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1

Detection of Infectious Enteroviruses, Enterovirus Genomes, Somatic Coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis Phages in Treated Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, three types of treated wastewater were tested for infectious enteroviruses, the enterovirus genome, somatic coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis phages. The aim of this work was to determine whether the presence of the two types of bacteriophages or of the enterovirus genome was a good indicator of infectious enterovirus contamination. The enterovirus genome was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase

C. GANTZER; A. MAUL; J. M. AUDIC; L. SCHWARTZBROD; Facultede Pharmacie

1998-01-01

2

Enteroviruses, hygiene and type 1 diabetes: toward a preventive vaccine.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses and humans have long co-existed. Although recognized in ancient times, poliomyelitis and type 1 diabetes (T1D) were exceptionally rare and not epidemic, due in large part to poor sanitation and personal hygiene which resulted in repeated exposure to fecal-oral transmitted viruses and other infectious agents and viruses and the generation of a broad protective immunity. As a function of a growing acceptance of the benefits of hygienic practices and microbiologically clean(er) water supplies, the likelihood of exposure to diverse infectious agents and viruses declined. The effort to vaccinate against poliomyelitis demonstrated that enteroviral diseases are preventable by vaccination and led to understanding how to successfully attenuate enteroviruses. Type 1 diabetes onset has been convincingly linked to infection by numerous enteroviruses including the group B coxsackieviruses (CVB), while studies of CVB infections in NOD mice have demonstrated not only a clear link between disease onset but an ability to reduce the incidence of T1D as well: CVB infections can suppress naturally occurring autoimmune T1D. We propose here that if we can harness and develop the capacity to use attenuated enteroviral strains to induce regulatory T cell populations in the host through vaccination, then a vaccine could be considered that should function to protect against both autoimmune as well as virus-triggered T1D. Such a vaccine would not only specifically protect from certain enterovirus types but more importantly, also reset the organism's regulatory rheostat making the further development of pathogenic autoimmunity less likely. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25430610

Drescher, Kristen M; von Herrath, Matthias; Tracy, Steven

2015-01-01

3

Molecular Identification and Characterization of a New Type of Bovine Enterovirus  

PubMed Central

Bovine enteroviruses belong to the family Picornaviridae. Little is known about their pathogenic potential; however, they cause asymptomatic infections in cattle and are excreted in feces. In the present study, viruses isolated from environmental samples were sequenced. According to phylogenetic analyses and standard picornavirus nomenclature, these isolates constitute a new type of bovine enterovirus serogroup A. PMID:22492440

Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Sharif, Salmaan; Khurshid, Adnan; Malik, Farzana; Rana, Muhammad Suleman; Mahmood, Tariq

2012-01-01

4

Clinical manifestations of CNS infections caused by enterovirus type 71  

PubMed Central

Purpose Enterovirus 71, one of the enteroviruses that are responsible for both hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina, can cause neural injury. During periods of endemic spread of hand-foot-andmouth disease caused by enterovirus 71, CNS infections are also frequently diagnosed and may lead to increased complications from neural injury, as well as death. We present the results of our epidemiologic research on the clinical manifestations of children with CNS infections caused by enterovirus 71. Methods The study group consisted of 42 patients admitted for CNS infection by enterovirus 71 between April 2009 and October 2009 at the Department of Pediatrics of 5 major hospitals affiliated with the Catholic University of Korea. We retrospectively reviewed initial symptoms and laboratory findings on admission, the specimen from which enterovirus 71 was isolated, fever duration, admission period, treatment and progress, and complications. We compared aseptic meningitis patients with encephalitis patients. Results Of the 42 patients (23 men, 19 women), hand-foot-and-mouth disease was most prevalent (n=39), followed by herpangina (n=3), upon initial clinical diagnosis. Among the 42 patients, 15 (35.7%) were classified as severe, while 27 (64.3%) were classified as mild. Factors such as age, fever duration, presence of seizure, and use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) were statistically different between the 2 groups. Conclusion Our results indicate that patients with severe infection caused by enterovirus 71 tended to be less than 3 years old, presented with at least 3 days of fever as well as seizure activity, and received IVIG treatment. PMID:21359055

Choi, Cheol Soon; Choi, Yun Jung; Choi, Ui Yoon; Han, Ji Whan; Jeong, Dae Chul; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jong Hyun

2011-01-01

5

RAPID PCR-BASED MONITORING OF INFECTIOUS ENTEROVIRUSES IN DRINKING WATER. (R824756)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Currently, the standard method for the detection of enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus in water involves cell culture assay which is expensive and time consuming. Direct RT-PCR offers a rapid and sensitive alternative to virus detection but sensitivity is oft...

6

Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of Enterovirus 71: insights into the factors ensuring experimental success.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV 71) is a causative agent of mild Hand Foot and Mouth Disease but is capable of causing severe complications in the CNS in young children. Reverse genetics technology is currently widely used to study the pathogenesis of the virus. The aim of this work was to determine and evaluate the factors which can contribute to infectivity of EV 71 RNA transcripts in vitro. Two strategies, overlapping RT-PCR and long distance RT-PCR, were employed to obtain the full-length genome cDNA clones of the virus. The length of the poly(A) tail and the presence of non-viral 3'-terminal sequences were studied in regard to their effects on infectivity of the in vitro RNA transcripts of EV 71 in cell culture. The data revealed that only cDNA clones obtained after long distance RT-PCR were infectious. No differences were observed in virus titres after transfection with in vitro RNA harbouring a poly(A) tail of 18 or 30 adenines in length, irrespective of the non-viral sequences at the 3'-terminus. PMID:24361875

Lazouskaya, Natallia V; Palombo, Enzo A; Poh, Chit-Laa; Barton, Peter A

2014-03-01

7

Enterovirus 71 blocks selectively type I interferon production through the 3C viral protein in mice.  

PubMed

Type I interferons (IFNs) represent an essential innate defense mechanism for controlling enterovirus 71 (EV 71) infection. Mice inoculated with EV 71 produced a significantly lower amount of type I IFNs than those inoculated with poly (I:C), adenovirus type V, or coxsackievirus B3 (CB3). EV 71 infection, however, mounted a proinflammatory response with a significant increase in the levels of serum and brain interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor, and IFN-?. EV 71 infection abolished both poly (I:C)- and CB3-induced type I IFN production of mice. Such effect was not extended to other enteroviruses including coxsackievirus A24, B2, B3, and echovirus 9, as mice infected with these viruses retained type I IFN responsiveness upon poly (I:C) challenge. In addition, EV 71-infected RAW264.7 cells produced significantly lower amount of type I IFNs than non-infected cells upon poly (I:C) stimulation. The inhibitory effect of EV 71 on type I IFN production was attributed to the viral protein 3C, which was confirmed using over-expression systems in both mice and RAW264.7 cells. The 3C over-expression, however, did not interfere with poly (I:C)-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. These findings indicate that EV 71 can hamper the host innate defense by blocking selectively type I IFN synthesis through the 3C viral protein. PMID:22997081

Lee, Yi-Ping; Wang, Ya-Fang; Wang, Jen-Ren; Huang, Szu-Wei; Yu, Chun-Keung

2012-11-01

8

Detection of Astroviruses, Enteroviruses, and Adenovirus Types 40 and 41 in Surface Waters Collected and Evaluated by the Information Collection Rule and an Integrated Cell Culture-Nested PCR Procedure  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the use of an integrated cell culture-reverse transcription-PCR (ICC-RT-PCR) procedure coupled with nested PCR to detect human astroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenovirus types 40 and 41 in surface water samples that were collected and evaluated by using the Information Collection Rule (ICR) method. The results obtained with the ICC-RT-PCR–nested PCR method were compared to the results obtained with the total culturable virus assay–most-probable-number (TCVA-MPN) method, the method recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for monitoring viruses in surface and finished waters. Twenty-nine ICR surface water samples were analyzed. Viruses were concentrated by using filter adsorption-beef extract elution and organic flocculation techniques, and then the preparations were evaluated for viruses by visualizing cytopathic effects in the Buffalo green monkey kidney (BGMK) cell line. In the ICC-RT-PCR–nested PCR technique we used Caco-2 cells to propagate astroviruses and enteroviruses (ICC step), and we used BGMK cells to propagate adenovirus types 40 and 41, as well as enteroviruses. Fifteen of the 29 samples (51.7%) were positive for astrovirus as determined by the ICC-RT-PCR–nested PCR method, and eight of these samples (27.5%) contained infectious astrovirus. Seventeen of the 29 samples (58.6%) were positive for enteroviruses when the BGMK cell line was used, and six (27.6%) of these samples were determined to be infectious. Fourteen of the 29 samples (48.3%) were positive for adenovirus types 40 and 41, and 11 (37.9%) of these samples were determined to be infectious. Twenty-seven of the 29 samples (93.1%) were positive for a virus, and 19 (68.9%) of the samples were positive for an infectious virus. Only 5 of the 29 samples (17.2%) were positive as determined by the TCVA-MPN method. The ICC-RT-PCR–nested PCR method provided increased sensitivity compared to the TCVA-MPN method. PMID:10831432

Chapron, Christopher D.; Ballester, Nicola A.; Fontaine, Justin H.; Frades, Christine N.; Margolin, Aaron B.

2000-01-01

9

Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: the innate immune response to enteroviruses and its possible role in regulating type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES Metabolic diseases, host responses, cancer, autoinflammatory diseases, allergy. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease arising as a consequence of a misdirected T cell response to the pancreatic beta cell. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the innate immune system as a regulator of disease development. Genome-wide association studies have identified diabetes-associated polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins with functions related to the innate immune response. Moreover, enteroviruses, known to activate a strong innate immune response, have been implicated in the disease pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the innate immune response elicited by enteroviruses and how this response may regulate T1D development. PMID:22385234

Lind, K; Hühn, M H; Flodström-Tullberg, M

2012-01-01

10

Sapronosis: a distinctive type of infectious agent.  

PubMed

Sapronotic disease agents have evolutionary and epidemiological properties unlike other infectious organisms. Their essential saprophagic existence prevents coevolution, and no host-parasite virulence trade-off can evolve. However, the host may evolve defenses. Models of pathogens show that sapronoses, lacking a threshold of transmission, cannot regulate host populations, although they can reduce host abundance and even extirpate their hosts. Immunocompromised hosts are relatively susceptible to sapronoses. Some particularly important sapronoses, such as cholera and anthrax, can sustain an epidemic in a host population. However, these microbes ultimately persist as saprophages. One-third of human infectious disease agents are sapronotic, including nearly all fungal diseases. Recognition that an infectious disease is sapronotic illuminates a need for effective environmental control strategies. PMID:25028088

Kuris, Armand M; Lafferty, Kevin D; Sokolow, Susanne H

2014-08-01

11

Sapronosis: a distinctive type of infectious agent  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sapronotic disease agents have evolutionary and epidemiological properties unlike other infectious organisms. Their essential saprophagic existence prevents coevolution, and no host–parasite virulence trade-off can evolve. However, the host may evolve defenses. Models of pathogens show that sapronoses, lacking a threshold of transmission, cannot regulate host populations, although they can reduce host abundance and even extirpate their hosts. Immunocompromised hosts are relatively susceptible to sapronoses. Some particularly important sapronoses, such as cholera and anthrax, can sustain an epidemic in a host population. However, these microbes ultimately persist as saprophages. One-third of human infectious disease agents are sapronotic, including nearly all fungal diseases. Recognition that an infectious disease is sapronotic illuminates a need for effective environmental control strategies.

Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Sokolow, Susanne H.

2014-01-01

12

Complete Genome Characterization of a Novel Enterovirus Type EV-B106 Isolated in China, 2012  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus B106 (EV-B106) is a recently identified member of enterovirus species B. In this study, we report the complete genomic characterization of an EV-B106 strain (148/YN/CHN/12) isolated from an acute flaccid paralysis patient in Yunnan Province, China. The new strain had 79.2–81.3% nucleotide and 89.1–94.8% amino acid similarity in the VP1 region with the other two EV-B106 strains from Bolivia and Pakistan. When compared with other EV serotypes, it had the highest (73.3%) VP1 nucleotide similarity with the EV-B77 prototype strain CF496-99. However, when aligned with all EV-B106 and EV-B77 sequences available from the GenBank database, two major frame shifts were observed in the VP1 coding region, which resulted in substantial (20.5%) VP1 amino acid divergence between the two serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and similarity plot analysis revealed multiple recombination events in the genome of this strain. This is the first report of the complete genome of EV-B106. PMID:24584702

Tang, Jingjing; Tao, Zexin; Ding, Zhengrong; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Bingjun; Zhao, Zhixian; Zhang, Lifen; Xu, Wenbo

2014-01-01

13

Characterization of Enteroviruses from non-human primates in cameroon revealed virus types widespread in humans along with candidate new types and species.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses (EVs) infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP) are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases. PMID:25079078

Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Bessaud, Maël; Joffret, Marie-Line; Endegue Zanga, Marie-Claire; Balanant, Jean; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Njouom, Richard; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Delpeyroux, Francis; Rousset, Dominique

2014-07-01

14

Characterization of Enteroviruses from Non-Human Primates in Cameroon Revealed Virus Types Widespread in Humans along with Candidate New Types and Species  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses (EVs) infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP) are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases. PMID:25079078

Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Bessaud, Maël; Joffret, Marie-Line; Endegue Zanga, Marie-Claire; Balanant, Jean; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Njouom, Richard; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Delpeyroux, Francis; Rousset, Dominique

2014-01-01

15

Enterovirus D68  

MedlinePLUS

... should people with asthma and children suffering from reactive airway disease do? Children with asthma are at ... infections Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) Resources Related Links Water-related Hygiene Viral Conjunctivitis Hand, Foot, and Mouth ...

16

Recombination in Circulating Enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

Recombination is a well-known phenomenon for enteroviruses. However, the actual extent of recombination in circulating nonpoliovirus enteroviruses is not known. We have analyzed the phylogenetic relationships in four genome regions, VP1, 2A, 3D, and the 5? nontranslated region (NTR), of 40 enterovirus B strains (coxsackie B viruses and echoviruses) representing 11 serotypes and isolated in 1981 to 2002 in the former Soviet Union states. In the VP1 region, strains of the same serotype expectedly grouped with their prototype strain. However, as early as the 2A region, phylogenetic grouping differed significantly from that in the VP1 region and indicated recombination within the 2A region. Moreover, in the 5? NTR and 3D region, only 1 strain of 40 grouped with its prototype strain. Instead, we observed a major group in both the 5? NTR and the 3D region that united most (in the 5? NTR) or all (in the 3D region) of the strains studied, regardless of the serotype. Subdivision within that major group in the 3D region correlated with the time of virus isolation but not with the serotype. Therefore, we conclude that a majority, if not all, circulating enterovirus B strains are recombinants relative to the prototype strains, isolated mostly in the 1950s. Moreover, the ubiquitous recombination has allowed different regions of the enterovirus genome to evolve independently. Thus, a novel model of enterovirus genetics is proposed: the enterovirus genome is a stable symbiosis of genes, and enterovirus species consist of a finite set of capsid genes responsible for different serotypes and a continuum of nonstructural protein genes that seem to evolve in a relatively independent manner. PMID:12970427

Lukashev, Alexander N.; Lashkevich, Vasilii A.; Ivanova, Olga E.; Koroleva, Galina A.; Hinkkanen, Ari E.; Ilonen, Jorma

2003-01-01

17

QDs Capped with Enterovirus As Imaging Probes for Drug Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing threats of viral diseases have gained worldwide attention in recent years. Quite a few infectious diseases\\u000a are still lack of effective prevention or treatment. The pace of developing antiviral agents could be expedited by the availability\\u000a of quick and efficient drug screening platforms. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly infectious major causative agent of hand,\\u000a foot, and mouth

Chung-Hao Wang; Ching-An Peng

18

Molecular Characterization of Enteroviruses Including a New Type EV-C99 Isolated from Xinjiang Students in Shandong, China in 2011  

PubMed Central

The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994. In 2011, a poliomyelitis outbreak caused by imported wide-type poliovirus occurred in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Here, we report the results of enterovirus (EV) isolation from Xinjiang students that returned to school in Shandong after summer vacation during this outbreak. Stool specimens from 376 students were collected and 10?EV strains were isolated including 4 polioviruses (All Sabin strains), 1 coxsackievirus (CV) A13, 3 CVA17 and 2 EV-C99. VP1 sequence analysis revealed these CVA13, CVA17 and EV-C99 strains had 71.3–81.8%, 76.5–84.6% and 74.2–82.9% nucleotide similarity with strains from other countries within a serotype, respectively. EV-C99 strains had 82.7–92.8% VP1 similarity with two previously reported Xinjiang strains. Complete genome analysis on EV-C99 strains revealed intra-serotypic genetic recombination events. These findings reflect great genetic divergence between Chinese strains and strains from other countries of the three types, and provide valuable information on monitoring EV transmission over long distance. PMID:25298041

Tao, Zexin; Yuan, Qun; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Suting; Liu, Yao; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Cui, Ning; Song, Lizhi; Wang, Mei; Xu, Aiqiang

2014-01-01

19

Molecular characterization of enteroviruses including a new type EV-C99 isolated from Xinjiang students in Shandong, China in 2011.  

PubMed

The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994. In 2011, a poliomyelitis outbreak caused by imported wide-type poliovirus occurred in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Here, we report the results of enterovirus (EV) isolation from Xinjiang students that returned to school in Shandong after summer vacation during this outbreak. Stool specimens from 376 students were collected and 10?EV strains were isolated including 4 polioviruses (All Sabin strains), 1 coxsackievirus (CV) A13, 3 CVA17 and 2 EV-C99. VP1 sequence analysis revealed these CVA13, CVA17 and EV-C99 strains had 71.3-81.8%, 76.5-84.6% and 74.2-82.9% nucleotide similarity with strains from other countries within a serotype, respectively. EV-C99 strains had 82.7-92.8% VP1 similarity with two previously reported Xinjiang strains. Complete genome analysis on EV-C99 strains revealed intra-serotypic genetic recombination events. These findings reflect great genetic divergence between Chinese strains and strains from other countries of the three types, and provide valuable information on monitoring EV transmission over long distance. PMID:25298041

Tao, Zexin; Yuan, Qun; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Suting; Liu, Yao; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Cui, Ning; Song, Lizhi; Wang, Mei; Xu, Aiqiang

2014-01-01

20

Acute encephalomyelitis during an outbreak of enterovirus type 71 infection in Taiwan: report of an autopsy case with pathologic, immunofluorescence, and molecular studies.  

PubMed

We report a fatal case of enterovirus type 71 (EV 71) infection in an 8-year-old girl during a summer outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in 1998 in Taiwan. The clinical course was rapidly progressive, with manifestations of hand, foot, and mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, encephalomyelitis, and pulmonary edema. The patient died 24 hours after admission. Postmortem study revealed extensive inflammation in the meninges and central nervous system and marked pulmonary edema with focal hemorrhage. Brain stem and spinal cord were most severely involved. The inflammatory infiltrates consisted largely of neutrophils involving primarily the gray matter with perivascular lymphocytic cuffing, and neuronophagia. The lungs and heart showed no evidence of inflammation. EV 71 was isolated from the fresh brain tissues and identified by immunofluorescence method with type-specific EV 71 monoclonal antibody. It was also confirmed by neutralization test and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with sequence analysis. The present case was the first example in which EV 71 was demonstrated to be the causative agent of fatal encephalomyelitis during its epidemic in Taiwan. PMID:11106077

Hsueh, C; Jung, S M; Shih, S R; Kuo, T T; Shieh, W J; Zaki, S; Lin, T Y; Chang, L Y; Ning, H C; Yen, D C

2000-11-01

21

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

22

Discovery of a Bovine Enterovirus in Alpaca  

PubMed Central

A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen. PMID:23950875

McClenahan, Shasta D.; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L.; Krause, Philip R.; Uhlenhaut, Christine

2013-01-01

23

Experimental human rhinovirus and enterovirus interspecies recombination.  

PubMed

Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and enteroviruses (HEVs), two important human pathogens, are non-enveloped, positive-sense RNA viruses of the genus Enterovirus within the family Picornaviridae. Intraspecies recombination is known as a driving force for enterovirus and, to a lesser extent, rhinovirus evolution. Interspecies recombination is much less frequent among circulating strains, and supporting evidence for such recombination is limited to ancestral events, as shown by recent phylogenetic analyses reporting ancient HRV-A/HRV-C, HEV-A/HEV-C and HEV-A/HEV-D recombination mainly at the 5'-untranslated region (5' UTR)-polyprotein junction. In this study, chimeric genomes were artificially generated using the 5' UTR from two different clinical HRV-C strains (HRV-Ca and HRV-Cc), an HRV-B strain (HRV-B37) and an HEV-A strain (HEV-A71), and the remaining part of the genome from an HRV-A strain (HRV-A16). Whilst the chimeric viruses were easily propagated in cell culture, the wild-type HRV-A16 retained a replication advantage, both individually and in competition experiments. Assessment of protein synthesis ability did not show a correlation between translation and replication efficiencies. These results reflect the interchangeability of the 5' UTR, including its functional RNA structural elements implicated in both genome translation and replication among different enterovirus species. The 5' UTR-polyprotein junction therefore represents a theoretic interspecies recombination breakpoint. This recombination potential is probably restricted by the need for co-infection opportunities and the requirement for the progeny chimera to outcompete the parental genomes' fitness, explaining the rare occurrence of such events in vivo. PMID:21940413

Schibler, Manuel; Gerlach, Daniel; Martinez, Yannick; Belle, Sandra Van; Turin, Lara; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

2012-01-01

24

What Is Enterovirus D68?  

MedlinePLUS

... to the classroom after winter break. Strains of Viruses The D68 refers to the specific strain of ... There is no vaccine currently for enteroviruses. How Viruses Spread and How to Avoid Getting Sick Like ...

25

Preparation of North American Type II PRRSV Infectious Clone Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is still one of the most important infectious diseases threatening the swine industry. To construct North American type II PRRSV infectious clone containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, we amplify gfp gene, flanked by PRRSV Nsp2 gene fragments upstream and downstream, using overlap PCR method from pcDNA-EF1-GFP plasmid and FL12 plasmid containing PRRSV infectious genome as the templates. The Nsp2 fragment-flanked gfp gene was inserted into Nsp2 gene of the FL12 plasmid by Spe I and Xho I sites to generate PRRSV infectious recombinant plasmid (FL12-GFP) containing gfp gene. The recombinant PRRSV expressing GFP (PRRSV-GFP) was rescued in baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21) cells by transfecting PRRSV mRNA synthesized in vitro and amplified in Marc-145 cells. The PRRSV-GFP infectivity and replication capacity were identified. Results showed that, by adopting overlap PCR strategy, the gfp gene was successfully inserted into and fused with PRRSV Nsp2 gene in the PRRSV infectious clone plasmid FL-12 to generate FL12-GFP plasmid. The recombinant PRRSV-GFP was generated through transfecting PRRSV mRNA in BHK-2 cells. Like its parental virus, the recombinant PRRSV-GFP maintains its infectivity to Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). This study provides essential conditions for further investigation on PRRSV. PMID:24895571

Wang, Liyue; Zhang, Kao; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wen, Jiexia; Zhang, Jianlou; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhong, Fei

2014-01-01

26

Open reading frame sequence of an Asian enterovirus 73 strain reveals that the prototype from California is recombinant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analysis within the VP1 region now enables molecular typing of enteroviruses consistent with neutralization results. Three untypable isolates, 2776\\/82, 57\\/99 and 22\\/00, from Korea, North India and Bangladesh, respectively, showed within this region 98-0-99-0% amino acid identities. These were less than 77% to the previous enterovirus prototypes, but 91-5-92-5% to CA55-1988, the recently identified enterovirus 73 (EV73) prototype from

Helene Norder; Lotte Bjerregaard; Lars O. Magnius

2002-01-01

27

Laboratory production in vivo of infectious human papillomavirus type 11  

SciTech Connect

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) induce among patients natural lesions which produce small amounts of virus. Infection of human cell cultures does not lead to the multiplication of virus, which also does not replicate in experimental animals. The authors have developed a unique system for the laboratory production of HPV type 11 (HPV-11). Fragments of human neonatal foreskin were infected with an extract of naturally occurring human vulvar condylomata and grafted beneath the renal capsule of athymic mice. Later (3 to 5 months), condylomatous cysts developed from those grafts. Nuclei of koilocytotic cells contained large amounts of capsid antigen and intranuclear virions. The experimentally induced condylomata were homogenized, and the virions were extracted and used to infect another generation of human foreskin grafts in athymic mice. The HPV-11 DNA content and infectivity of the natural and experimental condylomata were similar. Extracts of experimental condylomata were subjected to differential ultracentrifugation and sedimentation in CsCl density gradients. A single, opalescent band was visible at a density of 1.34 g/ml. It contained HPV virions with HPV-11 DNA. This report is the first demonstration of the laboratory production of an HPV.

Kreider, J.W.; Howett, M.K.; Leure-Dupree, A.E.; Zaino, R.J.; Weber, J.A.

1987-02-01

28

Enterovirus 75 Encephalitis in Children, Southern India  

PubMed Central

Recent outbreaks of enterovirus in Southeast Asia emphasize difficulties in diagnosis of this infection. To address this issue, we report 5 (4.7%) children infected with enterovirus 75 among 106 children with acute encephalitis syndrome during 2005–2007 in southern India. Throat swab specimens may be useful for diagnosis of enterovirus 75 infection. PMID:21029544

Perera, David; Ooi, Mong How; Last, Anna; Kumar, Ravi; Desai, Anita; Begum, Ashia; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Shankar, M. Veera; Tio, Phaik Hooi; Cardosa, Mary Jane; Solomon, Tom

2010-01-01

29

Isolation from the Asian Mouse Mus caroli of an Endogenous Type C Virus Related to Infectious Primate Type C Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of a cell line derived from the Asian feral mouse Mus caroli with 5-bromodeoxyuridine induces an infectious, xenotropic type C virus. This virus shares strongly cross-reactive reverse transcriptase (RNA-dependent DNA polymerase) and p30 antigens and cross-interferes with type C viruses isolated from a woolly monkey (SSAV) and gibbon apes (GALV). By similar criteria, the caroli virus is much less

Michael M. Lieber; Charles J. Sherr; George J. Todaro; Raoul E. Benveniste; Robert Callahan; Hayden G. Coon

1975-01-01

30

Structure determination of enterovirus 71  

SciTech Connect

Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease but may induce fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 crystallized in a body-centered orthorhombic space group with two particles in general orientations in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Determination of the particle orientations required that the locked rotation function excluded the twofold symmetry axes from the set of icosahedral symmetry operators. This avoided the occurrence of misleading high rotation-function values produced by the alignment of icosahedral and crystallographic twofold axes. Once the orientations and positions of the particles had been established, the structure was solved by molecular replacement and phase extension.

Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G. (Purdue); (Sentinext)

2013-02-20

31

Symmetry-Related Clustering of Positive Charges Is a Common Mechanism for Heparan Sulfate Binding in Enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

Coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9), a member of the Picornaviridae family, uses an RGD motif in the VP1 capsid protein to bind to integrin ?v?6 during cell entry. Here we report that two CAV9 isolates can bind to the heparan sulfate/heparin class of proteoglycans (HSPG). Sequence analysis identified an arginine (R) at position 132 in VP1 in these two isolates, rather than a threonine (T) as seen in the nonbinding strains tested. We introduced a T132R substitution into the HSPG-nonbinding strain Griggs and recovered infectious virus capable of binding to immobilized heparin, unlike the parental Griggs strain. The known CAV9 structure was used to identify the location of VP1 position 132, 5 copies of which were found to cluster around the 5-fold axis of symmetry, presumably producing a region of positive charge which can interact with the negatively charged HSPG. Analysis of several enteroviruses of the same species as CAV9, Human enterovirus B (HEV-B), identified examples from 5 types in which blocking of infection by heparin was coincident with an arginine (or another basic amino acid, lysine) at a position corresponding to 132 in VP1 in CAV9. Together, these data show that membrane-associated HSPG can serve as a (co)receptor for some CAV9 and other HEV-B strains and identify symmetry-related clustering of positive charges as one mechanism by which HSPG binding can be achieved. This is a potentially powerful mechanism by which a single amino acid change could generate novel receptor binding capabilities, underscoring the plasticity of host-cell interactions in enteroviruses. PMID:22855495

McLeish, Nigel J.; Williams, Çi?dem H.; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Roivainen, Merja M.

2012-01-01

32

Infectious Arthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... infected joint One type of infectious arthritis is reactive arthritis. The reaction is to an infection somewhere ... is usually the knee, ankle, or toe. Sometimes, reactive arthritis is set off by an infection in ...

33

Sequence analysis of a duck picornavirus isolate indicates that it together with porcine enterovirus type 8 and simian picornavirus type 2 should be assigned to a new picornavirus genus.  

