IL-16, IL-17, IL-20, IL-21, IL-28A, tumor necrosis factor-?, chemokine C-C motif ligand [CCL]13, CCL26, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and thrombopoietin); most have proinflammatory effects. In EV(+) versus EV(-) children, IL-10 was higher (P = 0.005), while IL-21 was lower (P = 0.008). Cytokine levels did not differ between Ab(+)EV(+) and Ab(+)EV(-) children. Heat maps demonstrated clustering of some proinflammatory cytokines in Ab(+) children, suggesting they are coordinately regulated. In conclusion, children with islet autoimmunity demonstrate higher levels of multiple cytokines, consistent with an active inflammatory process in the prediabetic state, which is unrelated to coincident EV infection. Apart from differences in IL-10 and IL-21, EV infection was not associated with a specific cytokine profile. PMID:22474026

Yeung, Wing-Chi G; Al-Shabeeb, Ammira; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Wilkins, Marc R; Catteau, Jacki; Howard, Neville J; Rawlinson, William D; Craig, Maria E

2012-04-03

280

Children With Islet Autoimmunity and Enterovirus Infection Demonstrate a Distinct Cytokine Profile  

PubMed Central

Cytokines are upregulated in prediabetes, but their relationship with Enterovirus (EV) infection and development of islet autoimmunity is unknown. Cytokines (n = 65) were measured using Luminex xMAP technology in a nested case-control study of 67 children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes: 27 with islet autoantibodies (Ab+) and 40 age-matched persistently autoantibody negative (Ab?) control subjects. Of 74 samples, 37 (50%) were EV-PCR+ in plasma and/or stool (EV+) and the remainder were negative for EV and other viruses (EV?). Fifteen cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were elevated (P ? 0.01) in Ab+ versus Ab? children (interleukin [IL]-1?, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12(p70), IL-16, IL-17, IL-20, IL-21, IL-28A, tumor necrosis factor-?, chemokine C-C motif ligand [CCL]13, CCL26, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and thrombopoietin); most have proinflammatory effects. In EV+ versus EV? children, IL-10 was higher (P = 0.005), while IL-21 was lower (P = 0.008). Cytokine levels did not differ between Ab+EV+ and Ab+EV? children. Heat maps demonstrated clustering of some proinflammatory cytokines in Ab+ children, suggesting they are coordinately regulated. In conclusion, children with islet autoimmunity demonstrate higher levels of multiple cytokines, consistent with an active inflammatory process in the prediabetic state, which is unrelated to coincident EV infection. Apart from differences in IL-10 and IL-21, EV infection was not associated with a specific cytokine profile.

Yeung, Wing-Chi G.; Al-Shabeeb, Ammira; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Wilkins, Marc R.; Catteau, Jacki; Howard, Neville J.; Rawlinson, William D.; Craig, Maria E.

2012-01-01

281

Comparison of heart failure in children with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis and cats with norepinephrine cardiotoxicity.  

PubMed

The mechanism of heart failure in patients with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis (brain stem encephalitis) remains unknown. Our previous reports hypothesized that a catecholamine storm induced by rhombencephalitis may account for the heart failure. The aim of this study was to develop a novel feline model of norepinephrine cardiotoxicity and compare the resulting heart failure to that in children with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis. Nine of 75 children (12%) with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis (5 boys and 4 girls; age, 4-28 months; median age, 16 months) were complicated with left ventricular hypokinesia (ejection fraction, 31 +/- 9%). Six cats (weight, 3.03 +/- 0.64 kg) were administered intravenous norepinephrine 30 microg/kg/min for 3 hours. Echocardiography assessed the left ventricular diameter and function before and after the administration of norepinephrine. Pathology studies included hematoxylin and eosin stain and in situ terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay. In the feline model, norepinephrine induced significant left ventricular dilatation (end diastolic diameter from 1.18 +/- 0.19 to 1.62 +/- 0.22 cm, p = 0.001; endsystolic diameter from 0.54 +/- 0.09 to 1.36 +/- 0.32 cm, p = < 0.001) and hypokinesia (ejection fraction from 87.5 +/- 4.1 to 35.2 +/- 16.3%, p = 0.001). Heart specimens from 4 patients and six cats showed similar pathology findings, including myocardial hemorrhage, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and coagulative myocytolysis, which is characterized by sarcoplasmic coagulation, granulation, vacuolization, myofibrillar waving, and disruption. Both groups showed no significant inflammatory reaction. In conclusion, heart failure in patients with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis is similar to that in cats with norepinephrine cardiotoxicity. Norepinephrine cardiotoxicity may play a role in the pathogenesis of heart failure in enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis. PMID:16933070

Fu, Y-C; Chi, C-S; Lin, N-N; Cheng, C-C; Jan, S-L; Hwang, B; Hsu, S-L; Gong, C-L; Chen, Y-T; Chiu, Y-T

282

The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

Kurane, Ichiro

2010-01-01

283

Role of the RNA recognition motif of the E1B 55 kDa protein in the adenovirus type 5 infectious cycle  

PubMed Central

Although the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1B 55 kDa protein can bind to RNA in vitro, no UV-light-induced crosslinking of this E1B protein to RNA could be detected in infected cells, under conditions in which RNA binding by a known viral RNA-binding protein (the L4 100kDa protein) was observed readily. Substitution mutations, including substitutions reported to inhibit RNA binding in vitro, did not impair synthesis of viral early or late proteins, or alter significantly the efficiency of viral replication in transformed or normal human cells. However, substitutions of conserved residues in the C-terminal segment of an RNA recognition motif specifically inhibited degradation of Mre11. We conclude that, if the E1B 55 kDa protein binds to RNA in infected cells in the same manner as in in vitro assays, this activity is not required for such well established functions as induction of selective export of viral late mRNAs.

Kato, Sayuri E. M.; Huang, Wenying; Flint, S.J.

2011-01-01

284

Infectious particles, stress, and induced prion amyloids  

PubMed Central

Transmissible encephalopathies (TSEs) are believed by many to arise by spontaneous conversion of host prion protein (PrP) into an infectious amyloid (PrP-res, PrPSc) without nucleic acid. Many TSE agents reside in the environment, with infection controlled by public health measures. These include the disappearance of kuru with the cessation of ritual cannibalism, the dramatic reduction of epidemic bovine encephalopathy (BSE) by removal of contaminated feed, and the lack of endemic scrapie in geographically isolated Australian sheep with susceptible PrP genotypes. While prion protein modeling has engendered an intense focus on common types of protein misfolding and amyloid formation in diverse organisms and diseases, the biological characteristics of infectious TSE agents, and their recognition by the host as foreign entities, raises several fundamental new directions for fruitful investigation such as: (1) unrecognized microbial agents in the environmental metagenome that may cause latent neurodegenerative disease, (2) the evolutionary social and protective functions of different amyloid proteins in diverse organisms from bacteria to mammals, and (3) amyloid formation as a beneficial innate immune response to stress (infectious and non-infectious). This innate process however, once initiated, can become unstoppable in accelerated neuronal aging.

2013-01-01

285

Frequent Importation of Enterovirus 71 from Surrounding Countries into the Local Community of Yamagata, Japan, between 1998 and 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analysis of 45 enterovirus 71 (EV71) isolates for 6 years in Yamagata, Japan, clarified that the annual outbreak of hand-foot-and-mouth disease was due to four genetically distinct subgenogroups, including a novel \\

K. Mizuta; C. Abiko; T. Murata; Y. Matsuzaki; T. Itagaki; K. Sanjoh; M. Sakamoto; S. Hongo; S. Murayama; K. Hayasaka

2005-01-01

286

Detection of enterovirus in human skeletal muscle from patients with chronic inflammatory muscle disease or fibromyalgia and healthy subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus RNA has been found previously in specimens of muscle biopsy from patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, chronic in- flammatory muscle diseases, and fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome (fibromyalgia\\/chronic fatigue syndrome). These results suggest that skeletal muscle may host enteroviral persistent infection.Totestthishypothesis,weinvestigated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reac- tion (RT-PCR) assay the presence of enterovirus in skeletal muscle of patients with

Fatima Douche-Aourik; Willy Berlier; Thomas Bourlet; Rafik Harrath; Shabir Omar; Florence Grattard; Christian Denis; Bruno Pozzetto

2003-01-01

287

Evidence for Frequent Recombination within Species Human Enterovirus B Based on Complete Genomic Sequences of All Thirty-Seven Serotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species Human enterovirus B (HEV-B) in the family Picornaviridae consists of coxsackievirus A9; coxsackieviruses B1 to B6; echoviruses 1 to 7, 9, 11 to 21, 24 to 27, and 29 to 33; and enteroviruses 69 and 73. We have determined complete genome sequences for the remaining 22 HEV-B serotypes whose sequences were not represented in public databases and analyzed

M. Steven Oberste; Kaija Maher; Mark A. Pallansch

2004-01-01

288

Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.

289

FastStats: Infectious Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Data Related Links Accessibility NCHS Home FastStats Home Infectious Disease (Data are for the U.S.) Morbidity Number of ... 10 [PDF - 330 KB] More data AIDS/HIV Infectious Disease Prevalence in Los Angeles County–A Comparison to ...

290

Global mapping of infectious disease  

PubMed Central

The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer ‘cognitive surplus’ through crowdsourcing.

Hay, Simon I.; Battle, Katherine E.; Pigott, David M.; Smith, David L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S.; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Gething, Peter W.

2013-01-01

291

BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

292

Rapid and Sensitive Routine Detection of All Members of the Genus Enterovirus in Different Clinical Specimens by Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a rapid and sensitive method for the routine detection of all members of the enterovirus genus in different clinical specimens by using real-time TaqMan quantitative PCR. Multiple primer and probe sets were selected in the highly conserved 5-untranslated region of the enterovirus genome. Our assay detected all 60 different enterovirus species tested, whereas no reactivity was observed with

Monique Nijhuis; Noortje van Maarseveen; Rob Schuurman; Sandra Verkuijlen; Machiel de Vos; Karin Hendriksen; Anton M. van Loon

2002-01-01

293

Rapid Detection of Enterovirus RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens with a Novel Single-Tube Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-tube real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay for enterovirus detection in cerebrospi- nal fluid (CSF) was developed based on a fluorogenic probe and primers directed to highly conserved sequences in the 5 untranslated region of the enterovirus genome. Quantitative detection of enterovirus genome was demonstrated in a linear range spanning at least 5 logs. Endpoint titration experiments revealed that the

WALTER A. VERSTREPEN; SOFIE KUHN; MARK M. KOCKX; MARTINE E. VAN DE VYVERE; AN H. MERTENS

2001-01-01

294

Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... information on enabling JavaScript. Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Skip Content Marketing Share this: Research at NIAID ... emerging infectious diseases. Understanding Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Anthrax Antimicrobial ... Fever Ehrlichiosis ...

295

NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF WARMWATER FISHES  

EPA Science Inventory

Compared with infectious diseases and disorders, few non-infectious diseases and disorders in cultured fish have severe biologic or economic impact. Culture practices, however, often establish environments that promote infectious disease by weakening the immune response or by pro...

296

Antioxidant nanoparticles for control of infectious disease.  

PubMed

The new ground being broken by the field of nanotechnology provides us with numerous prospects for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Recent reports have demonstrated that several types of nanoparticles act as potent free radical scavengers and antioxidants. Specific nanoconstructs are also reported to have anti-inflammatory activities. Given these properties, the potential application of antioxidant nanoparticles for controlling infectious diseases are discussed in this review. Numerous pathogenic agents establish their virulence and pathogenicity by virtue of their ability to produce free radicals and damage the cells of the immune system. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium that produces the toxin pyocyanin, which induces cell damage and compromises the immune system through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nanoparticle antioxidants may provide unique opportunities to counteract the pathogenicity of these types of microorganisms and their formation of biofilms, which are also related to oxygen levels and ROS production. The use of nanoparticles may also play a role in controlling conditions such as ventilation associated pneumonia, where high levels of oxygen induces oxidative stress and inhibits respiratory tract immunity. In contrast, nanoparticle antioxidants, by virtue of their anti-inflammatory activity, may blunt a host's normal immune defenses to certain microorganisms. This review will address this emerging double-edged sword for nanomedicine and its potential role in controlling infectious disease and will address future directions for research in this emerging frontier. PMID:19689385

Elswaifi, Shaadi F; Palmieri, James R; Hockey, Kevin S; Rzigalinski, Beverly A

2009-08-01

297

Infectious salmon anaemia virus.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a commercially important orthomyxovirus causing disease in farmed Atlantic salmon. The cumulative mortality in a net pen during an outbreak may vary from insignificant to more than 90%. The infection is spread by management activity such as well-boat traffic, but possibly also through contact with wild fish. In many of its aspects, including the structure of the virus particle and replication strategy, the ISAV is similar to the influenza viruses. Variations between ISAV and the influenza viruses can mostly be related to differences in the temperature at which replication occurs and the immune response of their respective host animals. ISAV shows both haemagglutinating and receptor-destroying activity. The variability of the ISAV haemagglutinin molecule is concentrated around a small domain close to the transmembrane region. The function of this variable region is unknown, but it may be related to a recent or ongoing crossing of a species barrier. Alignment studies based on genetic data indicate that the phylogenetic relationship to the influenza viruses is distant, and that ISAV therefore could possibly warrant a new genus within Orthomyxoviridae. PMID:12076262

Rimstad, Espen; Mjaaland, Siri

2002-04-01

298

Immunoassay of infectious agents.  

PubMed

Immunoassays have evolved for a broad range of applications since the pioneering work of Yalow and Berson who developed the first competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human insulin in 1959. Immunoassay detection of specific antigens and host-produced antibodies directed against such antigens consitutes one of the most widely used and successful methods for diagnosing infectious diseases (IDs). The number and variety of new assay systems that are continually being developed reflect the increasing demand for immunoassays possessing greater sensitivity, speed, and ease of use. This trend has been driven, in part, by the need for improved immunodiagnostic systems to perform rapid testing and counter emerging IDs and biothreat (BT) agents. Another factor driving this trend is the need to integrate immunoassays with more sensitive nucleic acid-based methods for a comprehensive approach. Here we examine the development of immunoassays, some of the key formats used for the detection and identification of BT/ID agents, and the application of these technologies under different scenarios. PMID:14579751

Andreotti, Peter E; Ludwig, George V; Peruski, Anne Harwood; Tuite, James J; Morse, Stephen S; Peruski, Leonard F

2003-10-01

299

Infectious disease experimentation involving human volunteers.  

PubMed

The current care of patients with infectious diseases owes a tremendous debt to healthy volunteers who allowed investigators to induce disease in them for the study of transmission, natural history, and treatment. We reviewed the English-language medical literature about the rarely discussed subject of the use of healthy volunteers in human-subject research in infectious diseases to determine the contributions of these experiments to the current understanding of disease transmission. The literature review focused on hepatitis, upper respiratory infections, and malaria, which represent the array of issues involved in this type of research. Researchers successfully induced infection through injecting, nebulizing, and feeding specimens to thousands of volunteers, who included authentic volunteers as well as soldiers and imprisoned subjects. These volunteers often undertook unforeseen and unpredictable risks during these experiments for the benefit of others. Future research in these areas must strike an adequate balance between the risks to participants and the benefits to society. PMID:11880963

Rosenbaum, Julie Rothstein; Sepkowitz, Kent A

2002-03-01

300

CD4 T-Cell-Independent Antibody Response Reduces Enterovirus 71 Lethality in Mice by Decreasing Tissue Viral Loads  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has induced fatal encephalitis in hundreds of thousands of infants and young children in the Asia-Pacific region since the past decade. Lymphocyte and antibody responses have been suspected to aggravate EV71-induced neurological symptoms, so anti-inflammatory agents have been used to treat patients with neurological symptoms. In the present study, we found that mice deficient in CD4+ T cells were resistant to EV71 infection as wild-type mice, whereas mice deficient in B cells were highly susceptible to viral infection. Compensation of CD4 T-cell function by other immune cells was not likely, because wild-type mice depleted of CD4+ T cells were also resistant to viral infection. Infected CD4 T-cell-deficient mice produced virus-specific neutralizing antibodies, IgM and IgG. Moreover, adoptive transfer of the virus-specific antibody produced by infected CD4 T-cell-deficient mice protected B-cell-deficient mice from infection by reducing tissue viral loads. Collectively, our results show that the CD4 T-cell-independent antibody response promotes the survival of EV71-infected mice and suggest great potential for the use of vaccines and neutralizing antibodies to reduce fatal symptoms in patients.

