Sample records for infectious enterovirus type

  1. Detection of Infectious Enteroviruses, Enterovirus Genomes, Somatic Coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis Phages in Treated Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. GANTZER; A. MAUL; J. M. AUDIC; L. SCHWARTZBROD; Facultede Pharmacie

    1998-01-01

    In this study, three types of treated wastewater were tested for infectious enteroviruses, the enterovirus genome, somatic coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis phages. The aim of this work was to determine whether the presence of the two types of bacteriophages or of the enterovirus genome was a good indicator of infectious enterovirus contamination. The enterovirus genome was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase

  2. Enteroviruses, hygiene and type 1 diabetes: toward a preventive vaccine.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Kristen M; von Herrath, Matthias; Tracy, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses and humans have long co-existed. Although recognized in ancient times, poliomyelitis and type 1 diabetes (T1D) were exceptionally rare and not epidemic, due in large part to poor sanitation and personal hygiene which resulted in repeated exposure to fecal-oral transmitted viruses and other infectious agents and viruses and the generation of a broad protective immunity. As a function of a growing acceptance of the benefits of hygienic practices and microbiologically clean(er) water supplies, the likelihood of exposure to diverse infectious agents and viruses declined. The effort to vaccinate against poliomyelitis demonstrated that enteroviral diseases are preventable by vaccination and led to understanding how to successfully attenuate enteroviruses. Type 1 diabetes onset has been convincingly linked to infection by numerous enteroviruses including the group B coxsackieviruses (CVB), while studies of CVB infections in NOD mice have demonstrated not only a clear link between disease onset but an ability to reduce the incidence of T1D as well: CVB infections can suppress naturally occurring autoimmune T1D. We propose here that if we can harness and develop the capacity to use attenuated enteroviral strains to induce regulatory T cell populations in the host through vaccination, then a vaccine could be considered that should function to protect against both autoimmune as well as virus-triggered T1D. Such a vaccine would not only specifically protect from certain enterovirus types but more importantly, also reset the organism's regulatory rheostat making the further development of pathogenic autoimmunity less likely. PMID:25430610

  3. Molecular Typing of Enteroviruses: Current Status and Future Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Peter; Kämmerer, Ulrike; Korn, Klaus; Mulders, Mick N.; Pöyry, Tuija; Weissbrich, Benedikt; Kandolf, Reinhard; Cleator, Graham M.; van Loon, Anton M.

    1998-01-01

    Human enteroviruses have traditionally been typed according to neutralization serotype. This procedure is limited by the difficulty in culturing some enteroviruses, the availability of antisera for serotyping, and the cost and technical complexity of serotyping procedures. Furthermore, the impact of information derived from enterovirus serotyping is generally perceived to be low. Enteroviruses are now increasingly being detected by PCR rather than by culture. Classical typing methods will therefore no longer be possible in most instances. An alternative means of enterovirus typing, employing PCR in conjunction with molecular genetic techniques such as nucleotide sequencing or nucleic acid hybridization, would complement molecular diagnosis, may overcome some of the problems associated with serotyping, and would provide additional information regarding the epidemiology and biological properties of enteroviruses. We argue the case for developing a molecular typing system, discuss the genetic basis of such a system, review the literature describing attempts to identify or classify enteroviruses by molecular methods, and suggest ways in which the goal of molecular typing may be realized. PMID:9457433

  4. Enterovirus and type 1 diabetes: What is the matter?

    PubMed Central

    Bergamin, Carla Sanchez; Dib, Sergio Atala

    2015-01-01

    A complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors can trigger the immune-mediated mechanism responsible for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) establishment. Environmental factors may initiate and possibly sustain, accelerate, or retard damage to ?-cells. The role of environmental factors in this process has been exhaustive studied and viruses are among the most probable ones, especially enteroviruses. Improvements in enterovirus detection methods and randomized studies with patient follow-up have confirmed the importance of human enterovirus in the pathogenesis of T1DM. The genetic risk of T1DM and particular innate and acquired immune responses to enterovirus infection contribute to a tolerance to T1DM-related autoantigens. However, the frequency, mechanisms, and pathways of virally induced autoimmunity and ?-cell destruction in T1DM remain to be determined. It is difficult to investigate the role of enterovirus infection in T1DM because of several concomitant mechanisms by which the virus damages pancreatic ?-cells, which, consequently, may lead to T1DM establishment. Advances in molecular and genomic studies may facilitate the identification of pathways at earlier stages of autoimmunity when preventive and therapeutic approaches may be more effective. PMID:26131324

  5. RAPID PCR-BASED MONITORING OF INFECTIOUS ENTEROVIRUSES IN DRINKING WATER. (R824756)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Currently, the standard method for the detection of enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus in water involves cell culture assay which is expensive and time consuming. Direct RT-PCR offers a rapid and sensitive alternative to virus detection but sensitivity is oft...

  6. DETERMINATION OF MINIMAL INFECTIOUS DOSE OF AN ENTEROVIRUS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of this project were to determine the minimal infectious dose and medical significance of an enteric virus ingested in drinking water. The study was conducted under double-blind, placebo-controlled, random-selection conditions. A total of 149 susceptible (antibody-free)...

  7. The interaction between human enteroviruses and type I IFN signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Yi, Lina; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Ren; Chen, Jinfei; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; He, Ming-Liang

    2015-06-01

    Human enteroviruses (HEV), very common and important human pathogens, cause infections in diverse ways. Recently, the large epidemic of HFMD caused by HEV infection became a growing threat to public health in China. As the first line of immune response, the type I interferon (IFN-?/?) pathway plays an essential role in antiviral infection, particularly in limiting both the early and late stages of infection. Because of co-evolution with the host, the viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade or subvert the host immunity to ensure their survival. In this paper, we systematically reviewed and summarized the interaction between HEV infections and host type I IFN responses. We firstly described the recent findings of HEV recognition and IFN induction, specifically on host pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) in HEV infection. Then we discussed the antiviral effect of IFN in HEV infection. Finally, we timely summarized the mechanisms of HEV to circumvent the IFN responses. Clarification of the complexity in this battle may provide us new strategies for prevention and antiviral treatment. PMID:23919297

  8. [Enterovirus infections in new disguise].

    PubMed

    Fohlman, J; Friman, G; Tuvemo, T

    1997-07-01

    Enteroviruses (Coxsackie A and B, echovirus, poliovirus) belong to a group of small RNA-viruses, picomavirus, which are widespread in nature. Enteroviruses cause a number of wellknown diseases and symptoms in humans, from subclinical infections and the common cold to poliomyelitis with paralysis. The development of polio vaccines is the greatest accomplishment within the field of enterovirus research and the background work was awarded the Nobel prize in 1954. New knowledge implies that enteroviruses play a more important part in the morbidity panorama than was previously thought. Chronic (persistent) enteroviruses were formerly unknown. Serologic and molecular biology techniques have now demonstrated that enteroviral genomes, in certain situations, persist after the primary infection (which is often silent). Persistent enteroviral infection or recurrent infections and/or virus-stimulated autoimmunity might contribute to the development of diseases with hitherto unexplained pathogenesis, such as post polio syndrome, dilated cardiomyopathy, juvenile (type 1) diabetes and possibly some cases of chronic fatigue syndrome. PMID:9254324

  9. Genetic and phylogenetic clustering of enteroviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Poyry; L. Kinnunen; T. Hyypia; B. Brown; C. Horsnell; T. Hovi; G. Stanway

    1996-01-01

    Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of enteroviruses showed that in the 5'NCR enteroviruses formed three clusters: polioviruses (PVs), coxsackievirus A type 21 (CAV21), CAV24 and enterovirus type 70 (ENV70) formed one cluster; coxsackievirus B isolates (CBVs), CAV9, CAV16, ENV71, echovirus type 11 (EV11), EV12 and all partially sequenced echoviruses and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) belonged to another cluster and bovine

  10. First-degree relatives of persons with type 1 diabetes: insulin resistance and enterovirus infection are associated with different patterns of islet cell autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ileana Cubas-Dueńas; Eduardo Cabrera-Rode; Luis Sarmiento; Gisela Molina; Magilé Fonseca; Celeste Arranz; Emma Domínguez; Pedro González; Manuel Vera; Oscar Díaz-Horta

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies indicate an association\\u000a between detection of Enterovirus (EV) genome in blood and the clinical onset of T1D. Insulin resistance can also represent\\u000a a risk factor for progression to clinically overt T1D. This study aimed at evaluating whether there is association between\\u000a both EV infection and

  11. Recombinant porcine lactoferrin expressed in the milk of transgenic mice protects neonatal mice from a lethal challenge with enterovirus type 71.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Wang, Li-Chung; Chang, Chi-Hsuan; Yen, Chih-Ching; Cheng, Winston T K; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Hung, Che-Ming; Kuo, Meng-Fu; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2008-02-13

    The human Enterovirus genus of the piconavirus family causes most of the febrile illnesses that affect children during the summer season in Taiwan. Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) plays a key role in patients with hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) combined with severe paralysis or encephalitis. It is important to find a method for preventing infection with EV71 since there is no antiviral agent or vaccine for humans. In this study, we developed a transgenic mouse model for demonstrating the protective effects of recombinant lactoferrin (LF) against EV71 infection. Transgenic mice carrying alpha-lactalbumin-porcine lactoferrin (alphaLA-pLF) and BALB/c wild-type mice were subjected to EV71 inoculation. First, we analyzed the expression efficiencies of recombinant pLF (rpLF) in hemizygous and homozygous transgenic mice. Following EV71 inoculation on the 4th day of life, pups ingesting transgenic milk showed the significantly higher survival rate and heavier body weight compared to wild-type mice. RT-PCR analysis for EV71 viral RNA showed that the recombinant pLF had a blocking effect on EV71 infection. Our data suggest that oral intake of pLF-enriched milk exhibited the ability to prevent infection with EV71. The study also provides an animal model for validating the protective effects of pLF. PMID:18207613

  12. Enterovirus D68

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Related Links Water-related Hygiene Viral Conjunctivitis Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Viral Meningitis What is ... D68 Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is one of more than 100 non-polio enteroviruses. This virus was first identified in California in 1962. What ...

  13. Characterization of Enteroviruses from Non-Human Primates in Cameroon Revealed Virus Types Widespread in Humans along with Candidate New Types and Species

    PubMed Central

    Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Bessaud, Maël; Joffret, Marie-Line; Endegue Zanga, Marie-Claire; Balanant, Jean; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Njouom, Richard; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Delpeyroux, Francis; Rousset, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP) are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases. PMID:25079078

  14. Recombination in Circulating Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lukashev, Alexander N.; Lashkevich, Vasilii A.; Ivanova, Olga E.; Koroleva, Galina A.; Hinkkanen, Ari E.; Ilonen, Jorma

    2003-01-01

    Recombination is a well-known phenomenon for enteroviruses. However, the actual extent of recombination in circulating nonpoliovirus enteroviruses is not known. We have analyzed the phylogenetic relationships in four genome regions, VP1, 2A, 3D, and the 5? nontranslated region (NTR), of 40 enterovirus B strains (coxsackie B viruses and echoviruses) representing 11 serotypes and isolated in 1981 to 2002 in the former Soviet Union states. In the VP1 region, strains of the same serotype expectedly grouped with their prototype strain. However, as early as the 2A region, phylogenetic grouping differed significantly from that in the VP1 region and indicated recombination within the 2A region. Moreover, in the 5? NTR and 3D region, only 1 strain of 40 grouped with its prototype strain. Instead, we observed a major group in both the 5? NTR and the 3D region that united most (in the 5? NTR) or all (in the 3D region) of the strains studied, regardless of the serotype. Subdivision within that major group in the 3D region correlated with the time of virus isolation but not with the serotype. Therefore, we conclude that a majority, if not all, circulating enterovirus B strains are recombinants relative to the prototype strains, isolated mostly in the 1950s. Moreover, the ubiquitous recombination has allowed different regions of the enterovirus genome to evolve independently. Thus, a novel model of enterovirus genetics is proposed: the enterovirus genome is a stable symbiosis of genes, and enterovirus species consist of a finite set of capsid genes responsible for different serotypes and a continuum of nonstructural protein genes that seem to evolve in a relatively independent manner. PMID:12970427

  15. A serological classification of bovine enteroviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Knowles; I. T. R. Barnett

    1985-01-01

    Summary Cross virus neutralization (VN), complement fixation (CF) and immunoprecipitation (IP) tests were employed to compare the seven currently recognized bovine enterovirus (BEV) serotypes with seven serologically distinct strains previously isolated in Great Britain and two other BEV from the United Kingdom. Based on criteria used to differentiate other human and animal picornavirus serotypes, it was discovered that BEV types

  16. Genetic and phylogenetic clustering of enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Pöyry, T; Kinnunen, L; Hyypiä, T; Brown, B; Horsnell, C; Hovi, T; Stanway, G

    1996-08-01

    Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of enteroviruses showed that in the 5'NCR enteroviruses formed three clusters: polioviruses (PVs), coxsackievirus A type 21 (CAV21), CAV24 and enterovirus type 70 (ENV70) formed one cluster; coxsackievirus B isolates (CBVs), CAV9, CAV16, ENV71, echovirus type 11 (EV11), EV12 and all partially sequenced echoviruses and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) belonged to another cluster and bovine enteroviruses (BEVs) formed the third cluster. In the capsid coding region five clusters were seen: PVs, CAV21 and CAV24 formed one cluster (PV-like); ENV70 formed a cluster of its own; all CBVs, CAV9, EV11, EV12 and SVDV formed the third cluster (CBV-like); CAV16, CAV2 and ENV71 belonged to the fourth cluster (CAV16-like) and BEVs formed their own cluster (BEV-like). In the 3'NCR the same clusters were seen as in the coding region suggesting a close association of the 3'NCR with viral proteins while the cellular environment may be more important in the evolution of the 5'NCR. Secondary structures were predicted in the 3'NCR, which showed two different patterns among the five clusters. A potential pseudoknot region common in all five clusters was identified. Although the BEV-like viruses formed a separate cluster in all genomic regions, in the coding region they seem to be phylogenetically related to the CAV16-like viruses. PMID:8760417

  17. Diversity of enterovirus sequences detected in oysters by RT-heminested PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Dubois; Ghislaine Merle; Catherine Roquier; Aurélien Trompette; Françoise Le Guyader; Catherine Crucičre; Jean-Jacques Chomel

    2004-01-01

    Oysters harvested in western France, from five sites associated with outbreaks of food-borne norovirus gastroenteritis between February 2000 and March 2001, were assayed for enterovirus RNA by reverse transcriptase-heminested polymerase chain reaction (RT-heminested PCR). Forty percent (21\\/52) of shellfish samples (pool of seven oysters) were contaminated by enteroviruses. Infectious coxsackieviruses serotype A21 were isolated from three of these positive samples.

  18. Evidence of Recombination among Enteroviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUHANA SANTTI; TIMO HYYPIA; LEENA KINNUNEN; MIKA SALMINEN

    1999-01-01

    Human enteroviruses consist of more than 60 serotypes, reflecting a wide range of evolutionary divergence. They have been genetically classified into four clusters on the basis of sequence homology in the coding region of the single-stranded RNA genome. To explore further the genetic relationships between human enteroviruses and to characterize the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for variation, previously sequenced genomes were

  19. Discovery of a Bovine Enterovirus in Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    McClenahan, Shasta D.; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L.; Krause, Philip R.; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen. PMID:23950875

  20. Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

    2002-01-01

    Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

  1. Evidence of Recombination among Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Santti, Juhana; Hyypiä, Timo; Kinnunen, Leena; Salminen, Mika

    1999-01-01

    Human enteroviruses consist of more than 60 serotypes, reflecting a wide range of evolutionary divergence. They have been genetically classified into four clusters on the basis of sequence homology in the coding region of the single-stranded RNA genome. To explore further the genetic relationships between human enteroviruses and to characterize the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for variation, previously sequenced genomes were subjected to detailed comparison. Bootstrap and genetic similarity analyses were used to systematically scan the alignments of complete genomic sequences. Bootstrap analysis provided evidence from an early recombination event at the junction of the 5? noncoding and coding regions of the progenitors of the current clusters. Analysis within the genetic clusters indicated that enterovirus prototype strains include intraspecies recombinants. Recombination breakpoints were detected in all genomic regions except the capsid protein coding region. Our results suggest that recombination is a significant and relatively frequent mechanism in the evolution of enterovirus genomes. PMID:10482628

  2. The induction and control of delayed type hypersensitivity reactions induced in chickens by infectious bronchitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Chubb; V. Huynh; R. Bradley

    1988-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was shown to induce delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in the wattle, or to inhibit migration in a macrophage migration inhibition test (MIT) in sensitised birds. The magnitude of the reactions was related to the sensitising dose of the virus. The optimal dose for the cold attenuated A3?IBV was 10 EID50, higher doses giving lower responses.

  3. Differentiation and Characterization of Enteroviruses by Computer-Assisted Viral Protein Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Diane T.; Senne, Jill; Peter, C. R.; Urmeneta, Connie; Connor, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed and standardized a computerized method for the typing and characterization of enteroviruses with radiolabeled viral protein fingerprints. Enteroviral proteins were radiolabeled with [35S]methionine during growth in cell culture and were then separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The dried gel was scanned, and from the resulting computer image (which resembled an autoradiogram) protein patterns were computer extracted and stored in a database. The enterovirus database contained community and prototype strains belonging to 20 different enteroviral serotypes. Each serotype has a discrete protein pattern, and the most important pattern differences for determining each type are in the region of the viral capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. When the database was challenged with 148 clinical enterovirus strains, 144 (97%) were correctly identified by using the correlation coefficient as a quantitative measure of relatedness between two patterns. This method can identify a type in a single test and represents a practical alternative to virus neutralization because it is less expensive, is much faster (3 rather than 10 days), and does not rely on any virus-specific reagents. The results also show that most of the strains currently isolated from the community have protein patterns different from those of their older prototype strains. Viral protein fingerprinting is an evolving, dynamic system for the typing and characterization of enteroviruses. The method is appropriate for use in clinical virology and reference laboratories for the typing of enteroviruses, for the study of the epidemiology of enteroviruses, and for surveillance of enteroviruses. PMID:9620382

  4. Receptors for enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Yamayoshi, Seiya; Fujii, Ken; Koike, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Occasionally, EV71 infection is associated with severe neurological diseases, such as acute encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis and cardiopulmonary failure. Several molecules act as cell surface receptors that stimulate EV71 infection, including scavenger receptor B2 (SCARB2), P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), sialylated glycan, heparan sulfate and annexin II (Anx2). SCARB2 plays critical roles in attachment, viral entry and uncoating, and it can facilitate efficient EV71 infection. The three-dimensional structures of the mature EV71 virion, procapsid and empty capsid, as well as the exofacial domain of SCARB2, have been elucidated. This structural information has greatly increased our understanding of the early steps of EV71 infection. Furthermore, SCARB2 plays essential roles in the development of EV71 neurological disease in vivo. Adult mice are not susceptible to infection by EV71, but transgenic mice that express human SCARB2 become susceptible to EV71 infection and develop similar neurological diseases to those found in humans. This mouse model facilitates the in vivo investigation of many issues related to EV71. PSGL-1, sialylated glycan, heparan sulfate and Anx2 are attachment receptors, which enhance viral infection by retaining the virus on the cell surface. These molecules also contribute to viral infection in vitro either by interacting with SCARB2 or independently of SCARB2. However, the cooperative effects of these receptors, and their contribution to EV71 pathogenicity in vivo, remain to be elucidated. PMID:26038749

  5. Symmetry-Related Clustering of Positive Charges Is a Common Mechanism for Heparan Sulfate Binding in Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    McLeish, Nigel J.; Williams, Çi?dem H.; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Roivainen, Merja M.

    2012-01-01

    Coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9), a member of the Picornaviridae family, uses an RGD motif in the VP1 capsid protein to bind to integrin ?v?6 during cell entry. Here we report that two CAV9 isolates can bind to the heparan sulfate/heparin class of proteoglycans (HSPG). Sequence analysis identified an arginine (R) at position 132 in VP1 in these two isolates, rather than a threonine (T) as seen in the nonbinding strains tested. We introduced a T132R substitution into the HSPG-nonbinding strain Griggs and recovered infectious virus capable of binding to immobilized heparin, unlike the parental Griggs strain. The known CAV9 structure was used to identify the location of VP1 position 132, 5 copies of which were found to cluster around the 5-fold axis of symmetry, presumably producing a region of positive charge which can interact with the negatively charged HSPG. Analysis of several enteroviruses of the same species as CAV9, Human enterovirus B (HEV-B), identified examples from 5 types in which blocking of infection by heparin was coincident with an arginine (or another basic amino acid, lysine) at a position corresponding to 132 in VP1 in CAV9. Together, these data show that membrane-associated HSPG can serve as a (co)receptor for some CAV9 and other HEV-B strains and identify symmetry-related clustering of positive charges as one mechanism by which HSPG binding can be achieved. This is a potentially powerful mechanism by which a single amino acid change could generate novel receptor binding capabilities, underscoring the plasticity of host-cell interactions in enteroviruses. PMID:22855495

  6. Genetic Relationship between Cocirculating Human Enteroviruses Species C

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Genetic Relationship between Cocirculating Human Enteroviruses Species C Mae¨l Bessaud1, Razafindratsimandresy R, Delpeyroux F (2011) Genetic Relationship between Cocirculating Human Enteroviruses Species C Recombination events between human enteroviruses (HEV) are known to occur frequently and to participate

  7. Activity of Pleconaril against Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pevear, Daniel C.; Tull, Tina M.; Seipel, Martin E.; Groarke, James M.

    1999-01-01

    The activity of pleconaril in cell culture against prototypic enterovirus strains and 215 clinical isolates of the most commonly isolated enterovirus serotypes was examined. The latter viruses were isolated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during the 1970s and 1980s from clinically ill subjects. Pleconaril at a concentration of ?0.03 ?M inhibited the replication of 50% of all clinical isolates tested. Ninety percent of the isolates were inhibited at a drug concentration of ?0.18 ?M. The most sensitive serotype, echovirus serotype 11, was also the most prevalent enterovirus in the United States from 1970 to 1983. Pleconaril was further tested for oral activity in three animal models of lethal enterovirus infection: coxsackievirus serotype A9 infection in suckling mice, coxsackievirus serotype A21 strain Kenny infection in weanling mice, and coxsackievirus serotype B3 strain M infection in adult mice. Treatment with pleconaril increased the survival rate in all three models for both prophylactic and therapeutic dosing regimens. Moreover, pleconaril dramatically reduced virus levels in target tissues of coxsackievirus serotype B3 strain M-infected animals. Pleconaril represents a promising new drug candidate for potential use in the treatment of human enteroviral infections. PMID:10471549

  8. Sequence analysis of a duck picornavirus isolate indicates that it together with porcine enterovirus type 8 and simian picornavirus type 2 should be assigned to a new picornavirus genus.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung

    2007-11-01

    In a 1990 outbreak, a virus isolated in Taiwan from the intestines of ducks showing signs of hepatitis was tentatively classified as a picornavirus on the basis of physical, chemical, and morphological characteristics. The virus was cloned and then found not to be type 1 duck hepatitis virus (DHV-1) or a new serotype of duck hepatitis virus (N-DHV) by serum neutralization. Complete genome sequencing indicated that the virus genome had 8351 nucleotides and the typical picornavirus genome organization (i.e., 5' untranslated region (UTR)-L-P1 (VP 4-2-3-1)-P2 (2A-B-C)-P3 (3A-B-C-D)-3' UTR-poly A). One open reading frame encoded 2521 amino acids, which makes this virus one of the largest picornaviruses, second only to equine rhinitis B virus of the genus Erbovirus. Its L protein was the largest within the family Picornaviridae (451 amino acids) and suspected to be a trypsin-like protease. The 235-nucleotide 3' UTR region was of intermediate size, quite long compared to other picornaviruses but shorter than other picornaviruses of duck-origin (DHV-1 and N-DHV) and had four regions of secondary structure. The 2A protein was composed of only 12 amino acids, which is the shortest of any member of the family Picornaviridae. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein and 3D sequences indicated that this virus (named duck picornavirus [DPV]) together with porcine enterovirus type 8 virus and several simian picornaviruses form a distinct branch of the family Picornaviridae and should be assigned to a new picornavirus genus. PMID:17686542

  9. Prevalence and Characterization of Enterovirus Infections among Pediatric Patients with Hand Foot Mouth Disease, Herpangina and Influenza Like Illness in Thailand, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand. PMID:24887237

  10. Methods for Detecting Food-borne Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, John E.; Cliver, Dean O.

    1968-01-01

    A method previously reported for detecting virus in a model system composed of cottage cheese contaminated with coxsackievirus type A9 has been adapted to detecting selected strains of enteroviruses in a variety of foods. Bentonite is omitted and serum is added for extracting virus from low-protein foods. Samples of foods, usually 25 g, must contain at least 3 to 4 plaque-forming units for a 50% probability of detecting virus. Sensitivity in detecting echovirus type 6 was lower than that for the other viruses used. After extraction from potato salad, poliovirus type 2 was completely reactivated if it had been neutralized with coproantibody, but it was only partially reactivated if neutralized with hyperimmune rabbit serum. Images Fig. 1 PMID:4300896

  11. Identification of Enteroviruses in Naturally Infected Captive Primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Allan Nix; Baoming Jiang; Kaija Maher; Elizabeth Strobert; M. Steven Oberste

    2008-01-01

    In a recent study, we investigated cases of diarrheal disease among monkeys at a U.S. primate center. In that study, enteroviruses were detected in a high proportion of the fecal specimens tested. To determine whether the enterovirus detections represented the circulation of one or more simian enteroviruses within the colony or the transmission of human enteroviruses from animal handlers, we

  12. Human Ubc9 Contributes to Production of Fully Infectious Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Virions?

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Tareq; Bohl, Christopher R.; Lewis, Gentry L.; Wood, Charles; West, John T.; Weldon, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Ubc9 was identified as a cellular protein that interacts with the Gag protein of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. We show here that Ubc9 also interacts with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein and that their interaction is important for virus replication. Gag was found to colocalize with Ubc9 predominantly at perinuclear puncta. While cells in which Ubc9 expression was suppressed with RNA interference produced normal numbers of virions, these particles were 8- to 10-fold less infectious than those produced in the presence of Ubc9. The nature of this defect was assayed for dependence on Ubc9 during viral assembly, trafficking, and Env incorporation. The Gag-mediated assembly of virus particles and protease-mediated processing of Gag and Gag-Pol were unchanged in the absence of Ubc9. However, the stability of the cell-associated Env glycoprotein was decreased and Env incorporation into released virions was altered. Interestingly, overexpression of the Ubc9 trans-dominant-negative mutant C93A, which is a defective E2-SUMO-1 conjugase, suggests that this activity may not be required for interaction with Gag, virion assembly, or infectivity. This finding demonstrates that Ubc9 plays an important role in the production of infectious HIV-1 virions. PMID:19640976

  13. Longitudinal field studies of infectious bronchitis virus and avian pneumovirus in broilers using type-specific polymerase chain reactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Mawditt; P. Britton; C. J. Naylor

    1999-01-01

    In longitudinal studies, 13 flocks were swabbed twice each week for the life of the flock (up to 46 days). The swabs were analyzed by type-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. Massachusetts type vaccinal infectious bronchitis virus (IBVs), applied at the hatchery, were usually maximal during the first week, as expected and, notably, remained detectable for 3 to 4 weeks,

  14. [Serotype distribution of enteroviruses isolated from paediatric cases prediagnosed as aseptic meningitis between 2001-2004 period].

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Etem; Uysal, Gülnar; Atak, Tunca; Alkan, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    Enteroviruses have major clinical and public health importance and are one of the leading causes of aseptic meningitis. There are many diseases with similar clinical symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings of aseptic meningitis, thus virus isolation and identification is crucial for definitive diagnosis. Virological diagnosis is nonetheless important to distinguish between induced meningitis and other treatable causes of disease with a similar clinical picture. A total of 249 samples obtained from 246 cases (age range: 0-15 years), prediagnosed as aseptic meningitis, were sent to Virology Laboratory of Refik Saydam Hygiene Center. The patients were followed at Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases in the Social Security Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between 2001 and 2004. Stool (n: 180), CSF (n: 54) and throat swab (n: 15) samples have been inoculated to RD (rhabdomyosarcoma), Hep-2 (human epithelioma) and L20B (transgenic mice) cell lines, and followed up for the presence of cytopathic effects. A total of 95 enterovirus strains were isolated from 85 (34.6%) cases, and serotyped by using RIVM (National Institute of Public and the Environment, Nederlands) antisera with microneutralization method. As a result, the most frequently isolated types were found as echovirus type 30 (n: 24) and coxsackievirus type B (n: 19), which were most frequently isolated between July to October. This is the first report from Turkey for aseptic meningitis cases due to echovirus type 25 (n:3), 18 (n:2), 14 (n:1), 13 (n:4), 11 (n:6), 9 (n:1), 6 (n:9), 5 (n:1), 4 (n:1) and coxsackievirus type A9 (n:1). PMID:15900836

  15. [Fruit of the emergence of an enterovirus: acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Sane, F; Sauter, P; Fronval, S; Goffard, A; Dewilde, A; Hober, D

    2008-01-01

    First seen in Ghana and Indonesia in the early 70's, acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis or "Apollo 11" disease is an eye infection caused by Enterovirus type 70 (EV70). The disease appeared to be a highly contagious conjunctivitis which spread rapidly all over the world. EV70 has been considered as an emerging virus and was classified as a new Enterovirus. No human or animal virus genetically similar to EV70 was known before the sudden outcome of the disease in Ghana, West Africa. EV70 appeared as a pretty demonstrative example of virus emergence and virus spreading. Studies of virus genetic mutations emphasized the variations of RNA virus within a short time period. The current review presents the EV70 infection and the genetic profile of the virus from its emergence to nowadays. PMID:18957336

  16. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against feline infectious peritonitis virus type II and antigenic relationship between feline, porcine, and canine coronaviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hohdatsu; S. Okada; H. Koyama

    1991-01-01

    Summary Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with neutralizing activity against feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) strain 79-1149 (type II) were prepared. When the polypeptide specificity recognized by these monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was investigated by Western immunoblotting, all of the MAbs reacted with peplomer glycoprotein (S) of the virus. By competitive binding assay these MAbs were found to recognize at least 3

  17. Prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy nursery school children in Accra

    PubMed Central

    Attoh, Juliana; Obodai, Evangeline; Adiku, Theophilus; Odoom, John Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human enteroviruses are common in children causing asymptomatic infections ranging from mild to severe illnesses. In Ghana, information on the prevalence of non-polio enterovirus causing acute flaccid paralysis is available but data on surveillance of these viruses in school children is scanty. Here, the prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy children in selected school in Accra was studied. Methods Stool samples from 273 apparently healthy children less than eight years of age in 9 selected nursery schools were collected between December 2010 and March 2011and processed for human enteroviruses on L20B, RD and Hep-2 cell lines. Positive Isolates were characterized by microneutralisation assay with antisera pools from RIVM, the Netherlands according to standard methods recommended by WHO. Results Of the 273 samples processed, 66 (24.2%) non-polio enteroviruses were isolated. More growth was seen on Hep-2C (46%) only than RD (18%) only and on both cell lines (34%). No growth was seen on L20B even after blind passage. Excretion of non-polio enteroviruses was found in all the schools with majority in BD school. Serotyping of the isolates yielded predominantly Coxsackie B viruses followed by echoviruses 13 and 7. More than half of the isolates could not be typed by the antisera pools. Conclusion The study detected 13 different serotypes of non-polio enteroviruses in circulation but no poliovirus was found. BD school was found to have the highest prevalence of NPEV. Complete identification through molecular methods is essential to establish the full range of NPEVs in circulation in these schools. PMID:25400833

  18. Occurrence and genetic typing of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Kamchatka, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudakova, S.L.; Kurath, G.; Bochkova, E.V.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a well known rhabdoviral pathogen of salmonid fish in North America that has become established in Asia and Europe. On the Pacific coast of Russia, IHNV was first detected in hatchery sockeye from the Kamchatka Peninsula in 2001. Results of virological examinations of over 10 000 wild and cultured salmonid fish from Kamchatka during 1996 to 2005 revealed IHNV in several sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations. The virus was isolated from spawning adults and from juveniles undergoing epidemics in both hatchery and wild sockeye populations from the Bolshaya watershed. No virus was detected in 2 other water-sheds, or in species other than sockeye salmon. Genetic typing of 8 virus isolates by seguence analysis of partial glycoprotein and nucleocapsid genes revealed that they were genetically homogeneous and fell within the U genogroup of IHNV. In phylogenetic analyses, the Russian IHNV sequences were indistinguishable from the sequences of North American U genogroup isolates that occur throughout Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. The high similarity, and in some cases identity, between Russian and North American IHNV isolates suggests virus transmission or exposure to a common viral reservoir in the North Pacific Ocean. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  19. Differential transcription patterns in wild-type and glycoprotein G-deleted infectious laryngotracheitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudian, Alireza; Markham, Philip F; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Devlin, Joanne M; Browning, Glenn F

    2013-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) causes severe respiratory disease in poultry throughout the world. Recently the role of glycoprotein G (gG) in ILTV pathogenesis has been investigated and it has been shown to have chemokine-binding activity. An ILTV vaccine candidate deficient in gG has been developed and the deletion has been shown to alter the host's immune response to the virus. To understand the effect of the gG gene on transcription of other viral genes, the global expression profile of 72 ILTV genes in gG-deleted and wild-type ILTVs were investigated both in vivo and in vitro using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Several genes were differentially expressed in the different viruses in LMH cell cultures or in the tracheas of infected birds, and the expression of a number of genes, including ICP27, gC, gJ, Ul7 and UL40, differed significantly both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that they had direct or indirect roles in virulence. This study has provided insights into the interactions between gG and other ILTV genes that may have a role in virulence. PMID:23611157

  20. Use of subgenomic poliovirus DNA hybridization probes to detect the major subgroups of enteroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Rotbart, H A; Levin, M J; Villarreal, L P

    1984-01-01

    Three nucleic acid hybridization probes were derived from DNA clones of the poliovirus type 1 genome. Used in dot hybridization experiments, the probes successfully detected members of each of the major enteroviral subgroups. The hybridization patterns obtained with the three probes suggested that a highly conserved nucleotide sequence existed among the enteroviruses tested, mapping between bases 220 and 1809 in the poliovirus genome. Two new antiviral agents capable of inhibiting enterovirus replication in tissue culture were used to demonstrate the specificity of the probes for viral RNA. Images PMID:6097599

  1. Genome Characterisation of Enteroviruses 117 and 118: A New Group within Human Enterovirus Species C

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Alessia; Greenberg, David; Usonis, Vytautas; Principi, Nicola; Baldanti, Fausto; Esposito, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    The more than 120 genotypes of human enteroviruses (HEVs) reflect a wide range of evolutionary divergence, and there are 23 currently classified as human enterovirus C species (HEV-C). Two new HEV-C (EV-C117 and EV-C118) were identified in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Pediatric Research Initiative (CAP-PRI) study, and the present paper describes the characterisation of the complete genome of one EV-C117 strain (LIT22) and two EV-C118 (ISR38 and ISR10) strains. The EV-C117 and EV-C118 5?UTR sequences were related to those of EV-C104, EV-C105 and EV-C109, and were slightly shorter than those of other HEV A-D species. Similarity plot analyses showed that EV-C117 and EV-C118 have a P1 region that is highly divergent from that of the other HEV-C, and phylogenetic analyses highly supported a monophyletic group consisting of EV-C117, EV-C118, EV-C104, EV-C105 and EV-C109 strains. Phylogenetic, Simplot and Bootscan analyses indicated that recombination was not the main mechanism of EV-C117 and EV-C118 evolution, thus strengthening the hypothesis of the monophyletic origin of the coding regions, as in the case of other HEV-C. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed the emergence of a new group within HEV-C that is divided into two subgroups. Nucleotide and amino acid identity in VP1 sequences have been established as useful criteria for assigning new HEV types, but analysis of the complete P1 region improves resolution. PMID:23565264

  2. Molecular Evolution of the Human Enteroviruses: Correlation of Serotype with VP1 Sequence and Application to Picornavirus Classification

    PubMed Central

    Oberste, M. Steven; Maher, Kaija; Kilpatrick, David R.; Pallansch, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Sixty-six human enterovirus serotypes have been identified by serum neutralization, but the molecular determinants of the serotypes are unknown. Since the picornavirus VP1 protein contains a number of neutralization domains, we hypothesized that the VP1 sequence should correspond with neutralization (serotype) and, hence, with phylogenetic lineage. To test this hypothesis and to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among the human enteroviruses, we determined the complete VP1 sequences of the prototype strains of 47 human enterovirus serotypes and 10 antigenic variants. Our sequences, together with those available from GenBank, comprise a database of complete VP1 sequences for all 66 human enterovirus serotypes plus additional strains of seven serotypes. Phylogenetic trees constructed from complete VP1 sequences produced the same four major clusters as published trees based on partial VP2 sequences; in contrast to the VP2 trees, however, in the VP1 trees strains of the same serotype were always monophyletic. In pairwise comparisons of complete VP1 sequences, enteroviruses of the same serotype were clearly distinguished from those of heterologous serotypes, and the limits of intraserotypic divergence appeared to be about 25% nucleotide sequence difference or 12% amino acid sequence difference. Pairwise comparisons suggested that coxsackie A11 and A15 viruses should be classified as strains of the same serotype, as should coxsackie A13 and A18 viruses. Pairwise identity scores also distinguished between enteroviruses of different clusters and enteroviruses from picornaviruses of different genera. The data suggest that VP1 sequence comparisons may be valuable in enterovirus typing and in picornavirus taxonomy by assisting in the genus assignment of unclassified picornaviruses. PMID:9971773

  3. Transient expression of Human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana using an infectious tobamovirus vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arvind Varsani; Anna-Lise Williamson; Debbie Stewart; Edward P. Rybicki

    2006-01-01

    A Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-derived vector was used to express a native Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) L1 gene in Nicotiana benthamiana by means of infectious in vitro RNA transcripts inoculated onto N. benthamiana plants. HPV-16 L1 protein expression was quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) after concentration of the plant extract. We estimated that the L1 product yield was

  4. High Seroprevalence of Enterovirus Infections in Apes and Old World Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Chloe L.; Imai, Natsuko; Clasper, Lucy; Djoko, Cyrille F.; LeBreton, Matthew; Vermeulen, Marion; Saville, Andrew; Mutapi, Francisca; Tamoufé, Ubald; Kiyang, John; Biblia, Tafon G.; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Pépin, Jacques; Njoum, Richard; Smura, Teemu; Fair, Joseph N.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Roivainen, Merja; Simmonds, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To estimate population exposure of apes and Old World monkeys in Africa to enteroviruses (EVs), we conducted a seroepidemiologic study of serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies against 3 EV types. Detection of species A, B, and D EVs infecting wild chimpanzees demonstrates their potential widespread circulation in primates. PMID:22305156

  5. ADSORPTION OF ENTEROVIRUSES TO SOIL CORES AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT ELUTION BY ARTIFICIAL RAINWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adsorption and elution of a variety of human enteroviruses in a highly permeable, sandy soil was studied by using cores (43 by 125 mm) collected from an operating recharge basin on Long Island. Viruses studied included field and reference strains of polioviruses types 1 and 3...

  6. Infectious human papillomavirus type 31b: purification and infection of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle A. Ozbun

    2002-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are aetiological agents of human malignancies, most notably cervical cancers. The life-cycles of HPVs are dependent on epithelial differentiation, and this has impeded many basic studies of HPV biology. The organotypic (raft) culture system supports epithelial differentiation such that infectious virions are synthesized in raft tissues from epithelial cells that replicate extrachromosomal HPV genomes. The CIN-612 9E

  7. Post-infectious disease syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bannister, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    Many post-infectious syndromes have been recognized in the last 50 years, some following viral infections and others closely related to bacterial disease. The occurrence of prolonged fatigue following an apparent viral illness of varying severity is also well documented. The lack of a recognizable precipitating cause and the tendency for epidemic fatigue to occur among hospital staff led many to believe that the illness may be psychogenic in origin. However, there is serological evidence that some cases may follow enterovirus infections or occasionally delayed convalescence from infectious mononucleosis. Much interesting work is currently in progress relating fatigue to persisting immunological abnormalities, and the development of molecular immunology makes this a most exciting field of research. This paper reviews the evidence for and against a definitive post-viral fatigue syndrome and examines the results of research carried out in the last 50 years. PMID:3074289

  8. Oncolysis of human ovarian cancers by echovirus type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darren R. Shafren; Dianne Sylvester; E. Susanne Johansson; Ian G. Campbell; Richard D. Barry

    2005-01-01

    A small number of enteroviruses possess the capacity to induce rapid and marked lytic infections in cells of various human malig- nancies. During screening of representative human enteroviruses for their oncolytic capacity, we observed that echovirus type 1 (EV1) displayed a high level of tropism for human ovarian cancer cells. EV1 is an enterovirus which largely causes asymptomatic infections in

  9. Detection of adenoviruses and enteroviruses in polluted waters by nested PCR amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Puig, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Allard, A; Wadell, G; Girones, R

    1994-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the rapid detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses in environmental samples. Several systems for virus concentration and extraction of nucleic acid were tested by adding adenovirus type 2 and poliovirus type 1 to different sewage samples. The most promising method for virus recovery involved the concentration of viruses by centrifugation and elution of the virus pellets by treatment with 0.25 N glycine buffer, pH 9.5. Nucleic acid extraction by adsorption of RNA and DNA to silica particles was the most efficient. One aliquot of the extracted nucleic acids was used for a nested two-step PCR, with specific primers for all adenoviruses; and another aliquot was used to synthesize cDNA for a nested two-step PCR with specific primers for further detection of seeded polioviruses or all enteroviruses in the river water and sewage samples. The specificity and sensitivity were evaluated, and 24 different enterovirus strains and the 47 human adenovirus serotypes were recognized by the primers used. The sensitivity was estimated to be between 1 and 10 virus particles for each of the species tested. Twenty-five samples of sewage and polluted river water were analyzed and showed a much higher number of positive isolates by nested PCR than by tissue culture analysis. The PCR-based detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses shows good results as an indicator of possible viral contamination in environmental wastewater. Images PMID:8085832

  10. Binding of Glutathione to Enterovirus Capsids Is Essential for Virion Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Thys, Bert; Canela, María-Dolores; Aguado, Leire; Wimmer, Eckard; Paul, Aniko; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Neyts, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Enteroviruses (family of the Picornaviridae) cover a large group of medically important human pathogens for which no antiviral treatment is approved. Although these viruses have been extensively studied, some aspects of the viral life cycle, in particular morphogenesis, are yet poorly understood. We report the discovery of TP219 as a novel inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus and poliovirus. We show that TP219 binds directly glutathione (GSH), thereby rapidly depleting intracellular GSH levels and that this interferes with virus morphogenesis without affecting viral RNA replication. The inhibitory effect on assembly was shown not to depend on an altered reducing environment. Using TP219, we show that GSH is an essential stabilizing cofactor during the transition of protomeric particles into pentameric particles. Sequential passaging of coxsackievirus B3 in the presence of low GSH-levels selected for GSH-independent mutants that harbored a surface-exposed methionine in VP1 at the interface between two protomers. In line with this observation, enteroviruses that already contained this surface-exposed methionine, such as EV71, did not rely on GSH for virus morphogenesis. Biochemical and microscopical analysis provided strong evidence for a direct interaction between GSH and wildtype VP1 and a role for this interaction in localizing assembly intermediates to replication sites. Consistently, the interaction between GSH and mutant VP1 was abolished resulting in a relocalization of the assembly intermediates to replication sites independent from GSH. This study thus reveals GSH as a novel stabilizing host factor essential for the production of infectious enterovirus progeny and provides new insights into the poorly understood process of morphogenesis. PMID:24722756

  11. Development of a quantitative method for the detection of enteroviruses in soil.

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, C J; Gerba, C P

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for efficiently concentrating enteroviruses from soil. Viruses were eluted from soil by mechanical agitation in high pH glycine buffer containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The eluted viruses were concentrated on a floc that formed de novo upon adjustment of the soil eluate to 0.06 M aluminum chloride and pH 3.5. Viruses not pelleted with the floc were concentrated by adsorption to and elution from membrane filters. This method yielded an average efficiency of 66% recovery from loamy sand soil for four enteroviruses. Virus recovery from soil was consistently high, with samples ranging in size from 25 to 500 g. The method was used successfully to isolate naturally occurring viruses from soil beneath a wastewater land treatment site. Recovery of enteroviruses by this method form different types of soil was dependent on percentage of clay, surface area, and cation exchange capacity. Recovery was not dependent on soil saturation pH or on percentage of organic matter. This method should prove useful for studying enterovirus migration and survival during the land application of domestic sewage. PMID:36845

  12. Broad-range inhibition of enterovirus replication by OSW-1, a natural compound targeting OSBP.

    PubMed

    Albulescu, Lucian; Strating, Jeroen R P M; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; van der Linden, Lonneke; Shair, Matthew D; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2015-05-01

    Enteroviruses, e.g., polio-, coxsackie- and rhinoviruses, constitute a large genus within the Picornaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses and include many important pathogens linked to a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Despite their huge medical and economic impact, no approved antiviral therapy is yet available. Recently, the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) was implicated as a host factor for enterovirus replication. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of the natural compound OSW-1, a ligand of OSBP that is under investigation as an anti-cancer drug. OSW-1 potently inhibited the replication of all enteroviruses tested, with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range, acted at the genome replication stage and was effective in all tested cell types of three different species. Importantly, OSBP overexpression rescued viral replication, demonstrating that the antiviral effect of OSW-1 is due to targeting OSBP. Together, we here report the anti-enterovirus activity of the natural anti-cancer compound OSW-1. PMID:25752737

  13. Evaluation of infectious titer in a candidate HSV type 2 vaccine by a quantitative molecular approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the critical tasks in analytical testing is to monitor and assign the infectivity or potency of viral based vaccines from process development to production of final clinical lots. In this study, a high throughput RT-qPCR based approach was developed to evaluate the infectious titre in a replication-defective HSV-2 candidate vaccine, called HSV529. This assay is a combination of viral propagation and quantitative RT-PCR which measures the amount of RNA in infected cells after incubation with test samples. Results The relative infectious titre of HSV529 candidate vaccine was determined by a RT-qPCR method targeting HSV-2 gD2 gene. The data were analyzed using the parallel-line analysis as described in the European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition. The stability of HSV529 test samples were also investigated in a concordance study between RT-qPCR infectivity assay and a classical plaque assays. A suitable correlation was determined between both assays using an identical sample set in both assays. The RT-qPCR infectivity assay was further characterized by evaluating the intermediate precision and accuracy. The coefficient of variation from the six independent assays was less than 10%. The accuracy of each of the assay was also evaluated in the range of 92.91% to 120.57%. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the developed RT-qPCR infectivity assay is a rapid high throughput approach to quantify the infectious titer or potency of live attenuated or defective viral-based vaccines, an attribute which is associated with product quality. PMID:24313978

  14. Biological Significance of a Human Enterovirus B-Specific RNA Element in the 3? Nontranslated Region

    PubMed Central

    Merkle, Ingrid; van Ooij, Mark J. M.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Glaudemans, Dirk H. R. F.; Galama, Jochem M. D.; Henke, Andreas; Zell, Roland; Melchers, Willem J. G.

    2002-01-01

    The secondary structures predicted for the enteroviral 3? nontranslated region (3?NTR) all seem to indicate a conformation consisting of two (X and Y) hairpin structures. The higher-order RNA structure of the 3?NTR appears to exist as an intramolecular kissing interaction between the loops of these two hairpin structures. The enterovirus B-like subgroup possesses an additional stem-loop structure, domain Z, which is not present in the poliovirus-like enteroviruses. It has been suggested that the Z domain originated from a burst of short sequence repetitions (E. V. Pilipenko, S. V. Maslova, A. N. Sinyakov, and V. I. Agol, Nucleic Acids Res. 20:1739-1745, 1992). However, no functional features have yet been ascribed to this enterovirus B-like-specific RNA element in the 3?NTR. In this study, we tested the functional characteristics and biological significance of domain Z. A mutant of the cardiovirulent coxsackievirus group B3 strain Nancy which completely lacked the Z domain and which therefore acquired enterovirus C-like secondary structures exhibited a wild-type growth phenotype, as determined by single-cycle growth analysis with BGM cells. This result proves that the Z domain is virtually dispensable for viral growth in tissue cultures. Partial distortion of the Z domain structure resulted in a disabled virus with reduced growth kinetics, probably due to alternative conformations of the overall structure of the domain. Infection of mice showed that the recombinant coxsackievirus group B3 mutant which completely lacked the Z domain was less virulent. Pancreatic tissues from mice infected with wild-type virus and recombinant virus were equally affected. However, the heart tissue from mice infected with the recombinant virus showed only slight signs of myocarditis. These results suggest that the enterovirus B-like-specific Z domain plays a role in coxsackievirus-induced pathogenesis. PMID:12208967

  15. High-affinity interaction of hnRNP A1 with conserved RNA structural elements is required for translation and replication of enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey D; Tolbert, Michele; Li, Mei-Ling; Tolbert, Blanton S

    2013-07-01

    Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging pathogen of infectious disease and a serious threat to public health. Currently, there are no antivirals or vaccines to slow down or prevent EV71 infections, thus underscoring the urgency to better understand mechanisms of host-enterovirus interactions. EV71 uses a type I internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit via a pathway that requires the cytoplasmic localization of hnRNP A1, which acts as an IRES trans-activating factor. The mechanism of how hnRNP A1 trans activates EV71 RNA translation is unknown, however. Here, we report that the UP1 domain of hnRNP A1 interacts specifically with stem loop II (SLII) of the IRES, via a thermodynamically well-defined biphasic transition that involves conserved bulge 5'-AYAGY-3' and hairpin 5'-RY(U/A)CCA-3' loops. Calorimetric titrations of wild-type and mutant SLII constructs reveal these structural elements are essential to form a high-affinity UP1-SLII complex. Mutations that alter the bulge and hairpin primary or secondary structures abrogate the biphasic transition and destabilize the complex. Notably, mutations within the bulge that destabilize the complex correlate with a large reduction in IRES-dependent translational activity and impair EV71 replication. Taken together, this study shows that a conserved SLII structure is necessary to form a functional hnRNP A1-IRES complex, suggesting that small molecules that target this stem loop may have novel antiviral properties. PMID:23727900

  16. Identification of the peptide derived from S1 domain that inhibits type I and type II feline infectious peritonitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Doki, Tomoyoshi; Takano, Tomomi; Koyama, Yusuke; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) can cause a lethal disease in cats, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). A therapeutic drug that is effective against FIP has not yet been developed. Peptides based on viral protein amino acid sequences have recently been attracting attention as new antiviral drugs. In the present study, we synthesized 30 overlapping peptides based on the amino acid sequence of the S1 domain of the type I FIPV strain KU-2 S protein, and investigated their inhibitory effects on FIPV infection. To evaluate the inhibitory effects on type I FIPV infection of these peptides, we investigated a method to increase the infection efficiency of poorly replicative type I FIPV. The efficiency of type I FIPV infection was increased by diluting the virus with medium containing a polycation. Of the 30 peptides, I-S1-8 (S461-S480), I-S1-9 (S471-S490), I-S1-10 (S481-S500), I-S1-16 (S541-S560), and I-S1-22 (S601-S620) significantly decreased the infectivity of FIPV strain KU-2 while I-S1-9 and I-S1-16 exhibited marked inhibitory effects on FIPV infection. The inhibitory effects on FIPV infection of these 2 peptides on other type I and type II FIPV strains, feline herpesvirus (FHV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) were also examined. These 2 peptides specifically inhibited type I and type II FIPV, but did FHV or FCV infection. In conclusion, the possibility of peptides derived from the S protein of type I FIPV strain KU-2 as anti-FIPV agents effective not only for type I, but also type II FIPV was demonstrated in vitro. PMID:25896976

  17. [Characteristics of Coxsackie A enteroviruses circulating in children in Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Rustamova, L I; Aliev, K N; Tagizade, F D; Mamedova, M N

    2008-01-01

    Spectrum of serotypes of Coxsackie A virus and several others markers of virions, which cause enterovirus infection in children in Azerbaijan, was determined. Symptom of myotropism was used as a clinical sign. It was shown that enteroviruses were most frequently detected (41.1%) in children aged registered as enterovirus monoinfection. All isolated strains were characterized by such markers as cytopathic effect, delayed formation of plaques under the layer of agar with low content of sodium bicarbonate. Both attenuated and avirulent virions of Coxsackie A enteroviruses were detected. PMID:19186556

  18. Genetic Relationship between Cocirculating Human Enteroviruses Species C

    PubMed Central

    Holmblat, Barbara; Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Recombination events between human enteroviruses (HEV) are known to occur frequently and to participate in the evolution of these viruses. In a previous study, we reported the isolation of a panel of viruses belonging to the Human enterovirus species C (HEV-C) that had been cocirculating in a small geographic area of Madagascar in 2002. This panel included type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (PV) that had caused several cases of acute flaccid paralysis in humans. Previous partial sequencing of the genome of these HEV-C isolates revealed considerable genetic diversity, mostly due to recombination. In the work presented herein, we carried out a more detailed characterization of the genomes of viruses from this collection. First, we determined the full VP1 sequence of 41 of these isolates of different types. These sequences were compared with those of HEV-C isolates obtained from other countries or in other contexts. The sequences of the Madagascan isolates of a given type formed specific clusters clearly differentiated from those formed by other strains of the same type isolated elsewhere. Second, we sequenced the entire genome of 10 viruses representing most of the lineages present in this panel. All but one of the genomes appeared to be mosaic assemblies of different genomic fragments generated by intra- and intertypic recombination. The location of the breakpoints suggested potential preferred genomic regions for recombination. Our results also suggest that recombination between type HEV-99 and other HEV-C may be quite rare. This first exhaustive genomic analysis of a panel of non-PV HEV-C cocirculating in a small human population highlights the high frequency of inter and intra-typic genetic recombination, constituting a widespread mechanism of genetic plasticity and continually shifting the HEV-C biodiversity. PMID:21931857

  19. Restriction fragment length polymorphism typing of infectious bursal disease virus field strains in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sareyyüpo?lu, B; Akan, M

    2006-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD), also known as Gumboro disease, is a highly contagious, immunosuppressive disease of immature chickens. It is caused by IBD virus (IBDV) and is responsible for major economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, 280 bursa samples from 56 commercially reared chicken flocks in Turkey with clinical symptoms of IBD were examined for IBDVs using the reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The assay was conducted on a 743-bp fragment of the VP2 gene with the restriction enzymes BstNI, MboI, and SspI. The results indicate the existence of field isolates with new molecular patterns different from those previously published that may well be unique and specific to geographical regions. PMID:17274292

  20. Genetic and serological typing of European infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johansson, T.; Einer-Jensen, K.; Batts, W.; Ahrens, P.; Bjorkblom, C.; Kurath, G.; Bjorklund, H.; Lorenzen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes the lethal disease infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in juvenile salmon and trout. The nucleocapsid (N) protein gene and partial glycoprotein (G) gene (nucleotides 457 to 1061) of the European isolates IT-217A, FR-32/87, DE-DF 13/98 11621, DE-DF 4/99-8/99, AU-9695338 and RU-FR1 were sequenced and compared with IHNV isolates from the North American genogroups U, M and L. In phylogenetic studies the N gene of the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, though in a different subgroup than the isolates from the USA. Analyses of the partial G gene of these European isolates clustered them in the M genogroup close to the root while the Russian isolate clustered in the U genogroup. The European isolates together with US-WRAC and US-Col-80 were also tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the N protein. MAbs 136-1 and 136-3 reacted equally at all concentrations with the isolates tested, indicating that these antibodies identify a common epitope. MAb 34D3 separated the M and L genogroup isolates from the U genogroup isolate. MAb 1DW14D divided the European isolates into 2 groups. MAb 1DW14D reacted more strongly with DE-DF 13/98 11621 and RU-FR1 than with IT-217A, FR- 32/87, DE-DF 4/99-8/99 and AU-9695338. In the phylogenetic studies, the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, whereas in the serological studies using MAbs, the European M genogroup isolates could not be placed in the same specific group. These results indicate that genotypic and serotypic classification do not correlate. ?? 2009 Inter-Research.