PubMed

In a 1990 outbreak, a virus isolated in Taiwan from the intestines of ducks showing signs of hepatitis was tentatively classified as a picornavirus on the basis of physical, chemical, and morphological characteristics. The virus was cloned and then found not to be type 1 duck hepatitis virus (DHV-1) or a new serotype of duck hepatitis virus (N-DHV) by serum neutralization. Complete genome sequencing indicated that the virus genome had 8351 nucleotides and the typical picornavirus genome organization (i.e., 5' untranslated region (UTR)-L-P1 (VP 4-2-3-1)-P2 (2A-B-C)-P3 (3A-B-C-D)-3' UTR-poly A). One open reading frame encoded 2521 amino acids, which makes this virus one of the largest picornaviruses, second only to equine rhinitis B virus of the genus Erbovirus. Its L protein was the largest within the family Picornaviridae (451 amino acids) and suspected to be a trypsin-like protease. The 235-nucleotide 3' UTR region was of intermediate size, quite long compared to other picornaviruses but shorter than other picornaviruses of duck-origin (DHV-1 and N-DHV) and had four regions of secondary structure. The 2A protein was composed of only 12 amino acids, which is the shortest of any member of the family Picornaviridae. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein and 3D sequences indicated that this virus (named duck picornavirus [DPV]) together with porcine enterovirus type 8 virus and several simian picornaviruses form a distinct branch of the family Picornaviridae and should be assigned to a new picornavirus genus. PMID:17686542

Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung

2007-11-01

34

Occurrence of different types of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in fish.  

PubMed Central

The virion protein patterns of 71 isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from the Pacific Northwest were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of [35S]-methionine-labeled virus. This analysis led to the classification of these virus isolates into four or more types. Type 1 virus was characterized by a nucleocapsid protein with an approximate molecular weight of 40,500. Type 2 and type 3 viruses have nucleocapsid proteins with molecular weights of 42,800 and 43,250, respectively. Type 2 virus was responsible for the recent epizootics of IHNV among fish in the lower Columbia River. The California IHNV isolates were type 3 with the exception of some of those isolated from fish at the Coleman Hatchery on the Sacramento River. These Coleman Hatchery isolates belonged to a type 4 virus group characterized by a larger glycoprotein of approximately 70,000 molecular weight. All other viruses examined had glycoproteins of 67,000 molecular weight. The "type 5" virus isolates were grouped together because they were not sufficiently distinct to warrant classification into a separate type. These findings have been useful in determining that a particular virus type is characteristic for a geographic area and will infect many different salmonid species in that area and the same type isolated from parental fish is responsible for the subsequent outbreak of the diseases in progeny. Images PMID:3789723

Hsu, Y L; Engelking, H M; Leong, J C

1986-01-01

35

Crystal Structure of Human Enterovirus 71  

SciTech Connect

Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus associated with fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Here, we report the crystal structure of enterovirus 71 and show that, unlike in other enteroviruses, the 'pocket factor,' a small molecule that stabilizes the virus, is partly exposed on the floor of the 'canyon.' Thus, the structure of antiviral compounds may require a hydrophilic head group designed to interact with residues at the entrance of the pocket.

Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G. (Purdue); (Sentinext)

2013-04-08

36

Crystal structure of human enterovirus 71.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus associated with fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Here, we report the crystal structure of enterovirus 71 and show that, unlike in other enteroviruses, the "pocket factor," a small molecule that stabilizes the virus, is partly exposed on the floor of the "canyon." Thus, the structure of antiviral compounds may require a hydrophilic head group designed to interact with residues at the entrance of the pocket. PMID:22383808

Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J; Rossmann, Michael G

2012-06-01

37

Prevalence of nonpolio enteroviruses in the sewage of Guangzhou city, China, from 2009 to 2012.  

PubMed

The human-pathogenic viruses in urban sewage have been extensively monitored to obtain information on circulating viruses in human communities. Enteroviruses (EVs) excreted by patients who present with diverse clinical syndromes can remain infectious in the environment for several weeks, and limited data on circulating environmental EVs are available. A 4-year (2009 to 2012) surveillance study was conducted to detect nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in the urban sewage of Guangzhou city, China. After the viruses in the sewage samples were concentrated and isolated, molecular identification was used to detect and type the NPEVs. During the 4-year study, 17 different NPEV serotypes were identified in the sewage of Guangzhou city. The most common serotypes were echovirus 11 (ECHO11), ECHO6, ECHO7, and ECHO12 and coxsackie group B viruses 5 (CVB5) and CVB3. The predominant serotypes were influenced by spatial and temporal factors and differed each year. CVB5 was commonly detected in 2009 and 2010 but was rarely isolated in 2011 and 2012. In contrast, CVB3 was not observed in 2009 and 2010 but was increasingly detected in 2011 and 2012. Our study provides an overview of the serotype distribution and circulation patterns of NPEVs in the sewage of Guangzhou, China. In the absence of a systematic EV disease surveillance system, the detection and characterization of sewage-borne NPEVs will help us better understand the changes in EV disease trends and the epidemic background of circulating EVs, which could help interpret the EV trends and warn of future outbreaks in this area. PMID:24096418

Zheng, Huanying; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Yoshida, Hiromu; Guo, Xue; Liu, Leng; Li, Hui; Zeng, Hanri; Fang, Ling; Mo, Yanling; Yi, Lina; Chosa, Toru; Xu, Wenbo; Ke, Changwen

2013-12-01

38

Enterovirus 74 Infection in Children  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 74 (EV74) is a rarely detected viral infection of children. In 2010, EV74 was identified in New Zealand in a 2 year old child with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) through routine polio AFP surveillance. A further three cases of EV74 were identified in children within six months. These cases are the first report of EV74 in New Zealand. In this study we describe the near complete genome sequence of four EV74 isolates from New Zealand, which shows only limited sequence identity in the non-structural proteins when compared to the other two known EV74 sequences. As is typical of enteroviruses multiple recombination events were evident, particularly in the P2 region and P3 regions. This is the first complete EV74 genome sequenced from a patient with acute flaccid paralysis. PMID:24098514

Peacey, Matthew; Hall, Richard J.; Wang, Jing; Todd, Angela K.; Yen, Seiha; Chan-Hyams, Jasmine; Rand, Christy J.; Stanton, Jo-Ann; Huang, Q. Sue

2013-01-01

39

Construction and characterization of infectious human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 molecular clones.  

PubMed

Molecular clones of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) have been constructed and stably propagated in plasmids in Escherichia coli. Expression of Tax could be demonstrated from these clones in fibroblast and epithelial cell lines. HOS cells stably transfected with HTLV-1 clone ACH produced all three classes of viral transcripts and Gag proteins. Virus-like particles were also produced from ACH transfected HOS cells as demonstrated by sucrose gradient and electron microscopic analyses. Transfection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with ACH resulted in production of infectious virus particles which induced lymphocyte proliferation. This study describes useful reagents for further examination of the biological properties of HTLV-1. PMID:7941334

Kimata, J T; Wong, F H; Wang, J J; Ratner, L

1994-11-01

40

Type 1 and type 2 cytokine dysregulation in human infectious, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed Central

In the mid-1980s, Mosmann, Coffman, and their colleagues discovered that murine CD4+ helper T-cell clones could be distinguished by the cytokines they synthesized. The isolation of human Th1 and Th2 clones by Romagnani and coworkers in the early 1990s has led to a large number of reports on the effects of Th1 and Th2 on the human immune system. More recently, cells other than CD4+ T cells, including CD8+ T cells, monocytes, NK cells, B cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and other cells, have been shown to be capable of producing "Th1" and "Th2" cytokines. In this review, we examine the literature on human diseases, using the nomenclature of type 1 (Th1-like) and type 2 (Th2-like) cytokines, which includes all cell types producing these cytokines rather than only CD4+ T cells. Type 1 cytokines include interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor beta, while type 2 cytokines include IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13. In general, type 1 cytokines favor the development of a strong cellular immune response whereas type 2 cytokines favor a strong humoral immune response. Some of these type 1 and type 2 cytokines are cross-regulatory. For example, gamma interferon and IL-12 decrease the levels of type 2 cytokines whereas IL-4 and IL-10 decrease the levels of type 1 cytokines. We use this cytokine perspective to examine human diseases including infections due to viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, as well as selected neoplastic, atopic, rheumatologic, autoimmune, and idiopathic-inflammatory conditions. Clinically, type 1 cytokine-predominant responses should be suspected in any delayed-type hypersensitivity-like granulomatous reactions and in infections with intracellular pathogens, whereas conditions involving hypergammaglobulinemia, increased immunoglobulin E levels, and/or eosinophilia are suggestive of type 2 cytokine-predominant conditions. If this immunologic concept is relevant to human diseases, the potential exists for novel cytokine-based therapies and novel cytokine-directed preventive vaccines for such diseases. PMID:8894351

Lucey, D R; Clerici, M; Shearer, G M

1996-01-01

41

Enterovirus infection in human pancreatic islet cells, islet tropism in vivo and receptor involvement in cultured islet beta cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  It is thought that enterovirus infections cause beta-cell damage and contribute to the development of Type 1 diabetes by replicating in the pancreatic islets. We sought evidence for this through autopsy studies and by investigating known enterovirus receptors in cultured human islets.Methods  Autopsy pancreases from 12 newborn infants who died of fulminant coxsackievirus infections and from 65 Type 1 diabetic patients

P. Ylipaasto; K. Klingel; A. M. Lindberg; T. Otonkoski; R. Kandolf; T. Hovi; M. Roivainen

2004-01-01

42

Activation of the chicken type I IFN response by infectious bronchitis coronavirus.  

PubMed

Coronaviruses from both the Alpha and Betacoronavirus genera, interfere with the type I interferon (IFN) response in various ways, ensuring limited activation of the IFN response in most cell types. Of Gammacoronaviruses that mainly infect birds, little is known about activation of the host immune response. We show that the prototypical Gammacoronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), induces a delayed activation of the IFN response in primary renal cells, tracheal epithelial cells and in a chicken cell line. Ifn? expression in fact, is delayed with respect to the peak of viral replication and accompanying accumulation of dsRNA. In addition, we demonstrate that MDA5 is the primary sensor for Gammacoronavirus infections in chicken cells. Furthermore, we provide evidence that accessory proteins 3a and 3b of IBV modulate the IFN response at the transcriptional and translational level. Finally, we show that, despite the lack of activation of the IFN response during the early phase of IBV infection, signalling of non-self dsRNA through both MDA5 and TLR3 remains intact in IBV-infected cells. Taken together, this study provides the first comprehensive analysis of host-virus interactions of a Gammacoronavirus with avian innate immune responses. PMID:25378498

Kint, Joeri; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Marcela; Maier, Helena J; Britton, Paul; Langereis, Martijn A; Koumans, Joseph; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Forlenza, Maria

2014-11-01

43

Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout.  

PubMed

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. PMID:23759556

Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

2013-06-13

44

Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as three major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In Coastal Washington State IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in Coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were eight IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving seven different fish culture facilities in four separate watersheds. During the same time period IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from six coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from Coastal Washington revealed the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV, and that there were two distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007–2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in Coastal steelhead trout during 2007–2009 and type mG139M was dominant between 2010–2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all Coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007–2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the Coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of Coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout.

Breyta, R.; Jones, A.; Stewart, B.; Brunson, R.; Thomas, J.; Kerwin, J.; Bertolini, J.; Mumford, S.; Patterson, C.; Kurath, G.

2013-01-01

45

Susceptibility of the VERO line of African green monkey kidney cells to human enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

The relative susceptibility of VERO cells and primary rhesus monkey kidney cells to 47 prototype strains of human enteroviruses is described. Of these strains, types 4, 14, 16, 17, 18, 21, 31 and 34 and Coxsackie virus A 9 failed to cause CPE in the VERO cells whilst only one, echovirus type 34, failed to cause CPE in the monkey kidney cells. A comparison is given of the efficiency of the two cell cultures for enterovirus isolation from clinical material. Results show that VERO cells are as useful as primary monkey kidney for the isolation of Coxsackie B viruses but less satisfactory for isolating echoviruses. They are satisfactory for the isolation of single types of poliovirus and appear to be more satisfactory than primary monkey kidney cells for the isolation of mixtures of polioviruses. The identification of enteroviruses by neutralization tests in VERO cells is successful. PMID:4361500

Davis, Patricia M.; Phillpotts, R. J.

1974-01-01

46

Prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy nursery school children in Accra  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human enteroviruses are common in children causing asymptomatic infections ranging from mild to severe illnesses. In Ghana, information on the prevalence of non-polio enterovirus causing acute flaccid paralysis is available but data on surveillance of these viruses in school children is scanty. Here, the prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy children in selected school in Accra was studied. Methods Stool samples from 273 apparently healthy children less than eight years of age in 9 selected nursery schools were collected between December 2010 and March 2011and processed for human enteroviruses on L20B, RD and Hep-2 cell lines. Positive Isolates were characterized by microneutralisation assay with antisera pools from RIVM, the Netherlands according to standard methods recommended by WHO. Results Of the 273 samples processed, 66 (24.2%) non-polio enteroviruses were isolated. More growth was seen on Hep-2C (46%) only than RD (18%) only and on both cell lines (34%). No growth was seen on L20B even after blind passage. Excretion of non-polio enteroviruses was found in all the schools with majority in BD school. Serotyping of the isolates yielded predominantly Coxsackie B viruses followed by echoviruses 13 and 7. More than half of the isolates could not be typed by the antisera pools. Conclusion The study detected 13 different serotypes of non-polio enteroviruses in circulation but no poliovirus was found. BD school was found to have the highest prevalence of NPEV. Complete identification through molecular methods is essential to establish the full range of NPEVs in circulation in these schools. PMID:25400833

Attoh, Juliana; Obodai, Evangeline; Adiku, Theophilus; Odoom, John Kofi

2014-01-01

47

Co-circulation of four types of infectious bronchitis virus (793\\/B, 624\\/I, B1648 and Massachusetts)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen isolates of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) from Italy and Poland in 1997 to 1998 were comprehensively analysed by serum haemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralization tests, and by type-specific polymerase chain reactions and spike protein S1 gene sequencing. Four types of IBV (793\\/B, 624\\/I, B1648 and Massachusetts) were detected in Italy, while the presence of 793\\/B was confirmed in Poland.

I. Capua; Z. Minta; E. Karpinska; Karen Mawditt; P. Britton; D. Cavanagh; R. E. Gough

1999-01-01

48

Occurrence and genetic typing of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Kamchatka, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a well known rhabdoviral pathogen of salmonid fish in North America that has become established in Asia and Europe. On the Pacific coast of Russia, IHNV was first detected in hatchery sockeye from the Kamchatka Peninsula in 2001. Results of virological examinations of over 10 000 wild and cultured salmonid fish from Kamchatka during 1996 to 2005 revealed IHNV in several sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations. The virus was isolated from spawning adults and from juveniles undergoing epidemics in both hatchery and wild sockeye populations from the Bolshaya watershed. No virus was detected in 2 other water-sheds, or in species other than sockeye salmon. Genetic typing of 8 virus isolates by seguence analysis of partial glycoprotein and nucleocapsid genes revealed that they were genetically homogeneous and fell within the U genogroup of IHNV. In phylogenetic analyses, the Russian IHNV sequences were indistinguishable from the sequences of North American U genogroup isolates that occur throughout Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. The high similarity, and in some cases identity, between Russian and North American IHNV isolates suggests virus transmission or exposure to a common viral reservoir in the North Pacific Ocean. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

Rudakova, S.L.; Kurath, G.; Bochkova, E.V.

2007-01-01

49

21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Identification . An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists...detection of enterovirus ribonucleic acid (RNA) in cerebrospinal...The special control is FDA's guidance document entitled...Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay for the...

2011-04-01

50

21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identification . An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists...detection of enterovirus ribonucleic acid (RNA) in cerebrospinal...The special control is FDA's guidance document entitled...Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay for the...

2013-04-01

51

21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Identification. An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists...detection of enterovirus ribonucleic acid (RNA) in cerebrospinal...The special control is FDA's guidance document entitled...Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay for the...

2014-04-01

52

Enterovirus genome detection in wastewater: multi centric evaluation of a commercial kit.  

PubMed

A multi-centric study was carried out in three laboratories, to evaluate the efficiency of a standardized kit for the detection of enterovirus genome in wastewater. Twenty one samples of 20 liters of wastewater were analyzed before and after concentration through glass wool. Each sample was analyzed with the Amplicor kit as well as with techniques developed independently in each laboratory. The results show that the Amplicor kit is well suited to the detection of enterovirus genome in treated wastewater. The results may be compared to those obtained with semi-nested RT-PCR techniques used in each laboratory. However, the Amplicor kit technique is more simple and has the advantage of providing a standardized technique useful for comparative studies. During this work it was observed that the sensitivity of the detection of infectious viruses and virus genome was improved when concentrated samples were used for analysis. PMID:10418098

Gantzer, C; Menard, D; Lina, B; Maul, A; Le Guyader, S; Thouvenot, D; Aymard, M; Schwartzbrod, L; Kopecka, H

1999-06-01

53

ADSORPTION OF ENTEROVIRUSES TO SOIL CORES AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT ELUTION BY ARTIFICIAL RAINWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The adsorption and elution of a variety of human enteroviruses in a highly permeable, sandy soil was studied by using cores (43 by 125 mm) collected from an operating recharge basin on Long Island. Viruses studied included field and reference strains of polioviruses types 1 and 3...

54

Detection of Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus type QX infection in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Infectious bronchitis, a disease of chickens caused by Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), leads to severe economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. Various attempts to control the virus based on vaccination strategies are performed. However, due to the emergence of novel genotypes, an effective control of the virus is hindered. In 1996, a novel viral genotype named IBV-QX was reported for the first time in Qingdao, Shandong province, China. The first appearance of an IBV-QX isolate in Europe was reported between 2003 and 2004 in The Netherlands. Subsequently, infections with this genotype were found in several other European countries such as France, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Slovenia, and Sweden. The present report describes the use of a new set of degenerate primers that amplify a 636-bp fragment within the S1 gene by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect the occurrence of IBV-QX infection in Switzerland. PMID:23051829

Sigrist, Brigitte; Tobler, Kurt; Schybli, Martina; Konrad, Leonie; Stöckli, René; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lüschow, Dörte; Hafez, Hafez M; Britton, Paul; Hoop, Richard K; Vögtlin, Andrea

2012-11-01

55

A two-plasmid strategy for engineering a dengue virus type 3 infectious clone from primary Brazilian isolate.  

PubMed

Dengue infections represent one of the most prevalent arthropod-borne diseases worldwide, causing a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes. Engineered infectious clone is an important tool to study Dengue virus (DENV) biology. Functional full-length cDNA clones have been constructed for many positive-strand RNA viruses and have provided valuable tools for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in viral genome replication, virion assembly, virus pathogenesis and vaccine development. We report herein the successful development of an infectious clone from a primary Brazilian isolate of dengue virus 3 (DENV3) of the genotype III. Using a two-plasmid strategy, DENV3 genome was divided in two parts and cloned separately into a yeast-bacteria shuttle vector. All plasmids were assembled in yeast by homologous recombination technique and a full-length template for transcription was obtained by in vitro ligation of the two parts of the genome. Transcript-derived DENV3 is infectious upon transfection into BHK-21 cells and in vitro characterization confirmed its identity. Growth kinetics of transcript-derived DENV3 was indistinguishable from wild type DENV3. This system is a powerful tool that will help shed light on molecular features of DENV biology, as the relationship of specific mutations and DENV pathogenesis. PMID:25387388

Santos, Jefferson J S; Cordeiro, Marli T; Bertani, Giovani R; Marques, Ernesto T A; Gil, Laura H V G

2014-11-11

56

A two-plasmid strategy for engineering a dengue virus type 3 infectious clone from primary Brazilian isolate.  

PubMed

Dengue infections represent one of the most prevalent arthropod-borne diseases worldwide, causing a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes. Engineered infectious clone is an important tool to study Dengue virus (DENV) biology. Functional full-length cDNA clones have been constructed for many positive-strand RNA viruses and have provided valuable tools for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in viral genome replication, virion assembly, virus pathogenesis and vaccine development. We report herein the successful development of an infectious clone from a primary Brazilian isolate of dengue virus 3 (DENV3) of the genotype III. Using a two-plasmid strategy, DENV3 genome was divided in two parts and cloned separately into a yeast-bacteria shuttle vector. All plasmids were assembled in yeast by homologous recombination technique and a full-length template for transcription was obtained by in vitro ligation of the two parts of the genome. Transcript-derived DENV3 is infectious upon transfection into BHK-21 cells and in vitro characterization confirmed its identity. Growth kinetics of transcript-derived DENV3 was indistinguishable from wild type DENV3. This system is a powerful tool that will help shed light on molecular features of DENV biology, as the relationship of specific mutations and DENV pathogenesis. PMID:25590713

Santos, Jefferson J S; Cordeiro, Marli T; Bertani, Giovani R; Marques, Ernesto T A; Gil, Laura H V G

2014-12-01

57

Review of Enterovirus 71 Vaccines.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks worldwide and have a significant socioeconomic impact, particularly in Asia. Formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 vaccines evaluated in human clinical trials in China, Taiwan, and Singapore were found to be safe and to elicit strong neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 currently circulating in Asia. The results from 3 different phase 3 clinical trials performed in young children (6-60 months) indicate that the efficacy of FI-EV71 vaccines is >90% against EV71-related HFMDs and >80% against EV71-associated serious diseases, but the vaccines did not protect against coxsackievirus A16 infections. Here we discuss the critical factors affecting EV71 vaccine product registration, including clinical epidemiology, antigenic shift issues in cross-protection and vaccine strain selection, standardized animal models for potency testing, and cost-effective manufacturing processes for potential incorporation of FI-EV71 vaccine into Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines. PMID:25352588

Chong, Pele; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Klein, Michel

2014-10-28

58

Human papillomavirus type 18 chimeras containing the L2/L1 capsid genes from evolutionarily diverse papillomavirus types generate infectious virus  

PubMed Central

Papillomaviruses (PVs) comprise a large family of viruses infecting nearly all vertebrate species, with more than 100 human PVs identified. Our previous studies showed that a mutant chimera HPV18/16 genome, consisting of the upper regulatory region and early ORFs of HPV18 and the late ORFs of HPV16, was capable of producing infectious virus in organotypic raft cultures. We were interested in determining whether the ability of this chimeric genome to produce infectious virus was the result of HPV18 and HPV16 being similarly oncogenic, anogenital types and whether more disparate PV types could also interact functionally. To test this we created a series of HPV18 chimeric genomes where the ORFs for the HPV18 capsid genes were replaced with the capsid genes of HPV45, HPV39, HPV33, HPV31, HPV11, HPV6b, HPV1a, CRPV, and BPV1. All chimeras were able to produce infectious chimeric viral particles, although with lower infectivity than wild-type HPV18. Steps in the viral life cycle and characteristics of the viral particles were examined to identify potential causes for the decrease in infectivity. PMID:21762735

Bowser, Brian S.; Chen, Horng-Shen; Conway, Michael J.; Christensen, Neil D.; Meyers, Craig

2011-01-01

59

Evaluation of infectious titer in a candidate HSV type 2 vaccine by a quantitative molecular approach  

PubMed Central

Background One of the critical tasks in analytical testing is to monitor and assign the infectivity or potency of viral based vaccines from process development to production of final clinical lots. In this study, a high throughput RT-qPCR based approach was developed to evaluate the infectious titre in a replication-defective HSV-2 candidate vaccine, called HSV529. This assay is a combination of viral propagation and quantitative RT-PCR which measures the amount of RNA in infected cells after incubation with test samples. Results The relative infectious titre of HSV529 candidate vaccine was determined by a RT-qPCR method targeting HSV-2 gD2 gene. The data were analyzed using the parallel-line analysis as described in the European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition. The stability of HSV529 test samples were also investigated in a concordance study between RT-qPCR infectivity assay and a classical plaque assays. A suitable correlation was determined between both assays using an identical sample set in both assays. The RT-qPCR infectivity assay was further characterized by evaluating the intermediate precision and accuracy. The coefficient of variation from the six independent assays was less than 10%. The accuracy of each of the assay was also evaluated in the range of 92.91% to 120.57%. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the developed RT-qPCR infectivity assay is a rapid high throughput approach to quantify the infectious titer or potency of live attenuated or defective viral-based vaccines, an attribute which is associated with product quality. PMID:24313978

2013-01-01

60

Genetic Diversity of Enterovirus A71, India  

PubMed Central

We have identified circulation of 3 genogroups of enterovirus (EV) A71 in India. A new genogroup (proposed designation G) was discovered during this study. We isolated genogroups D and G in wide geographic areas but detected subgenogroup C1 only in 1 focus in western India. A systematic nationwide search for EV-A71 is warranted. PMID:25531549

Saxena, Vinay K.; Sane, Sudhir; Nadkarni, Sushma S.; Sharma, Deepa K.

2015-01-01

61

Genetic and serological typing of European infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes the lethal disease infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in juvenile salmon and trout. The nucleocapsid (N) protein gene and partial glycoprotein (G) gene (nucleotides 457 to 1061) of the European isolates IT-217A, FR-32/87, DE-DF 13/98 11621, DE-DF 4/99-8/99, AU-9695338 and RU-FR1 were sequenced and compared with IHNV isolates from the North American genogroups U, M and L. In phylogenetic studies the N gene of the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, though in a different subgroup than the isolates from the USA. Analyses of the partial G gene of these European isolates clustered them in the M genogroup close to the root while the Russian isolate clustered in the U genogroup. The European isolates together with US-WRAC and US-Col-80 were also tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the N protein. MAbs 136-1 and 136-3 reacted equally at all concentrations with the isolates tested, indicating that these antibodies identify a common epitope. MAb 34D3 separated the M and L genogroup isolates from the U genogroup isolate. MAb 1DW14D divided the European isolates into 2 groups. MAb 1DW14D reacted more strongly with DE-DF 13/98 11621 and RU-FR1 than with IT-217A, FR- 32/87, DE-DF 4/99-8/99 and AU-9695338. In the phylogenetic studies, the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, whereas in the serological studies using MAbs, the European M genogroup isolates could not be placed in the same specific group. These results indicate that genotypic and serotypic classification do not correlate. ?? 2009 Inter-Research.

Johansson, T.; Einer-Jensen, K.; Batts, W.; Ahrens, P.; Bjorkblom, C.; Kurath, G.; Bjorklund, H.; Lorenzen, N.

2009-01-01

62

High-affinity interaction of hnRNP A1 with conserved RNA structural elements is required for translation and replication of enterovirus 71.  

PubMed

Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging pathogen of infectious disease and a serious threat to public health. Currently, there are no antivirals or vaccines to slow down or prevent EV71 infections, thus underscoring the urgency to better understand mechanisms of host-enterovirus interactions. EV71 uses a type I internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit via a pathway that requires the cytoplasmic localization of hnRNP A1, which acts as an IRES trans-activating factor. The mechanism of how hnRNP A1 trans activates EV71 RNA translation is unknown, however. Here, we report that the UP1 domain of hnRNP A1 interacts specifically with stem loop II (SLII) of the IRES, via a thermodynamically well-defined biphasic transition that involves conserved bulge 5'-AYAGY-3' and hairpin 5'-RY(U/A)CCA-3' loops. Calorimetric titrations of wild-type and mutant SLII constructs reveal these structural elements are essential to form a high-affinity UP1-SLII complex. Mutations that alter the bulge and hairpin primary or secondary structures abrogate the biphasic transition and destabilize the complex. Notably, mutations within the bulge that destabilize the complex correlate with a large reduction in IRES-dependent translational activity and impair EV71 replication. Taken together, this study shows that a conserved SLII structure is necessary to form a functional hnRNP A1-IRES complex, suggesting that small molecules that target this stem loop may have novel antiviral properties. PMID:23727900

Levengood, Jeffrey D; Tolbert, Michele; Li, Mei-Ling; Tolbert, Blanton S

2013-07-01

63

High-affinity interaction of hnRNP A1 with conserved RNA structural elements is required for translation and replication of enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging pathogen of infectious disease and a serious threat to public health. Currently, there are no antivirals or vaccines to slow down or prevent EV71 infections, thus underscoring the urgency to better understand mechanisms of host-enterovirus interactions. EV71 uses a type I internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit via a pathway that requires the cytoplasmic localization of hnRNP A1, which acts as an IRES trans-activating factor. The mechanism of how hnRNP A1 trans activates EV71 RNA translation is unknown, however. Here, we report that the UP1 domain of hnRNP A1 interacts specifically with stem loop II (SLII) of the IRES, via a thermodynamically well-defined biphasic transition that involves conserved bulge 5?-AYAGY-3? and hairpin 5?-RY(U/A)CCA-3? loops. Calorimetric titrations of wild-type and mutant SLII constructs reveal these structural elements are essential to form a high-affinity UP1-SLII complex. Mutations that alter the bulge and hairpin primary or secondary structures abrogate the biphasic transition and destabilize the complex. Notably, mutations within the bulge that destabilize the complex correlate with a large reduction in IRES-dependent translational activity and impair EV71 replication. Taken together, this study shows that a conserved SLII structure is necessary to form a functional hnRNP A1-IRES complex, suggesting that small molecules that target this stem loop may have novel antiviral properties. PMID:23727900

Levengood, Jeffrey D.; Tolbert, Michele; Li, Mei-Ling; Tolbert, Blanton S.