Wang, Li-Chiu; Kao, Chia-Min; Ling, Pin; Su, Ih-Jen; Chang, Tung-Miao; Chen, Shun-Hua

2012-01-01

301

[Outbreak of acute enterovirus intestinal infection in Sakhalin region in August 2010].  

PubMed

The investigation of cases of acute intestinal infections in the Sakhalin region of Russia in August, 2010 is described. Epidemiological and molecular biological studies were conducted. After initial PCR screening and determining the nucleotide sequences of the positive samples the following enteroviruses were found: Coxsackie A2 - 42 samples (45%), Coxsackie A4--31 sample (34%), Enterovirus 71--6 samples (6,5%), Coxsackievirus B5--6 samples (6,5%), Coxsackie B3--4 samples (4%) and Coxsackie B1--4 samples (4%). The phylogenetic analysis of sequences showed that the closest analogues for the nucleotide sequences of these genotypes were previously identified in Japan, Korea and China in 2000-2010. PMID:22642180

Demina, A V; Ternovo?, V A; Darizhapov, B B; Iakubich, T V; Sementsova, A O; Demina, O K; Protopopova, E V; Loktev, V B; Agafonov, A P; Netesov, S V

2012-01-01

302

A Dominant EV71-Specific CD4+ T Cell Epitope Is Highly Conserved among Human Enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity plays a central role in determining the immunopathogenesis of viral infections. However, the role of CD4+ T cells in EV71 infection, which causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), has yet to be elucidated. We applied a sophisticated method to identify promiscuous CD4+ T cell epitopes contained within the sequence of the EV71 polyprotein. Fifteen epitopes were identified, and three of them are dominant ones. The most dominant epitope is highly conserved among enterovirus species, including HFMD-related coxsackieviruses, HFMD-unrelated echoviruses and polioviruses. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cells specific to the epitope indeed cross-reacted with the homolog of poliovirus 3 Sabin. Our findings imply that CD4+ T cell responses to poliovirus following vaccination, or to other enteroviruses to which individuals may be exposed in early childhood, may have a modulating effect on subsequent CD4+ T cell response to EV71 infection or vaccine.

Wei, Ruicheng; Yang, Chunfu; Zeng, Mei; Terry, Frances; Zhu, Kai; Yang, Chunhui; Altmeyer, Ralf; Martin, William; De Groot, Anne S.; Leng, Qibin

2012-01-01

303

Far upstream element binding protein 1 binds the internal ribosomal entry site of enterovirus 71 and enhances viral translation and viral growth  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is associated with severe neurological disorders in children, and has been implicated as the infectious agent in several large-scale outbreaks with mortalities. Upon infection, the viral RNA is translated in a cap-independent manner to yield a large polyprotein precursor. This mechanism relies on the presence of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element within the 5?-untranslated region. Virus–host interactions in EV71-infected cells are crucial in assisting this process. We identified a novel positive IRES trans-acting factor, far upstream element binding protein 1 (FBP1). Using binding assays, we mapped the RNA determinants within the EV71 IRES responsible for FBP1 binding and mapped the protein domains involved in this interaction. We also demonstrated that during EV71 infection, the nuclear protein FBP1 is enriched in cytoplasm where viral replication occurs. Moreover, we showed that FBP1 acts as a positive regulator of EV71 replication by competing with negative ITAF for EV71 IRES binding. These new findings may provide a route to new anti-viral therapy.

Huang, Peng-Nien; Lin, Jing-Yi; Locker, Nicolas; Kung, Yu-An; Hung, Chuan-Tien; Lin, Jhao-Yin; Huang, Hsing-I; Li, Mei-Ling; Shih, Shin-Ru

2011-01-01

304

Far upstream element binding protein 1 binds the internal ribosomal entry site of enterovirus 71 and enhances viral translation and viral growth.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is associated with severe neurological disorders in children, and has been implicated as the infectious agent in several large-scale outbreaks with mortalities. Upon infection, the viral RNA is translated in a cap-independent manner to yield a large polyprotein precursor. This mechanism relies on the presence of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element within the 5'-untranslated region. Virus-host interactions in EV71-infected cells are crucial in assisting this process. We identified a novel positive IRES trans-acting factor, far upstream element binding protein 1 (FBP1). Using binding assays, we mapped the RNA determinants within the EV71 IRES responsible for FBP1 binding and mapped the protein domains involved in this interaction. We also demonstrated that during EV71 infection, the nuclear protein FBP1 is enriched in cytoplasm where viral replication occurs. Moreover, we showed that FBP1 acts as a positive regulator of EV71 replication by competing with negative ITAF for EV71 IRES binding. These new findings may provide a route to new anti-viral therapy. PMID:21880596

Huang, Peng-Nien; Lin, Jing-Yi; Locker, Nicolas; Kung, Yu-An; Hung, Chuan-Tien; Lin, Jhao-Yin; Huang, Hsing-I; Li, Mei-Ling; Shih, Shin-Ru

2011-08-31

305

The Thiazolobenzimidazole TBZE-029 Inhibits Enterovirus Replication by Targeting a Short Region Immediately Downstream from Motif C in the Nonstructural Protein 2C?  

PubMed Central

TBZE-029 {1-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-6-trifluoromethyl-1H,3H-thiazolo[3,4-a]benzimidazole} is a novel selective inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses. We show that TBZE-029 exerts its antiviral activity through inhibition of viral RNA replication, without affecting polyprotein processing. To identify the viral target of TBZE-029, drug-resistant coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) was selected. Genotyping of resistant clones led to the identification of three amino acid mutations in nonstructural protein 2C, clustered at amino acid positions 224, 227, and 229, immediately downstream of NTPase/helicase motif C. The mutations were reintroduced, either alone or combined, into an infectious full-length CVB3 clone. In particular the mutations at positions 227 and 229 proved essential for the altered sensitivity of CVB3 to TBZE-029. Resistant virus exhibited cross-resistance to the earlier-reported antienterovirus agents targeting 2C, namely, guanidine hydrochloride, HBB [2-(alpha-hydroxybenzyl)-benzimidazole], and MRL-1237 {1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-[(4-imino-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)methyl]benzimidazole hydrochloride}. The ATPase activity of 2C, however, remained unaltered in the presence of TBZE-029.

De Palma, Armando M.; Heggermont, Ward; Lanke, Kjerstin; Coutard, Bruno; Bergmann, Mirko; Monforte, Anna-Maria; Canard, Bruno; De Clercq, Erik; Chimirri, Alba; Purstinger, Gerhard; Rohayem, Jacques; van Kuppeveld, Frank; Neyts, Johan

2008-01-01

306

The thiazolobenzimidazole TBZE-029 inhibits enterovirus replication by targeting a short region immediately downstream from motif C in the nonstructural protein 2C.  

PubMed

TBZE-029 {1-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-6-trifluoromethyl-1H,3H-thiazolo[3,4-a]benzimidazole} is a novel selective inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses. We show that TBZE-029 exerts its antiviral activity through inhibition of viral RNA replication, without affecting polyprotein processing. To identify the viral target of TBZE-029, drug-resistant coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) was selected. Genotyping of resistant clones led to the identification of three amino acid mutations in nonstructural protein 2C, clustered at amino acid positions 224, 227, and 229, immediately downstream of NTPase/helicase motif C. The mutations were reintroduced, either alone or combined, into an infectious full-length CVB3 clone. In particular the mutations at positions 227 and 229 proved essential for the altered sensitivity of CVB3 to TBZE-029. Resistant virus exhibited cross-resistance to the earlier-reported antienterovirus agents targeting 2C, namely, guanidine hydrochloride, HBB [2-(alpha-hydroxybenzyl)-benzimidazole], and MRL-1237 {1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-[(4-imino-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)methyl]benzimidazole hydrochloride}. The ATPase activity of 2C, however, remained unaltered in the presence of TBZE-029. PMID:18337578

De Palma, Armando M; Heggermont, Ward; Lanke, Kjerstin; Coutard, Bruno; Bergmann, Mirko; Monforte, Anna-Maria; Canard, Bruno; De Clercq, Erik; Chimirri, Alba; Pürstinger, Gerhard; Rohayem, Jacques; van Kuppeveld, Frank; Neyts, Johan

2008-03-12

307

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens  

PubMed Central

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control.

Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

2012-01-01

308

Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus.  

PubMed

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. The virus replicates not only in the epithelium of upper and lower respiratory tract tissues, but also in many tissues along the alimentary tract and elsewhere e.g. kidney, oviduct and testes. It can be detected in both respiratory and faecal material. There is increasing evidence that IBV can infect species of bird other than the chicken. Interestingly breeds of chicken vary with respect to the severity of infection with IBV, which may be related to the immune response. Probably the major reason for the high profile of IBV is the existence of a very large number of serotypes. Both live and inactivated IB vaccines are used extensively, the latter requiring priming by the former. Their effectiveness is diminished by poor cross-protection. The nature of the protective immune response to IBV is poorly understood. What is known is that the surface spike protein, indeed the amino-terminal S1 half, is sufficient to induce good protective immunity. There is increasing evidence that only a few amino acid differences amongst S proteins are sufficient to have a detrimental impact on cross-protection. Experimental vector IB vaccines and genetically manipulated IBVs--with heterologous spike protein genes--have produced promising results, including in the context of in ovo vaccination. PMID:17296157

Cavanagh, Dave

2007-02-13

309

Persistent Infection of Thymic Epithelial Cells with Coxsackievirus B4 Results in Decreased Expression of Type 2 Insulin-Like Growth Factor  

PubMed Central

It has been hypothesized that a disturbance of central self-tolerance to islet ? cells may play a role in the enteroviral pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Whether enteroviruses can induce an impaired expression of ?-cell self-antigens in thymic epithelial cells has been investigated in a murine thymic epithelial (MTE) cell line. This cell line was permissive to the diabetogenic group B4 coxsackievirus (CV-B4) strain CV-B4 E2 and spontaneously expressed type 2 insulin-like growth factor (Igf2), the dominant self-antigen of the insulin family. In this model, a persistent replication of CV-B4 E2 was obtained, as attested to by the prolonged detection of intracellular positive- and negative-strand viral RNA by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and capsid protein VP1 by immunofluorescent staining and by the release of infectious particles in culture supernatants. The chronic stage of the infection was characterized by a low proportion of VP1-positive cells (1 to 2%), whereas many cells harbored enteroviral RNA, as displayed by RT-PCR without extraction applied directly to a few cells. Igf2 mRNA and IGF-2 protein were dramatically decreased in CV-B4 E2-infected MTE cell cultures compared with mock-infected cultures, whereas housekeeping and interleukin-6 (Il6) gene expression was maintained and Igf1 mRNA was decreased, but to a lower extent. Inoculation of CV-B3, CV-B4 JVB, or echovirus 1 resulted in a low level of IGF-2 in culture supernatants as well, whereas herpes simplex virus 1 stimulated the production of the protein. Thus, a persistent infection of a thymic epithelial cell line with enteroviruses like CV-B4 E2 can result in a disturbed production of IGF-2, a protein involved in central self-tolerance toward islet ? cells.

Jaidane, Hela; Caloone, Delphine; Lobert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Sane, Famara; Dardenne, Olivier; Naquet, Philippe; Gharbi, Jawhar; Aouni, Mahjoub; Geenen, Vincent

2012-01-01

310

Enterovirus 71 Infection of Human Immune Cells Induces the Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proinflammatory cytokine storm has been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced fatalities; however, the mechanism to induce these cytokines during EV71 infection remains unclear. Since most of the proinflammatory cytokines are produced by immune cells, we tested whether EV71 infects human immune cells and induces cytokine production. EV71 infection of a human T cell line (Jurkat),

Lien-Cheng Chen; Trai-Ming Yeh

2009-01-01

311

An epidemic of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by enterovirus 70 in Okinawa, Japan, in 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

· Background: Although enterovirus 70 (EV70) has been identified as the major aetiological agent of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivities\\u000a (ACH),no EV70 strain has been isolated by cell culture method since 1988. Therefore, recent clinical and epidemiological characteristics\\u000a of AHC caused by EV70 have not been clarified. · Methods: Clinical and serological studies were carried out on patients during\\u000a the AHC epidemic

Eiichi Uchio; Kenji Yamazaki; Hideo Ishikawa; Isao Matsunaga; Yoshimori Asato; Koki Aoki; Shigeaki Ohno

1999-01-01

312

Identification and characterization of a cross-neutralization epitope of Enterovirus 71  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections in children manifest as exanthema and are most commonly known as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Because it can cause severe neurological complications like poliomyelitis, EV71 has now emerged as an important neurotropic virus in Asia. EV71 virus has been shown to consist of 3 (A, B and C) genotypes and many subgenotypes. Although EV71 vaccine development has

Chia-Chyi Liu; Ai-Hsiang Chou; Shu-Pei Lien; Hsiao-Yu Lin; Shih-Jen Liu; Jui-Yuan Chang; Meng-Shin Guo; Yen-Hung Chow; Wun-Syue Yang; Kate Hsuen-Wen Chang; Charles Sia; Pele Chong

2011-01-01

313

Enterovirus infections and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus—evidence for causality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has a long subclinical period characterised by gradually progressing autoimmune damage of insulin producing beta-cells. Clinical IDDM is manifested when 90% of beta-cells have been destroyed. Several studies have indicated that enterovirus infections, coxsackievirus B (CVB) infections especially, are frequent at the manifestation of clinical IDDM suggesting that they can precipitate the symptoms of IDDM

Heikki Hyöty; Merja Hiltunen; Maria Lönnrot

1998-01-01

314

An overview of the evolution of enterovirus 71 and its clinical and public health significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its discovery in 1969, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been recognised as a frequent cause of epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) associated with severe neurological sequelae in a small proportion of cases. There has been a significant increase in EV71 epidemic activity throughout the Asia–Pacific region since 1997. Recent HFMD epidemics in this region have been associated with a severe

Peter C McMinn

2002-01-01

315

Development of a quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring the Enterovirus 71 vaccine manufacturing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the etiologic agent causes outbreaks with significant mortality in young children in Asia and currently there is no vaccine available. In this study, we report a quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Q-ELISA) to determine the concentration of the EV71 VP2 antigen. EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced in the baculovirus expression system and used as the EV71

Chia-Chyi Liu; Hsuen-Wen Chang; Grace Yang; Jen-Ron Chiang; Yen-Hung Chow; I-Hsi Sai; Jui-Yuan Chang; Sue-Chen Lin; Charles Sia; Chia-Hsin Hsiao; Ai-Hsiang Chou; Pele Chong

2011-01-01

316

Oral immunization of mice using transgenic tomato fruit expressing VP1 protein from enterovirus 71  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes seasonal epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease associated with fatal neurological complications in young children, and several major outbreaks have occurred recently. This study developed an effective antiviral agent by transforming the gene for VP1 protein, a previously defined epitope and also a coat protein of EV71, into tomato plant. VP1 protein was first fused with sorting signals

Hsuan-Fu Chen; Meng-Huei Chang; Bor-Luen Chiang; Shih-Tong Jeng

2006-01-01

317

NATIONAL ADVISORY ALLERGY AND INFECTIOUS ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 24 DR. ... disease severities. 14 ... gave the largest reductions in rescue use, followed by 13 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

318

76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder...SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to participate...occupational exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information gathered...