  1. Autism spectrum disorder secondary to enterovirus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Marques, Filipa; Brito, Maria Joăo; Conde, Marta; Pinto, Mónica; Moreira, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Millions of children are infected by enteroviruses each year, usually exhibiting only mild symptoms. Nevertheless, these viruses are also associated with severe and life-threatening infections, such as meningitis and encephalitis. We describe a 32-month-old patient with enteroviral encephalitis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid, with unfavorable clinical course with marked developmental regression, autistic features, persistent stereotypes and aphasia. She experienced slow clinical improvement, with mild residual neurologic and developmental deficits at follow-up. Viral central nervous system infections in early childhood have been associated with autism spectrum disorders but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. This case report is significant in presenting a case of developmental regression with autistic features and loss of language improving on follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of enterovirus encephalitis leading to an autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24782421

  2. Molecular strategy for 'serotyping' of human enteroviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Guillot; Francis Delpeyroux; Radu Crainic

    2001-01-01

    To explore further the phylogenetic relationships between human enteroviruses and to develop new diagnostic approaches, we designed a pair of generic primers in order to study a 1452 bp genomic fragment (relative to the poliovirus Mahoney genome), including the 3« end of the VP1- coding region, the 2A- and 2B-coding regions, and the 5« moiety of the 2C-coding region. Fifty-

  3. Antiviral effect of epigallocatechin gallate on enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hung-Yao; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Weng, Shiue-Fen; Leu, Yann-Lii; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee

    2009-07-22

    Oxidative stress is known to be a determinant of a host's susceptibility to pathogens. Natural compounds with antioxidant activity may provide a preventive measure against infection. Tea polyphenols were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enterovirus 71 (EV71) replication in Vero cell culture. Among the polyphenolic compounds tested, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and gallocatechin gallate (GCG) potently inhibited replication of EV71. EGCG and GCG reduced the titer of infectious progeny virus by 95%. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis also revealed that EGCG suppressed replication of genomic RNA. It was accompanied by an increased cytoprotective effect. EGCG and GCG caused 5-fold increase in the viability of EV71-infected cells. The viral inhibitory effect correlated well with the antioxidant capacity of polyphenol. Mechanistically, EV71 infection led to increased oxidative stress, as shown by increased dichlorofluorescein and MitoSOX Red fluorescence. Upon EGCG treatment, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was significantly reduced. Consistent with this, EV71 replication was enhanced in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient cells, and such enhancement was largely reversed by EGCG. These findings suggest that EGCG may suppress viral replication via modulation of cellular redox milieu. PMID:19537794

  4. First Identification and Characterization of Porcine Enterovirus G in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Hesse, Richard A.; Hause, Ben M.

    2014-01-01

    Porcine enterovirus G (EV-G) is a member of the family Picornavirdae, genus Enterovirus. To date, eleven EV-G types (EV-G1 through EV-G11) have been identified in pigs from Asia and Europe however they have never been reported in North America. In this study, we isolated and characterized the complete genome of NP/2013/USA, an EV-G from a porcine diarrhea sample from the United States. The complete genome consists of 7,390 nucleotides excluding the 3? poly(A) tail, and has an open reading frame that encodes a 2,169 amino acid polyprotein. NP/2013/USA was most similar at the nucleotide (84%) and amino acid (95%) level to the HM131607, an EV-G1 type isolated from China in 2012. PMID:24824640

  5. Detection of enterovirus D68 in Canadian laboratories.

    PubMed

    Hatchette, Todd F; Drews, Steven J; Grudeski, Elsie; Booth, Tim; Martineau, Christine; Dust, Kerry; Garceau, Richard; Gubbay, Jonathan; Karnauchow, Tim; Krajden, Mel; Levett, Paul N; Mazzulli, Tony; McDonald, Ryan R; McNabb, Alan; Mubareka, Samira; Needle, Robert; Petrich, Astrid; Richardson, Susan; Rutherford, Candy; Smieja, Marek; Tellier, Raymond; Tipples, Graham; LeBlanc, Jason J

    2015-05-01

    The recent emergence of a severe respiratory disease caused by enterovirus D68 prompted investigation into whether Canadian hospital and provincial laboratories can detect this virus using commercial and laboratory-developed assays. This study demonstrated analytical sensitivity differences between commercial and laboratory-developed assays for the detection of enterovirus D68. PMID:25740765

  6. Enterovirus Infections of the Central Nervous System Review

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Ross E.; Tabor-Godwin, Jenna M.; Tsueng, Ginger; Feuer, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) frequently infect the central nervous system (CNS) and induce neurological diseases. Although the CNS is composed of many different cell types, the spectrum of tropism for each EV is considerable. These viruses have the ability to completely shut down host translational machinery and are considered highly cytolytic, thereby causing cytopathic effects. Hence, CNS dysfunction following EV infection of neuronal or glial cells might be expected. Perhaps unexpectedly given their cytolytic nature, EVs may establish a persistent infection within the CNS, and the lasting effects on the host might be significant with unanticipated consequences. This review will describe the clinical aspects of EV-mediated disease, mechanisms of disease, determinants of tropism, immune activation within the CNS, and potential treatment regimes. PMID:21251690

  7. Major childhood infectious diseases and other determinants associated with type 1 diabetes: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tenconi, M T; Devoti, G; Comelli, M; Pinon, M; Capocchiano, A; Calcaterra, V; Pretti, G

    2007-03-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between infectious diseases and other events pertaining to childhood medical history and type 1 diabetes. A case-control study was carried out, taking as cases 159 type 1 diabetic patients (0-29 years) recorded from 1988 to 2000 within the population registry of the Pavia province (North Italy). As controls 318 non-diabetic subjects were matched by age and sex. A questionnaire was administered by standardised interviewers. Data were analysed by conditional logistic regression. Viral childhood diseases (OR 4.29; 95%CI 1.57-11.74) and bottle feeding (OR 1.83; 95%CI 1.08-3.09) were directly correlated to type 1 diabetes; an inverse correlation was found for vitamin D administration during lactation (0-14 years) (OR 0.31; 95%CI 0.11-0.86) and for history of scarlet fever in both sexes and age groups (OR 0.19; 95%CI 0.08-0.46). Most associations of the studied variables confirm already known findings. The significant inverse correlation of type 1 diabetes with scarlet fever history is a peculiar finding, the meaning of which is still obscure, although it has been recently described that streptococcal A infections are regulated by HLA class II alleles. PMID:17357880

  8. Rapid diagnosis of enterovirus infection by magnetic bead extraction and polymerase chain reaction detection of enterovirus RNA in clinical specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Muir, P; Nicholson, F; Jhetam, M; Neogi, S; Banatvala, J E

    1993-01-01

    We describe a rapid method for extraction and detection of enterovirus RNA in clinical samples. By using magnetic bead technology, enterovirus RNA was efficiently and rapidly extracted from cerebrospinal fluid, stool, saliva, blood, pericardial fluid, urine, and cryopreserved or formalin-fixed solid tissue. Enterovirus RNA was then detected by reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers designed to allow detection of most enterovirus serotypes. For detection of enteroviruses in specimens from patients with acute enteroviral disease, the overall sensitivity of enzymatic RNA amplification was greater than that of cell culture isolation, especially in blood specimens and in stool specimens from patients with acute cardiac disease. Enterovirus RNA was also detected in cryopreserved and archival formalin-fixed myocardial tissue from patients with acute myocarditis and chronic dilated cardiomyopathy. The ability to study archival specimens is of particular value in conducting retrospective investigation. The RNA extraction procedure used was considerably faster than extraction methods using organic reagents, used less hazardous reagents, and was of similar sensitivity. This detection protocol may therefore be useful both for the diagnosis of enterovirus infection and in studying the pathogenesis of acute and chronic enterovirus-induced disease. Images PMID:8380182

  9. Bovine enteroviruses: classification and serological characterization 

    E-print Network

    Samal, Siba Kumar

    1981-01-01

    Committee: Dr. Stewart McConnel I Seventeen and 26 strains of bovine enterovirus were isolated from nasal and fecal samples of 18 cattle respectively. These viruses were serotyped using rabbit immune sera prepared aga1nst the 7 1nternational reference... of the virus and is inconsistent. Plaque assay revealed a mult1plic1ty of plaque sizes wi th1n selected samples. The plaque size and morphology however is not the controlling factor in determining serotype. Three cross reacting isolates were triple plaque...

  10. COPI Is Required for Enterovirus 71 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianmin; Wu, Zhiqiang; Jin, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is found in Asian countries where it causes a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Picornaviruses undergo RNA replication in association with membranes of infected cells. COPI and COPII have been shown to be involved in the formation of picornavirus-induced vesicles. Replication of several picornaviruses, including poliovirus and Echovirus 11 (EV11), is dependent on COPI or COPII. Here, we report that COPI, but not COPII, is required for EV71 replication. Replication of EV71 was inhibited by brefeldin A and golgicide A, inhibitors of COPI activity. Furthermore, we found EV71 2C protein interacted with COPI subunits by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay, indicating that COPI coatomer might be directed to the viral replication complex through viral 2C protein. Additionally, because the pathway is conserved among different species of enteroviruses, it may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies. PMID:22662263

  11. Occurrence of enteroviruses in community swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Keswick, B H; Gerba, C P; Goyal, S M

    1981-09-01

    Municipal swimming pools and wading pools were examined for the presence of human enteric viruses using a portable virus concentrator at the site to concentrate viruses from 100-gallon to 500-gallon samples. Ten of 14 samples contained viruses; three of these were positive for virus in the presence of residual free chlorine. Enteroviruses were isolated from two pools which exceeded the 0.4 ppm free residual chlorine standard. This study appears to be supportive of recent evidence that indicates a higher incidence of enterovirus infection among bathers. All seven wading pool samples contained virus. Coxsackieviruses B3 and B4, poliovirus 1, and echovirus 7 were isolated. Total coliform bacteria were not adequate indicators of the presence of virus, as six of the samples were positive for virus but negative for coliforms. Total plate counts appeared to provide a better indication of the sanitary quality of the pool water, but viruses could still be detected in samples that met currently recommended bacterial levels. It is possible that swimming and wading pools may serve as a means of transmission of enteroviral disease, especially in children, during summer months. PMID:6267950

  12. Expression and immunogenicity of novel subunit enterovirus 71 VP1 antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Juan [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Nanjing Medical University (China); Wang, Shixia [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States); Gan, Weihua [Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China)] [Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Zhang, Wenhong [Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (China)] [Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (China); Ju, Liwen [School of Public Health, Fudan University (China)] [School of Public Health, Fudan University (China); Huang, Zuhu [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Lu, Shan, E-mail: shan.lu@umassmed.edu [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EV71 is a major emerging infectious disease in many Asian countries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivated EV71 vaccines are in clinical studies but their safety and efficacy are unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing subunit based EV71 vaccines is significant and novel antigen design is needed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA immunization is an efficient tool to test the immunogenicity of VP1 based EV71 vaccines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple VP1 antigens are developed showing immunogenic potential. -- Abstract: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness in young children. HFMD is caused by viruses belonging to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. Recently, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a virulent agent for HFMD with severe clinical outcomes. In the current report, we conducted a pilot antigen engineering study to optimize the expression and immunogenicity of subunit VP1 antigen for the design of EV71 vaccines. DNA immunization was adopted as a simple technical approach to test different designs of VP1 antigens without the need to express VP1 protein in vitro first. Our studies indicated that the expression and immunogenicity of VP1 protein can be improved with alternated VP1 antigen designs. Data presented in the current report revealed novel pathways to optimize the design of VP1 antigen-based EV71 vaccines.

  13. Enter at your own risk: how enteroviruses navigate the dangerous world of pattern recognition receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Harris, Katharine G; Coyne, Carolyn B

    2013-09-01

    Enteroviruses are the most common human viral pathogens worldwide. This genus of small, non-enveloped, single stranded RNA viruses includes coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, echovirus, and poliovirus species. Infection with these viruses can induce mild symptoms that resemble the common cold, but can also be associated with more severe syndromes such as poliomyelitis, neurological diseases including aseptic meningitis and encephalitis, myocarditis, and the onset of type I diabetes. In humans, polarized epithelial cells lining the respiratory and/or digestive tracts represent the initial sites of infection by enteroviruses. Control of infection in the host is initiated through the engagement of a variety of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs act as the sentinels of the innate immune system and serve to alert the host to the presence of a viral invader. This review assembles the available data annotating the role of PRRs in the response to enteroviral infection as well as the myriad ways by which enteroviruses both interrupt and manipulate PRR signaling to enhance their own replication, thereby inducing human disease. PMID:23764548

  14. Anti-Enterovirus 71 Effects of Chrysin and Its Phosphate Ester

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiang; Cui, Sheng; Yang, Fan; Jin, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause severe disease and even lead to death in children, and an effective antiviral drug is currently unavailable. The anti-EV71 effect of chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid commonly found in many plants, was tested in this report. By using the predicting program Autodock 4.0 and an in vitro protease inhibition assay, we found that chrysin could suppress viral 3Cpro activity. Replication of viral RNA and production of viral capsid protein and the infectious virion were strongly inhibited by chrysin, without noticeable cytotoxicity. Cytopathic effects on cells were also prevented. Diisopropyl chrysin-7-yl phosphate (CPI), the phosphate ester for chrysin, was generated through a simplified Atheron-Todd reaction to achieve stronger anti-viral activity. CPI was also able to bind with and inhibit viral 3Cpro activity in vitro. As expected, CPI demonstrated more potent antiviral activity against EV71. PMID:24598537

  15. Antibiotics that target mitochondria effectively eradicate cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: treating cancer like an infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Rebecca; Ozsvari, Bela; Lisanti, Camilla L; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Howell, Anthony; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2015-03-10

    Here, we propose a new strategy for the treatment of early cancerous lesions and advanced metastatic disease, via the selective targeting of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a.k.a., tumor-initiating cells (TICs). We searched for a global phenotypic characteristic that was highly conserved among cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types, to provide a mutation-independent approach to cancer therapy. This would allow us to target cancer stem cells, effectively treating cancer as a single disease of "stemness", independently of the tumor tissue type. Using this approach, we identified a conserved phenotypic weak point - a strict dependence on mitochondrial biogenesis for the clonal expansion and survival of cancer stem cells. Interestingly, several classes of FDA-approved antibiotics inhibit mitochondrial biogenesis as a known "side-effect", which could be harnessed instead as a "therapeutic effect". Based on this analysis, we now show that 4-to-5 different classes of FDA-approved drugs can be used to eradicate cancer stem cells, in 12 different cancer cell lines, across 8 different tumor types (breast, DCIS, ovarian, prostate, lung, pancreatic, melanoma, and glioblastoma (brain)). These five classes of mitochondrially-targeted antibiotics include: the erythromycins, the tetracyclines, the glycylcyclines, an anti-parasitic drug, and chloramphenicol. Functional data are presented for one antibiotic in each drug class: azithromycin, doxycycline, tigecycline, pyrvinium pamoate, as well as chloramphenicol, as proof-of-concept. Importantly, many of these drugs are non-toxic for normal cells, likely reducing the side effects of anti-cancer therapy. Thus, we now propose to treat cancer like an infectious disease, by repurposing FDA-approved antibiotics for anti-cancer therapy, across multiple tumor types. These drug classes should also be considered for prevention studies, specifically focused on the prevention of tumor recurrence and distant metastasis. Finally, recent clinical trials with doxycycline and azithromycin (intended to target cancer-associated infections, but not cancer cells) have already shown positive therapeutic effects in cancer patients, although their ability to eradicate cancer stem cells was not yet appreciated. PMID:25625193

  16. Antibiotics that target mitochondria effectively eradicate cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: Treating cancer like an infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Lisanti, Camilla L.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Howell, Anthony; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we propose a new strategy for the treatment of early cancerous lesions and advanced metastatic disease, via the selective targeting of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a.k.a., tumor-initiating cells (TICs). We searched for a global phenotypic characteristic that was highly conserved among cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types, to provide a mutation-independent approach to cancer therapy. This would allow us to target cancer stem cells, effectively treating cancer as a single disease of “stemness”, independently of the tumor tissue type. Using this approach, we identified a conserved phenotypic weak point – a strict dependence on mitochondrial biogenesis for the clonal expansion and survival of cancer stem cells. Interestingly, several classes of FDA-approved antibiotics inhibit mitochondrial biogenesis as a known “side-effect”, which could be harnessed instead as a “therapeutic effect”. Based on this analysis, we now show that 4-to-5 different classes of FDA-approved drugs can be used to eradicate cancer stem cells, in 12 different cancer cell lines, across 8 different tumor types (breast, DCIS, ovarian, prostate, lung, pancreatic, melanoma, and glioblastoma (brain)). These five classes of mitochondrially-targeted antibiotics include: the erythromycins, the tetracyclines, the glycylcyclines, an anti-parasitic drug, and chloramphenicol. Functional data are presented for one antibiotic in each drug class: azithromycin, doxycycline, tigecycline, pyrvinium pamoate, as well as chloramphenicol, as proof-of-concept. Importantly, many of these drugs are non-toxic for normal cells, likely reducing the side effects of anti-cancer therapy. Thus, we now propose to treat cancer like an infectious disease, by repurposing FDA-approved antibiotics for anti-cancer therapy, across multiple tumor types. These drug classes should also be considered for prevention studies, specifically focused on the prevention of tumor recurrence and distant metastasis. Finally, recent clinical trials with doxycycline and azithromycin (intended to target cancer-associated infections, but not cancer cells) have already shown positive therapeutic effects in cancer patients, although their ability to eradicate cancer stem cells was not yet appreciated. PMID:25625193

  17. Infectious esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian P. Mulhall; Roy K. H. Wong

    2003-01-01

    Opinion statement  Infectious esophagitis can have significant implications in an impaired host. Described most commonly in immunocompromised\\u000a patients, infectious esophagitis can also occasionally be discovered in immunocompetent individuals in several unique clinical\\u000a settings. Evaluation of the typical presenting complaints, such as dysphagia or odynophagia, are especially important in immunocompetent\\u000a patients, and therapy should be directed at the appropriate predisposing condition and

  18. Detection, quantitation and identification of enteroviruses from surface waters and sponge tissue from the Florida Keys using real-time RT-PCR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donaldson, K.A.; Griffin, Dale W.; Paul, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    A method was developed for the quantitative detection of pathogenic human enteroviruses from surface waters in the Florida Keys using Taqman (R) one-step Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with the Model 7700 ABI Prism (R) Sequence Detection System. Viruses were directly extracted from unconcentrated grab samples of seawater, from seawater concentrated by vortex flow filtration using a 100kD filter and from sponge tissue. Total RNA was extracted from the samples, purified and concentrated using spin-column chromatography. A 192-196 base pair portion of the 5??? untranscribed region was amplified from these extracts. Enterovirus concentrations were estimated using real-time RT-PCR technology. Nine of 15 sample sites or 60% were positive for the presence of pathogenic human enteroviruses. Considering only near-shore sites, 69% were positive with viral concentrations ranging from 9.3viruses/ml to 83viruses/g of sponge tissue (uncorrected for extraction efficiency). Certain amplicons were selected for cloning and sequencing for identification. Three strains of waterborne enteroviruses were identified as Coxsackievirus A9, Coxsackievirus A16, and Poliovirus Sabin type 1. Time and cost efficiency of this one-step real-time RT-PCR methodology makes this an ideal technique to detect, quantitate and identify pathogenic enteroviruses in recreational waters. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus B77 isolated from non polio acute flaccid paralytic patients in Pakistan during 2013.

    PubMed

    Angez, Mehar; Shaukat, Shahzad; Zahra, Rabaab; Khurshid, Adnan; Sharif, Salmaan; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

    2015-01-01

    Human enteroviruses are associated with various clinical syndromes and severe neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of non polio enteroviruses and their correlation with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patients living in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. The stool samples collected from these patients were used for isolation of non polio enteroviruses (NPEVs). Out of 38 samples, 29 (76.3%) were successfully typed by microneutralization assay into eleven serotypes including echovirus (E)-3 (5.3%), E-7 (2.6%), E-11 (13.2%), E-12 (7.9%), E-13 (10.5%), E-20 (7.9%), E-27 (5.3%), E-29 (10.5%), E-30 (7.9%), E-33 (2.6%), coxsackievirus (CV) B5 (2.6%) and nine isolates (23.7%) remained untyped which were confirmed as NPEVs by real time RT-PCR. Complete VP1 genetic sequencing data characterized untypeable isolates into enterovirus B77 (EV-B77). Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analysis classified these viruses into two new genotypes having high genetic diversity (at least 17.7%) with prototype. This study provides valuable information on extensive genetic diversity of EV-B77 genotypes. Although, its association with neurological disorder has not yet been known but isolation of nine EV-B77 viruses from AFP cases highlights the fact that they may have a contributing role in the etiology of AFP. In addition, it is needed to establish enterovirus surveillance system and laboratory diagnostic facilities for early detection of NPEVs that may cause poliomyelitis like paralysis especially in the situation when we are at the verge of polio eradication. PMID:25433133

  20. Enterovirus infection in Korean children and anti-enteroviral potential candidate agents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwi Sung; Choi, Young Jin

    2012-01-01

    Although most enterovirus infections are not serious enough to be life threatening, several enteroviruses such as enterovirus 71 are responsible for severe, potentially life-threatening disease. The epidemic patterns of enteroviruses occur regularly during the year, but they may change due to environmental shifts induced by climate change due to global warming. Therefore, enterovirus epidemiological studies should be performed continuously as a basis for anti-viral studies. A great number of synthesized antiviral compounds that work against enteroviruses have been developed but only a few have demonstrated effectiveness in vivo. No proven effective antiviral agents are available for enterovirus disease therapy. The development of a new antiviral drug is a difficult task due to poor selective toxicity and cost. To overcome these limitations, one approach is to accelerate the availability of other existing antiviral drugs approved for antiviral effect against enteroviruses, and the other way is to screen traditional medicinal plants. PMID:23133481

  1. Infectious Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    With the threat of a warmer, wetter world and a larger global population, scientists are researching how climate change may impact the spread of infectious diseases,ťsuch as cholera and dengue fever, and how outbreaks may be prevented.ť "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

  2. [Infectious pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Hager, T; Reis, H; Theegarten, D

    2014-11-01

    Infectious pulmonary diseases and pneumonias are important causes of death within the group of infectious diseases in Germany. Most cases are triggered by bacteria. The morphology of the inflammation is often determined by the agent involved but several histopathological types of reaction are possible. Histology alone is only rarely able to identify the causal agent; therefore additional microbiological diagnostics are necessary in most cases. Clinically cases are classified as community acquired and nosocomial pneumonia, pneumonia under immunosuppression and mycobacterial infections. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial as well as lobar and focal pneumonia can be differentiated. PMID:25319227

  3. Strategies to develop antivirals against enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important human pathogen which may cause severe neurological complications and death in children. The virus caused several outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region during the past two decades and has been considered a significant public health problem in the post-poliovirus eradication era. Unlike poliovirus, there is no effective vaccine or approved antivirals against EV71. To explore anti-EV71 agents therefore is of vital importance. Several strategies have been employed to develop antivirals based on the molecular characteristics of the virus. Among these, some small molecules that were developed against human rhinoviruses and poliovirus are under evaluation. In this review, we discuss the recent development of such small molecules against EV71, known drug resistance and possible solutions to it, and animal models for evaluating the efficacy of these antivirals. Although further investigation is required for clinical applications of the existing candidates, the molecular mechanisms revealed for the inhibition of EV71 replication can be used for designing new molecules against this virus in the future. PMID:23339605

  4. Human enterovirus 71 epidemics: what's next?

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) epidemics have affected various countries in the past 40 years. EV71 commonly causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, but can result in neurological and cardiorespiratory complications in severe cases. Genotypic changes of EV71 have been observed in different places over time, with the emergence of novel genotypes or subgenotypes giving rise to serious outbreaks. Since the late 1990s, intra- and inter-typic recombination events in EV71 have been increasingly reported in the Asia-Pacific region. In particular, ‘double-recombinant’ EV71 strains belonging to a novel genotype D have been predominant in mainland China and Hong Kong over the last decade, though co-circulating with a minority of other EV71 subgenotypes and coxsackie A viruses. Continuous surveillance and genome studies are important to detect potential novel mutants or recombinants in the near future. Rapid and sensitive molecular detection of EV71 is of paramount importance in anticipating and combating EV71 outbreaks. PMID:24119538

  5. Short Communication: New Recognition Of Enterovirus Infections In Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Nollens, Hendrik H.; Rivera, Rebecca; Palacios, Gustavo; Wellehan, James F. X.; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Caseltine, Shannon L.; Smith, Cynthia R.; Jensen, Eric D.; Hui, Jeffrey; Lipkin, W. Ian; Yochem, Pamela K.; Wells, Randall S.; St. Leger, Judy; Venn-Watson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    An enterovirus was cultured from an erosive tongue lesion of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The morphology of virions on negative staining electron microscopy was consistent with those of enteroviruses. Analysis of 2613 bp of the polyprotein gene identified the isolate as a novel enterovirus strain, tentatively named bottlenose dolphin enterovirus (BDEV), that nests within the species Bovine enterovirus. Serologic evidence of exposure to enteroviruses was common in both free ranging and managed collection dolphins. Managed collection dolphins were more likely to have high antibody levels, although the highest levels were reported in free ranging populations. Associations between enterovirus antibody levels, and age, sex, complete blood counts, and clinical serum biochemistries were explored. Dolphins with higher antibody levels were more likely to be hyperproteinemic and hyperglobulinemic. PMID:19581059

  6. Infectious mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Balfour, Henry H; Dunmire, Samantha K; Hogquist, Kristin A

    2015-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by pharyngitis, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever, which results most often from a primary Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV, a lymphocrytovirus and a member of the ?-herpesvirus family, infects at least 90% of the population worldwide, the majority of whom have no recognizable illness. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among adolescents, but how preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. During the incubation period of approximately 6 weeks, viral replication first occurs in the oropharynx followed by viremia as early as 2 weeks before onset of illness. The acute illness is marked by high viral loads in both the oral cavity and blood accompanied by the production of immunoglobulin M antibodies against EBV viral capsid antigen and an extraordinary expansion of CD8+ T lymphocytes directed against EBV-infected B cells. During convalescence, CD8+ T cells return to normal levels and antibodies develop against EBV nuclear antigen-1. A typical clinical picture in an adolescent or young adult with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients especially young children. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, long-term consequences are linked to infectious mononucleosis, especially Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple sclerosis. There is no licensed vaccine for prevention and no specific approved treatment. Future research goals are development of an EBV vaccine, understanding the risk factors for severity of the acute illness and likelihood of developing cancer or autoimmune diseases, and discovering anti-EBV drugs to treat infectious mononucleosis and other EBV-spurred diseases. PMID:25774295

  7. Identification of site-specific adaptations conferring increased neural cell tropism during human enterovirus 71 infection.

    PubMed

    Cordey, Samuel; Petty, Tom J; Schibler, Manuel; Martinez, Yannick; Gerlach, Daniel; van Belle, Sandra; Turin, Lara; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the most virulent enteroviruses, but the specific molecular features that enhance its ability to disseminate in humans remain unknown. We analyzed the genomic features of EV71 in an immunocompromised host with disseminated disease according to the different sites of infection. Comparison of five full-length genomes sequenced directly from respiratory, gastrointestinal, nervous system, and blood specimens revealed three nucleotide changes that occurred within a five-day period: a non-conservative amino acid change in VP1 located within the BC loop (L97R), a region considered as an immunogenic site and possibly important in poliovirus host adaptation; a conservative amino acid substitution in protein 2B (A38V); and a silent mutation in protein 3D (L175). Infectious clones were constructed using both BrCr (lineage A) and the clinical strain (lineage C) backgrounds containing either one or both non-synonymous mutations. In vitro cell tropism and competition assays revealed that the VP1?? Leu to Arg substitution within the BC loop conferred a replicative advantage in SH-SY5Y cells of neuroblastoma origin. Interestingly, this mutation was frequently associated in vitro with a second non-conservative mutation (E167G or E167A) in the VP1 EF loop in neuroblastoma cells. Comparative models of these EV71 VP1 variants were built to determine how the substitutions might affect VP1 structure and/or interactions with host cells and suggest that, while no significant structural changes were observed, the substitutions may alter interactions with host cell receptors. Taken together, our results show that the VP1 BC loop region of EV71 plays a critical role in cell tropism independent of EV71 lineage and, thus, may have contributed to dissemination and neurotropism in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:22910880

  8. Identification of lentivirus tat functional domains through generation of equine infectious anemia virus/human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat gene chimeras.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, R; Martarano, L; Derse, D

    1991-01-01

    The structural regions that comprise the functional domains of lentivirus Tat proteins were examined. Chimeric tat genes and chimeric viral promoters were constructed between the distantly related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). These exchange experiments revealed that the EIAV Tat-responsive element recognition domain is formed by two distinct structural regions. Activation domains of both HIV-1 and EIAV Tat contain a conserved core element, but at least HIV-1 Tat requires the presence of additional structural regions. The interchangeable nature of Tat activation domains suggests that these domains act through a common or ubiquitous cellular transcription factor. PMID:1645777

  9. Cleavage of Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 by Enterovirus 71 3C Suppresses Cellular Responses

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiaobo; Xiao, Xia; Xue, Qinghua; Jin, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a positive-stranded RNA virus which is capable of inhibiting innate immunity. Among virus-encoded proteins, the 3C protein compromises the type I interferon (IFN-I) response mediated by retinoid acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) or Toll-like receptor 3 that activates interferon regulatory 3 (IRF3) and IRF7. In the present study, we report that enterovirus 71 downregulates IRF7 through the 3C protein, which inhibits the function of IRF7. When expressed in mammalian cells, the 3C protein mediates cleavage of IRF7 rather than that of IRF3. This process is insensitive to inhibitors of caspase, proteasome, lysosome, and autophagy. H40D substitution in the 3C active site abolishes its activity, whereas R84Q or V154S substitution in the RNA binding motif has no effect. Furthermore, 3C-mediated cleavage occurs at the Q189-S190 junction within the constitutive activation domain of IRF7, resulting in two cleaved IRF7 fragments that are incapable of activating IFN expression. Ectopic expression of wild-type IRF7 limits EV71 replication. On the other hand, expression of the amino-terminal domain of IRF7 enhances EV71 infection, which correlates with its ability to interact with and inhibit IRF3. These results suggest that control of IRF7 by the 3C protein may represent a viral mechanism to escape cellular responses. PMID:23175366

  10. RT-PCR and cell culture infectivity assay to detect enteroviruses during drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Ali, M A; El-Esnawy, N A; Shoaeb, A R; Ibraheim, M; El-Hawaary, S E

    1999-01-01

    In this study, 62 water samples were collected from two water treatment plants (WTPs) in Suez Canal cities (Port Said and Ismaillia) and one plant in Cairo (Giza WTP) in addition to the beginning of the two Nile river branches (Rosetta and Damietta). Viruses were concentrated by adsorption-elution ethod sing 142 mm-diameter nitrocellulose membrane of 0.45 microm pore size and eluted with 3% beef extract at pH 9.5. The concentrated samples were inoculated for 3 successive passages in three cell culture types (Vero, BGM and RD). Enterovirus RNAs in CPE-induced samples were extracted by guanidinium thiocyanate/ phenol/chloroform and heat shock methods and detected by RT-PCR and neutralization test. The results showed that eight samples [14.5% (8/62)] contained enteroviruses most of them were polioviruses [87.5% (7/8)] and coxsackievirus type B2 [12.5% (1/8)]. The three cell cultures were of the same sensitivity to detect the isolated viruses. Also, RT-PCR followed by neutralization assay facilitates and accelerate the results. The guanidinium thiocyanate extraction method was more sensitive than heat shock method. The results turned our attention to review our technology of water treatment and disinfection step in addition to the selection of suitable intake for the drinking water treatment plants. PMID:17219867

  11. Detection of enteroviruses in untreated and treated drinking water supplies in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, M M; Grabow, W O K; Pavlov, D N

    2005-06-01

    Enteric viruses have been detected in many drinking water supplies all over the world. A meaningful number of these supplies were treated and disinfected according to internationally acceptable methods. In addition, counts of bacterial indicators (coliform bacteria and heterotrophic plate count organisms) in these water supplies were within limits generally recommended for treated drinking water and these findings have been supported by epidemiological data on infections associated with drinking water. The shortcomings of conventional treatment methods and indicator organisms to confirm the absence of enteric viruses from drinking water, was generally ascribed to the exceptional resistance of these viruses. In this study, the prevalence of enteroviruses detected from July 2000 to June 2002 in sewage, river-, borehole-, spring- and dam water as well as drinking water supplies treated and disinfected according to international specifications for the production of safe drinking water was analysed. A glass wool adsorption-elution technique was used to recover viruses from 10--20 l of sewage as well as environmental water samples, in the case of drinking water from more than 100 l. Recovered enteroviruses were inoculated onto two cell culture types (BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cells) for amplification of viral RNA with nested-PCR being used to detect the amplified viral RNA. Results from the study demonstrated the presence of enteroviruses in 42.5% of sewage and in 18.7% of treated drinking water samples. Furthermore, enteroviruses were detected in 28.5% of river water, in 26.7% of dam/spring water and in 25.3% of borehole water samples. The high prevalence of coxsackie B viruses found in this study suggested, that a potential health risk and a burden of disease constituted by these viruses might be meaningful. These findings indicated that strategies, other than end-point analysis of treated and disinfected drinking water supplies, may be required to ensure the production of drinking water that does not exceed acceptable health risks. More reliable approaches to ensure acceptable safety of drinking water supplies may be based on control by multiple-barrier principles from catchment to tap using hazard assessment and critical control point (HACCP) principles. PMID:15919105

  12. Enterovirus replication: go with the (counter)flow.

    PubMed

    Nchoutmboube, Jules; Ford-Siltz, Lauren A; Belov, George A

    2015-04-01

    All (+)RNA viruses replicate on distinct membranous domains; however, how they induce and maintain their unique lipid composition is largely unknown. Two recent studies reveal that enteroviruses harness the PI4P-cholestrol exchange cycle driven by OSBP1 protein and PI4 kinase(s), and that blocking the dynamic lipid flow inhibits virus replication. PMID:25748799

  13. Coexistence of two clades of enterovirus D68 in pediatric Swedish patients in the summer and fall of 2014.

    PubMed

    Dyrdak, Robert; Rotzén-Östlund, Maria; Samuelson, Agneta; Eriksson, Margareta; Albert, Jan

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, an outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was observed in North America, with cases of severe respiratory illness and a possible etiological link to cases of acute flaccid paralysis. EV-D68 has also been reported from European countries, but no data from Sweden are available. This study investigated respiratory specimens collected during July-October 2014 from 30 Swedish children aged 0-9 years who were positive for enterovirus and/or rhinovirus in routine clinical PCR. Seven samples were typed as EV-D68 by VP4/VP2 sequencing. Two genetically distinct EV-D68 variants coexisted. Six viruses belonged to clade B, the variant involved in the North American outbreak, and one virus belonged to clade A. Respiratory illness was the major symptom among EV-D68 infected patients and all fully recovered. This is the first report of EV-D68 in Sweden. Considering the current epidemiological situation, genotyping and specific EV-D68 testing should be considered in patients with severe respiratory illness who test positive for enterovirus or rhinovirus in routine diagnostics. PMID:25972105

  14. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J.

    2014-02-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

  15. A recombinant, infectious human parainfluenza virus type 3 expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein for use in high-throughput antiviral assays

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Jason P.; Li, Joseph K.-K.; Smee, Donald F.; Morrey, John D.; Barnard, Dale L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to rescue an infectious, recombinant, negative-stranded, RNA virus from a cDNA clone, has led to new opportunities for measuring viral replication from a viral expressed reporter gene. In this study, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was inserted into the human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3) antigenome and a recombinant, infectious virus was rescued. Maximum EGFP expression levels, measured by fluorescence, were seen at day 3. Comparison of a three-day, viral expressed EGFP fluorescence assay to a seven-day, neutral red assay, based on complete cell destruction in virus infected MA-104 cells, yielded Z?-factor values of 0.83 and 0.70, respectively. A three-day, endpoint EGFP-based antiviral assay and a seven-day, endpoint neutral red based antiviral assay were run in parallel to establish antiviral sensitivity profiles of 23 compounds based on selective index (SI) values. Using an SI threshold of 10, the EGFP-based antiviral assay had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 54%. Thus, the use of an EGFP-based antiviral assay for testing potential antiviral compounds against HPIV-3 in a high-throughput format may be justified. PMID:19189850

  16. About Infectious Mononucleosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Healthcare Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Infectious Mononucleosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... and may cause the spleen to rupture. Diagnosing Infectious Mononucleosis Healthcare providers typically diagnose infectious mononucleosis based on ...

  17. Epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human enterovirus 71 among Thai populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important pathogen caused large outbreaks in Asian-Pacific region with severe neurological complications and may lead to death in young children. Understanding of the etiological spectrum and epidemic changes of enterovirus and population’s immunity against EV71 are crucial for the implementation of future therapeutic and prophylactic intervention. Results A total of 1,182 patients who presented with the symptoms of hand foot and mouth disease (67.3%) or herpangina (HA) (16.7%) and admitted to the hospitals during 2008-2013 were tested for enterovirus using pan-enterovirus PCR targeting 5?-untranslated region and specific PCR for viral capsid protein 1 gene. Overall, 59.7% were pan-enterovirus positive comprising 9.1% EV71 and 31.2% coxsackievirus species A (CV-A) including 70.5% CV-A6, 27.6% CV-A16, 1.1% CV-A10, and 0.8% CV-A5. HFMD and HA occurred endemically during 2008-2011. The number of cases increased dramatically in June 2012 with the percentage of the recently emerged CV-A6 significantly rose to 28.4%. Co-circulation between different EV71 genotypes was observed during the outbreak. Total of 161 sera obtained from healthy individuals were tested for neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against EV71 subgenotype B5 (EV71-B5) using microneutralization assay. The seropositive rate of EV71-B5 was 65.8%. The age-adjusted seroprevalence for individuals was found to be lowest in children aged >6 months to 2 years (42.5%). The seropositive rate remained relatively low in preschool children aged?>?2 years to 6 years (48.3%) and thereafter increased sharply to more than 80% in individuals aged?>?6 years. Conclusions This study describes longitudinal data reflecting changing patterns of enterovirus prevalence over 6 years and demonstrates high seroprevalences of EV71-B5 NAb among Thai individuals. The rate of EV71 seropositive increased with age but without gender-specific significant difference. We identified that relative lower EV71 seropositive rate in early 2012 may demonstrate widely presented of EV71-B5 in the population before account for a large outbreak scale epidemic occurred in 2012 with due to a relatively high susceptibility of the younger population. PMID:24548776

  18. Reciprocal Regulation between Enterovirus 71 and the NLRP3 Inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbin; Lei, Xiaobo; Xiao, Xia; Yang, Chunfu; Lu, Wenli; Huang, Zhong; Leng, Qibin; Jin, Qi; He, Bin; Meng, Guangxun; Wang, Jianwei

    2015-07-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Early studies showed that EV71-infected patients with severe complications exhibited elevated plasma levels of IL-1?, indicating that EV71 may activate inflammasomes. Our current study demonstrates that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays a protective role against EV71 infection of mice in vivo. EV71 replication in myeloid cells results in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and secretion of IL-1?. Conversely, EV71 counteracts inflammasome activation through cleavage of NLRP3 by viral proteases 2A and 3C, which cleave NLRP3 protein at the G493-L494 or Q225-G226 junction, respectively. Moreover, EV71 3C interacts with NLRP3 and inhibits IL-1? secretion when expressed in mammalian cells. These results thus reveal a set of reciprocal regulations between enterovirus 71 and the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:26119741

  19. Reemergence of Enterovirus 71 Epidemic in Northern Taiwan, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wan-Yu; Chia, Min-Yuan; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Wang, Ying-Hsiang; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Lee, Min-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) belongs to picornavirus family and could be classified phylogenetically into three major genogroups (A, B and C) including 11 genotypes (A, B1-B5 and C1-C5). Since 1997, EV71 has caused large-scale of epidemics with neurological complications in Asian children. In Taiwan, nationwide EV71 epidemics with different predominant genotypes have occurred cyclically since 1998. A nationwide EV71 epidemic occurred again in 2012. We conducted genetic and antigenic characterizations of the 2012 epidemic. Methods Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) is a medical center in northern Taiwan. In CGMH, specimens were collected from pediatric inpatients with suspected enterovirus infections for virus isolation. Enterovirus isolates were serotyped and genotyped and sera from EV71 inpatients were collected for measuring neutralizing antibody titers. Results There were 10, 16 and 99 EV71 inpatients identified in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. There were 82 EV71 isolates genotyped, which identified 17 genotype C4a viruses and 65 genotype B5 viruses. The genotype B5 viruses were not detected until November 2011 and caused epidemics in 2012. Interestingly, the B5-2011 viruses were genetically distinguishable from the B5 viruses causing the 2008 epidemic and are likely introduced from China or Southeastern Asia. Based on antigenic analysis, minor antigenic variations were detected among the B5-2008, B5-2011, C4a-2008 and C4a-2012 viruses but these viruses antigenically differed from genotype A. Conclusions Genotype B5 and C4a viruses antigenically differ from genotype A viruses which have disappeared globally for 30 years but have been detected in China since 2008. Enterovirus surveillance should monitor genetic and antigenic variations of EV71. PMID:25774888

  20. Ultrastructural changes of motoneurons in monkeys infected with enterovirus 71

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Hashimoto; A. Hagiwara; I. Uchino

    1985-01-01

    Summary Tissues of the central nervous system (CNS) of cynomolgus monkeys were examined by electron microscopy after intraspinal inoculation of enterovirus 71 (E71). A characteristic finding was the appearance of numerous membrane-bound vesicles (Mbvs) in affected motoneurons. Similar Mbvs were also present in E71-infected cynomolgus monkey kidney (CMK) cells in culture. Virus-like particles were found within or around Mbvs in

  1. Enterovirus 71 Induces Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Generation That is Required for Efficient Replication

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Mei-Ling; Weng, Shiue-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hao; Ho, Hung-Yao

    2014-01-01

    Redox homeostasis is an important host factor determining the outcome of infectious disease. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has become an important endemic disease in Southeast Asia and China. We have previously shown that oxidative stress promotes viral replication, and progeny virus induces oxidative stress in host cells. The detailed mechanism for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in infected cells remains elusive. In the current study, we demonstrate that mitochondria were a major ROS source in EV71-infected cells. Mitochondria in productively infected cells underwent morphologic changes and exhibited functional anomalies, such as a decrease in mitochondrial electrochemical potential ??m and an increase in oligomycin-insensitive oxygen consumption. Respiratory control ratio of mitochondria from infected cells was significantly lower than that of normal cells. The total adenine nucleotide pool and ATP content of EV71-infected cells significantly diminished. However, there appeared to be a compensatory increase in mitochondrial mass. Treatment with mito-TEMPO reduced eIF2? phosphorylation and viral replication, suggesting that mitochondrial ROS act to promote viral replication. It is plausible that EV71 infection induces mitochondrial ROS generation, which is essential to viral replication, at the sacrifice of efficient energy production, and that infected cells up-regulate biogenesis of mitochondria to compensate for their functional defect. PMID:25401329

  2. Rapid and highly sensitive detection of Enterovirus 71 by using nanogold-enhanced electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Lu, Yu-Ning; Wang, Fang-Yu; Tsai, Li-Yun; Shieh, Juo-Yu; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Juan, Chien-Chang; Tu, Lung-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2013-07-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is an emerging infectious disease causing neurological complications and/or death within two to three days after the development of fever and rash. A low viral titre in clinical specimens makes the detection of EV71 difficult. Conventional approaches for detecting EV71 are time consuming, poorly sensitive, or complicated, and cannot be used effectively for clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, EV71 and Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) may cross react in conventional assays. Therefore, a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and user-friendly test is needed. We developed an EV71-specific nanogold-modified working electrode for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the detection of EV71. Our results show that EV71 can be distinguished from CA16, Herpes simplex virus, and lysozyme, with the modified nanogold electrode being able to detect EV71 in concentrations as low as 1 copy number/50 ?l reaction volume, and the duration between sample preparation and detection being 11 min. This detection platform may have the potential for use in point-of-care diagnostics.

  3. Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill blocks enterovirus 71 infection by hijacking MEK1-ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyang; Wang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoqing; Wang, Wei; Jin, Yu

    2015-07-01

    The aerial parts of Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill are a Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of edema and inflammatory diseases. However, the effect of this medicine on enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has not been explored. Previous studies showed that MEK1-ERK signal pathway was required for efficient replication of EV71 infection and inhibition of this signal pathway has been shown to suppress virus infection. Here we show that the water extract of S. chinensis (Lour.) Baill (SCB) significantly blocks EV71 infection by inhibiting the activation of MEK1-ERK signal pathway with an IC50 of 8.9?g/mL. SCB at 30 and 60?g/mL blocked EV71-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and production of infectious virion by 1.9 and 5.1logs, respectively. Virucidal assay suggested that SCB had no virucidal activity against EV71 and probably exerted its effect by targeting multiple steps in EV71 infection. Knockdown of MEK1 but not MEK2 blocked EV71 replication. And SCB treatment inhibited the activation of MEK1-ERK signal during EV71 infection. Furthermore, we found that rutin at 200?M, one of the major components of SCB, significantly suppressed EV71 induced CPE and inhibited viral replication in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, SCB inhibited EV71 infection by hijacking MEK1-ERK signal pathway and rutin was the responsible antiviral component of SCB. PMID:25912818

  4. Generation of infectious HCV pseudo typed particles and its utilization for studying the role of CD81 & SRBI receptors in HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Shazia; Idrees, Muhammad; Ali, Amjad; Sahibzada, Kashif Iqbal; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2014-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into isolated primary liver cells and cell lines requires interaction with the cell surface receptors. The study of HCV attachment with host cell surface receptors has been hindered by the unavailability of competent cell culture based system for HCV propagation. This problem has been overcome by the development of genetically tagged infectious HCV pseudo particles (HCVpp) harboring unmodified E1 and E2 glycoproteins. Studies using cell binding assays together with infection assays using HCVpp have shown that CD81 and scavenger receptor (SRBI) are actively involved in binding with envelope proteins facilitating the viral entrance process. This paper aimed to develop HCVpp of local HCV 3a Pakistani isolate and to study the viral tropism role of CD81 and SRBI receptors in HCV infectivity. HCV E1 and E2 genes were amplified and cloned in mammalian expression vector pcDNA 3.1/myc. The expressing plasmid of HCV E1-E2 glycoprotein in native form was co-transfected into 293FT cells with lentiviral packaging plasmid encoding the MLV Gag-Pol core proteins, and a packaging competent MLV-derived genome (pMLVYCMV-Luc) encoding the luciferase marker protein to produce infectious HCVpp. Anti-CD81 antibody (CBL579), anti-SRBI type II antibody (sc-20441) HCV anti-E2 mouse IgG1 (sc-65457) and HCV anti-E1 antibody mouse IgG1 (sc-65459) were used in this setup. We showed that primary site of viral replication is liver which involve CD81 and SRBI receptors for HCV gp-dependent infection with HCVpp. This is the preliminary reported cell cultured based mechanism from Pakistan which facilitated functional studies of different antiviral agents. Understanding of this technique will help in development of new antiviral therapeutics focusing on earlier steps of HCV life cycle. We have developed infectious pseudo particles of local 3a-isolate and concluded that a number of liver-specific surface proteins function along with CD81 and SRBI receptor regarding HCV infectivity. To endeavors and to identify this liver specific co-receptor molecule(s) will provide insights into the role of these molecules in the initial steps of HCV life cycle. PMID:24549717

  5. Evaluation of single-round infectious, chimeric dengue type 1 virus as an antigen for dengue functional antibody assays.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Konishi, Eiji

    2014-07-23

    Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are endemic throughout tropical and subtropical countries. Four serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV-1 to DENV-4), each with several genotypes including various subclades, are co-distributed in most endemic areas. Infection-neutralizing and -enhancing antibodies are believed to play protective and pathogenic roles, respectively. Measurement of these functional antibodies against a variety of viral strains is thus important for evaluating coverage and safety of dengue vaccine candidates. Although transportation of live virus materials beyond national borders is increasingly limited, this difficulty may be overcome using biotechnology that enables generation of an antibody-assay antigen equivalent to authentic virus based on viral sequence information. A rapid system to produce flavivirus single-round infectious particles (SRIPs) was recently developed using a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) subgenomic replicon plasmid. This system allows production of chimeric SRIPs that have surface proteins of other flaviviruses. In the present study, SRIPs of DENV-1 (D1-SRIPs) were evaluated as an antigen for functional antibody assays. Inclusion of the whole mature capsid gene of JEV into the replicon plasmid provided higher D1-SRIP yields than did its exclusion in cases where a DENV-1 surface-protein-expressing plasmid was used for co-transfection of 293T cells with the replicon plasmid. In an assay to measure the balance between neutralizing and enhancing activities, dose (antibody dilution)-dependent activity curves in dengue-immune human sera or mouse monoclonal antibodies obtained using D1-SRIP antigen were equivalent to those obtained using DENV-1 antigen. Similar results were obtained using additional DENV-2 and DENV-3 systems. In a conventional Vero-cell neutralization test, a significant correlation was shown between antibody titers obtained using D1-SRIP and DENV-1 antigens. These results demonstrate the utility of D1-SRIPs as an alternative antigen to authentic DENV-1 in functional antibody assays. SRIP antigens may contribute to dengue vaccine candidate evaluation, understanding of dengue pathogenesis, and development of serodiagnostic systems. PMID:24950360

  6. Rapid Diagnosis of Enterovirus Infection by a New One-Step Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HARALD H. KESSLER; BRIGITTE SANTNER; HOLGER RABENAU; ANNEMARIE BERGER; ADRIANA VINCE; CAROL LEWINSKI; BERNARD WEBER; KAREN PIERER; DORIS STUENZNER; EGON MARTH; ANDHANS W. DOERR

    The AMPLICOR Enterovirus Test was evaluated with 103 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. Twenty- seven CSF specimens were culture positive. With the AMPLICOR test, enterovirus RNA was detected in 34 specimens. Compared with culture, the AMPLICOR test gave a sensitivity of 96.3% and a specificity of 100%. The sensitivity of culture was 79.4% in comparison with the AMPLICOR test. Clinical presentation

  7. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ANIMAL ENTEROVIRUSES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR USE AS MARKERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FECAL CONTAMINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteroviruses are the most common viruses, infecting a wide variety of mammals. It is generally accepted that only a small number of entero viruses are known. Every year several new isolates are identified and named. Human enteroviruses have been found as environmental contaminants, and contaminatio...