2013-01-01

64

Type I interferon rapidly restricts infectious hepatitis C virus particle genesis  

PubMed Central

Interferon-alpha (IFN?) has been used to treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection for over 20 years with varying efficacy, depending on the infecting viral genotype. The mechanism of action of IFN? is not fully understood, but is thought to target multiple stages of the HCV lifecycle, inhibiting viral transcription and translation leading to a degradation of viral RNA and protein expression in the infected cell. IFN? induces the expression of an array of interferon-stimulated genes within minutes of receptor engagement; however, the impact of these early responses on the viral lifecycle are unknown. We demonstrate that IFN? inhibits the genesis of infectious extracellular HCV particles within 2 hours of treating infected cells, with minimal effect on the intracellular viral burden. Importantly, this short duration of IFN? treatment of infected cells significantly reduced cell-free and cell-to-cell dissemination. The secreted viral particles showed no apparent change in protein content or density, demonstrating that IFN? inhibits particle infectivity but not secretion rates. To investigate whether particles released from IFN?-treated cells have a reduced capacity to establish infection we used HCV lentiviral pseudotypes (HCVpp) and demonstrated a defect in cell entry. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies targeting the E2 glycoprotein, we demonstrate that IFN? alters glycoprotein conformation and receptor utilization. Conclusion: These observations show a previously unreported and rapid effect of IFN? on HCV particle infectivity that inhibits de novo infection events. Evasion of this response may be a contributing factor in whether a patient achieves early or rapid virological response, a key indicator of progression to sustained virological response or clearance of viral infection. (Hepatology 2014;60:1890–1900) PMID:25066844

Meredith, Luke W; Farquhar, Michelle J; Tarr, Alexander W; McKeating, Jane A

2014-01-01

65

Neutralizing antibodies can initiate genome release from human enterovirus 71.  

PubMed

Antibodies were prepared by immunizing mice with empty, immature particles of human enterovirus 71 (EV71), a picornavirus that causes severe neurological disease in young children. The capsid structure of these empty particles is different from that of the mature virus and is similar to "A" particles encountered when picornaviruses recognize a potential host cell before genome release. The monoclonal antibody E18, generated by this immunization, induced a conformational change when incubated at temperatures between 4 °C and 37 °C with mature virus, transforming infectious virions into A particles. The resultant loss of genome that was observed by cryo-EM and a fluorescent SYBR Green dye assay inactivated the virus, establishing the mechanism by which the virus is inactivated and demonstrating that the E18 antibody has potential as an anti-EV71 therapy. The antibody-mediated virus neutralization by the induction of genome release has not been previously demonstrated. Furthermore, the present results indicate that antibodies with genome-release activity could also be produced for other picornaviruses by immunization with immature particles. PMID:24469789

Plevka, Pavel; Lim, Pei-Yin; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Suksatu, Ampa; Kuhn, Richard J; Rossmann, Michael G

2014-02-11

66

Assembly of Infectious Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Virions in the Absence of Full-Length VP22  

PubMed Central

VP22, the 301-amino-acid phosphoprotein product of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) UL49 gene, is incorporated into the tegument during virus assembly. We previously showed that highly modified forms of VP22 are restricted to infected cell nuclei (L. E. Pomeranz and J. A. Blaho, J. Virol. 73:6769–6781, 1999). VP22 packaged into infectious virions appears undermodified, and nuclear- and virion-associated forms are easily differentiated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (J. A. Blaho, C. Mitchell, and B. Roizman, J. Biol. Chem. 269:17401–17410, 1994). As VP22 packaging-associated undermodification is unique among HSV-1 tegument proteins, we sought to determine the role of VP22 during viral replication. We now show the following. (i) VP22 modification occurs in the absence of other viral factors in cell lines which stably express its gene. (ii) RF177, a recombinant HSV-1 strain generated for this study, synthesizes only the amino-terminal 212 amino acids of VP22 (?212). (iii) ?212 localizes to the nucleus and incorporates into virions during RF177 infection of Vero cells. Thus, the carboxy-terminal region is not required for nuclear localization of VP22. (iv) RF177 synthesizes the tegument proteins VP13/14, VP16, and VHS (virus host shutoff) and incorporates them into infectious virions as efficiently as wild-type virus. However, (v) the loss of VP22 in RF177 virus particles is compensated for by a redistribution of minor virion components. (vi) Mature RF177 virions are identical to wild-type particles based on electron microscopic analyses. (vii) Single-step growth kinetics of RF177 in Vero cells are essentially identical to those of wild-type virus. (viii) RF177 plaque size is reduced by nearly 40% compared to wild-type virus. Based on these results, we conclude that VP22 is not required for tegument formation, virion assembly/maturation, or productive HSV-1 replication, while the presence of full-length VP22 in the tegument is needed for efficient virus spread in Vero cell monolayers. PMID:11024133

Pomeranz, Lisa E.; Blaho, John A.

2000-01-01

67

Prevalence, genetic diversity and recombination of species G enteroviruses infecting pigs in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Picornaviruses infecting pigs, described for many years as 'porcine enteroviruses', have recently been recognized as distinct viruses within three distinct genera (Teschovirus, Sapelovirus and Enterovirus). To better characterize the epidemiology and genetic diversity of members of the Enterovirus genus, faecal samples from pigs from four provinces in Vietnam were screened by PCR using conserved enterovirus (EV)-specific primers from the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). High rates of infection were recorded in pigs on all farms, with detection frequencies of approximately 90% in recently weaned pigs but declining to 40% in those aged over 1 year. No differences in EV detection rates were observed between pigs with and without diarrhoea [74% (n = 70) compared with 72% (n = 128)]. Genetic analysis of consensus VP4/VP2 and VP1 sequences amplified from a subset of EV-infected pigs identified species G EVs in all samples. Among these, VP1 sequence comparisons identified six type 1 and seven type 6 variants, while four further VP1 sequences failed to group with any previously identified EV-G types. These have now been formally assigned as EV-G types 8-11 by the Picornavirus Study Group. Comparison of VP1, VP4/VP2, 3D(pol) and 5' UTRs of study samples and those available on public databases showed frequent, bootstrap-supported differences in their phylogenies indicative of extensive within-species recombination between genome regions. In summary, we identified extremely high frequencies of infection with EV-G in pigs in Vietnam, substantial genetic diversity and recombination within the species, and evidence for a much larger number of circulating EV-G types than currently described. PMID:24323635

Van Dung, Nguyen; Anh, Pham Hong; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Hien, Vo Be; Campbell, James; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy; Woolhouse, Mark E; Bryant, Juliet E; Simmonds, Peter

2014-03-01

68

INFECTIVITY AND PATHOGENICITY OF ENTEROVIRUSES INGESTED WITH DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was designed to examine the relationship of waterborne enteroviruses to infections and disease. Young weanling swine and their homologous enteroviruses were chosen as the model system: The porcine digestive tract is like that of man, but pigs can be handled under more c...

69

Construction and Characterization of a Fluorescently Labeled Infectious Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of a label which can be detected in living cells opens new possibilities for the direct analysis of dynamic processes in virus replication, such as the transport and assembly of structural proteins. Our aim was to generate a tool for the analysis of the trafficking of the main structural protein of human immunode- ficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1),

Barbara Muller; Jessica Daecke; Oliver T. Fackler; Matthias T. Dittmar; Hanswalter Zentgraf; Hans-Georg Krausslich

2004-01-01

70

Expression and immunogenicity of novel subunit enterovirus 71 VP1 antigens  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EV71 is a major emerging infectious disease in many Asian countries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivated EV71 vaccines are in clinical studies but their safety and efficacy are unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing subunit based EV71 vaccines is significant and novel antigen design is needed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA immunization is an efficient tool to test the immunogenicity of VP1 based EV71 vaccines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple VP1 antigens are developed showing immunogenic potential. -- Abstract: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness in young children. HFMD is caused by viruses belonging to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. Recently, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a virulent agent for HFMD with severe clinical outcomes. In the current report, we conducted a pilot antigen engineering study to optimize the expression and immunogenicity of subunit VP1 antigen for the design of EV71 vaccines. DNA immunization was adopted as a simple technical approach to test different designs of VP1 antigens without the need to express VP1 protein in vitro first. Our studies indicated that the expression and immunogenicity of VP1 protein can be improved with alternated VP1 antigen designs. Data presented in the current report revealed novel pathways to optimize the design of VP1 antigen-based EV71 vaccines.

Xu, Juan [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Nanjing Medical University (China); Wang, Shixia [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States); Gan, Weihua [Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China)] [Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Zhang, Wenhong [Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (China)] [Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (China); Ju, Liwen [School of Public Health, Fudan University (China)] [School of Public Health, Fudan University (China); Huang, Zuhu [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Lu, Shan, E-mail: shan.lu@umassmed.edu [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States)

2012-04-20

71

Enter at Your Own Risk: How Enteroviruses Navigate the Dangerous World of Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses are the most common human viral pathogens worldwide. This genus of small, non-enveloped, single stranded RNA viruses includes coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, echovirus, and poliovirus species. Infection with these viruses can induce mild symptoms that resemble the common cold, but can also be associated with more severe syndromes such as poliomyelitis, neurological diseases including aseptic meningitis and encephalitis, myocarditis, and the onset of type I diabetes. In humans, polarized epithelial cells lining the respiratory and/or digestive tracts represent the initial sites of infection by enteroviruses. Control of infection in the host is initiated through the engagement of a variety of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs act as the sentinels of the innate immune system and serve to alert the host to the presence of a viral invader. This review assembles the available data annotating the role of PRRs in the response to enteroviral infection as well as the myriad ways by which enteroviruses both interrupt and manipulate PRR signaling to enhance their own replication, thereby inducing human disease. PMID:23764548

Harris, Katharine G; Coyne, Carolyn B

2013-01-01

72

Human Rhinovirus 87 and Enterovirus 68 Represent a Unique Serotype with Rhinovirus and Enterovirus Features  

PubMed Central

It has recently been reported that all but one of the 102 known serotypes of the genus Rhinovirus segregate into two genetic clusters (C. Savolainen, S. Blomqvist, M. N. Mulders, and T. Hovi, J. Gen. Virol. 83:333-340, 2002). The only exception is human rhinovirus 87 (HRV87). Here we demonstrate that HRV87 is genetically and antigenically highly similar to enterovirus 68 (EV68) and is related to EV70, the other member of human enterovirus group D. The partial nucleotide sequences of the 5? untranslated region, capsid regions VP4/VP2 and VP1, and the 3D RNA polymerase gene of the HRV87 prototype strain F02-3607 Corn showed 97.3, 97.8, 95.2, and 95.9% identity to the corresponding regions of EV68 prototype strain Fermon. The amino acid identities were 100 and 98.1% for the products of the two capsid regions and 97.9% for 3D RNA polymerase. Antigenic cross-reaction between HRV87 and EV68 was indicated by microneutralization with monotypic antisera. Phylogenetic analysis showed definite clustering of HRV87 and EV68 with EV70 for all sequences examined. Both HRV87 and EV68 were shown to be acid sensitive by two different assays, while EV70 was acid resistant, which is typical of enteroviruses. The cytopathic effect induced by HRV87 or EV68 was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to the decay-accelerating factor known to be the receptor of EV70. We conclude that HRV87 and EV68 are strains of the same picornavirus serotype presenting features of both rhinoviruses and enteroviruses. PMID:12409401

Blomqvist, Soile; Savolainen, Carita; Rĺman, Laura; Roivainen, Merja; Hovi, Tapani

2002-01-01

73

21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225 Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. (a)...

2012-04-01

74

21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225 Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. (a)...

2010-04-01

75

Inactivation of an enterovirus by airborne disinfectants  

PubMed Central

Background The activity of airborne disinfectants on bacteria, fungi and spores has been reported. However, the issue of the virucidal effect of disinfectants spread by fogging has not been studied thoroughly. Methods A procedure has been developed to determine the virucidal activity of peracetic acid-based airborne disinfectants on a resistant non-enveloped virus poliovirus type 1. This virus was laid on a stainless carrier. The products were spread into the room by hot fogging at 55°C for 30 minutes at a concentration of 7.5 mL.m-3. Poliovirus inoculum, supplemented with 5%, heat inactivated non fat dry organic milk, were applied into the middle of the stainless steel disc and were dried under the air flow of a class II biological safety cabinet at room temperature. The Viral preparations were recovered by using flocked swabs and were titered on Vero cells using the classical Spearman-Kärber CPE reading method, the results were expressed as TCID50.ml-1. Results The infectious titer of dried poliovirus inocula was kept at 105 TCID50.mL-1 up to 150 minutes at room temperature. Dried inocula exposed to airborne peracetic acid containing disinfectants were recovered at 60 and 120 minutes post-exposition and suspended in culture medium again. The cytotoxicity of disinfectant containing medium was eliminated through gel filtration columns. A 4 log reduction of infectious titer of dried poliovirus inocula exposed to peracetic-based airborne disinfectant was obtained. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the virucidal activity of airborne disinfectants can be tested on dried poliovirus. PMID:23587047

2013-01-01

76

The Enterovirus 71 procapsid binds neutralizing antibodies and rescues virus infection in vitro.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for seasonal outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in the Asia-Pacific region. The virus has the capability of causing severe disease and death, especially in young children. Although several vaccines are currently in clinical trials no vaccines or therapeutics have been approved for use. Previous structural studies have revealed that two antigenically distinct capsid forms are produced in EV71 infected cells: an expanded empty capsid, sometimes called procapsid, and the infectious virus. Specifically an immunodominant epitope of EV71 that maps to the virus canyon is structurally different between the procapsid and virus. This structure function study shows that the procapsid can sequester antibodies thus enhancing EV71 infection in vitro. The results presented here suggest that due to conformational differences between the EV71 procapsid and virus, the presence of the procapsid in natural virus infections should be considered in the future design of vaccines or therapeutics. PMID:25428877

Shingler, Kristin L; Cifuente, Javier O; Ashley, Robert E; Makhov, Alexander M; Conway, James F; Hafenstein, Susan

2014-11-26

77

Differential growth of U and M type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in a rainbow trout–derived cell line, RTG-2  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of salmonids. In rainbow trout, IHNV isolates in the M genogroup are highly pathogenic, while U genogroup isolates are significantly less pathogenic. We show here that, at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1, a representative U type strain yielded 42-fold less infectious virus than an M type strain in the rainbow trout–derived RTG-2 cell line at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). However, at an MOI of 10, there was only fivefold difference in the yield of infectious virus between the U and M strains. Quantification of extracellular viral genomic RNA suggested that the number of virus particles released from cells infected with the U strain at a MOI of 1 was 47-fold lower than from M-infected cells, but U and M virions were equally infectious by particle to infectivity ratios. At an MOI of 1, U strain intracellular viral genome accumulation and transcription were 37- and 12-fold lower, respectively, than those of the M strain at 24 h p.i. Viral nucleocapsid (N) protein accumulation in U strain infections was fivefold lower than in M strain infections. These results suggest that the block in U type strain growth in RTG-2 cells was because of the effects of reduced genome replication and transcription. The reduced growth of the U strain does not seem to be caused by defective genes, because the U and M strains grew equally well in the permissive epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line at an MOI of 1. This suggests that host-specific factors in RTG-2 cells control the growth of the IHNV U and M strains differently, leading to growth restriction of the U type virus during the RNA synthesis step.

Kurath, Gael; Purcell, Maureen K.; Wargo, Andrew; Park, Jeong Woo; Moon, Chang Hoon

2010-01-01

78

Detection, quantitation and identification of enteroviruses from surface waters and sponge tissue from the Florida Keys using real-time RT-PCR.  

PubMed

A method was developed for the quantitative detection of pathogenic human enteroviruses from surface waters in the Florida Keys using Taqman (R) one-step Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with the Model 7700 ABI Prism (R) Sequence Detection System. Viruses were directly extracted from unconcentrated grab samples of seawater, from seawater concentrated by vortex flow filtration using a 100 kD filter and from sponge tissue. Total RNA was extracted from the samples, purified and concentrated using spin-column chromatography. A 192-196 base pair portion of the 5' untranscribed region was amplified from these extracts. Enterovirus concentrations were estimated using real-time RT-PCR technology. Nine of 15 sample sites or 60% were positive for the presence of pathogenic human enteroviruses. Considering only near-shore sites, 69% were positive with viral concentrations ranging from 9.3 viruses/ml to 83 viruses/g of sponge tissue (uncorrected for extraction efficiency). Certain amplicons were selected for cloning and sequencing for identification. Three strains of waterborne enteroviruses were identified as Coxsackievirus A9, Coxsackievirus A16, and Poliovirus Sabin type 1. Time and cost efficiency of this one-step real-time RT-PCR methodology makes this an ideal technique to detect, quantitate and identify pathogenic enteroviruses in recreational waters. PMID:12153016

Donaldson, K A; Griffin, D W; Paul, J H

2002-05-01

79

Detection, quantitation and identification of enteroviruses from surface waters and sponge tissue from the Florida Keys using real-time RT-PCR  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method was developed for the quantitative detection of pathogenic human enteroviruses from surface waters in the Florida Keys using Taqman (R) one-step Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with the Model 7700 ABI Prism (R) Sequence Detection System. Viruses were directly extracted from unconcentrated grab samples of seawater, from seawater concentrated by vortex flow filtration using a 100kD filter and from sponge tissue. Total RNA was extracted from the samples, purified and concentrated using spin-column chromatography. A 192-196 base pair portion of the 5??? untranscribed region was amplified from these extracts. Enterovirus concentrations were estimated using real-time RT-PCR technology. Nine of 15 sample sites or 60% were positive for the presence of pathogenic human enteroviruses. Considering only near-shore sites, 69% were positive with viral concentrations ranging from 9.3viruses/ml to 83viruses/g of sponge tissue (uncorrected for extraction efficiency). Certain amplicons were selected for cloning and sequencing for identification. Three strains of waterborne enteroviruses were identified as Coxsackievirus A9, Coxsackievirus A16, and Poliovirus Sabin type 1. Time and cost efficiency of this one-step real-time RT-PCR methodology makes this an ideal technique to detect, quantitate and identify pathogenic enteroviruses in recreational waters. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Donaldson, K.A.; Griffin, Dale W.; Paul, J.H.

2002-01-01

80

Inhibition of Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) Infections by a Novel Antiviral Peptide Derived from EV-71 Capsid Protein VP1  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers) overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC50 values ranging from 6–9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71. PMID:22563456

Tan, Chee Wah; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sim, Kooi Mow; Tan, Eng Lee; Poh, Chit Laa

2012-01-01

81

Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus B77 isolated from non polio acute flaccid paralytic patients in Pakistan during 2013.  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses are associated with various clinical syndromes and severe neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of non polio enteroviruses and their correlation with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patients living in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. The stool samples collected from these patients were used for isolation of non polio enteroviruses (NPEVs). Out of 38 samples, 29 (76.3%) were successfully typed by microneutralization assay into eleven serotypes including echovirus (E)-3 (5.3%), E-7 (2.6%), E-11 (13.2%), E-12 (7.9%), E-13 (10.5%), E-20 (7.9%), E-27 (5.3%), E-29 (10.5%), E-30 (7.9%), E-33 (2.6%), coxsackievirus (CV) B5 (2.6%) and nine isolates (23.7%) remained untyped which were confirmed as NPEVs by real time RT-PCR. Complete VP1 genetic sequencing data characterized untypeable isolates into enterovirus B77 (EV-B77). Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analysis classified these viruses into two new genotypes having high genetic diversity (at least 17.7%) with prototype. This study provides valuable information on extensive genetic diversity of EV-B77 genotypes. Although, its association with neurological disorder has not yet been known but isolation of nine EV-B77 viruses from AFP cases highlights the fact that they may have a contributing role in the etiology of AFP. In addition, it is needed to establish enterovirus surveillance system and laboratory diagnostic facilities for early detection of NPEVs that may cause poliomyelitis like paralysis especially in the situation when we are at the verge of polio eradication. PMID:25433133

Angez, Mehar; Shaukat, Shahzad; Zahra, Rabaab; Khurshid, Adnan; Sharif, Salmaan; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

2015-01-01

82

A new typing method for the avian infectious bronchitis virus using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two primers with the length of 22 bases each and 400 bases apart on the spike protein gene of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were prepared. Using these primers, the genome RNA from twelve strains of the various serotypes were reverse-transcribed to cDNA and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). With all strains, 400 base DNA was amplified, indicating

Z. Lin; A. Kato; Y. Kudou; S. Uefla

1991-01-01

83

Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the threat of a warmer, wetter world and a larger global population, scientists are researching how climate change may impact the spread of infectious diseases,ťsuch as cholera and dengue fever, and how outbreaks may be prevented.ť "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

NBC Learn

2010-10-07

84

Antigenic and Receptor Binding Properties of Enterovirus 68  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Increased detection of enterovirus 68 (EV68) among patients with acute respiratory infections has been reported from different parts of the world in the late 2000s since its first detection in pediatric patients with lower-respiratory-tract infections in 1962. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for this trend are still unknown. We therefore aimed to study the antigenicity and receptor binding properties of EV68 detected in recent years in comparison to the prototype strain of EV68, the Fermon strain. We first performed neutralization (NT) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests using antisera generated for EV68 strains detected in recent years. We found that the Fermon strain had lower HI and NT titers than recently detected EV68 strains. The HI and NT titers were also significantly different between strains of different genetic lineages among recently detected EV68 strains. We further studied receptor binding specificities of EV68 strains for sialyloligosaccharides using glycan array analysis. In glycan array analysis, all tested EV68 strains showed affinity for ?2-6-linked sialic acids (?2-6 SAs) compared to ?2-3 SAs. Our study demonstrates that emergence of strains with different antigenicity is the possible reason for the increased detection of EV68 in recent years. Additionally, we found that EV68 preferably binds to ?2-6 SAs, which suggests that EV68 might have affinity for the upper respiratory tract. IMPORTANCE Numbers of cases of enterovirus 68 (EV68) infection in different parts of the world increased significantly in the late 2000s. We studied the antigenicity and receptor binding properties of recently detected EV68 strains in comparison to the prototype strain of EV68, Fermon. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titers were significantly different between strains of different genetic lineages among recently detected EV68 strains. We further studied receptor binding specificities of EV68 strains for sialyloligosaccharides using glycan array analysis, which showed affinity for ?2-6-linked sialic acids (?2-6 SAs) compared to ?2-3 SAs. Our study suggested that the emergence of strains with different antigenicities was the possible reason for the increased detections of EV68 in recent years. Additionally, we revealed that EV68 preferably binds to ?2-6 SAs. This is the first report describing the properties of EV68 receptor binding to the specific types of sialic acids. PMID:24371050

Imamura, Tadatsugu; Okamoto, Michiko; Nakakita, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Akira; Saito, Mariko; Tamaki, Raita; Lupisan, Socorro; Roy, Chandra Nath; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Kan-etsu; Mizuta, Katsumi; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Suzuki, Yasuo

2014-01-01

85

Passive Immunity in Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Antibodies have been used for over a century in the prevention and treatment of infectious disease. They are used most commonly for the prevention of measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, varicella, rabies, and vaccinia. Although their use in the treatment of bacterial infection has largely been supplanted by antibiotics, antibodies remain a critical component of the treatment of diptheria, tetanus, and botulism. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin can be used to treat certain viral infections in immunocompromised patients (e.g., cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, and enterovirus infections). Antibodies may also be of value in toxic shock syndrome, Ebola virus, and refractory staphylococcal infections. Palivizumab, the first monoclonal antibody licensed (in 1998) for an infectious disease, can prevent respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants. The development and use of additional monoclonal antibodies to key epitopes of microbial pathogens may further define protective humoral responses and lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:11023960

Keller, Margaret A.; Stiehm, E. Richard

2000-01-01

86

Tissue tropism, pathology and pathogenesis of enterovirus infection.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses are very common and cause infections with a diverse array of clinical features. Enteroviruses are most frequently considered by practising pathologists in cases of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis and disseminated infections in neonates and infants. Congenital infections have been reported and transplacental transmission is thought to occur. Although skin biopsies during hand, foot and mouth disease are infrequently obtained, characteristic dermatopathological findings can be seen. Enteroviruses have been implicated in lower respiratory tract infections. This review highlights histopathological features of enterovirus infection and discusses diagnostic modalities for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and their associated pitfalls. Immunohistochemistry can detect enterovirus antigen within cells of affected tissues; however, assays can be non-specific and detect other viruses. Molecular methods are increasingly relied upon but, due to the high frequency of asymptomatic enteroviral infections, clinical-pathological correlation is needed to determine significance. Of note, diagnostic assays on central nervous system or cardiac tissues from immunocompetent patients with prolonged disease courses are most often negative. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular studies performed on clinical specimens also provide insight into enteroviral tissue tropism and pathogenesis. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25211036

Muehlenbachs, Atis; Bhatnagar, Julu; Zaki, Sherif R

2015-01-01

87

Pathological examinations of an enterovirus 71 infection: an autopsy case  

PubMed Central

We report an 8-month-old female infant with the fatal enterovirus 71 infection here. Clinically, she developed respiratory failure and severe pulmonary edema rapidly. Histologically, the lung specimen showed diffuse, severe pulmonary congestion and edema with focal intra-alveolar hemorrhage and typical features of acute encephalitis were easily identified under light microscope. Immunohistochemically, enterovirus 71 antigen was positive in the cerebella and brainstem. We measured the viral loads of different tissues and found that the brainstem and mesenteric lymph nodes showed the highest viral loads among all tissues. We hope that our case report may help to have a better understanding of the enterovirus 71 infection and provide clues to the prevention and treatment of this disease. PMID:25197403

Gao, Lulu; Lin, Peixin; Liu, Shuguang; Lei, Bin; Chen, Qing; Yu, Shouyi; Shen, Hong

2014-01-01

88

Short Communication: New Recognition Of Enterovirus Infections In Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus)  

PubMed Central

An enterovirus was cultured from an erosive tongue lesion of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The morphology of virions on negative staining electron microscopy was consistent with those of enteroviruses. Analysis of 2613 bp of the polyprotein gene identified the isolate as a novel enterovirus strain, tentatively named bottlenose dolphin enterovirus (BDEV), that nests within the species Bovine enterovirus. Serologic evidence of exposure to enteroviruses was common in both free ranging and managed collection dolphins. Managed collection dolphins were more likely to have high antibody levels, although the highest levels were reported in free ranging populations. Associations between enterovirus antibody levels, and age, sex, complete blood counts, and clinical serum biochemistries were explored. Dolphins with higher antibody levels were more likely to be hyperproteinemic and hyperglobulinemic. PMID:19581059

Nollens, Hendrik H.; Rivera, Rebecca; Palacios, Gustavo; Wellehan, James F. X.; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Caseltine, Shannon L.; Smith, Cynthia R.; Jensen, Eric D.; Hui, Jeffrey; Lipkin, W. Ian; Yochem, Pamela K.; Wells, Randall S.; St. Leger, Judy; Venn-Watson, Stephanie

2014-01-01

89

Detection of enteroviruses in untreated and treated drinking water supplies in South Africa.  