2011-07-05

319

Infectious Disease Information System (IDIS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Infectious Disease Information System is designed to allow the coding and storage of virtually all information pertaining to a particular infection in a patient. These data for community acquired and hospital acquired infections are obtained and recor...

S. G. Axline F. S. Rhame

1978-01-01

320

Pathogenic parasites and enteroviruses in wastewater: support for a regulation on water reuse.  

PubMed

Brazilian regulations for nonpotable reuse are being established using World Health Organization guidelines, however, they should be developed based on local monitoring studies. This study intended to analyze enteroviruses, protozoa and viable Ascaris sp. eggs in raw (24) and treated (24) effluents from four Wastewater Treatment Plants of Sćo Paulo State, Brazil. The protozoa were detected with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1623 in the treated effluents and by centrifugation/Immunomagnetic Separation in the raw influent samples. Viable Ascaris sp. eggs were analyzed according to a modified USEPA method. Enteroviruses were quantified by using human rhabdomyosarcoma cells after adequate concentration procedures. All wastewater influents were positive for Giardia sp. whereas Cryptosporidium sp. was detected in 58.3% of the samples. Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. were present in 79.2 and 25.0% respectively, of the treated wastewater samples. Viable Ascaris sp. eggs were detected in 50.0 and 12.5% of influent and treated wastewater samples. Enteroviruses were isolated in the 24 raw influent samples and in 46% of the treated samples. Taking into account the densities of Giardia sp. in some treated wastewaters intended to be used as reclaimed water, Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment studies should be conducted to establish pathogen quantitative criteria for a future Brazilian regulation for water reuse. PMID:23552239

Hachich, Elayse M; Galvani, Ana T; Padula, Jose A; Stoppe, Nancy C; Garcia, Suzi C; Bonanno, Vilma M S; Barbosa, Mikaela R F; Sato, Maria Inźs Z

2013-01-01

321

High sensitivity and label-free detection of Enterovirus 71 by nanogold modified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the most fulminant and invasive species of enterovirus, can cause children neurologic complications and death within 2-3 days after fever and rash developed. Besides, EV71 has high sequence similarity with Coxsackie A 16 (CA16) that makes differential diagnosis difficult in clinic and laboratory. Since conventional viral diagnostic method cannot diagnose EV71 quickly and EV71 can transmit at low viral titer, the patients might delay in treatment. A quick, high sensitive, and high specific test for EV71 detection is pivotal. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied for detecting bio-molecules as biosensors recently. In this study, we try to build a detection platform for EV71 detection by nanogold modified EIS probe. The result shows that our probe can detect 3.6 VP1/50 ?l (one EV71 particle has 60 VP1) in 3 minutes. The test can also distinguish EV71 from CA16 and lysozyme. Diagnosis of enterovirus 71 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has the potential to apply in clinic.

Wang, Fang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Ching

2013-03-01

322

Outbreak of vertigo in Wyoming: possible role of an enterovirus infection.  

PubMed

An epidemiologic investigation was conducted to characterize and evaluate the possibility of a viral aetiology of an outbreak of acute vertigo in Hot Springs Country, Wyoming, during autumn 1992. Case-finding identified Hot Springs County residents who sought medical attention for new onset vertigo during 1 August, 1992-31 January 1993. Thirty-five case-patients and 61 matched controls were interviewed and serum specimens were obtained during January 1993. Case-patients were more likely than controls to report symptoms (e.g. fatigue, sore throat, fever, diarrhoea) of antecedent acute illness. Case-patients did not have a significantly greater prevalence or mean titre of IgG antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus than controls. Serologic evidence of recent enterovirus infection (IgM antibodies) was found for 74% of case-patients compared with 54% of controls (P < 0.05), suggesting a possible association between vertigo and enterovirus infection. Future studies are needed to define the role of enteroviruses in innerear diseases. PMID:8760963

Simonsen, L; Khan, A S; Gary, H E; Hanson, C; Pallansch, M A; Music, S; Holman, R C; Stewart, J A; Erdman, D D; Arden, N H; Arenberg, I K; Schonberger, L B

1996-08-01

323

Subversion of B lymphocyte signaling by infectious agents.  

PubMed

Infectious agents and their hosts interact in a complex manner, involving not only superficially apparent mechanisms, but also the signaling machinery that governs host cells responses. Thus, signaling events, surface molecule expression, and transcriptional control may be affected in various cell types, with profound consequences for the function of individual cells and organ systems. Studies of the biochemistry of cell signaling and cell invasion by infectious agents have begun to detail the interplay between elements of infectious organisms and the host at the molecular level. Consequently, the resulting interferences with lymphocyte signaling may disturb the function of the immune system. In B cells, alterations of immune receptor signaling has implications for human diseases. By affecting the mechanisms of the host's immune defense, this may not only lead to inadequate elimination of an infectious agent, but also to autoimmunity or neoplasia. PMID:12618856

Hasler, P; Zouali, M

2003-03-01

324

Genomic analysis of coxsackieviruses A1, A19, A22, enteroviruses 113 and 104: viruses representing two clades with distinct tropism within enterovirus C.  

PubMed

Coxsackieviruses (CV) A1, CV-A19 and CV-A22 have historically comprised a distinct phylogenetic clade within Enterovirus (EV) C. Several novel serotypes that are genetically similar to these three viruses have been recently discovered and characterized. Here, we report the coding sequence analysis of two genotypes of a previously uncharacterized serotype EV-C113 from Bangladesh and demonstrate that it is most similar to CV-A22 and EV-C116 within the capsid region. We sequenced novel genotypes of CV-A1, CV-A19 and CV-A22 from Bangladesh and observed a high rate of recombination within this group. We also report genomic analysis of the rarely reported EV-C104 circulating in the Gambia in 2009. All available EV-C104 sequences displayed a high degree of similarity within the structural genes but formed two clusters within the non-structural genes. One cluster included the recently reported EV-C117, suggesting an ancestral recombination between these two serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of all available complete genome sequences indicated the existence of two subgroups within this distinct Enterovirus C clade: one has been exclusively recovered from gastrointestinal samples, while the other cluster has been implicated in respiratory disease. PMID:23761409

Tokarz, Rafal; Haq, Saddef; Sameroff, Stephen; Howie, Stephen R C; Lipkin, W Ian

2013-06-12

325

Enrichment of cerebrospinal fluid samples on cell culture for enhancement of sensitivity of mumps and enterovirus detection by multiplex RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that the detection of enteroviruses and mumps virus nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens improves the management of the patients with aseptic meningitis. To determine the effect of overnight enrichment of mumps and enteroviruses in CSF samples on cell culture for increasing the sensitivity of viral detection, we developed a multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction

Masoumeh Kermanian; Hoorieh Soleimanjahi; Ehsan Arefian; Taravat Bamdad

2008-01-01

326

Simple method of detecting enteroviruses in contaminated molluscs and sewage by using polymerase chain reaction coupled with a colorimetric microwell detection assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods normally used for the detection of enteroviruses in environmental [MM1]samples involve the use of cell cultures, which are expensive and time consuming. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a useful tool for the detection of enteroviruses in several matrixes because primary cell culture is not needed and the increased sensitivity of PCR allows detection of the low numbers

O. Gualillo; D. Biscardi; R. Di Carlo; R. De Fusco

1999-01-01

327

A REAL-TIME RT-PCR REACTION SPECIFIC FOR BOVINE ENTEROVIRUSES PROVIDES A RAPID ASSAY FOR FECAL CONTAMINATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT BY CATTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Characterization of bovine enteroviruses found in a closed herd of cattle and the surrounding environment indicated that bovine enteroviruses (BEV) could serve as useful markers of contamination with cattle waste. BEV was found in feces from 76% of cattle, 38% of white-tail deer in the same area an...

328

An outbreak of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan 1998: A comprehensive pathological, virological, and molecular study on a case of fulminant encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In a recent enterovirus outbreak in Taiwan, serotype 71 was the culprit of encephalitis causing rapid clinical deterioration and death among young children. Objectives: Since knowledge of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in the central nervous system is still limited, the purpose of the present case study was attempted to uncover the pathogenesis of the virus. Study design: We performed

Jing-Jou Yan; Jen-Ren Wang; Ching-Chuan Liu; Hsiao-Bai Yang; Ih-Jen Su

2000-01-01

329

[Common pediatric infectious diseases following natural disasters].  

PubMed

Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases. This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters, especially earthquake, and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years. The infectious diseases after earthquake include diarrhea, cholera, viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles, leptospirosis, dengue fever, tetanus, and gas gangrene, as well as some rare infections. Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases, so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters. PMID:23791057

Yao, Kai-Hu

2013-06-01

330

Quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for research studies on enterovirus infections in the central nervous system.  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses are the most frequent cause of aseptic meningitis and are involved in other neurological infections. Qualitative detection of enterovirus genomes in cerebrospinal fluid is a prerequisite in diagnosing neurological diseases. The pathogenesis of these infections is not well understood and research in this domain would benefit from the availability of a quantitative technique to determine viral load in clinical specimens. This study describes the development of a real-time RT-qPCR assay using hydrolysis TaqMan probe and a competitive RNA internal control. The assay has high specificity and can be used for a large sample of distinct enterovirus strains and serotypes. The reproducible limit of detection was estimated at 1875 copies/ml of quantitative standards composed of RNA transcripts obtained from a cloned echovirus 30 genome. Technical performance was unaffected by the introduction of a competitive RNA internal control before RNA extraction. The mean enterovirus RNA concentration in an evaluation series of 15 archived cerebrospinal fluid specimens was determined at 4.78 log(10)copies/ml for the overall sample. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the real time RT-qPCR assay used in combination with the internal control to monitor the overall specimen process make it a valuable tool with applied research into enterovirus infections. PMID:22766179

Volle, Romain; Nourrisson, Céline; Mirand, Audrey; Regagnon, Christel; Chambon, Martine; Henquell, Cécile; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélčne; Archimbaud, Christine

2012-07-02

331

Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters.

MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

2013-01-01

332

Co-Morbidity between Early-Onset Leukemia and Type 1 Diabetes - Suggestive of a Shared Viral Etiology?  

PubMed Central

Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are common early-onset malignancies. Their causes are largely unknown but infectious etiology has been implicated. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease for which infectious triggers of disease onset have been sought and increasing pointing to enteroviruses. Based on our previous results on co-morbidity between leukemia and T1D, we updated the Swedish dataset and focused on early onset leukemias in patients who had been hospitalized for T1D, comparing to those not hospitalized for T1D. Methods and Findings Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for leukemia in 24,052 patients hospitalized for T1D covering years 1964 through 2008. T1D patients were included if hospitalized before age 21 years. Practically all Swedish children and adolescents with T1D are hospitalized at the start of insulin treatment. SIR for ALL was 8.30 (N?=?18, 95% confidence interval 4.91–13.14) when diagnosed at age 10 to 20 years after hospitalization for T1D and it was 3.51 (13, 1.86–6.02) before hospitalization for T1D. The SIR for ALL was 19.85 (N?=?33, 13.74–27.76) and that for AML was 25.28 (8, 10.80–50.06) when the leukemias were diagnosed within the year of T1D hospitalization. The SIRs increased to 38.97 (26, 25.43–57.18) and 40.11 (8, 17.13–79.42) when T1D was diagnosed between ages 10 to 20 years. No consistent time-dependent changes were found in leukemia risk. Conclusion A shared infectious etiology could be a plausible explanation to the observed co-morbidity. Other possible contributing factors could be insulin therapy or T1D related metabolic disturbances.

Hemminki, Kari; Houlston, Richard; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Shu, Xiaochen

2012-01-01

333

Infectious disease in the homeless.  

PubMed

Homelessness increases a person's exposure to infectious and communicable diseases. The barriers to treatment as described above are many for the physicians and other providers of health care to this population. Health Care for the Homeless would greatly welcome the help of medical subspecialists in the areas of infectious disease, dermatology, gastroenterology, and pulmonology for some of our particularly challenging patients. We look forward to continuing our collaborations with the medical community in Baltimore City as we serve its most vulnerable citizens. PMID:19186594

Ryan, Tara A

2008-01-01

334

Structural basis for antiviral inhibition of the main protease, 3C, from human enterovirus 93.  

PubMed

Members of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family are abundant, with common human pathogens that belong to the rhinovirus (HRV) and enterovirus (EV) species, including diverse echo-, coxsackie- and polioviruses. They cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe diseases with neurological and/or cardiac manifestations. Pandemic outbreaks of EVs may be accompanied by meningitis and/or paralysis and can be fatal. However, no effective prophylaxis or antiviral treatment against most EVs is available. The EV RNA genome directs the synthesis of a single polyprotein that is autocatalytically processed into mature proteins at Gln?Gly cleavage sites by the 3C protease (3C(pro)), which has narrow, conserved substrate specificity. These cleavages are essential for virus replication, making 3C(pro) an excellent target for antivirus drug development. In this study, we report the first determination of the crystal structure of 3C(pro) from an enterovirus B, EV-93, a recently identified pathogen, alone and in complex with the anti-HRV molecules compound 1 (AG7404) and rupintrivir (AG7088) at resolutions of 1.9, 1.3, and 1.5 Å, respectively. The EV-93 3C(pro) adopts a chymotrypsin-like fold with a canonically configured oxyanion hole and a substrate binding pocket similar to that of rhino-, coxsackie- and poliovirus 3C proteases. We show that compound 1 and rupintrivir are both active against EV-93 in infected cells and inhibit the proteolytic activity of EV-93 3C(pro) in vitro. These results provide a framework for further structure-guided optimization of the tested compounds to produce antiviral drugs against a broad range of EV species. PMID:21835784

Costenaro, Lionel; Kaczmarska, Zuzanna; Arnan, Carme; Janowski, Robert; Coutard, Bruno; Solą, Maria; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Norder, Heléne; Canard, Bruno; Coll, Miquel

2011-08-10

335

The Mathematics of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many models for the spread of infectious diseases in populations have been analyzed math- ematically and applied to specific diseases. Threshold theorems involving the basic repro- duction number R0, the contact number ?, and the replacement number R are reviewed for the classic SIR epidemic and endemic models. Similar results with new expressions for R0 are obtained for MSEIR and

Herbert W. Hethcote

336

Infectious Diseases and Endogenous Fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study an economic epidemiology model where the SIS epi- demiological dynamics is integrated into a discrete time growth model with indivisible labor. An infectious disease aects the labor force, and healthy (susceptible) workers supply labor inelastically, while the infected (infective) workers do not work. The epidemiological details of disease transmission is modeled explicitly and the global dynamics are studied.