  8. Enterovirus 71 isolated from cases of epidemic poliomyelitis-like disease in Bulgaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Chumakov; M. VOROSttILOVA; L. Shindarov; I. Lavrova; L. Gracheva; G. Koroleva; S. Vasilenko; I. Brodvarova; M. Nikolova; S. Gyurova; M. Gacheva; G. Mitov; N. Ninov; E. Tsylka; I. Robinson; M. Frolova; V. Bashkirtsev; L. Martiyanova; V. Rodin

    1979-01-01

    Summary Virological and serological studies of an epidemic disease in Bulgaria, 1975, were carried out. Epidemiologically, clinically and pathomorphologically, the disease simulated almost all known forms of poliomyelitis, acute stem encephalitis, encephalomyocarditis and aseptic meningitis. The studies completely ruled out the participation of polioviruses and provided comprehensive evidence for the etiological role of a peculiar enterovirus subsequently identified as enterovirus

  9. A small-molecule inhibitor of type III secretion inhibits different stages of the infectious cycle of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Muschiol; Leslie Bailey; Ĺsa Gylfe; Charlotta Sundin; Kjell Hultenby; Sven Bergström; Mikael Elofsson; Hans Wolf-Watz; Staffan Normark; Birgitta Henriques-Normark

    2006-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis possesses a type III secretion (TTS) system believed to deliver a series of effector proteins into the inclusion membrane (Inc-proteins) as well as into the host cytosol with perceived consequences for the pathogenicity of this common venereal pathogen. Recently, small molecules were shown to block the TTS system of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Here, we show that

  10. Type I Diabetes Mellitus: Genetic Factors and Presumptive Enteroviral Etiology or Protection

    PubMed Central

    Precechtelova, Jana; Borsanyiova, Maria; Sarmirova, Sona

    2014-01-01

    We review type 1 diabetes and host genetic components, as well as epigenetics and viruses associated with type 1 diabetes, with added emphasis on the enteroviruses, which are often associated with triggering the disease. Genus Enterovirus is classified into twelve species of which seven (Enterovirus A, Enterovirus B, Enterovirus C, and Enterovirus D and Rhinovirus A, Rhinovirus B, and Rhinovirus C) are human pathogens. These viruses are transmitted mainly by the fecal-oral route; they may also spread via the nasopharyngeal route. Enterovirus infections are highly prevalent, but these infections are usually subclinical or cause a mild flu-like illness. However, infections caused by enteroviruses can sometimes be serious, with manifestations of meningoencephalitis, paralysis, myocarditis, and in neonates a fulminant sepsis-like syndrome. These viruses are often implicated in chronic (inflammatory) diseases as chronic myocarditis, chronic pancreatitis, and type 1 diabetes. In this review we discuss the currently suggested mechanisms involved in the viral induction of type 1 diabetes. We recapitulate current basic knowledge and definitions. PMID:25574400

  11. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of three virulent strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis is a very serious and widespread respiratory disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus type 1, commonly named infectious laryngotracheitis virus. For protection from infectious laryngotracheitis, chickens have traditionally been vaccinated with live-attenuated str...

  12. Pathogenesis of murine enterovirus myocarditis: virus dissemination and immune cell targets.

    PubMed Central

    Klingel, K; Stephan, S; Sauter, M; Zell, R; McManus, B M; Bültmann, B; Kandolf, R

    1996-01-01

    In order to identify organ and cellular targets of persistent enterovirus infection in vivo, immunocompetent mice (SWR/J, H-2q) were inoculated intraperitoneally with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3). By use of in situ hybridization for the detection of enteroviral RNA, we show that CVB3 is capable of inducing a multiorgan disease. During acute infection, viral RNA was visualized at high levels in the heart muscle, pancreas, spleen, and lymph nodes and at comparably low levels in the central nervous system, thymus, lung, and liver. At later stages of the disease, the presence of enteroviral RNA was found to be restricted to the myocardium, spleen, and lymph nodes. To characterize infected lymphoid cells during the course of the disease, enteroviral RNA and cell-specific surface antigens were visualized simultaneously in situ in spleen tissue sections. In acute infection, the majority of infected spleen cells, which are located primarily at the periphery of lymph follicles, were found to express the CD45R/B220+ phenotype of pre-B and B cells. Whereas viral RNA was also detected in certain CD4+ helper T cells and Mac-1+ macrophages, no enteroviral genomes were identified in CD8+ cytotoxic/suppressor T cells. Later in disease, the localization of enteroviral RNA revealed a persistent type of infection of B cells within the germinal centers of secondary follicles. In addition, detection of the replicative viral minus-strand RNA intermediate provided evidence for virus replication in lymphoid cells of the spleen during the course of the disease. These data indicate that immune cells are important targets of CVB3 infection, providing a noncardiac reservoir for viral RNA during acute and persistent myocardial enterovirus infection. PMID:8971018

  13. Parallelization: Infectious Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aaron Weeden

    Epidemiology is the study of infectious disease. Infectious diseases are said to be "contagious" among people if they are transmittable from one person to another. Epidemiologists can use models to assist them in predicting the behavior of infectious diseases. This module will develop a simple agent-based infectious disease model, develop a parallel algorithm based on the model, provide a coded implementation for the algorithm, and explore the scaling of the coded implementation on high performance cluster resources.

  14. Stability of human enteroviruses in estuarine and marine waters.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, S; Gilbert, J; Hetrick, F

    1976-01-01

    Studies of the effects of temperature and salinity on the survival of three enteric viruses (poliomyelitis type 1, echovirus-6, and coxsackievirus B-5) under controlled laboratory conditions and in situ indicate that temperature rather than salinity is the critical factor affecting their stability, in that the higher the temperature the more rapid was the loss of viral infectivity. In the laboratory studies, all three viruses were quite stable at 4 degrees C, with infectious virus still detectable after 46 weeks of incubation. In situ studies on virus survival in free-flowing estuarine or marine waters showed that, although the viruses were more labile in natural waters than in the laboratory studies, they persisted for several months, in some cases during the winter months. At all temperatures and salinities, coxsackievirus B-5 was the most stable, echovirus-6 was intermediate, and poliovirus 1 was the least stable of the viruses tested. PMID:184736

  15. General primer-mediated polymerase chain reaction for detection of enteroviruses: application for diagnostic routine and persistent infections.

    PubMed Central

    Zoll, G J; Melchers, W J; Kopecka, H; Jambroes, G; van der Poel, H J; Galama, J M

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for routine diagnostic use and for the detection of persistent enteroviral infections. To this end, general primers were selected in the highly conserved part of the 5'-noncoding region of the enteroviral genome. They were tested on 66 different enterovirus serotypes. A specific fragment was amplified from 60 of 66 serotypes. An amplification product was not observed from coxsackievirus types A11, A17, and A24 and echovirus types 16, 22, and 23. Enteroviral RNA was detected by the PCR in routinely collected throat swabs and stool specimens that were found to be positive for enterovirus by isolation in tissue culture. Enteroviral RNA was detected in one of five myocardial biopsy specimens from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, implicating virus persistence. No amplification product was obtained from eight control samples. Our results demonstrate the significance of the PCR for the detection of enteroviral RNA and, in particular, for the demonstration of persistent enteroviral infections. Images PMID:1370845

  16. Identification of a Series of Compounds with Potent Antiviral Activity for the Treatment of Enterovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Rhinovirus (genus enterovirus) infections are responsible for many of the severe exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Other members of the genus can cause life-threatening acute neurological infections. There is currently no antiviral drug approved for the treatment of such infections. We have identified a series of potent, broad-spectrum antiviral compounds that inhibit the replication of the human rhinovirus, Coxsackie virus, poliovirus, and enterovirus-71. The mechanism of action of the compounds has been established as inhibition of a lipid kinase, PI4KIII?. Inhibition of hepatitis C replication in a replicon assay correlated with enterovirus inhibition. PMID:24900715

  17. Identification of a series of compounds with potent antiviral activity for the treatment of enterovirus infections.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Angus M; Mitchell, Dale R; Palmer, Nicholas J; Van de Poël, Hervé; Conrath, Katja; Andrews, Martin; Leyssen, Pieter; Neyts, Johan

    2013-07-11

    Rhinovirus (genus enterovirus) infections are responsible for many of the severe exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Other members of the genus can cause life-threatening acute neurological infections. There is currently no antiviral drug approved for the treatment of such infections. We have identified a series of potent, broad-spectrum antiviral compounds that inhibit the replication of the human rhinovirus, Coxsackie virus, poliovirus, and enterovirus-71. The mechanism of action of the compounds has been established as inhibition of a lipid kinase, PI4KIII?. Inhibition of hepatitis C replication in a replicon assay correlated with enterovirus inhibition. PMID:24900715

  18. Molecular Characterization of Human Enteroviruses in the Central African Republic: Uncovering Wide Diversity and Identification of a New Human Enterovirus A71 Genogroup

    PubMed Central

    Pillet, Sylvie; Ibrahim, Wafa; Joffret, Marie-Line; Pozzetto, Bruno; Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Human enteroviruses (HEV) are among the most common viruses infecting humans. Their circulation has been widely studied in most parts of the world but not in sub-Saharan Africa, where poliomyelitis remains prevalent. We report here the molecular characterization of 98 nonpoliovirus (non-PV) HEV strains isolated from 93 randomly selected cell culture-positive supernatants from stool samples collected from 1997 through 2006 from children with acute flaccid paralysis living in the Central African Republic (CAR). The isolates were typed by sequencing the VP1 coding region and sequenced further in the VP2 coding region, and phylogenetic studies were carried out. Among the 98 VP1 sequences, 3, 74, 18, and 3 were found to belong to the HEV-A, -B, -C, and -D species, respectively. Overall, 42 types were detected. In most cases, the VP2 type was correlated with that of the VP1 region. Some of the isolates belonged to lineages that also contain viruses isolated in distant countries, while others belonged to lineages containing viruses isolated only in Africa. In particular, one isolate (type EV-A71) did not fall into any of the genogroups already described, indicating the existence of a previously unknown genogroup for this type. These results illustrate the considerable diversity of HEV isolates from the stools of paralyzed children in the CAR. The presence of diverse HEV-C types makes recombination between poliovirus and other HEV-C species possible and could promote the emergence of recombinant vaccine-derived polioviruses similar to those that have been implicated in repeated poliomyelitis outbreaks in several developing countries. PMID:22337981

  19. Chlorine dioxide inactivation of enterovirus 71 in water and its impact on genomic targets.

    PubMed

    Jin, Min; Shan, Jinyang; Chen, Zhaoli; Guo, Xuan; Shen, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Zhigang; Xue, Bin; Wang, Yongguang; Zhu, Dunwan; Wang, Xinwei; Li, Junwen

    2013-05-01

    To control the waterborne transmission of enterovirus 71(EV71), which is associated with hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD), it is essential to know the inactivation effectiveness of disinfectants on EV71 in water. In this article, we present a comparative analysis of the effects on EV71 following exposure to chlorine dioxide (ClO2) under different doses, pH, and temperature conditions. We show that the EV71 exhibited strong resistance to ClO2 (more than the MS2 standard) and that Ct value ranges required for a 4-log reduction of EV71 in buffered, disinfectant demand-free water at pH 7.2 and 20 °C by ClO2 were 4.24-6.62 mg/L·min according to the efficiency factor Hom model. ClO2 inactivation of the virus was temperature- and pH-dependent. The virucidal efficiency was higher at pH 8.2 than at pH 5.6 and pH 7.2 and higher at 36 °C than at 4 and 20 °C. In addition, we also observed the impact of ClO2 on the entire viral genome using RT-PCR, which indicated that the 5' noncoding region (5'-NCR) within the EV71 genome, specifically the 1-118 nt region, was the most easily damaged by ClO2 and correlated with viral infectivity. Our study has not only provided guidelines for EV71 disinfection strategies of waste and drinking water, but also confirmed the importance of the 5'-NCR for EV71 infectivity and may demonstrate a general inactivation by ClO2 of enteric virus by damaging the 5'-NCR. Furthermore, 5'-NCR can be used as a target region for PCR to investigate infectious virus contamination in environmental water and evaluate the inactivation effects of ClO2. PMID:23560857

  20. The p2 domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag regulates sequential proteolytic processing and is required to produce fully infectious virions.

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, S C; Moody, M D; Wehbie, R S; Kaplan, A H; Nantermet, P V; Klein, C A; Swanstrom, R

    1994-01-01

    The proteolytic processing sites of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag precursor are cleaved in a sequential manner by the viral protease. We investigated the factors that regulate sequential processing. When full-length Gag protein was digested with recombinant HIV-1 protease in vitro, four of the five major processing sites in Gag were cleaved at rates that differ by as much as 400-fold. Three of these four processing sites were cleaved independently of the others. The CA/p2 site, however, was cleaved approximately 20-fold faster when the adjacent downstream p2/NC site was blocked from cleavage or when the p2 domain of Gag was deleted. These results suggest that the presence of a C-terminal p2 tail on processing intermediates slows cleavage at the upstream CA/p2 site. We also found that lower pH selectively accelerated cleavage of the CA/p2 processing site in the full-length precursor and as a peptide primarily by a sequence-based mechanism rather than by a change in protein conformation. Deletion of the p2 domain of Gag results in released virions that are less infectious despite the presence of the processed final products of Gag. These findings suggest that the p2 domain of HIV-1 Gag regulates the rate of cleavage at the CA/p2 processing site during sequential processing in vitro and in infected cells and that p2 may function in the proper assembly of virions. Images PMID:7966591

  1. Evaluation of an enterovirus group-specific anti-VP1 monoclonal antibody, 5-D8/1, in comparison with neutralization and PCR for rapid identification of enteroviruses in cell culture.

    PubMed Central

    Trabelsi, A; Grattard, F; Nejmeddine, M; Aouni, M; Bourlet, T; Pozzetto, B

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of a commercially available monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against a group-specific epitope of the capsid protein VP1 of enteroviruses for the rapid identification of these viruses in cell culture. The MAb was assayed in an indirect immunofluorescence test with cultured cells infected by various serotypes of enterovirus; all 39 serotypes tested, including echoviruses 22 and 23, which are considered atypical enteroviruses, were reactive. The MAb was also tested with 61 strains recovered from clinical specimens inoculated into cell cultures in comparison with seroneutralization with intersecting pools of hyperimmune sera and PCR with primers from the 5' untranslated region of enteroviruses. There was total agreement between the results obtained with the MAb and those obtained by PCR, even for those strains of enteroviruses which were found to be untypeable with polyclonal antisera. These data demonstrate the usefulness of the MAb for rapid identification of enteroviruses in cell culture. PMID:7494045

  2. Peptidyl aldehyde NK-1.8k suppresses enterovirus 71 and enterovirus 68 infection by targeting protease 3C.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxin; Yang, Ben; Zhai, Yangyang; Yin, Zheng; Sun, Yuna; Rao, Zihe

    2015-05-01

    Enterovirus (EV) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in the Pacific-Asia region. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections, and the fatality rates from EV71 infection are high. Moreover, an outbreak of respiratory illnesses caused by an emerging EV, EV68, recently occurred among over 1,000 young children in the United States and was also associated with neurological infections. Although enterovirus has emerged as a considerable global public health threat, no antiviral drug for clinical use is available. In the present work, we screened our compound library for agents targeting viral protease and identified a peptidyl aldehyde, NK-1.8k, that inhibits the proliferation of different EV71 strains and one EV68 strain and that had a 50% effective concentration of 90 nM. Low cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration, >200 ?M) indicated a high selective index of over 2,000. We further characterized a single amino acid substitution inside protease 3C (3C(pro)), N69S, which conferred EV71 resistance to NK-1.8k, possibly by increasing the flexibility of the substrate binding pocket of 3C(pro). The combination of NK-1.8k and an EV71 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor or entry inhibitor exhibited a strong synergistic anti-EV71 effect. Our findings suggest that NK-1.8k could potentially be developed for anti-EV therapy. PMID:25691647

  3. Structure of human enterovirus 71 in complex with a capsid-binding inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Yap, Moh Lan; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus causing hand, foot, and mouth disease that may progress to fatal encephalitis in infants and small children. As of now, no cure is available for enterovirus 71 infections. Small molecule inhibitors binding into a hydrophobic pocket within capsid viral protein 1 were previously shown to effectively limit infectivity of many picornaviruses. Here we report a 3.2-Ĺ-resolution X-ray structure of the enterovirus 71 virion complexed with the capsid-binding inhibitor WIN 51711. The inhibitor replaced the natural pocket factor within the viral protein 1 pocket without inducing any detectable rearrangements in the structure of the capsid. Furthermore, we show that the compound stabilizes enterovirus 71 virions and limits its infectivity, probably through restricting dynamics of the capsid necessary for genome release. Thus, our results provide a structural basis for development of antienterovirus 71 capsid-binding drugs. PMID:23509286

  4. Effect of coincident enterovirus infection and cows' milk exposure on immunisation to insulin in early infancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Vaarala; P. Klemetti; S. Juhela; O. Simell; H. Hyöty; J. Ilonen

    2002-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis. Insulin autoantibodies appear often as the first autoantibody in children who develop islet-cell autoimmunity. Our recent\\u000a studies indicate that primary immunisation to insulin is induced in early infancy by exposure to dietary bovine insulin present\\u000a in cows' milk formulas. As gut-associated lymphoid tissue is also the primary replication site of enteroviruses, we tested\\u000a whether enterovirus infections could modify the

  5. Low-level Circulation of Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Respiratory Infections, Germany, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Reiche, Janine; Böttcher, Sindy; Diedrich, Sabine; Buchholz, Udo; Buda, Silke; Haas, Walter; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2015-01-01

    We used physician sentinel surveillance to identify 25 (7.7%) mild to severe infections with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in children and adults among 325 outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Germany during August–October 2014. Results suggested low-level circulation of enterovirus D68 in Germany. Viruses were characterized by sequencing viral protein (VP) 1 and VP4/VP2 genomic regions. PMID:25898320

  6. Enterovirus infections in England and Wales, 2000-2011: the impact of increased molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kadambari, S; Bukasa, A; Okike, I O; Pebody, R; Brown, D; Gallimore, C; Xerry, J; Sharland, M; Ladhani, S N

    2014-12-01

    There have recently been significant changes in diagnostic practices for detecting enterovirus (EV) infections across England and Wales. Reports of laboratory-confirmed EV infections submitted by National Health Service (NHS) hospital laboratories to Public Health England (PHE) over a 12-year period (2000-2011) were analysed. Additionally, the PHE Virus Reference Department (VRD) electronic database containing molecular typing data from 2004 onwards was interrogated. Of the 13,901 reports, there was a decline from a peak of 2254 in 2001 to 589 in 2006, and then an increase year-on-year to 1634 in 2011. This increase coincided with increasing PCR-based laboratory diagnosis, which accounted for 36% of reported cases in 2000 and 92% in 2011. The estimated annual incidence in 2011 was 3.9/100,000 overall and 238/100,000 in those aged <3 months, who accounted for almost one-quarter of reported cases (n = 2993, 23%). During 2004-2011, 2770 strains were submitted for molecular typing to the VRD, who found no evidence for a predominance of any particular strain. Thus, the recent increase in reported cases closely reflects the increase in PCR testing by NHS hospitals, but is associated with a lower proportion of samples being submitted for molecular typing. The high EV rate in young infants merits further investigation to inform evidence-based management guidance. PMID:25039903

  7. Effects of Extreme Precipitation to the Distribution of Infectious Diseases in Taiwan, 1994–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Wu, Yi-Ting; Wu, Pei-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships in the main island of Taiwan was analysed for the period from 1994 to 2008. Four precipitation levels, <130 mm, 130–200 mm, 200–350 mm and >350 mm, were categorized to represent quantitative differences, and their associations with each specific disease was investigated using the Generalized Additive Mixed Model and afterwards mapped on to the Geographical Information System. Daily precipitation levels were significantly correlated with all 8 mandatory-notified infectious diseases in Taiwan. For water-borne infections, extreme torrential precipitation (>350 mm/day) was found to result in the highest relative risk for bacillary dysentery and enterovirus infections when compared to ordinary rain (<130 mm/day). Yet, for vector-borne diseases, the relative risk of dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis increased with greater precipitation only up to 350 mm. Differential lag effects following precipitation were statistically associated with increased risk for contracting individual infectious diseases. This study’s findings can help health resource sector management better allocate medical resources and be better prepared to deal with infectious disease outbreaks following future extreme precipitation events. PMID:22737206

  8. Effects of extreme precipitation to the distribution of infectious diseases in Taiwan, 1994-2008.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Wu, Yi-Ting; Wu, Pei-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships in the main island of Taiwan was analysed for the period from 1994 to 2008. Four precipitation levels, <130 mm, 130-200 mm, 200-350 mm and >350 mm, were categorized to represent quantitative differences, and their associations with each specific disease was investigated using the Generalized Additive Mixed Model and afterwards mapped on to the Geographical Information System. Daily precipitation levels were significantly correlated with all 8 mandatory-notified infectious diseases in Taiwan. For water-borne infections, extreme torrential precipitation (>350 mm/day) was found to result in the highest relative risk for bacillary dysentery and enterovirus infections when compared to ordinary rain (<130 mm/day). Yet, for vector-borne diseases, the relative risk of dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis increased with greater precipitation only up to 350 mm. Differential lag effects following precipitation were statistically associated with increased risk for contracting individual infectious diseases. This study's findings can help health resource sector management better allocate medical resources and be better prepared to deal with infectious disease outbreaks following future extreme precipitation events. PMID:22737206

  9. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  10. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  11. Proactive approach to containment of enterovirus infection in the nursery.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Inbal; Golan, Agneta; Borer, Abraham; Shemer-Avni, Yonat; Dagan, Ron; Greenberg, David

    2013-07-01

    Administration of prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulins to contacts of infants actively shedding enterovirus during a hospital nursery outbreak may attenuate severity of disease in those contacts and aid in containment of the outbreak. Four cases of neonatal enteroviral disease were treated in our hospital nursery in July and August 2011; 3 were presumed or proven vertical transmission cases and 1 was a presumed horizontal transmission. We aimed to prevent development of severe illness in contacts of affected neonates following a ministry of health advisory during the summer of 2011 warning of increased neonatal enteroviral morbidity and mortality in Israel. Strict infection control measures were implemented, including meticulous decontamination of the nursery environment and administration of intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis to contacts. No further horizontal transmission occurred after infection control interventions. Immunoglobulin prophylaxis to control enteroviral infection in the nursery should be considered as an auxiliary infection control intervention during a nursery outbreak. PMID:23572447

  12. Human enteroviruses in oysters and their overlying waters.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S M; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

    1979-03-01

    The presence of enteroviruses in oysters and oyster-harvesting waters of the Texas Gulf coast was monitored over a period of 10 months. Viruses were detected in water and oyster samples obtained from areas both open and closed to shellfish harvesting. Viruses were detected periodically in waters that met current bacteriological standards for shellfish harvesting. No significant statistical relationship was demonstrated between virus concentration in oysters and the bacteriological and physiochemical quality of water and shellfish. Viruses in water were, however, moderately correlated with total coliforms in water and oysters and with fecal coliforms in oysters. Total coliforms in water were realted to total coliforms in sediment were related only to total coliforms in sediment. Among the physiochemical characteristics of water, turbidity was related statistically to the organic matter content of water and to fecal coliforms in water. There was a marked effect of rainfall on the bacteriological quality of water. Of a total of 44 water samples, 26 yielded virus in concentrations from 4 to 167 plaque-forming units per 100-gallon (ca. 378.5-liter) sample. Of a total of 40 pools of 10 to 12 oysters each, virus was found in 14 pools at a concentration of 6 to 224 plaque-forming units per 100 g of oyster meat. On five occasions, virus was found in water samples when no virus could be detected in oysters harvested from the same sites. This study indicates that current bacteriological standards for determining the safety of shellfish and shellfish-growing waters do no reflect the occurrence of enteroviruses. PMID:222210

  13. “Eczema Coxsackium” and Unusual Cutaneous Findings in an Enterovirus Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Oza, Vikash; Frieden, Ilona J.; Cordoro, Kelly M.; Yagi, Shigeo; Howard, Renee; Kristal, Leonard; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Schaffer, Julie; Maguiness, Sheilagh; Bayliss, Susan; Lara-Corrales, Irene; Garcia-Romero, Maria Teresa; Kelly, Dan; Salas, Maria; Oberste, M. Steven; Nix, W. Allan; Glaser, Carol; Antaya, Richard

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the atypical cutaneous presentations in the coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6)–associated North American enterovirus outbreak of 2011–2012. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case series of pediatric patients who presented with atypical cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) from July 2011 to June 2012 at 7 academic pediatric dermatology centers. Patients were included if they tested positive for CVA6 or if they met clinical criteria for atypical HFMD (an enanthem or exanthem characteristic of HFMD with unusual morphology or extent of cutaneous findings). We collected demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data including history of skin conditions, morphology and extent of exanthem, systemic symptoms, and diagnostic test results. RESULTS: Eighty patients were included in this study (median age 1.5 years, range 4 months–16 years). Seventeen patients were CVA6-positive, and 63 met clinical inclusion criteria. Ninety-nine percent of patients exhibited a vesiculobullous and erosive eruption; 61% of patients had rash involving >10% body surface area. The exanthem had a perioral, extremity, and truncal distribution in addition to involving classic HFMD areas such as palms, soles, and buttocks. In 55% of patients, the eruption was accentuated in areas of eczematous dermatitis, termed “eczema coxsackium.” Other morphologies included Gianotti-Crosti–like (37%), petechial/purpuric (17%) eruptions, and delayed onychomadesis and palm and sole desquamation. There were no patients with serious systemic complications. CONCLUSIONS: The CVA6-associated enterovirus outbreak was responsible for an exanthem potentially more widespread, severe, and varied than classic HFMD that could be confused with bullous impetigo, eczema herpeticum, vasculitis, and primary immunobullous disease. PMID:23776120

  14. Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Cavanagh

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. The virus replicates not only in the epithelium of upper and lower respiratory tract tissues, but also in many tissues along the alimentary tract and elsewhere e.g.

  15. Enteroviruses in Spain: virological and epidemiological studies over 10 years (1988-97).

    PubMed Central

    Trallero, G.; Casas, I.; Tenorio, A.; Echevarria, J. E.; Castellanos, A.; Lozano, A.; Breńa, P. P.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 15,662 clinical samples were analysed for enterovirus (EV) isolation in cell cultures during a 10-year period (1988-97). Furthermore, 210 isolates of EV obtained in primary laboratories within Spain from patients with meningitis were characterized. The total number of EV typed was 758, including 727 non-polio EV and 31 Sabin-like (SL) polioviruses. Twenty-eight EV serotypes were represented. Echoviruses comprised 90% (653/727) of fully typed non-polio EV. The four most prevalent serotypes were echovirus 30, echovirus 9, echovirus 6 and echovirus 4. Echovirus 30 was the main serotype associated with meningitis. Echovirus 9 was the aetiological agent in 20 outbreaks of meningitis while the occurrence of echovirus 6 was localized in 1 year (1997). Coxsackieviruses A and B occurred in 3 and 7% of the non-polio EV respectively. Coxsackievirus B5 presented the relative greater abundance. This paper examines the epidemiology of EV in Spain to serotype level over a 10-year period with special attention to non-polio EV associated with meningitis. PMID:10982074

  16. Development of a Virus Concentration Method and Its Application to Detection of Enterovirus and Norwalk Virus from Coastal Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Akihiro; Ohgaki, Shinichiro

    2002-01-01

    We developed a new procedure for concentration of enteric viruses from water using a negatively charged membrane. Rinsing the membrane with 0.5 mM H2SO4 (pH 3.0) in order to elute cations prior to viral elution with 1 mM NaOH (pH 10.5) promoted poliovirus recovery yields from 33 to 95% when applied to pure water and 38 to 89% when applied to natural seawater from Tokyo Bay, Japan, respectively. This method showed average recovery yields of spiked poliovirus of 62% (n = 8) from 1 liter of artificial seawater. This method showed higher recovery yields (>61%) than that of the conventional method using positively charged membrane (6%) when applied to seawater. This method is also free from beef extract elution, which has an inhibitory effect in the subsequent viral genome detection by reverse transcription-PCR. Naturally occurring Norwalk viruses from 2 liters of Tokyo Bay water in winter and infectious enteroviruses from 2 liters of recreational coastal seawater in summer were detected by using this viral concentration method. PMID:11872447

  17. A combination vaccine comprising of inactivated enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 elicits balanced protective immunity against both viruses.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yicun; Ku, Zhiqiang; Liu, Qingwei; Leng, Qibin; Huang, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which is an infectious disease frequently occurring in children. A bivalent vaccine against both EV71 and CA16 is highly desirable. In the present study, we compare monovalent inactivated EV71, monovalent inactivated CA16, and a combination vaccine candidate comprising of both inactivated EV71 and CA16, for their immunogenicity and in vivo protective efficacy. The two monovalent vaccines were found to elicit serum antibodies that potently neutralized the homologous virus but had no or weak neutralization activity against the heterologous one; in contrast, the bivalent vaccine immunized sera efficiently neutralized both EV71 and CA16. More importantly, passive immunization with the bivalent vaccine protected mice against either EV71 or CA16 lethal infections, whereas the monovalent vaccines only prevented the homologous but not the heterologous challenges. Together, our results demonstrate that the experimental bivalent vaccine comprising of inactivated EV71 and CA16 induces a balanced protective immunity against both EV71 and CA16, and thus provide proof-of-concept for further development of multivalent vaccines for broad protection against HFMD. PMID:24657161

  18. Infectious Causes of Encephalitis and Meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003–2005

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Angela P.; Supawat, Krongkaew; Liamsuwan, Sahas; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Laptikulthum, Somsak; Viriyavejakul, Akravudh; Tantirittisak, Tasanee; Tunlayadechanont, Supoch; Visudtibhan, Anannit; Vasiknanonte, Punnee; Janjindamai, Supachai; Boonluksiri, Pairoj; Rajborirug, Kiatsak; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Khetsuriani, Nino; Dowell, Scott F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is a severe neurologic syndrome. Determining etiology from among ?100 possible agents is difficult. To identify infectious etiologies of encephalitis in Thailand, we conducted surveillance in 7 hospitals during July 2003–August 2005 and selected patients with acute onset of brain dysfunction with fever or hypothermia and with abnormalities seen on neuroimages or electroencephalograms or with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were tested for >30 pathogens. Among 149 case-patients, median age was 12 (range 0–83) years, 84 (56%) were male, and 15 (10%) died. Etiology was confirmed or probable for 54 (36%) and possible or unknown for 95 (64%). Among confirmed or probable etiologies, the leading pathogens were Japanese encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, and Orientia tsutsugamushi. No samples were positive for chikungunya, Nipah, or West Nile viruses; Bartonella henselae; or malaria parasites. Although a broad range of infectious agents was identified, the etiology of most cases remains unknown. PMID:25627940

  19. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies that Recognize a Type2 Specific and a Common Epitope on the Nucleoprotein of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra S. Ristow; Jeanene M. Arnzen

    1989-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies were produced against the nucleoproteins of two strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). One antibody, 1NDW14D, obtained by immunizing BALB\\/c mice with the nucleoprotein from Dworshak IHNV strain DW2, universally recognized IHNV in tests of direct and indirect fluorescence. The second antibody, 2NH105B, obtained by immunization with the nucleoprotein from an IHNV strain isolated from rainbow

  20. New Research Tightens Childhood Paralysis-Enterovirus D68 Link

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and director of the University of California, San Francisco-Abbott Viral Diagnostics and Discovery Center. "Given that ... Lancet Infectious Diseases . SOURCE: University of California, San Francisco, news release, March 30, 2015 HealthDay Copyright (c) ...

  1. Molecular epidemiology of severe respiratory disease by human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses at a tertiary paediatric hospital in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Launes, C; Armero, G; Anton, A; Hernandez, L; Gimferrer, L; Cisneros, C; Jordan, I; Muńoz-Almagro, C

    2015-08-01

    In order to describe the molecular epidemiology of human rhinovirus (HRV) and enterovirus (EV) infection in severely ill children, we studied all episodes of bronchospasm/bronchopneumonia in 6-month-old to 18-year-old patients from January 2010 to May 2012 who required mechanical ventilation. HRV/EVs were detected in 55 (57.3%) of 96 patients, of which 50 (91%) were HRV (HRV-A, 16; HRV-B, 1; HRV-C, 18) and 5 (9%) were EVs (EV-D68, 3). No significant differences in epidemiologic and clinical characteristics were found between different types. In six of the 13 patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation, HRV was the only pathogen detected. PMID:25964153

  2. Failure of indicator bacteria to reflect the occurrence of enteroviruses in marine waters.

    PubMed Central

    Gerba, C P; Goyal, S M; LaBelle, R L; Cech, I; Bodgan, G F

    1979-01-01

    The results of several studies conducted along the upper Texas Gulf coast, where a substantial amount of quantitative virological data were collected, are compared to bacteriological indicators and other environmental factors on a statistical basis. Variables common to all these studies were anlayzed by multivariate regression. Although multivariate analysis indicated that the number of viruses detected in water was related to rainfall, salinity, and total coliforms in the water, the amount of variation in the number of viruses accounted for by these factors was not large enough to make them good predictors. Enteroviruses were detected 43 per cent of the time in recreational waters considered acceptable as judged by coliform standards, and 44 per cent of the time when judged by fecal coliform standards. Enteroviruses were detected 35 per cent of the time in waters which met acceptable standards for shellfish-harvesting. Our failure to correlate the occurrence of enteroviruses in marine waters with indicator bacteria, and the frequent occurrence of enteroviruses in water which met current bacteriological standards, indicates that these standards do not reflect the occurrence of enteroviruses, and perhaps other human pathogenic viruses, in marine waters. PMID:228561

  3. Evaluation of methods using celite to concentrate norovirus, adenovirus and enterovirus from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Nichole E; Haffler, Tyler D; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Rhodes, Eric R

    2013-10-01

    Enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. These viruses are shed in the feces of infected individuals and can accumulate in wastewater, making wastewater a source of a potentially diverse group of enteric viruses. In this study, two procedures were evaluated to concentrate noroviruses, adenoviruses and enteroviruses from primary effluent of wastewater. In the first procedure, indigenous enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses were concentrated using celite (diatomaceous earth) followed by centrifugation through a 30K MWCO filter and nucleic acid extraction. The second procedure used celite concentration followed by nucleic acid extraction only. Virus quantities were measured using qPCR. A second set of primary effluent samples were seeded with Coxsackievirus A7, Coxsackievirus B1, poliovirus 1 or enterovirus 70 before concentration and processed through both procedures for recovery evaluation of enterovirus species representatives. The pairing of the single step extraction procedure with the celite concentration process resulted in 47-98% recovery of examined viruses, while the celite concentration process plus additional centrifugal concentration before nucleic acid extraction showed reduced recovery (14-47%). The celite concentration process followed by a large volume nucleic acid extraction technique proved to be an effective procedure for recovering these important human pathogens from wastewater. PMID:23727118

  4. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  5. Immunodeficient Mouse Models with Different Disease Profiles by In Vivo Infection with the Same Clinical Isolate of Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chun-Che; Liou, An-Ting; Chang, Ya-Shu; Wu, Szu-Yao; Chang, Chih-Shin; Lee, Chien-Kuo; Kung, John T.; Tu, Pang-Hsien; Yu, Ya-Yen; Lin, Chi-Yung; Lin, Jen-Shiou

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Like poliovirus infection, severe infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause neuropathology. Unlike poliovirus, EV71 is often associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Here we established three mouse models for experimental infection with the same clinical isolate of EV71. The NOD/SCID mouse model is unique for the development of skin rash, an HFMD-like symptom. While the NOD/SCID mice developed limb paralysis and death at near-100% efficiency, the gamma interferon receptor knockout (ifngr KO) and stat-1 knockout mice exhibited paralysis and death rates near 78% and 30%, respectively. Productive infection with EV71 depends on the viral dose, host age, and inoculation route. Levels of infectious EV71, and levels of VP1-specific RNA and protein in muscle, brain, and spinal cord, were compared side by side between the NOD/SCID and stat-1 knockout models before, during, and after disease onset. Spleen fibrosis and muscle degeneration are common in the NOD/SCID and stat-1 knockout models. The main differences between these two models include their disease manifestations and cytokine/chemokine profiles. The pathology of the NOD/SCID model includes (i) inflammation and expression of viral VP1 antigen in muscle, (ii) increased neutrophil levels and decreased eosinophil and lymphocyte levels, and (iii) hair loss and skin rash. The characteristic pathology of the stat-1 knockout model includes (i) a strong tropism of EV71 for the central nervous system, (ii) detection of VP1 protein in the Purkinje layer of cerebellar cortex, pons, brain stem, and spinal cord, (iii) amplification of microglial cells, and (iv) dystrophy of intestinal villi. Our comparative studies on these new models with oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection underscored the contribution of host immunity, including the gamma interferon receptor, to EV71 pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE In the past decade, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major threat to public health in the Asia-Pacific region. Disease manifestations include subclinical infection, common-cold-like syndromes, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), uncomplicated brain stem encephalitis, severe dysregulation of the autonomic nerve system, fatal pulmonary edema, and cardiopulmonary collapse. To date, no effective vaccine or treatment is available. A user-friendly and widely accessible animal model for researching EV71 infection and pathogenesis is urgently needed by the global community, both in academia and in industry. PMID:25142603

  6. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... worms Last Updated 5/5/2015 Source Immunizations ? Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should ...

  7. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis 

    E-print Network

    Sprott, L. R.

    1998-11-30

    Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) is a complex of disease syndromes occuring throughout the United States and the other major cattle-producing areas of the world. It affects cattle and some wild ruminants. This publication describes...

  8. Fight against infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Soda, K; Kamakura, M; Kitamura, K

    1996-08-01

    During early Meiji era in Japan, there were frequent epidemics of fatal acute communicable diseases such as cholera, dysentery and smallpox, and preventive measures and preparations for acute infectious diseases were urgently needed. Together with improvement of scientific preparations, the Communicable Disease Prevention Law was promulgated in 1897. Then gradually until 1940's, the focus of preventive measures have been shifted from acute infectious diseases to chronic ones, particularly tuberculosis. After the World War II, except the short period of social confusion, major legally-defined communicable diseases had been decreasing rapidly mainly due to the use of antibiotics and improvement of environmental sanitation. At the same time, the introduction of preventive vaccination marked a new era for the prevention of infectious diseases and was largely responsible for the remarkable decrease of infant mortality in Japan. Recently the concept of defense by vaccination against infectious diseases has evolved from group-oriented to individual-oriented, so that the Preventive Vaccination Law was drastically revised in 1994. Currently, effective counter-measures against newly emerged infectious diseases, as viral hepatitis, institution-acquired infection, viral hemorrhagic fever etc., have been implemented. For the future, improvement of infections disease surveillance, vaccine development and expansion of vaccination coverage along with monitoring side-effects, preventive health education on AIDS/STDs, addressing the special needs of foreigners living in Japan and international collaboration for disease control abroad are all vital to the success of protection of the public's health from infectious diseases in Japan. PMID:8800275

  9. Characterization of a novel porcine enterovirus in wild boars in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Boros, Ákos; Nemes, Csaba; Pankovics, Péter; Bíró, Hunor; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) are members of the family Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus. Until now, only three different PEV genotypes (PEV-9 and -10, and PEV-3H/PEV-14) have been detected in domestic pigs, and there is no information about the presence of PEVs in wild animals. Here, we identify and characterize the complete genomes of PEV originated from 5 of 10 (50%) of wild boar (Sus scrofa) piglets by RT-PCR and pyrosequencing. Wild boar/WBD/2011/HUN (JN807387) PEV showed only 67% amino acid identity in VP1 compared to the most closely related prototype PEV-3H/PEV-14. Wild boar enterovirus represents a novel PEV genotype, provisionally called PEV-15. PMID:22350652

  10. Conformational Plasticity of the 2A Proteinase from Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qixu; Yameen, Muhammad; Liu, Weihua; Gao, Zhenting; Li, Yaozong; Peng, Xuanjia; Cai, Yaxian; Wu, Caiming; Zheng, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The 2A proteinase (2Apro) is an enterovirally encoded cysteine protease that plays essential roles in both the processing of viral precursor polyprotein and the hijacking of host cell translation and other processes in the virus life cycle. Crystallographic studies of 2Apro from enterovirus 71 (EV71) and its interaction with the substrate are reported here. EV71 2Apro was comprised of an N-terminal domain of a four-stranded antiparallel ? sheet and a C-terminal domain of a six-stranded antiparallel ? barrel with a tightly bound zinc atom. Unlike in other 2Apro structures, there is an open cleft across the surface of the protein in an open conformation. As demonstrated by the crystallographic studies and modeling of the complex structure, the open cleft could be fitted with the substrate. On comparison 2Apro of EV71 to those of the human rhinovirus 2 and coxsackievirus B4, the open conformation could be closed with a hinge motion in the bII2 and cII ? strands. This was supported by molecular dynamic simulation. The structural variation among different 2Apro structures indicates a conformational flexibility in the substrate-binding cleft. The open structure provides an accessible framework for the design and development of therapeutics against the viral target. PMID:23616646

  11. Cell Surface Vimentin Is an Attachment Receptor for Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ning; Cong, Haolong; Tian, Hongchao; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Wenliang; Song, Lei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly transmissible pathogenic agent that causes severe central nervous system diseases in infected infants and young children. Here, we reported that EV71 VP1 protein could bind to vimentin intermediate filaments expressed on the host cell surface. Soluble vimentin or an antibody against vimentin could inhibit the binding of EV71 to host cells. Accompanied with the reduction of vimentin expression on the cell surface, the binding of EV71 to cells was remarkably decreased. Further evidence showed that the N terminus of vimentin is responsible for the interaction between EV71 and vimentin. These results indicated that vimentin on the host cell surface may serve as an attachment site that mediated the initial binding and subsequently increased the infectivity of EV71. IMPORTANCE This study delivers important findings on the roles of vimentin filaments in relation to EV71 infection and provides information that not only improves our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis but also presents us with potentially new strategies for the treatment of diseases caused by EV71 infections. PMID:24623428

  12. An Interaction between Glutathione and the Capsid Is Required for the Morphogenesis of C-Cluster Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Liu, Ying; Wang, Chunling; Strauss, Michael; Rehage, Nina; Chen, Ying-Han; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal; Hogle, James; Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen; Paul, Aniko V.; Jiang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular thiol playing an essential role in preserving a reduced cellular environment. Cellular GSH levels can be efficiently reduced by the GSH biosynthesis inhibitor, L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). The aim of our study was to determine the role of GSH in the growth of two C-cluster enteroviruses, poliovirus type 1 (PV1) and coxsackievirus A20 (CAV20). Our results show that the growth of both PV1 and CAV20 is strongly inhibited by BSO and can be partially reversed by the addition of GSH. BSO has no effect on viral protein synthesis or RNA replication but it strikingly reduces the accumulation of 14S pentamers in infected cells. GSH-pull down assays show that GSH directly interacts with capsid precursors and mature virus made in the absence of BSO whereas capsid precursors produced under GSH-depletion do not bind to GSH. In particular, the loss of binding of GSH may debilitate the stability of 14S pentamers, resulting in their failure to assemble into mature virus. Immunofluorescence cell imaging demonstrated that GSH-depletion did not affect the localization of viral capsid proteins to the replication complex. PV1 BSO resistant (BSOr) mutants evolved readily during passaging of the virus in the presence of BSO. Structural analyses revealed that the BSOr mutations, mapping to VP1 and VP3 capsid proteins, are primarily located at protomer/protomer interfaces. BSOr mutations might, in place of GSH, aid the stability of 14S particles that is required for virion maturation. Our observation that BSOr mutants are more heat resistant and need less GSH than wt virus to be protected from heat inactivation suggests that they possess a more stable capsid. We propose that the role of GSH during enterovirus morphogenesis is to stabilize capsid structures by direct interaction with capsid proteins both during and after the formation of mature virus particles. PMID:24722315

  13. Characterization of full-length enterovirus 71 strains from severe and mild disease patients in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomei; Zhu, Chunfeng; Bao, Wanguo; Zhao, Ke; Niu, Junqi; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Wenyan

    2012-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has been a leading cause of childhood infection in China since 2008. Epidemic and molecular characteristics of HFMD have been examined in many areas of China, including the central and southern regions. However, clinical and genetic characterization of EV71 in the northeastern region of China is scarce. In this study, a series of analyses were performed on seven full-length EV71 sequences from HFMD patients who had either severe or mild disease. We have determined that these seven circulating EV71 viruses from Changchun, China are actually complex recombinant viruses involving multiple type A human enterovirus (HEV). Classified as EV71 subtype C4 (EV71 C4), these Changchun EV71 viruses contain genetic recombination events between the CA4, CA5, EV71B4 and EV71C1 strains. Most of the structural protein region (P1) of these viruses resembled that of the prototype EV71 C1 strains. The non-structural protein domains (P2 and P3) showed a high degree of similarity with CA4, CA5 and EV71 B4 in different regions. The 5'UTR had unclassified recombination,while partial 3D region of these viruses showed a high degree of similarity to CA16. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length or partial sequences of isolates from severe or mild disease patients in Changchun always formed a single cluster in various phylogenetic analyses of different genomic regions, suggesting that all seven strains originated from one single common ancestor. There was no correlation between viral genomic sequence and virulence. Thus, we found that circulating recombinant forms of EV71 are prevalent among HFMD patients in Northeastern China. The existence of a unique cluster of EV71 related viruses in Northeast China has important implications for vaccine development that would address the increasing prevalence of HFMD. PMID:22479324

  14. Emergent Infectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Khairallah, Moncef; Jelliti, Bechir; Jenzeri, Salah

    2009-01-01

    Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management. PMID:20404989

  15. 75 FR 1119 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ...Infectious Diseases (Leishmaniasis), VA Form 10-0476. b. Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (Malaria), VA Form 10-0476a. OMB Control Number: 2900-New (VA Form 10-0476). Type of Review: New collection....

  16. Why infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, John G

    2014-09-15

    Infectious diseases is a broad discipline that is almost unique in contemporary medicine with its ability to cure and prevent disease, to identify specific disease causes (microbes), and to deal with diverse, sometimes massive outbreaks. The value of the infectious disease practitioner is now magnified by the crisis of antibiotic resistance, the expanding consequences of international travel, the introduction of completely new pathogen diagnostics, and healthcare reform with emphasis on infection prevention and cost in dollars and lives. Infectious disease careers have great personal rewards to the practitioner based on these observations. It is unfortunate that we have been so effective in our work, but relatively ineffective in convincing the healthcare system of this value. PMID:25151484

  17. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James (York, PA)

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  18. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye).

    PubMed

    Angelos, John A

    2015-03-01

    As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The discoveries of Mor bovoculi and reports of IBK associated with Mycoplasma spp without concurrent Mor bovis or Mor bovoculi have raised new questions into the roles that other organisms may play in IBK pathogenesis. PMID:25576389

  19. EFFECT OF PARTICULATES ON DISINFECTION OF ENTEROVIRUSES IN WATER BY CHLORINE DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inactivation kinetics of ClO2 on two enteroviruses, poliovirus 1 (Mahoney) and coxsackie virus A9, and an enteric indicator of fecal pollution, Escherichia coli, were examined in laboratory studies. In addition, the disinfecting ability of ClO2 as affected by particulates (bo...

  20. [Enteroviruses and bacteriophages elimination from wastewater on buildings of Bortnichi aeration station].

    PubMed

    Poniatovs'ky?, V A; Bobyr, V V; Shyrobokov, V P

    2014-01-01

    The research contains data about virologic and molecular-genetic evaluation of sewage samples, obtained in 2010-2011. The efficacy of Bortnichi aeration station in an eliminating of viral agents has been evaluated. An efficiency of PCR as a method of sewage sample analysis has been proved, that results an enchanced evaluation of enteroviruses contamination in different environmental objects. PMID:25000731

  1. Cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5B by enterovirus 3C proteases

    PubMed Central

    de Breyne, Sylvain; Bonderoff, Jennifer M.; Chumakov, Konstantin M.; Lloyd, Richard E.; Hellen, Christopher U. T.

    2008-01-01

    The enteroviruses poliovirus (PV), Coxsackie B virus (CVB) and rhinovirus (HRV) are members of Picornaviridae that inhibit host cell translation early in infection. Enterovirus translation soon predominates in infected cells, but eventually also shuts off. This complex pattern of modulation of translation suggests regulation by a multifactorial mechanism. We report here that eIF5B is proteolytically cleaved during PV and CVB infection of cultured cells, beginning at 3 hours post-infection and increasing thereafter. Recombinant PV, CVB and HRV 3Cpro cleaved purified native rabbit eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 5B in vitro at a single site (VVEQ?G, equivalent to VMEQ?G479in human eIF5B) that is consistent with the cleavage specificity of enterovirus 3C proteases. Cleavage separates the N-terminal domain of eIF5B from its essential conserved central GTPase and C-terminal domains. 3Cpro-mediated cleavage of eIF5B may thus play an accessory role in the shut-off of translation that occurs in enterovirus-infected cells. PMID:18572216

  2. [Detection of human enteroviruses with real-time PCR assay using TaqMan fluorescent probe].