PubMed

Enteric viruses have been detected in many drinking water supplies all over the world. A meaningful number of these supplies were treated and disinfected according to internationally acceptable methods. In addition, counts of bacterial indicators (coliform bacteria and heterotrophic plate count organisms) in these water supplies were within limits generally recommended for treated drinking water and these findings have been supported by epidemiological data on infections associated with drinking water. The shortcomings of conventional treatment methods and indicator organisms to confirm the absence of enteric viruses from drinking water, was generally ascribed to the exceptional resistance of these viruses. In this study, the prevalence of enteroviruses detected from July 2000 to June 2002 in sewage, river-, borehole-, spring- and dam water as well as drinking water supplies treated and disinfected according to international specifications for the production of safe drinking water was analysed. A glass wool adsorption-elution technique was used to recover viruses from 10--20 l of sewage as well as environmental water samples, in the case of drinking water from more than 100 l. Recovered enteroviruses were inoculated onto two cell culture types (BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cells) for amplification of viral RNA with nested-PCR being used to detect the amplified viral RNA. Results from the study demonstrated the presence of enteroviruses in 42.5% of sewage and in 18.7% of treated drinking water samples. Furthermore, enteroviruses were detected in 28.5% of river water, in 26.7% of dam/spring water and in 25.3% of borehole water samples. The high prevalence of coxsackie B viruses found in this study suggested, that a potential health risk and a burden of disease constituted by these viruses might be meaningful. These findings indicated that strategies, other than end-point analysis of treated and disinfected drinking water supplies, may be required to ensure the production of drinking water that does not exceed acceptable health risks. More reliable approaches to ensure acceptable safety of drinking water supplies may be based on control by multiple-barrier principles from catchment to tap using hazard assessment and critical control point (HACCP) principles. PMID:15919105

Ehlers, M M; Grabow, W O K; Pavlov, D N

2005-06-01

90

Host factors in enterovirus 71 replication.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections continue to remain an important public health problem around the world, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. There is a significant mortality rate following such infections, and there is neither any proven therapy nor a vaccine for EV71. This has spurred much fundamental research into the replication of the virus. In this review, we discuss recent work identifying host cell factors which regulate the synthesis of EV71 RNA and proteins. Three of these proteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1), far-upstream element-binding protein 2 (FBP2), and FBP1 are nuclear proteins which in EV71-infected cells are relocalized to the cytoplasm, and they influence EV71 internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity. hnRNP A1 stimulates IRES activity but can be replaced by hnRNP A2. FBP2 is a negative regulatory factor with respect to EV71 IRES activity, whereas FBP1 has the opposite effect. Two other proteins, hnRNP K and reticulon 3, are required for the efficient synthesis of viral RNA. The cleavage stimulation factor 64K subunit (CstF-64) is a host protein that is involved in the 3' polyadenylation of cellular pre-mRNAs, and recent work suggests that in EV71-infected cells, it may be cleaved by the EV71 3C protease. Such a cleavage would impair the processing of pre-mRNA to mature mRNAs. Host cell proteins play an important role in the replication of EV71, but much work remains to be done in order to understand how they act. PMID:21715481

Shih, Shin-Ru; Stollar, Victor; Li, Mei-Ling

2011-10-01

91

Host Factors in Enterovirus 71 Replication ?  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections continue to remain an important public health problem around the world, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. There is a significant mortality rate following such infections, and there is neither any proven therapy nor a vaccine for EV71. This has spurred much fundamental research into the replication of the virus. In this review, we discuss recent work identifying host cell factors which regulate the synthesis of EV71 RNA and proteins. Three of these proteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1), far-upstream element-binding protein 2 (FBP2), and FBP1 are nuclear proteins which in EV71-infected cells are relocalized to the cytoplasm, and they influence EV71 internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity. hnRNP A1 stimulates IRES activity but can be replaced by hnRNP A2. FBP2 is a negative regulatory factor with respect to EV71 IRES activity, whereas FBP1 has the opposite effect. Two other proteins, hnRNP K and reticulon 3, are required for the efficient synthesis of viral RNA. The cleavage stimulation factor 64K subunit (CstF-64) is a host protein that is involved in the 3? polyadenylation of cellular pre-mRNAs, and recent work suggests that in EV71-infected cells, it may be cleaved by the EV71 3C protease. Such a cleavage would impair the processing of pre-mRNA to mature mRNAs. Host cell proteins play an important role in the replication of EV71, but much work remains to be done in order to understand how they act. PMID:21715481

Shih, Shin-Ru; Stollar, Victor; Li, Mei-Ling

2011-01-01

92

ENTEROVIRUSES IN SLUDGE: MULTIYEAR EXPERIENCE WITH FOUR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors describe their experience with the isolation of viruses from four treatment plants located in different geographic areas. Over a period of 3 years, 297 enteroviruses were isolated from 307 sludge samples. The highest frequency of viral isolation (92%), including multi...

93

Human Enterovirus 109: a Novel Interspecies Recombinant Enterovirus Isolated from a Case of Acute Pediatric Respiratory Illness in Nicaragua? †  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses (Picornaviridae family) are a common cause of human illness worldwide and are associated with diverse clinical syndromes, including asymptomatic infection, respiratory illness, gastroenteritis, and meningitis. In this study, we report the identification and complete genome sequence of a novel enterovirus isolated from a case of acute respiratory illness in a Nicaraguan child. Unbiased deep sequencing of nucleic acids from a nose and throat swab sample enabled rapid recovery of the full-genome sequence. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that human enterovirus 109 (EV109) is most closely related to serotypes of human enterovirus species C (HEV-C) in all genomic regions except the 5? untranslated region (5? UTR). Bootstrap analysis indicates that the 5? UTR of EV109 is likely the product of an interspecies recombination event between ancestral members of the HEV-A and HEV-C groups. Overall, the EV109 coding region shares 67 to 72% nucleotide sequence identity with its nearest relatives. EV109 isolates were detected in 5/310 (1.6%) of nose and throat swab samples collected from children in a pediatric cohort study of influenza-like illness in Managua, Nicaragua, between June 2007 and June 2008. Further experimentation is required to more fully characterize the pathogenic role, disease associations, and global distribution of EV109. PMID:20592079

Yozwiak, Nathan L.; Skewes-Cox, Peter; Gordon, Aubree; Saborio, Saira; Kuan, Guillermina; Balmaseda, Angel; Ganem, Don; Harris, Eva; DeRisi, Joseph L.

2010-01-01

94

Effect of enteroviruses on adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells by Campylobacter isolates.  

PubMed Central

Coinfection of HEp-2 epithelial cells with coxsackievirus B3, echovirus 7, poliovirus (LSc type 1), porcine enterovirus, and Campylobacter isolates was performed to determine if a synergistic effect could be obtained. The invasiveness of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33560 was significantly increased for HEp-2 cells preinfected with echovirus 7, coxsackievirus B3, and UV-inactivated (noninfectious) coxsackievirus B3 particles. Additionally, the invasiveness of C. jejuni M96, a clinical isolate, was significantly increased for HEp-2 cells preinfected with coxsackievirus B3. Poliovirus and porcine enterovirus had no effect on C. jejuni ATCC 33560 adherence and invasiveness. Furthermore, poliovirus had no effect on the ability of C. jejuni M96 to adhere to and invade HEp-2 cells. Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Campylobacter mucosalis, two noninvasive isolates, did not invade virus-infected HEp-2 cells. The increase in the invasiveness of C. jejuni appeared to be the result of specific interactions between the virus and the HEp-2 cell membrane. The data suggest that the invasiveness of Campylobacter spp. is dependent upon the inherent properties of the organism. Virus-induced cell alterations can potentiate the invasiveness of virulent Campylobacter spp. but are not sufficient to allow internalization of noninvasive bacteria. PMID:2156779

Konkel, M E; Joens, L A

1990-01-01

95

Phylogenetic evidence for multiple intertypic recombinations in enterovirus B81 strains isolated in Tibet, China  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus B81 (EV-B81) is a newly identified serotype within the species enterovirus B (EV-B). To date, only eight nucleotide sequences of EV-B81 have been published and only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been made available in the GenBank database. Here, we report the full-length genome sequences of two EV-B81 strains isolated in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China during acute flaccid paralysis surveillance activities, and we also conducted an antibody seroprevalence study in two prefectures of Tibet. The sequence comparison and phylogenetic dendrogram analysis revealed high variability among the global EV-B81 strains and frequent intertypic recombination in the non-structural protein region of EV-B serotypes, suggesting high genetic diversity of EV-B81. However, low positive rates and low titers of neutralizing antibodies against EV-B81 were detected. Nearly 68% of children under the age of five had no neutralizing antibodies against EV-B81. Hence, the extent of transmission and the exposure of the population to this EV type are very limited. Although little is known about the biological and pathogenic properties of EV-B81 because of few research in this field owing to the limited number of isolates, our study provides basic information for further studies of EV-B81. PMID:25112835

Hu, Lan; Zhang, Yong; Hong, Mei; Zhu, Shuangli; Yan, Dongmei; Wang, Dongyan; Li, Xiaolei; Zhu, Zhen; Tsewang; Xu, Wenbo

2014-01-01

96

Restricted growth of U-type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout cells may be linked to casein kinase II activity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previously, we demonstrated that a representative M genogroup type strain of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from rainbow trout grows well in rainbow trout-derived RTG-2 cells, but a U genogroup type strain from sockeye salmon has restricted growth, associated with reduced genome replication and mRNA transcription. Here, we analysed further the mechanisms for this growth restriction of U-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells, using strategies that assessed differences in viral genes, host immune regulation and phosphorylation. To determine whether the viral glycoprotein (G) or non-virion (NV) protein was responsible for the growth restriction, four recombinant IHNV viruses were generated in which the G gene of an infectious IHNV clone was replaced by the G gene of U- or M-type IHNV and the NV gene was replaced by NV of U- or M-type IHNV. There was no significant difference in the growth of these recombinants in RTG-2 cells, indicating that G and NV proteins are not major factors responsible for the differential growth of the U- and M-type strains. Poly I:C pretreatment of RTG-2 cells suppressed the growth of both U- and M-type IHNV, although the M virus continued to replicate at a reduced level. Both viruses induced type 1 interferon (IFN1) and the IFN1 stimulated gene Mx1, but the expression levels in M-infected cells were significantly higher than in U-infected cells and an inhibitor of the IFN1-inducible protein kinase PKR, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), did not affect the growth of U- or M-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells. These data did not indicate a role for the IFN1 system in the restricted growth of U-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells. Prediction of kinase-specific phosphorylation sites in the viral phosphoprotein (P) using the NetPhosK program revealed differences between U- and M-type P genes at five phosphorylation sites. Pretreatment of RTG-2 cells with a PKC inhibitor or a p38MAPK inhibitor did not affect the growth of the U- and M-type viruses. However, 100 ?m of the casein kinase II (CKII) inhibitor, 5,6-dichloro-1-?-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB), reduced the titre of the U type 8.3-fold at 24 h post-infection. In contrast, 100 ?m of the CKII inhibitor reduced the titre of the M type only 1.3-fold at 48 h post-infection. Our data suggest that the different growth of U- and M-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells may be linked to a differential requirement for cellular protein kinases such as CKII for their growth.

Park, J.-W.; Moon, C.H.; Harmache, A.; Wargo, A.R.; Purcell, M.K.; Bremont, M.; Kurath, G.

2011-01-01

97

An outbreak of feline infectious peritonitis in a Taiwanese shelter: epidemiologic and molecular evidence for horizontal transmission of a novel type II feline coronavirus.  

PubMed

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection. FCoV can be divided into serotypes I and II. The virus that causes FIP (FIPV) is believed to occur sporadically and spread infrequently from cat to cat. Recently, an FIP outbreak from an animal shelter was confirmed in Taiwan. FCoV from all the cats in this shelter were analyzed to determine the epidemiology of this outbreak. Thirteen of 46 (28.2%) cats with typical signs of FIP were identified. Among them, seven cats were confirmed by necropsy and/or histopathological examinations. Despite the fact that more than one FCoV was identified in this multi-cat environment, the eight FIP cats were invariably found to be infected with a type II FCoV. Sequence analysis revealed that the type II FIPV detected from fecal samples, body effusions and granulomatous tissue homogenates from the cats that succumbed to FIP all harbored an identical recombination site in their S gene. Two of the cats that succumbed to FIP were found to harbor an identical nonsense mutation in the 3c gene. Fecal shedding of this type II virus in the effusive form of FIP can be detected up to six days before death. Taken together, our data demonstrate that horizontal transmission of FIPV is possible and that FIP cats can pose a potential risk to other cats living in the same environment. PMID:23865689

Wang, Ying-Ting; Su, Bi-Ling; Hsieh, Li-En; Chueh, Ling-Ling

2013-01-01

98

Rapid and highly sensitive detection of Enterovirus 71 by using nanogold-enhanced electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is an emerging infectious disease causing neurological complications and/or death within two to three days after the development of fever and rash. A low viral titre in clinical specimens makes the detection of EV71 difficult. Conventional approaches for detecting EV71 are time consuming, poorly sensitive, or complicated, and cannot be used effectively for clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, EV71 and Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) may cross react in conventional assays. Therefore, a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and user-friendly test is needed. We developed an EV71-specific nanogold-modified working electrode for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the detection of EV71. Our results show that EV71 can be distinguished from CA16, Herpes simplex virus, and lysozyme, with the modified nanogold electrode being able to detect EV71 in concentrations as low as 1 copy number/50 ?l reaction volume, and the duration between sample preparation and detection being 11 min. This detection platform may have the potential for use in point-of-care diagnostics.

Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Lu, Yu-Ning; Wang, Fang-Yu; Tsai, Li-Yun; Shieh, Juo-Yu; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Juan, Chien-Chang; Tu, Lung-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ching

2013-07-01

99

An eight-year study of epidemiologic features of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan.  

PubMed

In 1998, an epidemic of enterovirus 71 (EV 71) infection occurred in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of EV 71 infection in Taiwan. Between March 1998 and December 2005, a total of 1,548 severe cases of hand-foot-mouth disease and herpangina (HFMD/HA) was reported to the Center for Disease Control in Taiwan. A seasonal variation in number of severe cases was observed, with the annual peak in second quarter. Deaths from severe HFMD/HA varied from year to year (chi(2) for trend = 6.781, P = 0.009). Most (92%) cases occurred in children infectious disease causing serious clinical illness and deaths of young children. Vaccine development is recommended to prevent future EV 71 infections. PMID:17620652

Chen, Shou-Chien; Chang, Hsiao-Ling; Yan, Tsong-Rong; Cheng, Yan-Tzong; Chen, Kow-Tong

2007-07-01

100

Enterovirus 71 Induces Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Generation That is Required for Efficient Replication  

PubMed Central

Redox homeostasis is an important host factor determining the outcome of infectious disease. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has become an important endemic disease in Southeast Asia and China. We have previously shown that oxidative stress promotes viral replication, and progeny virus induces oxidative stress in host cells. The detailed mechanism for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in infected cells remains elusive. In the current study, we demonstrate that mitochondria were a major ROS source in EV71-infected cells. Mitochondria in productively infected cells underwent morphologic changes and exhibited functional anomalies, such as a decrease in mitochondrial electrochemical potential ??m and an increase in oligomycin-insensitive oxygen consumption. Respiratory control ratio of mitochondria from infected cells was significantly lower than that of normal cells. The total adenine nucleotide pool and ATP content of EV71-infected cells significantly diminished. However, there appeared to be a compensatory increase in mitochondrial mass. Treatment with mito-TEMPO reduced eIF2? phosphorylation and viral replication, suggesting that mitochondrial ROS act to promote viral replication. It is plausible that EV71 infection induces mitochondrial ROS generation, which is essential to viral replication, at the sacrifice of efficient energy production, and that infected cells up-regulate biogenesis of mitochondria to compensate for their functional defect. PMID:25401329

Cheng, Mei-Ling; Weng, Shiue-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hao; Ho, Hung-Yao

2014-01-01

101

Partial sequencing of the VP2 capsid gene for direct enterovirus genotyping in clinical specimens.  

PubMed

Typing of human enterovirus (EV) remains a major goal for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes. Whereas sequencing of the VP1 coding region is the reference standard for EV typing, a method relying on sequencing of the VP2 coding region has been proposed as an alternative; however, this has been validated only on cell culture supernatants. To avoid the selection of cultivable strains and to quicken the identification step, a new semi-nested PCR method targeting the VP2 region was developed by use of the CODEHOP strategy. After validation of the method on reference and clinical strains, a total of 352 clinical specimens found to be positive for EV RNA (138 with the GeneXpert EV kit and 214 with the Enterovirus R-gene kit) during a 3-year period (2010-2012) were analysed prospectively for VP2 genotyping. Overall, 204 (58%) specimens were typeable. A higher proportion of throat swab/stool specimens than of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens was found to be typeable (94 of 142 (66.2%) vs. 83 of 169 (49.1%), respectively, p <0.01 by the chi-square test). Moreover, the median Ct value obtained was lower for typeable specimens than for untypeable specimens (32.20 vs. 33.01, p <0.05, and 25.96 vs. 31.74, p <0.001, for the GeneXpert and R-gene tests, respectively, by the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test). These results suggest that, in cases of EV meningitis, a peripheral specimen (i.e. throat swab or stool) that is susceptible to exhibiting a higher viral load should be used in preference to CSF for identifying the causative EV genotype by use of the VP2 typing method without cell culture isolation. PMID:24372815

Ibrahim, W; Boukhadra, N; Nasri-Zoghlami, D; Berthelot, P; Omar, S; Bourlet, T; Pozzetto, B; Pillet, S

2014-09-01

102

Enterovirus 71 isolated from cases of epidemic poliomyelitis-like disease in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Virological and serological studies of an epidemic disease in Bulgaria, 1975, were carried out. Epidemiologically, clinically and pathomorphologically, the disease simulated almost all known forms of poliomyelitis, acute stem encephalitis, encephalomyocarditis and aseptic meningitis. The studies completely ruled out the participation of polioviruses and provided comprehensive evidence for the etiological role of a peculiar enterovirus subsequently identified as enterovirus

M. Chumakov; M. VOROSttILOVA; L. Shindarov; I. Lavrova; L. Gracheva; G. Koroleva; S. Vasilenko; I. Brodvarova; M. Nikolova; S. Gyurova; M. Gacheva; G. Mitov; N. Ninov; E. Tsylka; I. Robinson; M. Frolova; V. Bashkirtsev; L. Martiyanova; V. Rodin

1979-01-01

103

Epidemic of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Associated with Enterovirus 71 Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Viruses isolated from patients with hand, foot and mouth disease in widespread outbreaks in Japan in 1973 were identified as enterovirus 71. Although cases with aseptic meningitis were observed concurrently, the main clinical symptom associated with enterovirus 71 infection was hand, foot and mouth disease.Copyright © 1978 S. Karger AG, Basel

Akio Hagiwara; Isamu Tagaya; Tetsuo Yoneyama

1978-01-01

104

Type I Diabetes Mellitus: Genetic Factors and Presumptive Enteroviral Etiology or Protection  

PubMed Central

We review type 1 diabetes and host genetic components, as well as epigenetics and viruses associated with type 1 diabetes, with added emphasis on the enteroviruses, which are often associated with triggering the disease. Genus Enterovirus is classified into twelve species of which seven (Enterovirus A, Enterovirus B, Enterovirus C, and Enterovirus D and Rhinovirus A, Rhinovirus B, and Rhinovirus C) are human pathogens. These viruses are transmitted mainly by the fecal-oral route; they may also spread via the nasopharyngeal route. Enterovirus infections are highly prevalent, but these infections are usually subclinical or cause a mild flu-like illness. However, infections caused by enteroviruses can sometimes be serious, with manifestations of meningoencephalitis, paralysis, myocarditis, and in neonates a fulminant sepsis-like syndrome. These viruses are often implicated in chronic (inflammatory) diseases as chronic myocarditis, chronic pancreatitis, and type 1 diabetes. In this review we discuss the currently suggested mechanisms involved in the viral induction of type 1 diabetes. We recapitulate current basic knowledge and definitions. PMID:25574400

Precechtelova, Jana; Borsanyiova, Maria; Sarmirova, Sona

2014-01-01

105

Development of a shaker culture of Buffalo green monkey kidney cells: potential use for detection of enteroviruses.  

PubMed Central

Buffalo green monkey kidney cells were adapted to grow as shaker cultures. Replication of environmental and clinical isolates of poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus in these cultures was analyzed by plaque assay and compared with replication in Buffalo green monkey kidney cell monolayers and HEp-2 cell shaker cultures. Dose-response tests with various concentrations of Mahoney type 1 poliovirus indicated that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures could detect as little as 1 PFU in an inoculum of 0.2 ml. These data suggest that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures can be effectively used for the detection of small quantities of enteroviruses from environmental sources. PMID:6289745

Goldstein, G; Guskey, L E

1982-01-01

106

Deferoxamine compensates for decreases in B cell counts and reduces mortality in enterovirus 71-infected mice.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in children under six years of age. No vaccine or antiviral therapy is currently available. In this work, we found that the number of B cells was reduced in enterovirus 71-infected mice. Deferoxamine, a marine microbial natural product, compensated for the decreased levels of B cells caused by enterovirus 71 infection. The neutralizing antibody titer was also improved after deferoxamine treatment. Furthermore, deferoxamine relieved symptoms and reduced mortality and muscle damage caused by enterovirus 71 infection. This work suggested that deferoxamine has the potential for further development as a B cell-immunomodulator against enterovirus 71. PMID:25003792

Yang, Yajun; Ma, Jing; Xiu, Jinghui; Bai, Lin; Guan, Feifei; Zhang, Li; Liu, Jiangning; Zhang, Lianfeng

2014-07-01

107

Enterovirus infection in children attending two outpatient clinics in Zhejiang Province, China.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses are responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease, and have caused many deaths in China during recent years. But the natural history of enterovirus infection in children, especially asymptomatic children, is not yet clear. From April 2011 to May 2012, 505 stool and throat swab samples of children attending outpatients clinics in two hospitals were collected weekly to test for Enterovirus 71, Coxsackievirus A16, and other enterovirus nucleic acids by real-time RT-PCR. Two hundred sixty-four patients were enterovirus positive, the positive rate was 52.3%, 27.5% (22/80) in children without a rash and 56.9% (242/425) in children with a rash. Coxsackievirus A16 positive rate of male (24%, 61/254) was higher than that of female (15.2%, 26/171) (?(2) ?=?4.87, P?=?0.027). The highest positive rate of enterovirus infection was 63.5% in the 2-year-old age group. Comparing children with and without a rash, within the same age groups, no statistical difference was found (P?>?0.05). The seasonal distribution of Enterovirus 71 had only one peak in May, but Coxsackievirus A16 had two peaks in April and October. In patients with a rash, the frequency of Enterovirus 71 was relatively high before July, and then that of Coxsackievirus A16 increased gradually. In the case of Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16, stool specimens had a higher positive rate than throat swab specimens' (?(2) ?=?3.88, P?=?0.05; ?(2) ?=?15.13, P?Enterovirus infection was more frequent in males 2-3 year-old children, with the implicated virus varying by season. Targeted prevention and control measures should be carried out. PMID:24519430

Cai, Jian; Lv, Huakun; Lin, Junfen; Chen, Zhiping; Fang, Chunfu; Han, Jiankang

2014-09-01

108

Dynamics of Moraxella bovis infection and humoral immune response to bovine herpes virus type 1 during a natural outbreak of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in beef calves  

PubMed Central

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is an acute disease caused by Moraxella bovis (Mb). Several factors may predispose animals to an IBK outbreak; one commonly observed is infection with bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1). The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of BHV-1 virus infection and its relation with clinical cases of IBK in weaned calves from a beef herd with a high prevalence of lesions caused by Mb. Sampling was carried out in six stages and included conjunctival swabs for isolating Mb as well as blood samples for identifying antibodies specific for BHV-1. A score for IBK lesions after observing each eye was determined. The findings of this study showed a high prevalence of BHV-1 virus infection (100% of animals were infected at the end of the trial); 67% of animals were culture-positive for Mb, but low rates of clinical IBK (19% of calves affected) were detected at the end of the trial. These results suggest that infection with BHV-1 did not predispose these animals to IBK, and that Mb infection produced clinical and subclinical disease in the absence of BHV-1 co-infection. PMID:22122901

Zielinski, GC; Piscitelli, HC; Descarga, C; Urbani, LA

2011-01-01

109

Differences in cytopathogenicity and host cell range among infectious molecular clones of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 simultaneously isolated from an individual.  

PubMed Central

A cytopathic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolate containing multiple virus genotypes was molecularly cloned, and the biological activity of six randomly selected clones was assessed by transfection into human lymphoid or glial cell lines. Five infectious clones of HIV-1, termed N1T-A through -E, were isolated in this manner. Clones N1T-A, -B, -C, and -E could be distinguished by restriction endonuclease mapping whereas clones N1T-B and -D had identical maps with the enzymes used. Each clone exhibited a distinct host cell range as well as markedly different infection kinetics and cytopathogenic properties when tested in human cell lines of T-lymphocytic, monocytic, and astrocytic origin. In particular, infection with HIV-1 clone N1T-E was characterized by slow kinetics and lack of significant cytopathic effects in acutely and chronically infected cells. Clone N1T-A, similar to the parental isolate N1T, exhibited a wide host cell range, fast kinetics of infection, and high cytopathogenicity. These data indicate that HIV-infected individuals may carry multiple HIV-1 genotypes with distinct cytopathogenic potential and cell tropism. Analysis of virus isolates must take into account the contribution, or masking, of individual virus clones. Images PMID:3172338

Sakai, K; Dewhurst, S; Ma, X Y; Volsky, D J

1988-01-01

110

Use of the 5' untranslated region and VP1 region to examine the molecular diversity in enterovirus B species.  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses evolve quickly. The 5' untranslated region (UTR) is fundamentally important for efficient viral replication and for virulence; the VP1 region correlates well with antigenic typing by neutralization, and can be used for virus identification and evolutionary studies. In order to investigate the molecular diversity in EV-B species, the 5' UTR and VP1 regions were analysed for 208 clinical isolates from a single public-health laboratory (serving New South Wales, Australia), representing 28 EV-B types. Sequences were compared with the 5' UTR and VP1 regions of 98 strains available in GenBank, representing the same 28 types. The genetic relationships were analysed using two types of software (mega and BioNumerics). The sequence analyses of the 5' UTR and VP1 regions of 306 EV-B strains demonstrated that: (i) comparing the two regions gives strong evidence of epidemiological linkage of strains in some serotypes; (ii) the intraserotypic genetic variation within each gene reveals that they evolve distinctly largely due to their different functions; and (iii) mutation and possible recombination in the two regions play significant roles in the molecular diversity of EV-B. Understanding the tempo and pattern of molecular diversity and evolution is of great importance in the pathogenesis of EV-B enteroviruses, information which will assist in disease prevention and control. PMID:25038138

Zhou, Fei; Wang, Qinning; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; O'Sullivan, Matthew V N; Iredell, Jonathan R; Dwyer, Dominic E

2014-10-01

111

Typing hepatitis C virus by polymerase chain reaction with type-specific primers: application to clinical surveys and tracing infectious sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on variation in nucleotide sequence within restricted regions in the putative C (core) gene of hepatitis C virus (HCV), four groups of HCV have been postulated in a panel of 44 HCV isolates. They were provisionally designated types I, II, III and IV. A method for typing HCV was developed, depending on the amplification of a C gene sequence

Hiroaki Okamoto; Yasushi Sugiyama; Shunichi Okada; Kiyohiko Kurai; Yoshihiro Akahane; Yoshiki Sugai; Takeshi Tanaka; Koei Sato; Fumio Tsuda; Yuzo Miyakawa; M. Mayumi

1992-01-01

112

Parallelization: Infectious Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Epidemiology is the study of infectious disease. Infectious diseases are said to be "contagious" among people if they are transmittable from one person to another. Epidemiologists can use models to assist them in predicting the behavior of infectious diseases. This module will develop a simple agent-based infectious disease model, develop a parallel algorithm based on the model, provide a coded implementation for the algorithm, and explore the scaling of the coded implementation on high performance cluster resources.

Aaron Weeden

113

Development and Evaluation of EPA Method 1615 for Detection of Enterovirus and Norovirus in Water  

PubMed Central

The U.S. EPA developed a sample concentration and preparation assay in conjunction with the total culturable virus assay for concentrating and measuring culturable viruses in source and drinking waters as part of the Information Collection Rule (ICR) promulgated in 1996. In an effort to improve upon this method, the U.S. EPA recently developed Method 1615: Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Method 1615 uses a culturable virus assay with reduced equipment and labor costs compared to the costs associated with the ICR virus method and introduces a new molecular assay for the detection of enteroviruses and noroviruses by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. In this study, we describe the optimization of several new components of the molecular assay and examine virus recovery from ground, reagent-grade, and surface water samples seeded with poliovirus type 3 and murine norovirus. For the culturable virus and molecular assays, mean poliovirus recovery using the complete method was 58% and 20% in groundwater samples, 122% and 39% using low-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, 42% and 48% using high-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, and 11% and 10% in surface water with high turbidity, respectively. Murine norovirus recovery by the molecular assay was 30% in groundwater samples, less than 8% in both low- and high-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, and 6% in surface water with high turbidity. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of Method 1615 for use with groundwater samples and highlights the need for further research into its effectiveness with surface water. PMID:23087037

Brinkman, Nichole E.; Griffin, Shannon M.; McMinn, Brian R.; Rhodes, Eric R.; Varughese, Eunice A.; Grimm, Ann C.; Parshionikar, Sandhya U.; Wymer, Larry; Fout, G. Shay

2013-01-01

114

Complete genome analysis of porcine enterovirus B isolated in Korea.  