Aditya GOENKA

2007-01-01

337

Human genetics of infectious diseases: between proof of principle and paradigm  

PubMed Central

The observation that only a fraction of individuals infected by infectious agents develop clinical disease raises fundamental questions about the actual pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Epidemiological and experimental evidence is accumulating to suggest that human genetics plays a major role in this process. As we discuss here, human predisposition to infectious diseases seems to cover a continuous spectrum from monogenic to polygenic inheritance. Although many studies have provided proof of principle that infectious diseases may result from various types of inborn errors of immunity, the genetic determinism of most infectious diseases in most patients remains unclear. However, in the future, studies in human genetics are likely to establish a new paradigm for infectious diseases.

Alcais, Alexandre; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

2009-01-01

338

Infectious antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.  

PubMed

Infections can act as environmental triggers that induce or promote systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in genetically predisposed individuals. New technologies, developed recently, enable simultaneous assessment of multiple antibodies. Antibodies to specific infectious agents may shed light into the mechanisms of induction of SLE. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of seropositivity and the titers of antibodies to bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents in SLE patients compared with non-autoimmune controls. Sera from 260 individuals (120 SLE patients and 140 controls) were tested by the BioPlex 2200 Multiplexed Immunoassay method (BioRad) for the prevalence and titers of antibodies to eight infectious agents (Epstein-Barr virus: early antigen IgG, nuclear antigen IgG, viral capsid antigen IgG and IgM, heterophile IgM; cytomegalovirus IgG and IgM; Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM; rubella IgG and IgM; Treponema pallidum TPr15G, TPr17G, TPr47G; herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 IgG; hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B core antibodies. Cytomegalovirus IgM and Epstein-Barr virus early antigen IgG (but not other Epstein-Barr virus antigens) were significantly more prevalent in SLE patients than in controls. Conversely, positive titers of hepatitis B core and rubella IgG antibodies were less prevalent in the SLE patients than in controls. Other differences in titer positivity prevalence were not detected between patients and controls. The titers of the cytomegalovirus IgM, Toxoplasma IgG, Epstein-Barr virus early antigen, and viral capsid antigen IgG antibodies were significantly higher in SLE compared with controls. Our data suggest the importance of previous exposure to infectious agents in the induction and the prevention of SLE. PMID:19880558

Berkun, Y; Zandman-Goddard, G; Barzilai, O; Boaz, M; Sherer, Y; Larida, B; Blank, M; Anaya, J-M; Shoenfeld, Y

2009-11-01

339

How to make epidemiological training infectious.  

PubMed

Modern infectious disease epidemiology builds on two independently developed fields: classical epidemiology and dynamical epidemiology. Over the past decade, integration of the two fields has increased in research practice, but training options within the fields remain distinct with few opportunities for integration in the classroom. The annual Clinic on the Meaningful Modeling of Epidemiological Data (MMED) at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences has begun to address this gap. MMED offers participants exposure to a broad range of concepts and techniques from both epidemiological traditions. During MMED 2010 we developed a pedagogical approach that bridges the traditional distinction between classical and dynamical epidemiology and can be used at multiple educational levels, from high school to graduate level courses. The approach is hands-on, consisting of a real-time simulation of a stochastic outbreak in course participants, including realistic data reporting, followed by a variety of mathematical and statistical analyses, stemming from both epidemiological traditions. During the exercise, dynamical epidemiologists developed empirical skills such as study design and learned concepts of bias while classical epidemiologists were trained in systems thinking and began to understand epidemics as dynamic nonlinear processes. We believe this type of integrated educational tool will prove extremely valuable in the training of future infectious disease epidemiologists. We also believe that such interdisciplinary training will be critical for local capacity building in analytical epidemiology as Africa continues to produce new cohorts of well-trained mathematicians, statisticians, and scientists. And because the lessons draw on skills and concepts from many fields in biology--from pathogen biology, evolutionary dynamics of host--pathogen interactions, and the ecology of infectious disease to bioinformatics, computational biology, and statistics--this exercise can be incorporated into a broad array of life sciences courses. PMID:22509129

Bellan, Steve E; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Scott, James C; Dushoff, Jonathan

2012-04-03

340

Aerosol stability of infectious and potentially infectious reovirus particles.  

PubMed Central

The aerosol stability of two particle forms, infectious and potentially infectious, of reovirus were examined under static conditions for a range of relative humidities at 21 and 24 degrees C. Virus aerosolization efficiency was determined for two methods of dissemination: Collison nebulizer and Chicago atomizer. Suspensions of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were added to reovirus preparations that included both particle forms and disseminated into a dynamic aerosol toroid to estimate the physical decay of the aerosols. At 90 to 100% relative humidity, both reovirus particle forms showed less than 10-fold loss of infectivity after 12 h of aging. At lower relative humidities the aerosol decay curve showed rapid initial decay followed by a markedly lower decay rate. Our findings reveal that reovirus particles are relatively stable in the airborne state.

Adams, D J; Spendlove, J C; Spendlove, R S; Barnett, B B

1982-01-01

341

Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

Huang, M.-C. [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: u9315915@ccms.nkfust.edu.tw; Lin, Jim Juimin [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)

2008-11-15

342

Life course epidemiology and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a traditional view that divided epidemiology into infectious and chronic diseases. Since we now know that at least 15% of cancers worldwide are caused by infections,1 that infections frequently have a natural history lasting decades and that the same epidemiological methods can be applied to both infectious and non-infectious diseases, this view can be considered purely historical.

Andrew J Hall; Leland J Yee; Sara L Thomas

2002-01-01

343

Molecular Surveillance of Enterovirus and Norwalk-Like Virus in Oysters Relocated to a Municipal-Sewage-Impacted Gulf Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 18-month survey was conducted to examine the prevalence of enteric viruses and their relationship to indicators in environmentally polluted shellfish. Groups of oysters, one group per 4 weeks, were relocated to a coastal water area in the Gulf of Mexico that is impacted by municipal sewage and were analyzed for enteroviruses, Norwalk-like viruses (NLV), and indicator microorganisms (fecal coliform,

Y. Carol Shieh; Ralph S. Baric; Jacquelina W. Woods; Kevin R. Calci

2003-01-01

344

Enteroviruses load of the Nile river at the Aswan region as a result of the Rwanda Civil War, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the Nile River was investigated from Abu?Simbol to Aswan for the presence of enteroviruses. The area of study includes Lake Nasser, the High Dam and the Aswan Dam (M 300 km). Forty litres of Nile River water was collected from each site and concentrated for virus detection and isolation. Plaque assay was used for virus counting in

M. A. Ali; A. H. Nagwa

1996-01-01

345

Outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease by enterovirus 71. High incidence of complication disorders of central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan we have had two outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with disorders of the central nervous system, one in 1973 and the other in 1978. The isolated virus in both outbreaks was enterovirus 71. Central nervous system disorders were present in 24% of patients in 1973 and in 8% of patients in 1978. These disorders were

Y Ishimaru; S Nakano; K Yamaoka; S Takami

1980-01-01

346

Phylogenetic analysis of Enterovirus 71 circulating in Beijing, China from 2007 to 2009.  

PubMed

The major pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Beijing, China from 2007 to 2009 were identified in this study. A total of 186 HFMD cases were included, and 136 cases (73%) were positive for enterovirus (EV). In 2007, 75% (27/36) were Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) positive and 19% (7/36) were Enterovirus 71 (EV71) positive cases. However, EV71 was the predominant virus in 2008, when 56% (31/55) of the cases were positive for EV71 and 22% (12/55) were positive for CA16. In 2009, EV71 and CA16, with positive rates of 36% (16/45) and 29% (13/45), respectively, were still the major pathogens of HFMD. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the dominant genotype of EV71 was C4, with co-circulation of genotype A in 2009. The prevalent cluster of the EV71 subgenotype C4 changed over time. A proposed new sublineage of EV71, C4a-2, was the predominant virus associated with the Beijing and nationwide HFMD outbreaks since 2008 and amino acid substitution, which possibly link to the central nervous system tropism of EV71, was found in genotype A viruses. Persistent surveillance of HFMD-associated pathogens is required for predicting potential emerging viruses and related disease outbreaks. PMID:23418551

Zhu, Junping; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Juan; Xu, Zigang; Chen, Hui; Fan, Dongying; Gao, Na; Ping, Guoling; Zhou, Zhen; Zhang, Yan; An, Jing

2013-02-13

347

Isolation of enterovirus and reovirus from sewage and treated effluents in selected Puerto Rican communities.  

PubMed

Sewage treatment plant effluents were surveyed for viral contributions to gastroenteritis outbreaks in Puerto Rico. Of the 15 sewage treatment plants studied, all discharged their effluents upstream from water treatment plant intakes. No base-line data on the degree of viral challenge to these sewage treatment plants or the subsequent reduction of viruses before discharge existed. Enterovirus counts were generally much higher than those found in the continental United States. At four plants, viruses in the incoming sewage exceeded 100,000 PFU/liter, and one of these, a trickling filter plant, was discharging 24,000 PFU/liter to receiving waters. Virus identification showed that more than 80% of the enterovirus isolates were coxsackievirus B5. These overwhelming viral numbers pointed to defects in the sewage treatment processes. Without reasonable barriers to protect receiving waters, several of the downstream communities were using raw waters that posed extraordinary demands on the ability of their water treatment plants to supply virologically safe drinking water. PMID:2541664

Dahling, D R; Safferman, R S; Wright, B A

1989-02-01

348

Dendrimers--revolutionary drugs for infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Over recent years innovative nanomolecules in a form of dendrimers have been gaining increasing interest. These compounds can be designed and modified in many ways giving a molecule which meets required expectations. For this reason dendrimers are the object of intensive studies in many fields of nanoscience including one of the most thriving--biomedicine. Numerous studies provide evidence that some dendrimers exhibit activities against many species/strains of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and prions. These types of dendritic nanostructures which are distinguished by antipathogenic properties and low cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells may be potentially applied in medicine as novel drugs for various infectious diseases, especially those which are persistent, marked by high mortality rate, or untreatable. Dendrimers can exert their effect via different mechanisms of action, which are, in most cases, related to multivalency of the nanomolecule. The application of dendrimers is likely to be a breakthrough in prevention and treatment of infectious diseases which still beset humanity and may significantly improve the quality of people's life. PMID:22761054

Lazniewska, Joanna; Milowska, Katarzyna; Gabryelak, Teresa

2012-07-03

349

The highly conserved 5' untranslated region as an effective target towards the inhibition of Enterovirus 71 replication by unmodified and appropriate 2'-modified siRNAs  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly infectious agent that plays an etiological role in hand, foot, and mouth disease. It is associated with severe neurological complications and has caused significant mortalities in recent large-scale outbreaks. Currently, no effective vaccine or specific clinical therapy is available against EV71. Methods Unmodified 21 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and classic 2?-modified (2?-O-methylation or 2?-fluoro modification) siRNAs were designed to target highly conserved 5? untranslated region (UTR) of the EV71 genome and employed as anti-EV71 agents. Real-time TaqMan RT-PCR, western blot analysis and plaque assays were carried out to evaluate specific viral inhibition by the siRNAs. Results Transfection of rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells with siRNAs targeting the EV71 genomic 5? UTR significantly delayed and alleviated the cytopathic effects of EV71 infection, increased cell viability in EV71-infected RD cells. The inhibitory effect on EV71 replication was sequence-specific and dosage-dependent, with significant corresponding decreases in viral RNA, VP1 protein and viral titer. Appropriate 2?-modified siRNAs exhibited similar RNA interference (RNAi) activity with dramatically increased serum stability in comparison with unmodified counterparts. Conclusion Sequences were identified within the highly conserved 5? UTR that can be targeted to effectively inhibit EV71 replication through RNAi strategies. Appropriate 2?-modified siRNAs provide a promising approach to optimizing siRNAs to overcome barriers on RNAi-based antiviral therapies for broader administration.

2012-01-01

350

[Identification of enteroviruses from central nervous system infections by RT-PCR and cell culture methods].  

PubMed

Viruses are the major causes of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis. Enteroviruses account for more than 80% of the aseptic meningitis cases for which an etiologic agent is identified. The aims of the present study were to identify agents of enteroviral meningitis by viral culture and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods, to evaluate the appropriateness of a commercial RTPCR kit for its use in routine laboratory, and to obtain epidemiological data about enteroviral meningitis. Sixty six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with suspected viral central nervous system (CNS) infection by clinical and CSF biochemical findings, sent to Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology were included in the study. The CSF samples were all negative for tested bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus. Thirty-four (51.5%) of the samples were from female and 32 (48.5%) were from male patients. Twenty-three (34.8%) patients were children (5 months-18 years) and 43 (65.2%) were adults (19-86 years). Shell vial rapid cell culture method by using Vero, HEp-2 and RD cell lines was performed for virus isolation and the results were evaluated on 48th hours after staining the cells with fluorescein labeled polyclonal antibodies (Pan-Enterovirus Blend, Light Diagnostics, USA). Enteroviral RNA in the samples was detected by a commercial RT-PCR kit (Enterovirus Consensus Kit, Argene, France). Sixty-one (92.4%) of 66 samples from patients with suspected viral CNS infection were found to be negative for enterovirus both with RT-PCR and shell vial cell culture methods. Three samples (4.5%) were positive by shell vial culture method. In one CSF sample that was culture positive, RT-PCR was also positive. However, the remaining two culture positive samples yielded negative result by RT-PCR. Intermediate results with RT-PCR were obtained in two samples (3%) that were identified as negative by cell culture. Two of the three positive samples in cell culture were identified as echovirus, however, the remaining sample could not be identified due to small sample amount. As a result, the commercial assay was found non-practical and labor intensive, giving indeterminant results in some cases and missing two culture positive samples. Since it didn't have an advantage over the cell culture method used, it was found inappropriate for routine diagnosis in our laboratory. On the other hand, it has been known that nucleic acid amplification tests (NAT) have markedly improved the diagnosis of enterovirus infections by increasing the sensitivity compared with cell culture methods. An alternative NAT method should be evaluated in parallel with cell culture method especially in CSF samples of children with suspected viral central nervous system infections. PMID:21935780

K?l?ē, Ilknur; Altu?lu, Imre; Ciēek, Candan; Pullukēu, Hüsnü; Bayram, Nuri; Sirin, Hadiye; Erensoy, Selda

2011-07-01

351

Vitamin A and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the most important therapeutic applications of vitamin A is its use in reducing the morbidity and mortality of infectious\\u000a diseases. It is estimated that over 100 million preschool children and a large proportion of women of reproductive age suffer\\u000a from clinical and subclinical vitamin A deficiency worldwide [1]. A recent series of large, randomized, controlled clinical trials conducted

R. D. Semba

352

Global warming and infectious disease.  

PubMed

Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth warms, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global warming will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research. PMID:16216650

Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D

353

Non-infectious orbital vasculitides  

PubMed Central

Non-infectious vasculitides comprise a large number of diseases. Many of these diseases can cause inflammation within the orbit and a clinical presentation, which mimics numerous other processes. Orbital disease can often be the initial presentation of a systemic process and early diagnosis can help prevent long-term, potentially fatal consequences. The evaluation and treatment of non-infectious orbital vasculitides are often complicated and require a thorough understanding of the disease and underlying systemic associations. The long-term prognosis visually and systemically must be weighed against the risks and benefits of the treatment regimen. A large variety of corticosteroid formulations currently exist and are the mainstay of initial treatment. Traditional steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents are also an important arsenal against these vasculitides. Recently, a new class of drugs called biologics, which target the various mediators of the inflammation cascade, may potentially provide more effective and less toxic treatment. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on non-infectious orbital vasculitides.