    PubMed

    Le?, Katarzyna; Przybylski, Maciej; Dzieciatkowski, Tomasz; M?ynarczyk, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    Infections with human enteroviruses are common worldwide and cause a wide range of signs and symptoms. Nowadays in current diagnostics procedures older virological methods, such virus isolation in a cell cultures and seroneutralisation assay, are replaced with molecular biology tests. The aim of the study was development of real-time PCR assay for detection of human adenoviruses. DNA isolated from MK2 cell line infected with nineteen different enterovirus strains was used for development of a qualitative real-time PCR assay using primers targeting a conserved region of the 5'UTR region and a specific TaqMan probe. The analytical sensitivity of real-time PCR assay was tested using serial dilutions of Coxackie A9 cDNA in range between 10 degrees and 10(-8). For comparison typical end-point detected RT-PCR for enterovirus detection with the same cDNA dilutions was made. The sensitivity of novel method was about ten thousand-fold higher than older one. The conclusion is that real-time PCR is very advisable in diagnostics of diseases caused with enteroviruses. The high level of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and rapidity provided by this assay are favorable for the use in the detection of enteroviral RNA in clinical specimens, especially from neuroinfections. PMID:21114017

  3. New Approaches for Enhanced Detection of Enteroviruses from Hawaiian Environmental Waters

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Christina; Tong, Hsin-I; Wang, Zi; Allmann, Erin; Lu, Yuanan

    2012-01-01

    Health risks associated with sewage-contaminated recreational waters are of important public health concern. Reliable water monitoring systems are therefore crucial. Current recreational water quality criteria rely predominantly on the enumeration of bacterial indicators, while potentially dangerous viral pathogens often remain undetected. Human enteric viruses have been proposed as alternative indicators; however, their detection is often hindered by low viral concentrations present in the environment. Reported here are novel and effective laboratory protocols for viral concentration and highly sensitive and optimized RT-PCR for the efficient detection of enteroviruses, an important enteric virus subset, in Hawaiian environmental waters. Eighteen published enterovirus primer pairs were comparatively evaluated for detection sensitivity. The primer set exhibiting the lowest detection limit under optimized conditions, EQ-1/EQ-2, was validated in a field survey of 22 recreational bodies of water located around the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Eleven sites tested positive for enterovirus, indicating fecal contamination at these locations. As an additional means of viral concentration, shellfish were collected from 9 sample sites and subjected to dissection, RNA extraction, and subsequent RT-PCR. Shellfish tissue from 6 of 9 sites tested positive for enterovirus. The techniques implemented here are valuable resources to aid accurate reflection of microbial contamination in Hawaii’s environmental waters. PMID:22567083

  4. Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus d68 from 2013 to 2014 in Philippines.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Yuki; Chaimongkol, Natthawan; Okamoto, Michiko; Imamura, Tadatsugu; Saito, Mariko; Tamaki, Raita; Saito, Mayuko; Lupisan, Socorro P; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been recognized as an important cause of acute respiratory infections. Here we report the molecular epidemiology of EV-D68 in Philippines from 2013 to 2014; we found cases in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan and found new strains in the country. PMID:25568441

  5. Sequence analysis of a porcine enterovirus serotype 1 isolate: relationships with other picornaviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Doherty; Daniel Todd; Neil McFerran; Elizabeth M. Hoey

    1999-01-01

    The majority of the genomic sequence of a porcine enterovirus serotype 1 (PEV-1) isolate was determined. The genome was found to contain a large open reading frame which encoded a leader protein prior to the capsid protein region. This showed no sequence identity to other picornavirus leader regions and the sequence data suggested that it does not possess proteolytic activity.

  6. Cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5B by enterovirus 3C proteases.

    PubMed

    de Breyne, Sylvain; Bonderoff, Jennifer M; Chumakov, Konstantin M; Lloyd, Richard E; Hellen, Christopher U T

    2008-08-15

    The enteroviruses poliovirus (PV), Coxsackie B virus (CVB) and rhinovirus (HRV) are members of Picornaviridae that inhibit host cell translation early in infection. Enterovirus translation soon predominates in infected cells, but eventually also shuts off. This complex pattern of modulation of translation suggests regulation by a multifactorial mechanism. We report here that eIF5B is proteolytically cleaved during PV and CVB infection of cultured cells, beginning at 3 hours post-infection and increasing thereafter. Recombinant PV, CVB and HRV 3Cpro cleaved purified native rabbit eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 5B in vitro at a single site (VVEQG, equivalent to VMEQG479 in human eIF5B) that is consistent with the cleavage specificity of enterovirus 3C proteases. Cleavage separates the N-terminal domain of eIF5B from its essential conserved central GTPase and C-terminal domains. 3Cpro-mediated cleavage of eIF5B may thus play an accessory role in the shutoff of translation that occurs in enterovirus-infected cells. PMID:18572216

  7. THERMAL AND WATER SOURCE EFFECTS UPON THE STABILITY OF ENTEROVIRUSES IN SURFACE FRESHWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term survival of three human enterovirus serotypes, coxsackievirus B3, echovirus 7, and poliovirus 1 was examined in samples of surface freshwater collected from five sites of physically different character. hese were an artificial lake created by damming a creek, a smal...

  8. Survey of human enterovirus occurrence in fresh and marine surface waters on Long Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Vaughn; E. F. Landry; M. Z. Thomas; T. J. Vicale; W. F. Penello

    1979-01-01

    A variety of surface water systems, including a lake, a creek, and two marine embayments, were analyzed on a monthly basis for indigenous human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. Findings are discussed in terms of the probable pollution sources to each system and their relationship to data from previous studies.

  9. Web Sites about Infectious Disease Web Sites about Infectious Disease

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Web Sites about Infectious Disease Web Sites about Infectious Disease Stanford Center for Tuberculosis Research-Site Links http://molepi.stanford.edu/tblinks.html Virology on the World Wide Web http://www.idsociety.org/ file:///C|/Program%20Files/Adobe/Adobe%20Dreamweav...nks/Web%20Sites%20about%20Infectious%20Disease

  10. Controlling Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

  11. Seasonal infectious disease epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas C. Grassly; Christophe Fraser

    2006-01-01

    formally examined. This paper examines the causes and consequences of seasonality, and in so doing derives several new results concerning vaccination strategy and the interpretation of disease outbreak data. It begins with a brief review of published scientific studies in support of different causes of seasonality in infectious diseases of humans, identifying four principal mechanisms and their association with different

  12. Splenorrhaphy in infectious mononucleosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Brenner; Kerry S. Bergman; David A. Schwed

    1994-01-01

    Prior reports suggest that in infectious mononucleosis spontaneous splenic hemorrhage requires removal rather than preservation since the inflamed spleen is too soft and fragile to be safely retained. We describe a 17-year-old girl who had successful splenorrhaphy following complete rupture. Blood loss was 3 l. Salvage succeeded because of both pursestring absorbable mesh repair and argon beam coagulation. Her spleen,

  13. Immunology Infectious disease

    E-print Network

    Schüler, Axel

    asthma we hope to enlighten the exact mecha- nisms of induction of pathogenicity. Infection with A yeastKeywords Immunology Infectious disease Asthma risk factor » Dr. Uwe Müller The yeast-like organism Cryptococ- cus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen for immunocompromised patients. Infection

  14. STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS

    E-print Network

    Appendix G STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS STATISTICAL ROADMAP Prepared in Support of: CDC for Environmental Health 1 #12;Statistical Methods for Analyzing Data Collected During the Churchill County Study 1 with the complex statistical analysis, investigators from the CDC contracted with Battelle for their assistance

  15. The complete consensus sequence of coxsackievirus B6 and generation of infectious clones by long RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Martino, T A; Tellier, R; Petric, M; Irwin, D M; Afshar, A; Liu, P P

    1999-10-01

    The full length sequence for the human pathogen coxsackievirus B6 (CVB6, Schmitt strain) has been determined. We used long RT-PCR to generate full length DNA amplicon of CVB6, and then directly sequenced the amplicons. One-step cloning of the full length amplicon enabled us to obtain an infectious clone of CVB6. RNA generated from CVB6 amplicon DNA or CVB6 clones, by transcription with T7 RNA polymerase, was demonstrated to be infectious upon transfection into HeLa cells in vitro. The CVB6 genome is characteristic of enteroviruses, with a 5'-non-translated region (743 nucleotides) followed by an open reading frame (encoding a 2184 amino acid polyprotein) and a 3'-non-translated region (100 nucleotides) and polyadenylated tail. The predicted amino acid sequence of CVB6 clustered with the other CVB serotypes and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). PMID:10500285

  16. Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, T P; Eterradossi, N; Toquin, D; Meulemans, G

    2000-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) (Gumboro disease) has been described throughout the world, and the socio-economic significance of the disease is considerable world-wide. Various forms of the disease have been described, but typing remains unclear, since antigenic and pathotypic criteria are used indiscriminately, and the true incidence of different types is difficult to determine. Moreover, the infection, when not fatal, leads to a degree of immunosuppression which is often difficult to measure. Finally, the control measures used are subject to variations, and seldom follow a specific or standardised plan. In the context of expanding international trade, the authors provide an overview of existing knowledge on the subject to enhance available information on the epidemiology of IBD, the identification of reliable viral markers for diagnosis, and the implementation of specific control measures to ensure a global and co-ordinated approach to the disease. PMID:10935278

  17. Interleukin-12 in infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Bistoni, F

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that is crucially involved in a wide range of infectious diseases. In several experimental models of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infection, endogenous IL-12 is required for early control of infection and for generation and perhaps maintenance of acquired protective immunity, directed by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and mediated by phagocytes. Although the relative roles of IL-12 and gamma interferon in Th1-cell priming may be to a significant extent pathogen dependent, common to most infections is that IL-12 regulates the magnitude of the gamma interferon response at the initiation of infection, thus potentiating natural resistance, favoring Th1-cell development; and inhibiting Th2 responses. Treatment of animals with IL-12, either alone or as a vaccine adjuvant, has been shown to prevent disease by many of the same infectious agents, by stimulating innate resistance or promoting specific reactivity. Although IL-12 may enhance protective memory responses in vaccination or in combination with antimicrobial chemotherapy, it is yet unclear whether exogenous IL-12 can alter established responses in humans. Continued investigation into the possible application of IL-12 therapy to human infections is warranted by the role of the cytokine in inflammation, immunopathology, and autoimmunity. PMID:9336665

  18. Downregulation of MicroRNA miR-526a by Enterovirus Inhibits RIG-I-Dependent Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Changzhi; He, Xiang; Zheng, Zirui; Zhang, Zhe; Wei, Congwen; Guan, Kai; Hou, Lihua; Zhang, Buchang; Zhu, Lin; Cao, Yuan; Zhang, Yanhong; Cao, Ye; Ma, Shengli; Wang, Penghao; Zhang, Pingping; Xu, Quanbin; Ling, Youguo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an intracellular RNA virus sensor that induces type I interferon-mediated host-protective innate immunity against viral infection. Although cylindromatosis (CYLD) has been shown to negatively regulate innate antiviral response by removing K-63-linked polyubiquitin from RIG-I, the regulation of its expression and the underlying regulatory mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Here we show that RIG-I activity is regulated by inhibition of CYLD expression mediated by the microRNA miR-526a. We found that viral infection specifically upregulates miR-526a expression in macrophages via interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-dependent mechanisms. In turn, miR-526a positively regulates virus-triggered type I interferon (IFN-I) production, thus suppressing viral replication, the underlying mechanism of which is the enhancement of RIG-I K63-linked ubiquitination by miR-526a via suppression of the expression of CYLD. Remarkably, virus-induced miR-526a upregulation and CYLD downregulation are blocked by enterovirus 71 (EV71) 3C protein, while ectopic miR-526a expression inhibits the replication of EV71 virus. The collective results of this study suggest a novel mechanism of the regulation of RIG-I activity during RNA virus infection by miR-526a and suggest a novel mechanism for the evasion of the innate immune response controlled by EV71. IMPORTANCE RNA virus infection upregulates the expression of miR-526a in macrophages through IRF-dependent pathways. In turn, miR-526a positively regulates virus-triggered type I IFN production and inhibits viral replication, the underlying mechanism of which is the enhancement of RIG-I K-63 ubiquitination by miR-526a via suppression of the expression of CYLD. Remarkably, virus-induced miR-526a upregulation and CYLD downregulation are blocked by enterovirus 71 (EV71) 3C protein; cells with overexpressed miR-526a were highly resistant to EV71 infection. The collective results of this study suggest a novel mechanism of the regulation of RIG-I activity during RNA virus infection by miR-526a and propose a novel mechanism for the evasion of the innate immune response controlled by EV71. PMID:25056901

  19. On the role of reinfection in the transmission of infectious diseases

    E-print Network

    Schinazi, Rinaldo

    On the role of reinfection in the transmission of infectious diseases Rinaldo B. Schinazi LATP, infectious diseases, tuberculosis, spatial stochastic model 1. Introduction. Tuberculosis is usually acquired of the two types of reinfection in the spread of an infectious disease such as TB. We introduce a spatial

  20. Bedbugs and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance. PMID:21288844

  1. Vaccines and infectious disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Fletcher; Pierre Saliou

    \\u000a The exponential growth in vaccine research over the last decade, in which many infectious diseases now appear to be amenable\\u000a to prevention through immunization, is built upon three factors: first, a richer understanding of the immune response (in\\u000a particular, cellular immunity), second, a greater finesse in understanding the molecular biology of pathogenicity, and third,\\u000a an expanding use of genetic engineering

  2. Infectious Disease in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guzman; Jurado; Kron

    1995-06-01

    The republic of Ecuador, which has a population of 10 million, is one of the smallest of the Andean countries in South America. Although it covers only an area of 110,000 square miles, it yields an extraordinary diversity of infectious diseases. Public health problems reflect socioeconomic realities and uniquely diverse climates, cultures, and geography. Equador extends from the Galapagos Islands 600 miles to the west, to inhabited Andean highlands with altitudes over 15,000 feet, and to both the coastal and Amazonian rain forests. Health statistics in Ecuador are widely variable by western standards. Life expectancy is 64-68 years, and infant mortality rates are up to 60 per 1000. The physical and geographic barriers to health care facilities are highly variable in different provinces. This was evidenced dramatically by recent death rates from cholera in 1991-92, which ranged from 0% in Guayaquil to over 50% in isolated highland villages or in the Oriente (eastern provinces). Major cities, provincial borders, and selected topographic features are illustrated in the accompanying map of Ecuador (Fig. 1.) This review reports data on some of the major infectious diseases existent in Ecuador. Emphasis is on the viral, bacterial, protozoal, or helminthic diseases, which are uncommon elsewhere in the world, but which are prevalent, or especially important to public health officials in Ecuador. Table 1 lists reportable disease categories in Ecuador, 1986-1993. Recognition of the diversity of infectious agents endemic to Ecuador may prove useful for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases in international travelers. PMID:9815368

  3. Infectious Gastroenteritis and Colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M. Newton; Christina M. Surawicz

    \\u000a In this chapter, we discuss the epidemiology, etiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diarrhea in immunocompetent\\u000a persons. The features of small intestinal and ileocolonic disease as related to possible causative agents are presented. Additionally,\\u000a there is an emphasis on specific pathogens, with a comprehensive review of viral, bacterial, and parasitic causes of diarrhea.\\u000a We then discuss the intricacies of

  4. Critical Roles of Glucocorticoid-Induced Leucine Zipper in Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV)-Induced Suppression of Type I Interferon Expression and Enhancement of IBDV Growth in Host Cells via Interaction with VP4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhonghua; Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Xiang; Li, Xiaoqi; Cao, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive avian disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). Although IBDV-induced immunosuppression has been well established, the underlying exact molecular mechanism for such induction is not very clear. We report here the identification of IBDV VP4 as an interferon suppressor by interaction with the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) in host cells. We found that VP4 suppressed the expression of type I interferon in HEK293T cells after tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) treatment or Sendai virus (SeV) infection and in DF-1 cells after poly(I·C) stimulation. In addition, the VP4-induced suppression of type I interferon could be completely abolished by knockdown of GILZ by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Furthermore, knockdown of GILZ significantly inhibited IBDV growth in host cells, and this inhibition could be markedly mitigated by anti-alpha/beta interferon antibodies in the cell cultures (P < 0.001). Thus, VP4-induced suppression of type I interferon is mediated by interaction with GILZ, a protein that appears to inhibit cell responses to viral infection. PMID:23152515

  5. Immunoserology of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    James, K

    1990-01-01

    The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated. PMID:2187592

  6. [The results of monitoring enterovirus circulation circulation among the population and in the environment of Tula Province over 10 years (1985-1994)].

    PubMed

    Popova, T A; Ovechkina, I N; Zueva, N N; Lobkovski?, A G

    1997-01-01

    The study of the isolation rate of polioviruses and other enteroviruses in patients with different diagnosed diseases, among healthy child population, as well as the circulation of these viruses in the environment was carried out on the territory of Tula Province for the period of 1985-1994. The epidemiological analysis of the data obtained in this study are presented. The study revealed that the vaccinal prophylaxis of poliomyelitis, carried out for the period of many years, did not lead to the elimination of poliovirus strains, differing in their genetic properties from vaccine strains, on the territory of Tula Province. A decrease in the immune stratum with respect to polioviruses of types I, II and III, observed in 1985-1994, was accompanied by the circulation of polioviruses of these three types among the population. PMID:9221654

  7. Viral kinetics of Enterovirus 71 in human abdomyosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; He, Ya-Qing; Yi, Li-Na; Zan, Hong; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; He, Ming-Liang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To characterise the viral kinetics of enterovirus 71 (EV71). METHODS: In this study, human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells were infected with EV71 at different multiplicity of infection (MOI). After infection, the cytopathic effect (CPE) was monitored and recorded using a phase contrast microscope associated with a CCD camera at different time points post viral infection (0, 6, 12, 24 h post infection). Cell growth and viability were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in both EV71 infected and mock infected cells at each time point. EV71 replication kinetics in RD cells was determined by measuring the total intracellular viral RNA with real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Also, the intracellular and extracellular virion RNA was isolated and quantified at different time points to analyze the viral package and secretion. The expression of viral protein was determined by analyze the levels of viral structure protein VP1 with Western blotting. RESULTS: EV71 infection induced a significant CPE as early as 6 h post infection (p.i.) in both RD cells infected with high ratio of virus (MOI 10) and low ratio of virus (MOI 1). In EV71 infected cells, the cell growth was inhibited and the number of viable cells was rapidly decreased in the later phase of infection. EV71 virions were uncoated immediately after entry. The intracellular viral RNA began to increase at as early as 3 h p.i. and the exponential increase was found between 3 h to 6 h p.i. in both infected groups. For viral structure protein synthesis, results from western-blot showed that intracellular viral protein VP1 could not be detected until 6 h p.i. in the cells infected at either MOI 1 or MOI 10; and reached the peak at 9 h p.i. in the cells infected with EV71 at both MOI 1 and MOI 10. Simultaneously, the viral package and secretion were also actively processed as the virus underwent rapid replication. The viral package kinetics was comparable for both MOI 1 and MOI 10 infected groups. It was observed that at 3 h p.i, the intracellular virions obviously decreased, thereafter, the intracellular virions began to increase and enter into the exponential phase until 12 h p.i. The total amounts of intracellular virons were decreased from 12 to 24 h p.i. Consistent with this result, the increase of virus secretion occurred during 6 to 12 h p.i. CONCLUSION: The viral kinetics of EV71 were established by analyzing viral replication, package and secretion in RD cells. PMID:22039330

  8. Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. PMID:23365758

  9. Detection of naturally occurring enteroviruses in waters by reverse transcription, polymerase chain reaction, and hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Kopecka, H; Dubrou, S; Prevot, J; Marechal, J; López-Pila, J M

    1993-01-01

    Comparison in virus-seeded mineral water of three detection methods for enteroviruses, direct hybridization, cell culture, and reverse transcription into cDNA followed by polymerase chain reaction and hybridization, showed that the last procedure was 10 to 1,000 times more sensitive than detection by cell culture and 10(5) to 10(7) times more sensitive than direct hybridization. The presence of naturally occurring enteroviruses was also demonstrated in activated sludge and in concentrated and non-concentrated surface water samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-hybridization. However, in activated sludge and in concentrated surface waters, enzymatic amplification was sometimes inhibited by contaminants. Images PMID:7683857

  10. [Outbreak of acute enterovirus intestinal infection in Sakhalin region in August 2010].

    PubMed

    Demina, A V; Ternovo?, V A; Darizhapov, B B; Iakubich, T V; Sementsova, A O; Demina, O K; Protopopova, E V; Loktev, V B; Agafonov, A P; Netesov, S V

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of cases of acute intestinal infections in the Sakhalin region of Russia in August, 2010 is described. Epidemiological and molecular biological studies were conducted. After initial PCR screening and determining the nucleotide sequences of the positive samples the following enteroviruses were found: Coxsackie A2 - 42 samples (45%), Coxsackie A4--31 sample (34%), Enterovirus 71--6 samples (6,5%), Coxsackievirus B5--6 samples (6,5%), Coxsackie B3--4 samples (4%) and Coxsackie B1--4 samples (4%). The phylogenetic analysis of sequences showed that the closest analogues for the nucleotide sequences of these genotypes were previously identified in Japan, Korea and China in 2000-2010. PMID:22642180

  11. Enterovirus isolation from children with acute respiratory infections and presumptive identification by a modified microplate method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsumi Mizuta; Chieko Abiko; Hiroko Goto; Toshio Murata; Shoko Murayama

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a modified microplate method, utilizing HEF, HEp-2, Vero, MDCK and newly introduced RD-18S and GMK cell lines, for virus isolation.Methods: From June to October 2001, 723 throat swab specimens taken from children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) were inoculated onto these cells. To analyze cell sensitivity, we also inoculated 20 serotypes of stocked enteroviruses.Results: During the period,

  12. New PCR Test That Recognizes All Human Prototypes of Enterovirus: Application for Clinical Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bourlet, Thomas; Caro, Valerie; Minjolle, Sophie; Jusselin, Isabelle; Pozzetto, Bruno; Crainic, Radu; Colimon, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new PCR test (Penter RT-PCR) that recognizes all 64 prototypes of enterovirus. Sixty clinical samples were analyzed in parallel with this Penter RT-PCR and previously described PCR tests: 34 and 32 samples tested positive, respectively. This assay is suitable for use in clinical diagnosis, and its ability to amplify all known serotypes makes it more useful than other consensus PCR tests. PMID:12682177

  13. Role of sediment in the persistence of enteroviruses in the estuarine environment.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E M; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

    1978-01-01

    The survival of four enteroviruses commonly found in sewage effluents was examined when the viruses were adsorped to marine sediments in estuarine water and compared with virus survival in estuarine water alone. Echovirus 1, coxsackieviruses B3 and A9, and poliovirus 1 survived longer when associated with marine sediment. When the estuarine water was polluted with secondarily treated sewage effluent, virus survived for prolonged periods in sediments, but not in the overlaying estuarine water. PMID:206204

  14. The Thiazolobenzimidazole TBZE-029 Inhibits Enterovirus Replication by Targeting a Short Region Immediately Downstream from Motif C in the Nonstructural Protein 2C?

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Armando M.; Heggermont, Ward; Lanke, Kjerstin; Coutard, Bruno; Bergmann, Mirko; Monforte, Anna-Maria; Canard, Bruno; De Clercq, Erik; Chimirri, Alba; Pürstinger, Gerhard; Rohayem, Jacques; van Kuppeveld, Frank; Neyts, Johan

    2008-01-01

    TBZE-029 {1-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-6-trifluoromethyl-1H,3H-thiazolo[3,4-a]benzimidazole} is a novel selective inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses. We show that TBZE-029 exerts its antiviral activity through inhibition of viral RNA replication, without affecting polyprotein processing. To identify the viral target of TBZE-029, drug-resistant coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) was selected. Genotyping of resistant clones led to the identification of three amino acid mutations in nonstructural protein 2C, clustered at amino acid positions 224, 227, and 229, immediately downstream of NTPase/helicase motif C. The mutations were reintroduced, either alone or combined, into an infectious full-length CVB3 clone. In particular the mutations at positions 227 and 229 proved essential for the altered sensitivity of CVB3 to TBZE-029. Resistant virus exhibited cross-resistance to the earlier-reported antienterovirus agents targeting 2C, namely, guanidine hydrochloride, HBB [2-(alpha-hydroxybenzyl)-benzimidazole], and MRL-1237 {1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-[(4-imino-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)methyl]benzimidazole hydrochloride}. The ATPase activity of 2C, however, remained unaltered in the presence of TBZE-029. PMID:18337578

  15. "Infectious" Transplantation Tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shixin; Cobbold, Stephen P.; Pope, Heather; Elliott, James; Kioussis, Dimitris; Davies, Joanna; Waldmann, Herman

    1993-02-01

    The maintenance of transplantation tolerance induced in adult mice after short-term treatment with nonlytic monoclonal antibodies to CD4 and CD8 was investigated. CD4^+ T cells from tolerant mice disabled naive lymphocytes so that they too could not reject the graft. The naive lymphocytes that had been so disabled also became tolerant and, in turn, developed the capacity to specifically disable other naive lymphocytes. This process of "infectious" tolerance explains why no further immunosuppression was needed to maintain long-term transplantation tolerance.

  16. Enterovirus 71 3C Inhibits Cytokine Expression through Cleavage of the TAK1/TAB1/TAB2/TAB3 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiaobo; Han, Ning; Xiao, Xia; Jin, Qi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot, and mouth disease in young children and infants. Severe infection with EV71 can lead to various neurological complications or fatal diseases. However, the mechanism of EV71 pathogenesis is poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that EV71 modulates type I interferon (IFN) and cytokine responses. Here, we show that EV71 disables components of the TAB2 complex through the 3C protein. When expressed in mammalian cells, EV71 3C interacts with TAB2 and TAK1, which inhibits NF-?B activation. Furthermore, 3C mediates cleavage of TAB2 and its partners, which requires the protease activity. H40D or C147S substitution in the 3C active sites abolishes its activity, whereas R84Q or V154S substitution in the RNA binding domain has no effect. The 3C protein targets TAB2 at Q113-S114, TAK1 at Q360-S361, TAB1 both at Q414-G415 and Q451-S452, and TAB3 at Q173-G174 and Q343-G344. Importantly, overexpression of TAB2 inhibits EV71 replication, whereas addition of cleaved fragments has no effect. Thus, an equilibrium between the TAB2 complex and EV71 3C represents a control point of viral infection. These results suggest that TAK1/TAB1/TAB2/TAB3 cleavage mediated by EV71 may be a mechanism to interfere with inflammatory responses. IMPORTANCE The TAK1 complex plays a critical role in the activation of NF-?B and cytokine production. However, little is known about its connection to enterovirus 71 (EV71). We demonstrate that EV71 3C suppresses cytokine expression via cleavage of the TAK1 complex proteins. EV71 3C interacts with TAB2 and TAK1. Furthermore, overexpression of TAB2 inhibits EV71 replication, whereas addition of cleaved fragment has no effect. These results suggest that the interplay of EV71 and the TAK1 complex influences the outcome of viral infection. PMID:24942571

  17. Site-specific targeting of enterovirus capsid by functionalized monodisperse gold nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Marjomäki, Varpu; Lahtinen, Tanja; Martikainen, Mari; Koivisto, Jaakko; Malola, Sami; Salorinne, Kirsi; Pettersson, Mika; Häkkinen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Development of precise protocols for accurate site-specific conjugation of monodisperse inorganic nanoparticles to biological material is one of the challenges in contemporary bionanoscience and nanomedicine. We report here a successful site-specific covalent conjugation of functionalized atomically monodisperse gold clusters with 1.5-nm metal cores to viral surfaces. Water-soluble Au102(para-mercaptobenzoic acid)44 clusters, functionalized by maleimide linkers to target cysteines of viral capsid proteins, were synthesized and conjugated to enteroviruses echovirus 1 and coxsackievirus B3. Quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscopy images and the known virus structures showed high affinity and mutual ordering of the bound gold clusters on the viral surface and a clear correlation between the clusters and the targeted cysteine sites close to the viral surface. Infectivity of the viruses was not compromised by loading of several tens of gold clusters per virus. These advances allow for future investigations of the structure?function relations of enteroviruses and enterovirus-related virus-like particles, including their entry mechanisms into cells and uncoating in cellular endosomes. PMID:24474748

  18. High sensitivity and label-free detection of Enterovirus 71 by nanogold modified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the most fulminant and invasive species of enterovirus, can cause children neurologic complications and death within 2-3 days after fever and rash developed. Besides, EV71 has high sequence similarity with Coxsackie A 16 (CA16) that makes differential diagnosis difficult in clinic and laboratory. Since conventional viral diagnostic method cannot diagnose EV71 quickly and EV71 can transmit at low viral titer, the patients might delay in treatment. A quick, high sensitive, and high specific test for EV71 detection is pivotal. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied for detecting bio-molecules as biosensors recently. In this study, we try to build a detection platform for EV71 detection by nanogold modified EIS probe. The result shows that our probe can detect 3.6 VP1/50 ?l (one EV71 particle has 60 VP1) in 3 minutes. The test can also distinguish EV71 from CA16 and lysozyme. Diagnosis of enterovirus 71 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has the potential to apply in clinic.

  19. Infectious particles, stress, and induced prion amyloids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible encephalopathies (TSEs) are believed by many to arise by spontaneous conversion of host prion protein (PrP) into an infectious amyloid (PrP-res, PrPSc) without nucleic acid. Many TSE agents reside in the environment, with infection controlled by public health measures. These include the disappearance of kuru with the cessation of ritual cannibalism, the dramatic reduction of epidemic bovine encephalopathy (BSE) by removal of contaminated feed, and the lack of endemic scrapie in geographically isolated Australian sheep with susceptible PrP genotypes. While prion protein modeling has engendered an intense focus on common types of protein misfolding and amyloid formation in diverse organisms and diseases, the biological characteristics of infectious TSE agents, and their recognition by the host as foreign entities, raises several fundamental new directions for fruitful investigation such as: (1) unrecognized microbial agents in the environmental metagenome that may cause latent neurodegenerative disease, (2) the evolutionary social and protective functions of different amyloid proteins in diverse organisms from bacteria to mammals, and (3) amyloid formation as a beneficial innate immune response to stress (infectious and non-infectious). This innate process however, once initiated, can become unstoppable in accelerated neuronal aging. PMID:23633671

  20. Sporadic isolation of sabin-like polioviruses and high-level detection of non-polio enteroviruses during sewage surveillance in seven Italian cities, after several years of inactivated poliovirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Battistone, A; Buttinelli, G; Fiore, S; Amato, C; Bonomo, P; Patti, A M; Vulcano, A; Barbi, M; Binda, S; Pellegrinelli, L; Tanzi, M L; Affanni, P; Castiglia, P; Germinario, C; Mercurio, P; Cicala, A; Triassi, M; Pennino, F; Fiore, L

    2014-08-01

    Sewage surveillance in seven Italian cities between 2005 and 2008, after the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccination (IPV) in 2002, showed rare polioviruses, none that were wild-type or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), and many other enteroviruses among 1,392 samples analyzed. Two of five polioviruses (PV) detected were Sabin-like PV2 and three PV3, based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and PCR results. Neurovirulence-related mutations were found in the 5'noncoding region (5'NCR) of all strains and, for a PV2, also in VP1 region 143 (Ile>Thr). Intertypic recombination in the 3D region was detected in a second PV2 (Sabin 2/Sabin 1) and a PV3 (Sabin 3/Sabin 2). The low mutation rate in VP1 for all PVs suggests limited interhuman virus passages, consistent with efficient polio immunization in Italy. Nonetheless, these findings highlight the risk of wild or Sabin poliovirus reintroduction from abroad. Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) were detected, 448 of which were coxsackievirus B (CVB) and 294 of which were echoviruses (Echo). Fifty-six NPEVs failing serological typing were characterized by sequencing the VP1 region (nucleotides [nt] 2628 to 2976). A total of 448 CVB and 294 Echo strains were identified; among those strains, CVB2, CVB5, and Echo 11 predominated. Environmental CVB5 and CVB2 strains from this study showed high sequence identity with GenBank global strains. The high similarity between environmental NPEVs and clinical strains from the same areas of Italy and the same periods indicates that environmental strains reflect the viruses circulating in the population and highlights the potential risk of inefficient wastewater treatments. This study confirmed that sewage surveillance can be more sensitive than acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in monitoring silent poliovirus circulation in the population as well as the suitability of molecular approaches to enterovirus typing. PMID:24814793

  1. Identification of Luteolin as Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Inhibitors through Reporter Viruses and Cell Viability-Based Screening

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Su, Weiheng; Jin, Jun; Chen, Jiawen; Li, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xuyuan; Sun, Meiyan; Sun, Shiyang; Fan, Peihu; An, Dong; Zhang, Huafei; Zhang, Xiguang; Kong, Wei; Ma, Tonghui; Jiang, Chunlai

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness mainly caused by infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). The frequent HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public health problem. Currently, no vaccine or antiviral drug for EV71/CA16 infections has been approved. In this study, a two-step screening platform consisting of reporter virus-based assays and cell viability?based assays was developed to identify potential inhibitors of EV71/CA16 infection. Two types of reporter viruses, a pseudovirus containing luciferase-encoding RNA replicons encapsidated by viral capsid proteins and a full-length reporter virus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein, were used for primary screening of 400 highly purified natural compounds. Thereafter, a cell viability-based secondary screen was performed for the identified hits to confirm their antiviral activities. Three compounds (luteolin, galangin, and quercetin) were identified, among which luteolin exhibited the most potent inhibition of viral infection. In the cell viability assay and plaque reduction assay, luteolin showed similar 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of about 10 ?M. Luteolin targeted the post-attachment stage of EV71 and CA16 infection by inhibiting viral RNA replication. This study suggests that luteolin may serve as a lead compound to develop potent anti-EV71 and CA16 drugs. PMID:25036464

  2. Applicability of integrated cell culture quantitative PCR (ICC-qPCR) for the detection of infectious adenovirus type 2 in UV disinfection studies.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hodon; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Fout, G Shay; Schrantz, Karen A; Hayes, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    Practical difficulties of the traditional adenovirus infectivity assay such as intensive labor requirements and longer turnaround period limit the direct use of adenovirus as a testing microorganism for systematic, comprehensive disinfection studies. In this study, we attempted to validate the applicability of integrated cell culture quantitative PCR (ICC-qPCR) as an alternative to the traditional cell culture method with human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2) in a low-pressure UV disinfection study and to further optimize the procedures of ICC-qPCR for 24-well plate format. The relatively high stability of the hexon gene of HAdV2 was observed after exposure to UV radiation, resulting in a maximum gene copy reduction of 0.5 log10 at 280 mJ cm(-2). Two-day post-inoculation incubation period and a maximum spiking level of 10(5) MPN mL(-1) were selected as optimum conditions of ICC-qPCR with the tested HAdV2. An approximate 1:1 correlation of virus quantities by the traditional and ICC-qPCR cell culture based methods suggested that ICC-qPCR is a satisfactory alternative for practical application in HAdV2 disinfection studies. ICC-qPCR results, coupled with a first-order kinetic model (i.e., the inactivation rate constant of 0.0232 cm(2) mJ(-1)), showed that an UV dose of 172 mJ cm(-2) achieved a 4-log inactivation credit for HAdV2. This estimate is comparable to other studies with HAdV2 and other adenovirus respiratory types. The newly optimized ICC-qPCR shows much promise for further study on its applicability of other slow replicating viruses in disinfection studies. PMID:26030683

  3. Infectious molecular clones with the nonhomologous dimer initiation sequences found in different subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can recombine and initiate a spreading infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    St Louis, D C; Gotte, D; Sanders-Buell, E; Ritchey, D W; Salminen, M O; Carr, J K; McCutchan, F E

    1998-05-01

    Recombinant forms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been shown to be of major importance in the global AIDS pandemic. Viral RNA dimer formation mediated by the dimerization initiation sequence (DIS) is believed to be essential for viral genomic RNA packaging and therefore for RNA recombination. Here, we demonstrate that HIV-1 recombination and replication are not restricted by variant DIS loop sequences. Three DIS loop forms found among HIV-1 isolates, DIS (CG), DIS (TA), and DIS (TG), when introduced into deletion mutants of HIV-1 recombined efficiently, and the progeny virions replicated with comparable kinetics. A fourth DIS loop form, containing an artificial AAAAAA sequence disrupting the putative DIS loop-loop interactions [DIS (A6)], supported efficient recombination with DIS loop variants; however, DIS (A6) progeny virions exhibited a modest replication disadvantage in mixed cultures. Our studies indicate that the nonhomologous DIS sequences found in different HIV-1 subtypes are not a primary obstacle to intersubtype recombination. PMID:9557686

  4. on Infectious & Reportable Diseases HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT MAY 2009

    E-print Network

    POLICY on Infectious & Reportable Diseases HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT MAY 2009 #12;Policy on Infectious.............................................................................. 3 4.1 Infectious Diseases ................................................................................... 3 4.2. Notifiable Infectious Diseases

  5. ETHICS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Selgelid

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACTBioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the ‘10\\/90’ divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and

  6. BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

  7. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  8. Global Warming and Infectious Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atul A. Khasnis; Mary D. Nettleman

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to

  9. Antiviral Potential of a Novel Compound CW-33 against Enterovirus A71 via Inhibition of Viral 2A Protease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, An-Cheng; Hour, Mann-Jen; Huang, Su-Hua; Kung, Szu-Hao; Chen, Chao-Hsien; Chen, I-Chieh; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) in the Picornaviridae family causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, severe central nervous system disease, even death. EV-A71 2A protease cleaves Type I interferon (IFN)-?/? receptor 1 (IFNAR1) to block IFN-induced Jak/STAT signaling. This study investigated anti-EV-A7l activity and synergistic mechanism(s) of a novel furoquinoline alkaloid compound CW-33 alone and in combination with IFN-?. Anti-EV-A71 activities of CW-33 alone and in combination with IFN-? were evaluated by inhibitory assays of virus-induced apoptosis, plaque formation, and virus yield. CW-33 showed antiviral activities with an IC50 of near 200 ?M in EV-A71 plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays. While, anti-EV-A71 activities of CW-33 combined with 100 U/mL IFN-? exhibited a synergistic potency with an IC50 of approximate 1 ?M in plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays. Molecular docking revealed CW-33 binding to EV-A71 2A protease active sites, correlating with an inhibitory effect of CW33 on in vitro enzymatic activity of recombinant 2A protease (IC50 = 53.1 ?M). Western blotting demonstrated CW-33 specifically inhibiting 2A protease-mediated cleavage of IFNAR1. CW-33 also recovered Type I IFN-induced Tyk2 and STAT1 phosphorylation as well as 2?,5?-OAS upregulation in EV-A71 infected cells. The results demonstrated CW-33 inhibiting viral 2A protease activity to reduce Type I IFN antagonism of EV-A71. Therefore, CW-33 combined with a low-dose of Type I IFN could be applied in developing alternative approaches to treat EV-A71 infection. PMID:26090728

  10. Antiviral Potential of a Novel Compound CW-33 against Enterovirus A71 via Inhibition of Viral 2A Protease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, An-Cheng; Hour, Mann-Jen; Huang, Su-Hua; Kung, Szu-Hao; Chen, Chao-Hsien; Chen, I-Chieh; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) in the Picornaviridae family causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, severe central nervous system disease, even death. EV-A71 2A protease cleaves Type I interferon (IFN)-?/? receptor 1 (IFNAR1) to block IFN-induced Jak/STAT signaling. This study investigated anti-EV-A7l activity and synergistic mechanism(s) of a novel furoquinoline alkaloid compound CW-33 alone and in combination with IFN-? Anti-EV-A71 activities of CW-33 alone and in combination with IFN-? were evaluated by inhibitory assays of virus-induced apoptosis, plaque formation, and virus yield. CW-33 showed antiviral activities with an IC50 of near 200 µM in EV-A71 plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays. While, anti-EV-A71 activities of CW-33 combined with 100 U/mL IFN-? exhibited a synergistic potency with an IC50 of approximate 1 µM in plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays. Molecular docking revealed CW-33 binding to EV-A71 2A protease active sites, correlating with an inhibitory effect of CW33 on in vitro enzymatic activity of recombinant 2A protease IC50 = 53.1 µM). Western blotting demonstrated CW-33 specifically inhibiting 2A protease-mediated cleavage of IFNAR1. CW-33 also recovered Type I IFN-induced Tyk2 and STAT1 phosphorylation as well as 2\\',5\\'-OAS upregulation in EV-A71 infected cells. The results demonstrated CW-33 inhibiting viral 2A protease activity to reduce Type I IFN antagonism of EV-A71. Therefore, CW-33 combined with a low-dose of Type I IFN could be applied in developing alternative approaches to treat EV-A71 infection. PMID:26090728

  11. Ecology of Infectious Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With a dramatic image of a bustling city superimposed over a peaceful forest, the National Science Foundation's homepage on the ecology of infectious diseases is quite intriguing. After clicking on the image, visitors will be treated to an overview of this special report that asks: "Is our interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increases in incidence of these diseases?" The report is divided into five sections, each exploring a different facet of the National Science Foundation's work on this problem. The sections include "Medical Mystery Solved" and "Lyme Disease on the Rise". Each of these sections includes helpful graphics, well-written text, and links to additional sites. Overall, the site will be most useful for science educators and members of the public health community.

  12. Infectious keratitis following keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Vajpayee, Rasik B; Sharma, Namrata; Sinha, Rajesh; Agarwal, Tushar; Singhvi, Arun

    2007-01-01

    Infectious keratitis following corneal transplantation is one of the leading causes of failure of a corneal graft. The incidence of graft infection is variable, with developing countries having a higher incidence. The majority of the graft infections occur within 1 year of the corneal transplantation. Suture-related problems and persistent epithelial defect are the most common risk factors predisposing to graft infection. Pneumococcus species and Staphylococcus aureus have been found to be the commonest microorganisms in the developed world, whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most often detected microorganism in corneal graft infection in the developing world. The early identification of predisposing risk factors in patients and their appropriate management at the earliest may prevent the occurrence of graft infection and might improve graft survival. Visual prognosis in eyes with post-keratoplasty graft infection is poor even after optimal therapy and there is a high rate of graft decompensation. PMID:17212987

  13. Dynamic Communicability Predicts Infectiousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantzaris, Alexander V.; Higham, Desmond J.

    Using real, time-dependent social interaction data, we look at correlations between some recently proposed dynamic centrality measures and summaries from large-scale epidemic simulations. The evolving network arises from email exchanges. The centrality measures, which are relatively inexpensive to compute, assign rankings to individual nodes based on their ability to broadcast information over the dynamic topology. We compare these with node rankings based on infectiousness that arise when a full stochastic SI simulation is performed over the dynamic network. More precisely, we look at the proportion of the network that a node is able to infect over a fixed time period, and the length of time that it takes for a node to infect half the network. We find that the dynamic centrality measures are an excellent, and inexpensive, proxy for the full simulation-based measures.

  14. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Article Body If your child has a ... the teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

  15. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 true Infectious plants. 140.26 Section...INDIAN TRADERS § 140.26 Infectious plants. Traders...carrier of any pests of infectious, transmissible, or contagious diseases, as determined by the...

  16. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section...INDIAN TRADERS § 140.26 Infectious plants. Traders...carrier of any pests of infectious, transmissible, or contagious diseases, as determined by the...

  17. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section...INDIAN TRADERS § 140.26 Infectious plants. Traders...carrier of any pests of infectious, transmissible, or contagious diseases, as determined by the...

  18. NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF WARMWATER FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compared with infectious diseases and disorders, few non-infectious diseases and disorders in cultured fish have severe biologic or economic impact. Culture practices, however, often establish environments that promote infectious disease by weakening the immune response or by pro...

  19. Inactivation of enteroviruses by ascorbic acid and sodium bisulfite.

    PubMed Central

    Salo, R J; Cliver, D O

    1978-01-01

    Poliovirus type 1, coxsackievirus type A9, and echovirus type 7 were inactivated by sodium bisulfite and ascorbic acid. Inactivation rates depended upon concentration, temperature, and pH. RNA infectivity was lost during inactivation; the capsid was also altered by these inactivating agents, as determined by enzyme sensitivity assays and by tests of adsorption to cells. Structural modifications of the virus particles were not identical, suggesting that the mechanism of inactivation by ascorbic acid differs from that of sodium bisulfite. PMID:29558

  20. Factors affecting the detection of enteroviruses in cerebrospinal fluid with coxsackievirus B3 and poliovirus 1 cDNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Rotbart, H A; Levin, M J; Villarreal, L P; Tracy, S M; Semler, B L; Wimmer, E

    1985-01-01

    Enteroviruses are common pathogens of meningitis and encephalitis, and infections are often difficult to distinguish clinically from bacterial and herpetic infections of the central nervous system. An array of enteroviruses added to cerebrospinal fluid in reconstruction experiments were detected by a dot hybridization assay. Optimal handling and processing conditions for infected cerebrospinal fluid were established, and the effect on the hybridization reaction of humoral and cellular components of the inflammatory response was determined. Six hybridization probes, derived from poliovirus 1 and coxsackievirus B3, were then tested, singly and in combinations, to optimize the sensitivity and spectrum of the assay. Implications for enteroviral taxonomy based on these experiments are discussed. Images PMID:2993351

  1. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  2. Structural basis for antiviral inhibition of the main protease, 3C, from human enterovirus 93.

    PubMed

    Costenaro, Lionel; Kaczmarska, Zuzanna; Arnan, Carme; Janowski, Robert; Coutard, Bruno; Solŕ, Maria; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Norder, Heléne; Canard, Bruno; Coll, Miquel

    2011-10-01

    Members of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family are abundant, with common human pathogens that belong to the rhinovirus (HRV) and enterovirus (EV) species, including diverse echo-, coxsackie- and polioviruses. They cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe diseases with neurological and/or cardiac manifestations. Pandemic outbreaks of EVs may be accompanied by meningitis and/or paralysis and can be fatal. However, no effective prophylaxis or antiviral treatment against most EVs is available. The EV RNA genome directs the synthesis of a single polyprotein that is autocatalytically processed into mature proteins at Gln?Gly cleavage sites by the 3C protease (3C(pro)), which has narrow, conserved substrate specificity. These cleavages are essential for virus replication, making 3C(pro) an excellent target for antivirus drug development. In this study, we report the first determination of the crystal structure of 3C(pro) from an enterovirus B, EV-93, a recently identified pathogen, alone and in complex with the anti-HRV molecules compound 1 (AG7404) and rupintrivir (AG7088) at resolutions of 1.9, 1.3, and 1.5 Ĺ, respectively. The EV-93 3C(pro) adopts a chymotrypsin-like fold with a canonically configured oxyanion hole and a substrate binding pocket similar to that of rhino-, coxsackie- and poliovirus 3C proteases. We show that compound 1 and rupintrivir are both active against EV-93 in infected cells and inhibit the proteolytic activity of EV-93 3C(pro) in vitro. These results provide a framework for further structure-guided optimization of the tested compounds to produce antiviral drugs against a broad range of EV species. PMID:21835784

  3. Structural Basis for Antiviral Inhibition of the Main Protease, 3C, from Human Enterovirus 93 ?

    PubMed Central

    Costenaro, Lionel; Kaczmarska, Zuzanna; Arnan, Carme; Janowski, Robert; Coutard, Bruno; Solŕ, Maria; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Norder, Heléne; Canard, Bruno; Coll, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family are abundant, with common human pathogens that belong to the rhinovirus (HRV) and enterovirus (EV) species, including diverse echo-, coxsackie- and polioviruses. They cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe diseases with neurological and/or cardiac manifestations. Pandemic outbreaks of EVs may be accompanied by meningitis and/or paralysis and can be fatal. However, no effective prophylaxis or antiviral treatment against most EVs is available. The EV RNA genome directs the synthesis of a single polyprotein that is autocatalytically processed into mature proteins at Gln?Gly cleavage sites by the 3C protease (3Cpro), which has narrow, conserved substrate specificity. These cleavages are essential for virus replication, making 3Cpro an excellent target for antivirus drug development. In this study, we report the first determination of the crystal structure of 3Cpro from an enterovirus B, EV-93, a recently identified pathogen, alone and in complex with the anti-HRV molecules compound 1 (AG7404) and rupintrivir (AG7088) at resolutions of 1.9, 1.3, and 1.5 Ĺ, respectively. The EV-93 3Cpro adopts a chymotrypsin-like fold with a canonically configured oxyanion hole and a substrate binding pocket similar to that of rhino-, coxsackie- and poliovirus 3C proteases. We show that compound 1 and rupintrivir are both active against EV-93 in infected cells and inhibit the proteolytic activity of EV-93 3Cpro in vitro. These results provide a framework for further structure-guided optimization of the tested compounds to produce antiviral drugs against a broad range of EV species. PMID:21835784

  4. A neonatal gnotobiotic pig model of human enterovirus 71 infection and associated immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xingdong; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Bui, Tammy; Liu, Fangning; Kocher, Jacob; Jortner, Bernard S; Vonck, Marlice; Pelzer, Kevin; Deng, Jie; Zhu, Runan; Li, Yuyun; Qian, Yuan; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine development and pathogenesis studies for human enterovirus 71 are limited by a lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report the development of a novel neonatal gnotobiotic pig model using the non-pig-adapted neurovirulent human enterovirus 71 strain BJ110, which has a C4 genotype. Porcine small intestinal epithelial cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neural cells were infected in vitro. Oral and combined oral–nasal infection of 5-day-old neonatal gnotobiotic pigs with 5×108 fluorescence forming units (FFU) resulted in shedding up to 18 days post-infection, with viral titers in rectal swab samples peaking at 2.22×108 viral RNA copies/mL. Viral capsid proteins were detected in enterocytes within the small intestines on post-infection days (PIDs) 7 and 14. Additionally, viral RNA was detected in intestinal and extra-intestinal tissues, including the central nervous system, the lung and cardiac muscle. The infected neonatal gnotobiotic pigs developed fever, forelimb weakness, rapid breathing and some hand, foot and mouth disease symptoms. Flow cytometry analysis revealed increased frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-?-producing T cells in the brain and the blood on PID 14, but reduced frequencies were observed in the lung. Furthermore, high titers of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies were generated in both orally and combined oral–nasally infected pigs on PIDs 7, 14, 21 and 28. Together, these results demonstrate that neonatal gnotobiotic pigs represent a novel animal model for evaluating vaccines for human enterovirus 71 and for understanding the pathogenesis of this virus and the associated immune responses.