PubMed

The complete genome sequence of porcine enterovirus B (PEV-B) from a Korean isolate was analyzed. The genome size was 7,393 bp. Previously, full genome sequences of PEV-B had been reported from the United Kingdom, Hungary, and China. The Korean PEV-B isolate presented polyprotein gene nucleotide sequence similarities of 77.9, 73.7, 78.9, and 80.3%, respectively, to PEV-B UKG/410/73, LP54, PEV15, and Chinese strains (Ch-ah-f1). PMID:22923807

Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Song, DaeSub; Seon, Bo Hyeon; Kim, Hye-Kwon; Park, Seong-Jun; An, Dong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Man; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Park, Bong-Kyun

2012-09-01

115

Class I ADP-Ribosylation Factors Are Involved in Enterovirus 71 Replication  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in infants and children. Replication of enterovirus 71 depends on host cellular factors. The viral replication complex is formed in novel, cytoplasmic, vesicular compartments. It has not been elucidated which cellular pathways are hijacked by the virus to create these vesicles. Here, we investigated whether proteins associated with the cellular secretory pathway were involved in enterovirus 71 replication. We used a loss-of-function assay, based on small interfering RNA. We showed that enterovirus 71 RNA replication was dependent on the activity of Class I ADP-ribosylation factors. Simultaneous depletion of ADP-ribosylation factors 1 and 3, but not three others, inhibited viral replication in cells. We also demonstrated with various techniques that the brefeldin-A-sensitive guanidine nucleotide exchange factor, GBF1, was critically important for enterovirus 71 replication. Our results suggested that enterovirus 71 replication depended on GBF1-mediated activation of Class I ADP-ribosylation factors. These results revealed a connection between enterovirus 71 replication and the cellular secretory pathway; this pathway may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies. PMID:24911624

Wang, Jianmin; Du, Jiang; Jin, Qi

2014-01-01

116

Augmenting Spatio-Textual Search With an Infectious Disease Ontology  

E-print Network

Augmenting Spatio-Textual Search With an Infectious Disease Ontology Michael D. Lieberman Jagan and classifies infectious disease incidence reports by type and geographic location, to aid analysis by domain experts. It identi- fies references to infectious diseases by using a disease ontology. The system

Samet, Hanan

117

Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against coxsackievirus B3, enterovirus 71, and human rhinovirus 3  

PubMed Central

Background Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)] against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 3 (HRV3). Methods Assays of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B method using the cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Results The antiviral assays demonstrated that, of the seven ginsenosides, the PT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, and Rg2) possess significant antiviral activities against CVB3 and HRV3 at a concentration of 100 ?g/mL. Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 ?g/mL. The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells. Notably, the antiviral efficacies of PT-type ginsenosides were comparable to those of ribavirin, a commonly used antiviral drug. Conclusion Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection. PMID:25378991

Song, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Hwa-Jung; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Choi, Kwangman; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Lee, Yong-Pyo; Cho, Sungchan; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

2014-01-01

118

High Rates of Infection with Novel Enterovirus Variants in Wild Populations of Mandrills and Other Old World Monkey Species  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Enteroviruses (EVs) are a genetically and antigenically diverse group of viruses infecting humans. A mostly distinct set of EV variants have additionally been documented to infect wild apes and several, primarily captive, Old World monkey (OWM) species. To investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of EVs infecting OWMs in the wild, fecal samples from mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and other species collected in remote regions of southern Cameroon were screened for EV RNA. Remarkably high rates of EV positivity were detected in M. sphinx (100 of 102 screened), Cercocebus torquatus (7/7), and Cercopithecus cephus (2/4), with high viral loads indicative of active infection. Genetic characterization in VP4/VP2 and VP1 regions allowed EV variants to be assigned to simian species H (EV-H) and EV-J (including one or more new types), while seven matched simian EV-B variants, SA5 and EV110 (chimpanzee). Sequences from the remaining 70 formed a new genetic group distinct in VP4/2 and VP1 region from all currently recognized human or simian EV species. Complete genome sequences were obtained from three to determine their species assignment. In common with EV-J and the EV-A A13 isolate, new group sequences were chimeric, being most closely related to EV-A in capsid genes and to EV-B in the nonstructural gene region. Further recombination events created different groupings in 5? and 3? untranslated regions. While clearly a distinct EV group, the hybrid nature of new variants prevented their unambiguous classification as either members of a new species or as divergent members of EV-A using current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) assignment criteria. IMPORTANCE This study is the first large-scale investigation of the frequency of infection and diversity of enteroviruses (EVs) infecting monkeys (primarily mandrills) in the wild. Our findings demonstrate extremely high frequencies of active infection (95%) among mandrills and other Old World monkey species inhabiting remote regions of Cameroon without human contact. EV variants detected were distinct from those infecting human populations, comprising members of enterovirus species B, J, and H and a large novel group of viruses most closely related to species A in the P1 region. The viral sequences obtained contribute substantially to our growing understanding of the genetic diversity of EVs and the existence of interspecies chimerism that characterizes the novel variants in the current study, as well as in previously characterized species A and J viruses infecting monkeys. The latter findings will contribute to future development of consensus criteria for species assignments in enteroviruses and other picornavirus genera. PMID:24623420

Nguyen, Dung Van; Harvala, Heli; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Delaporte, Eric; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Peeters, Martine

2014-01-01

119

Identification of a series of compounds with potent antiviral activity for the treatment of enterovirus infections.  

PubMed

Rhinovirus (genus enterovirus) infections are responsible for many of the severe exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Other members of the genus can cause life-threatening acute neurological infections. There is currently no antiviral drug approved for the treatment of such infections. We have identified a series of potent, broad-spectrum antiviral compounds that inhibit the replication of the human rhinovirus, Coxsackie virus, poliovirus, and enterovirus-71. The mechanism of action of the compounds has been established as inhibition of a lipid kinase, PI4KIII?. Inhibition of hepatitis C replication in a replicon assay correlated with enterovirus inhibition. PMID:24900715

MacLeod, Angus M; Mitchell, Dale R; Palmer, Nicholas J; Van de Poël, Hervé; Conrath, Katja; Andrews, Martin; Leyssen, Pieter; Neyts, Johan

2013-07-11

120

Neutralizing antibodies to enterovirus 71 in Belém, Brazil.  

PubMed

Non-polio enteroviruses (Coxsackievirus A, Coxsackievirus B, Echovirus and EV 68-72) which belong to the enterovirus (EV) genus, Picornaviridae family, may be responsible for acute flaccid paralysis, aseptic meningitis, myocarditis, hepatitis, pleurodinia, neonatal sepsis, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) even though 50-80% of infections are asymptomatic. EV 71 has been responsible for outbreaks and epidemics of HFMD and acute neurologic disease justifying its study in our country. The aim of this study was to detect neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) to EV 71 in individuals up to 15 years of age living in Belém, State of Pará, northern Brazil. Serum samples from 238 patients attending the Virology Sector of Evandro Chagas Institute in Belém, Brazil, were analyzed using microneutralization tests that included RD cells and BrCr strain. Overall 40.8% (97/238) of tested samples had NtAb to EV 71. Regarding the distribution per age group, 85.2% (92/108) of patients aged 0-3 years had no NtAb to this virus and 69.2% of those 12 to 15 years of age were seropositive. These results confirm that EV 71 infection occurs in the city of Belém; and that a high rate of individuals in this study were infected aged 3 years and over and, when aged 15 years nearly 70% had EV 71 NtAb. PMID:11992146

Gomes, Maria de Lourdes C; de Castro, Ceyla Maria O; Oliveira, Maria José C; da Silva, Edson Elias

2002-01-01

121

Chlorine dioxide inactivation of enterovirus 71 in water and its impact on genomic targets.  

PubMed

To control the waterborne transmission of enterovirus 71(EV71), which is associated with hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD), it is essential to know the inactivation effectiveness of disinfectants on EV71 in water. In this article, we present a comparative analysis of the effects on EV71 following exposure to chlorine dioxide (ClO2) under different doses, pH, and temperature conditions. We show that the EV71 exhibited strong resistance to ClO2 (more than the MS2 standard) and that Ct value ranges required for a 4-log reduction of EV71 in buffered, disinfectant demand-free water at pH 7.2 and 20 °C by ClO2 were 4.24-6.62 mg/L·min according to the efficiency factor Hom model. ClO2 inactivation of the virus was temperature- and pH-dependent. The virucidal efficiency was higher at pH 8.2 than at pH 5.6 and pH 7.2 and higher at 36 °C than at 4 and 20 °C. In addition, we also observed the impact of ClO2 on the entire viral genome using RT-PCR, which indicated that the 5' noncoding region (5'-NCR) within the EV71 genome, specifically the 1-118 nt region, was the most easily damaged by ClO2 and correlated with viral infectivity. Our study has not only provided guidelines for EV71 disinfection strategies of waste and drinking water, but also confirmed the importance of the 5'-NCR for EV71 infectivity and may demonstrate a general inactivation by ClO2 of enteric virus by damaging the 5'-NCR. Furthermore, 5'-NCR can be used as a target region for PCR to investigate infectious virus contamination in environmental water and evaluate the inactivation effects of ClO2. PMID:23560857

Jin, Min; Shan, Jinyang; Chen, Zhaoli; Guo, Xuan; Shen, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Zhigang; Xue, Bin; Wang, Yongguang; Zhu, Dunwan; Wang, Xinwei; Li, Junwen

2013-05-01

122

Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3); Construction and rescue of an infectious, recombinant virus expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability to rescue an infectious, recombinant, RNA virus from a cDNA clone, has led to new opportunities for measuring viral replication from a viral expressed reporter gene. In this protocol, the process of inserting enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene into the human parainfluenza vi...

123

Environmental Surveillance of Human Enteroviruses in Shandong Province, China, 2008 to 2012: Serotypes, Temporal Fluctuation, and Molecular Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Environmental surveillance is an effective approach in investigating the circulation of polioviruses (PVs) and other human enteroviruses (EVs) in the population. The present report describes the results of environmental surveillance conducted in Shandong Province, China, from 2008 to 2012. A total of 129 sewage samples were collected, and 168 PVs and 1,007 nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs) were isolated. VP1 sequencing and typing were performed on all isolates. All PV strains were Sabin-like, with the numbers of VP1 substitutions ranging from 0 to 7. The NPEVs belonged to 19 serotypes, and echovirus 6 (E6), E11, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), E3, E12, and E7 were the six main serotypes, which accounted for 18.3%, 14.8%, 14.5%, 12.9%, 9.0%, and 5.7% of NPEVs isolated, respectively. Typical summer-fall peaks of NPEV were observed in the monthly distribution of isolation, and an epidemic pattern of annual circulation was revealed for the common serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on environmental CVB3 and E3 strains with global reference strains and local strains from aseptic meningitis patients. Shandong strains formed distinct clusters, and a close relationship was observed between local environmental and clinical strains. As an EV-specific case surveillance system is absent in China and many other countries, continuous environmental surveillance should be encouraged to investigate the temporal circulation and phylogeny of EVs in the population. PMID:24837389

Wang, Haiyan; Tao, Zexin; Li, Yan; Lin, Xiaojuan; Yoshida, Hiromu; Song, Lizhi; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Suting; Cui, Ning; Xu, Wenbo

2014-01-01

124

Combined 5' UTR RFLP analysis and VP1 sequencing for epidemic investigation of enteroviruses.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses, the main cause of aseptic meningitis, consist of 100 serotypes, and many of them have been associated with large outbreaks. In the present study, a comparison of RFLP analysis of the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and sequencing of both the 5'UTR and VP1 regions was conducted for epidemiological linkage of 27 clinical enterovirus strains. The clinical enterovirus strains were clustered into five restriction profile groups. Even though the restriction profile clusters of clinical isolates were not related to those of the respective prototype strains, epidemiological relationships between the members of each cluster were observed. The restriction profile clusters in the 5'UTR corresponded to the phylogenetic clusters in the VP1 genomic region. The incongruence between the topology of Gior strain in 5'UTR and VP1 phylogenetic trees indicates a recombination event. The proposed RFLP assay in combination with VP1 sequencing can offer crucial epidemiological information about the circulating enteroviruses. PMID:22983155

Kyriakopoulou, Zaharoula; Tsolis, Kostas; Pliaka, Vaia; Tsakogiannis, Dimitris; Ruether, Irina Georgia Anna; Gartzonika, Constantina; Levidiotou-Stefanou, Stamatina; Markoulatos, Panayotis

2013-01-01

125

AN INTEGRATED CELL CULTURE/RT-PCR METHOD FOR DETECTING ENTEROVIRUS IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Echovirus and coxsackievirus can cause mild to severe disease following consumption of contaminated drinking water. However, comprehensive occurrence studies of enteroviruses in drinking water matrices are limited, in part because of the lack of available methods that are rapid, ...

126

Effects of Extreme Precipitation to the Distribution of Infectious Diseases in Taiwan, 1994–2008  

PubMed Central

The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships in the main island of Taiwan was analysed for the period from 1994 to 2008. Four precipitation levels, <130 mm, 130–200 mm, 200–350 mm and >350 mm, were categorized to represent quantitative differences, and their associations with each specific disease was investigated using the Generalized Additive Mixed Model and afterwards mapped on to the Geographical Information System. Daily precipitation levels were significantly correlated with all 8 mandatory-notified infectious diseases in Taiwan. For water-borne infections, extreme torrential precipitation (>350 mm/day) was found to result in the highest relative risk for bacillary dysentery and enterovirus infections when compared to ordinary rain (<130 mm/day). Yet, for vector-borne diseases, the relative risk of dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis increased with greater precipitation only up to 350 mm. Differential lag effects following precipitation were statistically associated with increased risk for contracting individual infectious diseases. This study’s findings can help health resource sector management better allocate medical resources and be better prepared to deal with infectious disease outbreaks following future extreme precipitation events. PMID:22737206

Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Wu, Yi-Ting; Wu, Pei-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun; Su, Huey-Jen

2012-01-01

127

Activation of MSRV-Type Endogenous Retroviruses during Infectious Mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr Virus Latency: The Missing Link with Multiple Sclerosis?  

PubMed Central

The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still unclear. The immuno-pathogenic phenomena leading to neurodegeneration are thought to be triggered by environmental (viral?) factors operating on predisposing genetic backgrounds. Among the proposed co-factors are the Epstein Barr virus (EBV), and the potentially neuropathogenic HERV-W/MSRV/Syncytin-1 endogenous retroviruses. The ascertained links between EBV and MS are history of late primary infection, possibly leading to infectious mononucleosis (IM), and high titers of pre-onset IgG against EBV nuclear antigens (anti-EBNA IgG). During MS, there is no evidence of MS-specific EBV expression, while a continuous expression of HERV-Ws occurs, paralleling disease behaviour. We found repeatedly extracellular HERV-W/MSRV and MSRV-specific mRNA sequences in MS patients (in blood, spinal fluid, and brain samples), and MRSV presence/load strikingly paralleled MS stages and active/remission phases. Aim of the study was to verify whether HERV-W might be activated in vivo, in hospitalized young adults with IM symptoms, that were analyzed with respect to expression of HERV-W/MSRV transcripts and proteins. Healthy controls were either EBV-negative or latently EBV-infected with/without high titers of anti-EBNA-1 IgG. The results show that activation of HERV-W/MSRV occurs in blood mononuclear cells of IM patients (2Log10 increase of MSRV-type env mRNA accumulation with respect to EBV-negative controls). When healthy controls are stratified for previous EBV infection (high and low, or no anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers), a direct correlation occurs with MSRV mRNA accumulation. Flow cytometry data show increased percentages of cells exposing surface HERV-Wenv protein, that occur differently in specific cell subsets, and in acute disease and past infection. Thus, the data indicate that the two main links between EBV and MS (IM and high anti-EBNA-1-IgG titers) are paralleled by activation of the potentially neuropathogenic HERV-W/MSRV. These novel findings suggest HERV-W/MSRV activation as the missing link between EBV and MS, and may open new avenues of intervention. PMID:24236019

Mameli, Giuseppe; Madeddu, Giordano; Mei, Alessandra; Uleri, Elena; Poddighe, Luciana; Delogu, Lucia G.; Maida, Ivana; Babudieri, Sergio; Serra, Caterina; Manetti, Roberto; Mura, Maria S.; Dolei, Antonina

2013-01-01

128

Human Enterovirus 71 Uncoating Captured at Atomic Resolution  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of severe hand-foot-and-mouth diseases (HFMD) in young children, and structural characterization of EV71 during its life cycle can aid in the development of therapeutics against HFMD. Here, we present the atomic structures of the full virion and an uncoating intermediate of a clinical EV71 C4 strain to illustrate the structural changes in the full virion that lead to the formation of the uncoating intermediate prepared for RNA release. Although the VP1 N-terminal regions observed to penetrate through the junction channel at the quasi-3-fold axis in the uncoating intermediate of coxsackievirus A16 were not observed in the EV71 uncoating intermediate, drastic conformational changes occur in this region, as has been observed in all capsid proteins. Additionally, the RNA genome interacts with the N-terminal extensions of VP1 and residues 32 to 36 of VP3, both of which are situated at the bottom of the junction. These observations highlight the importance of the junction for genome release. Furthermore, EV71 uncoating is associated with apparent rearrangements and expansion around the 2- and 5-fold axes without obvious changes around the 3-fold axes. Therefore, these structures enabled the identification of hot spots for capsid rearrangements, which led to the hypothesis that the protomer interface near the junction and the 2-fold axis permits the opening of large channels for the exit of polypeptides and viral RNA, which is an uncoating mechanism that is likely conserved in enteroviruses. IMPORTANCE Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of severe hand-foot-and-mouth diseases (HFMD) in young children. EV71 contains an RNA genome protected by an icosahedral capsid shell. Uncoating is essential in EV71 life cycle, which is characterized by conformational changes in the capsid to facilitate RNA release into host cell. Here we present the atomic structures of the full virion and an uncoating intermediate of a clinical C4 strain of EV71. Structural analysis revealed drastic conformational changes associated with uncoating in all the capsid proteins near the junction at the quasi-3-fold axis and protein-RNA interactions at the bottom of the junction in the uncoating intermediate. Significant capsid rearrangements also occur at the icosahedral 2- and 5-fold axes but not at the 3-fold axis. Taking the results together, we hypothesize that the junction and nearby areas are hot spots for capsid breaches for the exit of polypeptides and viral RNA during uncoating. PMID:24352461

Lyu, Ke; Ding, Jie; Han, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Yan; He, Ya-Ling; Qin, Cheng-Feng

2014-01-01

129

Evidence for an enterovirus as the cause of encephalitis lethargica  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemic of encephalitis lethargica (EL), called classical EL, was rampant throughout the world during 1917–1926, affecting half a million persons. The acute phase was lethal for many victims. Post-encephalitic parkinsonism (PEP) affected patients for decades. Our purpose was to investigate the cause of classical EL by studying the few available brain specimens. Cases of PEP and modern EL were also studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunohistochemistry were employed to examine brain from four classical EL cases, two modern EL cases and one PEP case. Methods Standard methods for TEM, immunohistochemistry and RTPCR were applied. Results 27?nm virus-like particles (VLP) were observed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of midbrain neurons in all classical EL cases studied. Large (50?nm) VLP and 27?nm intranuclear VLP were observed in the modern EL cases and the PEP case. Influenza virus particles were not found. VLP were not observed in the control cases. TEM of cell cultures inoculated with coxsackievirus B4 and poliovirus revealed both small and large intranuclear virus particles and small cytoplasmic particles, similar to the VLP in EL neurons. In the EL brains, nascent VLP were embedded in putative virus factories and on endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The VLP in the cases of classical EL survived, whereas ribosomes underwent autolysis due to the lack of refrigeration and slow formaldehyde fixation of whole brain. The VLP were larger than ribosomes from well preserved brain. Immunohistochemistry of classical EL cases using anti-poliovirus and anti-coxsackievirus B polyclonal antibodies showed significant staining of cytoplasm and nuclei of neurons as well as microglia and neuropil. Purkinje cells were strongly stained. A 97-bp RNA fragment of a unique virus was isolated from brain tissue from acute EL case #91558. Sequence analysis revealed up to 95% identity to multiple human Enteroviruses. Additional cases had Enterovirus positive reactions by real time PCR. Conclusions The data presented here support the hypothesis that the VLP observed in EL tissue is an Enterovirus. PMID:22715890

2012-01-01

130

[Infectious diseases research].  

PubMed

There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467

Carratalŕ, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

2008-12-01

131

Infectious Waste in Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of new federal regulations, camps are revising procedures for waste disposal from their health centers. Discusses the importance of properly handling infectious material and developing written policies; determining how infectious waste can be incorporated safely into the general waste stream; and arranging for disposal. (LP)

Erceg, Linda Ebner

1993-01-01

132

Virucidal activity of Virkon S on human enterovirus.  

PubMed

The efficacy of Virkon S, a commercial disinfectant as a virucidal spray against human enterovirus 71 (HEV71), the causative agent of the fatal form of hand, foot and mouth disease was examined. At least one log10 reduction of HEV71 titer was achieved when one spray of Virkon (1% or 2%) with ten minutes of contact time was applied. The infectivity was completely lost when four sprays of 1% or 2% Virkon were applied, suggesting that at least four sprays of 1% Virkon to the surface bound HEV71 was necessary to completely inactivate the virus. These findings suggest that Virkon S at the proper concentration is suitable to be used as an effective and easy to use disinfectant against HEV71. PMID:16114171

Chan, Y F; Abu Bakar, S

2005-06-01

133

Risk Factors for Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Infectious Disease Patients, Including Patients Infected with HIV, and Molecular Typing of Colonizing Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Nasal carriage is an important risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infection, particularly in HIV-infected individuals. In this analytical cross-sectional study, a variety of probable risk\\u000a factors associated with nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. HIV-infected patients were examined within a larger cohort of infectious diseases patients. Staphylococcus aureus strains from HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected carriers were identified by molecular

D. Sissolak; A. Geusau; G. Heinze; W. Witte; M. Rotter

2002-01-01

134

76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC46 Infectious Diseases AGENCY: Occupational Safety...concerning occupational exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information...label it ``Attention: OSHA Infectious Diseases Stakeholder Meeting...

2011-07-05

135

A recombinant porcine circovirus type 2 expressing the VP1 epitope of the type O foot-and-mouth disease virus is infectious and induce both PCV2 and VP1 epitope antibodies.  

PubMed

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the etiological agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, a disease that causes huge economic damage in swine industry. A recombinant PCV2 expressing the neutralizing VP1 epitope (aa 141-160) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was rescued using an infectious cloning technique. The PCV2 antigen and FMDV-VP1 antigenic epitope of the cloned strain recPCV2-CL-VP1 were confirmed by an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The morphological features of the recPCV2-CL-VP1 were not discernibly different from those of its parental strain (PCV2-CL). However, the recombinant virus could be differentiated from its parental virus by PCR and capture ELISA. The recPCV2-CL-VP1 was demonstrated to replicate stably in PK-15 cells through ten passages. An infection experiment using BALB/c mice showed that both recPCV2-CL-VP1 and PCV2-CL could replicate in the mice, cause various pathological changes, and induce a high level of anti-Cap antibodies. The recombinant virus emulsified with Freund's adjuvant was used to immunize BALB/c mice and induced antibodies against the FMDV-VP1 epitope. Hence, the recombinant PCV2 strain, which expressed the neutralizing FMDV-VP1 epitope, provides a valuable platform to develop novel genetic vaccines. PMID:25117547

Huang, Liping; Zhang, Feiyan; Tang, Qinghai; Wei, Yanwu; Wu, Hongli; Guo, Longjun; Fu, Yujie; Liu, Changming

2014-11-01

136

Infectious Causes of Encephalitis and Meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003–2005  

PubMed Central

Acute encephalitis is a severe neurologic syndrome. Determining etiology from among ?100 possible agents is difficult. To identify infectious etiologies of encephalitis in Thailand, we conducted surveillance in 7 hospitals during July 2003–August 2005 and selected patients with acute onset of brain dysfunction with fever or hypothermia and with abnormalities seen on neuroimages or electroencephalograms or with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were tested for >30 pathogens. Among 149 case-patients, median age was 12 (range 0–83) years, 84 (56%) were male, and 15 (10%) died. Etiology was confirmed or probable for 54 (36%) and possible or unknown for 95 (64%). Among confirmed or probable etiologies, the leading pathogens were Japanese encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, and Orientia tsutsugamushi. No samples were positive for chikungunya, Nipah, or West Nile viruses; Bartonella henselae; or malaria parasites. Although a broad range of infectious agents was identified, the etiology of most cases remains unknown. PMID:25627940

Campbell, Angela P.; Supawat, Krongkaew; Liamsuwan, Sahas; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Laptikulthum, Somsak; Viriyavejakul, Akravudh; Tantirittisak, Tasanee; Tunlayadechanont, Supoch; Visudtibhan, Anannit; Vasiknanonte, Punnee; Janjindamai, Supachai; Boonluksiri, Pairoj; Rajborirug, Kiatsak; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Khetsuriani, Nino; Dowell, Scott F.

2015-01-01

137

Rapid and highly sensitive detection of Enterovirus 71 by using nanogold-enhanced electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is an emerging infectious disease causing neurological complications and/or death within two to three days after the development of fever and rash. A low viral titre in clinical specimens makes the detection of EV71 difficult. Conventional approaches for detecting EV71 are time consuming, poorly sensitive, or complicated, and cannot be used effectively for clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, EV71 and Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) may cross react in conventional assays. Therefore, a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and user-friendly test is needed. We developed an EV71-specific nanogold-modified working electrode for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the detection of EV71. Our results show that EV71 can be distinguished from CA16, Herpes simplex virus, and lysozyme, with the modified nanogold electrode being able to detect EV71 in concentrations as low as 1 copy number/50 ?l reaction volume, and the duration between sample preparation and detection being 11 min. This detection platform may have the potential for use in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:23787733

Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Lu, Yu-Ning; Wang, Fang-Yu; Tsai, Li-Yun; Shieh, Juo-Yu; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Juan, Chien-Chang; Tu, Lung-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ching

2013-07-19

138

A Single Nucleotide in Stem Loop II of 5?-Untranslated Region Contributes to Virulence of Enterovirus 71 in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus responsible for several large outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region while virulence determinant remains unexplored. Principal Findings In this report, we investigated increased virulence of unadapted EV71 clinical isolate 237 as compared with isolate 4643 in mice. A fragment 12 nucleotides in length in stem loop (SL) II of 237 5?-untranslated region (UTR) visibly reduced survival time and rate in mice was identified by constructing a series of infectious clones harboring chimeric 5?-UTR. In cells transfected with bicistronic plasmids, and replicon RNAs, the 12-nt fragment of isolate 237 enhanced translational activities and accelerated replication of subgenomic EV71. Finally, single nucleotide change from cytosine to uridine at base 158 in this short fragment of 5?-UTR was proven to reduce viral translation and EV71 virulence in mice. Results collectively indicated a pivotal role of novel virulence determinant C158 on virus translation in vitro and EV71 virulence in vivo. Conclusions These results presented the first reported virulence determinant in EV71 5?-UTR and first position discovered from unadapted isolates. PMID:22069490

Yeh, Ming-Te; Wang, Shainn-Wei; Yu, Chun-Keung; Lin, Kuei-Hsiang; Lei, Huan-Yao; Su, Ih-Jen; Wang, Jen-Ren

2011-01-01

139

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis  

E-print Network

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) is a complex of disease syndromes occuring throughout the United States and the other major cattle-producing areas of the world. It affects cattle and some wild ruminants. This publication describes...

Sprott, L. R.

1998-11-30

140

Infectious Diseases Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioMedNet (BMN) presents the Infectious Diseases Gateway "featuring expertly selected content from the leading publications in infectious diseases." Users will find research articles, reviews, and other resources from the Elsevier family of journals and books; all freely available to any reader (free registration required). The Web site also offers related BMN news features, links to other BMN Gateways, and a special supplement to the upcoming Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

141

Inhibition of enterovirus 71 by adenosine analog NITD008.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major viral pathogen in China and Southeast Asia. There is no clinically approved vaccine or antiviral therapy for EV71 infection. NITD008, an adenosine analog, is an inhibitor of flavivirus that blocks viral RNA synthesis. Here we report that NITD008 has potent antiviral activity against EV71. In cell culture, the compound inhibits EV71 at a 50% effective concentration of 0.67 ?M and a 50% cytotoxic concentration of 119.97 ?M. When administered at 5 mg/kg in an EV71 mouse model, the compound reduced viral loads in various organs and completely prevented clinical symptoms and death. To study the antiviral mechanism and drug resistance, we selected escape mutant viruses by culturing EV71 with increasing concentrations of NITD008. Resistance mutations were reproducibly mapped to the viral 3A and 3D polymerase regions. Resistance analysis with recombinant viruses demonstrated that either a 3A or a 3D mutation alone could lead to resistance to NITD008. A combination of both 3A and 3D mutations conferred higher resistance, suggesting a collaborative interplay between the 3A and 3D proteins during viral replication. The resistance results underline the importance of combination therapy required for EV71 treatment. Importance: Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major cause of viral encephalitis in children worldwide, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Vaccines and antivirals are urgently needed to prevent and treat EV71 infections. In this study, we report the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of NITD008 (an adenosine analog) as an inhibitor of EV71. The efficacy results validated the potential of nucleoside analogs as antiviral drugs for EV71 infections. Mechanistically, we showed that mutations in the viral 3A and 3D polymerases alone or in combination could confer resistance to NITD008. The resistance results suggest an intrinsic interaction between viral proteins 3A and 3D during replication, as well as the importance of combination therapy for the treatment of EV71 infections. PMID:25100827

Deng, Cheng-Lin; Yeo, Huimin; Ye, Han-Qing; Liu, Si-Qing; Shang, Bao-Di; Gong, Peng; Alonso, Sylvie; Shi, Pei-Yong; Zhang, Bo

2014-10-01

142

Fatal, generalized bovine herpesvirus type-1 infection associated with a modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis parainfluenza-3 vaccine administered to neonatal calves.  