Perumal, B; Black, E H; Levin, F; Servat, J J

2012-01-01

354

Detection of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 in children with hand, foot and mouth disease in China.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to investigate the genetic characteristics of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) strains in China and to evaluate the relationship between the genotypes of CVA16 and EV71 and their geographical distribution. A total of 399 stool specimens were collected from children with symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Zhejiang Province. The presence of enteroviruses was determined using reverse transcription-semi-nested PCR targeted to the VP1 gene of all human enteroviruses and DNA sequencing. EV71 and CVA16, the major etiological agents of HFMD, were detected in 38.4% (38/99) and 35.4% (35/99) of HEV-A species-positive cases, respectively. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene, EV71 strains identified in this study belong to subgenotype C4, and CVA16 strains herein were classified into clusters B2a and B2b within the genotype B2. Taking into consideration other published data, we conclude that the genetic characteristics of enteroviruses in China reflect the pattern of the endemic circulation of the subgenotype C4 to EV71 and clusters B2a and B2b within genotype B2 to CVA16, which have been continuously circulating in China since 1997. This observation indicates that the genetic characteristics of enteroviruses in China seem to depend on their special geographical and climatical features allowing them to be sustained with little external effect. PMID:22218731

Chen, Ling; Mou, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Qiong; Li, Yifei; Lin, Jian; Liu, Fanlong; Yuan, Li; Tang, Yiming; Xiang, Charlie

2012-01-03

355

Detection of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 in children with hand, foot and mouth disease in China  

PubMed Central

The aims of the present study were to investigate the genetic characteristics of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) strains in China and to evaluate the relationship between the genotypes of CVA16 and EV71 and their geographical distribution. A total of 399 stool specimens were collected from children with symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Zhejiang Province. The presence of enteroviruses was determined using reverse transcription-semi-nested PCR targeted to the VP1 gene of all human enteroviruses and DNA sequencing. EV71 and CVA16, the major etiological agents of HFMD, were detected in 38.4% (38/99) and 35.4% (35/99) of HEV-A species-positive cases, respectively. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene, EV71 strains identified in this study belong to subgenotype C4, and CVA16 strains herein were classified into clusters B2a and B2b within the genotype B2. Taking into consideration other published data, we conclude that the genetic characteristics of enteroviruses in China reflect the pattern of the endemic circulation of the subgenotype C4 to EV71 and clusters B2a and B2b within genotype B2 to CVA16, which have been continuously circulating in China since 1997. This observation indicates that the genetic characteristics of enteroviruses in China seem to depend on their special geographical and climatical features allowing them to be sustained with little external effect.

CHEN, LING; MOU, XIAOZHOU; ZHANG, QIONG; LI, YIFEI; LIN, JIAN; LIU, FANLONG; YUAN, LI; TANG, YIMING; XIANG, CHARLIE

2012-01-01

356

A reverse genetics approach to study feline infectious peritonitis.  

PubMed

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal immunopathological disease caused by feline coronaviruses (FCoVs). Here, we describe a reverse genetics approach to study FIP by assessing the pathogenicity of recombinant type I and type II and chimeric type I/type II FCoVs. All recombinant FCoVs established productive infection in cats, and recombinant type II FCoV (strain 79-1146) induced FIP. Virus sequence analyses from FIP-diseased cats revealed that the 3c gene stop codon of strain 79-1146 has changed to restore a full-length open reading frame (ORF). PMID:22491466

Tekes, Gergely; Spies, Danica; Bank-Wolf, Barbara; Thiel, Volker; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen

2012-04-04

357

A Reverse Genetics Approach To Study Feline Infectious Peritonitis  

PubMed Central

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal immunopathological disease caused by feline coronaviruses (FCoVs). Here, we describe a reverse genetics approach to study FIP by assessing the pathogenicity of recombinant type I and type II and chimeric type I/type II FCoVs. All recombinant FCoVs established productive infection in cats, and recombinant type II FCoV (strain 79-1146) induced FIP. Virus sequence analyses from FIP-diseased cats revealed that the 3c gene stop codon of strain 79-1146 has changed to restore a full-length open reading frame (ORF).

Tekes, Gergely; Spies, Danica; Bank-Wolf, Barbara

2012-01-01

358

Full Genome Sequence of a Novel Human Enterovirus C (EV-C118) Isolated from Two Children with Acute Otitis Media and Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Israel  

PubMed Central

The new enterovirus C strain EV-C118 belongs to the human enterovirus C species of the Picornaviridae family. We report the complete genome sequence of this strain, which was identified in respiratory specimens of two children hospitalized in Israel because of acute otitis media and community-acquired pneumonia who were enrolled in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Pediatric Research Initiative (CAP-PRI) study.

Daleno, Cristina; Piralla, Antonio; Scala, Alessia; Baldanti, Fausto; Greenberg, David; Principi, Nicola

2013-01-01

359

Change of Major Genotype of Enterovirus 71 in Outbreaks of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Taiwan between 1998 and 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Taiwan between 1998 and 2000. Enteroviruses were isolated from a total of 1,892 patients in this laboratory during this period. Of the virus isolates, enterovirus 71 (EV71) was diagnosed in 44.4% of the patients (132 of 297) in 1998, 2% (13 of 646) in 1999, and 20.5% (195 of 949) in 2000.

Jen-Ren Wang; Yen-Chang Tuan; Huey-Pin Tsai; Jing-Jou Yan; Ching-Chuan Liu; Ih-Jen Su

2002-01-01

360

Complete Genomic Sequencing Shows that Polioviruses and Members of Human Enterovirus Species C Are Closely Related in the Noncapsid Coding Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 65 human enterovirus serotypes are currently classified into five species: Poliovirus (3 serotypes), Human enterovirus A (HEV-A) (12 serotypes), HEV-B (37 serotypes), HEV-C (11 serotypes), and HEV-D (2 serotypes). Coxsackie A virus (CAV) serotypes 1, 11, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 24 constitute HEV-C. We have determined the complete genome sequences for the remaining nine

Betty Brown; M. Steven Oberste; Kaija Maher; Mark A. Pallansch

2003-01-01

361

Evolutionary Outcomes of Human Infectious Diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently it has been shown that a simple model was able to reproduce the main ``types'' of infectious diseases encountered in human populations. This model takes into account key features of the immune system at the within-host level and an implicit description of the contact network of the host population at the between-hosts level. The implicit description of contact network neglects population-level selective pressures such as fluctuations in the number of infected individuals potentially leading to risk of extinction. We present a nested model that allows to keep a within-host level description of immune processes while allowing an explicit description of the ongoing epidemiological dynamics. This model allows us to understand the impact of human population size and contact networks structure in shaping the fitness optima for pathogens life history traits. We mostly focus on variation in duration of infection and antigenic evolution leading to immune escape.

Ballesteros, Sebastien; Combadao, Jaime

2010-09-01

362

Genital tract viral load in HIV Type 1-positive women correlates with specific cytokine levels in cervical-vaginal secretions but is not a determinant of infectious virus or anti-HIV activity.  

PubMed

As the AIDS epidemic continues with women being disproportionately affected, it is crucial to understand factors that predict the risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission. We investigated whether genital tract viral load (GTVL) in cervical-vaginal lavages (CVL) from HIV-1-positive women with moderately low CD4 T cell counts correlates with cytokine levels, antimicrobial concentrations, and intrinsic anti-HIV activity. CVL were collected from 19 HIV-1-positive women with moderately low CD4 T cell counts [mean 381 cells/mm(3) (227-536 cells/mm(3))]. None of the women was on antiretroviral therapy. The women were categorized into those with detectable GTVL or those with undetectable GTVL (detectable GTVL RNA levels >?400 copies/ml). Women were also categorized according to bacterial vaginosis (BV) status irrespective of GTVL. The TZM-bl assay was used to determine the presence of infectious virus and anti-HIV activity. Significantly higher levels of RANTES, Eotaxin, Fractalkine, IL-1?, IL-6, MCP-1, MIP1?, MIP1?, TNF-?, and GM-CSF were observed in women with detectable GTVL compared to women with undetectable GTVL. No significant differences were observed in the following cytokines and chemokines: G-CSF, IL-1RA, IL-8, and IP-10. GTVL did not correlate either with antimicrobials known to have anti-HIV activity or with the presence of infectious virus. BV status did not have a significant effect on anti-HIV activity. These findings further our understanding of the role of GTVL in determining the cytokine and chemokine milieu in the female reproductive tract. PMID:22356616

Mukura, Lucy R; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Wira, Charles R

2012-03-23

363

Postexposure prophylaxis for common infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is effective in preventing illness after potential or documented exposure to a variety of microbial pathogens and in reducing the risk of secondary spread of infection. Guidelines have been published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for proper use of PEP for bloodborne pathogens, for microorganisms transmitted by either airborne or droplet spread or through direct contact, and for infections acquired after traumatic injuries. Depending on the type of exposure, different forms of PEP are available, including vaccines, immune globulins, antibiotics, and antiviral medications. Physicians should assess a patient's potential need for PEP based on several factors, including the type of exposure, the timing and severity of illness in the source patient, the exposed person's susceptibility to infectious diseases of concern, and the relative risks and benefits of the PEP regimen in an individual situation. Immunity to certain infectious diseases can be ensured with prior infection or vaccination, and by serologic testing in patients with a negative or uncertain history. PEP should be given to persons exposed to index cases of pertussis and invasive meningococcal infection regardless of immunization history, and should be given following rabies and tetanus exposure regardless of the length of delay. In general, PEP should be given as soon as possible following a high-risk exposure. Persons exposed to bloodborne pathogens should have baseline testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus antibodies, and follow-up testing at six weeks, three months, and six months postexposure. PMID:23939603

Bader, Mazen S; McKinsey, David S

2013-07-01

364

Infectious endogenous retroviruses in cats and emergence of recombinant viruses.  

PubMed

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise a significant percentage of the mammalian genome, and it is poorly understood whether they will remain as inactive genomes or emerge as infectious retroviruses. Although several types of ERVs are present in domestic cats, infectious ERVs have not been demonstrated. Here, we report a previously uncharacterized class of endogenous gammaretroviruses, termed ERV-DCs, that is present and hereditary in the domestic cat genome. We have characterized a subset of ERV-DC proviral clones, which are numbered according to their genomic insertions. One of these, ERV-DC10, located in the q12-q21 region on chromosome C1, is an infectious gammaretrovirus capable of infecting a broad range of cells, including human. Our studies indicate that ERV-DC10 entered the genome of domestic cats in the recent past and appeared to translocate to or reintegrate at a distinct locus as infectious ERV-DC18. Insertional polymorphism analysis revealed that 92 of 244 domestic cats had ERV-DC10 on a homozygous or heterozygous locus. ERV-DC-like sequences were found in primate and rodent genomes, suggesting that these ERVs, and recombinant viruses such as RD-114 and BaEV, originated from an ancestor of ERV-DC. We also found that a novel recombinant virus, feline leukemia virus subgroup D (FeLV-D), was generated by ERV-DC env transduction into feline leukemia virus in domestic cats. Our results indicate that ERV-DCs behave as donors and/or acceptors in the generation of infectious, recombinant viruses. The presence of such infectious endogenous retroviruses, which could be harmful or beneficial to the host, may affect veterinary medicine and public health. PMID:22674983

Anai, Yukari; Ochi, Haruyo; Watanabe, Shinya; Nakagawa, So; Kawamura, Maki; Gojobori, Takashi; Nishigaki, Kazuo

2012-06-06

365

75 FR 54896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Nonhuman Primate Major Histocompatibility Complex Gene Discovery and Typing. Date: October 4, 2010. Time: 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place:...

2010-09-09

366

Platelet Defect of Infectious Mononucleosis  

PubMed Central

Platelet function has been studied in 16 patients with uncomplicated infectious mononucleosis. Some abnormality of platelet aggregation and/or release of platelet factor III or platelet factor IV was found in all patients. Six patients with platelet defects were retested after three to four months and were found to have normal platelet function and appreciably higher platelet counts. Abnormal platelet function may reflect a platelet defect which predisposes to premature platelet destruction. Recent viral illness should be excluded before attributing abnormal platelet function to other factors or to a congenital disorder.

Clancy, Robert; Jenkins, Elizabeth; Firkin, Barry

1971-01-01

367

Apparatus for infectious radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for housing solid, radioactively and biologically contaminated waste during steam autoclave treatment thereof. It comprises a container means for housing solid infectious radioactive biological wastes, suitable for use during an autoclaving procedure, having at least one opening therein; a filter means for entrapping radioactive compounds contained in gases exiting the container means during autoclave treatment, the filter means being securely disposed within an opening of the container means such that any gas exiting the container means during autoclave treatment passes through the filter means; and indicator means for establishing that the biologically contaminated waste has been inactivated by exposure to a predetermined autoclaving temperature.

Stinson, M.C.; Galanek, M.S.

1991-11-19

368

Survival of infectious prions in water.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the fate of infectious prions in water. Known concentrations of infectious prions were added to deionized water, tap water, and wastewater. Samples were incubated at 25°C, 37°C, and 50°C for 1 to 8 weeks. The standard scrapie cell assay (SSCA) which includes the ELISPOT (Enzyme Linked Immuno-Spot) reaction was performed to determine prion infectivity and quantity as a function of time. A reduction of infectious prions was observed at 25°C, 37°C, and 50°C ranging between 0.5-log?? and 1.4-log?? in one week. Results suggest that organic matter was instrumental in protecting infectious prions, allowing them to remain infectious for a longer period of time. Thus, our data effectively show a quantifiable reduction of infectious prions in water and identifies some of the components that may influence infectivity. PMID:21707419

Miles, Syreeta L; Takizawa, Kazue; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

2011-01-01

369

Enterovirus 71 Infection Cleaves a Negative Regulator for Viral Internal Ribosomal Entry Site-Driven Translation  

PubMed Central

Far-upstream element-binding protein 2 (FBP2) is an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) trans-acting factor (ITAF) that negatively regulates enterovirus 71 (EV71) translation. This study shows that EV71 infection cleaved FBP2. Live EV71 and the EV71 replicon (but not UV-inactivated virus particles) induced FBP2 cleavage, suggesting that viral replication results in FBP2 cleavage. The results also showed that virus-induced proteasome, autophagy, and caspase activity co-contribute to EV71-induced FBP2 cleavage. Using FLAG-fused FBP2, we mapped the potential cleavage fragments of FBP2 in infected cells. We also found that FBP2 altered its function when its carboxyl terminus was cleaved. This study presents a mechanism for virus-induced cellular events to cleave a negative regulator for viral IRES-driven translation.

Chen, Li-Lien; Kung, Yu-An; Weng, Kuo-Feng; Lin, Jing-Yi; Horng, Jim-Tong

2013-01-01

370

Enterovirus 71 infection cleaves a negative regulator for viral internal ribosomal entry site-driven translation.  

PubMed

Far-upstream element-binding protein 2 (FBP2) is an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) trans-acting factor (ITAF) that negatively regulates enterovirus 71 (EV71) translation. This study shows that EV71 infection cleaved FBP2. Live EV71 and the EV71 replicon (but not UV-inactivated virus particles) induced FBP2 cleavage, suggesting that viral replication results in FBP2 cleavage. The results also showed that virus-induced proteasome, autophagy, and caspase activity co-contribute to EV71-induced FBP2 cleavage. Using FLAG-fused FBP2, we mapped the potential cleavage fragments of FBP2 in infected cells. We also found that FBP2 altered its function when its carboxyl terminus was cleaved. This study presents a mechanism for virus-induced cellular events to cleave a negative regulator for viral IRES-driven translation. PMID:23345520

Chen, Li-Lien; Kung, Yu-An; Weng, Kuo-Feng; Lin, Jing-Yi; Horng, Jim-Tong; Shih, Shin-Ru

2013-01-23

371

[Method of determination of the number of enteroviruses present in natural waters].  