  5. Cancer-associated infectious agents and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Vedham, Vidya; Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Infectious agents are one of the factors which contribute to cancer development. Few examples include human papilloma virus in cervical cancer, hepatitis virus in hepatocellular carcinoma, herpes virus in Kaposi's sarcoma, Epstein-Barr virus in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) in T-cell leukemia and lymphoma, Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer. These agents cause genomic instability in the host and most of them affect host immune system. Infectious agents may integrate in the host genome although their sit of integration is not fixed. Expression of some infectious agents involves epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation, histone modification, miRNA level alteration, and chromatin condensation. This chapter provides examples where epigenetic regulation has been reported in cancer-associated infectious agents. Epigenetic inhibitors and their potential in cancer control and treatment are also discussed. PMID:25421669

  6. Sex and Reproduction in the Transmission of Infectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Current data permit only speculations regarding sex differences in the prevalence of infectious uveitis between women and men because uveitis case surveys do not uniformly report gender data. Differences in prevalence that are reported in the literature could relate to simple differences in the number of women and men at risk for infection or to biological differences between men and women. Compared to other types of uveitis, infectious uveitis may be directly related to occupational exposures or sexual behaviors, which differ between women and men, and may mask actual biological differences in susceptibility to ocular manifestations of the infection and its prognosis. In infectious uveitis for which there is no element of sexual transmission and data is available, prevalence of ocular disease is roughly equal between women and men. Women also have a unique relationship with infectious uveitis in their role as mothers. Vertical transmission of infections such as herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus can produce severe chorioretinitis in neonates. PMID:25105020

  7. Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. The virus replicates not only in the epithelium of upper and lower respiratory tract tissues, but also in many tissues along the alimentary tract and elsewhere e.g. kidney, oviduct and testes. It can be detected in both respiratory and faecal material. There is increasing evidence that IBV can infect species of bird other than the chicken. Interestingly breeds of chicken vary with respect to the severity of infection with IBV, which may be related to the immune response. Probably the major reason for the high profile of IBV is the existence of a very large number of serotypes. Both live and inactivated IB vaccines are used extensively, the latter requiring priming by the former. Their effectiveness is diminished by poor cross-protection. The nature of the protective immune response to IBV is poorly understood. What is known is that the surface spike protein, indeed the amino-terminal S1 half, is sufficient to induce good protective immunity. There is increasing evidence that only a few amino acid differences amongst S proteins are sufficient to have a detrimental impact on cross-protection. Experimental vector IB vaccines and genetically manipulated IBVs--with heterologous spike protein genes--have produced promising results, including in the context of in ovo vaccination. PMID:17296157

  8. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  9. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-10-12

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  10. Development of chemiluminescent probe hybridization, RT-PCR and nucleic acid cycle sequencing assays of Sabin type 3 isolates to identify base pair 472 Sabin type 3 mutants associated with vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew O. Old; Linda H. Logan; Yvonne A. Maldonado

    1997-01-01

    Sabin type 3 polio vaccine virus is the most common cause of poliovaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis. Vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis cases have been associated with Sabin type 3 revertants containing a single U to C substitution at bp 472 of Sabin type 3. A rapid method of identification of Sabin type 3 bp 472 mutants is described. An enterovirus group-specific

  11. Characterization of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit poliovirus and enterovirus 71 infectivity.

    PubMed

    Arita, Minetaro; Wakita, Takaji; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-01

    Poliovirus (PV) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) cause severe neurological symptoms in their infections of the central nervous system. To identify compounds with anti-PV and anti-EV71 activities that would not allow the emergence of resistant mutants, we performed drug screening by utilizing a pharmacologically active compound library targeting cellular factors with PV and EV71 pseudoviruses that encapsidated luciferase-encoding replicons. We have found that metrifudil (N-[2-methylphenyl]methyl)-adenosine) (an A2 adenosine receptor agonist), N(6)-benzyladenosine (an A1 adenosine receptor agonist) and NF449 (4,4',4'',4'''-[carbonylbis[imino-5,1,3-benzenetriyl bis(carbonyl-imino)

  12. Differential Susceptibility and Response of Primary Human Myeloid BDCA1+ Dendritic Cells to Infection with Different Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Barbara M.; Kers-Rebel, Esther D.; Prosser, Amy C.; Galama, Jochem M. D.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Adema, Gosse J.

    2013-01-01

    Coxsackie B viruses (CVBs) and echoviruses (EVs) form the Human Enterovirus-B (HEV-B) species within the family Picornaviridae. HEV-B infections are widespread and generally cause mild disease; however, severe infections occur and HEV-B are associated with various chronic diseases such as cardiomyopathy and type 1 diabetes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the professional antigen-presenting cells of our immune system and initiate and control immune responses to invading pathogens, yet also maintain tolerance to self-antigens. We previously reported that EVs, but not CVBs, can productively infect in vitro generated monocyte-derived DCs. The interactions between HEV-B and human myeloid DCs (mDCs) freshly isolated from blood, however, remain unknown. Here, we studied the susceptibility and responses of BDCA1+ mDC to HEV-B species and found that these mDC are susceptible to EV, but not CVB infection. Productive EV7 infection resulted in massive, rapid cell death without DC activation. Contrary, EV1 infection, which resulted in lower virus input at the same MOI, resulted in DC activation as observed by production of type I interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), upregulation of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules (CD80, CD86, PDL1) and production of IL-6 and TNF-?, with a relative moderate decrease in cell viability. EV1-induced ISG expression depended on virus replication. CVB infection did not affect DC viability and resulted in poor induction of ISGs and CD80 induction in part of the donors. These data show for the first time the interaction between HEV-B species and BDCA1+ mDCs isolated freshly from blood. Our data indicate that different HEV-B species can influence DC homeostasis in various ways, possibly contributing to HEV-B associated pathology. PMID:23638101

  13. Construction and characterization of an infectious cDNA clone of Echovirus 25.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wangheng; Yang, Lisheng; Li, Shuxuan; Yu, Hai; Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Chen, Mengyuan; He, Shuizhen; Ye, Xiangzhong; Que, Yuqiong; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2015-07-01

    Echovirus 25 (E-25) is a member of the enterovirus family and a common pathogen that induces hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), meningitis, skin rash, and respiratory illnesses. In this study, we constructed and characterized an infectious full-length E-25 cDNA clone derived from the XM0297 strain, which was the first subgenotype D6 strain isolated in Xiamen, China. The 5'-Untranslated Regions (5'-UTR), P3 (3A-3B, 3D) and P3 (3C) regions of this E-25 (XM0297) strain were highly similar to EV-B77, E-16 and E-13, respectively. Our data demonstrate that the rescued E-25 viruses exhibited similar growth kinetics to the prototype virus strain XM0297. We observed the rescued viral particles using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and found them to possess an icosahedral structure, with a diameter of approximately 30nm. The cross neutralization test demonstrated that the E-25 (XM0297) strain immune serum could not neutralize EV-A71, CV-A16 or CV-B3; likewise, the EV-A71 and CV-A16 immune serum could not neutralize E-25 (XM0297). The availability of this infectious clone will greatly enhance future virological investigations and possible vaccine development against E-25. PMID:26004198

  14. Co-Morbidity between Early-Onset Leukemia and Type 1 Diabetes – Suggestive of a Shared Viral Etiology?

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Kari; Houlston, Richard; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Shu, Xiaochen

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are common early-onset malignancies. Their causes are largely unknown but infectious etiology has been implicated. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease for which infectious triggers of disease onset have been sought and increasing pointing to enteroviruses. Based on our previous results on co-morbidity between leukemia and T1D, we updated the Swedish dataset and focused on early onset leukemias in patients who had been hospitalized for T1D, comparing to those not hospitalized for T1D. Methods and Findings Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for leukemia in 24,052 patients hospitalized for T1D covering years 1964 through 2008. T1D patients were included if hospitalized before age 21 years. Practically all Swedish children and adolescents with T1D are hospitalized at the start of insulin treatment. SIR for ALL was 8.30 (N?=?18, 95% confidence interval 4.91–13.14) when diagnosed at age 10 to 20 years after hospitalization for T1D and it was 3.51 (13, 1.86–6.02) before hospitalization for T1D. The SIR for ALL was 19.85 (N?=?33, 13.74–27.76) and that for AML was 25.28 (8, 10.80–50.06) when the leukemias were diagnosed within the year of T1D hospitalization. The SIRs increased to 38.97 (26, 25.43–57.18) and 40.11 (8, 17.13–79.42) when T1D was diagnosed between ages 10 to 20 years. No consistent time-dependent changes were found in leukemia risk. Conclusion A shared infectious etiology could be a plausible explanation to the observed co-morbidity. Other possible contributing factors could be insulin therapy or T1D related metabolic disturbances. PMID:22745776

  15. Molecular Surveillance of Enterovirus and Norwalk-Like Virus in Oysters Relocated to a Municipal-Sewage-Impacted Gulf Estuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Carol Shieh; Ralph S. Baric; Jacquelina W. Woods; Kevin R. Calci

    2003-01-01

    An 18-month survey was conducted to examine the prevalence of enteric viruses and their relationship to indicators in environmentally polluted shellfish. Groups of oysters, one group per 4 weeks, were relocated to a coastal water area in the Gulf of Mexico that is impacted by municipal sewage and were analyzed for enteroviruses, Norwalk-like viruses (NLV), and indicator microorganisms (fecal coliform,

  16. Evolutionary Genetics of Human Enterovirus 71: Origin, Population Dynamics, Natural Selection, and Seasonal Periodicity of the VP1 Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kok Keng Tee; Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam; Yoke Fun Chan; Jon M. Bible; Adeeba Kamarulzaman; C. Y. William Tong; Yutaka Takebe; Oliver G. Pybus

    2010-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is one of the major etiologic causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children worldwide, with fatal instances of neurological complications becoming increasingly common. Global VP1 capsid sequences (n = 628) sampled over 4 decades were collected and subjected to comprehensive evolutionary analysis using a suite of phylogenetic and population genetic methods. We

  17. Isolation of naturally occurring enteroviruses from a variety of shellfish species residing in Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Vaughn; E. F. Landry; T. J. Vicale; M. C. Dahl

    1980-01-01

    Shellfish and shellfish-raising waters from a variety of Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments were examined for the presence of human enteroviruses. Little difference in virological quality was noted between areas designated as being open or closed to shellfishing. Viral isolations could not be correlated with coliform counts from identical samples, indicating the need to re-evaluate the use of

  18. Yakammaoto inhibits enterovirus 71 infection by reducing viral attachment, internalization, replication, and translation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chia-Feng; Wang, Kuo-Chih; Lu, Chi-Yu; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Shieh, Den-En; Yen, Ming-Hong; Chang, Jung-San

    2015-06-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause central nervous system infections with mortality and neurologic sequelae. At present, there is no effective therapeutic modality for EV71 infection. The infection is more common in families with poor socioeconomic status. Therefore, finding a readily available, cost-effective therapeutic modality would be very helpful to these socioeconomically disadvantaged families. Yakammaoto is a cheap and readily available traditional prescription that is proven to have antiviral activity against coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4). CVB4 and EV71 are enteroviruses. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of hot water extract of yakammaoto against EV71. The results of plaque reduction assay and flow cytometry demonstrated that yakammaoto dose dependently inhibited EV71 infection. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR results showed that yakammaoto reduced viral replication. Western blotting analysis showed that yakammaoto can inhibit viral protein production. Thus, our results suggest that yakammaoto should be considered to manage EV71 infection in the future. PMID:26043408

  19. Characterization of an Enterovirus species E isolated from naturally infected bovine in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haili; Liu, Hongtao; Bao, Jun; Guo, Yongli; Peng, Tongquan; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei; Gao, Mingchun

    2014-10-13

    Bovine enteroviruses, which belong to the Picornaviridae family, can cause clinical symptoms in cattle and are excreted in feces. In this study, a cytolytic virus was isolated from Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from fecal samples of bovine with severe diarrhea and hemorrhagic intestinal mucosa that had been originally diagnosed with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) by a bovine viral diarrhea virus Ag point-of-care test (IDEXX, American). Random priming PCR was used to amplify underlying viral sequences and identify the isolated virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolated virus closely matches the EV-E2 species, which is different from other Chinese strains previously isolated. The newly identified virus was named HLJ-3531/2013. We infected the sulking mice with the isolated virus. Reverse-transcription PCR, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, serum neutralization (SN) test, and virus isolation from various tissues revealed that HLJ-3531/2013 can infect the intestine, liver, and lung of suckling mice. The present work is the first to report the reproduction of clinical symptoms by an isolated virus in an experimental infection model of animals and lays a solid foundation for the development of the pathogenesis of bovine enteroviruses. PMID:25102330

  20. Evaluation of a new automated microneutralization assay for the quantitative detection of neutralizing antibodies against enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Rabenau, H; Weber, B

    1994-03-01

    An automated microneutralization assay for the quantitative detection of neutralizing antibodies (NA) against polioviruses and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) using a pipetting roboter (Tecan RSP 5072) was established and compared to the conventional manually performed test procedure. The qualitative neutralizing antibody detection was not significantly influenced by the assay system (manual or automated assay). Concerning the quantitative antibody detection, two-fold titre differences between the two test systems were observed in only 2.3% of the 260 serum samples investigated. The intra-assay and inter-assay variability of the quantitative detection of neutralizing antibodies using the automated assay proved to be very low. The quantitative detection of neutralizing antibodies using an automated pipetting robot permitted the testing of large numbers of samples within a shorter period and with less labour intensity as compared to the manually performed assay. Therefore it represents a valuable alternative to the conventional microneutralization test, especially for the serodiagnosis of non-polio enterovirus infections in large sample collectives, assessment of immunity to polioviruses and for seroepidemiological surveys. PMID:8061415

  1. A clinical survey of common avian infectious diseases in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Liu, Dong; Liu, Shuo; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Multiple common avian infectious diseases (CAIDs), namely, avian infectious diseases excluding highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease, such as avian salmonellosis and coccidiosis, cause huge economic loss in poultry production and are of great significance in public health. However, they are usually not covered in the systems for reporting of animal diseases. Consequently, the distribution of CAIDs is not clear in many countries. Here, we report a clinical survey of CAIDs in China based on clinical diagnosis of eight veterinary clinics in 2011 and 2012. This survey provided the distribution data of viral, bacterial, and parasitic CAIDs in different types of avian flocks, seasons, and regions, data that are of great value in the research, prevention, and control of poultry diseases. This survey suggested that avian colibacillosis, infectious serositis in ducks caused by Riemerella anatipestifer, avian salmonellosis, fowl cholera, avian mycoplasmosis, avian aspergillosis, coccidiosis, low pathogenic avian influenza, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, and infectious laryngotracheitis are likely to be prevalent in the poultry in China. PMID:25055636

  2. Enterovirus 68 3C Protease Cleaves TRIF To Attenuate Antiviral Responses Mediated by Toll-Like Receptor 3

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Zichun; Li, Linlin; Lei, Xiaobo; Zhou, Hongli; Zhou, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human enterovirus 68 (EV68) is a member of the EV-D species, which belongs to the EV genus of the Picornaviridae family. Over the past several years, there have been increasingly documented outbreaks of respiratory disease associated with EV68. As a globally emerging pathogen, EV68 infects both adults and children. However, the molecular basis of EV68 pathogenesis is unknown. Here we report that EV68 inhibits Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-mediated innate immune responses by targeting the TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing beta interferon (TRIF). In infected HeLa cells, EV68 inhibits poly(I·C)-induced interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation and beta interferon (IFN-?) expression. Further investigations revealed that TRIF, a critical adaptor downstream of TLR3, is targeted by EV68. When expressed alone, 3Cpro, an EV68-encoded protease, cleaves TRIF. 3Cpro mediates TRIF cleavage at Q312 and Q653, which are sites in the amino- and carboxyl-terminal domains, respectively. This cleavage relies on 3Cpro's cysteine protease activity. Cleavage of TRIF abolishes the capacity of TRIF to activate NF-?B and IFN-? signaling. These results suggest that control of TRIF by 3Cpro may be a mechanism by which EV68 subverts host innate immune responses. IMPORTANCE EV68 is a globally emerging pathogen, but the molecular basis of EV68 pathogenesis is unclear. Here we report that EV68 inhibits TLR3-mediated innate immune responses by targeting TRIF. Further investigations revealed that TRIF is cleaved by 3Cpro. These results suggest that control of TRIF by 3Cpro may be a mechanism by which EV68 impairs type I IFN production in response to TLR3 activation. PMID:24672048

  3. Non-Infectious Meningitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... include Cancers Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) Certain drugs Head injury Brain surgery Transmission This type of meningitis is ... by cancers, systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus), certain drugs, head injury, and brain surgery. Signs and Symptoms Meningitis infection ...

  4. QUANTIFICATION OF ENTEROVIRUS AND HEPATITIS A VIRUSES IN WELLS AND SPRINGS IN EAST TENNESSEE USING REAL-TIME REVERSE TRANSCIPTION PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project involves development, validation testing and application of a fast, efficient method of quantitatively measuring occurrence and concentration of common human viral pathogens, enterovirus and hepatitis A virus, in ground water samples using real-time reverse transcrip...

  5. Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

    2013-01-01

    The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories. PMID:26038473

  6. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of three virulent strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a very serious and widespread respiratory disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus type 1, commonly named infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). For protection from ILT, chickens have traditionally been vaccinated with live-attenuated strains that ha...

  7. Atomic model of an infectious rotavirus particle Ethan C Settembre1,5,6

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    Atomic model of an infectious rotavirus particle Ethan C Settembre1,5,6 , James Z Chen2,5 , Philip types have evolved distinct mechanisms for penetrating a cellular membrane during infection. Rotavirus mutants. We describe here the struc- ture of an infectious rotavirus particle determined by electron

  8. The capsid binder Vapendavir and the novel protease inhibitor SG85 inhibit enterovirus 71 replication.

    PubMed

    Tijsma, Aloys; Franco, David; Tucker, Simon; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Froeyen, Mathy; Leyssen, Pieter; Neyts, Johan

    2014-11-01

    Antivirals against enterovirus 71 (EV71) are urgently needed. We demonstrate that the novel enteroviral protease inhibitor (PI) SG85 and capsid binder (CB) vapendavir efficiently inhibit the in vitro replication of 21 EV71 strains/isolates that are representative of the different genogroups A, B, and C. The PI rupintrivir, the CB pirodavir, and the host-targeting compound enviroxime, which were included as reference compounds, also inhibited the replication of all isolates. Remarkably, the CB compound pleconaril was devoid of any anti-EV71 activity. An in silico docking study revealed that pleconaril-unlike vapendavir and pirodavir-lacks essential binding interactions with the viral capsid. Vapendavir and SG85 (or analogues) should be further explored for the treatment of EV71 infections. The data presented here may serve as a reference when developing yet-novel inhibitors. PMID:25199773

  9. Preclinical Evaluation of the Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Candidate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Hwa, Shi-Hsia; Lee, Yock Ann; Brewoo, Joseph N.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Santangelo, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality from Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and neurological complications, particularly in young children in the Asia-Pacific region. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies currently available for prevention or treatment of HFMD caused by EV71. Therefore, the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies against HFMD is of growing importance. We report the immunogenic and safety profile of inactivated, purified EV71 preparations formulated with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in preclinical studies in mice and rabbits. In mice, the candidate vaccine formulations elicited high neutralizing antibody responses. A toxicology study of the vaccine formulations planned for human use performed in rabbits showed no vaccine-related pathological changes and all animals remained healthy. Based on these preclinical studies, Phase 1 clinical testing of the EV71 inactivated vaccine was initiated. PMID:24244774

  10. The Capsid Binder Vapendavir and the Novel Protease Inhibitor SG85 Inhibit Enterovirus 71 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Tijsma, Aloys; Franco, David; Tucker, Simon; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Froeyen, Mathy; Leyssen, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Antivirals against enterovirus 71 (EV71) are urgently needed. We demonstrate that the novel enteroviral protease inhibitor (PI) SG85 and capsid binder (CB) vapendavir efficiently inhibit the in vitro replication of 21 EV71 strains/isolates that are representative of the different genogroups A, B, and C. The PI rupintrivir, the CB pirodavir, and the host-targeting compound enviroxime, which were included as reference compounds, also inhibited the replication of all isolates. Remarkably, the CB compound pleconaril was devoid of any anti-EV71 activity. An in silico docking study revealed that pleconaril—unlike vapendavir and pirodavir—lacks essential binding interactions with the viral capsid. Vapendavir and SG85 (or analogues) should be further explored for the treatment of EV71 infections. The data presented here may serve as a reference when developing yet-novel inhibitors. PMID:25199773

  11. An enterovirus 71 strain causes skeletal muscle damage in infected mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peixin; Gao, Lulu; Huang, Yeen; Chen, Qing; Shen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the target organs for enterovirus 71 (EV71) in infected suckling mice. Methods: 5-day-old BALB/c suckling mice were infected with an EV71 strain. Tissues of the infected mice were processed for histopathological examination, including immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, ultrastructural observation. Results: Some mice developed limb paralysis, trouble walking and loss of balance. Results of the histopathological study showed that a large amount of EV71 existed in the skeletal muscle tissues, accounting for the damage of the skeletal muscles. Conclusion: The EV71 clinical isolate used in this study presented evident myotropism. Skeletal muscles are important target organs for EV71 in the infected suckling mice. To clarify the relationship between EV71 infection and muscle diseases may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of EV71.

  12. Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Warren B.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

  13. The Mathematics of Infectious Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert W. Hethcote

    Many models for the spread of infectious diseases in populations have been analyzed math- ematically and applied to specific diseases. Threshold theorems involving the basic repro- duction number R0, the contact number ?, and the replacement number R are reviewed for the classic SIR epidemic and endemic models. Similar results with new expressions for R0 are obtained for MSEIR and

  14. Global Spread of Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    S. Hsu; A. Zee

    2003-06-25

    We develop simple models for the global spread of infectious diseases, emphasizing human mobility via air travel and the variation of public health infrastructure from region to region. We derive formulas relating the total and peak number of infections in two countries to the rate of travel between them and their respective epidemiological parameters.

  15. Diagnostic vitrectomy for infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeroudi, Abdallah; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The identification of an infectious or noninfectious uveitis syndrome is important to determine the range of therapeutic and prognostic implications of that disease entity. Diagnostic dilemmas arise with atypical history, atypical clinical presentations, inconclusive diagnostic workup, and persistent or worsened inflammation despite appropriate immunosuppression. More invasive intraocular testing is indicated in these situations particularly in infectious uveitis where a delay in treatment may result in worsening of the patient’s disease and a poor visual outcome. Laboratory analysis of vitreous fluid via diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy is an important technique in the diagnostic armamentarium, but the most important aspects of sample collection include rapid processing, close coordination with an ophthalmic pathology laboratory, and directed testing on this limited collected sample. Culture and staining has utility in bacterial, fungal, and nocardial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has shown promising results for bacterial endophthalmitis and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas PCR testing for viral retinitides and ocular toxoplasmosis has a more established role. Antibody testing is appropriate for toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis, and may be complementary to PCR for viral retinitis. Masquerade syndromes represent neoplastic conditions that clinically appear as infectious or inflammatory conditions and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy and chorioretinal biopsy are thus critical tools for the management of patients in whom an infectious etiology of uveitis is suspected. PMID:24613892

  16. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, M.-C. [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: u9315915@ccms.nkfust.edu.tw; Lin, Jim Juimin [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)

    2008-11-15

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

  17. Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Exposure Control Plan

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Exposure Control Plan Pursuant to the requirements of the MIOSHA Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Standard (R 325.70001 through R 325.700018) Wayne State University Office

  18. A Structural and Functional Comparison Between Infectious and Non-Infectious Autocatalytic Recombinant PrP Conformers

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Geoffrey P.; Wang, Daphne W.; Walsh, Daniel J.; Barone, Justin R.; Miller, Michael B.; Nishina, Koren A.; Li, Sheng; Supattapone, Surachai

    2015-01-01

    Infectious prions contain a self-propagating, misfolded conformer of the prion protein termed PrPSc. A critical prediction of the protein-only hypothesis is that autocatalytic PrPSc molecules should be infectious. However, some autocatalytic recombinant PrPSc molecules have low or undetectable levels of specific infectivity in bioassays, and the essential determinants of recombinant prion infectivity remain obscure. To identify structural and functional features specifically associated with infectivity, we compared the properties of two autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers derived from the same original template, which differ by >105-fold in specific infectivity for wild-type mice. Structurally, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS) studies revealed that solvent accessibility profiles of infectious and non-infectious autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers are remarkably similar throughout their protease-resistant cores, except for two domains encompassing residues 91-115 and 144-163. Raman spectroscopy and immunoprecipitation studies confirm that these domains adopt distinct conformations within infectious versus non-infectious autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers. Functionally, in vitro prion propagation experiments show that the non-infectious conformer is unable to seed mouse PrPC substrates containing a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, including native PrPC. Taken together, these results indicate that having a conformation that can be specifically adopted by post-translationally modified PrPC molecules is an essential determinant of biological infectivity for recombinant prions, and suggest that this ability is associated with discrete features of PrPSc structure. PMID:26125623

  19. Infectious titer assay for adeno-associated virus vectors with sensitivity sufficient to detect single infectious events.

    PubMed

    Zen, Zhu; Espinoza, Yero; Bleu, Thieu; Sommer, Jürg M; Wright, J Fraser

    2004-07-01

    A highly sensitive assay for determination of infectious titers of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) by limiting dilution analysis is described. This assay is capable of detecting single infectious events and can therefore provide an absolute rather than relative measure of infectivity. The assay utilizes a HeLa-derived AAV2 Rep/Cap-expressing cell line, D7-4, grown in 96-well plates and infected with replicate 10-fold serial dilutions of AAV2 vectors in the presence of adenovirus type 5. Forty-eight hours after infection, vector genome replication is determined by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). A linear relationship between vector genome input and replicated copy number (slope = 2670 copies per vector genome) was determined, enabling detection of one infectious event per well by Q-PCR. The observed binomial distribution of the end-point data confirmed that single infectious events could be detected, and allowed calculation of infectious titers by the Kärber method. Analysis of an AAV2 reference vector, AAV-hFIX16, in 21 independent determinations gave an average ratio of AAV vector genomes (VG) to infectious units (IU) of 8.3 +/- 4.2 VG/IU, a value close to the theoretical limit. No significant differences in vector particle-to-infectious unit ratios were observed between vectors purified by column chromatography (9.3 +/- 5.0 VG/IU, n = 7) and cesium chloride gradient ultracentrifugation (6.4 +/- 3.2 VG/IU, n = 7). PMID:15298029

  20. Infectious mononucleosis: immunoglobulin synthesis by cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Glade, Philip R.; Chessin, Lawrence N.

    1968-01-01

    Immunoglobulin synthesis by 16 long-term suspension cultures of mononuclear cells derived from peripheral blood of nine patients with heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis (IM) has been demonstrated by radioimmunoelectrophoretic techniques. All cell lines synthesized molecules with IgG (?) heavy chain specificity. 14 cell lines produced molecules with IgM (?) heavy chain specificity and 11 cell lines produced molecules with IgA (?) heavy chain specificity. No detectable synthesis of molecules with IgD (?) heavy chain specificity was observed by these cell lines derived from peripheral blood of patients with IM. 13 cell lines produced molecules with type K (?) light chain specificity and 6 cell lines produced molecules with type L (?) light chain specificity. Of interest, 9 of 16 lines produced IgG (?), IgA (?), and IgM (?) heavy chain molecules and 5 of these cell lines produced molecules with type K (?) and type L (?) light chain specificity as well. Further characterization by combined polyacrylamide gel filtration, immunodiffusion, and radioautography indicated the presence of newly synthesized immunoglobulin molecules with both heavy and light polypeptide chains in close association as well as free light polypeptide chain synthesis. Investigation of the localization of immunoglobulin in single cells by immunofluorescent techniques revealed that 5-22% of cells in these lines were strongly reactive with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated rabbit antisera directed against the antigenic determinants of human IgG and cross-reactive with the determinants common to IgA and IgM. No heterophile antibody, heteroagglutinin, or hemolytic antibody could be demonstrated in these cell lines derived from peripheral blood of patients with heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis. Images PMID:4175543

  1. Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, Joaquín; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adan, Alfonso; Andréoletti, Olivier; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Arroba, Ana-Isabel; Parra-Arrondo, Beatriz; Ferrer, Isidro; Manzanares, Jorge; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrPC) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrPC causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrPC sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrPC sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrPC mutations. PMID:24274622

  2. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. I. Collection of Virus Samples.

    PubMed

    Fout, G Shay; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Varughese, Eunice A; Parshionikar, Sandhya U; Grimm, Ann C

    2015-01-01

    EPA Method 1615 was developed with a goal of providing a standard method for measuring enteroviruses and noroviruses in environmental and drinking waters. The standardized sampling component of the method concentrates viruses that may be present in water by passage of a minimum specified volume of water through an electropositive cartridge filter. The minimum specified volumes for surface and finished/ground water are 300 L and 1,500 L, respectively. A major method limitation is the tendency for the filters to clog before meeting the sample volume requirement. Studies using two different, but equivalent, cartridge filter options showed that filter clogging was a problem with 10% of the samples with one of the filter types compared to 6% with the other filter type. Clogging tends to increase with turbidity, but cannot be predicted based on turbidity measurements only. From a cost standpoint one of the filter options is preferable over the other, but the water quality and experience with the water system to be sampled should be taken into consideration in making filter selections. PMID:25867928

  3. Review article Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France Barbara DUFOUR for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases

  4. Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Sidorov, Nikita

    Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases C. Jewel, T. Kypraios, P. Neal & G. Roberts of Mathematics, The University of Manchester #12;Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases. C. Jewell Infectious diseases both within human and animal polulations often pose serious health and socio- economic

  5. Aerosol stability of infectious and potentially infectious reovirus particles.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D J; Spendlove, J C; Spendlove, R S; Barnett, B B

    1982-01-01

    The aerosol stability of two particle forms, infectious and potentially infectious, of reovirus were examined under static conditions for a range of relative humidities at 21 and 24 degrees C. Virus aerosolization efficiency was determined for two methods of dissemination: Collison nebulizer and Chicago atomizer. Suspensions of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were added to reovirus preparations that included both particle forms and disseminated into a dynamic aerosol toroid to estimate the physical decay of the aerosols. At 90 to 100% relative humidity, both reovirus particle forms showed less than 10-fold loss of infectivity after 12 h of aging. At lower relative humidities the aerosol decay curve showed rapid initial decay followed by a markedly lower decay rate. Our findings reveal that reovirus particles are relatively stable in the airborne state. PMID:7149719

  6. Virus Infections and Type 1 Diabetes Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merja Roivainen; Karin Klingel

    2010-01-01

    Common intestinal infections caused by human enteroviruses (HEVs) are considered major environmental factors predisposing\\u000a to type 1 diabetes (T1D). In spite of the active research of the field, the HEV-induced pathogenetic processes are poorly\\u000a understood. Recently, after the first documented report on HEV infections in the pancreatic islets of deceased T1D patients,\\u000a several groups became interested in the issue and

  7. Detection of enterovirus specific IgG and IgM antibodies in humans by an indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Dörries; V. Meulen

    1980-01-01

    The development of a solid phase radioimmunoassay which is able to detect virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies in serum specimens from patients with enterovirus infections is described. Viral antigen partially purified from infected tissue culture fluid was adsorbed passively to individual polystyrene microtiter wells. Dilutions of sera were incubated on these antigens and bound anti-viral antibodies were monitored by the

  8. Rapid Detection of Enteroviruses in Small Volumes of Natural Waters by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jed A. Fuhrman; Xiaolin Liang; Rachel T. Noble

    2005-01-01

    Despite viral contamination of recreational waters, only bacterial, not viral, indicators are monitored routinely, due to a lack of rapid and cost-effective assays. We used negatively charged filters to capture enteroviruses from seawater and freshwater. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Poliovirus (6.6 to 330,000 virus

  9. Seven Strains of Enterovirus D68 Detected in the United States during the 2014 Severe Respiratory Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Brown, B. A.; Nix, W. A.; Sheth, M.; Frace, M.

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of severe respiratory disease in the United States were reported to the CDC beginning in August 2014. Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was identified from 83% (30/36) of initial severe cases. Investigations in August and September found severe EV-D68 cases to be widespread across the United States. We report seven EV-D68 genomes from the outbreak. PMID:25414503

  10. Detection by PCR of Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid during a Summer Outbreak of Aseptic Meningitis in Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MERI GORGIEVSKI-HRISOHO; JEAN-DANIEL SCHUMACHER; NEVENKA VILIMONOVIC; DANIEL GERMANN; LUKAS MATTER

    1998-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) are among the most common causes of aseptic meningitis. Standard diagnostic tech- niques are often too slow and lack sensitivity to be of clinical relevance. EV RNA can be detected withi n5hb y a commercially available reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) test kit. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 68 patients presenting with aseptic meningitis during a summer outbreak in Switzerland

  11. Chemoprophylaxis of Tropical Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    McBride, William J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Travelers to tropical countries are at risk for a variety of infectious diseases. In some cases effective vaccinations are available, but for other infections chemoprophylaxis can be offered. Malaria prevention has become increasingly complex as Plasmodium species become resistant to available drugs. In certain high risk settings, antibiotics can be used to prevent leptospirosis, scrub typhus and other infections. Post-exposure prophylaxis is appropriate for selected virulent infections. In this article the evidence for chemoprophylaxis will be reviewed.

  12. [Genomic medicine and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Fellay, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Relentless progress in our knowledge of the nature and functional consequences of human genetic variation allows for a better understanding of the protracted battle between pathogens and their human hosts. Multiple polymorphisms have been identified that impact our response to infections or to anti-infective drugs, and some of them are already used in the clinic. However, to make personalized medicine a reality in infectious diseases, a sustained effort is needed not only in research but also in genomic education. PMID:24800771

  13. Enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 3C proteases: binding to rupintrivir and their substrates and anti-hand, foot, and mouth disease virus drug design.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guangwen; Qi, Jianxun; Chen, Zhujun; Xu, Xiang; Gao, Feng; Lin, Daizong; Qian, Wangke; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Hualiang; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2011-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is prevalent in Asia. Thus far, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic measures against HFMD. The 3C proteases from EV71 and CVA16 play important roles in viral replication and are therefore ideal drug targets. By using biochemical, mutational, and structural approaches, we broadly characterized both proteases. A series of high-resolution structures of the free or substrate-bound enzymes were solved. These structures, together with our cleavage specificity assay, well explain the marked substrate preferences of both proteases for particular P4, P1, and P1' residue types, as well as the relative malleability of the P2 amino acid. More importantly, the complex structures of EV71 and CVA16 3Cs with rupintrivir, a specific human rhinovirus (HRV) 3C protease inhibitor, were solved. These structures reveal a half-closed S2 subsite and a size-reduced S1' subsite that limit the access of the P1' group of rupintrivir to both enzymes, explaining the reported low inhibition activity of the compound toward EV71 and CVA16. In conclusion, the detailed characterization of both proteases in this study could direct us to a proposal for rational design of EV71/CVA16 3C inhibitors. PMID:21795339

  14. Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 3C Proteases: Binding to Rupintrivir and Their Substrates and Anti-Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Virus Drug Design ?

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guangwen; Qi, Jianxun; Chen, Zhujun; Xu, Xiang; Gao, Feng; Lin, Daizong; Qian, Wangke; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Hualiang; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F.

    2011-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is prevalent in Asia. Thus far, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic measures against HFMD. The 3C proteases from EV71 and CVA16 play important roles in viral replication and are therefore ideal drug targets. By using biochemical, mutational, and structural approaches, we broadly characterized both proteases. A series of high-resolution structures of the free or substrate-bound enzymes were solved. These structures, together with our cleavage specificity assay, well explain the marked substrate preferences of both proteases for particular P4, P1, and P1? residue types, as well as the relative malleability of the P2 amino acid. More importantly, the complex structures of EV71 and CVA16 3Cs with rupintrivir, a specific human rhinovirus (HRV) 3C protease inhibitor, were solved. These structures reveal a half-closed S2 subsite and a size-reduced S1? subsite that limit the access of the P1? group of rupintrivir to both enzymes, explaining the reported low inhibition activity of the compound toward EV71 and CVA16. In conclusion, the detailed characterization of both proteases in this study could direct us to a proposal for rational design of EV71/CVA16 3C inhibitors. PMID:21795339

  15. Auto-immune encephalitis as differential diagnosis of infectious encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Armangue, Thaís; Leypoldt, Frank; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe the main types of autoimmune encephalitis with special emphasis on those associated with antibodies against neuronal cell surface or synaptic proteins, and the differential diagnosis with infectious encephalitis. Recent findings There is a continuous expansion of the number of cell surface or synaptic proteins that are targets of autoimmunity. The most recently identified include the mGluR5, DPPX, and the GABAAR. In these and previously known autoimmune encephalitis (NMDAR, AMPAR, GABABR, LGI1, CASPR2), the prodromal symptoms or types of presentations often suggest a viral encephalitis. We review here clues that help in the differential diagnosis with infectious encephalitis. Moreover, recent investigations indicate that viral encephalitis (e.g., herpes simplex) can trigger synaptic autoimmunity. In all these disorders immunotherapy is usually effective. Summary Autoimmune encephalitis comprises an expanding group of potentially treatable disorders that should be included in the differential diagnosis of any type of encephalitis. PMID:24792345

  16. Infectious disease emergencies: role of the infectious disease specialist.

    PubMed

    Norrby, S Ragnar

    2005-04-01

    The importance of infections for public health has become obvious during the last decades. Examples are emerging infections such as HIV/AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome, deliberate release of microorganisms, such as the anthrax episode in the USA, the increasing problems with organisms resistant to antimicrobial treatment, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the threat of a new influenza pandemic with a case fatality rate similar to that in the 1918 outbreak. An effective response to infectious disease emergencies requires careful planning and establishment of resources in advance. The medical specialties involved are clinical microbiology, clinical infectious diseases and epidemiology. Clinical microbiology should include bacteriology, virology, and parasitology; the technical developments during the last 15 years have clearly erased most of the methodological differences between these branches of microbiology. New techniques such as new generations of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), rapid methods for nucleic acid sequence analyses and microarrays have enabled more rapid identification of organisms and provide powerful tools in the epidemiological analysis of an outbreak. The infectious disease specialists are necessary for rapid and adequate clinical diagnoses, optimal use of antimicrobial agents and provision of facilities for containment of patients who may spread the infections. The need for isolation units became acute when many countries prepared themselves for a possible severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Europe. With few exceptions, Europe still lacks epidemiological field forces, and it has been embarrassing to be obliged to call upon the Centers for Disease Control for European outbreaks. Hopefully, this will be corrected with the creation of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). PMID:15816100

  17. Structural basis of infectious and non-infectious amyloids

    PubMed Central

    Baxa, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are elongated protein aggregates well known for their association with many human diseases. However, similar structures have also been found in other organisms and amyloid fibrils can also be formed in vitro by other proteins usually under non-physiological conditions. In all cases, these fibrils assemble in a nucleated polymerization reaction with a pronounced lag phase that can be eliminated by supplying pre-formed fibrils as seeds. Once formed, the fibrils are usually very stable, except for their tendency to break into smaller pieces forming more growing ends in the process. These properties give amyloid fibers a self-replicating character dependent only on a source of soluble protein. For some systems and under certain circumstances this can lead to infectious protein structures, so-called prions, that can be passed from one organism to another as in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and in fungal prion systems. Structural details about these processes have emerged only recently, mostly on account of the inability of traditional high-resolution methods to deal with insoluble, filamentous specimens. In consequence, current models for amyloid fibrils are based on fewer constraints than common atomic-resolution structures. This review gives an overview of the constraints used for the development of amyloid models and the methods used to derive them. The principally possible structures will be introduced by discussing current models of amyloid fibrils from Alzheimer's ?-peptide, amylin and several fungal systems. The infectivity of some amyloids under specific conditions might not be due to a principal structural difference between infectious and non-infectious amyloids, but could result from an interplay of the rates for filament nucleation, growth, fragmentation, and clearance. PMID:18537545

  18. Merging economics and epidemiology to improve the prediction and management of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Perrings, Charles; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Chowell, Gerardo; Daszak, Peter; Fenichel, Eli P; Finnoff, David; Horan, Richard D; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Kinzig, Ann P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Levin, Simon; Morin, Benjamin; Smith, Katherine F; Springborn, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Mathematical epidemiology, one of the oldest and richest areas in mathematical biology, has significantly enhanced our understanding of how pathogens emerge, evolve, and spread. Classical epidemiological models, the standard for predicting and managing the spread of infectious disease, assume that contacts between susceptible and infectious individuals depend on their relative frequency in the population. The behavioral factors that underpin contact rates are not generally addressed. There is, however, an emerging a class of models that addresses the feedbacks between infectious disease dynamics and the behavioral decisions driving host contact. Referred to as "economic epidemiology" or "epidemiological economics," the approach explores the determinants of decisions about the number and type of contacts made by individuals, using insights and methods from economics. We show how the approach has the potential both to improve predictions of the course of infectious disease, and to support development of novel approaches to infectious disease management. PMID:25233829

  19. Infectious Cellular Load in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-Infected Individuals and Susceptibility of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Their Exposed Partners to Non-Syncytium-Inducing HIV-1 as Major Determinants for HIV-1 Transmission in Homosexual Couples

    PubMed Central

    Blaak, Hetty; van’t Wout, Angélique B.; Brouwer, Margreet; Cornelissen, Marion; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Albrecht-van Lent, Nel; Keet, René P. M.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Coutinho, Roel A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    1998-01-01

    To study risk factors for homosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we compared 10 monogamous homosexual couples between whom transmission of HIV-1 had occurred with 10 monogamous homosexual couples between whom HIV-1 transmission had not occurred despite high-risk sexual behavior. In the group of individuals who did not transmit virus, peripheral cellular infectious load was lower and the CD4+ T-cell counts were higher than in the group of transmitters. HIV-1 RNA levels in serum did not differ between transmitters and nontransmitters. Compared with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal healthy blood donors, 8 of 10 nonrecipients and only 3 of 8 recipients had PBMC with reduced susceptibility to in vitro infection with non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) HIV-1 variants isolated from either their respective partners or an unrelated individual. No difference in susceptibility was observed for infection with a syncytium-inducing variant. Among the individuals who had PBMC with reduced susceptibility, five nonrecipients and one recipient had PBMC that were equally or even less susceptible to NSI variants than PBMC that had low susceptibility and that were derived from healthy blood donors that were heterozygous for a 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5 ?32). Three of these individuals (all nonrecipients) had a CCR5 ?32 heterozygous genotype themselves, confirming an association between low susceptibility to NSI variants and CCR5 ?32 heterozygosity. All three recipients with less susceptible PBMC had partners with a high infectious cellular load; inversely, both nonrecipients with normally susceptible PBMC had partners with a very low infectious cellular load. These results suggest that a combination of susceptibility of target cells and inoculum size upon homosexual exposure largely determines whether HIV-1 infection is established. PMID:9420218

  20. Etiologic role of infectious agents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Edward S; Moller, David R

    2014-06-01

    A consensus statement found in most peer-reviewed literature on sarcoidosis is that the etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown. It is timely to review whether this statement should be revised. Many infectious agents meet the basic requirements of inducing granulomatous inflammation and immunologic responses consistent with sarcoidosis including oligoclonal expansion of CD4+ T cells, polarized Th1 and possibly Th17 responses, and dysregulated regulatory T-cell function. Studies over the past decade provide increasing and complementary data to implicate a role for infectious agents in sarcoidosis etiology. These studies used different methodologies such as polymerase chain reaction and mass spectrometry to document microbial nucleic acids and proteins in sarcoidosis tissues. Multiple studies report antigen-specific immune responses to specific microbial proteins in sarcoidosis. In aggregate, these studies provide compelling evidence that mycobacteria play a major etiologic role in sarcoidosis in the United States and Europe. Studies from Japan support a role for Propionibacteria as a major etiologic agent in the country. There is controversy over how these (or other) infectious agents cause sarcoidosis. The hypothesis that chronic sarcoidosis is caused by a viable, replicating mycobacterial or other infection has no direct pathologic, microbiologic, or clinical evidence. A novel hypothesis links microbial triggers to a sarcoidosis outcome from the accumulation of aggregated proinflammatory serum amyloid A within granulomas, providing a mechanism for chronic disease in the absence of any viable tissue infection. Further studies are needed to provide more definitive evidence for these competing hypotheses before the statement that the etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown becomes obsolete. PMID:25007081

  1. Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Noopur

    2008-01-01

    Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mount, Gram?s stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. PMID:18417821

  2. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

    2003-01-01

    Since 1990, Mongolia’s health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcus, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

  3. Early Detection for Cases of Enterovirus- and Influenza-Like Illness through a Newly Established School-Based Syndromic Surveillance System in Taipei, January 2010 ~ August 2011

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Ting Chia; Chan, Ta Chien; Li, Zheng Rong Tiger; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Chu, Yu-Roo; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Yen, Muh-Yong; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    School children may transmit pathogens with cluster cases occurring on campuses and in families. In response to the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, Taipei City Government officials developed a School-based Infectious Disease Syndromic Surveillance System (SID-SSS). Teachers and nurses from preschools to universities in all 12 districts within Taipei are required to daily report cases of symptomatic children or sick leave requests through the SID-SSS. The pre-diagnosis at schools is submitted firstly as common pediatric disease syndrome-groups and re-submitted after confirmation by physicians. We retrieved these data from January 2010 to August 2011 for spatio-temporal analysis and evaluated the temporal trends with cases obtained from both the Emergency Department-based Syndromic Surveillance System (ED-SSS) and the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005). Through the SID-SSS, enterovirus-like illness (EVI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) were the two most reported syndrome groups (77.6% and 15.8% among a total of 19,334 cases, respectively). The pre-diagnosis judgments made by school teachers and nurses showed high consistency with physicians’ clinical diagnoses for EVI (97.8%) and ILI (98.9%). Most importantly, the SID-SSS had better timeliness with earlier peaks of EVI and ILI than those in the ED-SSS. Furthermore, both of the syndrome groups in these two surveillance systems had the best correlation reaching 0.98 and 0.95, respectively (p<0.01). Spatio-temporal analysis observed the patterns of EVI and ILI both diffuse from the northern suburban districts to central Taipei, with ILI spreading faster. This novel system can identify early suspected cases of two important pediatric infections occurring at schools, and clusters from schools/families. It was also cost-effective (95.5% of the operation cost reduced and 59.7% processing time saved). The timely surveillance of mild EVI and ILI cases integrated with spatial analysis may help public health decision-makers with where to target for enhancing surveillance and prevention measures to minimize severe cases. PMID:25875080

  4. Infectious Diseases and the Immune System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ARNEL DELA CRUZ

    2012-06-28

    The lesson is design to explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. Primarily, it focuses on infectious diseases and how the immune system defend the body against infectious diseases. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engage, analytical and inquisitive in learning about infectious diseases and the immune system.

  5. Informatics for Infectious Disease Research and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitali Sintchenko

    \\u000a The goal of infectious disease informatics is to optimize the clinical and public health management of infectious diseases\\u000a through improvements in the development and use of antimicrobials, the design of more effective vaccines, the identification\\u000a of biomarkers for life-threatening infections, a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and biosurveillance and\\u000a clinical decision support. Infectious disease informatics can lead to more targeted

  6. Rupintrivir is a promising candidate for treating severe cases of Enterovirus-71 infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Nan; Song, Zhi-Gang; Jiang, Ting; Shi, Bi-Sheng; Hu, Yun-Wen; Yuan, Zheng-Hong

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the suitability of rupintrivir against Enterovirus 71 (EV71) induced severe clinical symptoms using computational methods. METHODS: The structure of EV71 3C protease was predicted by homology modeling. The binding free energies between rupintrivir and EV71 3C and human rhinovirus 3C protease were computed by molecular dynamics and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann/surface area and molecular mechanics generalized-born/surface area methods. EV71 3C fragments obtained from clinical samples collected during May to July 2008 in Shanghai were amplified by reverse-transcription and polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. RESULTS: We observed that rupintrivir had favorable binding affinity with EV71 3C protease (-10.76 kcal/mol). The variability of the 3C protein sequence in isolates of various outbreaks, including those obtained in our hospital from May to July 2008, were also analyzed to validate the conservation of the drug binding pocket. CONCLUSION: Rupintrivir, whose safety profiles had been proved, is an attractive candidate and can be quickly utilized for treating severe EV71 infection. PMID:20066739

  7. Inhibition of Enterovirus 71 Replication by 7-Hydroxyflavone and Diisopropyl-Flavon7-yl Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiang; Cui, Sheng; Yang, Fan; Jin, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, which has been continuously prevalent in Asia in recent years. In children, severe cases can lead to death, and no prophylactic or therapeutic measures against EV71 infection are available. The 3C proteases of EV71 play an important role in viral replication and are an ideal drug target. In previous work, we resolved the crystal structure for EV71 3Cpro. In this report, we took advantage of the automated docking program AutoDock 4.0 to simulate EV71 3Cpro-ligand conformation. 7-hydroxyflavone (HF) and its phosphate ester(FIP) were predicted to bind with EV71 3Cpro.In an in vitro protease inhibition assay, FIP inhibited EV71 3Cpro protease activity. Both flavones were highly active against EV71, protecting cells from EV71 infection. Replication of viral RNA and formation of EV71 plaque were all strongly inhibited in cells. These results indicated that HF and FIP may serve as potential protective agents in the treatment of patients with chronic EV71 infection. PMID:24664133

  8. Effect of Meteorological Conditions and Geographical Factors in the Onset of Enterovirus 71

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-An; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2015-04-01

    Since it was first recognized in California in 1969, enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has been a significant cause of neurological disorder and death in children worldwide. In 1998 a historic epidemic of EV71 infection caused hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina in thousands of people in Taiwan. The impact of EV71 infection is greatest during the summer months in Asia, and epidemics recur with a seasonal pattern. It was reported that seasonal patterns of EV71 differed by geographical localities. Previous studies have also showed significant relationships between meteorological variables, in particular, temperature and relative humidity, and the seasonal epidemic patterns of EV71. However, important issues that remain unclear include the spatiotemporal pattern of the EV71 outbreaks in Taiwan, and what role of favorable meteorological conditions in the transmission of the disease in the space-time domain. Thus, this study used a semiparametric generalized additive model (GAM) to understand the association between EV71 and meteorological factors across space and time. This study utilized a population-based database containing space-time data for clinic and hospital visits (i.e., hospital location and appointment times) of EV71 occurring in children less than 18 years old in Taipei from 1998 to 2008. Meteorological data (i.e., temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity) for the study period were provided by the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau. This study expect to find out an important meteorological factor and threshold.