PubMed Central

Generalized bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) infection was diagnosed in six Salers calves from the same herd. The calves had received an intramuscular injection of modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis parainfluenza-3 vaccine between birth and three days of age. The purpose of this study was to determine if the outbreak was associated with the vaccine strain of BHV-1. Analysis of epidemiological data and BHV-1 DNA for restriction fragment length polymorphism was undertaken. Multifocal necrosis in multiple organs was observed on pathological examination, and the presence of BHV-1 in tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Forty-three calves (aged birth to thirty days) were vaccinated over an 11-day interval. The 10 deaths recorded for vaccinated calves were clustered over a subsequent 14-day interval. Mortality in calves vaccinated between birth and three days of age was significantly higher than in nonvaccinated calves (chi-square test; p < or = 0.025), and this mortality was characterized by a greater age at death and duration of illness for vaccinated calves (t test; p < or = 0.001). The patterns of the restriction fragments, generated by six restriction endonucleases, of BHV-1 isolated from a necropsied calf and from the vaccine were identical, and different from that of a laboratory strain of BHV-1 (P8-2). These findings support the conclusion that newborn calves were susceptible to an intramuscularly injected vaccine strain of BHV-1, and that administration of an intramuscular modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis parainfluenza-3 vaccine to neonatal calves may not be an innocuous procedure. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:8076277

Bryan, L A; Fenton, R A; Misra, V; Haines, D M

1994-01-01

143

Emergent Infectious Uveitis  

PubMed Central

Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management. PMID:20404989

Khairallah, Moncef; Jelliti, Bechir; Jenzeri, Salah

2009-01-01

144

[Neonatal enterovirus infections reported in France in 2012].  

PubMed

Enteroviruses (EVs) are among the most common viruses infecting humans. One-third of EV infections affect children under 1 year of age. Neonatal EV infections lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild febrile illness to severe, potentially fatal sepsis-like conditions with multiorgan failure. EV detections by serotype are reported by the National Reference Centre for EV Infections Lyon on a monthly basis. Demographic, clinical, and biological data were also collected in neonates hospitalized in 2012 for EV infection. Two subgroups were identified according to the beginning of symptoms: until 8 days of life (D8) or strictly after D8. There were 120 neonatal EV infections. Before D8, children with severe infection were born more prematurely with a low birth weight. The EVs most commonly detected in neonates were CV-B4 and E-11. Risk factors for severe EV infections included liver (73% before D8) and hematological damage (thrombocytopenia, 82%; coagulopathy, 64% before D8). This study suggests that systematic serotyping of neonatal EV infections and biological monitoring of liver function could be useful for early identification of children at high risk of clinical severity and fatality. PMID:25126719

Soudée, S; Schuffenecker, I; Aberchih, J; Josset, L; Lina, B; Baud, O; Biran, V

2014-09-01

145

Considerations for developing an immunization strategy with enterovirus 71 vaccine.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common pathogen for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which has significant morbidity and mortality, and for which children aged 6-59 months age are at highest risk. Due to lack of effective treatment options, control of EV71 epidemics has mainly focused on development of EV71 vaccines. Clinical trials have been completed on 3 EV71 vaccines, with trial results demonstrating good vaccine efficacy and safety. When EV71 vaccine is approved by China's national regulatory authority, an evidence-based strategy should be developed to optimize impact and safety. An immunization strategy for EV71 vaccine should consider several factors, including the target population age group, the number of doses for primary immunization, the need for a booster dose, concomitant administration of other vaccines, economic value, program capacity and logistics, and public acceptance. Once EV71 vaccines are in use, vaccine effectiveness and safety must be monitored in large populations, and the epidemiology of HFMD must be evaluated to assure a match between vaccination strategy and epidemiology. Evaluation in China is especially important because there are no other EV71 vaccines globally. PMID:25444807

Li, Li; Yin, Hongzhang; An, Zhijie; Feng, Zijian

2014-11-01

146

Cell Surface Vimentin Is an Attachment Receptor for Enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly transmissible pathogenic agent that causes severe central nervous system diseases in infected infants and young children. Here, we reported that EV71 VP1 protein could bind to vimentin intermediate filaments expressed on the host cell surface. Soluble vimentin or an antibody against vimentin could inhibit the binding of EV71 to host cells. Accompanied with the reduction of vimentin expression on the cell surface, the binding of EV71 to cells was remarkably decreased. Further evidence showed that the N terminus of vimentin is responsible for the interaction between EV71 and vimentin. These results indicated that vimentin on the host cell surface may serve as an attachment site that mediated the initial binding and subsequently increased the infectivity of EV71. IMPORTANCE This study delivers important findings on the roles of vimentin filaments in relation to EV71 infection and provides information that not only improves our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis but also presents us with potentially new strategies for the treatment of diseases caused by EV71 infections. PMID:24623428

Du, Ning; Cong, Haolong; Tian, Hongchao; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Wenliang; Song, Lei

2014-01-01

147

Animal models of enterovirus 71 infection: applications and limitations.  

PubMed

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus that is responsible for several outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region over the past 15 years. Appropriate animal models are needed to understand EV71 neuropathogenesis better and to facilitate the development of effective vaccines and drugs. Non-human primate models have been used to characterize and evaluate the neurovirulence of EV71 after the early outbreaks in late 1990s. However, these models were not suitable for assessing the neurovirulence level of the virus and were associated with ethical and economic difficulties in terms of broad application. Several strategies have been applied to develop mouse models of EV71 infection, including strategies that employ virus adaption and immunodeficient hosts. Although these mouse models do not closely mimic human disease, they have been applied to determine the pathogenesis of and treatment and prevention of the disease. EV71 receptor-transgenic mouse models have recently been developed and have significantly advanced our understanding of the biological features of the virus and the host-parasite interactions. Overall, each of these models has advantages and disadvantages, and these models are differentially suited for studies of EV71 pathogenesis and/or the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this paper, we review the characteristics, applications and limitation of these EV71 animal models, including non-human primate and mouse models. PMID:24742252

Wang, Ya-Fang; Yu, Chun-Keung

2014-01-01

148

An Interaction between Glutathione and the Capsid Is Required for the Morphogenesis of C-Cluster Enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular thiol playing an essential role in preserving a reduced cellular environment. Cellular GSH levels can be efficiently reduced by the GSH biosynthesis inhibitor, L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). The aim of our study was to determine the role of GSH in the growth of two C-cluster enteroviruses, poliovirus type 1 (PV1) and coxsackievirus A20 (CAV20). Our results show that the growth of both PV1 and CAV20 is strongly inhibited by BSO and can be partially reversed by the addition of GSH. BSO has no effect on viral protein synthesis or RNA replication but it strikingly reduces the accumulation of 14S pentamers in infected cells. GSH-pull down assays show that GSH directly interacts with capsid precursors and mature virus made in the absence of BSO whereas capsid precursors produced under GSH-depletion do not bind to GSH. In particular, the loss of binding of GSH may debilitate the stability of 14S pentamers, resulting in their failure to assemble into mature virus. Immunofluorescence cell imaging demonstrated that GSH-depletion did not affect the localization of viral capsid proteins to the replication complex. PV1 BSO resistant (BSOr) mutants evolved readily during passaging of the virus in the presence of BSO. Structural analyses revealed that the BSOr mutations, mapping to VP1 and VP3 capsid proteins, are primarily located at protomer/protomer interfaces. BSOr mutations might, in place of GSH, aid the stability of 14S particles that is required for virion maturation. Our observation that BSOr mutants are more heat resistant and need less GSH than wt virus to be protected from heat inactivation suggests that they possess a more stable capsid. We propose that the role of GSH during enterovirus morphogenesis is to stabilize capsid structures by direct interaction with capsid proteins both during and after the formation of mature virus particles. PMID:24722315

Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Liu, Ying; Wang, Chunling; Strauss, Michael; Rehage, Nina; Chen, Ying-Han; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal; Hogle, James; Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen; Paul, Aniko V.; Jiang, Ping

2014-01-01

149

Infectious waste feed system  

DOEpatents

An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

Coulthard, E. James (York, PA)

1994-01-01

150

75 FR 1119 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Infectious Diseases (Leishmaniasis), VA Form 10-0476. b. Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (Malaria), VA Form 10-0476a. OMB Control Number: 2900-New (VA Form 10-0476). Type of Review: New collection....

2010-01-08

151

Enterovirus 71 Uses Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan as an Attachment Receptor  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections are usually associated with mild hand, foot, and mouth disease in young children but have been reported to cause severe neurological complications with high mortality rates. To date, four EV-71 receptors have been identified, but inhibition of these receptors by antagonists did not completely abolish EV-71 infection, implying that there is an as yet undiscovered receptor(s). Since EV-71 has a wide range of tissue tropisms, we hypothesize that EV-71 infections may be facilitated by using receptors that are widely expressed in all cell types, such as heparan sulfate. In this study, heparin, polysulfated dextran sulfate, and suramin were found to significantly prevent EV-71 infection. Heparin inhibited infection by all the EV-71 strains tested, including those with a single-passage history. Neutralization of the cell surface anionic charge by polycationic poly-d-lysine and blockage of heparan sulfate by an anti-heparan sulfate peptide also inhibited EV-71 infection. Interference with heparan sulfate biosynthesis either by sodium chlorate treatment or through transient knockdown of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 and exostosin-1 expression reduced EV-71 infection in RD cells. Enzymatic removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by heparinase I/II/III inhibited EV-71 infection. Furthermore, the level of EV-71 attachment to CHO cell lines that are variably deficient in cell surface glycosaminoglycans was significantly lower than that to wild-type CHO cells. Direct binding of EV-71 particles to heparin-Sepharose columns under physiological salt conditions was demonstrated. We conclude that EV-71 infection requires initial binding to heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor. PMID:23097443

Tan, Chee Wah; Poh, Chit Laa; Sam, I-Ching

2013-01-01

152

Enterovirus 71 uses cell surface heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan as an attachment receptor.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections are usually associated with mild hand, foot, and mouth disease in young children but have been reported to cause severe neurological complications with high mortality rates. To date, four EV-71 receptors have been identified, but inhibition of these receptors by antagonists did not completely abolish EV-71 infection, implying that there is an as yet undiscovered receptor(s). Since EV-71 has a wide range of tissue tropisms, we hypothesize that EV-71 infections may be facilitated by using receptors that are widely expressed in all cell types, such as heparan sulfate. In this study, heparin, polysulfated dextran sulfate, and suramin were found to significantly prevent EV-71 infection. Heparin inhibited infection by all the EV-71 strains tested, including those with a single-passage history. Neutralization of the cell surface anionic charge by polycationic poly-d-lysine and blockage of heparan sulfate by an anti-heparan sulfate peptide also inhibited EV-71 infection. Interference with heparan sulfate biosynthesis either by sodium chlorate treatment or through transient knockdown of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 and exostosin-1 expression reduced EV-71 infection in RD cells. Enzymatic removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by heparinase I/II/III inhibited EV-71 infection. Furthermore, the level of EV-71 attachment to CHO cell lines that are variably deficient in cell surface glycosaminoglycans was significantly lower than that to wild-type CHO cells. Direct binding of EV-71 particles to heparin-Sepharose columns under physiological salt conditions was demonstrated. We conclude that EV-71 infection requires initial binding to heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor. PMID:23097443

Tan, Chee Wah; Poh, Chit Laa; Sam, I-Ching; Chan, Yoke Fun

2013-01-01

153

Rev. 12112012 Dental School Laboratory Infectious Waste Disposal Guide*  

E-print Network

Type Glassware/ Plasticware Waste Cardboard Box Infectious Waste Sharps Container** Infectious Waste and plasticware. Chemical bottles must be triple rinsed and label defaced. Line cardboard glassware boxes cardboard box when Âľ full for designated SDM staff to remove. Designated SDM staff regularly collects

Plotkin, Joshua B.

154

STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS  

E-print Network

refused to participate) on the basis of year of birth and sex. The comparison children were recruited (CDC) assess exposure to a variety of chemicals, active elements, and infectious agents among children residents and former residents. In total, 15 cases of childhood leukemia were detected in children living

155

Controlling Infectious Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

1997-01-01

156

Differential interferon pathway gene expression patterns in Rhabdomyosarcoma cells during Enterovirus 71 or Coxsackievirus A16 infection.  

PubMed

Exposure of cells to type I interferon (IFN) induces an antiviral state that prevents viral infection, but viruses can utilize multiple tactics to antagonize the host immune system. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are two major pathogens that cause hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is prevalent among children. We found that both EV71 and CA16 have different reactions to type I IFN pretreatment and induction patterns of type I IFN on Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. Further, a human-? and ? IFN PCR array was employed to analyze the expressions of 84 genes related to the type I IFN pathway. We found significant up-regulation of multiple genes in the presence of type I IFN and differential regulation patterns during EV71 or CA16 infection in RD cells. For instance, EV71 infection repressed the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, whereas CA16 infection normally triggers the JAK-STAT pathway, leading to the expression of ISGs. Taken together, this study provides a comprehensive view of the differential impacts of EV71 and CA16 infection on 84 genes in the IFN pathway, shedding light on the different resistances of these viruses to type I IFN treatment and cytotoxic effects in RD cells. PMID:24735544

Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Zhiyong; Tien, Po

2014-05-01

157

Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... more information on enabling JavaScript. Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... diagnose, treat, and prevent a wide range of infectious diseases, whether those diseases emerge naturally or are deliberately ...

158

National Foundation for Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

About NFID Contact Us NFID Store Home Infectious Disease Information Infectious Disease Information Chickenpox (Varicella) Diphtheria Ebola Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hib Disease HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) MRSA Measles Meningococcal Disease ...

159

FastStats: Infectious Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Infectious Disease Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity ... 10 [PDF - 330 KB] More data AIDS/HIV Infectious Disease Prevalence in Los Angeles County–A Comparison to ...

160

What we are watching—five top global infectious disease threats, 2012: a perspective from CDC’s Global Disease Detection Operations Center  

PubMed Central

Disease outbreaks of international public health importance continue to occur regularly; detecting and tracking significant new public health threats in countries that cannot or might not report such events to the global health community is a challenge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Global Disease Detection (GDD) Operations Center, established in early 2007, monitors infectious and non-infectious public health events to identify new or unexplained global public health threats and better position CDC to respond, if public health assistance is requested or required. At any one time, the GDD Operations Center actively monitors approximately 30–40 such public health threats; here we provide our perspective on five of the top global infectious disease threats that we were watching in 2012: (1) avian influenza A (H5N1), (2) cholera, (3) wild poliovirus, (4) enterovirus-71, and (5) extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:23827387

Christian, Kira A.; Ijaz, Kashef; Dowell, Scott F.; Chow, Catherine C.; Chitale, Rohit A.; Bresee, Joseph S.; Mintz, Eric; Pallansch, Mark A.; Wassilak, Steven; McCray, Eugene; Arthur, Ray R.

2013-01-01

161

New Approaches for Enhanced Detection of Enteroviruses from Hawaiian Environmental Waters  

PubMed Central

Health risks associated with sewage-contaminated recreational waters are of important public health concern. Reliable water monitoring systems are therefore crucial. Current recreational water quality criteria rely predominantly on the enumeration of bacterial indicators, while potentially dangerous viral pathogens often remain undetected. Human enteric viruses have been proposed as alternative indicators; however, their detection is often hindered by low viral concentrations present in the environment. Reported here are novel and effective laboratory protocols for viral concentration and highly sensitive and optimized RT-PCR for the efficient detection of enteroviruses, an important enteric virus subset, in Hawaiian environmental waters. Eighteen published enterovirus primer pairs were comparatively evaluated for detection sensitivity. The primer set exhibiting the lowest detection limit under optimized conditions, EQ-1/EQ-2, was validated in a field survey of 22 recreational bodies of water located around the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Eleven sites tested positive for enterovirus, indicating fecal contamination at these locations. As an additional means of viral concentration, shellfish were collected from 9 sample sites and subjected to dissection, RNA extraction, and subsequent RT-PCR. Shellfish tissue from 6 of 9 sites tested positive for enterovirus. The techniques implemented here are valuable resources to aid accurate reflection of microbial contamination in Hawaii’s environmental waters. PMID:22567083

Connell, Christina; Tong, Hsin-I; Wang, Zi; Allmann, Erin; Lu, Yuanan

2012-01-01

162

EFFECT OF PARTICULATES ON DISINFECTION OF ENTEROVIRUSES IN WATER BY CHLORINE DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The inactivation kinetics of ClO2 on two enteroviruses, poliovirus 1 (Mahoney) and coxsackie virus A9, and an enteric indicator of fecal pollution, Escherichia coli, were examined in laboratory studies. In addition, the disinfecting ability of ClO2 as affected by particulates (bo...

163

Genetic analysis and comparative virulence of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) types HPR7a and HPR7b from recent field outbreaks in Chile.  

PubMed

BackgroundInfectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a serious disease of marine farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. caused by ISA virus (ISAV). ISAV genomic segments 5 and 6 encode surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) and F protein important for the pathogenicity of ISAV. In this study, we describe the genetic characteristics and relationship between ISAV-HPR7a and ISAV-HPR7b strains that caused the ISA outbreaks in Chile in 2013 and 2014, respectively, and the evolution of the ISAV clades since 2009 based on segment 5 and 6 sequences.MethodsThe study material included samples from six ISA cases in Chile. RNA was extracted from salmon tissues and ISAV isolated from cell culture; segments 5 and 6 were amplified by RT-PCR and compared by alignment with ISAV sequences from the GenBank database.ResultsISAV-HPR7a and ISAV-HPR7b belong to the European Genotype I strains only found in Europe and Chile, and in both cases, show high similarity in segments 5 and 6 with identity between 95ż96%. Our data confirm the hypothesis that the original virus was introduced to Chile in 1996. Compared to the 2007 ISAV-HPR7b isolate, the 2014 ISAV-HPR7b does not have an insertion in segment 5 and was associated with low mortality, which suggests that ISAV virulence was attenuated by the absence of the insertion in segment 5. In contrast, the highly virulent ISAV-HPR14 from April 2013 outbreak did not have the insertion in segment 5 either.ConclusionVariability in the ISAV virulence markers supports the quasispecies theory that multiple evolution forces are likely to shape ISAV genetic diversity. Our findings provide evidence of continuing evolution of ISAV in the Chilean aquaculture industry. PMID:25472899

Godoy, Marcos G; Suarez, Rudy; Lazo, Eduardo S; Llegues, Katerina O; Kibenge, Molly; Wang, Yingwei; Kibenge, Frederick

2014-11-29

164

Capacity for Infectious HIV-1 Virion Capture Differs by Envelope Antibody Specificity  

PubMed Central

Antibody capacity to recognize infectious virus is a prerequisite of many antiviral functions. We determined the infectious virion capture index (IVCI) of different antibody specificities. Whereas broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), except for an MPER bNAb, selectively captured infectious virions, non-bNAbs and mucosal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive IgG captured subsets of both infectious and noninfectious virions. Infectious virion capture was additive with a mixture of antibodies, providing proof of concept for vaccine-induced antibodies that together have improved capacity to recognize infectious virions. PMID:24554654

Liu, Pinghuang; Williams, LaTonya D.; Shen, Xiaoying; Bonsignori, Mattia; Vandergrift, Nathan A.; Overman, R. Glenn; Moody, M. Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Stieh, Daniel J.; McCotter, Kerrie L.; French, Audrey L.; Hope, Thomas J.; Shattock, Robin; Haynes, Barton F.

2014-01-01

165

Display of VP1 on the Surface of Baculovirus and Its Immunogenicity against Heterologous Human Enterovirus 71 Strains in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. It is often associated with severe neurological diseases and has caused high mortalities in recent outbreaks across the Asia Pacific region. Currently, there is no effective vaccine and antiviral agents available against EV71 infections. VP1 is one of the major immunogenic capsid protein of EV71 and plays a crucial role in viral infection. Antibodies against VP1 are important for virus neutralization. Methodology/Principal Finding In the present study, infectious EV71 viruses were generated from their synthetic complementary DNA using the human RNA polymerase I reverse genetics system. Secondly, the major immunogenic capsid protein (VP1) of EV71-Fuyang (subgenogroup C4) was displayed on the surface of recombinant baculovirus Bac-Pie1-gp64-VP1 as gp64 fusion protein under a novel White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) immediate early ie1 promoter. Baculovirus expressed VP1 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that VP1 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired VP1 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. After two immunizations in mice, Bac-Pie1-gp64-VP1 elicited neutralization antibody titer of 1?64 against EV71 (subgenogroup C4) in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, the antisera showed high cross-neutralization activities against all 11 subgenogroup EV71 strains. Conclusion Our results illustrated that Bac-Pie1-gp64-VP1 retained native epitopes of VP1 and acted as an effective EV71 vaccine candidate which would enable rapid production without any biosafety concerns. PMID:21747954

Kiener, Tanja K.; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Kwang, Jimmy

2011-01-01

166

Emerging infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

The spectrum of human pathogens and the infectious diseases they cause is continuously changing through evolution and changes in the way human populations interact with their environment and each other. New human pathogens most often emerge from an animal reservoir, emphasizing the central role that non-human reservoirs play in human infectious diseases. Pathogens may also re-emerge with new characteristics, such as multidrug-resistance, or in different places, such as West Nile virus in the USA in 1999, to cause new epidemics. Most human pathogens have a history of evolution in which they first emerge and cause epidemics, become unstably adapted, re-emerge periodically, and eventually become endemic with the potential for future outbreaks. PMID:24563608

van Doorn, H. Rogier

2014-01-01

167

Emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The spectrum of human pathogens and the infectious diseases they cause is continuously changing through evolution and changes in the way human populations interact with their environment and each other. New human pathogens most often emerge from an animal reservoir, emphasizing the central role that non-human reservoirs play in human infectious diseases. Pathogens may also re-emerge with new characteristics, such as multidrug-resistance, or in different places, such as West Nile virus in the USA in 1999, to cause new epidemics. Most human pathogens have a history of evolution in which they first emerge and cause epidemics, become unstably adapted, re-emerge periodically, and eventually become endemic with the potential for future outbreaks. PMID:24563608

van Doorn, H Rogier

2014-01-01

168

Method 1615: Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Version 1.1 - Enteroviruses and noroviruses that may be present in environmental or finished drinking waters are concentrated by passage through electropositive filters. Viruses are eluted from the filters with a beef extract reagent and concentrated using organic flocculation....

169

On the role of reinfection in the transmission of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

On the role of reinfection in the transmission of infectious diseases Rinaldo B. Schinazi LATP, infectious diseases, tuberculosis, spatial stochastic model 1. Introduction. Tuberculosis is usually acquired of the two types of reinfection in the spread of an infectious disease such as TB. We introduce a spatial

Schinazi, Rinaldo

170

Combining Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR and a Diagnostic Microarray To Detect and Differentiate Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16  

PubMed Central

Cluster A enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), are known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Despite the close genetic relationship between these two viruses, EV71 is generally known to be a more perpetuating pathogen involved in severe clinical manifestations and deaths. While the serotyping of enteroviruses is mostly done by conventional immunological methods, many clinical isolates remain unclassifiable due to the limited number of antibodies against enterovirus surface proteins. Array-based assays are able to detect several serotypes with high accuracy. We combined an enterovirus microarray with multiplex reverse transcription-PCR to try to develop a method of sensitively and accurately detecting and differentiating EV71 and CA16. In an effort to design serotype-specific probes for detection of the virus, we first did an elaborate bioinformatic analysis of the sequence database derived from different enterovirus serotypes. We then constructed a microarray using 60-mer degenerate oligonucleotide probes covalently bound to array slides. Using this enterovirus microarray to study 144 clinical specimens from patients infected with HFMD or suspected to have HFMD, we found that it had a diagnostic accuracy of 92.0% for EV71 and 95.8% for CA16. Diagnostic accuracy for other enteroviruses (non-EV71 or -CA16) was 92.0%. All specimens were analyzed in parallel by real-time PCR and subsequently confirmed by neutralization tests. This highly sensitive array-based assay may become a useful alternative in clinical diagnostics of EV71 and CA16. PMID:16757623

Chen, Tsan-Chi; Chen, Guang-Wu; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Shih, Shin-Ru; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Juang, Jyh-Lyh

2006-01-01

171

Variations in the recognition of echovirus type 11 strains by a group-specific anti-VP1 monoclonal antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mab 5-D8\\/1 is a monoclonal antibody (Mab) that was shown to be directed towards a conserved epitope of the capsid protein VP1 among the genus enterovirus. The use of this Mab for the routine detection of enteroviruses in clinical specimens led to the observation that several strains of echovirus type 11 (EV-11) could not be detected on spontaneously detached

Jawhar Gharbi; Thomas Bourlet; Jean-Luc Bailly; Odette G Gaudin; Mahjoub Aouni; Bruno Pozzetto

1999-01-01

172

Rapid and Sensitive Routine Detection of All Members of the Genus Enterovirus in Different Clinical Specimens by Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a rapid and sensitive method for the routine detection of all members of the enterovirus genus in different clinical specimens by using real-time TaqMan quantitative PCR. Multiple primer and probe sets were selected in the highly conserved 5-untranslated region of the enterovirus genome. Our assay detected all 60 different enterovirus species tested, whereas no reactivity was observed with

Monique Nijhuis; Noortje van Maarseveen; Rob Schuurman; Sandra Verkuijlen; Machiel de Vos; Karin Hendriksen; Anton M. van Loon

2002-01-01

173

Banting Memorial Lecture 2010^. Type 2 diabetes as an 'infectious' disease: is this the Black Death of the 21st century?  

PubMed

We are currently facing a global pandemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. In some settings, the population prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is 50%, and half of those affected will die from diabetes-related complications. Eight centuries ago, an epidemic of bubonic plague swept across Europe, killing at least half of its victims. We here draw comparisons between these two pandemics, proposing close analogies between the 'Black Death' of the 14th century and the modern-day equivalent of Type 2 diabetes. Both diseases can be considered in terms of an aetiological agent, a reservoir, a vector and a predisposing toxic environment; populations can be considered as highly susceptible to the transmissable agents of Type 2 diabetes in the setting of calorie excess, inadequate food labelling, poorly regulated advertising and sedentary lifestyles. As for tackling a pandemic of a contagious microbial pathogen, we believe that breaking the cycle of transmission in the diabetes epidemic must be underpinned by political will and prompt, decisive legislation backed by the medical community. Far from fearing that such measures edge us towards a 'nanny state', we believe individuals should expect a responsible government to safeguard them from the toxic milieu that puts them at risk of obesity and its complications, and that communities and populations have the right to have their health protected. PMID:21166840

Matthews, D R; Matthews, P C

2011-01-01

174

Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. PMID:23365758

Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

2013-01-01

175

[Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)].  

PubMed

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a reportable, eradicable epizootic disease caused by the equine lentivirus of the retrovirus family which affects equids only and occurs worldwide. The virus is transmitted by blood, mainly by sanguivorous insects. The main symptoms of the disease are pyrexia, apathy, loss of body condition and weight, anemia, edema and petechia. However, infected horses can also be inapparent carriers without any overt signs. The disease is diagnosed by serological tests like the Coggins test and ELISA tests. Presently, Switzerland is offi cially free from EIA. However, Switzerland is permanently at risk of introducing the virus as cases of EIA have recently been reported in different European countries. PMID:19333901

Kaiser, A; Meier, H P; Straub, R; Gerber, V

2009-04-01

176

Generation and characterization of infectious chimeric clones between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus from an African green monkey.  

PubMed Central

A series of chimeric clones of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from an African green monkey was constructed in vitro. In transient transfection experiments, all clones produced virion-associated reverse transcriptase, gag proteins, and env proteins. Eight out of 10 chimeric viruses clearly grew in the human CD4+ cell line C8166. Susceptibility of other CD4+ cell lines, MT-4, A3.01, and Molt4 clone 8, to infection with these viruses was also demonstrated. Images PMID:1700827

Shibata, R; Sakai, H; Kiyomasu, T; Ishimoto, A; Hayami, M; Adachi, A

1990-01-01

177

Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine. PMID:15081501

Brier, Bob

2004-03-01

178

Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

What is an Infectious Disease Specialist? When do I need an ID specialist? What will my visit be like? How was my ID specialist ... children. One of the best strategies for preventing infectious diseases is immunization. Ask your doctor for advice about ...

179

Expression, purifi cation and characterization of enterovirus-71 virus-like particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been implicated as the etiological agent responsible for the recent outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease associated with severe neurological diseases in the Asia-Pacifi c region. METHODS: The assembly process was hypothesized to occur via an orchestrated proteolytic processing of the P1 precursor by the viral protease 3CD. To test this hypothesis, we constructed

Chung YC; Huang JH; Lai CW; Sheng HC; Yao-Chi Chung; Jen-Huang Huang; Chia-Wei Lai; Heng-Chun Sheng; Shin-Ru Shih; Mei-Shang Ho; Yu-Chen Hu

180

Enterovirus Capsid Interactions with Decay-Accelerating Factor Mediate Lytic Cell Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular receptor usage of numerous human enteroviruses can differ significantly between low-cell- culture-passaged clinical isolates and highly laboratory-passaged prototype strains. The prototype strain of coxsackievirus A21 (CVA21) displays a dual-receptor specificity as determined with a receptor complex consisting of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). In this study, the cellular receptor interactions of low-cell-passage CVA21 clinical

Nicole G. Newcombe; E. Susanne Johansson; Gough Au; A. Michael Lindberg; Richard D. Barry; Darren R. Shafren

2004-01-01

181

Antimicrobial Human ?-Defensins in the Colon and Their Role in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

?-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human ?-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of ?-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause cell death and chemoattraction of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of ?-defensin is well reported in vitro against several enteric pathogens and in non-infectious processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which alters ?-defensin production. However, the role of ?-defensin in vivo in its interaction with other immune components in host defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites with more complex membranes is still not well known. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding the role of ?-defensin in relevant human infectious and non-infectious diseases of the colonic mucosa. In addition, we summarize the most significant aspects of ?-defensin and its antimicrobial role in a variety of disease processes. PMID:25436887

Cobo, Eduardo R.; Chadee, Kris

2013-01-01

182

High sensitivity and label-free detection of Enterovirus 71 by nanogold modified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the most fulminant and invasive species of enterovirus, can cause children neurologic complications and death within 2-3 days after fever and rash developed. Besides, EV71 has high sequence similarity with Coxsackie A 16 (CA16) that makes differential diagnosis difficult in clinic and laboratory. Since conventional viral diagnostic method cannot diagnose EV71 quickly and EV71 can transmit at low viral titer, the patients might delay in treatment. A quick, high sensitive, and high specific test for EV71 detection is pivotal. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied for detecting bio-molecules as biosensors recently. In this study, we try to build a detection platform for EV71 detection by nanogold modified EIS probe. The result shows that our probe can detect 3.6 VP1/50 ?l (one EV71 particle has 60 VP1) in 3 minutes. The test can also distinguish EV71 from CA16 and lysozyme. Diagnosis of enterovirus 71 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has the potential to apply in clinic.