PubMed

The effectiveness of concentratin of enteroviruses present in water by adsorption on membrane filters, ion-exchange resin AB-17-8 and bentonite was compared with set concentrations of virus in water (0.05-0.1-0.5-2.5 and 12.5 PFU/ml). The effectiveness of concentration was shown to depend upon the initial dose of virus present in water. With virus adsorption on membrane filters and ionexchange resin the effectiveness of concentration was the higher (100 and 74%) the lower the virus dose in water (0.05 PFU/ml), with bentonite the effectiveness was the higher (60%) the higher virus dose in water (12.5 PFU/ml). A method is proposed for sufficiently accurate determination of virus concentration in water by simultaneous and parallel removal of virus particles in two ways one of which gives a maximum effect with low doses of virus and the other with large doses. PMID:219620

Kazantseva, V A; Aizen, M S; Drozdov, S G

372

[Enteroviruses in the water of surface reservoirs of the GDR and USSR].  

PubMed

Virological examinations of water from rivers, channels, lakes, and water reservoirs were carried out in two countries, the GDR and the USSR, in 1973-1974. The occurrence of enteroviruses in all the water bodies was demonstrated. The infection rate of water with viral and bacterial flora and water pollution with organic suspension was found to be dependent upon sewage drainage. The canals (GDR) and rivers (USSR) into which sewage of large densely populated towns were discharged were found to be most highly infected (67% and 36% of virus-containing samples, respectively). The least infected were lakes and water reservoirs receiving no or small quantities of sewage. The difference between the values indicating virus infection and pollution with organic substances in water bodies receiving and not receiving sewage was statistically significant. PMID:6267820

Kazantseva, V A; Drozdov, S G; Val'ter, R; Dobberkau, Kh I; A?zen, M S

373

Neutralizing activity in the gastrointestinal contents of piglets vaccinated with an ethylenimine-inactivated porcine enterovirus.  

PubMed Central

The T80 strain of porcine enterovirus was rapidly and completely inactiviated by ethylenimine in a reaction which appeared to follow first order kinetics. The virus was effectively concentrated 35- to 88-fold, with recovery rates of 23 t0 53%, by adsorption to the polyelectrolyte PE60. Multiple doses of adjuvanted, PE60-concentrated, ethylenimine-inactivated T80 virus given by both the oral and subcutaneous routes induced the appearance of significant levels of virus neutralizing activity in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets vaccinated at four weeks of age. This activity, found predominantly in large intestine, was present 14 days after administration of the first dose of vaccine and significant levels of activity were still detectable six weeks later. Titres of serum virus neutralizing activity were higher and more persistent than in piglets which received live or formaldehyde-inactivated T80 virus by the oral or intramuscular routes.

Hazlett, D G; Derbyshire, J B

1977-01-01

374

Livestock infectious diseases and zoonoses  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases of livestock are a major threat to global animal health and welfare and their effective control is crucial for agronomic health, for safeguarding and securing national and international food supplies and for alleviating rural poverty in developing countries. Some devastating livestock diseases are endemic in many parts of the world and threats from old and new pathogens continue to emerge, with changes to global climate, agricultural practices and demography presenting conditions that are especially favourable for the spread of arthropod-borne diseases into new geographical areas. Zoonotic infections that are transmissible either directly or indirectly between animals and humans are on the increase and pose significant additional threats to human health and the current pandemic status of new influenza A (H1N1) is a topical example of the challenge presented by zoonotic viruses. In this article, we provide a brief overview of some of the issues relating to infectious diseases of livestock, which will be discussed in more detail in the papers that follow.

Tomley, Fiona M.; Shirley, Martin W.

2009-01-01

375

Infectious Diseases Subdue Serengeti Lions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Infectious diseases stalk wildlife in the Serengeti, and climate change may be an accessory. Lions face serious threats to their future, some head-on, others lurking in the grasses, unseen until it's almost too late. From growing numbers of people living along the Serengeti perimeter to the effects of infectious diseases and climate change, the king of beasts (Panthera leo) leads an uneasy life. For example, lions are subject to simultaneous outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) and babesiosis. CDV, a disease that results in encephalitis and pneumonia, is transmitted by domestic dogs; babesiosis is carried by a tick-borne blood parasite called Babesia. If extreme weather events become more frequent as a result of global climate change, disease may become a major threat to animal populations that have been historically stable. Diseases once thought to have limited impacts, such as babesiosis, should be watched closely. Environmental conditions may tip the scales and result in significantly greater impacts, even in wide open places like the Serengeti.

Cheryl Dybas (Freelance;)

2009-01-01

376

Informatics for Infectious Disease Research and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The goal of infectious disease informatics is to optimize the clinical and public health management of infectious diseases\\u000a through improvements in the development and use of antimicrobials, the design of more effective vaccines, the identification\\u000a of biomarkers for life-threatening infections, a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and biosurveillance and\\u000a clinical decision support. Infectious disease informatics can lead to more targeted

Vitali Sintchenko

377

Evaluation of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 specific immunoglobulin M antibodies for diagnosis of hand-foot-and-mouth disease  

PubMed Central

Background Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is caused mainly by the human enterovirus type 71 (HEV71) and the Coxsackievirus A group type 16 (CVA16). Large outbreaks of disease have occurred frequently in the Asia-Pacific region. Reliable methods are needed for diagnosis of HFMD in childen. IgM-capture ELISA, with its notable advantages of convenience and low cost, provides a potentially frontline assay. We aimed to evaluate the newly developed IgM-capture ELISAs for HEV71 and CVA16 in the diagnosis of HFMD, and to measure the kinetics of IgM over the course of HEV71 or CVA16 infections. Results We mapped, for the first time, the kinetics of IgM in HEV71 and CVA16 infection. HEV71- and CVA16-IgM were both detectable in some patients on day 1 of illness, and in 100% of patients by day 5 (HEV71) and day 8 (CVA16) respectively; both IgMs persisted for several weeks. The IgM detection rates were 90.2% (138 of 153 sera) and 68.0% (66 of 97 sera) for HEV71 and CVA16 infections, respectively, during the first 7 days of diseases. During the first 90 days after onset these values were 93.6% (233 of 249 sera) and 72.8% (91 of 125 sera) for HEV71 and CVA16 infections, respectively. Some cross-reactivity was observed between HEV71- and CVA16-IgM ELISAs. HEV71-IgM was positive in 38 of 122 (31.1%) CVA16 infections, 14 of 49 (28.6%) other enteroviral infections and 2 of 105 (1.9%) for other respiratory virus infected sera. Similarly, CVA16-IgM was apparently positive in 58 of 211 (27.5%) HEV71 infections, 16 of 48 (33.3%) other enterovirus infections and 3 of 105 (2.9%) other respiratory virus infected sera. Nevertheless, the ELISA yielded the higher OD450 value of main antibody than that of cross-reaction antibody, successfully identifying the enteroviral infection in 96.6% (HEV71) and 91.7% (CVA16) cases. When blood and rectal swabs were collected on the same day, the data showed that the agreement between IgM-capture ELISA and real-time RT-PCR in HEV71 was high (Kappa value = 0.729) while CVA16 somewhat lower (Kappa value = 0.300). Conclusions HEV71- and CVA16-IgM ELISAs can be deployed successfully as a convenient and cost-effective diagnostic tool for HFMD in clinical laboratories.

2012-01-01

378

Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Transcripts & Minutes (Biologics). -. Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA). -. Presentation. Immunization Before the Next Pandemic? ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/newsevents/workshopsmeetingsconferences

379

Infectious endophthalmitis: review of 420 cases  

PubMed Central

Background To characterize the causative pathogens and the visual outcomes among patients with endophthalmitis at a large referral center in northeastern Thailand. Methods All cases of infectious endophthalmitis treated between 1983 and 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. The patient data – including age, sex, history of ocular injuries, previous treatment and duration of the symptoms – were recorded. The ocular examination included affected side, anterior chamber reaction, vitreous haze, and presence of intraocular foreign bodies. Smears and cultures were prepared from anterior chamber paracentesis and/or vitreous tapping. Intraocular antibiotics were administered at the time of anterior chamber paracentesis and/or vitreous tapping. Vitrectomy and/or lensectomy were performed when indicated. Initial visual acuity before treatment and the final best-corrected vision were compared. Results A total of 420 cases of endophthalmitis were reviewed: 181 cases (43.1%) had ocular trauma before the infection; 135 (32.2%) developed endophthalmitis after intraocular surgery; and, 122 (29.1%) had a positive culture. Bacteria were isolated in 114 cases (93.4%) and fungi were noted in eight (6.6%). The common causative bacterium was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Combined vitrectomy and intraocular antibiotics were performed in 189 cases (45.0%), whereas 69 cases (16.4%) were treated with intraocular antibiotics alone. Conclusion Most of the reviewed cases were associated with trauma and intraocular surgery. The most frequently encountered bacterium causing infectious endophthalmitis was S. epidermidis. Most cases were treated with combined vitrectomy and intraocular antibiotics. The final visual outcomes seem to vary according to the type of endophthalmitis.

Bhoomibunchoo, Chavakij; Ratanapakorn, Tanapat; Sinawat, Suthasinee; Sanguansak, Thuss; Moontawee, Kittipatra; Yospaiboon, Yosanan

2013-01-01

380

Infectious and noninfectious triggers in Guillain-Barré syndrome.  

PubMed

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the commonest cause of acquired flaccid paralysis in the world and regarded by many as the prototype for postinfectious autoimmunity. Here the authors consider both infectious and noninfectious triggers of GBS and determine where possible what immunological mechanisms may account for this association. In approximately two-thirds of cases, an infectious trigger is reported in the weeks that lead up to disease onset, indicating that the host's response to infection must play an important role in disease pathogenesis. The most frequently identified bacteria, Campylobacter jejuni, through a process known as molecular mimicry, has been shown to induce cross-reactive anti-ganglioside antibodies, which can lead to the development of axonal-type GBS in some patients. Whether this paradigm can be extended to other infectious organisms or vaccines remains an important area of research and has public health implications. GBS has also been reported rarely in patients with underlying systemic diseases and immunocompromised states and although the exact mechanism is yet to be established, increased susceptibility to known infectious triggers should be considered most likely. PMID:23899233

Wakerley, Benjamin R; Yuki, Nobuhiro

2013-07-01

381

Lyophilized combination pools of enterovirus equine antisera: new LBM pools prepared from reserves of antisera stored frozen for two decades  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the preparation and test procedures for a second batch of lyophilized LBM combination antiserum pools, A through H, used for identifying 42 enteroviruses. Each pool is selectively composed of 10 or 11 of 42 individual enterovirus equine sera so that it contains 500 antibody units of each serum component per 0.1 ml. The new pools have been constituted from equine monovalent antisera that were prepared during the period 1962-67 and then evaluated and standardized in a series of collaborative international studies. An essential aspect of preparing the new pools was ensuring that the individual sera had retained high antibody titres through the long period of storage. At the time of retesting, the original stocks of these monovalent sera had been stored frozen at -20°C for periods ranging from 16 to 20 years.

Melnick, Joseph L.; Wimberly, Ira L.

1985-01-01

382

Specific primer amplification of the VP1 region directed by 5' UTR sequence analysis: enterovirus testing and identification in clinical samples from hand-foot-and-mouth disease patients.  

PubMed

Many genotypes of the enterovirus (EV) pathogens can cause clinical hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Therefore, rapid identification and monitoring of HFMD pathogens can be difficult, especially from the original clinical specimens. In this study, both universal pan-enterovirus and EV71/CA16 VP1-specific primer sets were designed and used to examine clinical specimens from HFMD patients. Based on the initial sequence analysis of the 5'-untanslated region (5'-UTR) and VP1 amplification products, additional primers for the VP1 region were redesigned for further genotyping of the remaining small portion non-EV71/non-CA16 specimens. With a known panel, it was possible to identify 15 out of 16 members using 5'-UTR sequence typing and VP1 typing, suggesting good detectability and genotyping of this method. One strain that was not typed by 5'-UTR was shown to be a recombinant virus. When this method was applied to examine clinical specimens from 44 suspected HFMD patients, 41 were detected as EV positive. In only one case, the VP1 sequence could not be identified. Four types of EVs, including CA16 (26/41, 63.4%), EV71-C4 (6/41, 14.6%), CA6 (5/41, 12.2%) and CA10 (3/41, 7.3%), were detected. In conclusion, 5' UTR amplification sequencing and subsequent VP1 specific primer amplification ensures a high detection rate and good genotyping accuracy in the examination of clinical samples. This detection strategy can be used for routine evaluation and monitoring of HFMD to follow local trends of EV infection. PMID:23769858

Ge, Shengxiang; Yan, Qiang; He, Shuizhen; Zhuang, Sijie; Niu, Jianjun; Xia, Ningshao

2013-06-11

383

MR imaging of infectious spondylitis.  

PubMed

MR images of 14 patients with pyogenic and three patients with tuberculous infectious spondylitis were studied to develop criteria for diagnosis. T1-weighted scans, 800/20 (TR/TE), were obtained in 17 patients and T2-weighted scans, greater than 2000/30,80, were obtained in 14. In seven patients, T2*-weighted scans (gradient-recalled acquisition into steady state, 25/15/5-7 degrees [TR/TE/flip angle]) and short-T1 inversion-recovery scans (STIR), 1400/150/40 (TR/TI/TE), as well as fat and water images (using a suppression technique), were obtained. Unenhanced and gadopentetate-dimeglumine-enhanced scans were obtained in four patients. In all but two patients with pyogenic infectious spondylitis, the T1-weighted sagittal scan showed characteristic findings: narrowed disk space, low signal intensity in the marrow of at least two adjacent vertebrae, subligamentous or epidural soft-tissue masses, and erosion of cortical bone. In one patient the T1-weighted scan was normal and abnormalities could be detected only on the T2-weighted scan. The remaining patient had abnormal marrow signal on the T1-weighted scan but only in one vertebral body. On T2-weighted images the major findings were a narrowed disk space with variable signal changes, abnormal high signal in marrow of at least two adjacent vertebrae, high-signal subligamentous or epidural masses, and cortical bone erosion. The findings in the three patients with tuberculous spondylitis included areas of increased and decreased signal intensity in vertebrae on T1-weighted images. Disk spaces were relatively spared given the extent of disease. Extraosseous soft-tissue components could be large. Bone erosion was best seen on the first echo of a T2-weighted sequence and on a water image; the latter was most reliable since it had no chemical-shift artifact. The use of gadopentetate dimeglumine could obscure or clarify MR findings, depending on the situation. T1- and T2-weighted MR images should be obtained for assessment of infectious spondylitis. STIR scans are particularly helpful. Fat images can be useful in subtle presentations, since they are very sensitive to marrow replacement, and gadopentetate dimeglumine may be helpful for epidural delineation of disease. PMID:2124051

Thrush, A; Enzmann, D

384

[Infectious diseases--new horizons].  