  9. Detection of porcine teschoviruses and enteroviruses by LightCycler real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Krumbholz, Andi; Wurm, Rüdiger; Scheck, Oliver; Birch-Hirschfeld, Eckard; Egerer, Renate; Henke, Andreas; Wutzler, Peter; Zell, Roland

    2003-10-01

    Porcine picornaviruses comprising at least 23 serotypes grouped into six species were described as causative agents of neurological disorders, reproductive failure, and aphthae-like dermal lesions of swine. Other viruses such as classical swine fever virus (CSFV), African swine fever virus, pseudorabies virus (PRV), vesicular stomatitis virus, vesicular exanthema virus, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, and porcine parvovirus (PPV) may cause diseases with similar clinical symptoms. Therefore, rapid and reliable PCR detection of the most frequent porcine picornaviruses is of interest. A real-time RT-PCR protocol employing LightCycler technology to detect all known serotypes of the three porcine enterovirus (PEV) cytopathic effect (CPE) groups was established. It uses three sets of primer pairs and group-specific hybridisation probes. The primer pairs were designed to amplify highly conserved sequences of the 5'-non-translated region (5'-NTR) of the relevant virus species. The one-step real-time PCR based on the LightCycler technology is more rapid and less contamination-prone than the nested RT-PCR and allows the precise quantitation of the virus load in the tested specimens. All acknowledged serotypes of the three PEV CPE groups and all tested field strains isolated from clinical specimens were detectable. Viruses of the PEV CPE group III can be distinguished from the closely related swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). PMID:14500127

  10. Association of IP-10 gene polymorphism with susceptibility to Enterovirus 71 infection

    PubMed Central

    YANG, JING; CHEN, ZHEN-ZHEN; LV, TIE-GANG; LIU, PEI-PEI; CHEN, ZONG-BO

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) often causes large outbreaks of diseases among children worldwide and its pathogenesis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) polymorphism in children with EV71 infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were performed to analyze the gene polymorphisms of IP-10 (?1596C/T) in 58 EV71-infected and 48 control patients. The results showed that in EV71-infected patients the frequency of carrying CT + TT genotype and T allele is 10.3 and 6.0%, respectively, which is significantly lower than that of the controls (29.2 and 15.6%, respectively). Individuals with T allele had a lower risk of EV71 infection [odds ratio (OR) = 0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.13–0.89]. The results of this study indicated that ?1596T allele for the IP-10 gene may be a beneficial factor for EV71 infection. PMID:24648959

  11. Massive pulmonary hemorrhage in enterovirus 71-infected hand, foot, and mouth disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Seong; Lee, Young Il; Ahn, Jeong Bae; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Nam Hee; Hwang, Jong Hee; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Chong Guk

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute, mostly self-limiting infection. Patients usually recover without any sequelae. However, a few cases are life threatening, especially those caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71). A 12-month-old boy was admitted to a primary hospital with high fever and vesicular lesions of the mouth, hands, and feet. After 3 days, he experienced 3 seizure episodes and was referred to our hospital. On admission, he was conscious and his chest radiograph was normal. However, 6 hours later, he suddenly lost consciousness and had developed a massive pulmonary hemorrhage that continued until his death. He experienced several more intermittent seizures, and diffuse infiltration of both lung fields was observed on chest radiography. Intravenous immunoglobulin, dexamethasone, cefotaxime, leukocyte-depleted red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, inotropics, vitamin K, and endotracheal epinephrine were administered. The patient died 9 hours after intubation, within 3 days from fever onset. EV71 subgenotype C4a was isolated retrospectively from serum and nasopharyngeal swab by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Here, we report a fatal case of EV71-associated HFMD with sudden-onset massive pulmonary hemorrhage and suspected encephalitis. PMID:25861335

  12. Crystal structures of enterovirus 71 (EV71) recombinant virus particles provide insights into vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ke; Wang, Guang-Chuan; He, Ya-Ling; Han, Jian-Feng; Ye, Qing; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Rong

    2015-02-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) remains a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific regions, and its major causative agents include human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16. A desirable vaccine against HFMD would be multivalent and able to elicit protective responses against multiple HFMD causative agents. Previously, we have demonstrated that a thermostable recombinant EV71 vaccine candidate can be produced by the insertion of a foreign peptide into the BC loop of VP1 without affecting viral replication. Here we present crystal structures of two different naturally occurring empty particles, one from a clinical C4 strain EV71 and the other from its recombinant virus containing an insertion in the VP1 BC loop. Crystal structure analysis demonstrated that the inserted foreign peptide is well exposed on the particle surface without significant structural changes in the capsid. Importantly, such insertions do not seem to affect the virus uncoating process as illustrated by the conformational similarity between an uncoating intermediate of another recombinant virus and that of EV71. Especially, at least 18 residues from the N terminus of VP1 are transiently externalized. Altogether, our study provides insights into vaccine development against HFMD. PMID:25492868

  13. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of human enterovirus 71 and hand, foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Zhifang, Liu; Juanjuan, Gui; Qihang, Hua; Changzheng, Dong

    2015-05-01

    Human enterovirus 71(EV71), one of the major pathogens of the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), causes skin rashes in palms, feet and mouth ulcers and complication in the central nervous system such as aseptic meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis that may lead to death. EV71 infection has been reported to be associated with many outbreaks of HFMD worldwide, especially the great outbreaks that occurred in the Asia-Pacific region and caused numerous death since 1997. The studies of molecular epidemiology and evolution of EV71 are important for the prevention and control of HFMD since no vaccines and antiviral drugs have been developed except symptomatic treatment for HFMD. In this review, we summarize genotype classification, temporal and spatial distribution, evolutionary characteristics and modes of EV71 as well as typical EV71 epidemics. Further studies on EV71 and HFMD may lead to better understanding of pathological mechanisms of EV71, development of antiviral drugs and prevention and control of HFMD. PMID:25998430

  14. Infectious Diseases Subdue Serengeti Lions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cheryl Dybas (Freelance; )

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases stalk wildlife in the Serengeti, and climate change may be an accessory. Lions face serious threats to their future, some head-on, others lurking in the grasses, unseen until it's almost too late. From growing numbers of people living along the Serengeti perimeter to the effects of infectious diseases and climate change, the king of beasts (Panthera leo) leads an uneasy life. For example, lions are subject to simultaneous outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) and babesiosis. CDV, a disease that results in encephalitis and pneumonia, is transmitted by domestic dogs; babesiosis is carried by a tick-borne blood parasite called Babesia. If extreme weather events become more frequent as a result of global climate change, disease may become a major threat to animal populations that have been historically stable. Diseases once thought to have limited impacts, such as babesiosis, should be watched closely. Environmental conditions may tip the scales and result in significantly greater impacts, even in wide open places like the Serengeti.

  15. 77 FR 76296 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-27

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  16. 76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  17. 78 FR 79703 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  18. Seroepidemiology of Coxsackievirus A6, Coxsackievirus A16, and Enterovirus 71 Infections among Children and Adolescents in Singapore, 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Li Wei; Tay, Joanne; Phoon, Meng Chee; Hsu, Jung Pu; Cutter, Jeffery; James, Lyn; Goh, Kee Tai; Chow, Vincent Tak-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Coxsackieviruses A6 (CV-A6) and A16 (CV-A16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) have caused periodic epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children in Singapore. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the seroprevalence of these enteroviruses among Singapore children and adolescents. The study was conducted between August 2008 and July 2010. It involved 700 Singapore residents aged 1–17 years whose residual sera were obtained following the completion of routine biochemical investigations in two public acute-care hospitals. The levels of neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) against CV-A6, CV-A16 and EV-A71 were analyzed by the microneutralization test. The age-specific geometric mean titer (GMT) of antibodies against each of the three enteroviruses and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The seroprevalence of CV-A6 and CV-A16 was high at 62.7% (95% CI: 59.1–66.2%) and 60.6% (95% CI: 56.9–64.1%), respectively. However, the seroprevalence of EV-A71 was significantly lower at 29.3% (95% CI: 26.0–32.8%). About 89.7% of the children and adolescents had been infected by at least one of the three enteroviruses by 13–17 years of age. About half (52.3%) were seropositive for two or all three enteroviruses, while only 16.1% had no NtAb against any of the three enteroviruses. High NtAb levels were observed in the younger age groups. CV-A6 and CV-A16 infections are very common among Singapore children and adolescents, while EV-A71 infections are less common. Infection is continually acquired from early childhood to adolescent age. PMID:26011735

  19. Toll-like receptor 9-mediated protection of enterovirus 71 infection in mice is due to the release of danger-associated molecular patterns.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Lin, Su-I; Chen, I-Hua; Lien, Shu-Pei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chong, Pele; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2014-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a positive-stranded RNA virus, is the major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with severe neurological symptoms. Antiviral type I interferon (alpha/beta interferon [IFN-?/?]) responses initiated from innate receptor signaling are inhibited by EV71-encoded proteases. It is less well understood whether EV71-induced apoptosis provides a signal to activate type I interferon responses as a host defensive mechanism. In this report, we found that EV71 alone cannot activate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling, but supernatant from EV71-infected cells is capable of activating TLR9. We hypothesized that TLR9-activating signaling from plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) may contribute to host defense mechanisms. To test our hypothesis, Flt3 ligand-cultured DCs (Flt3L-DCs) from both wild-type (WT) and TLR9 knockout (TLR9KO) mice were infected with EV71. More viral particles were produced in TLR9KO mice than by WT mice. In contrast, alpha interferon (IFN-?), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), IFN-?, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-10 levels were increased in Flt3L-DCs from WT mice infected with EV71 compared with TLR9KO mice. Seven-day-old TLR9KO mice infected with a non-mouse-adapted EV71 strain developed neurological lesion-related symptoms, including hind-limb paralysis, slowness, ataxia, and lethargy, but WT mice did not present with these symptoms. Lung, brain, small intestine, forelimb, and hind-limb tissues collected from TLR9KO mice exhibited significantly higher viral loads than equivalent tissues collected from WT mice. Histopathologic damage was observed in brain, small intestine, forelimb, and hind-limb tissues collected from TLR9KO mice infected with EV71. Our findings demonstrate that TLR9 is an important host defense molecule during EV71 infection. Importance: The host innate immune system is equipped with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are useful for defending the host against invading pathogens. During enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection, the innate immune system is activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which include viral RNA or DNA, and these PAMPs are recognized by PRRs. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR7/8 recognize viral nucleic acids, and TLR9 senses unmethylated CpG DNA or pathogen-derived DNA. These PRRs stimulate the production of type I interferons (IFNs) to counteract viral infection, and they are the major source of antiviral alpha interferon (IFN-?) production in pDCs, which can produce 200- to 1,000-fold more IFN-? than any other immune cell type. In addition to PAMPs, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are known to be potent activators of innate immune signaling, including TLR9. We found that EV71 induces cellular apoptosis, resulting in tissue damage; the endogenous DNA from dead cells may activate the innate immune system through TLR9. Therefore, our study provides new insights into EV71-induced apoptosis, which stimulates TLR9 in EV71-associated infections. PMID:25078697

  20. Genetic Contributions to Infectious Disease Risk Infectious disease in cattle production

    E-print Network

    Genetic Contributions to Infectious Disease Risk Infectious disease in cattle production remains&M University have begun to consolidate our expertise in ruminant health and production, genomics, and genetic To identify genetic polymorphisms associated with infectious diseases of cattle of importance to animal

  1. Amniotic Membrane Transplantation for the Treatment of Corneal Ulceration in Infectious Keratitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnd Heiligenhaus; Carsten Heinz; Klaus Schmitz; Christoph Tappeiner; Dirk Bauer; Daniel Meller

    ? Corneal ulceration may occur in diverse types of infectious keratitis, e.g., in herpetic, bacterial, or parasitic infections\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? The diverse infectious entities can be distinguished by their clinical presentation \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? Before treatment, corneal scrapings or biopsies should be obtained for proper microbiological evaluation \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? The pathogenesis of infectious corneal ulcers includes micro-organism-related and immune-mediated factors \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? Amniotic membrane may

  2. Single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses generated in days using infectious subgenomic amplicons

    PubMed Central

    Nougairčde, Antoine; de Fabritus, Lauriane; Querat, Gilles; Gould, Ernest A.; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Reverse genetics is a key methodology for producing genetically modified RNA viruses and deciphering cellular and viral biological properties, but methods based on the preparation of plasmid-based complete viral genomes are laborious and unpredictable. Here, both wild-type and genetically modified infectious RNA viruses were generated in days using the newly described ISA (infectious-subgenomic-amplicons) method. This new versatile and simple procedure may enhance our capacity to obtain infectious RNA viruses from PCR-amplified genetic material. PMID:25053561

  3. Comparative full genome analysis of four infectious laryngotracheitis virus (gallid herpesvirus-1) virulent isolates from the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gallid herpesvirus type 1 (GaHV-1), commonly named infectious laryngotracheitis virus causes the respiratory disease in chickens known as infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Molecular determinants associated with differences in pathogenicity of GaHV-1 strains are not completely understood. Comparis...

  4. mRNA Decay Factor AUF1 Binds the Internal Ribosomal Entry Site of Enterovirus 71 and Inhibits Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Li, Mei-Ling; Brewer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    AU-rich element binding factor 1 (AUF1) has a role in the replication cycles of different viruses. Here we demonstrate that AUF1 binds the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and negatively regulates IRES-dependent translation. During EV71 infection, AUF1 accumulates in the cytoplasm where viral replication occurs, whereas AUF1 localizes predominantly in the nucleus in mock-infected cells. AUF1 knockdown in infected cells increases IRES activity and synthesis of viral proteins. Taken together, the results suggest that AUF1 interacts with the EV71 IRES to negatively regulate viral translation and replication. PMID:25077793

  5. Infectious diseases and daycare and preschool education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria M. M. Nesti; Moisés Goldbaum

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases associated with out-of-home childcare and the effectiveness of measures for the control and prevention of diseases transmission at daycare and preschool education centers. Sources: A review of literature in the MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases, found using the descriptors daycare, infection, infection control and infectious diseases and focusing on

  6. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR INFECTIOUS BOVINE KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an economically important disease in cattle. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in offspring from a Brahman x Hereford sire. The sire was mated to H...

  7. Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Daszak; Lee Berger; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt; D. Earl Green; Rick Speare

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a

  8. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.

    PubMed

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:25024856

  9. The changing spectrum of neonatal infectious disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L R W Plano; LRW Plano

    2010-01-01

    To understand the changing spectrum of neonatal infectious disease, one must first be familiar with the history, the variety of organisms and the progression of change of neonatal infections over the years. As progressively more immature neonates are surviving, the spectrum of infectious disease has changed in response to current medical practice responsible for this success and to selective pressures

  10. Stress and infectious disease in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheldon Cohen; Gail M. Williamson

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews research on the role of stress in infectious disease as measured either by illness behaviors (symptoms and use of health services) or by verified pathology. Substantial evidence was found for an association between stress and increased illness behavior, and less convincing but provocative evidence was found for a similar association between stress and infectious pathology. Introverts, isolates,

  11. Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Oaten, Megan J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another—the focus of this theme issue—has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick—stigmatization—and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process—moralization—can be co-opted to promote human health. PMID:22042913

  12. Coxsackie B4 virus infection of ? cells and natural killer cell insulitis in recent-onset type 1 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Dotta, Francesco; Censini, Stefano; van Halteren, Astrid G. S.; Marselli, Lorella; Masini, Matilde; Dionisi, Sabrina; Mosca, Franco; Boggi, Ugo; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Prato, Stefano Del; Elliott, John F.; Covacci, Antonello; Rappuoli, Rino; Roep, Bart O.; Marchetti, Piero

    2007-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic ? cells. Several studies have suggested an association between Coxsackie enterovirus seroconversion and onset of disease. However, a direct link between ? cell viral infection and islet inflammation has not been established. We analyzed pancreatic tissue from six type 1 diabetic and 26 control organ donors. Immunohistochemical, electron microscopy, whole-genome ex vivo nucleotide sequencing, cell culture, and immunological studies demonstrated Coxsackie B4 enterovirus in specimens from three of the six diabetic patients. Infection was specific of ? cells, which showed nondestructive islet inflammation mediated mainly by natural killer cells. Islets from enterovirus-positive samples displayed reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose and other secretagogues. In addition, virus extracted from positive islets was able to infect ? cells from human islets of nondiabetic donors, causing viral inclusions and signs of pyknosis. None of the control organ donors showed signs of viral infection. These studies provide direct evidence that enterovirus can infect ? cells in patients with type 1 diabetes and that infection is associated with inflammation and functional impairment. PMID:17360338

  13. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  14. Enterovirus 71 VPg Uridylation Uses a Two-Molecular Mechanism of 3D Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuna; Wang, Yaxin; Shan, Chao; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Peng; Song, Mohan; Zhou, Honggang; Yang, Cheng; Xu, Wenbo; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2012-01-01

    VPg uridylylation is essential for picornavirus RNA replication. The VPg uridylylation reaction consists of the binding of VPg to 3D polymerase (3Dpol) and the transfer of UMP by 3Dpol to the hydroxyl group of the third amino acid Tyr of VPg. Previous studies suggested that different picornaviruses employ distinct mechanisms during VPg binding and uridylylation. Here, we report a novel site (Site-311, located at the base of the palm domain of EV71 3Dpol) that is essential for EV71 VPg uridylylation as well as viral replication. Ala substitution of amino acids (T313, F314, and I317) at Site-311 reduced the VPg uridylylation activity of 3Dpol by >90%. None of the Site-311 mutations affected the RNA elongation activity of 3Dpol, which indicates that Site-311 does not directly participate in RNA polymerization. However, mutations that abrogated VPg uridylylation significantly reduced the VPg binding ability of 3Dpol, which suggests that Site-311 is a potential VPg binding site on enterovirus 71 (EV71) 3Dpol. Mutation of a polymerase active site in 3Dpol and Site-311 in 3Dpol remarkably enables trans complementation to restore VPg uridylylation. In contrast, two distinct Site-311 mutants do not cause trans complementation in vitro. These results indicate that Site-311 is a VPg binding site that stabilizes the VPg molecule during the VPg uridylylation process and suggest a two-molecule model for 3Dpol during EV71 VPg uridylylation, such that one 3Dpol presents the hydroxyl group of Tyr3 of VPg to the polymerase active site of another 3Dpol, which in turn catalyzes VPg?VPg-pU conversion. For genome-length RNA, the Site-311 mutations that reduced VPg uridylylation were lethal for EV71 replication, which indicates that Site-311 is a potential antiviral target. PMID:23055549

  15. Excessive proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses of human monocyte-derived macrophages to enterovirus 71 infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The levels of proinflammatory cytokine or chemokine in blood and cerebrospinal fluid are thought to be one of predictors for clinical severity of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection, yet the cellular sources or signalling mechanism remain undefined. Here, we focused on the response of human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) to EV71 virus and its possible mechanisms. Methods Human primary MDMs were infected by EV71 virus in vitro. Infectivity and viral replication were assayed, and cytokine responses were determined by Cytometric Bead Array(CBA) analysis. The relative changes of Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melamoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5) mRNA expression were detected by real-time RT-PCR. Results Effective infection and viral replication were detected in EV71-infected MDMs. The titters of progeny virus released from EV71-infected MDMs gradually increased from 6-h to 48-h point of infection (POI.). Proinflammatory cytokines: IL-1, IL-6, TNF-? but not IFN-? and ? were induced in MDMs by EV71. EV71 infection significantly increased the release of IL-8, IP-10 and RANTES at 12-h or 24-h POI. Upregulation of TLR2, TLR7 and TLR8 mRNA expression rather than TLR3, TLR4, TLR6, TLR9, TLR10, RIG-I, MDA5 were found at different time points in EV71-infected MDMs. Conclusions Our findings suggested that macrophages are not only the important target cells but also the effectors during EV71 infection, and they may play an important role in the pathogenesis of EV71 infection. And the proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses in EV71-infected MDMs may be mediated by the activation of differential pattern of TLRs. PMID:22994237

  16. Evaluation of the stability of enterovirus 71 virus-like particle.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chung, Yao-Chi; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chi, Wei-Kuang; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for the outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease that caused significant mortality in children, but no vaccine is available yet. EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) is the empty capsid consisting of viral structural proteins but can elicit potent immune responses, rendering VLP a promising EV71 vaccine candidate. To evaluate whether VLP remains stable after long-term storage, which is crucial for advancing the VLP vaccine to the clinical setting, we evaluated the effects of NaCl concentration, buffers and temperatures on the VLP stability. We first validated the use of dynamic light scattering (DLS) for measuring the hydrodynamic diameter (?30-35 nm) of VLP, which was close to the VLP diameter (?25-27 nm) as measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using these techniques, we found that EV71 VLP remained stable for 5 months in sodium phosphate (NaPi) buffers with various NaCl concentrations. EV71 VLP also remained morphologically stable in NaPi, citrate and TE(+) buffers for 5 months, yet the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that the VLP stored in citrate and TE(+) buffers partially lost the immunogenicity after 5 months. In contrast, the VLP stored in the NaPi buffer at 4°C remained stable macroscopically and microscopically for 5 months, as judged from the DLS, TEM and ELISA. The VLP stored at 25°C and 37°C also retained stability for 1 month, which would obviate the need of a cold chain during the shipping. These data altogether proved the stability of EV71 VLP and suggested that the VLP is amenable to bioprocessing and storage. PMID:24140131

  17. Structures of the Procapsid and Mature Virion of Enterovirus 71 Strain 1095

    PubMed Central

    Cifuente, Javier O.; Lee, Hyunwook; Yoder, Joshua D.; Shingler, Kristin L.; Carnegie, Michael S.; Yoder, Jennifer L.; Ashley, Robert E.; Makhov, Alexander M.; Conway, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important emerging human pathogen with a global distribution and presents a disease pattern resembling poliomyelitis with seasonal epidemics that include cases of severe neurological complications, such as acute flaccid paralysis. EV71 is a member of the Picornaviridae family, which consists of icosahedral, nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses. Here we report structures derived from X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) for the 1095 strain of EV71, including a putative precursor in virus assembly, the procapsid, and the mature virus capsid. The cryo-EM map of the procapsid provides new structural information on portions of the capsid proteins VP0 and VP1 that are disordered in the higher-resolution crystal structures. Our structures solved from virus particles in solution are largely in agreement with those from prior X-ray crystallographic studies; however, we observe small but significant structural differences for the 1095 procapsid compared to a structure solved in a previous study (X. Wang, W. Peng, J. Ren, Z. Hu, J. Xu, Z. Lou, X. Li, W. Yin, X. Shen, C. Porta, T. S. Walter, G. Evans, D. Axford, R. Owen, D. J. Rowlands, J. Wang, D. I. Stuart, E. E. Fry, and Z. Rao, Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 19:424–429, 2012) for a different strain of EV71. For both EV71 strains, the procapsid is significantly larger in diameter than the mature capsid, unlike in any other picornavirus. Nonetheless, our results demonstrate that picornavirus capsid expansion is possible without RNA encapsidation and that picornavirus assembly may involve an inward radial collapse of the procapsid to yield the native virion. PMID:23637404

  18. A generic assay for whole-genome amplification and deep sequencing of enterovirus A71

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Le Van; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Ngan, Tran Thuy; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Van, Tran Thi My; Thanh, Le Thi My; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Geoghegan, Jemma L.; Ong, Kien Chai; Perera, David; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Ny, Nguyen Thi Han; Anh, Nguyen To; Ha, Do Quang; Qui, Phan Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Wong, Kum Thong; Holmes, Edward C.; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has emerged as the most important cause of large outbreaks of severe and sometimes fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia-Pacific region. EV-A71 outbreaks have been associated with (sub)genogroup switches, sometimes accompanied by recombination events. Understanding EV-A71 population dynamics is therefore essential for understanding this emerging infection, and may provide pivotal information for vaccine development. Despite the public health burden of EV-A71, relatively few EV-A71 complete-genome sequences are available for analysis and from limited geographical localities. The availability of an efficient procedure for whole-genome sequencing would stimulate effort to generate more viral sequence data. Herein, we report for the first time the development of a next-generation sequencing based protocol for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 directly from clinical specimens. We were able to sequence viruses of subgenogroup C4 and B5, while RNA from culture materials of diverse EV-A71 subgenogroups belonging to both genogroup B and C was successfully amplified. The nature of intra-host genetic diversity was explored in 22 clinical samples, revealing 107 positions carrying minor variants (ranging from 0 to 15 variants per sample). Our analysis of EV-A71 strains sampled in 2013 showed that they all belonged to subgenogroup B5, representing the first report of this subgenogroup in Vietnam. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based assay for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 from clinical samples. PMID:25704598

  19. A generic assay for whole-genome amplification and deep sequencing of enterovirus A71.

    PubMed

    Tan, Le Van; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Ngan, Tran Thuy; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Van, Tran Thi My; Thanh, Le Thi My; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Geoghegan, Jemma L; Ong, Kien Chai; Perera, David; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Ny, Nguyen Thi Han; Anh, Nguyen To; Ha, Do Quang; Qui, Phan Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Wong, Kum Thong; Holmes, Edward C; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H Rogier

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has emerged as the most important cause of large outbreaks of severe and sometimes fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia-Pacific region. EV-A71 outbreaks have been associated with (sub)genogroup switches, sometimes accompanied by recombination events. Understanding EV-A71 population dynamics is therefore essential for understanding this emerging infection, and may provide pivotal information for vaccine development. Despite the public health burden of EV-A71, relatively few EV-A71 complete-genome sequences are available for analysis and from limited geographical localities. The availability of an efficient procedure for whole-genome sequencing would stimulate effort to generate more viral sequence data. Herein, we report for the first time the development of a next-generation sequencing based protocol for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 directly from clinical specimens. We were able to sequence viruses of subgenogroup C4 and B5, while RNA from culture materials of diverse EV-A71 subgenogroups belonging to both genogroup B and C was successfully amplified. The nature of intra-host genetic diversity was explored in 22 clinical samples, revealing 107 positions carrying minor variants (ranging from 0 to 15 variants per sample). Our analysis of EV-A71 strains sampled in 2013 showed that they all belonged to subgenogroup B5, representing the first report of this subgenogroup in Vietnam. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based assay for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 from clinical samples. PMID:25704598

  20. A Mouse-Adapted Enterovirus 71 Strain Causes Neurological Disease in Mice after Oral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Fang; Chou, Chun-Ting; Lei, Huan-Yao; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wang, Shih-Min; Yan, Jing-Jou; Su, Ih-Jen; Wang, Jen-Reng; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Chen, Shun-Hua; Yu, Chun-Keung

    2004-01-01

    A mouse-adapted enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain with increased virulence in mice, MP4, was generated after four serial passages of the parental EV71 strain 4643 in mice. Strain MP4 exhibited a larger plaque size, grew more rapidly, and was more cytotoxic in vitro than strain 4643. Although strains 4643 and MP4 both induced apoptosis of SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells, MP4 was more virulent than 4643 in 1-day-old mice (50% lethal doses, 102 and 104 PFU/mouse, respectively). Strain MP4 (5 × 106 PFU/mouse), but not 4643, could orally infect 7-day-old mice, resulting in rear-limb paralysis followed by death 5 to 9 days after inoculation with the virus. Histopathologically, neuronal loss and apoptosis were evident in the spinal cords as well as the brain stems of the infected mice. The limb muscles displayed massive necrosis. There was early and transient virus replication in the intestines, whereas the spinal cord, brain, and muscle became the sites of viral replication during the late phase of the infection. Virus transmission occurred among infected and noninfected cagemates, as demonstrated by the occurrence of seroconversion and the presence of viable viruses in the stool samples of the latter. Protection against EV71 challenge was demonstrated following administration of hyperimmune serum 1 day after inoculation with the virus. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the genome of EV71 strain MP4 revealed four nucleotide changes on the 5? untranslated region, three on the VP2 region, and eight on the 2C region, resulting in one and four amino acid substitutions in the VP2 and 2C proteins, respectively. PMID:15254164

  1. Enterovirus 71 Virion-Associated Galectin-1 Facilitates Viral Replication and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pei-Huan; Liu, Chia-Ming; Ho, Tzong-Shiann; Tsai, Yi-Che; Lin, Chi-Cheng; Wang, Ya-Fang; Chen, Yuh-Ling; Yu, Chun-Keung; Wang, Shih-Min; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Shiau, Ai-Li; Lei, Huan-Yao; Chang, Chih-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection causes a myriad of diseases from mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease or herpangina to fatal brain stem encephalitis complicated with pulmonary edema. Several severe EV71 endemics have occurred in Asia-Pacific region, including Taiwan, and have become a serious threat to children’s health. EV71 infection is initiated by the attachment of the virion to the target cell surface. Although this process relies primarily upon interaction between viruses and cell surface receptors, soluble factors may also influence the binding of EV71 to host cells.Galectin-1 has been reported to participate in several virus infections, but is not addressed in EV71. In this study, we found that the serum levels of galectin-1 in EV71-infected children were higher than those in non-infected people. In EV71 infected cells, galectin-1 was found to be associated with the EV71 VP1 and VP3 via carbohydrate residues and subsequently released and bound to another cell surface along with the virus. EV71 propagated from galectin-1 knockdown SK-N-SH cells exhibited lower infectivity in cultured cells and less pathogenicity in mice than the virus propagated from parental cells. In addition, this galectin-1-free EV71 virus was sensitive to high temperature and lost its viability after long-term storage, which could be restored following supplement of recombinant galectin-1. Taken together, our findings uncover a new role of galectin-1 in facilitating EV71 virus infection. PMID:25706563

  2. Characterization of the genome of human enteroviruses: design of generic primers for amplification and sequencing of different regions of the viral genome

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    human enteroviruses into 5 species (Hyypia et al., 1997): HEV-A (at least 17 serotypes), HEV-B (at least 56 serotypes), HEV-C (at least 13 serotypes), HEV-D (at least 3 serotypes) and the 3 serotypes of PV

  3. Development of a method for detection of enteroviruses in shellfish by PCR with poliovirus as a model.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, D N; Henshilwood, K; Doré, W J

    1994-01-01

    The application of the PCR to complex samples is hindered by amplification inhibitors. We describe a reverse transcription-PCR-based method capable of inhibitor removal for the detection of enteroviruses in shellfish. Initial virus extraction stages based on a modified polyethylene glycol precipitation technique (G.D. Lewis and T.G. Metcalf, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:1983-1988, 1988) were followed by virus purification with 1,1,2-trichloro,2,2,1-trifluoroethane and concentration by ultrafiltration. A guanidine isothiocyanate-glass powder extraction system was utilized for sample lysis, RNase protection, and nucleic acid purification. Removal of PCR inhibitors and method sensitivity were quantified in shellfish (oysters and mussels) seeded with poliovirus. PCR sample tolerance exceeded 4 g for depurated shellfish; however, polluted field samples were more inhibitory. Virus recoveries of 31% for oyster extracts and 17% for mussel extracts and nucleic acid extraction reverse transcription-PCR detection limits down to 1 PFU yielded an overall sensitivity limit of < 10 PFU of poliovirus in up to 5 g of shellfish. PCR-positive results were obtained from a variety of polluted field samples naturally contaminated with human enteroviruses. The methods developed for virus recovery and PCR inhibitor removal should be equally applicable to detection of other RNA viruses such as hepatitis A virus, Norwalk virus, and other small round-structured viruses in shellfish. Images PMID:7521997

  4. Chemical modification of the plant isoprenoid cytokinin N(6)-isopentenyladenosine yields a selective inhibitor of human enterovirus 71 replication.

    PubMed

    Tararov, Vitali I; Tijsma, Aloys; Kolyachkina, Svetlana V; Oslovsky, Vladimir E; Neyts, Johan; Drenichev, Mikhail S; Leyssen, Pieter; Mikhailov, Sergey N

    2015-01-27

    In this study, we demonstrate that N(6)-isopentenyladenosine, which essentially is a plant cytokinin-like compound, exerts a potent and selective antiviral effect on the replication of human enterovirus 71 with an EC50 of 1.0 ± 0.2 ?M and a selectivity index (SI) of 5.7. The synthesis of analogs with modification of the N(6)-position did not result in a lower EC50 value. However, in particular with the synthesis of N(6)-(5-hexene-2-yne-1-yl)adenosine (EC50 = 4.3 ± 1.5 ?M), the selectivity index was significantly increased: because of a reduction in the adverse effect of this compound on the host cells, an SI > 101 could be calculated. With this study, we for the first time provide proof that a compound class that is based on the plant cytokinin skeleton offers an interesting starting point for the development of novel antivirals against mammalian viruses, in the present context in particular against enterovirus 71. PMID:25461889

  5. A Novel Universal Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody against Enterovirus 71 That Targets the Highly Conserved “Knob” Region of VP3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Tao; Chow, Vincent Tak Kwong; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71(EV71) leads to the majority of neurological complications and death in young children. While putative inactivated vaccines are only now undergoing clinical trials, no specific treatment options exist yet. Ideally, EV71 specific intravenous immunoglobulins could be developed for targeted treatment of severe cases. To date, only a single universally neutralizing monoclonal antibody against a conserved linear epitope of VP1 has been identified. Other enteroviruses have been shown to possess major conformational neutralizing epitopes on both the VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins. Hence, we attempted to isolate such neutralizing antibodies against conformational epitopes for their potential in the treatment of infection as well as differential diagnosis and vaccine optimization. Here we describe a universal neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved conformational epitope of EV71 which was mapped using escape mutants. Eight escape mutants from different subgenogroups (A, B2, B4, C2, C4) were rescued; they harbored three essential mutations either at amino acid positions 59, 62 or 67 of the VP3 protein which are all situated in the “knob” region. The escape mutant phenotype could be mimicked by incorporating these mutations into reverse genetically engineered viruses showing that P59L, A62D, A62P and E67D abolish both monoclonal antibody binding and neutralization activity. This is the first conformational neutralization epitope mapped on VP3 for EV71. PMID:24875055

  6. In vivo dynamics of enterovirus protease revealed by fluorescence resonance emission transfer (FRET) based on a novel FRET pair

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Y.-Y. [Faculty of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Y.-N. [Faculty of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang Wenyen [Incubation Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kao, Fu-Jen [Institute of Biophotonics, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kung, S.-H. [Faculty of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: szkung@ym.edu.tw

    2007-02-23

    An in vivo protease assay suitable for analysis by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was developed on the basis of a novel FRET pair. The specifically designed fusion substrate consists of green fluorescent protein 2 (GFP{sup 2})-peptide-red fluorescent protein 2 (DsRed2), with a cleavage motif for the enterovirus 2A protease (2A{sup pro}) embedded within the peptide region. FRET can be readily visualized in real-time from cells expressing the fusion substrate until a proteolytic cleavage by 2A{sup pro} from the input virus. The level of FRET decay is a function of the amount and infection duration of the inoculated virus as measured by a fluorometer assay. The FRET biosensor also responded well to other related enteroviruses but not to a phylogenetically distant virus. Western blot analysis confirmed the physical cleavage of the fusion substrate upon the infections. The study provides proof of principle for applying the FRET technology to diagnostics, screening procedures, and cell biological research.

  7. Infectious causes of sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alfelali, Mohammad; Khandaker, Gulam

    2014-12-01

    Investigators have long suspected the role of infection in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Evidence of infectious associations with SIDS is accentuated through the presence of markers of infection and inflammation on autopsy of SIDS infants and isolates of some bacteria and viruses. Several observational studies have looked into the relation between seasonality and incidence of SIDS, which often showed a winter peak. These all may suggest an infectious aetiology of SIDS. In this review we have summarised the current literature on infectious aetiologies of SIDS by looking at viral, bacterial, genetic and environmental factors which are believed to be associated with SIDS. PMID:25441371

  8. Solar disinfection of infectious biomedical waste: a new approach for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, V; Chitnis, S; Patil, S; Chitnis, D

    2003-10-18

    Poor developing countries cannot afford expensive technologies such as incineration for management of infectious biomedical waste. We assessed solar heating as an alternative technology. We immersed simulated infectious waste with added challenge bacteria in water in a box-type solar cooker, which was left in the sun for 6 h. In 24 sets of observations, the amount of viable bacteria was reduced by about 7 log. We also tested infectious medical waste with a heavy load of bacteria (10(8)-10(9)/g) from our hospital's burn unit for solar heat disinfection in 20 experiments. Our results showed a similar 7 log reduction in the amount of viable bacteria. Solar heating thus seems to be a cheap method to disinfect infectious medical waste in less economically developed countries. PMID:14575975

  9. Molecular epidemiology of infectious laryngotracheitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Kimberly R; García, Maricarmen; Spatz, Stephen; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2014-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important respiratory disease of poultry that affects the poultry industry worldwide. The disease is caused by gallid herpesvirus I (GaHV-1), a member of the genus Iltovirus, family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. The current incidence of the disease is heavily influenced by live attenuated vaccines, which have been used extensively since their introduction in the mid-twentieth century. The capability of current live attenuated vaccine viruses to revert to virulence and spread from bird to bird has shaped the molecular epidemiology of ILT. Because of the antigenic homogeneity among GaHV-1 strains, differentiation of strains has been achieved by targeting genomic differences between outbreak-related isolates and vaccine strains. Numerous genes and genomic regions have been utilized in the development of DNA-based diagnostic assays to differentiate outbreak-related isolates from vaccine strains in countries where ILT outbreaks have occurred. More recently, full genome sequences have allowed determination of the origin of some of the outbreak-related isolates circulating in some poultry production countries. Overall, molecular typing data collected worldwide have identified live attenuated vaccine-related isolates as the primary source for outbreaks of the disease. PMID:24460399

  10. Rapid one-step quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay with competitive internal positive control for detection of enteroviruses in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jason B; Litaker, R Wayne; Noble, Rachel T

    2006-06-01

    Human enteroviruses can serve as a more accurate indicator of human fecal contamination than conventional bacteriological fecal indicators. We describe here a quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) assay specifically tailored to detect these viruses in environmental waters. The assay included a competitive internal positive control (CIPC) that allowed the inhibition of qRT-PCRs to be quantitatively assessed. Coamplification of the CIPC with enteroviral genetic material did not affect the sensitivity, specificity, or reproducibility of the enteroviral qRT-PCR assay. The assay is rapid (less than 5 h from sample to result), has a wide dynamic range (>3 logs), and is capable of detecting as few as 25 enteroviral genomes with an average amplification efficiency of 0.91. In samples with low or moderate inhibition, the delay in CIPC amplification was used to adjust enterovirus qRT-PCR concentrations to account for losses due to inhibition. Samples exhibiting significant inhibition were not corrected but instead diluted twofold and immediately assayed again. Using significantly inhibited samples, it was found that dilution relieved inhibition in 93% (25 of 27) of the samples. In addition, 15% (4 of 27) of these previously negative samples contained enteroviral genomes. The high-throughput format of the assay compared to conventional culture-based methods offers a fast, reliable, and specific method for detecting enteroviruses in environmental water samples. The ability of the assay to identify false negatives and provide improved quantitative assessments of enterovirus concentrations will facilitate the tracking of human fecal contamination and the assessment of potential public health risk due to enteroviruses in recreational and shellfish harvesting waters. PMID:16751503

  11. Route prediction model of infectious diseases for 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Lee, Taikjin

    2014-03-01

    There are many types of respiratory infectious diseases caused by germs, virus, mycetes and parasites. Researchers recently have tried to develop mathematical models to predict the epidemic of infectious diseases. However, with the development of ground transportation system in modern society, the spread of infectious diseases became faster and more complicated in terms of the speed and the pathways. The route of infectious diseases during Vancouver Olympics was predicted based on the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. In this model only the air traffic as an essential factor for the intercity migration of infectious diseases was involved. Here, we propose a multi-city transmission model to predict the infection route during 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea based on the pre-existing SIR model. Various types of transportation system such as a train, a car, a bus, and an airplane for the interpersonal contact in both inter- and intra-city are considered. Simulation is performed with assumptions and scenarios based on realistic factors including demographic, transportation and diseases data in Korea. Finally, we analyze an economic profit and loss caused by the variation of the number of tourists during the Olympics.

  12. Multiple classes of antiviral agents exhibit in vitro activity against human rhinovirus type C.

    PubMed

    Mello, Chris; Aguayo, Esmeralda; Rodriguez, Madeleine; Lee, Gary; Jordan, Robert; Cihlar, Tomas; Birkus, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Human rhinovirus type C (HRV-C) is a newly discovered enterovirus species frequently associated with exacerbation of asthma and other acute respiratory conditions. Until recently, HRV-C could not be propagated in vitro, hampering in-depth characterization of the virus replication cycle and preventing efficient testing of antiviral agents. Herein we describe several subgenomic RNA replicon systems and a cell culture infectious model for HRV-C that can be used for antiviral screening. The replicon constructs consist of genome sequences from HRVc15, HRVc11, HRVc24, and HRVc25 strains, with the P1 capsid region replaced by a Renilla luciferase coding sequence. Following transfection of the replicon RNA into HeLa cells, the constructs produced time-dependent increases in luciferase signal that can be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by known inhibitors of HRV replication, including the 3C protease inhibitor rupintrivir, the nucleoside analog inhibitor MK-0608, and the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III? (PI4K-III?) kinase inhibitor PIK93. Furthermore, with the exception of pleconaril and pirodavir, the other tested classes of HRV inhibitors blocked the replication of full-length HRVc15 and HRVc11 in human airway epithelial cells (HAEs) that were differentiated in the air-liquid interface, exhibiting antiviral activities similar to those observed with HRV-16. In summary, this study is the first comprehensive profiling of multiple classes of antivirals against HRV-C, and the set of newly developed quantitative HRV-C antiviral assays represent indispensable tools for the identification and evaluation of novel panserotype HRV inhibitors. PMID:24366736

  13. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more information on enabling JavaScript. Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... Divisions supporting such research. NIAID Biodefense Research Priority Pathogens List of NIAID Category A-C pathogens Additional ...

  14. Infectious Diseases and Immunizations. Matrix No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sever, John L.

    This paper summarizes the major advances achieved by research in the fields of infectious diseases and immunizations during the 1970s, and delineates directions for future research in these fields. (Author/MP)

  15. Infectious proventriculitis causing runting in broilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kouwenhoven; F. G. Davelaar; J. Van Walsum

    1978-01-01

    Proventriculitis, ranting and poor feed conversion sometimes associated with rachitis, was seen in chickens on a large broiler farm. It was shown that the proventriculitis was caused by an infectious agent.

  16. Enterovirus 71-induced autophagy increases viral replication and pathogenesis in a suckling mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously reported that Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection activates autophagy, which promotes viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we further investigated whether EV71 infection of neuronal SK-N-SH cells induces an autophagic flux. Furthermore, the effects of autophagy on EV71-related pathogenesis and viral load were evaluated after intracranial inoculation of mouse-adapted EV71 (MP4 strain) into 6-day-old ICR suckling mice. Results We demonstrated that in EV71-infected SK-N-SH cells, EV71 structural protein VP1 and nonstructural protein 2C co-localized with LC3 and mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR, endosome marker) proteins by immunofluorescence staining, indicating amphisome formation. Together with amphisome formation, EV71 induced an autophagic flux, which could be blocked by NH4Cl (inhibitor of acidification) and vinblastine (inhibitor of fusion), as demonstrated by Western blotting. Suckling mice intracranially inoculated with EV71 showed EV71 VP1 protein expression (representing EV71 infection) in the cerebellum, medulla, and pons by immunohistochemical staining. Accompanied with these infected brain tissues, increased expression of LC3-II protein as well as formation of LC3 aggregates, autophagosomes and amphisomes were detected. Amphisome formation, which was confirmed by colocalization of EV71-VP1 protein or LC3 puncta and the endosome marker protein MPR. Thus, EV71-infected suckling mice (similar to EV71-infected SK-N-SH cells) also show an autophagic flux. The physiopathological parameters of EV71-MP4 infected mice, including body weight loss, disease symptoms, and mortality were increased compared to those of the uninfected mice. We further blocked EV71-induced autophagy with the inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA), which attenuated the disease symptoms and decreased the viral load in the brain tissues of the infected mice. Conclusions In this study, we reveal that EV71 infection of suckling mice induces an amphisome formation accompanied with the autophagic flux in the brain tissues. Autophagy induced by EV71 promotes viral replication and EV71-related pathogenesis. PMID:25139436

  17. Recombinant adeno-vaccine expressing enterovirus 71-like particles against hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Yu, Shu-Ling; Wu, Shang-Rung; Lin, Hsiao-Yu; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Huang, Chieh; Chong, Pele; Chow, Yen-Hung

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses (CV) are the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). There is not currently a vaccine available against HFMD, even though a newly developed formalin-inactivated EV71 (FI-EV71) vaccine has been tested in clinical trial and has shown efficacy against EV71. We have designed and genetically engineered a recombinant adenovirus Ad-EVVLP with the EV71 P1 and 3CD genes inserted into the E1/E3-deleted adenoviral genome. Ad-EVVLP were produced in HEK-293A cells. In addition to Ad-EVVLP particles, virus-like particles (VLPs) formed from the physical association of EV71 capsid proteins, VP0, VP1, and VP3 expressed from P1 gene products. They were digested by 3CD protease and confirmed to be produced by Ad-EVVLP-producing cells, as determined using transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. Mouse immunogenicity studies showed that Ad-EVVLP-immunized antisera neutralized the EV71 B4 and C2 genotypes. Activation of VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-? T cells associated with Th1/Th2-balanced IFN-?, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-13 was induced; in contrast, FI-EV71 induced only Th2-mediated neutralizing antibody against EV71 and low VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. The antiviral immunity against EV71 was clearly demonstrated in mice vaccinated with Ad-EVVLP in a hSCARB2 transgenic (hSCARB2-Tg) mouse challenge model. Ad-EVVLP-vaccinated mice were 100% protected and demonstrated reduced viral load in both the CNS and muscle tissues. Ad-EVVLP successfully induced anti-CVA16 immunities. Although antisera had no neutralizing activity against CVA16, the 3C-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-? T cells were identified, which could mediate protection against CVA16 challenge. FI-EV71 did not induce 3C-mediated immunity and had no efficacy against the CVA16 challenge. These results suggest that Ad-EVVLP can enhance neutralizing antibody and protective cellular immune responses to prevent EV71 infection and cellular immune responses against CV infection. PMID:25855976

  18. Concentration and purification of enterovirus 71 using a weak anion-exchange monolithic column

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is a neurotropic virus causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in infants and children under the age of five. It is a major concern for public health issues across Asia-Pacific region. The most effective way to control the disease caused by EV-71 is by vaccination thus a novel vaccine is urgently needed. Inactivated EV-71 induces a strong, virus-neutralizing antibody response in animal models, protecting them against a lethal EV-71 challenge and it has been shown to elicit cross-neutralizing antibodies in human trials. Hence, the large-scale production of purified EV-71 is required for vaccine development, diagnosis and clinical trials. Methods CIM® Monolith columns are single-piece columns made up of poly(glycidyl methacrylate co-ethylene dimethacrylate) as support matrix. They are designed as porous channels rather than beads with different chemistries for different requirements. As monolithic columns have a high binding capacity, flow rate and resolution, a CIM® DEAE-8f tube monolithic column was selected for purification in this study. The EV-71 infected Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell supernatant was concentrated using 8% PEG 8000 in the presence of 400 mM sodium chloride. The concentrated virus was purified by weak anion exchange column using 50 mM HEPES?+?1 M sodium chloride as elution buffer. Results Highly pure viral particles were obtained at a concentration of 350 mM sodium chloride as confirmed by SDS-PAGE and electron microscopy. Presence of viral proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3 was validated by western blotting. The overall process achieved a recovery of 55%. Conclusions EV-71 viral particles of up to 95% purity can be recovered by a single step ion-exchange chromatography using CIM-DEAE monolithic columns and 1 M sodium chloride as elution buffer. Moreover, this method is scalable to purify several litres of virus-containing supernatant, using industrial monolithic columns with a capacity of up to 8 L such as CIM® cGMP tube monolithic columns. PMID:24884895

  19. Grass plants bind, retain, uptake, and transport infectious prions.

    PubMed

    Pritzkow, Sandra; Morales, Rodrigo; Moda, Fabio; Khan, Uffaf; Telling, Glenn C; Hoover, Edward; Soto, Claudio

    2015-05-26

    Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrP(Sc)) to plants. Small quantities of PrP(Sc) contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces) can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrP(Sc) for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves). These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease. PMID:25981035

  20. Infectious agents associated with respiratory disease in pheasants.

    PubMed

    Welchman, D de B; Bradbury, J M; Cavanagh, D; Aebischer, N J

    2002-05-25

    In a case-control study of the infectious agents associated with natural outbreaks of respiratory disease in pheasants, 28 batches of birds from sites affected by disease and eight batches of birds from unaffected sites were examined by six veterinary laboratories in England, Wales and Scotland, and tested for mycoplasmas, other bacteria and viruses. Sinusitis was the commonest sign of disease and was associated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum as detected by PCR in the trachea (P < 0.05) and conjunctiva (P < 0.01). Sinusitis was also associated with pasteurella cultured from the sinus (P < 0.05), antibody to avian pneumovirus (APV) (P < 0.01) and avian coronaviruses as detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR (P < 0.05); there was no association between disease and APV as detected by PCR. Avian coronaviruses were the most common infectious agents detected. They were genetically close to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) but differed in their gene sequence from all the serotypes of IBV previously identified in domestic fowl, and serological tests with six known IBV types showed little cross reactivity. Mycoplasma species other than M gallisepticum were cultured in 18 batches of pheasants but, with the exception of Mycoplasma gallinaceum, were not associated with disease. PMID:12054135

  1. [Associated vaccination of poultry against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease and infectious bursitis].