Wang, Fang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Ching

2013-03-01

183

Site-specific targeting of enterovirus capsid by functionalized monodisperse gold nanoclusters  

PubMed Central

Development of precise protocols for accurate site-specific conjugation of monodisperse inorganic nanoparticles to biological material is one of the challenges in contemporary bionanoscience and nanomedicine. We report here a successful site-specific covalent conjugation of functionalized atomically monodisperse gold clusters with 1.5-nm metal cores to viral surfaces. Water-soluble Au102(para-mercaptobenzoic acid)44 clusters, functionalized by maleimide linkers to target cysteines of viral capsid proteins, were synthesized and conjugated to enteroviruses echovirus 1 and coxsackievirus B3. Quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscopy images and the known virus structures showed high affinity and mutual ordering of the bound gold clusters on the viral surface and a clear correlation between the clusters and the targeted cysteine sites close to the viral surface. Infectivity of the viruses was not compromised by loading of several tens of gold clusters per virus. These advances allow for future investigations of the structure?function relations of enteroviruses and enterovirus-related virus-like particles, including their entry mechanisms into cells and uncoating in cellular endosomes. PMID:24474748

Marjomäki, Varpu; Lahtinen, Tanja; Martikainen, Mari; Koivisto, Jaakko; Malola, Sami; Salorinne, Kirsi; Pettersson, Mika; Häkkinen, Hannu

2014-01-01

184

Pathogenic parasites and enteroviruses in wastewater: support for a regulation on water reuse.  

PubMed

Brazilian regulations for nonpotable reuse are being established using World Health Organization guidelines, however, they should be developed based on local monitoring studies. This study intended to analyze enteroviruses, protozoa and viable Ascaris sp. eggs in raw (24) and treated (24) effluents from four Wastewater Treatment Plants of Săo Paulo State, Brazil. The protozoa were detected with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1623 in the treated effluents and by centrifugation/Immunomagnetic Separation in the raw influent samples. Viable Ascaris sp. eggs were analyzed according to a modified USEPA method. Enteroviruses were quantified by using human rhabdomyosarcoma cells after adequate concentration procedures. All wastewater influents were positive for Giardia sp. whereas Cryptosporidium sp. was detected in 58.3% of the samples. Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. were present in 79.2 and 25.0% respectively, of the treated wastewater samples. Viable Ascaris sp. eggs were detected in 50.0 and 12.5% of influent and treated wastewater samples. Enteroviruses were isolated in the 24 raw influent samples and in 46% of the treated samples. Taking into account the densities of Giardia sp. in some treated wastewaters intended to be used as reclaimed water, Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment studies should be conducted to establish pathogen quantitative criteria for a future Brazilian regulation for water reuse. PMID:23552239

Hachich, Elayse M; Galvani, Ana T; Padula, Jose A; Stoppe, Nancy C; Garcia, Suzi C; Bonanno, Vilma M S; Barbosa, Mikaela R F; Sato, Maria Inęs Z

2013-01-01

185

Ecology of Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a dramatic image of a bustling city superimposed over a peaceful forest, the National Science Foundation's homepage on the ecology of infectious diseases is quite intriguing. After clicking on the image, visitors will be treated to an overview of this special report that asks: "Is our interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increases in incidence of these diseases?" The report is divided into five sections, each exploring a different facet of the National Science Foundation's work on this problem. The sections include "Medical Mystery Solved" and "Lyme Disease on the Rise". Each of these sections includes helpful graphics, well-written text, and links to additional sites. Overall, the site will be most useful for science educators and members of the public health community.

186

Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.

187

IDBD: Infectious Disease Biomarker Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecu- larly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious dis- eases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database

In Seok Yang; Chunsun Ryu; Ki Joon Cho; Jin Kwang Kim; Swee Hoe Ong; Wayne P. Mitchell; Bong Su Kim; Hee-Bok Oh; Kyung Hyun Kim

2008-01-01

188

Global mapping of infectious disease.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer 'cognitive surplus' through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

Hay, Simon I; Battle, Katherine E; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F; George, Dylan B; Gething, Peter W

2013-03-19

189

Global mapping of infectious disease  

PubMed Central

The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer ‘cognitive surplus’ through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

Hay, Simon I.; Battle, Katherine E.; Pigott, David M.; Smith, David L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S.; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Gething, Peter W.

2013-01-01

190

on Infectious & Reportable Diseases HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT MAY 2009  

E-print Network

POLICY on Infectious & Reportable Diseases HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT MAY 2009 #12;Policy on Infectious.............................................................................. 3 4.1 Infectious Diseases ................................................................................... 3 4.2. Notifiable Infectious Diseases

191

Apigenin inhibits enterovirus-71 infection by disrupting viral RNA association with trans-acting factors.  

PubMed

Flavonoids are widely distributed natural products with broad biological activities. Apigenin is a dietary flavonoid that has recently been demonstrated to interact with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) and interferes with their RNA editing activity. We investigated whether apigenin possessed antiviral activity against enterovirus-71 (EV71) infection since EV71 infection requires of hnRNP proteins. We found that apigenin selectively blocks EV71 infection by disrupting viral RNA association with hnRNP A1 and A2 proteins. The estimated EC50 value for apigenin to block EV71 infection was determined at 10.3 µM, while the CC50 was estimated at 79.0 µM. The anti-EV71 activity was selective since no activity was detected against several DNA and RNA viruses. Although flavonoids in general share similar structural features, apigenin and kaempferol were among tested compounds with significant activity against EV71 infection. hnRNP proteins function as trans-acting factors regulating EV71 translation. We found that apigenin treatment did not affect EV71-induced nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of hnRNP A1 and A2 proteins. Instead, it prevented EV71 RNA association with hnRNP A1 and A2 proteins. Accordingly, suppression of hnRNP A1 and A2 expression markedly reduced EV71 infection. As a positive sense, single strand RNA virus, EV71 has a type I internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that cooperates with host factors and regulates EV71 translation. The effect of apigenin on EV71 infection was further demonstrated using a bicistronic vector that has the expression of a GFP protein under the control of EV71 5'-UTR. We found that apigenin treatment selectively suppressed the expression of GFP, but not a control gene. In addition to identification of apigenin as an antiviral agent against EV71 infection, this study also exemplifies the significance in antiviral agent discovery by targeting host factors essential for viral replication. PMID:25330384

Zhang, Wei; Qiao, Haishi; Lv, Yuanzi; Wang, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaoqing; Hou, Yayi; Tan, Renxiang; Li, Erguang

2014-01-01

192

Sporadic isolation of sabin-like polioviruses and high-level detection of non-polio enteroviruses during sewage surveillance in seven Italian cities, after several years of inactivated poliovirus vaccination.  

PubMed

Sewage surveillance in seven Italian cities between 2005 and 2008, after the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccination (IPV) in 2002, showed rare polioviruses, none that were wild-type or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), and many other enteroviruses among 1,392 samples analyzed. Two of five polioviruses (PV) detected were Sabin-like PV2 and three PV3, based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and PCR results. Neurovirulence-related mutations were found in the 5'noncoding region (5'NCR) of all strains and, for a PV2, also in VP1 region 143 (Ile>Thr). Intertypic recombination in the 3D region was detected in a second PV2 (Sabin 2/Sabin 1) and a PV3 (Sabin 3/Sabin 2). The low mutation rate in VP1 for all PVs suggests limited interhuman virus passages, consistent with efficient polio immunization in Italy. Nonetheless, these findings highlight the risk of wild or Sabin poliovirus reintroduction from abroad. Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) were detected, 448 of which were coxsackievirus B (CVB) and 294 of which were echoviruses (Echo). Fifty-six NPEVs failing serological typing were characterized by sequencing the VP1 region (nucleotides [nt] 2628 to 2976). A total of 448 CVB and 294 Echo strains were identified; among those strains, CVB2, CVB5, and Echo 11 predominated. Environmental CVB5 and CVB2 strains from this study showed high sequence identity with GenBank global strains. The high similarity between environmental NPEVs and clinical strains from the same areas of Italy and the same periods indicates that environmental strains reflect the viruses circulating in the population and highlights the potential risk of inefficient wastewater treatments. This study confirmed that sewage surveillance can be more sensitive than acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in monitoring silent poliovirus circulation in the population as well as the suitability of molecular approaches to enterovirus typing. PMID:24814793

Battistone, A; Buttinelli, G; Fiore, S; Amato, C; Bonomo, P; Patti, A M; Vulcano, A; Barbi, M; Binda, S; Pellegrinelli, L; Tanzi, M L; Affanni, P; Castiglia, P; Germinario, C; Mercurio, P; Cicala, A; Triassi, M; Pennino, F; Fiore, L

2014-08-01

193

Sporadic Isolation of Sabin-Like Polioviruses and High-Level Detection of Non-Polio Enteroviruses during Sewage Surveillance in Seven Italian Cities, after Several Years of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Sewage surveillance in seven Italian cities between 2005 and 2008, after the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccination (IPV) in 2002, showed rare polioviruses, none that were wild-type or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), and many other enteroviruses among 1,392 samples analyzed. Two of five polioviruses (PV) detected were Sabin-like PV2 and three PV3, based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and PCR results. Neurovirulence-related mutations were found in the 5? noncoding region (5?NCR) of all strains and, for a PV2, also in VP1 region 143 (Ile > Thr). Intertypic recombination in the 3D region was detected in a second PV2 (Sabin 2/Sabin 1) and a PV3 (Sabin 3/Sabin 2). The low mutation rate in VP1 for all PVs suggests limited interhuman virus passages, consistent with efficient polio immunization in Italy. Nonetheless, these findings highlight the risk of wild or Sabin poliovirus reintroduction from abroad. Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) were detected, 448 of which were coxsackievirus B (CVB) and 294 of which were echoviruses (Echo). Fifty-six NPEVs failing serological typing were characterized by sequencing the VP1 region (nucleotides [nt] 2628 to 2976). A total of 448 CVB and 294 Echo strains were identified; among those strains, CVB2, CVB5, and Echo 11 predominated. Environmental CVB5 and CVB2 strains from this study showed high sequence identity with GenBank global strains. The high similarity between environmental NPEVs and clinical strains from the same areas of Italy and the same periods indicates that environmental strains reflect the viruses circulating in the population and highlights the potential risk of inefficient wastewater treatments. This study confirmed that sewage surveillance can be more sensitive than acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in monitoring silent poliovirus circulation in the population as well as the suitability of molecular approaches to enterovirus typing. PMID:24814793

Battistone, A.; Buttinelli, G.; Fiore, S.; Amato, C.; Bonomo, P.; Patti, A. M.; Vulcano, A.; Barbi, M.; Binda, S.; Pellegrinelli, L.; Tanzi, M. L.; Affanni, P.; Castiglia, P.; Germinario, C.; Mercurio, P.; Cicala, A.; Triassi, M.; Pennino, F.

2014-01-01

194

Simple method of detecting enteroviruses in contaminated molluscs and sewage by using polymerase chain reaction coupled with a colorimetric microwell detection assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods normally used for the detection of enteroviruses in environmental [MM1]samples involve the use of cell cultures, which are expensive and time consuming. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a useful tool for the detection of enteroviruses in several matrixes because primary cell culture is not needed and the increased sensitivity of PCR allows detection of the low numbers

O. Gualillo; D. Biscardi; R. Di Carlo; R. De Fusco

1999-01-01

195

25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section...INDIAN TRADERS § 140.26 Infectious plants. Traders...carrier of any pests of infectious, transmissible, or contagious diseases, as determined by the...

2011-04-01

196

NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF WARMWATER FISHES  

EPA Science Inventory

Compared with infectious diseases and disorders, few non-infectious diseases and disorders in cultured fish have severe biologic or economic impact. Culture practices, however, often establish environments that promote infectious disease by weakening the immune response or by pro...

197

25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2011-04-01 true Infectious plants. 140.26 Section...INDIAN TRADERS § 140.26 Infectious plants. Traders...carrier of any pests of infectious, transmissible, or contagious diseases, as determined by the...

2012-04-01

198

What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

... Specialist? Family Life Listen What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Article Body If your child has a ... teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

199

25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section...INDIAN TRADERS § 140.26 Infectious plants. Traders...carrier of any pests of infectious, transmissible, or contagious diseases, as determined by the...

2014-04-01

200

25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section...INDIAN TRADERS § 140.26 Infectious plants. Traders...carrier of any pests of infectious, transmissible, or contagious diseases, as determined by the...

2010-04-01

201

25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section...INDIAN TRADERS § 140.26 Infectious plants. Traders...carrier of any pests of infectious, transmissible, or contagious diseases, as determined by the...

2013-04-01

202

Tackling feline infectious peritonitis via reverse genetics.  

PubMed

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is caused by feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) and represents one of the most important lethal infectious diseases of cats. To date, there is no efficacious prevention and treatment, and our limited knowledge on FIP pathogenesis is mainly based on analysis of experiments with field isolates. In a recent study, we reported a promising approach to study FIP pathogenesis using reverse genetics. We generated a set of recombinant FCoVs and investigated their pathogenicity in vivo. The set included the type I FCoV strain Black, a type I FCoV strain Black with restored accessory gene 7b, two chimeric type I/type II FCoVs and the highly pathogenic type II FCoV strain 79-1146. All recombinant FCoVs and the reference strain isolates were found to establish productive infections in cats. While none of the type I FCoVs and chimeric FCoVs induced FIP, the recombinant type II FCoV strain 79-1146 was as pathogenic as the parental isolate. Interestingly, an intact ORF 3c was confirmed to be restored in all viruses (re)isolated from FIP-diseased animals. PMID:25057920

Thiel, Volker; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; Tekes, Gergely

2014-07-24

203

Tackling feline infectious peritonitis via reverse genetics.  

PubMed

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is caused by feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) and represents one of the most important lethal infectious diseases of cats. To date, there is no efficacious prevention and treatment, and our limited knowledge on FIP pathogenesis is mainly based on analysis of experiments with field isolates. In a recent study, we reported a promising approach to study FIP pathogenesis using reverse genetics. We generated a set of recombinant FCoVs and investigated their pathogenicity in vivo. The set included the type I FCoV strain Black, a type I FCoV strain Black with restored accessory gene 7b, two chimeric type I/type II FCoVs and the highly pathogenic type II FCoV strain 79-1146. All recombinant FCoVs and the reference strain isolates were found to establish productive infections in cats. While none of the type I FCoVs and chimeric FCoVs induced FIP, the recombinant type II FCoV strain 79-1146 was as pathogenic as the parental isolate. Interestingly, an intact ORF 3c was confirmed to be restored in all viruses (re)isolated from FIP-diseased animals. PMID:25482087

Thiel, Volker; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; Tekes, Gergely

2014-11-01

204

Infectious muscle disease.  

PubMed

Infectious muscle diseases have very different aetiologies. The viral myositides are proved by clinical and laboratory evidences in various etiologic settings (Influenza A and B, Coxsackie and HIV). The bacterial myositis was considered in the near past a tropical disease, but in our days with migration of people from South to North and the endemia of AIDS it became a problem of the "civilized" world. On the other hand, tuberculous endemia in Central-Eastern Europe, including Romania, results in quite high incidence of osteoarticular tuberculosis. In this section the authors take into consideration some clinical entities, such as psoas abscess, postanginal sepsis, beta-haemolytic streptococcus infection and that caused by Koch bacillus. Other rare musculoskeletal infections such as gas gangrene and non-clostridial anaerobic myonecrosis are also reviewed. Immune depression caused by underlying diseases, therapies, alcoholism or old age is often encountered. The parasitic aetiologies include infestations with Trichinella spiralis, Cysticercus cellulosae, Toxoplasma and Amoeba. The contribution of imagistic methods to diagnosis is emphasised. Ultrasonography associated with CT imaging are usually used, while MRI should be reserved for cases in which axial skeleton is involved. The management is based on appropriate antibiotic therapy and surgery. PMID:17236294

Parasca, I; Damian, Laura; Albu, Adriana

2006-01-01

205

Chebulagic Acid, a Hydrolyzable Tannin, Exhibited Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo against Human Enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in children under six years of age. Presently, no vaccines or antiviral drugs have been clinically available to employ against EV71. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with chebulagic acid reduced the viral cytopathic effect on rhabdomyosarcoma cells with an IC50 of 12.5 ?g/mL. The utilization of the chebulagic acid treatment on mice challenged with a lethal dose of enterovirus 71 was able to efficiently reduce mortality and relieve clinical symptoms through the inhibition of viral replication. Chebulagic acid may represent a potential therapeutic agent to control infections to enterovirus 71. PMID:23644889

Yang, Yajun; Xiu, Jinghui; Liu, Jiangning; Zhang, Li; Li, Xiaoying; Xu, Yanfeng; Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Lianfeng

2013-01-01

206

Sex and Reproduction in the Transmission of Infectious Uveitis  

PubMed Central

Current data permit only speculations regarding sex differences in the prevalence of infectious uveitis between women and men because uveitis case surveys do not uniformly report gender data. Differences in prevalence that are reported in the literature could relate to simple differences in the number of women and men at risk for infection or to biological differences between men and women. Compared to other types of uveitis, infectious uveitis may be directly related to occupational exposures or sexual behaviors, which differ between women and men, and may mask actual biological differences in susceptibility to ocular manifestations of the infection and its prognosis. In infectious uveitis for which there is no element of sexual transmission and data is available, prevalence of ocular disease is roughly equal between women and men. Women also have a unique relationship with infectious uveitis in their role as mothers. Vertical transmission of infections such as herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus can produce severe chorioretinitis in neonates. PMID:25105020

Davis, Janet L.

2014-01-01

207

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are characterized by a new or an increased occurrence within the last few decades. They\\u000a include the following categories Emerging diagnosis of infectious diseases: old diseases that are newly classified as infectious\\u000a diseases because of the discovery of a responsible infectious agent.

Thomas Löscher; Luise Prüfer-Krämer

208

The HeLa cell receptor for enterovirus 70 is decay-accelerating factor (CD55).  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 70 (EV70) is a recently emerged human pathogen belonging to the family Picornaviridae. The ability of EV70 to infect a wide variety of nonprimate cell lines in vitro is unique among human enteroviruses. The importance of virus receptors as determinants of viral host range and tropism led us to study the host cell receptor for this unusual picornavirus. We produced a monoclonal antibody (MAb), EVR1, which bound to the surface of HeLa cells and protected them against infection by EV70 but not by poliovirus or by coxsackievirus B3. This antibody also inhibited the binding of [35S]EV70 to HeLa cells. MAb EVR1 did not bind to monkey kidney (LLC-MK2) cells, nor did it protect these cells against virus infection. In Western immunoassays and in immunoprecipitations, MAb EVR1 identified a HeLa cell glycoprotein of approximately 75 kDa that is attached to the cell membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) is a 70- to 75-kDa GPI-anchored membrane protein that is involved in the regulation of complement and has also been shown to function as a receptor for several enteroviruses. MAb EVR1 bound to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells constitutively expressing human DAF. Anti-DAF MAbs inhibited EV70 binding to HeLa cells and protected them against EV70 infection. Transient expression of human DAF in murine NIH 3T3 cells resulted in binding of labelled EV70 and stably, transformed NIH 3T3 cells expressing DAF were able to support virus replication. These data indicate that the HeLa cell receptor for EV70 is DAF. PMID:8764022

Karnauchow, T M; Tolson, D L; Harrison, B A; Altman, E; Lublin, D M; Dimock, K

1996-01-01

209

Emerging infectious disease: global response, global alert.  

PubMed

Despite spectacular progress in the eradication of infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis are making a comeback in many parts of the world. After years of decline, plague, diphtheria, dengue, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, and cholera have reappeared as public health threats. In the last 20 years [before 1997] more than 30 new and highly infectious diseases have been identified, including Ebola-type hemorrhagic fever, HIV/AIDs, and hepatitis C. Antibiotic resistance has also emerged during this period, and fewer new antibiotics are being produced because of high development costs and licensing. Drugs no longer offer protection or cure for many infectious diseases, and consequently more people need hospitalization with higher treatment costs. The causes of the appearance of new diseases and the resurgence of old ones include the rapid increase in international travel, the growth of mega-cities with high population densities, inadequate safe water and sanitation, food-borne diseases by the globalization of trade, and human penetration into remote animal and insect habitats. Meanwhile, resources for public health are being reduced, with the result that either the appearance of new diseases or resistance to drugs go unnoticed. A recent example is the human immunodeficiency virus, which went unrecognized until a large number of people got infected. For this very reason the 1997 World Health Day featured the theme of emerging infectious diseases and global response. Such forums are held to help countries rebuild the foundations of disease surveillance and control, while the public and private sectors may be encouraged to develop better techniques for surveillance to confront a common global threat. PMID:12348002

Nakajima, H

1997-01-01

210

Impact of infectious diseases consultation on the management of S. aureus bacteraemia in children  

E-print Network

For peer review only Impact of infectious diseases consultation on the management of S. aureus bactaeremia in children Journal: BMJ Open Manuscript ID: bmjopen-2013-004659.R1 Article Type: Research Date Submitted by the Author: 02-Jun... , Emma; Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Infectious Diseases Aliyu, Sani; Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Infectious Diseases O'Donnell, Roddy; Cambridge University Hospitals NHS...

Saunderson, R.B.; Gouliouris, Theodore; Cartwright, Edward J.; Nickerson, Emma J.; Aliyu, S.H.; O’Donnell, D. Roddy; Kelsall, Wilf; Limmathurotsakul, D.; Peacock, S.J.; Török, M. Estée

2014-07-10

211

Outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease by enterovirus 71. High incidence of complication disorders of central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan we have had two outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with disorders of the central nervous system, one in 1973 and the other in 1978. The isolated virus in both outbreaks was enterovirus 71. Central nervous system disorders were present in 24% of patients in 1973 and in 8% of patients in 1978. These disorders were

Y Ishimaru; S Nakano; K Yamaoka; S Takami

1980-01-01

212

Impact of diagnostic procedures on patient management and hospitalization cost during the 2000 and 2005 enterovirus epidemics in Marseilles, France.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses are frequent aetiological agents of central nervous system infections in humans. In 2000 and 2005, two large outbreaks of Echovirus 30 (a member of species human enterovirus B) were observed in the University Hospitals of Marseilles (France). Between the two epidemics, the diagnostic protocols for enterovirus infection were modified, moving from viral cultures and classic RT-PCR in 2000 to real-time RT-PCR in 2005. We compared some viral and epidemiological characteristics of the 2000 and 2005 outbreaks with special attention to diagnostic procedures and to the subsequent clinical management of patients. Despite similar virological and epidemiological characteristics during both outbreaks, our results show that real-time RT-PCR techniques used in 2005 noticeably shortened the period of time necessary to deliver diagnostic results and suggest that this was associated with a decrease in the duration of hospitalization for positive cases. In conclusion, this study suggests that the improvement of enterovirus diagnosis had a major financial impact on the management of the 2005 epidemic in Marseilles and may constitute an interesting example of how new diagnostic methods in microbiology can be self-financed through improvement in patient management. PMID:20015267

Ninove, L; Tan, C; Nougairede, A; Zandotti, C; Richet, H; Charrel, R; de Lamballerie, X

2010-06-01

213

Quinacrine Impairs Enterovirus 71 RNA Replication by Preventing Binding of Polypyrimidine-Tract Binding Protein with Internal Ribosome Entry Sites  

PubMed Central

Since the 1980s, epidemics of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and other enteroviruses have occurred in Asian countries and regions, causing a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are indispensable for the initiation of translation in enteroviruses. Several cellular factors, as well as the ribosome, are recruited to the conserved IRES during this process. Quinacrine intercalates into the RNA architecture and inhibits RNA transcription and protein synthesis, and a recent study showed that quinacrine inhibited encephalomyocarditis virus and poliovirus IRES-mediated translation in vitro without disrupting internal cellular IRES. Here, we report that quinacrine was highly active against EV71, protecting cells from EV71 infection. Replication of viral RNA, expression of viral capsid protein, and production of virus were all strongly inhibited by quinacrine. Interaction of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) with the conserved IRES was prevented by quinacrine. Coxsackieviruses and echovirus were also inhibited by quinacrine in cultured cells. These results indicate that quinacrine may serve as a potential protective agent for use in the treatment of patients with chronic enterovirus infection. PMID:23301007

Wang, Jianmin; Du, Jiang; Wu, Zhiqiang; Jin, Qi

2013-01-01

214

Complete Genome Sequence of Human Enterovirus Strain 71 (EV71/Taipei/3118/2011), Isolated from a Patient in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

This full-length genome sequence of human enterovirus strain 71 (EV71/Taipei/3118/2011) was isolated from a clinical patient in Taiwan in 2011. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the complete genome sequence in this study is part of the subgenotype C4. PMID:25573934

Lin, Chia-Pei; Liu, Jiung-Liang; Chen, Lung-Yuan; Liu, Yi-Chao; Wang, Hsiu-Chi; Lin, Shih-Jie; Chen, Pin-Chun; Wang, Kun-Teng; Huang, Chih-Hung; Yang, Yi-Chan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Shih, Daniel Yang-Chih

2015-01-01

215

Characterization of an Enterovirus species E isolated from naturally infected bovine in China.  

PubMed

Bovine enteroviruses, which belong to the Picornaviridae family, can cause clinical symptoms in cattle and are excreted in feces. In this study, a cytolytic virus was isolated from Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from fecal samples of bovine with severe diarrhea and hemorrhagic intestinal mucosa that had been originally diagnosed with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) by a bovine viral diarrhea virus Ag point-of-care test (IDEXX, American). Random priming PCR was used to amplify underlying viral sequences and identify the isolated virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolated virus closely matches the EV-E2 species, which is different from other Chinese strains previously isolated. The newly identified virus was named HLJ-3531/2013. We infected the sulking mice with the isolated virus. Reverse-transcription PCR, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, serum neutralization (SN) test, and virus isolation from various tissues revealed that HLJ-3531/2013 can infect the intestine, liver, and lung of suckling mice. The present work is the first to report the reproduction of clinical symptoms by an isolated virus in an experimental infection model of animals and lays a solid foundation for the development of the pathogenesis of bovine enteroviruses. PMID:25102330

Zhang, Haili; Liu, Hongtao; Bao, Jun; Guo, Yongli; Peng, Tongquan; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei; Gao, Mingchun

2014-10-13

216

Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

2013-01-01

217

Molecular epidemiology of echoviruses 11 and 30 in Russia: Different properties of genotypes within an enterovirus serotype.  