PubMed

During the last decade we have witnessed important developments in the field of infectious diseases. These developments have in a large part been made possible due to our entry into the genomic period. The main areas of progress include diagnosis, understanding of the pathophysiology, genetics, anti-microbial therapy and the prevention of disease by new vaccines. The diagnosis of infection using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), contributes today to the early identification of a pathogen, long before the culture and serology. In the future, we will be able to utilize molecular methodologies based on the unique response of the host to a specific infection--the genetic signature. This method will enable very early identification of the pathogen, institution of optimal treatment, and will prevent the excessive use of antibiotics. Another area that has developed in recent years is the genetics of infectious diseases. Accumulated data shows that changes in the genome, polymorphism, result in different reactions by people to different infections. As a result of these changes some people are resistant to certain infections whilst others are especially sensitive to other infections. Introduction of this knowledge into clinical practice will enable more rational medical management with an emphasis on personalized medicine. After a long period without the development of new antibiotics, there are now signs of conceptual and practical breakthroughs in the development of antibiotic agents whose activity is based on new principles and directed against sites different from those of existing antibiotics. These advances are predominantly due to progress in the field of genomics. Similarly, in the development of future vaccines, more and more vaccines will be developed using genomic methods, enabling the creation of vaccines against diseases that we have not yet succeeded to eradicate. Genomic methods will enable the design of vaccines tailored to the specific genomic structure of the host--personal vaccines. All these four aspects of progress in the field of infectious diseases are not science fiction, and it can be stated with confidence that the future is already here. PMID:23350296

Spirer, Zvi; Barzilai, Asher

2012-08-01

385

Infectious bursal disease virus variant from commercial Leghorn pullets.  

PubMed

An infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was isolated from 39-to-43-day-old commercial leghorn pullets suspected of having infectious bursal disease (IBD). These chickens had been vaccinated with a commercial live IBDV vaccine at 28 and 35 days of age. An isolate designated IN was recovered using specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and the BGM-70 established cell line. Experimental studies using SPF chickens vaccinated with either inactivated vaccines made from the vaccine strain used in the problem flock or a standard-type vaccine indicated no protection against the IN isolate. However, two variants and another standard-type vaccine induced protection against the IN isolate. Cross-neutralization tests indicated that the IN isolate differed antigenically from commercial vaccine strains and was related to the variant IBDV strains recently isolated from broilers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a variant IBDV recovered from commercial layer chickens in the United States. PMID:2157389

Ismail, N M; Saif, Y M; Wigle, W L; Havenstein, G B; Jackson, C

386

Acute Flaccid Paralysis in Infants and Young Children with Enterovirus 71 Infection: MR Imaging Findings and Clinical Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is now considered an important cause of childhood acute flaccid paralysis. The purpose of our study was to determine whether EV71-infection-related acute flaccid paralysis in infants and young children has char- acteristic MR imaging patterns. METHODS: Seven infants and young children with acute paralysis of the upper or lower extremities and positive EV71

Cheng-Yu Chen; Ying-Chao Chang; Chao-Ching Huang; Chun-Chung Lui; Kwo-Wei Lee; Song-Chei Huang

2001-01-01

387

Sensitive, Seminested PCR Amplification of VP1 Sequences for Direct Identification of All Enterovirus Serotypes from Original Clinical Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reverse transcription-seminested PCR (RT-snPCR) assay was developed for the detection and identifica- tion of enterovirus (EV) RNA in clinical specimens. Three conserved protein motifs were identified by aligning the VP3 and VP1 sequences of prototype EV strains. Consensus degenerate primers were designed from a conserved VP3 motif and a distal VP1 motif for the first PCR. Consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide

W. Allan Nix; M. Steven Oberste; Mark A. Pallansch

2006-01-01

388

Protection against lethal enterovirus 71 infection in newborn mice by passive immunization with subunit VP1 vaccines and inactivated virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the newest member of Enteroviridae, is notable for its etiological role in epidemics of severe neurological diseases in children. Developing effective vaccines is considered a top choice among all control measures. We compared the inactivated virus vaccine (10?g protein\\/mouse) with subunit vaccines — VP1 DNA vaccine (100?g\\/mouse) or recombinant VP1 protein (10?g\\/mouse), in its ability to elicit

Cheng-Nan Wu; Ya-Ching Lin; Cathy Fann; Nan-Shih Liao; Shin-Ru Shih; Mei-Shang Ho

2001-01-01

389

Display of VP1 on the Surface of Baculovirus and Its Immunogenicity against Heterologous Human Enterovirus 71 Strains in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHuman Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. It is often associated with severe neurological diseases and has caused high mortalities in recent outbreaks across the Asia Pacific region. Currently, there is no effective vaccine and antiviral agents available against EV71 infections. VP1 is one of the major immunogenic capsid

Tao Meng; Annasaheb B. Kolpe; Tanja K. Kiener; Vincent T. K. Chow; Jimmy Kwang; Ravi Jhaveri

2011-01-01

390

Secondary choriocapillaritis in infectious chorioretinitis.  

PubMed

Purpose:? To analyse the indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) patterns of hypofluorescence that are compatible with choriocapillaritis that occur secondarily to toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (ToRC), ocular tuberculosis (including tuberculous choroiditis, TuCR and multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis, TMSC) and syphilitic chorioretinitis (SyCR). Methods:? This was a single centre, retrospective case review study. Patients with a diagnosis of ToRC, TuCR, TMSC or SyCR were identified, their charts were reviewed and fundus photographs, fluorescein angiography (FA) and ICGA pictures were assessed. Results:? Indocyanine green angiography was performed at the initial presentation in 63 of the 105 patients with ToRC, in 37 of the 38 patients with TuCR, in six of six patients with TMSC and in two of four patients with SyCR. The following four ICGA patterns indicated choriocapillaritis: extension of hypofluorescence beyond the hypofluorescence of the actual infectious focus as seen on fundus photography or FA (seen only in ToRC and TuCR); small dark dots around the infectious focus (seen only in ToRC); multiple 'confetti-like' hypofluorescent areas or hypofluorescent geographical confluent areas (seen only in TMSC); and widespread areas of nonperfusion visible only in ICGA (seen only in SyCR). Conclusions:? Patients with secondary choriocapillaritis have distinct typical ICGA findings. ICGA is thus an important diagnostic tool that can provide an explanation for otherwise obscure visual loss and that might have diagnostic value for specific conditions like ToRC and SyCR. PMID:23694755

Knecht, Pascal B; Papadia, Marina; Herbort, Carl P

2013-05-22

391

Characterization of a temperature sensitive feline infectious peritonitis coronavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The characteristics of a temperature sensitive feline infectious peritonitis virus (TS-FIPV) were examined. TS-FIPV, unlike its parent strain, DF2 wild type FIPV (WT-FIPV), propagated at 31 °C (permissive temperature) but not at 39 °C (nonpermissive temperature). This temperature preference of TS-FIPV was also demonstrated in cats by the ability of the virus to replicate only at the lower temperature

K. K. Christianson; J. D. Ingersoll; R. M. Landon; N. E. Pfeiffer; J. D. Gerber

1989-01-01

392

Genetics of susceptibitlity to human infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before Robert Koch's work in the late nineteenth century, diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy were widely believed to be inherited disorders. Heritability of susceptibility to several infectious diseases has been confirmed by studies in the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, old and new, continue to be an important cause of mortality worldwide. A greater understanding of disease processes is needed

Graham S. Cooke; Adrian V. S. Hill

2001-01-01

393

25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians...INDIAN TRADERS Ā§ 140.26 Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into...or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any...

2011-04-01

394

Stress and infectious disease in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on the role of stress in infectious disease as measured either by illness behaviors (symptoms and use of health services) or by verified pathology. Substantial evidence was found for an association between stress and increased illness behavior, and less convincing but provocative evidence was found for a similar association between stress and infectious pathology. Introverts, isolates,

Sheldon Cohen; Gail M. Williamson

1991-01-01

395

What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

What is an Infectious Disease Specialist? When do I need an ID specialist? What will my visit be like? How was my ID specialist ... children. One of the best strategies for preventing infectious diseases is immunization. Ask your doctor for advice about ...

396

An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

2001-01-01

397

Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases…

Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

1970-01-01

398

Infectious Small Airways Diseases and Aspiration Bronchiolitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious bronchiolitis, as a sole component or more frequently as a constellation of histologic findings related to diseases\\u000a of more proximal airways or alveolated parenchyma, can be caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae, tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacterial organisms, and Aspergillus species. Infectious bronchiolitis and diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis (DAB) most commonly appear on

Kyung Soo Lee

399

Amniotic Membrane Transplantation for the Treatment of Corneal Ulceration in Infectious Keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Corneal ulceration may occur in diverse types of infectious keratitis, e.g., in herpetic, bacterial, or parasitic infections\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? The diverse infectious entities can be distinguished by their clinical presentation \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? Before treatment, corneal scrapings or biopsies should be obtained for proper microbiological evaluation \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? The pathogenesis of infectious corneal ulcers includes micro-organism-related and immune-mediated factors \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? Amniotic membrane may

Arnd Heiligenhaus; Carsten Heinz; Klaus Schmitz; Christoph Tappeiner; Dirk Bauer; Daniel Meller

400

Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease.  

PubMed

Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another--the focus of this theme issue--has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick--stigmatization--and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process--moralization--can be co-opted to promote human health. PMID:22042913

Stevenson, Richard J; Case, Trevor I; Oaten, Megan J

2011-12-12

401

Characterization of T helper (Th)1- and Th2-type immune responses caused by baculovirus-expressed protein derived from the S2 domain of feline infectious peritonitis virus, and exploration of the Th1 and Th2 epitopes in a mouse model.  

PubMed

Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) may cause a lethal infection in cats. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of FIPV infection has been recognized, and cellular immunity is considered to play an important role in preventing the onset of feline infectious peritonitis. In the present study, whether or not the T helper (Th)1 epitope was present in the spike (S)2 domain was investigated, the ADE epitope being thought to be absent from this domain. Three kinds of protein derived from the C-terminal S2 domain of S protein of the FIPV KU-2 strain were developed using a baculovirus expression system. These expressed proteins were the pre-coil region which is the N-terminal side of the putative fusion protein (FP), the region from FP to the heptad repeat (HR)2 (FP-HR2) region, and the inter-helical region which is sandwiched between HR1 and HR2. The ability of three baculovirus-expressed proteins to induce Th1- and Th2-type immune responses was investigated in a mouse model. It was shown that FP-HR2 protein induced marked Th1- and Th2-type immune responses. Furthermore, 30 peptides derived from the FP-HR2 region were synthesized. Five and 16 peptides which included the Th1 and Th2 epitopes, respectively, were identified. Of these, four peptides which included both Th1 and Th2 epitopes were identified. These findings suggest that the identification of Th1 epitopes in the S2 domain of FIPV has important implications in the cat. PMID:21091984

Satoh, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Hiroshige; Takano, Tomomi; Motokawa, Kenji; Kusuhara, Hajime; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

2010-12-01

402

Patterns of genetic variation in populations of infectious agents  

PubMed Central

Background The analysis of genetic variation in populations of infectious agents may help us understand their epidemiology and evolution. Here we study a model for assessing the levels and patterns of genetic diversity in populations of infectious agents. The population is structured into many small subpopulations, which correspond to their hosts, that are connected according to a specific type of contact network. We considered different types of networks, including fully connected networks and scale free networks, which have been considered as a model that captures some properties of real contact networks. Infectious agents transmit between hosts, through migration, where they grow and mutate until elimination by the host immune system. Results We show how our model is closely related to the classical SIS model in epidemiology and find that: depending on the relation between the rate at which infectious agents are eliminated by the immune system and the within host effective population size, genetic diversity increases with R0 or peaks at intermediate R0 levels; patterns of genetic diversity in this model are in general similar to those expected under the standard neutral model, but in a scale free network and for low values of R0 a distortion in the neutral mutation frequency spectrum can be observed; highly connected hosts (hubs in the network) show patterns of diversity different from poorly connected individuals, namely higher levels of genetic variation, lower levels of genetic differentiation and larger values of Tajima's D. Conclusion We have found that levels of genetic variability in the population of infectious agents can be predicted by simple analytical approximations, and exhibit two distinct scenarios which are met according to the relation between the rate of drift and the rate at which infectious agents are eliminated. In one scenario the diversity is an increasing function of the level of transmission and in a second scenario it is peaked around intermediate levels of transmission. This is independent of the type of host contact structure. Furthermore for low values of R0, very heterogeneous host contact structures lead to lower levels of diversity.

Gordo, Isabel; Campos, Paulo RA

2007-01-01

403

Distribution of enteroviruses in hospitalized children with hand, foot and mouth disease and relationship between pathogens and nervous system complications  

PubMed Central

Background To explore the relationship between enteroviruses and hospitalized children with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) complicated with nervous system disease. 234 hospitalized HFMD patients treated in Shengjing Hospital, Liaoning Province were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the presence and severity of nervous system disease, the patients were grouped as follows: general patients, severely ill patients, critically ill patients and fatal patients. Based on the detected pathogen, the patients were grouped as follows: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection, coxsackie A16 (CA16) infection and other enterovirus (OE) infection. Results Of the 423 hospitalized patients, most were admitted in July 2010(129/423, 30.5%). Enteroviruses were detected in 177(41.8%). 272/423 patients were male (64.3%), and fatal patients had the greatest proportion of male patients (p < 0.05). EV71 infection was found in 89/423 patients (21%). CA16 infection was detected in 8/423 patients (16.1%). Compared to group CA16, patients in group EV71 were hospitalized earlier, and the duration of hospitalization was longer (p < 0.05). Of the 92 patients with nervous system damage, 65 were infected with EV71 and 19 were infected with CA16. Among these CA16 infected patients, 2 had brainstem encephalitis and 1 had AFP. There were more patients with nervous system dysfunction in group EV71 than in groups CA16 or OE (p < 0.05). The 5 fatalities all occurred in group EV71 patients (p < 0.05). Infection with EV71 was most likely to cause neurogenic pulmonary edema (p < 0.05). Patients in group EV71 had a higher rate of suffering from coma and limb movement disorder than patients in groups CA16 or OE (p < 0.05). Conclusion The disease progresses faster in EV71-infected HFMD patients. These patients are more likely to suffer nervous system damage, neurogenic pulmonary edema, severe sequelae or death. CA16 and other enteroviruses can also cause HFMD with severe nervous system complications.