    PubMed

    Cholakova, R

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of immunity was studied following a mixed vaccination with live vaccines against infectious bronchitis (strains H120 and H52), Newcastle disease (strain La Sota), and infectious bursitis (strain Th75Vn82). The three vaccines were applied simultaneously via the drinking water, through the spray method, and nasally. Experiments were carried out with a total of 31,466 birds: broilers, growing layers, broiler parents--all without preliminary treatment with biopreparations. Immunity against Newcastle disease was followed up through the hemagglutination-inhibition test and challenging with a virulent virus; against infectious bursitis--through immunodiffusion in agar gel after Ouchterlony; and against infectious bronchitis--through virus-neutralization with strain Beaudette. The birds were treated with mixed vaccines in the following combinations: infectious bronchitis--Newcastle disease; infectious bursitis--Gumboro; infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, Gumboro. The simultaneous application of live vaccines against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, and infectious bursitis was shown to be well tolerated with no harmful aftereffects whatever. The immunity built up with the simultaneous use of the three vaccines was not inferior in effectiveness to that conferred with the use of two vaccines or only one of them. PMID:3002010

  2. Acute Infectious Morbidity in Multiple Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A.; Heine, R. Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Physiologic and immunologic changes in pregnancy result in increased susceptibility to infection. These shifts are more pronounced in pregnancies complicated by multiple gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the association between multiple gestation and risk of infectious morbidity. Study Design. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2008–2010 was used to identify pregnant women during admission for delivery with International Classification of Diseases codes. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for demographic data, preexisting medical conditions, and acute medical and infectious complications for women with multiple versus singleton gestations. Results. Among women with multiple gestation, 38.4 per 1,000 women had an infectious complication compared to 12.8 per 1,000 women with singletons. The most significant infectious morbidity associated with multiple gestation was intestinal infections, pyelonephritis, influenza, and pneumonia. After controlling for confounding variables, infectious complications at delivery persisted for women with multiples, though the association was dependent on mode of delivery. Conclusions. Women with multiple gestations are at increased risk for infectious morbidity identified at the time of delivery. This association was diminished among women who had a cesarean suggesting that operative delivery is not responsible for this association. PMID:25684973

  3. 75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  4. Frequent Hemodialysis Fistula Infectious Complications

    PubMed Central

    Lok, Charmaine E.; Sontrop, Jessica M.; Faratro, Rose; Chan, Christopher T.; Zimmerman, Deborah Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined if infectious arteriovenous access complications vary with the cannulation technique and whether this is modified by dialysis frequency. We compared the infection rate between fistulas cannulated using buttonhole versus stepladder techniques for patients treated with short daily (SDH) or nocturnal hemodialysis at home (NHD). We also compared patients receiving conventional intermittent hemodialysis (CIHD) using stepladder cannulation. Methods Data were prospectively collected from 631 patients dialyzed with a fistula from 2001 to 2010 (Toronto and Ottawa, Canada). We compared the person-time incidence rate of bacteremia and local fistula infections using the exact binomial test. Results Forty-six (7.3%) patients received SDH (?5 sessions/week, 2-4 h/session), 128 (20.3%) NHD (?4 sessions/week, ?5 h/session) and 457 (72%) CIHD (3 sessions/week, ?4 h/session). Fifty percent of SDH and 72% of NHD patients used the buttonhole technique. There were 39 buttonhole-related bacteremias (rate: 0.196/1,000 fistula days) and at least 2 local buttonhole site infections. Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 85% of the bacteremias. There were 5 (13%) infection-related hospitalizations and 3 (10%) serious metastatic infections, including fistula loss. In comparison, there was 1 possible fistula-related infection in CIHD during follow-up (rate: 0.002/1,000 fistula days). Conclusions The rate of buttonhole-related infections was high among patients on frequent hemodialysis and more than 50 times greater than that among patients on CIHD with the stepladder technique. Most bacteremias were due to S. aureus – with serious consequences. The risks and benefits of buttonhole cannulation require individual consideration with careful monitoring, prophylaxis and management. PMID:25473405

  5. Anti-enterovirus activity and structure–activity relationship of a series of 2,6-dihalophenyl-substituted 1 H,3 H-thiazolo[3,4- a]benzimidazoles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armando M. De Palma; Ward Heggermont; Pieter Leyssen; Gerhard Pürstinger; Eva Wimmer; Erik De Clercq; Angela Rao; Anna-Maria Monforte; Alba Chimirri; Johan Neyts

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that enteroviruses are implicated in a variety of human diseases, there is no approved therapy for the treatment of enteroviral infections. Here, a series of 2,6-dihalophenyl-substituted 1H,3H-thiazolo[3,4-a]benzimidazoles with anti-enterovirus activity is reported. The compounds elicit potent activity against coxsackievirus A9, echovirus 9 and 11 and all six strains of coxsackievirus B. A structure–activity relationship analysis revealed that

  6. Infectious Diseases and Immunity Ph.D. Program UC Berkeley

    E-print Network

    Sjölander, Kimmen

    Infectious Diseases and Immunity Ph.D. Program UC Berkeley Ph.D. Degree Program The Graduate Group in Infectious Diseases and Immunity provides the opportunity for the study of the biology of infectious agents of infectious diseases. The degree program is unique in emphasizing integrated, multidisciplinary training

  7. Rev. 06182012 Medical School Laboratory Infectious Waste Disposal Guide*

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Rev. 06182012 Medical School Laboratory Infectious Waste Disposal Guide* * For research: Dispose in a sharps container through the infectious waste stream. Containers of non-infectious sharps may, clinical areas or other University spaces. For more information on infectious waste, consult the University

  8. Differential detection of turkey coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus, and bovine coronavirus by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Loa, C C; Lin, T L; Wu, C C; Bryan, T A; Hooper, T A; Schrader, D L

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for differential detection of turkey coronavirus (TCoV), infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV), and bovine coronavirus (BCoV). Primers were designed from conserved or variable regions of nucleocapsid (N) or spike (S) protein gene among TCoV, IBV, and BCoV and used in the same PCR reaction. Reverse transcription followed by the PCR reaction was used to amplify a portion of N or S gene of the corresponding coronaviruses. The PCR products were detected on agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Two PCR products, a 356-bp band corresponding to N gene and a 727-bp band corresponding to S gene, were obtained for TCoV isolates. In contrast, one PCR product of 356 bp corresponding to a fragment of N gene was obtained for IBV strains and one PCR product of 568 bp corresponding to a fragment of S gene was obtained for BCoV. There were no PCR products with the same primers for Newcastle disease virus, Marek's disease virus, turkey pox virus, pigeon pox virus, fowl pox virus, reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, enterovirus, astrovirus, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Performance of the assay with serially diluted RNA demonstrated that the multiplex PCR could detect 4.8x10(-3) microg of TCoV RNA, 4.6x10(-4) microg of IBV RNA, and 8.0x10(-2) microg of BCoV RNA. These results indicated that the multiplex PCR as established in the present study is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for differential detection of TCoV, IBV, and BCoV in a single PCR reaction. PMID:16137773

  9. Epidemic 2014 Enterovirus D68 Cross-Reacts with Human Rhinovirus on a Respiratory Molecular Diagnostic Platform

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Shane C.; Schleiss, Mark R.; Arbefeville, Sophie; Steiner, Marie E.; Hanson, Ryan S.; Pollock, Catherine; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging virus known to cause sporadic disease and occasional epidemics of severe lower respiratory tract infection. However, the true prevalence of infection with EV-D68 is unknown, due in part to the lack of a rapid and specific nucleic acid amplification test as well as the infrequency with which respiratory samples are analyzed by enterovirus surveillance programs. During the 2014 EV-D68 epidemic in the United States, we noted an increased frequency of “low-positive” results for human rhinovirus (HRV) detected in respiratory tract samples using the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor respiratory viral panel, a multiplex PCR assay able to detect 14 known respiratory viruses but not enteroviruses. We simultaneously noted markedly increased admissions to our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit for severe lower respiratory tract infections in patients both with and without a history of reactive airway disease. Accordingly, we hypothesized that these “low-positive” RVP results were due to EV-D68 rather than rhinovirus infection. Sequencing of the picornavirus 5’ untranslated region (5’-UTR) of 49 samples positive for HRV by the GenMark RVP revealed that 33 (67.3%) were in fact EV-D68. Notably, the mean intensity of the HRV RVP result was significantly lower in the sequence-identified EV-D68 samples (20.3 nA) compared to HRV (129.7 nA). Using a cut-off of 40 nA for the differentiation of EV-D68 from HRV resulted in 94% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The robust diagnostic characteristics of our data suggest that the cross-reactivity of EV-D68 and HRV on the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor RVP platform may be an important factor to consider in making accurate molecular diagnosis of EV-D68 at institutions utilizing this system or other molecular respiratory platforms that may also cross-react. PMID:25799541

  10. First construction of infectious clone for newly emerging mutation porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) followed by comparison with PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes in biological characteristics in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long J Guo; Yue H Lu; Li P Huang; Yan W Wei; Hong L Wu; Chang M Liu

    2011-01-01

    Background  Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), is a serious economic\\u000a problem in the swine industry. Different genotypes (PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d) of the virus are present in the clinical cases\\u000a in China, and it is necessary to elucidate the pathogenic difference among different genotypes of PCV2. In this study, four\\u000a strains of

  11. Antiviral Activity of Hederasaponin B from Hedera helix against Enterovirus 71 Subgenotypes C3 and C4a

    PubMed Central

    Song, JaeHyoung; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, JeongHoon; Jeong, HyeonGun; Kwon, YongSoo; Kim, HyunPyo; Lee, SangWon; Park, Jae-Hak; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the predominant cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The antiviral activity of hederasaponin B from Hedera helix against EV71 subgenotypes C3 and C4a was evaluated in vero cells. In the current study, the antiviral activity of hederasaponin B against EV71 C3 and C4a was determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction method and western blot assay. Our results demonstrated that hederasaponin B and 30% ethanol extract of Hedera helix containing hederasaponin B showed significant antiviral activity against EV71 subgenotypes C3 and C4a by reducing the formation of a visible CPE. Hederasaponin B also inhibited the viral VP2 protein expression, suggesting the inhibition of viral capsid protein synthesis.These results suggest that hederasaponin B and Hedera helix extract containing hederasaponin B can be novel drug candidates with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against various subgenotypes of EV71. PMID:24596620

  12. Structures of Enterovirus 71 3C proteinase (strain E2004104-TW-CDC) and its complex with rupintrivir.

    PubMed

    Wu, Caiming; Cai, Qixu; Chen, Chen; Li, Ning; Peng, Xuanjia; Cai, Yaxian; Yin, Ke; Chen, Xinsheng; Wang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Rongfu; Liu, Lijie; Chen, Shuhui; Li, Jian; Lin, Tianwei

    2013-05-01

    The crystal structure of 3C proteinase (3C(pro)) from Enterovirus 71 (EV71) was determined in space group C2221 to 2.2?Ĺ resolution. The fold was similar to that of 3C(pro) from other picornaviruses, but the difference in the ?-ribbon reported in a previous structure was not observed. This ?-ribbon was folded over the substrate-binding cleft and constituted part of the essential binding sites for interaction with the substrate. The structure of its complex with rupintrivir (AG7088), a peptidomimetic inhibitor, was also characterized in space group P212121 to 1.96?Ĺ resolution. The inhibitor was accommodated without any spatial hindrance despite the more constricted binding site; this was confirmed by functional assays, in which the inhibitor showed comparable potency towards EV71 3C(pro) and human rhinovirus 3C(pro), which is the target that rupintrivir was designed against. PMID:23633597

  13. BPR-3P0128 inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase elongation and VPg uridylylation activities of Enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Velu, Arul Balaji; Chen, Guang-Wu; Hsieh, Po-Ting; Horng, Jim-Tong; Hsu, John Tsu-An; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Weng, Kuo-Feng; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease with severe neurological complications. Because no clinical drug is available for treating EV71 infections, developing an efficient antiviral medication against EV71 infection is crucial. This study indicated that 6-bromo-2-[1-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl] quinoline-4-carboxylic acid (BPR-3P0128) exhibits excellent antiviral activity against EV71 (EC50 = 0.0029 ?M). BPR-3P0128 inhibits viral replication during the early post infection stage, targets EV71 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and VPg uridylylation, and also reduces viral RNA accumulation levels and inhibits viral replication of EV71. PMID:25448086

  14. The Transformation of Enterovirus Replication Structures: a Three-Dimensional Study of Single- and Double-Membrane Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Limpens, Ronald W. A. L.; van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Kumar, Darshan; Koster, Abraham J.; Snijder, Eric J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Bárcena, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT All positive-strand RNA viruses induce membrane structures in their host cells which are thought to serve as suitable microenvironments for viral RNA synthesis. The structures induced by enteroviruses, which are members of the family Picornaviridae, have so far been described as either single- or double-membrane vesicles (DMVs). Aside from the number of delimiting membranes, their exact architecture has also remained elusive due to the limitations of conventional electron microscopy. In this study, we used electron tomography (ET) to solve the three-dimensional (3-D) ultrastructure of these compartments. At different time points postinfection, coxsackievirus B3-infected cells were high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted for ET analysis. The tomograms showed that during the exponential phase of viral RNA synthesis, closed smooth single-membrane tubules constituted the predominant virus-induced membrane structure, with a minor proportion of DMVs that were either closed or connected to the cytosol in a vase-like configuration. As infection progressed, the DMV number steadily increased, while the tubular single-membrane structures gradually disappeared. Late in infection, complex multilamellar structures, previously unreported, became apparent in the cytoplasm. Serial tomography disclosed that their basic unit is a DMV, which is enwrapped by one or multiple cisternae. ET also revealed striking intermediate structures that strongly support the conversion of single-membrane tubules into double-membrane and multilamellar structures by a process of membrane apposition, enwrapping, and fusion. Collectively, our work unravels the sequential appearance of distinct enterovirus-induced replication structures, elucidates their detailed 3-D architecture, and provides the basis for a model for their transformation during the course of infection. PMID:21972238

  15. Immunomodulatory Properties of HLA-G in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Amiot, Laurence; Vu, Nicolas; Samson, Michel

    2014-01-01

    HLA-G is a nonclassical major histocompatibility complex molecule first described at the maternal-fetal interface, on extravillous cytotrophoblasts. Its expression is restricted to some tissues in normal conditions but increases strongly in pathological conditions. The expression of this molecule has been studied in detail in cancers and is now also beginning to be described in infectious diseases. The relevance of studies on HLA-G expression lies in the well known inhibitory effect of this molecule on all cell types involved in innate and adaptive immunity, favoring escape from immune control. In this review, we summarize the features of HLA-G expression by type of infections (i.e, bacterial, viral, or parasitic) detailing the state of knowledge for each pathogenic agent. The polymorphism, the interference of viral proteins with HLA-G intracellular trafficking, and various cytokines have been described to modulate HLA-G expression during infections. We also discuss the cellular source of HLA-G, according to the type of infection and the potential role of HLA-G. New therapeutic approaches based on synthetic HLA-G-derived proteins or antibodies are emerging in mouse models of cancer or transplantation, and these new therapeutic tools may eventually prove useful for the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:24839609

  16. MN and IIIB recombinant glycoprotein 120 vaccine-induced binding antibodies to native envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 primary isolates. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Aids Vaccine Evaluation Group.

    PubMed

    Gorse, G J; Patel, G B; Mandava, M; Berman, P W; Belshe, R B

    1999-07-01

    The ability of antibody induced by MN and IIIB recombinant gp120 (rgp120) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines to bind to oligomeric native HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins of primary isolates of HIV-1 was measured by flow cytometric indirect immunofluorescence assay (FIFA) in 25 uninfected, healthy adults. After three immunizations, MN rgp120 HIV-1 vaccine given alone and coadministered with IIIB rgp120 HIV-1 vaccine elicited antibody that bound to cells infected with each of a panel of six subtype B strains of HIV-1. Lower levels of vaccine-induced binding antibody were detected against envelope subtype A, D, and (EA) strains of HIV-1 than against subtype B strains. Priming immunization with IIIB rgp120 HIV-1 vaccine alone induced low levels of antibody capable of binding to envelope glycoprotein of primary isolate strains of HIV-1, and booster immunizations with MN rgp120 HIV-1 vaccine resulted in much higher antibody levels. We conclude that MN rgp120 HIV-1 vaccine was an effective inducer of antibody to native envelope glycoproteins of antigenically diverse primary isolates of HIV-1. PMID:10408729

  17. Cocirculation of infectious diseases on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joel C.

    2013-06-01

    We consider multiple diseases spreading in a static configuration model network. We make standard assumptions that infection transmits from neighbor to neighbor at a disease-specific rate and infected individuals recover at a disease-specific rate. Infection by one disease confers immediate and permanent immunity to infection by any disease. Under these assumptions, we find a simple, low-dimensional ordinary differential equations model which captures the global dynamics of the infection. The dynamics depend strongly on initial conditions. Although we motivate this Rapid Communication with infectious disease, the model may be adapted to the spread of other infectious agents such as competing political beliefs, or adoption of new technologies if these are influenced by contacts. As an example, we demonstrate how to model an infectious disease which can be prevented by a behavior change.

  18. Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

  19. Exposure to enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus among divers in environmental waters in France, first biological and serological survey of a controlled cohort.

    PubMed Central

    Garin, D.; Fuchs, F.; Crance, J. M.; Rouby, Y.; Chapalain, J. C.; Lamarque, D.; Gounot, A. M.; Aymard, M.

    1994-01-01

    An epidemiological study of hepatitis A and enteroviruses was conducted in a military diving training school, by evaluating the viral contamination of water using an ultrafiltration concentration technique, and assessing seroconversion and the presence of virus in stool specimens obtained from 109 divers and 48 controls. Three of 29 water specimens were positive for enterovirus by cell culture and 9 by molecular hybridization. There was little or no risk of virus infection during the training course (49 h exposure) because there was no significant difference between divers and controls for both viral isolation and seroconversion. However, a higher percentage of coxsackievirus B4 and B5 seropositive divers suggests that these were more exposed during previous water training. No hepatitis A virus (HAV) detection and no seroconversion to HAV was observed. The rate of HAV seropositive subjects was 17% in this 24.5-year-old population. PMID:7995363

  20. Continuing challenge of infectious diseases in India.

    PubMed

    John, T Jacob; Dandona, Lalit; Sharma, Vinod P; Kakkar, Manish

    2011-01-15

    In India, the range and burden of infectious diseases are enormous. The administrative responsibilities of the health system are shared between the central (federal) and state governments. Control of diseases and outbreaks is the responsibility of the central Ministry of Health, which lacks a formal public health department for this purpose. Tuberculosis, malaria, filariasis, visceral leishmaniasis, leprosy, HIV infection, and childhood cluster of vaccine-preventable diseases are given priority for control through centrally managed vertical programmes. Control of HIV infection and leprosy, but not of tuberculosis, seems to be on track. Early success of malaria control was not sustained, and visceral leishmaniasis prevalence has increased. Inadequate containment of the vector has resulted in recurrent outbreaks of dengue fever and re-emergence of Chikungunya virus disease and typhus fever. Other infectious diseases caused by faecally transmitted pathogens (enteric fevers, cholera, hepatitis A and E viruses) and zoonoses (rabies, leptospirosis, anthrax) are not in the process of being systematically controlled. Big gaps in the surveillance and response system for infectious diseases need to be addressed. Replication of the model of vertical single-disease control for all infectious diseases will not be efficient or viable. India needs to rethink and revise its health policy to broaden the agenda of disease control. A comprehensive review and redesign of the health system is needed urgently to ensure equity and quality in health care. We recommend the creation of a functional public health infrastructure that is shared between central and state governments, with professional leadership and a formally trained public health cadre of personnel who manage an integrated control mechanism of diseases in districts that includes infectious and non-infectious diseases, and injuries. PMID:21227500

  1. [Infectious factor diseases in domestic small animals (carnivorous and herbivorous fur animals, wool and meat rabbits].

    PubMed

    Löliger, H C; Matthes, S

    1989-11-01

    Infectious factorial diseases of domesticated small animals are infection dependent diseases, whose pathogenesis is finally activated by additional, secondary factors, that influence the multiplying and spreading of latent and clinical symptomless infective agents present in the animals. These factorial diseases are not autonomous infectious processes, but only special types and courses of diseases by secondary activated infective agents. Secondary factors may be of exogenous origin (housing, climate, feeding, managing) or may arise by endogenic processes (immunity, resistance disregulations a.o.). In fur bearing animals and rabbits infectious factorial diseases arise by activation of latent, symptomless infections of mucosal membranes in the nose and oral cavity, in the intestinal tract, in the descending urinary tract and on the external skin. The majority of infection activating secondary factors go back on wrong housing conditions, extreme climate, malnutrition and simultaneous infections, but also animal specific situations and immunosuppression may influence the activation of latent infections. - Typical factorial diseases in fur bearing animals and rabbits are: the infectious coryza (Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica) in rabbits, the Coli-dysentery and the enterotoxemia in rabbits and herbivorous fur animals, the ascending infections of urinary tract, particular in young male minks, and the different types of microbial dermatitis in all small animals. - In the prevention and control of infectious factorial diseases the improvement of housing and living conditions as well as feeding the animals with species conforming and nonobjectionable food are most important and essential measures. PMID:2686619

  2. Structure of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, K.; Shimakura, S.

    1974-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus of chickens was purified, and its structure was examined by the negative-staining technique in the electron microscope. The buoyant density of infectious bursal disease virus in CsCl was found to be 1.34 g/cm3. The morphological details suggest that the capsid of the virion consists of a single layer of 32 capsomeres arranged in 5:3:2 symmetry. The virion measured about 55 nm in diameter and had no envelope. Images PMID:4138194

  3. Real-Time Monitoring of Human Enterovirus (HEV)Infected Cells and Anti-HEV 3C Protease Potency by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Tian Tsai; Yun-Hsiang Cheng; Yu-Ning Liu; Nien-Chien Liao; Wen-Wen Lu; Szu-Hao Kung

    2009-01-01

    designed to contain an enterovirus 71 3C protease (3Cpro) cleavage motif flanked by the FRET pair composed of green fluorescent protein 2 and red fluorescent protein 2 (DsRed2). Efficient FRET from the stable line was detected in a real-time manner by fluorescence microscopy, and the disruption of FRET was readily monitored upon HEV infection. The level of the repressed FRET

  4. High-titred neutralizing antibodies to human enterovirus 71 preferentially bind to the N-terminal portion of the capsid protein VP1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-S. Tan; M. J. Cardosa

    2007-01-01

    Summary  Human enterovirus 71 has emerged as an important pathogen of children in the Asia Pacific region, and it may be important\\u000a to consider the development of a vaccine against this virus. Human cord serum was used as a source of neutralizing antibodies\\u000a to determine whether the N- or C-terminal half of the VP1 capsid protein was more likely to harbour

  5. Cellular kinase inhibitors that suppress enterovirus replication have a conserved target in viral protein 3A similar to that of enviroxime.

    PubMed

    Arita, Minetaro; Wakita, Takaji; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2009-08-01

    Previously, we identified a cellular kinase inhibitor, GW5074, that inhibits poliovirus (PV) and enterovirus 71 replication strongly, although its target has remained unknown. To identify the target of GW5074, we searched for cellular kinase inhibitors that have anti-enterovirus activity similar or related to that of GW5074. With this aim, we performed screenings to identify cellular kinase inhibitors that could inhibit PV replication cooperatively with GW5074 or synthetically in the absence of GW5074. We identified MEK1/2 inhibitors (SL327 and U0126), an EGFR inhibitor (AG1478) and a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (wortmannin) as compounds with a cooperative inhibitory effect with GW5074, and an Akt1/2 inhibitor (Akt inhibitor VIII) as a compound with a synthetic inhibitory effect with MEK1/2 inhibitors and AG1478. Individual treatment with the identified kinase inhibitors did not affect PV replication significantly, but combined treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitor, AG1478 and Akt1/2 inhibitor suppressed the replication synthetically. The effect of AG1478 in this synthetic inhibition was compensated by other receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (IGF-1R inhibitor II and Flt3 inhibitor II). We isolated mutants resistant to Flt3 inhibitor II and GW5074 and found that these mutants had cross-resistance to each treatment. These mutants had a common mutation in viral protein 3A that results in an amino acid change at position 70 (Ala to Thr), a mutation that was previously identified in mutants resistant to a potent anti-enterovirus compound, enviroxime. These results suggest that cellular kinase inhibitors and enviroxime have a conserved target in viral protein 3A to suppress enterovirus replication. PMID:19439558

  6. MRI characteristics and follow-up findings in patients with neurological complications of enterovirus 71-related hand, foot, and mouth disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Liu, Tao; Li, Jianjun; Xing, Zengbao; Huang, Shixiong; Wen, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and clinical and MRI follow-up findings of patients with neurological complications of enterovirus 71-related hand, foot and mouth disease. Methods: Data were collected from 12 patients who developed neurological complications of enterovirus 71-related hand, foot, and mouth disease during an enterovirus-71 outbreak in Hainan Province, China, from May 2008 to October 2011. Patients were followed up for 2 years. Results: In the six patients with brainstem encephalitis, MRI showed posterior brainstem abnormalities with hyperintense areas on T2-weighted images and hypointense areas on T1-weighted images. In the four patients with acute flaccid paralysis but no brainstem encephalitis, sagittal MRI images showed linear hyperintense areas in the anterior spinal cord, transverse T2-weighted images showed hyperintense areas in the spinal cord, and contrast-enhanced axial T1-weighted images showed strong enhancement of the anterior horns or nerve roots. In the two patients with aseptic meningitis, MRI showed widening of the subarachnoid space and ventricles. The MRI and clinical signs of aseptic meningitis resolved within 4 weeks in both patients. Patients with isolated pontine abnormalities recovered faster than those with multiple brainstem abnormalities, patients with isolated brainstem encephalitis recovered faster than those with associated acute flaccid paralysis, patients with paralysis of one limb recovered faster than those with paralysis of multiple limbs, and patients with isolated thoracolumbar cord abnormalities recovered faster than those with cervical cord abnormalities. Conclusions: MRI is useful for assessment of the neurological complications of enterovirus 71-related hand, foot, and mouth disease. Patients who develop neurological complications characteristically have MRI abnormalities of the posterior brainstem or bilateral anterior horns of parts of the spinal cord. The MRI findings can help to predict prognosis. PMID:25356127

  7. Towards identification of cis-acting elements involved in the replication of enterovirus and rhinovirus RNAs: a proposal for the existence of tRNA-like terminal structures.

    PubMed Central

    Pilipenko, E V; Maslova, S V; Sinyakov, A N; Agol, V I

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of a comparative analysis of published sequences, models for the secondary structure of the 3'-terminal [poly(A)-preceding] untranslated region of the entero- and rhinovirus RNAs were worked out. The models for all these viruses share a common core element, but there are an extra enterovirus-specific element and still an additional element characteristic of a subset of enterovirus RNAs. The two latter models were verified for poliovirus and coxsackievirus B genomes by testing with single-strand and double-strand specific enzymatic and chemical probes. A tRNA-like tertiary structure model for the 3'-terminal folding of enterovirus RNAs was proposed. A similar folding was proposed for the 3' termini of the negative RNA strands as well as for the 5' termini of the positive strand of all entero- and rhinovirus RNAs. Implications of these data for template recognition during negative and positive RNA strands synthesis and for the evolution of the picornavirus genomes are discussed. PMID:1315956

  8. 78 FR 3011 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  9. 76 FR 55074 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  10. 75 FR 26760 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  11. 75 FR 81631 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  12. 75 FR 49502 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  13. 77 FR 29676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  14. Acute infectious bursal disease in poultry: Isolation and characterisation of a highly virulent strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Van den Berg; M. Gonze; G. Meulemans

    1991-01-01

    A highly virulent strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was isolated from the field and propagated in SPF chickens, causing up to 100% mortality. Although it still belongs to the standard serotype 1 IBD viruses, serological typing with monoclonal antibodies showed an antigenic drift in this pathogenic strain. Conventional ‘intermediate’ IBD vaccines are probably more antigenically related to the

  15. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the glycoproteins of infectious laryngotracheitis herpesvirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer J. York; K. J. Fahey

    1990-01-01

    Summary The viral glycoproteins of infectious laryngotracheitis virus, an alphaherpesvirus, were the dominant antigens recognised by immune chickens. Glycoproteins with molecular weights of 205, 160, 115, 90, 67, 60, and 52 k reacted strongly in Western blotting studies with a majority of chicken antisera. Viral glycoproteins immunoprecipitated using monoclonal antibodies were also able to elicit a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in

  16. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  17. Prevention of infectious complications in pediatric HSCT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Styczynski; L Gil

    2008-01-01

    Infectious complications constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric and adult patients undergoing hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). Current guidelines and recommendations for prevention of infections in children after HSCT are presented in this mini review. The paper is based on evidence-based recommendations rated by the strength of the recommendation and the quality of the supporting evidence. Prophylaxis strategy

  18. Hookworm: developmental biology of the infectious process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M Hawdon; Peter J Hotez

    1996-01-01

    Hookworms cause severe anemia and malnutrition in developing countries of the tropics, with an estimated one billion people infected worldwide. An in vitro system that models the early events of infection has provided new information about the linkage between the infectious process and the parasite's developmental biology. The cloning and expression of Anclyostoma secreted protein, ASP 1 — a secreted

  19. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate E. Jones; Nikkita G. Patel; Marc A. Levy; Adam Storeygard; Deborah Balk; John L. Gittleman; Peter Daszak

    2008-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID `events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940

  20. Molecular biology of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Fuchs; Jutta Veits; Dorothee Helferich; Harald Granzow; Jens P. Teifke; Thomas C. Mettenleiter

    2007-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes an econom- ically important chicken disease, which results in delayed growth, reduced egg production, and also frequently in death of the animals. After acute infection of the upper respiratory tract, the virus can establish latency in the central nervous system, and subsequent reactivations can lead to infec- tion of naive chickens.

  1. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Si?irci, Ahmet; Akinci, Ay?ehan; Ozgen, Unsal; Ozen, Metehan

    2006-02-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. PMID:16258744

  2. [Blood transfusion: control of infectious risks].

    PubMed

    Laperche, Syria; Lefrčre, Jean-Jacques; Morel, Pascal; Pouchol, Elodie; Pozzetto, Bruno

    2015-02-01

    From blood donor collection to transfusion of the recipient, there are several layers of protection of the blood supply. These measures combined with huge progresses over the three past decades in pathogen discovery and blood testing for specific pathogens (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses, Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)), provide the greatest safety. With the implementation of serological and molecular testing, at least in high-income countries, transfusion-transmitted infections have become extremely rare. However, for pathogen agents, which are not tested and especially those which are responsible for emerging infectious disease, it became apparent that full control of infectious disease had not been achieved. In addition, the immune status of the recipient has also an impact in the outcome of infectious diseases transmitted by transfusion. Blood safety is based on several measures: education and deferral of donors with risk factors for transmissible disease, blood testing, pathogen reduction interventions, and patient blood management. This paper proposes a review of the residual risk of transmission of infectious diseases by transfusion and of the additional interventions able to further reduce it. PMID:25547992

  3. Infectious Diseases: Education, Prevention, and Nursing Diagnoses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Stover Gingerich

    1998-01-01

    The infectious disease process has been studied since the times of Louis Pasteur and Jonas Salk. Three key components comprise any infection: the agent, the spread, and the incubator (host). When considering these three components, it is recognized that the causative agents have remained relatively consistent through the years and include bacterium, spirochetes, virus, fungi, chlamydiae, parasite, ricketsettia, protozoans, and

  4. Spread of infectious disease through clustered populations

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joel C.

    2009-01-01

    Networks of person-to-person contacts form the substrate along which infectious diseases spread. Most network-based studies of this spread focus on the impact of variations in degree (the number of contacts an individual has). However, other effects such as clustering, variations in infectiousness or susceptibility, or variations in closeness of contacts may play a significant role. We develop analytic techniques to predict how these effects alter the growth rate, probability and size of epidemics, and validate the predictions with a realistic social network. We find that (for a given degree distribution and average transmissibility) clustering is the dominant factor controlling the growth rate, heterogeneity in infectiousness is the dominant factor controlling the probability of an epidemic and heterogeneity in susceptibility is the dominant factor controlling the size of an epidemic. Edge weights (measuring closeness or duration of contacts) have impact only if correlations exist between different edges. Combined, these effects can play a minor role in reinforcing one another, with the impact of clustering the largest when the population is maximally heterogeneous or if the closer contacts are also strongly clustered. Our most significant contribution is a systematic way to address clustering in infectious disease models, and our results have a number of implications for the design of interventions. PMID:19324673

  5. UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA INFECTIOUS WASTE DISPOSAL

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Stephen L.

    understand and follow the prescribed waste disposal procedures. EHS Pick up properly sealed boxes of medicalUNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA INFECTIOUS WASTE DISPOSAL Introduction All biologically-contaminated waste materials and non-contaminated "medical-like" waste materials (such as needles and syringes

  6. Infectious diseases: A global human resource challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Globally in 2007, infections were the proximate cause of death for about 15 million persons, and early mortality and disability from infections were responsible for more than one third of the disability-adjusted life years [1]. Although most of these outcomes could be prevented through known public health interventions and better access to competent primary care, the prepared infectious disease (ID)

  7. The immune system: recognition of infectious agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J Wood

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian immune system has evolved to provide protection against infectious agents (pathogens). Although the immune system may provide protection against tumours, the main evolutionary driving force has been the battle with pathogens. The immune system has historically been divided into the innate and specific systems. The innate immune system used to be regarded as a primitive defence system of

  8. Epidemics and Frequent Recombination within Species in Outbreaks of Human Enterovirus B-Associated Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Shandong China in 2010 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Du, Jiang; Xue, Ying; Su, Haoxiang; Yang, Fan; Jin, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology and molecular characteristics of human enterovirus B (HEV-B) associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks in China are not well known. In the present study, we tested 201 HEV isolates from 233 clinical specimens from patients with severe HFMD during 2010-2011 in Linyi, Shandong, China. Of the 201 isolates, 189 were fully typed and 18 corresponded to HEV-B species (six serotypes CVA9, CVB1, CVB4, Echo 6, Echo 25 and Echo 30) using sensitive semi-nested polymerase chain reaction analysis of VP1 gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on the VP1 region showed that eight E30SD belonged to a novel sub-genogroup D2; E25SD belonged to a novel sub-genogroup D6; E6SD belonged to sub-lineage C6 and five CVB1SD belonged to subgroup 4C; and B4SD belonged sub-lineage D2. The full viral genomes of the CVB1SD, E6SD, E25SD and E30SD isolates were sequenced. Analysis of phylogenetic and similarity plots indicated that E25SD recombined with E25-HN-2, E30FDJS03 and E4AUS250 at noncontiguous P2A-P3D regions, while E30SD, E30FDJ03, E25-HN-2 and E9 DM had shared sequences in discrete regions of P2 and P3. Both E6SD and B1SD shared sequences with E1-HN, B4/GX/10, B5-HN, and A9-Alberta in contiguous regions of most of P2 and P3. Genetic algorithm recombination detection analysis further confirmed the existence of multiple potential recombination points. In conclusion, analysis of the complete genomes of E25SD, E30SD, CVB1SD and E6SD isolated from HFMD patients revealed that they formed novel subgenogroup. Given the prevalence and recombination of these viruses in outbreaks of HFMD, persistent surveillance of HFMD-associated HEV-B pathogens is required to predict potential emerging viruses and related disease outbreaks. PMID:23840610

  9. Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks

    E-print Network

    Hill, Alison Lynn

    Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, ...

  10. 42 CFR 71.54 - Import regulations for infectious biological agents, infectious substances, and vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...samples. Genomic material. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or Ribonucleic acid (RNA) comprising the genome or organism's...rendered noninfectious. (4) It consists only of nucleic acids that cannot produce infectious forms of any...

  11. Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in final reclaimed effluent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gennaccaro, A.L.; McLaughlin, M.R.; Quintero-Betancourt, W.; Huffman, D.E.; Rose, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Water samples collected throughout several reclamation facilities were analyzed for the presence of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum by the focus detection method-most-probable-number cell culture technique. Results revealed the presence of infectious C. parvum oocysts in 40% of the final disinfected effluent samples. Sampled effluent contained on average seven infectious oocysts per 100 liters. Thus, reclaimed water is not pathogen free but contains infectious C. parvum.

  12. Optimal evaluation of infectious medical waste disposal companies using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Chao Chung, E-mail: ho919@pchome.com.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Ever since Taiwan's National Health Insurance implemented the diagnosis-related groups payment system in January 2010, hospital income has declined. Therefore, to meet their medical waste disposal needs, hospitals seek suppliers that provide high-quality services at a low cost. The enactment of the Waste Disposal Act in 1974 had facilitated some improvement in the management of waste disposal. However, since the implementation of the National Health Insurance program, the amount of medical waste from disposable medical products has been increasing. Further, of all the hazardous waste types, the amount of infectious medical waste has increased at the fastest rate. This is because of the increase in the number of items considered as infectious waste by the Environmental Protection Administration. The present study used two important findings from previous studies to determine the critical evaluation criteria for selecting infectious medical waste disposal firms. It employed the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to set the objective weights of the evaluation criteria and select the optimal infectious medical waste disposal firm through calculation and sorting. The aim was to propose a method of evaluation with which medical and health care institutions could objectively and systematically choose appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firms.

  13. Novel Cell Culture-Adapted Genotype 2a Hepatitis C Virus Infectious Clone

    PubMed Central

    Date, Tomoko; Kato, Takanobu; Kato, Junko; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Morikawa, Kenichi; Akazawa, Daisuke; Murayama, Asako; Tanaka-Kaneko, Keiko; Sata, Tetsutaro; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Although the recently developed infectious hepatitis C virus system that uses the JFH-1 clone enables the study of whole HCV viral life cycles, limited particular HCV strains have been available with the system. In this study, we isolated another genotype 2a HCV cDNA, the JFH-2 strain, from a patient with fulminant hepatitis. JFH-2 subgenomic replicons were constructed. HuH-7 cells transfected with in vitro transcribed replicon RNAs were cultured with G418, and selected colonies were isolated and expanded. From sequencing analysis of the replicon genome, several mutations were found. Some of the mutations enhanced JFH-2 replication; the 2217AS mutation in the NS5A interferon sensitivity-determining region exhibited the strongest adaptive effect. Interestingly, a full-length chimeric or wild-type JFH-2 genome with the adaptive mutation could replicate in Huh-7.5.1 cells and produce infectious virus after extensive passages of the virus genome-replicating cells. Virus infection efficiency was sufficient for autonomous virus propagation in cultured cells. Additional mutations were identified in the infectious virus genome. Interestingly, full-length viral RNA synthesized from the cDNA clone with these adaptive mutations was infectious for cultured cells. This approach may be applicable for the establishment of new infectious HCV clones. PMID:22787209

  14. Infectious Disease Hospitalizations Among Infants in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krista L. Yorita; Robert C. Holman; James J. Sejvar; Claudia A. Steiner; Lawrence B. Schonberger

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study describes the burden and epidemiologic features of infectious disease hospitalizations among infants in the United States. METHODS. Hospitalizations with an infectious disease listed as a primary diagnosis for infants (1 year of age) in the United States during 2003 were examined by using the Kids' Inpatient Database. National estimates of infectious disease hospitalizations, hospitalization rates, and various

  15. Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology, Boston, MA 02115, USA Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health for the surveillance and control of plant EIDs. Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are caused by pathogens that: (i

  16. Statistical studies of infectious disease incidence Niels G. Becker

    E-print Network

    Britton, Tom

    Statistical studies of infectious disease incidence Niels G. Becker La Trobe University, Bundoora] Summary. Methods for the analysis of data on the incidence of an infectious disease are reviewed±acquired immune de®ciency syndrome epidemic. Infectious disease data seem particularly suited to analysis

  17. Assistant or Associate Professor Division of Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Assistant or Associate Professor Division of Infectious Diseases Department of Medicine The Department of Medicine/Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine at Stanford University of Infectious Diseases will be considered, including those with clinical and bench-based research programs

  18. Mathematical Techniques in the Evolutionary Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Linder, Tamás

    1 Mathematical Techniques in the Evolutionary Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases Troy Day The epidemiology of infectious diseases is a vibrant and growing area of research. Mathematics has come to play of infectious disease stems, in part, from the high levels of genetic variation that are often generated through

  19. Real-Time Event Extraction Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    E-print Network

    Real-Time Event Extraction for Infectious Disease Outbreaks Ralph Grishman grishman of information on infectious disease outbreaks. A web crawler is used to retrieve current news stories of information on infectious disease outbreaks, linked back to the reports from which they are derived

  20. Hidden Cluster Detection for Infectious Disease Control and Quarantine Management

    E-print Network

    Fong, Chi Chiu "Simon"

    Hidden Cluster Detection for Infectious Disease Control and Quarantine Management Yain-Whar Si, Kan {fstasp,ma46511,robertb,ccfong}@umac.mo Abstract. Infectious diseases that are caused by pathogenic in this paper. Key words: Infectious Disease, Cluster Detection, Contact Tracing, SARS, Health Care Information

  1. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

  2. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei-Chuan Huang; Jim Juimin Lin

    2008-01-01

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the

  3. Recent Advances of Vaccine Adjuvants for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Trang

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are the most effective and cost-efficient method for preventing diseases caused by infectious pathogens. Despite the great success of vaccines, development of safe and strong vaccines is still required for emerging new pathogens, re-emerging old pathogens, and in order to improve the inadequate protection conferred by existing vaccines. One of the most important strategies for the development of effective new vaccines is the selection and usage of a suitable adjuvant. Immunologic adjuvants are essential for enhancing vaccine potency by improvement of the humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response to vaccine antigens. Thus, formulation of vaccines with appropriate adjuvants is an attractive approach towards eliciting protective and long-lasting immunity in humans. However, only a limited number of adjuvants is licensed for human vaccines due to concerns about safety and toxicity. We summarize current knowledge about the potential benefits of adjuvants, the characteristics of adjuvants and the mechanisms of adjuvants in human vaccines. Adjuvants have diverse modes of action and should be selected for use on the basis of the type of immune response that is desired for a particular vaccine. Better understanding of current adjuvants will help exploring new adjuvant formulations and facilitate rational design of vaccines against infectious diseases. PMID:25922593

  4. Current status of vaccines against infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hermann; Mundt, Egbert; Eterradossi, Nicolas; Islam, M Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the aetiological agent of the acute and highly contagious infectious bursal disease (IBD) or "Gumboro disease". IBD is one of the economically most important diseases that affects commercially produced chickens worldwide. Along with strict hygiene management of poultry farms, vaccination programmes with inactivated and live attenuated viruses have been used to prevent IBD. Live vaccines show a different degree of attenuation; many of them may cause bursal atrophy and thus immunosuppression with poor immune response to vaccination against other pathogens and an increase in vulnerability to various types of infections as possible consequences. Depending on their intrinsic characteristics or on the vaccination procedures, some of the vaccines may not induce full protection against the very virulent IBDV strains and antigenic variants observed in the last three decades. As chickens are most susceptible to IBDV in their first weeks of life, active immunity to the virus has to be induced early after hatching. However, maternally derived IBDV-specific antibodies may interfere with early vaccination with live vaccines. Thus new technologies and second-generation vaccines including rationally designed and subunit vaccines have been developed. Recently, live viral vector vaccines have been licensed in several countries and are reaching the market. Here, the current status of IBD vaccines is discussed. PMID:22515532

  5. Capacity building in pediatric transplant infectious diseases: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Evans, Helen M; Green, Michael; McCulloch, Mignon; Michaels, Marian G; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Verma, Anita; Allen, Upton

    2014-12-01

    Transplant infectious diseases is a rapidly emerging subspecialty within pediatric infectious diseases reflecting the increasing volumes and complexity of this patient population. Incorporating transplant infectious diseases into the transplant process would provide an opportunity to improve clinical outcome and advocacy as well as expand research. The relationship between transplant physicians and infectious diseases (ID) specialists is one of partnership, collaboration, and mutual continuing professional education. The ID CARE Committee of the International Pediatric Transplant Association (IPTA) views the development and integration of transplant infectious diseases into pediatric transplant care as an international priority. PMID:25212948

  6. Vaccination against infectious diseases: what is promising?

    PubMed

    Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Berger, Annemarie

    2014-12-01

    Vaccination has proven to be one of the best weapons protecting the mankind against infectious diseases. Along with the huge progress in microbiology, numerous highly efficacious and safe vaccines have been produced by conventional technology (cultivation), by the use of molecular biology (genetic modification), or by synthetic chemistry. Sterilising prevention is achieved by the stimulation of antibody production, while the stimulation of cell-mediated immune responses may prevent the outbreak of disease in consequence of an acute or reactivated infection. From several examples, two rules are deduced to evaluate the perspectives of future vaccine developments: They are promising, if (1) the natural infectious disease induces immunity or (2) passive immunisation (transfer of antibodies, adoptive transfer of lymphocytes) is successful in preventing infection. PMID:25064610

  7. [Acute infectious diseases in occupied Japan].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Sugita, Satoru; Moriyama, Takako; Marui, Eiji

    2007-06-01

    Japan's health statistics system, considered among the best in the world today, continually complies and organizes information about various infectious diseases. However, systematic surveillance was not conducted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare between World War II and the postwar period, creating a gap in health data. In contrast, the GHQ/SCAP/PHW. which was closely involved in health and medical reform during the Occupation, thoroughly investigated the health conditions of the Japanese people during this period. This article describes the trends in acute infectious diseases in Occupied Japan by using statistical records listed in the appendices of the "Weekly Bulletin", an official document of the GHQ/SCAP that is currently kept in the National Diet Library Modern Japanese Political History Materials Room. PMID:18175437

  8. Immune responses to infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Hartley, Carol A; Devlin, Joanne M

    2013-11-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory tract disease in chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus. Despite the extensive use of attenuated, and more recently recombinant, vaccines for the control of this disease, ILT continues to affect the intensive poultry industries worldwide. Innate and cell-mediated, rather than humoral immune responses, have been identified as responsible for protection against disease. This review examines the current understandings in innate and adaptive immune responses towards ILTV, as well as the role of ILTV glycoprotein G in modulating the host immune response towards infection. Protective immunity induced by ILT vaccines is also examined. The increasing availability of tools and reagents for the characterisation of avian innate and cell-mediated immune responses are expected to further our understanding of immunity against ILTV and drive the development of new generation vaccines towards enhanced control of this disease. PMID:23567343

  9. Rediscovering Biology - Unit 5: Emerging Infectious Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Annenberg Media Learner.org

    This page is the jumping-off point for an educational unit on emerging infectious diseases. There are links to a course outline and classroom activity worksheets, a 30-minute video, an online textbook chapter, a collection of relevant images and animations that supplement the chapter, transcripts of interviews with five experts featured in the video, and a glossary and bibliography. The video and textbook chapter cover two main phenomena of emerging diseases - evolution of antibiotic resistance, and mutation of disease organisms due to novel environmental pressures. There are detailed explanations of microbial evolution by mutation and acquisition of new genetic material, as well as case studies of infectious diseases spread by animals. The course outline provides a structure for incorporating the video, the textbook chapter, and five classroom activities into a 2.5hr session appropriate for high school or undergraduate students.

  10. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created over fifty years ago, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NAID) "conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases." In recent years, the scope of the institute's research activities has expanded to include emerging issues such as the possibility of bioterrorism and West Nile virus. The site contains a wealth of information on the activities of NAID, such as the most recent publications, organizational hierarchy, and funding opportunities for researchers and scholars. The newsroom area is quite thorough, as visitors have access to the database of news releases dating back to 1995 and access to SciBites, which features brief summaries of articles about NAID-funded research, updated weekly. The site is notable for its extensive special section on the growing battery of research on biodefense strategies.

  11. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, Kate T.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

  12. In ovo Vaccine Against Infectious Bursal Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Moura; V. Vakharia; M. Liu; H. Song

    2007-01-01

    A recombinant attenuated vaccine against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was administered in ovo to 18-day-old embryos. The vaccine was genetically tailored to protect from challenges in the field against classic and variant strains of IBDV. The vaccine virus contains neutralizing epitopes from both classic (D78) and variant strain (GLS), and abrogates expression of the nonstructural protein, VP5 of IBDV.

  13. Emerging infectious diseases and animal social systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles L. Nunn; Peter H. Thrall; Kelly Stewart; Alexander H. Harcourt

    2008-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases threaten a wide diversity of animals, and important questions remain concerning disease emergence\\u000a in socially structured populations. We developed a spatially explicit simulation model to investigate whether—and under what\\u000a conditions—disease-related mortality can impact rates of pathogen spread in populations of polygynous groups. Specifically,\\u000a we investigated whether pathogen-mediated dispersal (PMD) can occur when females disperse after the resident

  14. Epidemic! The World of Infectious Disease - Exhibit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site, created to complement the museum's Epidemic! exhibit, provides an in-depth look at the world of infectious disease. It includes information on how environmental changes can affect the spread of disease, the three major groups of microbes and how disease is spread, and the factors that determine whether an outbreak will become an epidemic or a pandemic. There is a list, organized by topic and specific disease, of more than 250 Web sites and a glossary.

  15. The variations of VP1 protein might be associated with nervous system symptoms caused by enterovirus 71 infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The VP1 protein of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important immunodominant protein which is responsible for host-receptor binding. Nevertheless, the relationship between VP1 and neurovirulence is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the relationship between mutation of VP1 and neurovirulent phenotype of EV71 infection. Methods One hundred and eighty-seven strains from Genbank were included, with a clear clinical background. They were divided into two groups, one with nervous system symptoms and one with no nervous system symptoms. After alignment, the significance of amino acid variation was determined by using the ?2 test and a phylogenetic tree was constructed with MEGA software (version 5.1). Results We showed no significant difference in neurovirulence between genotype B and C. Interestingly, we found that variations of E145G/Q, E164D/K and T292N/K were associated with nervous system infection in genotype B. In the case of genotype C, the N31D mutation increased the risk for nervous complications, whereas I262V mutation decreased the risk of nervous complications. We used a 3D model of VP1 to demonstrate the potential molecular basis for EV71 nervous system tropism. Conclusions Distinct variations are shown to be associated with neurovirulent phenotype in the different genotype. Detection of variation in genotypes and subtypes may be important for the prediction of clinical outcomes. PMID:24886383

  16. Expression of VP1 protein in the milk of transgenic mice: a potential oral vaccine protects against enterovirus 71 infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Chu, Te-Wei; Tsai, Tung-Chou; Hung, Che-Ming; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Fang-Chueh; Wang, Li-Chung; Chen, Yi-Ju; Lin, Ming-Fong; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2008-06-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most common etiological agent detected in cases of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) resulting in incidences of neurological complications and fatality in recent years. The clinical data have already shown the significant increase in recent EV71 epidemic activity throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Due to the lack of an effective antiviral agent, primary prevention of the disease, including the development of an effective vaccine, has been the top priority in terms of control strategies. In this study, we first generated a transgenic animal system to produce the EV71 VP1 capsid protein under the control of alpha-lactalbumin promoter and alpha-casein leader sequences. A high level of recombinant VP1 protein (2.51 mg/ml) was expressed and secreted into the milk of transgenic mice. Mouse pups that received VP1-transgenic milk orally demonstrated relatively better health conditions after challenge with the respective virus as compared with the non-transgenic milk fed group; moreover, the mice fed with the VP1-milk had body weights similar to those of the PBS placebo control groups. According to the serum-neutralization assay and serum antibody detection, the littermates suckling VP1-milk generated antibodies specific to EV71. Our data suggest that EV71 VP1-containing milk is suitable for development as a potential oral vaccine. PMID:18450335

  17. Enterovirus 71-induced neurological disorders in young gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus: development and application of a neurological disease model.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ping-Ping; Qian, Lei; Xia, Yong; Xu, Fang; Yang, Zhang-Nv; Xie, Rong-Hui; Li, Xiao; Liang, Wei-Feng; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Zhu, Zhi-Yong; Zhu, Han-Ping

    2012-01-01

    A reliable disease model mimicking Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in humans is essential for understanding pathogenesis and for developing a safe and effective vaccine. Commonly used rodent models including mouse or rat models are not suitable for vaccine evaluation because the rodents are resistant to EV71 infection after they reach the age of 6 days. In this study, 21-day-old gerbils inoculated intraperitoneally (IP) with a non mouse-adapted EV71 strain developed neurological lesion-related signs including hind limb paralysis, slowness, ataxia and lethargy similar to those of central nervous system (CNS) infection of EV71 in humans. The infected gerbils eventually died of the neurological lesions and EV71 could be isolated from lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, spinal cord, brain cortex, brainstem and skeletal muscle. Significantly high virus replication was detected in spinal cord, brainstem and skeletal muscle by cellular analysis, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining. Histopathologic changes such as neuronal degeneration, neuronal loss and neuronophagia were observed in spinal cord, brain cortex, brainstem, and skeletal muscle along with necrotizing myositis and splenic atrophy. Gerbils that received two doses of inactive whole-virus vaccine showed no EV71-specific symptoms after challenged with EV71. In contrast, gerbils that received mock vaccination died of EV71-induced neuropathology after challenged with EV71. The result indicates that gerbils can serve as a reliable disease model for evaluating safety and efficacy of EV71 vaccine. PMID:23284845

  18. Infectious etiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Carričre, Jessica; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu

    2014-01-01

    Important advances during the last decade have been made in understanding the complex etiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). While many gaps in our knowledge still exist, it has been suggested that the etiology of CD is multifactorial including genetic, environmental and infectious factors. The most widely accepted theory states that CD is caused by an aggressive immune response to infectious agents in genetically predisposed individuals. The rise of genome-wide association studies allowed the identification of loci and genetic variants in several components of host innate and adaptive immune responses to microorganisms in the gut, highlighting an implication of intestinal microbiota in CD etiology. Moreover, numerous independent studies reported a dysbiosis, i.e., a modification of intestinal microbiota composition, with an imbalance between the abundance of beneficial and harmful bacteria. Although microorganisms including viruses, yeasts, fungi and bacteria have been postulated as potential CD pathogens, based on epidemiological, clinicopathological, genetic and experimental evidence, their precise role in this disease is not clearly defined. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the infectious agents associated with an increased risk of developing CD. Therapeutic approaches to modulate the intestinal dysbiosis and to target the putative CD-associated pathogens, as well as their potential mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:25232246

  19. Joint infectious causation of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Paul W; Swain Ewald, Holly A

    2014-01-01

    Joint infectious causation of cancer has been accepted in a few well-studied instances, including Burkitt's lymphoma and liver cancer. In general, evidence for the involvement of parasitic agents in oncogenesis has expanded, and recent advances in the application of molecular techniques have revealed specific mechanisms by which host cells are transformed. Many parasites evolve to circumvent immune-mediated detection and destruction and to control critical aspects of host cell reproduction and survival: cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and immortalization. The host has evolved tight regulation of these cellular processes-the control of each represents a barrier to cancer. These barriers need to be compromised for oncogenesis to occur. The abrogation of a barrier is therefore referred to as an essential cause of cancer. Alternatively, some aspects of cellular regulation restrain but do not block oncogenesis. Relaxation of a restraint is therefore referred to as an exacerbating cause of cancer. In this chapter, we explore past and current evidence for joint infectious causation of cancer in the context of essential and exacerbating causes. We stress that discovery of joint infectious causation may provide great improvements in controlling cancer, particularly through the identification of many additional nonhuman targets for synergistic interventions for prevention and treatment. PMID:24480312

  20. Sex Differences in Pediatric Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The impact of sex hormones on the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 cytokine balance has been proposed to explain the higher severity of most infectious diseases in males. In the minority where greater morbidity and mortality is observed in females, this is hypothesized to arise because of greater immunopathology and/or autoimmunity. However, a number of unexplained exceptions to this rule are described. Studies that have actually measured the sex differences in children in the immune responses to infectious diseases and that would further test these hypotheses, are relatively scarce. PMID:24966192

  1. Subclinical infectious bursal disease in commercial broiler flocks in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, L D; Tabel, H; Riddell, C

    1981-01-01

    Five commercial broiler flocks, not vaccinated for infectious bursal disease virus, derived from infectious bursal disease virus-vaccinated breeder flocks were surveyed for evidence of bursal damage and infectious bursal disease virus infection. They were compared with two groups of birds raised in isolation. Serum samples from one day old chicks contained maternal anti-infectious bursal disease virus antibodies which declined to undetectable levels by four weeks of age. Serum antibody levels remained undetectable in both control groups and one commercial flock, whereas four of the five commercial flocks had actively produced anti-infectious bursal disease virus antibodies by slaughter age. The weight of bursae from infectious bursal disease virus-positive flocks declined as compared to controls after four weeks of age. The decline in weight correlated with the appearance of histopathological lesions. Infectious bursal disease virus antigen was demonstrated in selected infected bursae and infectious bursal disease bursae and infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from some of these damaged bursae. Clinical infectious bursal disease was not observed in any of the commercial flocks. The importance of subclinical bursal damage and immunosuppression is discussed. Images Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6268263

  2. [Infectious endocarditis complicated with preoperative infectious intracranial aneurysm;report of a case].