2012-01-01

404

76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-05-10

405

Enrichment of cerebrospinal fluid samples on cell culture for enhancement of sensitivity of mumps and enterovirus detection by multiplex RT-PCR.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that the detection of enteroviruses and mumps virus nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens improves the management of the patients with aseptic meningitis. To determine the effect of overnight enrichment of mumps and enteroviruses in CSF samples on cell culture for increasing the sensitivity of viral detection, we developed a multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CSFs were collected from 100 patients younger than 7 years. The samples were tested for the presence of enteroviruses and mumps virus by multiplex RT-PCR method. Negative samples in Multiplex RT-PCR were enriched for viral template RNAs by overnight culture of CSF samples on cells and followed by the optimized Multiplex RT-PCR. Overall, 35% of the CSF samples were positive for enteroviruses, whereas only 1% of CSF samples were positive for both viruses. After enriching in cell culture, 34% of the negative samples showed a positive polymerase chain reaction band for enteroviruses, and a 3% increase was observed for both viruses. The results showed that enrichment of viral template RNAs in cell culture can increase the sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR assay and provide a rapid and sensitive method for detection of viral infections. PMID:18083320

Kermanian, Masoumeh; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Arefian, Ehsan; Bamdad, Taravat

2008-02-20

406

The preparation of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of Saffold virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenicity of Saffold virus (SAFV) among humans still remains unclear, although it was identified as a novel human\\u000a cardiovirus in 2007. In order to encourage the molecular pathogenetic studies of SAFV, we generated an infectious cDNA clone\\u000a of SAFV type 3 (SAFV-3). The present study demonstrated that the synthesis of the full-length infectious RNA by T7 RNA polymerase\\u000a was

Toshiki Himeda; Takushi Hosomi; Naeem Asif; Hiroyuki Shimizu; Takako Okuwa; Yasushi Muraki; Yoshiro Ohara

2011-01-01

407

Infectious diseases citation patterns: mapping the literature 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The research identified the publication types and ages most frequently cited in the infectious diseases literature and the most commonly cited journals. Methods: From 2008–2010, 5,056 articles in 5 infectious diseases journals cited 166,650 items. Two random samples were drawn: one (n?=?1,060) from the total set of citations and one (n?=?1,060) from the citations to journal articles. For each sample citation, publication type and date, age of cited item, and inclusion of uniform resource locator (URL) were collected. For each item in the cited journal articles sample, journal title, publication date, and age of the cited article were collected. Bradford zones were used for further analysis. Results: Journal articles (91%, n?=?963) made up the bulk of cited items, followed by miscellaneous items (4.6%, n?=?49). Dates of publication for cited items ranged from 1933–2010 (mean?=?2001, mode?=?2007). Over half (50.2%, n?=?483) of cited journal articles were published within the previous 5 years. The journal article citations included 358 unique journal titles. Discussion: The citations to current and older publications in a range of disciplines, heavy citation of journals, and citation of miscellaneous and government documents revealed the depth and breadth of resources needed for the study of infectious diseases.

Rethlefsen, Melissa L.; Livinski, Alicia A.

2013-01-01

408

Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that each disease is characterized by a unique multifractal signature, which distinguishes that particular disease from the others. The wavelet scaling functions confirm that the time series of measles, rubella and whooping cough are clearly multifractal, while chicken pox has a more monofractal structure in time. The stochastic SEIR epidemic model is unable to reproduce the qualitative singularity structure of the reported incidence data: it is too smooth and does not appear to have a multifractal singularity structure. The precise reasons for the failure of the SEIR epidemic model to reproduce the correct multiscale structure of the reported incidence data remain unclear. PMID:22442094

Holdsworth, Amber M; Kevlahan, Nicholas K-R; Earn, David J D

2012-03-22

409

[Photodynamic therapy for infectious keratitis].  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used in ophthalmology for the last 10 years particularly for disorders of the posterior pole. In recent years PDT has been increasingly applied for corneal cross-linking in progressive keratoconus. The classical PDT is performed with porphyrins as photosensitizers and illumination with visible light of 630-635 nm wavelength and cross-linking with the photosensitizer riboflavin and ultraviolet illumination at 370 nm. Illumination of photosensitizers generates free oxygen radicals, which damage the cell membrane or nucleic acids of eukaryotic cells or even microorganisms. By cross-linking a stronger network of collagen fibers can additionally be achieved. Experimental studies have shown that PDT with higher concentrations of photosensitizers may induce necrosis and apoptosis of corneal cells and that survival of herpes simplex virus will be reduced on a LogMar scale by 4-5 lines, of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Candida albicans strains by 1-2 lines. Previous clinical studies have shown that PDT may heal bacterial or even acanthamoeba keratitis. Thus, some authors claim that photodynamic therapy may be a potential alternative in therapy resistant infectious keratitis. However, the limitations of this therapeutic option in particular need further investigation. PMID:22350551

Szentmįry, N; Goebels, S; Bischoff, M; Seitz, B

2012-02-01

410

Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that each disease is characterized by a unique multifractal signature, which distinguishes that particular disease from the others. The wavelet scaling functions confirm that the time series of measles, rubella and whooping cough are clearly multifractal, while chicken pox has a more monofractal structure in time. The stochastic SEIR epidemic model is unable to reproduce the qualitative singularity structure of the reported incidence data: it is too smooth and does not appear to have a multifractal singularity structure. The precise reasons for the failure of the SEIR epidemic model to reproduce the correct multiscale structure of the reported incidence data remain unclear.

Holdsworth, Amber M.; Kevlahan, Nicholas K.-R.; Earn, David J. D.

2012-01-01

411

Atomic model of an infectious rotavirus particle  

PubMed Central

Non-enveloped viruses of different types have evolved distinct mechanisms for penetrating a cellular membrane during infection. Rotavirus penetration appears to occur by a process resembling enveloped-virus fusion: membrane distortion linked to conformational changes in a viral protein. Evidence for such a mechanism comes from crystallographic analyses of fragments of VP4, the rotavirus-penetration protein, and infectivity analyses of structure-based VP4 mutants. We describe here the structure of an infectious rotavirus particle determined by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and single-particle analysis at about 4.3 Å resolution. The cryoEM image reconstruction permits a nearly complete trace of the VP4 polypeptide chain, including the positions of most side chains. It shows how the two subfragments of VP4 (VP8* and VP5*) retain their association after proteolytic cleavage, reveals multiple structural roles for the ?-barrel domain of VP5*, and specifies interactions of VP4 with other capsid proteins. The virion model allows us to integrate structural and functional information into a coherent mechanism for rotavirus entry.

Settembre, Ethan C; Chen, James Z; Dormitzer, Philip R; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Harrison, Stephen C

2011-01-01

412

Decontaminating infectious laboratory waste by autoclaving.  

PubMed Central

The temperature profile of infectious laboratory waste being autoclaved was examined relative to the type of containers used in the process. A standardized waste load (1,750 +/- 4 g) placed in the container was evaluated by using a direct readout thermocouple. The sensor of the thermocouple was placed within an unused and outdated agar plate, centrally located about 5 cm from the bottom of the container. The gravity displacement autoclave tested reached 121 degrees C within 3 min. Waste within a steel container (plus 1 liter of water) reached 108, 120, and 122 degrees C at 12, 30, and 50 min, respectively. Without the addition of water, the corresponding temperatures were 60, 110, and 120 degrees C, respectively. With a steel container, "autoclavable" plastic bags, and no additional water, the temperatures were 36, 71, and 105 degrees C, respectively. When 1 liter of water was placed in the autoclavable bag, the temperatures were 98, 115, and 121 degrees C, respectively. Waste within a polypropylene container (dimensions similar to those of the steel container) with and without the addition of 1 liter of water, reached a maximum temperature of 108 degrees C at 50 min. With a polypropylene container, autoclavable plastic bag, and 1 liter of water, the corresponding temperature was 99 degrees C. Without the addition of water, the temperature was 92 degrees C. The importance of container, moisture, and material in autoclaving was demonstrated.

Lauer, J L; Battles, D R; Vesley, D

1982-01-01

413

Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues.

Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

2011-01-01

414

Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Sciences: Strategic Directions  

PubMed Central

Despite substantial progress, infectious diseases remain important causes of ill-health and premature deaths in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has experienced a >90% reduction in the incidence of deaths due to childhood diarrhoea over the last 25 years. Further reductions can be achieved through the introduction of effective vaccines against rotavirus and improvements in home hygiene, quality of drinking-water, and clinical case management, including appropriate use of oral rehydration solution and zinc. Pneumonia is now the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh, and the pneumonia-specific child mortality is largely unchanged over the last 25 years. Reductions in mortality due to pneumonia can be achieved through the introduction of protein conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenza type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae, improvements in case management, including efforts to prevent delays in providing appropriate treatment, and the wider use of zinc. Tuberculosis is responsible for an estimated 70,000 deaths each year in Bangladesh. Although services for directly-observed therapy have expanded markedly, improved case finding and involvement of private practitioners will be important to reduce the burden of disease.

Luby, Stephen P.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Zaman, K.; Hossain, Shahed; Ahmed, Tahmeed

2008-01-01

415

Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers  

PubMed Central

Background The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment. These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Discussion Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes. Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections. In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Summary Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended.

2012-01-01

416

Rupintrivir is a promising candidate for treating severe cases of Enterovirus-71 infection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the suitability of rupintrivir against Enterovirus 71 (EV71) induced severe clinical symptoms using computational methods. METHODS: The structure of EV71 3C protease was predicted by homology modeling. The binding free energies between rupintrivir and EV71 3C and human rhinovirus 3C protease were computed by molecular dynamics and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann/surface area and molecular mechanics generalized-born/surface area methods. EV71 3C fragments obtained from clinical samples collected during May to July 2008 in Shanghai were amplified by reverse-transcription and polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. RESULTS: We observed that rupintrivir had favorable binding affinity with EV71 3C protease (-10.76 kcal/mol). The variability of the 3C protein sequence in isolates of various outbreaks, including those obtained in our hospital from May to July 2008, were also analyzed to validate the conservation of the drug binding pocket. CONCLUSION: Rupintrivir, whose safety profiles had been proved, is an attractive candidate and can be quickly utilized for treating severe EV71 infection.

Zhang, Xiao-Nan; Song, Zhi-Gang; Jiang, Ting; Shi, Bi-Sheng; Hu, Yun-Wen; Yuan, Zheng-Hong

2010-01-01

417

Chlorogenic Acid inhibits the replication and viability of enterovirus 71 in vitro.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an etiology for a number of diseases in humans. Traditional Chinese herbs have been reported to be effective for treating EV71 infection. However, there is no report about the antiviral effects of CHA against EV71. In this study, plaque reduction assay demonstrated that the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of CHA on EV71 replication is 6.3 µg/ml. When both CHA (20 µg/ml) and EV71 were added, or added post-infection at different time points, CHA was able to effectively inhibit EV71 replication between 0 and 10 h. In addition, CHA inhibited EV71 2A transcription and translation in EV71-infected RD cells, but did not affect VP1, 3C, and 3D expression. Furthermore, CHA inhibited secretions of IL-6, TNF-?, IFN-? and MCP-1 in EV71-infected RD cells. Altogether, these results revealed that CHA may have antiviral properties for treating EV71 infection. PMID:24098754

Li, Xiang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Hou, Xueling; Peng, Hongjun; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Qingbo; Shi, Mei; Ji, Yun; Wang, Yuyue; Shi, Weifeng

2013-09-30

418

Oral immunization of mice using Bifidobacterium longum expressing VP1 protein from enterovirus 71.  

PubMed

Bifidobacterium longum is an attractive candidate for delivering biologically active proteins by the mucosal route due to its non-pathogenic and colonizing properties. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has aroused widespread attention recently due to several epidemics, and great attention should be paid to the fact that there are currently no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines against EV71 infection. In this report, we described a recombinant B. longum that could be used to develop an oral vaccine against EV71 infection. A VP1 expression vector (pBBADs-VP1) was constructed by amplifying the EV71 VP1 gene and inserting it into the E. coli-Bifidobacterium shuttle expression vector pBBAD/Xs. Then, the expression of VP1 protein in pBBADs-VP1-transformed bacteria was demonstrated by western blot. In vivo studies indicated that oral immunization of BALB/c mice with pBBADs-VP1-transformed bacteria induced potent immune responses against EV71 infection, including virus-neutralising titers, anti-EV71-VP1 antibody and the induction of Th1 immune responses in the spleen and Peyer's patches. Importantly, immunization of mother mice with this recombinant VP1-expressing B. longum conferred protection to neonatal mice. These results demonstrate that the novel oral vaccine utilizing B. longum expressing the VP1 protein might successfully elicit a specific immune response against EV71 infection. PMID:23275129

Yu, Zhijian; Huang, Zhen; Sao, Chongwen; Huang, Yuanjian; Zhang, Fan; Ma, Guihong; Chen, Zhong; Zeng, Zhongming; Qiwen, Deng; Zeng, Weiseng

2013-01-01

419

Effects of ozone exposure on inactivation of intra- and extracellular enterovirus 71.  

PubMed

In this study, the potential of ozone in inactivating enterovirus 71 (EV71) free particles was investigated using either various ozone flow rates of 100, 80 or 60 mg/h or a constant flow rate of 80 mg/h, given to culture medium or various pH culture media containing EV71, respectively. Results demonstrated that EV71 inactivation by ozone was related to the kinetics of ozone solubility, approximately 99% inactivation being obtained in the exponential phase of ozone solubility. However, the inactivation rate was dependent on the ozone input flow rate and positively enhanced at acidic pH. Inactivation of intracellular EV71 was also studied. At a constant ozone supply of 60 mg/h, a significant reduction of intracellular virus titer (> or =99%, p < 0.01) was obtained after 45 or 60 min exposure but with low cell viability. Upon 30 min exposure, however, 45% cell viability was retained. The results indicate that the inactivating effect of ozone on intracellular EV71 virus is dependent on exposure duration. PMID:16838411

Lin, Ya-Ching; Wu, Sheng-Chi

2006-07-01

420

Norovirus, hepatitis A virus and enterovirus presence in shellfish from high quality harvesting areas in Portugal.  

PubMed

This is the first report on the screening of shellfish from Portugal for the presence of human enteropathogenic viruses. Approximately 2000 shellfish (Curbicula fluminea, Ruditapes decussatus, Tellina crassa, Spisula solida, Dosinia exoleta, Ensis spp., Mytilus spp., Ostrea edulis and Cerastoderma edule), organized in 49 batches, were collected between March 2008 and February 2009. They were tested for norovirus (NoV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enterovirus (EV) by RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Bacterial contamination was also evaluated by Escherichia coli counts. Viral contamination was detected throughout the year in all shellfish species and in all collection areas, independently of their harvesting areas classification. Overall, 67% of all analyzed batches were contaminated by at least one of the studied viruses while the simultaneous presence of two and three viruses was detected in 22% and 6% batches, respectively. Of the three viruses, NoV was detected in 37% of the batches, followed by EV in 35%, and HAV in 33%. Nucleotide sequencing of the NoV and HAV RT-PCR products demonstrated that all strains belonged to NoV genotype GII.4 and HAV subgenotype 1B. The presence of NoV and HAV in shellfish from "A class" harvesting areas of Portugal can represent a potential health risk. PMID:21569936

Mesquita, Joćo R; Vaz, Lisa; Cerqueira, Sónia; Castilho, Fernanda; Santos, Ricardo; Monteiro, Sķlvia; Manso, Carmen F; Romalde, Jesus L; Nascimento, Maria Sćo José

2011-01-25

421

Prevalence of porcine enterovirus 9 in pigs in Middle and Eastern China  

PubMed Central

Little information on the epidemiology and pathogenicity of porcine enterovirus 9 (PEV-9) is available. The present study investigated the prevalence of PEV-9 in pig populations in middle and eastern China using reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. All 14 sampled farms were positive for PEV-9 and the overall prevalence of infection in the studied pigs was 8.3% (37/447). There was a higher frequency of infection in pigs aged 10–15 weeks (12/119, 10.1%) than in pigs aged >20 weeks (5/103, 4.9%). A 313 nucleotide sequence from the 5?-UTR region of 37 Chinese PEV-9 positive samples had 96.1-100% sequence homology. On phylogenetic analysis, sequences clustered into two major groups, from which two representative strains were selected to determine the complete RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequence. Phylogenetic analysis based on the RdRp gene suggested that PEV-9 strains from China formed a new subgroup. Piglets were inoculated orally with the PEV-9 strain identified in this study. Although most experimental pigs showed no clinical signs, almost all carried PEV-9 in one or more tissues after 6 days post-inoculation. The results of tissue histologic examination suggested that PEV9 can cause pathological changes in cerebrum and lung.

2013-01-01

422

Excretion of enterovirus 71 in persons infected with hand, foot and mouth disease  

PubMed Central

Background Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common illness in