    PubMed

    Ezure, Masahiko; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Kimura, Chieri; Okada, Shuichi; Okonogi, Shuichi; Takihara, Hitomi; Naito, Noritsugu

    2015-02-01

    A 44-year-old man was admitted with the diagnosis of active infective endocarditis( IE) due to Streptococcus mitis, complicated with infectious intracranial aneurysm. Preoperative echocardiography showed mobile vegetation on the mitral leaflet, size of which was 20 mm. The magnetic resonance imaging( MRI) demonstrated that the size of aneurysm was increasing, and infectious intracranial aneurysm was treated surgically. Twenty one days after the operation, the mitral valve plasty was performed. He was discharged on foot without any neurological findings. The duration between the brain surgery and the cardiac surgery was thought to be important to prevent the new neurological complication. PMID:25743362

  3. Detection ofHepatitis A Virus, Rotavirus, andEnterovirus in Naturally Contaminated Shellfish andSediment by Reverse Transcription-Seminested PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. LE GUYADER; E. DUBOIS; D. MENARD

    1994-01-01

    method was developed todetect enterovirus (EV), hepatitis Avirus (HAV), and rotavirus (RV)RNAsinshellfish andsediment. Themethod was first tested underexperimental conditions by using virus-spiked shellfish toevaluate assaysensitivity. TheuseofCC41cellulose was found tobeefficient for removing inhibitors ofRVdetection. Forsediment samples, aSephadex column was usedtoallow thedetection ofEVandHAVRNAs.Thespecificity ofamplified products was controlled byhybridization withdigoxigenin- labeled oligoprobes. Themethod was thenapplied tonaturally contaminated shellfish andsediments. EV, HAV,andRVRNAswere detected in22,14,and20%ooftheshellfish

  4. First isolation and genomic characterization of enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 from hand foot and mouth disease patients in the Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, V H; Sibounheuang, B; Phommasone, K; Vongsouvath, M; Newton, P N; Piorkowski, G; Baronti, C; de Lamballerie, X; Dubot-Pérčs, A

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are major aetiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in Asia. We established the first genomic characterization of strains isolated in 2011 from Lao patients. Isolates were related to EV-A71 genotype C4 and CV-A16 genotype B1a that circulated in neighbouring countries during the same period. This confirms the regional character of hand, foot and mouth disease epidemiology and makes plausible the occurrence of severe disease in the Lao population. PMID:25566395

  5. Role of coxsackievirus B4 in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jaďdane, H; Hober, D

    2008-12-01

    Environmental factors, especially viruses, are thought to play an important role in the initiation or acceleration of the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Data from retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies strongly suggest that enteroviruses, such as coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4), may be associated with the development of T1D. It has also been shown that enterovirus infections are significantly more prevalent in at-risk individuals such as the siblings of diabetic patients, when they develop anti-beta-cell autoantibodies or T1D, and in recently diagnosed diabetic patients, compared with control subjects. The isolation of CV-B4 from the pancreas of diabetic patients supports the hypothesis of a relationship between the virus and the disease. Furthermore, studies performed in vitro and in vivo in animal models have increased our knowledge of the role of CV-B4 in T1D by helping to clarify the pathogenic mechanisms of the infection that can lead to beta-cell destruction, including direct virus-induced beta-cell lysis, molecular mimicry, 'bystander activation' and viral persistence. The role of enteroviruses as the sole agents in T1D, and a causal link between these agents and T1D, have not yet been established, although arguments that support such a role for these viruses in the pathogenesis of the disease cannot be ignored. PMID:18951821

  6. [Pathomorphology of infectious bursitis in chicks].

    PubMed

    Nikolov, N; Liutskanov, D

    1977-01-01

    Morphologic studies were carried out on birds aged 17 to 90 days, affected with Gumboro disease and occasionally died from the same disease (infectious bursitis). Established were hemorrhages in the leg and breast musculature, substantial enlargement of the bursa of Fabricius, and lesions in the kidneys. In some cases hemorrhages were also found on the serous membrane of the parenchymal organs. The histologic investigation of the involved parenchymal organs revealed necrobiotic changes (karyopycnosis, karyorrhexis) in the cellular elements, which were evaluated as a possible diagnostic symptom. Discussed is the problem of the dynamics of the morphologic changes observed in the bursa of Fabricius in view of their differential-diagnostic value. PMID:201083

  7. The role of infectious disease in marine communities: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecologists recognize that infectious diseases play and important role in ocean ecosystems. This role may have increased in some host taxa over time (Ward and Lafferty 2004). We begin this chapter by introducing infectious agents and their relationships with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents in the perspective of marine biodiversity and discuss the various factors that affect parasites. Specifically, we introduce some basin epidemiological concepts, including the effects of stress and free-living diversity on parasites. Following this, we give brief consideration to communities of parasites within their hosts, particularly as these can lead to general insights into community ecology. We also give examples of how infectious diseases affect host populations, scaling up to marine communities. Finally, we present examples of marine infectious disease that impair conservation and fisheries.

  8. Phenotypic Diversity and Emerging New Tools to Study Macrophage Activation in Bacterial Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ka, Mignane B.; Daumas, Aurélie; Textoris, Julien; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage polarization is a concept that has been useful to describe the different features of macrophage activation related to specific functions. Macrophage polarization is responsible for a dichotomic approach (killing vs. repair) of the host response to bacteria; M1-type conditions are protective, whereas M2-type conditions are associated with bacterial persistence. The use of the polarization concept to classify the features of macrophage activation in infected patients using transcriptional and/or molecular data and to provide biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis has most often been unsuccessful. The confrontation of polarization with different clinical situations in which monocytes/macrophages encounter bacteria obliged us to reappraise this concept. With the exception of M2-type infectious diseases, such as leprosy and Whipple’s disease, most acute (sepsis) or chronic (Q fever, tuberculosis) infectious diseases do not exhibit polarized monocytes/macrophages. This is also the case for commensals that shape the immune response and for probiotics that alter the immune response independent of macrophage polarization. We propose that the type of myeloid cells (monocytes vs. macrophages) and the kinetics of the immune response (early vs. late responses) are critical variables for understanding macrophage activation in human infectious diseases. Explorating the role of these new markers will provide important tools to better understand complex macrophage physiology. PMID:25346736

  9. Cellular proteome alterations in response to enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 infections in neuronal and intestinal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chan, Shie Yien; Sam, I-Ching; Lai, Jeffrey K F; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2015-07-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease is mainly caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), but EV-A71 is also associated with severe neurological complications. Host factors may contribute to the different clinical outcomes of EV-A71 and CV-A16 infections. A neurovirulent EV-A71 strain (EV-A71/UH1) from a fatal case, a non-neurovirulent EV-A71 strain (EV-A71/Sha66) and a CV-A16 strain (CV-A16/22159) from cases of uncomplicated HFMD were used. Replication of the viruses in SK-N-MC (neuronal) and HT-29 (intestinal) cell lines correlated with the severity of clinical disease associated with each virus. EV-A71/UH1 showed the greatest replication in neuronal cells. In HT-29 cells, both EV-A71 strains replicated well, but CV-A16/22159 showed no effective replication. The proteomes of mock and infected SK-N-MC and HT-29 cell lines were compared by 2D-SDS-PAGE. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. There were 46 and 44 differentially expressed proteins identified from SK-N-MC and HT-29 cells, respectively, categorized under apoptosis, stress, cytoskeletal, energy metabolism proteins and others. Western blot validation showed that EV-A71/UH1 and CV-A16 also differentially induced proteins involved in viral RNA translation and host cell stress responses in neuronal and intestinal cell lines. PMID:26003530

  10. Long-Term Immunogenicity Studies of Formalin-Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Whole-Virion Vaccine in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Chyi; Hwang, Chyi-Sing; Yang, Wun-Syue; Tsai, Dan-Chin; Wu, Sze-Hsien; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chow, Yen-Hung; Wu, Suh-Chin; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chiang, Jen-Ron; Huang, Chin-Cheng; Pan, Chien-Hsiung; Chong, Pele

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases in Asia during the past decades and no vaccine is available. A formalin-inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine (EV71vac) based on B4 subgenotype has previously been developed and found to elicit strong neutralizing antibody responses in mice and humans. In this study, we evaluated the long-term immunogenicity and safety of this EV71vac in a non-human primate model. Juvenile macaques were immunized at 0, 3 and 6 weeks either with 10 or 5 µg doses of EV71vac formulated with AlPO4 adjuvant, or PBS as control. During the 56 weeks of studies, no fever nor local redness and swelling at sites of injections was observed in the immunized macaques. After single immunization, 100% seroconversion based on 4-fold increased in neutralization titer (Nt) was detected in EV71vac immunized monkeys but not PBS controls. A dose-dependent IgG antibody response was observed in monkeys receiving EV71vac immunization. The Nt of EV71vac immunized macaques had reached the peak after 3 vaccinations, then decreased gradually; however, the GMT of neutralizing antibody in the EV71vac immunized macaques were still above 100 at the end of the study. Correspondingly, both dose- and time-dependent interferon-? and CD4+ T cell responses were detected in monkeys receiving EV71vac. Interestingly, similar to human responses, the dominant T cell epitopes of macaques were identified mainly in VP2 and VP3 regions. In addition, strong cross-neutralizing antibodies against most EV71 subgenotypes except some C2 and C4b strains, and Coxsackievirus A16 were observed. In summary, our results indicate that EV71vac elicits dose-dependent T-cell and antibody responses in macaques that could be a good animal model for evaluating the long-term immune responses elicited by EV71 vaccines. PMID:25197967

  11. First report of Porcine teschovirus (PTV), Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) and Enterovirus G (EV-G) in pig herds of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Donin, Daiane Güllich; de Arruda Leme, Raquel; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alberton, Geraldo Camilo; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2014-03-01

    Porcine teschovirus (PTV), Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) and Enterovirus G (EV-G) have been associated with enteric, respiratory, reproductive and neurological disorders. Although Brazil is the world's fourth largest producer and exporter of pork, no information on the occurrence of PTV, PSV and EV-G infections is available for Brazilian pig herds. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Porcine enteric picornavirus infections in pig farms located in three distinct geographical regions of Brazil. Forty randomly selected diarrhoeic and normal consistency faeces of suckling (n?=?22) and nursery (n?=?18) pigs from farms located in 21 distinct cities of the Southern, Southeast, and Midwest regions of Brazil were evaluated by nested-RT-PCR assays. Suckling piglets presented the expected amplicon size for PTV (158 bp) and EV-G (313 bp) in single and mixed infections in 40.9 % (9/22) of the faecal samples. PSV amplicon (212 bp) was not detected in this age group. For nursery pigs, Porcine enteric picornaviruses amplicons were present in 77.8 % (14/18) of the faecal samples. PTV and EV-G were detected in single and mixed infections, while PSV was detected only in two samples in co-infection with PTV and EV-G in this age group. The Brazilian regions evaluated presented at least two of the tested viruses. Sequencing analysis revealed high similarities to the related viruses (95.3 to 99.2 % for PTV, 94.2 to 98.5 % for PSV and 86 to 100 % for EV-G). For the first time PTV, PSV and EV-G have been molecularly detected and characterised in pig faecal samples in Brazil. PMID:24362793

  12. The Persistent Circulation of Enterovirus 71 in People's Republic of China: Causing Emerging Nationwide Epidemics Since 2008

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaojuan; Huang, Xueyong; Zhu, Shuangli; Chen, Hui; Yu, Qiuli; Wang, Haiyan; Huo, Xixiang; Zhou, Jianhui; Wu, Yan; Yan, Dongmei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Dongyan; Cui, Aili; An, Hongqiu; Xu, Wenbo

    2011-01-01

    Emerging epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become a serious concern in mainland China. It caused 126 and 353 fatalities in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The epidemiologic and pathogenic data of the outbreak collected from national laboratory network and notifiable disease surveillance system. To understand the virological evolution of this emerging outbreak, 326 VP1 gene sequences of EV71 detected in China from 1987 to 2009 were collected for genetic analyses. Evidence from both traditional and molecular epidemiology confirmed that the recent HFMD outbreak was an emerging one caused by EV71 of subgenotype C4. This emerging HFMD outbreak is associated with EV71 of subgenotype C4, circulating persistently in mainland China since 1998, but not attributed to the importation of new genotype. Originating from 1992, subgenotype C4 has been the predominant genotype since 1998 in mainland China, with an evolutionary rate of 4.6?4.8×10?3 nucleotide substitutions/site/year. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the virus during this epidemic was the most recent descendant of subgenotype C4 (clade C4a). It suggests that the evolution might be one of the potential reasons for this native virus to cause the emerging outbreak in China. However, strong negative selective pressure on VP1 protein of EV71 suggested that immune escape might not be the evolving strategy of EV71, predicting a light future for vaccine development. Nonetheless, long-term antigenic and genetic surveillance is still necessary for further understanding. PMID:21980521

  13. The Association of Recombination Events in the Founding and Emergence of Subgenogroup Evolutionary Lineages of Human Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    McWilliam Leitch, E. C.; Cabrerizo, M.; Cardosa, J.; Harvala, H.; Ivanova, O. E.; Koike, S.; Kroes, A. C. M.; Lukashev, A.; Perera, D.; Roivainen, M.; Susi, P.; Trallero, G.; Evans, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for frequent large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease worldwide and represent a major etiological agent of severe, sometimes fatal neurological disease. EV71 variants have been classified into three genogroups (GgA, GgB, and GgC), and the latter two are further subdivided into subgenogroups B1 to B5 and C1 to C5. To investigate the dual roles of recombination and evolution in the epidemiology and transmission of EV71 worldwide, we performed a large-scale genetic analysis of isolates (n = 308) collected from 19 countries worldwide over a 40-year period. A series of recombination events occurred over this period, which have been identified through incongruities in sequence grouping between the VP1 and 3Dpol regions. Eleven 3Dpol clades were identified, each specific to EV71 and associated with specific subgenogroups but interspersed phylogenetically with clades of coxsackievirus A16 and other EV species A serotypes. The likelihood of recombination increased with VP1 sequence divergence; mean half-lives for EV71 recombinant forms (RFs) of 6 and 9 years for GgB and GgC overlapped with those observed for the EV-B serotypes, echovirus 9 (E9), E30, and E11, respectively (1.3 to 9.8 years). Furthermore, within genogroups, sporadic recombination events occurred, such as the linkage of two B4 variants to RF-W instead of RF-A and of two C4 variants to RF-H. Intriguingly, recombination events occurred as a founding event of most subgenogroups immediately preceding their lineage expansion and global emergence. The possibility that recombination contributed to their subsequent spread through improved fitness requires further biological and immunological characterization. PMID:22205739

  14. Enterovirus Encephalitis Increases the Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Taiwanese Population-based Case-control Study.

    PubMed

    Chou, I-Ching; Lin, Che-Chen; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus (EV) infection is a major public health issue throughout the world with potential neurological complications. This study evaluated the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and EV encephalitis in children.Data of reimbursement claims from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in a population-based case-control design. The study comprised 2646 children with ADHD who were matched according to sex, age, urbanization level of residence, parental occupation, and baseline year, to people without ADHD at a ratio of 1:10. The index date of the ADHD group was the ADHD date of diagnosis. Histories of EV infections before the index dates were collected and recategorized according to the severity of infection.Compared with children without EV infection, the children with mild EV infection had a 1.16-fold increased risk of ADHD (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.07-1.26), and the children with severe EV infection had a greater risk of ADHD (OR?=?2.82, 95% CI?=?1.05-7.57). The results also revealed a significant correlation between ADHD and the severity of EV infection (P for trend?=?0.0001).Patients with EV encephalitis have an increased risk of developing ADHD. Although most EV encephalitis in children has a favorable prognosis, it may be associated with significant long-term neurological sequelae, even in children considered fully recovered at discharge. Neuropsychological testing should be recommended for survivors of childhood EV encephalitis. The causative factors between EV encephalitis and the increased risk of ADHD require further investigation. PMID:25906098

  15. Sustained High Levels of Interleukin-6 Contribute to the Pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 in a Neonate Mouse Model ? †

    PubMed Central

    Khong, Wei Xin; Foo, Damian G. W.; Trasti, Scott L.; Tan, Eng Lee; Alonso, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children and has been consistently associated with the most severe complications of the disease, including central nervous system inflammation and pulmonary edema. Increasing frequency and amplitude of EV71 outbreaks have raised awareness and concerns worldwide. Previous reports proposed that overwhelming virus replication combined with the induction of massive proinflammatory cytokines is responsible for the pathogenicity of EV71. Specifically, elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were observed consistently in patients and strongly correlated with disease severity. In this study, we show in the neonate mouse model that sustained high levels of IL-6 produced upon EV71 infection lead to severe tissue damage and eventually death of the animals. Administration of anti-IL-6 neutralizing antibodies after the onset of the clinical symptoms successfully improved the survival rates and clinical scores of the infected hosts. Compared to untreated infected controls, anti-IL-6-treated mice displayed reduced tissue damage, absence of splenic atrophy, and increased immune cell activation. In addition, markedly elevated systemic levels of IL-10 were measured in the protected animals. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in virus titers between anti-IL-6-treated mice and untreated mice, indicating that the anti-IL-6 antibody-mediated protection is independent of the virus load. Our findings thus demonstrate that IL-6 plays a major role in EV71-induced immunopathogenesis. As there is still neither vaccine nor treatment available against EV71, anti-IL-6 antibody treatment represents a potential therapeutic approach to providing protection from the most severe complications of the disease. PMID:21228224

  16. Emerging infectious diseases: a 10-year perspective from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Fauci, Anthony S; Touchette, Nancy A; Folkers, Gregory K

    2005-04-01

    Although optimists once imagined that serious infectious disease threats would by now be conquered, newly emerging (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]), reemerging (e.g., West Nile virus), and even deliberately disseminated infectious diseases (e.g., anthrax bioterrorism) continue to appear throughout the world. Over the past decade, the global effort to identify and characterize infectious agents, decipher the underlying pathways by which they cause disease, and develop preventive measures and treatments for many of the world's most dangerous pathogens has resulted in considerable progress. Intramural and extramural investigators supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) have contributed substantially to this effort. This overview highlights selected NIAID-sponsored research advances over the past decade, with a focus on progress in combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza, SARS, West Nile virus, and potential bioterror agents. Many basic research discoveries have been translated into novel diagnostics, antiviral and antimicrobial compounds, and vaccines, often with extraordinary speed. PMID:15829188

  17. [Psychiatric aspects of infectious diseases -- a literature review].

    PubMed

    Gazdag, Gabor; Szabo, Zsuzsa; Szlavik, Janos

    2014-12-01

    It is essential for the psychiatrist working in the consultation-liaison field or with comorbid patients to be familiar with the psychiatric aspects of central nervous infectious diseases or infectious diseases with psychiatric symptoms. Authors have reviewed the most important psychiatric aspects of common infectious diseases. Essential knowledge for setting up a diagnosis and starting appropriate treatment has been summarized. The most important interactions of infectological and psychiatric treatments have also been discussed. PMID:25577481

  18. Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics.

    PubMed

    Siettos, Constantinos I; Russo, Lucia

    2013-05-15

    Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host-pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

  19. Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Siettos, Constantinos I.; Russo, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host–pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

  20. Infectious causes of reproductive disorders in cattle.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Han Sang

    2010-01-01

    The incidences of reproductive disorders in bovine are increasing over years. This scenario is further aggravating due to more emphasis on selection and rearing of animal for specific commercial purposes which compromises livestock reproduction. Reproductive disorders like infertility and abortions in cattle are major problems in the bovine industry. The reproductive disorders might be caused by several different agents such as physical agents, chemical agents, biological agents, etc. Also, the causative agent and pathogenesis of reproductive disorders are influenced by various factors including environmental factor. The exact causes may not be evident and are often complicated with multiple causative agents. Thus, there is a need for multi-faceted approach to understand correlation of various factors with reproductive performance. Of the agents, infectious biological agents are significant cause of reproductive disorder and are of high priority in the bovine industry. These factors are not only related to the prosperity of bovine industry but are also important from public health point of view because of their zoonotic potentials. Several infectious agents like bacterial, viral, protozoon, chlamydial and fungal agents are known to have direct impact on reproductive health of cattle. These diseases can be arranged and discussed in different groups based on the causative agents. PMID:20629218

  1. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces.

    PubMed

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Glidden, David V; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2009-09-24

    Infectious prion diseases-scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family-are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their faeces long before they develop clinical signs of prion disease. Intracerebral inoculation of irradiated deer faeces into transgenic mice overexpressing cervid prion protein (PrP) revealed infectivity in 14 of 15 faecal samples collected from five deer at 7-11 months before the onset of neurological disease. Although prion concentrations in deer faeces were considerably lower than in brain tissue from the same deer collected at the end of the disease, the estimated total infectious dose excreted in faeces by an infected deer over the disease course may approximate the total contained in a brain. Prolonged faecal prion excretion by infected deer provides a plausible natural mechanism that might explain the high incidence and efficient horizontal transmission of CWD within deer herds, as well as prion transmission among other susceptible cervids. PMID:19741608

  2. Serpiginous choroiditis and infectious multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Hossein; Rao, Narsing A

    2012-01-01

    Serpiginous choroiditis (SC) is a posterior uveitis displaying a geographic pattern of choroiditis, extending from the juxtapapillary choroid and intermittently spreading centrifugally. The choroiditis involves the overlying retinal pigment epithelium, and the outer retina. This intraocular inflammation typically involves both eyes in otherwise healthy, middle-aged individuals with no familial or ethnic predilection. Pathogenesis is unclear; however, based on limited histopathologic studies, favorable response to immunosuppressive agents, and the absence of association with systemic or local infectious or noninfectious diseases, an organ-specific autoimmune inflammation seems likely to be the underlying process. Patients, particularly from tuberculosis-endemic regions, may present with fundus changes simulating SC, but show evidence of active tuberculosis and/or the presence of mycobacterial DNA in the aqueous humor. This has been referred to as serpiginous-like choroiditis, but we prefer the description multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis (MSC). We present the distinguishing features of SC and infectious multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis simulating SC. The distinction is crucial to avoid unnecessarily treating SC with antimicrobial agents. Advances in diagnostic and imaging modalities can help differentiate SC from MSC. Novel local and systemic treatment approaches improve the outcome and preserve vision in SC. PMID:23541041

  3. Global climate change and infectious diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Shope, R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Microchip capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence combined with one-step duplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for the rapid detection of Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in throat swab specimens.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ruan; Chengjun, Sun; Heng, Chen; Chen, Zhou; Yuanqian, Li; Yongxin, Li

    2015-07-01

    Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 are the main pathogens causing hand-foot-mouth disease. In this paper, microchip capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence combined with one-step duplex reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction has been developed for the detection of Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in throat swab specimens. The specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplicons labeled with SYBR Orange were separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis and detected by laser induced fluorescence detector within 7 min. The intraday and interday relative standard deviation of migration time for DNA Marker was in the range of 1.36-2.94 and 2.78-3.96%, respectively. The detection limits were as low as 2.06 × 10(3) copies/mL for Enterovirus 71 and 5 × 10(3) copies/mL for Coxsackievirus A16. No cross-reactivity was observed with rotavirus, astrovirus, norovirus, and adenovirus, which showed good specificity of the method. This assay was validated using 100 throat swab specimens that were detected by real-time reverse-transcript polymerase chain reaction in parallel and the two methods produced the same results. This study provided a rapid, sensitive and specific method for the detection of Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16, which make a contribution to significant time and cost saving for the identification and treatment of patients. PMID:25953405

  5. Real-time monitoring of human enterovirus (HEV)-infected cells and anti-HEV 3C protease potency by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Tian; Cheng, Yun-Hsiang; Liu, Yu-Ning; Liao, Nien-Chien; Lu, Wen-Wen; Kung, Szu-Hao

    2009-02-01

    A real-time assay system that allows monitoring of intracellular human enterovirus (HEV) protease activity was established using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). It was accomplished by engineering cells to constitutively express a genetically encoded FRET probe. The FRET-based probe was designed to contain an enterovirus 71 3C protease (3C(pro)) cleavage motif flanked by the FRET pair composed of green fluorescent protein 2 and red fluorescent protein 2 (DsRed2). Efficient FRET from the stable line was detected in a real-time manner by fluorescence microscopy, and the disruption of FRET was readily monitored upon HEV infection. The level of the repressed FRET was proportional to the input virus titer and the infection duration as measured by the fluorometric method. The FRET biosensor cell line was also responsive to other related HEV serotypes, but not to the phylogenetically distant herpes simplex virus, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. The FRET biosensor was then utilized to develop a format for the determination of antiviral susceptibility, as the reduced FRET appeared to reflect viral replication. Evaluations of the FRET biosensor system with representative HEV serotypes demonstrated that their susceptibilities to a 3C(pro) inhibitor, rupintrivir, were all accurately determined. In summary, this novel FRET-based system is a means for rapid detection, quantification, and drug susceptibility testing for HEVs, with potential for the development of a high-throughput screening assay. PMID:19015331

  6. Real-Time Monitoring of Human Enterovirus (HEV)-Infected Cells and Anti-HEV 3C Protease Potency by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer? †

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Meng-Tian; Cheng, Yun-Hsiang; Liu, Yu-Ning; Liao, Nien-Chien; Lu, Wen-Wen; Kung, Szu-Hao

    2009-01-01

    A real-time assay system that allows monitoring of intracellular human enterovirus (HEV) protease activity was established using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). It was accomplished by engineering cells to constitutively express a genetically encoded FRET probe. The FRET-based probe was designed to contain an enterovirus 71 3C protease (3Cpro) cleavage motif flanked by the FRET pair composed of green fluorescent protein 2 and red fluorescent protein 2 (DsRed2). Efficient FRET from the stable line was detected in a real-time manner by fluorescence microscopy, and the disruption of FRET was readily monitored upon HEV infection. The level of the repressed FRET was proportional to the input virus titer and the infection duration as measured by the fluorometric method. The FRET biosensor cell line was also responsive to other related HEV serotypes, but not to the phylogenetically distant herpes simplex virus, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. The FRET biosensor was then utilized to develop a format for the determination of antiviral susceptibility, as the reduced FRET appeared to reflect viral replication. Evaluations of the FRET biosensor system with representative HEV serotypes demonstrated that their susceptibilities to a 3Cpro inhibitor, rupintrivir, were all accurately determined. In summary, this novel FRET-based system is a means for rapid detection, quantification, and drug susceptibility testing for HEVs, with potential for the development of a high-throughput screening assay. PMID:19015331

  7. Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Entry Occurs through Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melinda A. Brindley; Wendy Maury

    2008-01-01

    Entry of wild-type lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) into cells requires a low-pH step. This low-pH constraint implicates endocytosis in EIAV entry. To identify the endocytic pathway involved in EIAV entry, we examined the entry requirements for EIAV into two different cells: equine dermal (ED) cells and primary equine endothelial cells. We investigated the entry mechanism of several strains

  8. An Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Variant Superinfects Cells through Novel Receptor Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melinda A. Brindley; Baoshan Zhang; Ronald C. Montelaro; Wendy Maury

    2008-01-01

    Wild-type strains of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) prevent superinfection of previously infected cells. A variant strain of virus that spontaneously arose during passage, EIAVvMA-1c, can circumvent this mechanism in some cells, such as equine dermis (ED) cells, but not in others, such as equine endothelial cells. EIAVvMA-1c superinfection of ED cells results in a buildup of unintegrated viral DNA

  9. Identification of 21 Genes of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus Using Random Sequencing of Genomic DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Griffin

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA from infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) was randomly sheared and cloned into the M13 bacteriophage. Clones containing ILTV DNA were sequenced and the predicted amino acid sequences were compared to the known sequences of other herpesviruses using computer analysis. Twenty-one ILTV genes were identified, 20 by comparison to varicella-zoster virus and 19 by comparison to herpes simplex virus type

  10. Identification of the infectious laryngotracheitis virus glycoprotein gB gene by the polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Poulsen; Catherine R. Adams Burton; Jeffrey J. O'Brian; Stuart J. Rabin; Calvin L. Keeler

    1991-01-01

    The infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) homologue of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein B (gB) gene was identified by PCR amplification of genomic ILTV DNA. A 488-bp amplified DNA fragment was used to identify and clone two adjacent PstI fragments from genomic ILTV DNA. Sequence analysis of the region surrounding the amplified fragment identified a 2619-bp open reading

  11. Antibody escape kinetics of equine infectious anemia virus infection of horses.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Elissa J; Nanda, Seema; Mealey, Robert H

    2015-07-01

    Lentivirus escape from neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is not well understood. In this work, we quantified antibody escape of a lentivirus, using antibody escape data from horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus. We calculated antibody blocking rates of wild-type virus, fitness costs of mutant virus, and growth rates of both viruses. These quantitative kinetic estimates of antibody escape are important for understanding lentiviral control by antibody neutralization and in developing NAb-eliciting vaccine strategies. PMID:25878104

  12. Biosynthesis of virus-specific proteins in cells infected with infectious bursal disease virus and their significance as structural elements for infectious virus and incomplete particles.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, H; Becht, H

    1982-01-01

    It has previously been shown that infectious bursal disease virus is a naked icosahedral particle with a diameter of about 60 nm and a genome consisting of two segments of double-stranded RNA (Müller et al., J. Virol. 31:584-589, 1979). One of the two major structural polypeptides (molecular weight, 40,000) of this virus could not be found in lysates of infected cells; it is derived from a precursor polypeptide demonstrable inside the cells in relatively large quantities and seems to be processed during virus assembly or later. The precursor molecule is regularly present in the infectious virus particle (buoyant density, 1.33 g/ml) in minor proportions, but it represents an outstanding structural element of incomplete noninfectious particles ("top components"; buoyant density, 1.29 g/ml) which contain viral RNA. This type of incomplete particles is mainly produced by chicken embryo fibroblasts in contrast to lymphoid cells from the bursa of Fabricius. Precursor-product relationships also seem to exist in the biosynthesis of the other viral polypeptides. In contrast to some other viruses with a segmented double-stranded RNA genome, none of the structural proteins of infectious bursal disease virus is appreciably glycosylated. Images PMID:6292499

  13. Accessing and Utilizing Remote Sensing Data for Vectorborne Infectious Diseases Surveillance and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Kempler, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Background: The transmission of vectorborne infectious diseases is often influenced by environmental, meteorological and climatic parameters, because the vector life cycle depends on these factors. For example, the geophysical parameters relevant to malaria transmission include precipitation, surface temperature, humidity, elevation, and vegetation type. Because these parameters are routinely measured by satellites, remote sensing is an important technological tool for predicting, preventing, and containing a number of vectorborne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, etc. Methods: A variety of NASA remote sensing data can be used for modeling vectorborne infectious disease transmission. We will discuss both the well known and less known remote sensing data, including Landsat, AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer), EO-1 (Earth Observing One) ALI (Advanced Land Imager), and SIESIP (Seasonal to Interannual Earth Science Information Partner) dataset. Giovanni is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. It provides a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensing data. After remote sensing data is obtained, a variety of techniques, including generalized linear models and artificial intelligence oriented methods, t 3 can be used to model the dependency of disease transmission on these parameters. Results: The processes of accessing, visualizing and utilizing precipitation data using Giovanni, and acquiring other data at additional websites are illustrated. Malaria incidence time series for some parts of Thailand and Indonesia are used to demonstrate that malaria incidences are reasonably well modeled with generalized linear models and artificial intelligence based techniques. Conclusions: Remote sensing data relevant to the transmission of vectorborne infectious diseases can be conveniently accessed at NASA and some other websites. These data are useful for vectorborne infectious disease surveillance and modeling.

  14. De Novo Generation of Infectious Prions In Vitro Produces a New Disease Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Barria, Marcelo A.; Mukherjee, Abhisek; Gonzalez-Romero, Dennisse; Morales, Rodrigo; Soto, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Prions are the proteinaceous infectious agents responsible for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. Compelling evidence supports the hypothesis that prions are composed exclusively of a misfolded version of the prion protein (PrPSc) that replicates in the body in the absence of nucleic acids by inducing the misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrPC). The most common form of human prion disease is sporadic, which appears to have its origin in a low frequency event of spontaneous misfolding to generate the first PrPSc particle that then propagates as in the infectious form of the disease. The main goal of this study was to mimic an early event in the etiology of sporadic disease by attempting de novo generation of infectious PrPSc in vitro. For this purpose we analyzed in detail the possibility of spontaneous generation of PrPSc by the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) procedure. Under standard PMCA conditions, and taking precautions to avoid cross-contamination, de novo generation of PrPSc was never observed, supporting the use of the technology for diagnostic applications. However, we report that PMCA can be modified to generate PrPSc in the absence of pre-existing PrPSc in different animal species at a low and variable rate. De novo generated PrPSc was infectious when inoculated into wild type hamsters, producing a new disease phenotype with unique clinical, neuropathological and biochemical features. Our results represent additional evidence in support of the prion hypothesis and provide a simple model to study the mechanism of sporadic prion disease. The findings also suggest that prion diversity is not restricted to those currently known, and that likely new forms of infectious protein foldings may be produced, resulting in novel disease phenotypes. PMID:19436715

  15. Population Bottlenecks during the Infectious Cycle of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Rego, Ryan O. M.; Bestor, Aaron; Štefka, Jan; Rosa, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a zoonotic pathogen whose maintenance in nature depends upon an infectious cycle that alternates between a tick vector and mammalian hosts. Lyme disease in humans results from transmission of B. burgdorferi by the bite of an infected tick. The population dynamics of B. burgdorferi throughout its natural infectious cycle are not well understood. We addressed this topic by assessing the colonization, dissemination and persistence of B. burgdorferi within and between the disparate mammalian and tick environments. To follow bacterial populations during infection, we generated seven isogenic but distinguishable B. burgdorferi clones, each with a unique sequence tag. These tags resulted in no phenotypic changes relative to wild type organisms, yet permitted highly sensitive and specific detection of individual clones by PCR. We followed the composition of the spirochete population throughout an experimental infectious cycle that was initiated with a mixed inoculum of all clones. We observed heterogeneity in the spirochete population disseminating within mice at very early time points, but all clones displayed the ability to colonize most mouse tissues by 3 weeks of infection. The complexity of clones subsequently declined as murine infection persisted. Larval ticks typically acquired a reduced and variable number of clones relative to what was present in infected mice at the time of tick feeding, and maintained the same spirochete population through the molt to nymphs. However, only a random subset of infectious spirochetes was transmitted to naďve mice when these ticks next fed. Our results clearly demonstrate that the spirochete population experiences stochastic bottlenecks during both acquisition and transmission by the tick vector, as well as during persistent infection of its murine host. The experimental system that we have developed can be used to further explore the forces that shape the population of this vector-borne bacterial pathogen throughout its infectious cycle. PMID:24979342

  16. The mechanism of translation initiation on Type 1 picornavirus IRESs.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Trevor R; Abaeva, Irina S; Pestova, Tatyana V; Hellen, Christopher U T

    2014-01-01

    Picornavirus Type 1 IRESs comprise five principal domains (dII-dVI). Whereas dV binds eIF4G, a conserved AUG in dVI was suggested to stimulate attachment of 43S ribosomal preinitiation complexes, which then scan to the initiation codon. Initiation on Type 1 IRESs also requires IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs), and several candidates have been proposed. Here, we report the in vitro reconstitution of initiation on three Type 1 IRESs: poliovirus (PV), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and bovine enterovirus (BEV). All of them require eIF2, eIF3, eIF4A, eIF4G, eIF4B, eIF1A, and a single ITAF, poly(C) binding protein 2 (PCBP2). In each instance, initiation starts with binding of eIF4G/eIF4A. Subsequent recruitment of 43S complexes strictly requires direct interaction of their eIF3 constituent with eIF4G. The following events can differ between IRESs, depending on the stability of dVI. If it is unstructured (BEV), all ribosomes scan through dVI to the initiation codon, requiring eIF1 to bypass its AUG. If it is structured (PV, EV71), most initiation events occur without inspection of dVI, implying that its AUG does not determine ribosomal attachment. PMID:24357634

  17. Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases Baseline Statistics

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases Baseline Statistics October 29, 2013 Number Comparisons for the Discipline of Immunology & Infectious Disease Montana State University National Tenure and subfield. Arlington, VA (NSF 13-301). December 2012. (Immunology subfield) 89.9% 80.6% 82.1% 0.0% 10.0% 20

  18. PH 412 Syllabus 2014 Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Prevention

    E-print Network

    Contractor, Anis

    investigations because they provide a unique opportunity to apply many principles of public health practice in the epidemiology and prevention of infectious disease with a focus on selected pathogens of public health the epidemiology and prevention efforts of selected infectious diseases in terms of public and global health Texts

  19. Review Article: Current status of vaccines against infectious bursal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Müller; Egbert Mundt; Nicolas Eterradossi; M. Rafiqul Islam

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the aetiological agent of the acute and highly contagious infectious bursal disease (IBD) or “Gumboro disease”. IBD is one of the economically most important diseases that affects commercially produced chickens worldwide. Along with strict hygiene management of poultry farms, vaccination programs with inactivated and live attenuated viruses have been used to prevent IBD. Live

  20. A two-component model for counts of infectious diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonhard Held; Mathias Hofmann; Michael Hohle; Volker Schmid

    2005-01-01

    We propose a stochastic model for the analysis of time series of disease counts as col- lected in typical surveillance systems on notifiable infectious diseases. The model is based on a Poisson or negative binomial observation model with two components: A parameter- driven component relates the disease incidence to latent parameters describing endemic seasonal patterns, which are typical for infectious

  1. Safe high-pressure freezing of infectious micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Vanhecke, D; Zuber, B; Brugger, S D; Studer, D

    2012-05-01

    We describe how high-pressure freezing of infectious biological material can safely be accomplished with the help of membrane carriers. The method described is easy to perform; however, careful manipulations are required. Existing safety regulations must still be followed. However, the procedure reduces the risk of dissemination of infectious material. PMID:22364646

  2. Factors that make an infectious disease outbreak controllable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Fraser; Steven Riley; Roy M. Anderson; Neil M. Ferguson

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify general properties of emerging infectious agents that determine the likely success of two simple public health measures in controlling outbreaks, namely (i) isolating symptomatic individuals and (ii) tracing and quarantining their con- tacts. Because these measures depend on the recognition of specific disease symptoms, we investigate the relative timing of infectious- ness

  3. Impact of Climate Variability on Infectious Disease in West Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madeleine C. Thomson; Stephen J. Connor; Neil Ward; David Molyneux

    2004-01-01

    The importance of infectious disease as a determinant (as well as an outcome) of poverty has recently become a prominent argument for international and national investment in the control of infectious disease, as can be seen in the recently articulated United Nations (UN) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Climate variability and land use change have an enormous impact on health in

  4. Propagation of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus in cell culture

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Propagation of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus in cell culture BH Dannevig K Falk CMcL Press Summary ― A long-term cell line supporting growth of the infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus has Atlantic salmon, and exhibited macrophage-like enzyme reactivities. By means of transmission experiments

  5. Bacteriophage therapy: a revitalized therapy against bacterial infectious diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigenobu Matsuzaki; Mohammad Rashel; Jumpei Uchiyama; Shingo Sakurai; Takako Ujihara; Masayuki Kuroda; Masahiko Ikeuchi; Toshikazu Tani; Mikiya Fujieda; Hiroshi Wakiguchi; Shosuke Imai

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophage (phage) therapy involves using phages or their products as bioagents for the treatment or prophylaxis of bacterial infectious diseases. Much evidence in support of the effectiveness of phage therapy against bacterial infectious diseases has accumulated since 1980 from animal model studies conducted in Western countries. Reports indicate that appropriate administration of living phages can be used to treat lethal

  6. Global Climate and Infectious Disease: The Cholera Paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita R. Colwell

    1996-01-01

    Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding

  7. Aquareovirus interference mediated resistance to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). This heterologous antiviral protection was observed up to 4Aquareovirus interference mediated resistance to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus SE La be involved. fish virus / antiviral cytokine / viral interference / IHNV / CSV Résumé― Résistance au

  8. Infectious Mononucleosis Hepatitis in Young Adults: Two Case Reports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Jung Kang; Tae-Hun Kim; Ki-Nam Shim; Sung-Ae Jung; Min-Sun Cho; Kwon Yoo; Kyu Won Chung

    2009-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection sometimes causes acute hepatitis, which is usually self-limiting with mildly elevated transaminases, but rarely with jaundice. Primary EBV infection in children is usually asymptomatic, but in a small number of healthy individuals, typically young adults, EBV infection results in a clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis with hepatitis, with typical symptoms of fever,

  9. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koh, H.-L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  10. Potential Infectious Etiology of Behçet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Galeone, Massimiliano; Colucci, Roberta; D'Erme, Angelo Massimiliano; Moretti, Silvia; Lotti, Torello

    2012-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The cause of Behçet's disease remains unknown, but epidemiologic findings suggest that an autoimmune process is triggered by an environmental agent in a genetically predisposed individual. An infectious agent could operate through molecular mimicry, and subsequently the disease could be perpetuated by an abnormal immune response to an autoantigen in the absence of ongoing infection. Potentia bacterial are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mycobacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma fermentans, but the most commonly investigated microorganism is Streptococcus sanguinis. The relationship between streptococcal infections and Behçet's disease is suggested by clinical observations that an unhygienic oral condition is frequently noted in the oral cavity of Behçet's disease patients. Several viral agents, including herpes simplex virus-1, hepatitis C virus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus, may also have some role. PMID:22254152

  11. Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil and the recent increases in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. We then outline potential approaches for future studies of disease movement, focussing on vector invasion and vector-borne disease importation. Such approaches allow us to explore the potential implications of international air travel, shipping routes and other methods of transport on global pathogen and vector traffic. PMID:16647974

  12. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  13. Stability of infectious human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Florek, Dominik; Burmistrz, Michal; Potempa, Jan; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2014-04-18

    The human coronavirus NL63 was identified in 2004 and subsequent studies showed its worldwide distribution. Infection with this pathogen is associated with upper and lower respiratory tract diseases of mild to moderate severity. Furthermore, HCoV-NL63 is the main cause of croup in children. Within this study an optimal protocol for freeze-drying that allows safe and effective preservation of HCoV-NL63 infectious material was developed. Lyophilized virus preparations can be stored either at ambient temperature or at +4°C. In the latter case samples may be stored for at least two months. Surprisingly, conducted analysis showed that HCoV-NL63 virions are exquisitely stable in liquid media and can be stored also without preservatives at ambient temperature for up to 14 days. PMID:24747590

  14. Validation of Laboratory-Developed Molecular Assays for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Eileen M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Molecular technology has changed the way that clinical laboratories diagnose and manage many infectious diseases. Excellent sensitivity, specificity, and speed have made molecular assays an attractive alternative to culture or enzyme immunoassay methods. Many molecular assays are commercially available and FDA approved. Others, especially those that test for less common analytes, are often laboratory developed. Laboratories also often modify FDA-approved assays to include different extraction systems or additional specimen types. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) federal regulatory standards require clinical laboratories to establish and document their own performance specifications for laboratory-developed tests to ensure accurate and precise results prior to implementation of the test. The performance characteristics that must be established include accuracy, precision, reportable range, reference interval, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity. Clinical laboratories are challenged to understand the requirements and determine the types of experiments and analyses necessary to meet the requirements. A variety of protocols and guidelines are available in various texts and documents. Many of the guidelines are general and more appropriate for assays in chemistry sections of the laboratory but are applied in principle to molecular assays. This review presents information that laboratories may consider in their efforts to meet regulatory requirements. PMID:20610823

  15. Endovascular treatment of infectious intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Gross, Bradley A; Puri, Ajit S

    2013-01-01

    Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIA) are rare but a considerable source of morbidity and mortality as a result of rupture. Most patients with these lesions have considerable medical comorbidities, making endovascular approaches a crucial modality in their treatment armamentarium. Contributing our own case, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature to illustrate overall results and outcomes for patients with IIA treated with endovascular approaches. Incorporating our own case, we found 65 patients harboring 72 IIA across 31 reports. Fifty-one were treated via parent artery occlusion (71%), 17 via direct aneurysm embolization (24%), two via stent-coiling (3%), and two with stent monotherapy (3%). Twenty-nine IIAs were treated with n-butylcyanoacrylate (NBCA) (40%), 25 with coils (35%), seven with Onyx or ethylene vinyl alcohol (10%), five with detachable balloons (7%), four with stents (6%), and one with autologous clot (1%). One case of incomplete aneurysm occlusion and two cases of recanalization were reported. Six symptomatic periprocedural ischemic events were reported (9%), with only three resulting in permanent sequelae (5%). No infectious complications were reported. Incorporating the natural history of the disease, 28 patients were neurologically intact (43%), while seven had died at the time of follow-up (11%). Endovascular treatment of ruptured, symptomatic, or enlarging IIA is an excellent treatment modality with high occlusion rates and low procedure-related complication rates. Distal IIA are more often treated with parent artery occlusion, in our hands, preferentially with Onyx, while proximal lesions may be treated with direct stent-coiling or even flow-diverting stent monotherapy. PMID:22892702

  16. Global capacity for emerging infectious disease detection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Emily H.; Brewer, Timothy F.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Pollack, Marjorie P.; Sonricker, Amy L.; Keller, Mikaela; Freifeld, Clark C.; Blench, Michael; Mawudeku, Abla; Brownstein, John S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of emerging infectious disease events that have spread internationally, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1, highlight the need for improvements in global outbreak surveillance. It is expected that the proliferation of Internet-based reports has resulted in greater communication and improved surveillance and reporting frameworks, especially with the revision of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), which went into force in 2007. However, there has been no global quantitative assessment of whether and how outbreak detection and communication processes have actually changed over time. In this study, we analyzed the entire WHO public record of Disease Outbreak News reports from 1996 to 2009 to characterize spatial-temporal trends in the timeliness of outbreak discovery and public communication about the outbreak relative to the estimated outbreak start date. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses show that overall, the timeliness of outbreak discovery improved by 7.3% [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.073, 95% CI (1.038; 1.110)] per year, and public communication improved by 6.2% [HR = 1.062, 95% CI (1.028; 1.096)] per year. However, the degree of improvement varied by geographic region; the only WHO region with statistically significant (? = 0.05) improvement in outbreak discovery was the Western Pacific region [HR = 1.102 per year, 95% CI (1.008; 1.205)], whereas the Eastern Mediterranean [HR = 1.201 per year, 95% CI (1.066; 1.353)] and Western Pacific regions [HR = 1.119 per year, 95% CI (1.025; 1.221)] showed improvement in public communication. These findings provide quantitative historical assessment of timeliness in infectious disease detection and public reporting of outbreaks. PMID:21115835

  17. Removal of enteroviruses from sewage by bench-scale rotary-tube trickling filters.

    PubMed

    Clarke, N A; Chang, S L

    1975-08-01

    The efficacy of a rotary-tube type of trickling filter for removing coxsackievirus A9, poliovirus 1, and echovirus 12 suspended in raw settled sewage was investigated. At filtration rates equivalent to about 10 MGD (million gallons per day)/acre (ca. 3,785 m3/day per acre), the filters removed 95% of the poliovirus, 83% of echovirus 12, and 94% of coxsackievirus A9. Coliform, fecal streptococci, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand removals were remarkably similar, averaging 94, 92, 93, and 95%, respectively. At filtration rates equivalent to about 23 MGD/acre, 59% of the poliovirus, 63% of the echovirus 23, and 81% of the coxsackievirus A9 were removed. Coliform, fecal streptococci, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand removals at this filtration rate were 68, 75, 72, and 56%, respectively. Viruses were assumed to be adsorbed to the biological slime growing in the filters, but attempts to disassociate the viruses from the slime were unsuccessful, indicating that the slime-virus complex is very stable or that the viruses were somehow inactivated. The data indicate that coliform and fecal streptococci reductions in this type sewage treatment process can be used as an index of virus reduction. Disinfection, however, must be used to ensure a virus-free final effluent. PMID:169731

  18. ANTIBODY PREVALENCE OF EIGHT RUMINANT INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN CALIFORNIA MULE AND BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno B. Chomel; Marius L. Carniciu; Rickie W. Kasten; Paolo M. Castelli; Thierry M. Work; David A. Jessup

    We tested 276 sera from 18 free-ranging black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) herds in California (USA) collected from 1987 to 1991 in five biogeographical habitat types, for antibodies against eight infectious disease agents. Overall antibody prevalence was 56% for Anaplasma marginale, 31% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 16% for bluetongue virus serotype 17, 15% for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, 7% for

  19. Inhibition of infectious human herpesvirus 8 production by gamma interferon and alpha interferon in BCBL-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Pozharskaya, Veronika P; Weakland, Laura L; Offermann, Margaret K

    2004-10-01

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is aetiologically linked to Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma. Although interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) are both antiviral cytokines, IFN-alpha blocks entry of HHV-8 into the lytic phase, whereas IFN-gamma induces an increase in the percentage of cells undergoing lytic replication. Multiple events in the lytic cascade must be completed to produce infectious virus. The ability of both types of IFN to affect the production of infectious virus was explored. Both IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma induced expression of the antiviral proteins double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) and 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'5'-OAS) in HHV-8-infected BCBL-1 cells. Higher levels resulted from incubation with IFN-alpha than with IFN-gamma, whereas IFN-gamma induced higher levels of IRF-1 than did IFN-alpha. IFN-gamma induced a minor increase in lytic viral gene expression, which was not accompanied by a detectable increase in infectious virus. When lytic replication of HHV-8 was induced using TPA, high levels of infectious virus appeared in the conditioned medium. When IFN-gamma was present during TPA stimulation, the production of infectious virus was reduced by at least a 60 %, and IFN-alpha fully blocked TPA-induced production of infectious virus. The greater reduction of viral production that occurred with IFN-alpha is consistent with the higher levels of the antiviral proteins PKR and 2'5'-OAS induced by IFN-alpha than by IFN-gamma. These studies indicate that the augmentation of cellular antiviral defences by IFN-gamma was sufficient to prevent production of infectious virus despite IFN-gamma-induced entry of some cells into the lytic phase of HHV-8 replication. PMID:15448338

  20. 78 FR 72581 - Direct Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Negative Declaration for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ...Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Negative Declaration...Wisconsin regarding Hospital/Medical/ Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) units...hospital waste and/or medical/infectious waste. The designated...

  1. 78 FR 23572 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel...HIV-associated Infections in Pediatric & Maternal Populations...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  2. 72 FR 65580 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-11-21

    ...SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter...Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and...

  3. 61 FR 49920 - Draft Public Health Service (PHS) Guideline on Infectious Disease Issues in Xenotransplantation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-09-23

    ...potential infectious disease and public health risks. Diseases of animals can...1) Infectious disease physician with...and infectious diseases (particularly...or late-onset diseases such as prion- mediated disease. 3.5....

  4. 76 FR 53688 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  5. 77 FR 50139 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  6. 78 FR 63999 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  7. 76 FR 72959 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...of Copmmittee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  8. 75 FR 18510 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  9. 76 FR 4927 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  10. 76 FR 67749 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  11. 78 FR 52778 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  12. 77 FR 16845 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  13. 75 FR 994 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  14. 76 FR 63933 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  15. 78 FR 62640 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  16. 76 FR 18230 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  17. 78 FR 59707 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  18. 78 FR 108 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  19. 76 FR 54240 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  20. 75 FR 7488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...