PubMed

Over 100 known enterovirus serotypes differ in their epidemiological and pathogenic properties. Much less is known about variation of these features on a sub-serotype level, such as genotypes. Echovirus 11 (E11) and E30 are amongst the most frequent causative agents of aseptic meningitis. We studied the molecular epidemiology of these pathogens to evaluate potential epidemiological and pathogenic dissimilarities of their genotypes. The complete VP1 genome region was sequenced for 97 E11 and 62 E30 isolates collected in Russia from 2008 to 2012, and they were studied in comparison with all 140 E11 and 432 E30 sequences available in GenBank. A geographic pattern of genotype prevalence was observed for both types. Russian E11 isolates belonged mainly to A genotype, which is common in Asia, and D5, which is predominant in Europe. For E30, genotype III by classification of Ke et al. (2011), also termed genotype a by Bailly et al. (2009), was endemic in Russia from 2003 to 2012, while it was not detected in Europe and North America during this time. The E30 genotypes VI-B, VI-G, and VI-H (e, f and h) were regularly introduced from different countries, became predominant and vanished after no more than 4years. In addition to geographic patterns, E11 genotypes also differed by isolation source. Genotype A2 viruses were significantly more often found in sewage, compared to genotype D5 that was isolated from both sewage and human samples. In addition, there was evidence of a different capacity for international transfers among E11 GtA subclusters. PMID:25562123

Yarmolskaya, Maria S; Shumilina, Elena Yu; Ivanova, Olga E; Drexler, Jan Felix; Lukashev, Alexander N

2015-03-01

218

Epidemiological, molecular and clinical features of Enterovirus 109 infection in children and in adult stem cell transplant recipients  

PubMed Central

Background A novel human enterovirus (HEV) type within the species HEV-C, named EV109, was discovered from cases of respiratory illness in Nicaragua in September 2010. The aim of this study, was to retrospectively examine the presence and the role of EV109 in respiratory samples from two patients populations; infants below the age of 2?years, hospitalized for acute respiratory diseases (ARDs) and adult hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Results A total of 1149 nasopharingeal aspirates were collected and tested for the presence of EV109 by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). In positive samples, the presence of the most common respiratory viruses was also assayed and clinical symptoms were evaluated. Samples from 2 of the 974 infants tested positive for EV109 RNA (0.2%) and belonged to patients with lower ARDs; co-infection with other viral pathogens under study was observed in both cases. In transplant recipients, one out of the 175 samples analyzed, from a patients with upper respiratory simptoms tested positive for HEV 109 in the absence of co-infecting viruses. Sequence analysis of amplified EV109 genomic regions, showed only a few nucleotide differences when compared with the Nicaraguan strains. Conclusions Overall these results indicate that HEV109 variants have circulated and differentiated in different lineages worldwide. Although more cases and larger studies are needed, HEV109 infection may be associated to ARDs both in infants and in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. If these preliminary observations will be confirmed, improved molecular methods with a wider panel of potential pathogens will be useful for monitoring these categories of patients. PMID:22947270

2012-01-01

219

Improving the diagnosis of meningitis due to enterovirus and herpes simplex virus I and II in a tertiary care hospital  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus and herpes simplex viruses are common causes of lymphocytic meningitis. The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of the use molecular testing for Enteroviruses and Herpes simplex viruses I and II in all suspected cases of viral meningitis. Methods From November 18, 2008 to November 17, 2009 (phase II, intervention), all patients admitted with suspected viral meningitis (with pleocytosis) had a CSF sample tested using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Data collected during this period were compared to those from the previous one-year period, i.e. November 18, 2007 to November 17, 2008 (phase I, observational), when such tests were available but not routinely used. Results In total, 2,536 CSF samples were assessed, of which 1,264 were from phase I, and 1,272 from phase II. Of this total, a NAAT for Enterovirus was ordered in 123 cases during phase I (9.7% of the total phase I sample) and in 221 cases in phase II (17.4% of the total phase II sample). From these, Enterovirus was confirmed in 35 (28.5%, 35/123) patients during phase I and 71 (32.1%, 71/221) patients during phase II (p?=?0.107). The rate of diagnosis of meningitis by HSV I and II did not differ between the groups (13 patients, 6.5% in phase I and 13, 4.7% in phase II) (p?=?1.0), from 200 cases in phase I and 274 cases in phase II. Conclusions The number of cases diagnosed with enteroviral meningitis increased during the course of this study, leading us to believe that the strategy of performing NAAT for Enterovirus on every CSF sample with pleocytosis is fully justified. PMID:24138798

2013-01-01

220

Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories.

Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

2013-01-01

221

QUANTIFICATION OF ENTEROVIRUS AND HEPATITIS A VIRUSES IN WELLS AND SPRINGS IN EAST TENNESSEE USING REAL-TIME REVERSE TRANSCIPTION PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

This project involves development, validation testing and application of a fast, efficient method of quantitatively measuring occurrence and concentration of common human viral pathogens, enterovirus and hepatitis A virus, in ground water samples using real-time reverse transcrip...

222

Feline infectious peritonitis: still an enigma?  

PubMed

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the most important fatal infectious diseases of cats, the pathogenesis of which has not yet been fully revealed. The present review focuses on the biology of feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection and the pathogenesis and pathological features of FIP. Recent studies have revealed functions of many viral proteins, differing receptor specificity for type I and type II FCoV, and genomic differences between feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs) and FIP viruses (FIPVs). FECV and FIP also exhibit functional differences, since FECVs replicate mainly in intestinal epithelium and are shed in feces, and FIPVs replicate efficiently in monocytes and induce systemic disease. Thus, key events in the pathogenesis of FIP are systemic infection with FIPV, effective and sustainable viral replication in monocytes, and activation of infected monocytes. The host's genetics and immune system also play important roles. It is the activation of monocytes and macrophages that directly leads to the pathologic features of FIP, including vasculitis, body cavity effusions, and fibrinous and granulomatous inflammatory lesions. Advances have been made in the clinical diagnosis of FIP, based on the clinical pathologic findings, serologic testing, and detection of virus using molecular (polymerase chain reaction) or antibody-based methods. Nevertheless, the clinical diagnosis remains challenging in particular in the dry form of FIP, which is partly due to the incomplete understanding of infection biology and pathogenesis in FIP. So, while much progress has been made, many aspects of FIP pathogenesis still remain an enigma. PMID:24569616

Kipar, A; Meli, M L

2014-03-01

223

The Infectious Range of Flu  

E-print Network

The Infectious Range of Flu Since the H5N1 strain of avian flu started crossing into people since 1990. In graduate school, he studied the molecular complex that allows the flu virus to replicate strain of avian flu had never been known to cross into humans. The infections immediately raised alarm

Hill, Wendell T.

224

The Mathematics of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many models for the spread of infectious diseases in populations have been analyzed math- ematically and applied to specific diseases. Threshold theorems involving the basic repro- duction number R0, the contact number ?, and the replacement number R are reviewed for the classic SIR epidemic and endemic models. Similar results with new expressions for R0 are obtained for MSEIR and

Herbert W. Hethcote

225

Global Spread of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

We develop simple models for the global spread of infectious diseases, emphasizing human mobility via air travel and the variation of public health infrastructure from region to region. We derive formulas relating the total and peak number of infections in two countries to the rate of travel between them and their respective epidemiological parameters.

S. Hsu; A. Zee

2003-06-25

226

Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

Howe, Warren B.

2003-01-01

227

Transplantation and tropical infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of transplant recipients with tropical infectious diseases is growing due to increasing international travel and the rising number of transplants taking place in the tropics and subtropics. With increases in population migration, the prevalence of individuals infected with geographically restricted organisms also rises. There are three potential categories of tropical infections in transplant patients: (1) donor-related infections transmitted

Carlos Franco-Paredes; Jesse T. Jacob; Alicia Hidron; Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales; David Kuhar; Angela M. Caliendo

2010-01-01

228

Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Exposure Control Plan  

E-print Network

Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Exposure Control Plan Pursuant to the requirements of the MIOSHA Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Standard (R 325.70001 through R 325.700018) Wayne State University Office

Berdichevsky, Victor

229

Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... medical research and treatments during the 20th century, infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of death worldwide. ...

230

Computational Modeling and Simulation of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Computational Modeling and Simulation of Infectious Diseases May 21­July 27, 2012 Receive a 10-week of Public Health Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS) National Center of Excellence #12;

Sibille, Etienne

231

Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

Huang, M.-C. [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: u9315915@ccms.nkfust.edu.tw; Lin, Jim Juimin [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)

2008-11-15

232

Rev. 01072013 Veterinary School / VHUP Infectious Waste Disposal Guide*  

E-print Network

it within your building. Container Type Glassware/ Plasticware Waste Cardboard Box Infectious Waste Sharps cardboard glassware boxes with heavy, clear plastic bags. Do not use biohazard boxes or red/orange bags Disposal Methods Seal cardboard box when Âľ full for housekeepers to remove. Hill, Rosenthal, and Old Vet

Plotkin, Joshua B.

233

Review article Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

Review article Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France Barbara DUFOUR for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases C. Jewel, T. Kypraios, P. Neal & G. Roberts of Mathematics, The University of Manchester #12;Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases. C. Jewell Infectious diseases both within human and animal polulations often pose serious health and socio- economic

Sidorov, Nikita

235

Life course epidemiology and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a traditional view that divided epidemiology into infectious and chronic diseases. Since we now know that at least 15% of cancers worldwide are caused by infections,1 that infections frequently have a natural history lasting decades and that the same epidemiological methods can be applied to both infectious and non-infectious diseases, this view can be considered purely historical.

Andrew J Hall; Leland J Yee; Sara L Thomas

2002-01-01

236

Genetic Contributions to Infectious Disease Risk Infectious disease in cattle production  

E-print Network

Genetic Contributions to Infectious Disease Risk Infectious disease in cattle production remains for novel approaches to disease control. One of the opportunities to mitigate infectious disease threats To identify genetic polymorphisms associated with infectious diseases of cattle of importance to animal

237

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Genomics Program The NIAID Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) has, therapeutics, and vaccines for the treatment and ultimate prevention of infectious and immune-mediated diseases

Levin, Judith G.

238

Enterovirus 71 infection cleaves a negative regulator for viral internal ribosomal entry site-driven translation.  

PubMed

Far-upstream element-binding protein 2 (FBP2) is an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) trans-acting factor (ITAF) that negatively regulates enterovirus 71 (EV71) translation. This study shows that EV71 infection cleaved FBP2. Live EV71 and the EV71 replicon (but not UV-inactivated virus particles) induced FBP2 cleavage, suggesting that viral replication results in FBP2 cleavage. The results also showed that virus-induced proteasome, autophagy, and caspase activity co-contribute to EV71-induced FBP2 cleavage. Using FLAG-fused FBP2, we mapped the potential cleavage fragments of FBP2 in infected cells. We also found that FBP2 altered its function when its carboxyl terminus was cleaved. This study presents a mechanism for virus-induced cellular events to cleave a negative regulator for viral IRES-driven translation. PMID:23345520

Chen, Li-Lien; Kung, Yu-An; Weng, Kuo-Feng; Lin, Jing-Yi; Horng, Jim-Tong; Shih, Shin-Ru

2013-04-01

239

Complete coding regions of the prototypes enterovirus B93 and C95: Phylogenetic analyses of the P1 and P3 regions of EV-B and EV-C strains.  

PubMed

Complete coding regions were sequenced for two new enterovirus genomes: EV-B93 previously identified by VP1 sequencing, derived from a child with acute flaccid paralysis in the Democratic Republic of Congo; and EV-C95 from a French soldier with acute gastroenteritis in Djibouti. The EV-B93 P1 had more than 30% nucleotide divergence from other EV-B types, with highest similarity to E-15 and EV-B80. The P1 nucleotide sequence of EV-C95 was most similar, 71%, to CV-A21. Complete coding regions for the new enteroviruses were compared with those of 135 EV-B and 176 EV-C strains representing all types available in GenBank. When strains from the same outbreak or strains isolated during the same year in the same geographical region were excluded, 27 of the 58 EV-B, and 16 of the 23 EV-C types were represented by more than one sequence. However, for EV-B the P3 sequences formed three clades mainly according to origin or time of isolation, irrespective of type, while for EV-C the P3 sequences segregated mainly according to disease manifestation, with most strains causing paralysis, including polioviruses, forming one clade, and strains causing respiratory illness forming another. There was no intermixing of types between these two clades, apart from two EV-C96 strains. The EV-B P3 sequences had lower inter-clade and higher intra-clade variability as compared to the EV-C sequences, which may explain why inter-clade recombinations are more frequent in EV-B. Further analysis of more isolates may shed light on the role of recombinations in the evolution of EV-B in geographical context. J. Med. Virol. 87:485-497, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25163640

Junttila, N; Lévęque, N; Magnius, L O; Kabue, J P; Muyembe-Tamfum, J J; Maslin, J; Lina, B; Norder, H

2015-03-01

240

Inhibition of enterovirus 71 infection by antisense octaguanidinium dendrimer-conjugated morpholino oligomers.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections are generally manifested as mild hand, foot and mouth disease, but have been reported to cause severe neurological complications with high mortality rates. Treatment options remain limited due to the lack of antivirals. Octaguanidinium-conjugated morpholino oligomers (vivo-MOs) are single-stranded DNA-like antisense agents that can readily penetrate cells and reduce gene expression by steric blocking of complementary RNA sequences. In this study, inhibitory effects of three vivo-MOs that are complementary to the EV-71 internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) were tested in RD cells. Vivo-MO-1 and vivo-MO-2 targeting the EV-71 IRES showed significant viral plaque reductions of 2.5 and 3.5 log10PFU/ml, respectively. Both vivo-MOs reduced viral RNA copies and viral capsid expression in RD cells in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, vivo-MO-3 targeting the EV-71 RdRP exhibited less antiviral activity. Both vivo-MO-1 and 2 remained active when administered either 4h before or within 6h after EV-71 infection. Vivo-MO-2 exhibited antiviral activities against poliovirus (PV) and coxsackievirus A16 but vivo-MO-1 showed no antiviral activities against PV. Both the IRES-targeting vivo-MO-1 and vivo-MO-2 inhibit EV-71 RNA translation. Resistant mutants arose after serial passages in the presence of vivo-MO-1, but none were isolated against vivo-MO-2. A single T to C substitution at nucleotide position 533 was sufficient to confer resistance to vivo-MO-1. Our findings suggest that IRES-targeting vivo-MOs are good antiviral candidates for treating early EV-71 infection, and vivo-MO-2 is a more favorable candidate with broader antiviral spectrum against enteroviruses and are refractory to antiviral resistance. PMID:24769243

Tan, Chee Wah; Chan, Yoke Fun; Quah, Yi Wan; Poh, Chit Laa

2014-07-01

241

Continuous myocloni and tonic spasms in a 2-month-old infant with enterovirus 71 brain stem encephalitis.  

PubMed

Brain stem encephalitis is a cardinal presentation of central nervous system involvement in enterovirus 71 infection, and manifests as myoclonus, ataxia, tremor, and autonomic dysfunction. A 2-month-old infant with enterovirus 71 brain stem encephalitis demonstrated continuous myocloni and tonic spasms. On admission, the patient's myoclonus, which mainly involved the shoulders and the arms, was considerably worse during wakefulness and occurred once or twice a minute. Several hours after admission, the myoclonic jerks steadily worsened, appeared ceaselessly every 1 to 2?seconds, and were intermixed with tonic spasms of all four extremities accompanied by crying. Video electroencephalography revealed a normal background without epileptiform discharges and no ictal electroencephalographic changes during the myoclonic jerks and tonic spasms. Complete remission was achieved without complications after completion of a 3-day immunoglobulin therapy. This case suggests that the brain stem may be a major origin site for not only myoclonus but also tonic spasm. PMID:25290724

Lee, Kyung Yeon; Yeh, Hye-Ryun

2015-02-01

242

Identification of detergents as components of wastewater sludge that modify the thermal stability of reovirus and enteroviruses.  

PubMed Central

The agent in wastewater sludge previously shown to reduce the heat required to inactivate reovirus (R. L. Ward and C. S. Ashley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34:681--688, 1977) was "separated" from other sludge components and analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The infrared spectrum of this material was quite similar to the spectra of commercial anionic detergents, and subsequent analyses of the fractionated sludge samples revealed that anionic detergents in sludge were copurified with the virucidal activity. Further measurements on the virucidal activities of specific detergents revealed that ionic detergents reduce the heat required to inactivate reovirus, that cationic detergents are more active than anionic, and that nonionic detergents are inactive. Several detergents were also shown to protect poliovirus and other enteroviruses against inactivation by heat. These results indicate that ionic detergents are the major component in wastewater sludge that reduce the thermal stability of reovirus and, in addition, that detergents are able to protect enteroviruses against heat. PMID:216308

Ward, R L; Ashley, C S

1978-01-01

243

Seven Strains of Enterovirus D68 Detected in the United States during the 2014 Severe Respiratory Disease Outbreak  

PubMed Central

Clusters of severe respiratory disease in the United States were reported to the CDC beginning in August 2014. Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was identified from 83% (30/36) of initial severe cases. Investigations in August and September found severe EV-D68 cases to be widespread across the United States. We report seven EV-D68 genomes from the outbreak. PMID:25414503

Brown, B. A.; Nix, W. A.; Sheth, M.; Frace, M.

2014-01-01

244

75 FR 54896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...niaid.nih.gov. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Nonhuman Primate Major Histocompatibility Complex Gene Discovery and Typing. Date: October 4, 2010. Time: 10 a.m. to 2 p.m....

2010-09-09

245

Enterovirus genomes in wastewater: concentration on glass wool and glass powder and detection by RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Standard methods for detecting enteroviruses in environmental samples require cell culture, which is time consuming and expensive. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a rapid, sensitive method for detecting enteroviruses in water. However, environmental samples often contain substances that inhibit PCR amplification of target RNA. Hence the virus must be concentrated by procedures that do not interfere with amplification. This study shows that virus concentration by adsorption onto glass powder or glass wool supports is suitable for detecting viral genomes in treated wastewater by RT semi-nested PCR. No enterovirus genome was detected directly in 25 samples of treated wastewater by RT semi-nested PCR. However, samples concentrated by adsorption onto glass wool or glass powder showed that 48% (glass powder) and 56% (glass wool) contained virus. Secondary concentration by organic flocculation was unsuitable for detecting virus concentrated on glass wool (20% positive samples), but it helped to increase the detection of the genome after concentration on glass powder (72% positive samples). PMID:9186950

Gantzer, C; Senouci, S; Maul, A; Levi, Y; Schwartzbrod, L

1997-05-01

246

Evolutionary Outcomes of Human Infectious Diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently it has been shown that a simple model was able to reproduce the main "types" of infectious diseases encountered in human populations. This model takes into account key features of the immune system at the within-host level and an implicit description of the contact network of the host population at the between-hosts level. The implicit description of contact network neglects population-level selective pressures such as fluctuations in the number of infected individuals potentially leading to risk of extinction. We present a nested model that allows to keep a within-host level description of immune processes while allowing an explicit description of the ongoing epidemiological dynamics. This model allows us to understand the impact of human population size and contact networks structure in shaping the fitness optima for pathogens life history traits. We mostly focus on variation in duration of infection and antigenic evolution leading to immune escape.

Ballesteros, Sebastien; Combadao, Jaime

2010-09-01

247

Genital tract viral load in HIV Type 1-positive women correlates with specific cytokine levels in cervical-vaginal secretions but is not a determinant of infectious virus or anti-HIV activity.  

PubMed

As the AIDS epidemic continues with women being disproportionately affected, it is crucial to understand factors that predict the risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission. We investigated whether genital tract viral load (GTVL) in cervical-vaginal lavages (CVL) from HIV-1-positive women with moderately low CD4 T cell counts correlates with cytokine levels, antimicrobial concentrations, and intrinsic anti-HIV activity. CVL were collected from 19 HIV-1-positive women with moderately low CD4 T cell counts [mean 381 cells/mm(3) (227-536 cells/mm(3))]. None of the women was on antiretroviral therapy. The women were categorized into those with detectable GTVL or those with undetectable GTVL (detectable GTVL RNA levels >?400 copies/ml). Women were also categorized according to bacterial vaginosis (BV) status irrespective of GTVL. The TZM-bl assay was used to determine the presence of infectious virus and anti-HIV activity. Significantly higher levels of RANTES, Eotaxin, Fractalkine, IL-1?, IL-6, MCP-1, MIP1?, MIP1?, TNF-?, and GM-CSF were observed in women with detectable GTVL compared to women with undetectable GTVL. No significant differences were observed in the following cytokines and chemokines: G-CSF, IL-1RA, IL-8, and IP-10. GTVL did not correlate either with antimicrobials known to have anti-HIV activity or with the presence of infectious virus. BV status did not have a significant effect on anti-HIV activity. These findings further our understanding of the role of GTVL in determining the cytokine and chemokine milieu in the female reproductive tract. PMID:22356616

Mukura, Lucy R; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Wira, Charles R

2012-11-01

248

Merging Economics and Epidemiology to Improve the Prediction and Management of Infectious Disease.  

PubMed

Mathematical epidemiology, one of the oldest and richest areas in mathematical biology, has significantly enhanced our understanding of how pathogens emerge, evolve, and spread. Classical epidemiological models, the standard for predicting and managing the spread of infectious disease, assume that contacts between susceptible and infectious individuals depend on their relative frequency in the population. The behavioral factors that underpin contact rates are not generally addressed. There is, however, an emerging a class of models that addresses the feedbacks between infectious disease dynamics and the behavioral decisions driving host contact. Referred to as "economic epidemiology" or "epidemiological economics," the approach explores the determinants of decisions about the number and type of contacts made by individuals, using insights and methods from economics. We show how the approach has the potential both to improve predictions of the course of infectious disease, and to support development of novel approaches to infectious disease management. PMID:25233829

Perrings, Charles; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Chowell, Gerardo; Daszak, Peter; Fenichel, Eli P; Finnoff, David; Horan, Richard D; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Kinzig, Ann P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Levin, Simon; Morin, Benjamin; Smith, Katherine F; Springborn, Michael

2014-09-19

249

Etiologic role of infectious agents.  

PubMed

A consensus statement found in most peer-reviewed literature on sarcoidosis is that the etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown. It is timely to review whether this statement should be revised. Many infectious agents meet the basic requirements of inducing granulomatous inflammation and immunologic responses consistent with sarcoidosis including oligoclonal expansion of CD4+ T cells, polarized Th1 and possibly Th17 responses, and dysregulated regulatory T-cell function. Studies over the past decade provide increasing and complementary data to implicate a role for infectious agents in sarcoidosis etiology. These studies used different methodologies such as polymerase chain reaction and mass spectrometry to document microbial nucleic acids and proteins in sarcoidosis tissues. Multiple studies report antigen-specific immune responses to specific microbial proteins in sarcoidosis. In aggregate, these studies provide compelling evidence that mycobacteria play a major etiologic role in sarcoidosis in the United States and Europe. Studies from Japan support a role for Propionibacteria as a major etiologic agent in the country. There is controversy over how these (or other) infectious agents cause sarcoidosis. The hypothesis that chronic sarcoidosis is caused by a viable, replicating mycobacterial or other infection has no direct pathologic, microbiologic, or clinical evidence. A novel hypothesis links microbial triggers to a sarcoidosis outcome from the accumulation of aggregated proinflammatory serum amyloid A within granulomas, providing a mechanism for chronic disease in the absence of any viable tissue infection. Further studies are needed to provide more definitive evidence for these competing hypotheses before the statement that the etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown becomes obsolete. PMID:25007081

Chen, Edward S; Moller, David R

2014-06-01

250

Host Genomics in Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Understanding mechanisms by which genetic variants predispose to complications of infectious diseases can lead to important benefits including the development of biomarkers to prioritize vaccination or prophylactic therapy. Family studies, candidate genes in animal models, and the absence of well-defined risks where the complications are rare all can point to genetic predisposition. The most common approach to assessing genetic risk is to conduct an association study, which is a case control study using either a candidate gene approach or a genome wide approach. Although candidate gene variants may focus on potentially causal variants, because other variants across the genome are not tested these studies frequently cannot be replicated. Genome wide association studies need a sizable sample and usually do not identify causal variants but variants which may be in linkage disequilibrium to the actual causal variant. There are many pitfalls that can lead to bias in such studies, including misclassification of cases and controls, use of improper phenotypes, and genotyping errors. These studies have been limited to common genes and rare variants may not be detected. As the use of next generation sequencing becomes more common, it can be anticipated that more variants will be confirmed. The purpose of this review article is to address the issue of genomics in infectious diseases with an emphasis on the host. Although there are a plentitude of studies that focus on the molecular characteristics of pathogens, there are far fewer studies that address the role of human genetics in the predisposition to infection or more commonly its complications. This paper will review both the approaches used to study host genetics in humans and the pitfalls associated with some of these methods. The focus will be on human disease and therefore discussion of the use of animal models will be limited to those where there are genes that have been replicated in humans. The paper will focus on common genetic variants that account for complex traits such as infectious diseases using examples from flaviviruses. PMID:24396626

2013-01-01

251

[Traumatic, infectious or degenerative pathology].  

PubMed

CRANIO-ENCEPHALIC TRAUMAS: Scanography remains the examination of choice. However, MRI can be useful in diagnosis of diffuse axional lesions, not clearly visualized with scanography, and for screening the subsequent lesions. INFECTIOUS OR INFLAMMATORY LESIONS: Some are very evocative with MRI: cerebral abscesses, notably herpetic encephalitis and Creutzfeldt-Jacob's disease. If multiple sclerosis is suspected, MRI is considered as the principle para-clinical examination able to confirm the diagnosis with the first episode. It also supplies data for the diagnosis of metabolic, toxic and degenerative diseases. PMID:12148375

Meder, J F; Brami-Zylberberg, F; Oppenheim, C; Méary, E; Martinez-Lozano, F; Delvat, D; Frédy, D

2002-06-01

252

Quantitative Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Enteroviruses Near the United States-Mexico Border and Correlation with Levels of Fecal Indicator Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

For decades, untreated sewage flowing northward from Tijuana, Mexico, via the Tijuana River has adversely affected the water quality of the recreational beaches of San Diego, California. We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure the levels of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses in coastal waters near the United States-Mexico border and compared these levels to those of the conventional fecal indicators, Escherichia coli and enterococci. Over a 2-year period from 2003 to 2005, a total of 20 samples were assayed at two sites during both wet and dry weather: the surfzone at the mouth of the Tijuana River and the surfzone near the pier at Imperial Beach (IB), California (about 2 km north of the mouth of the Tijuana River). HAV and enterovirus were detected in 79 and 93% of the wet-weather samples, respectively. HAV concentrations in these samples ranged from 105 to 30,771 viral particles/liter, and enterovirus levels ranged from 7 to 4,417 viral particles/liter. The concentrations of HAV and enterovirus were below the limit of detection for all dry weather samples collected at IB. Regression analyses showed a significant correlation between the densities of both fecal bacterial indicators and the levels of HAV (R2 > 0.61, P < 0.0001) and enterovirus (R2 > 0.70, P < 0.0001), a finding that supports the use of conventional bacterial indicators to predict the levels of these viruses in recreational marine waters. PMID:16980430

Gersberg, Richard M.; Rose, Michael A.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Dhar, Arun K.

2006-01-01

253

Infectious Diseases and the Immune System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson is design to explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. Primarily, it focuses on infectious diseases and how the immune system defend the body against infectious diseases. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engage, analytical and inquisitive in learning about infectious diseases and the immune system.

Cruz, Arnel D.

2012-06-28

254

[The microbiota and infectious diarrhea].  

PubMed

Understanding the importance of the fecal microbiota has been key in understanding the pathophysiology of some infectious diarrheas. In addition to normal protective measures of bile, gastric acid, and immune response, among others, we now know that the healthy gut flora protects us from some infectious diarrheas. Antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) is an excellent example, as antibiotics perturb the normal flora; the resulting diarrhea may be due to changes in short chain fatty acid metabolism. A severe form of AAD is due to Clostridium difficile, a pathogen that can cause severe diarrhea, colitis and even death. Recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhea is a difficult clinical problem to treat successfully because one recurrence makes further recurrences more likely, probably because antibiotics are still needed to treat and thus the fecal flora remains abnormal. There is no single effective treatment but therapies include pulsed and tapered antibiotics, the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii as an adjunct to antibiotics, and even fecal flora reconstitution. It is likely that we will learn even more in the future about the beneficial effect of our microbiota. PMID:20889002

Surawicz, C-M

2010-09-01

255

Infectious Diseases Subdue Serengeti Lions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Infectious diseases stalk wildlife in the Serengeti, and climate change may be an accessory. Lions face serious threats to their future, some head-on, others lurking in the grasses, unseen until it's almost too late. From growing numbers of people living along the Serengeti perimeter to the effects of infectious diseases and climate change, the king of beasts (Panthera leo) leads an uneasy life. For example, lions are subject to simultaneous outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) and babesiosis. CDV, a disease that results in encephalitis and pneumonia, is transmitted by domestic dogs; babesiosis is carried by a tick-borne blood parasite called Babesia. If extreme weather events become more frequent as a result of global climate change, disease may become a major threat to animal populations that have been historically stable. Diseases once thought to have limited impacts, such as babesiosis, should be watched closely. Environmental conditions may tip the scales and result in significantly greater impacts, even in wide open places like the Serengeti.

Cheryl Dybas (Freelance; )

2009-01-01

256

Infectious bursal disease virus variant from commercial Leghorn pullets.  

PubMed

An infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was isolated from 39-to-43-day-old commercial leghorn pullets suspected of having infectious bursal disease (IBD). These chickens had been vaccinated with a commercial live IBDV vaccine at 28 and 35 days of age. An isolate designated IN was recovered using specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and the BGM-70 established cell line. Experimental studies using SPF chickens vaccinated with either inactivated vaccines made from the vaccine strain used in the problem flock or a standard-type vaccine indicated no protection against the IN isolate. However, two variants and another standard-type vaccine induced protection against the IN isolate. Cross-neutralization tests indicated that the IN isolate differed antigenically from commercial vaccine strains and was related to the variant IBDV strains recently isolated from broilers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a variant IBDV recovered from commercial layer chickens in the United States. PMID:2157389

Ismail, N M; Saif, Y M; Wigle, W L; Havenstein, G B; Jackson, C

1990-01-01

257

Infectious Disease Updates To minimize the risk of any infectious disease, practice these daily preventive  

E-print Network

10/23/14 1 Infectious Disease Updates To minimize the risk of any infectious disease, practice spread this way. · Don't share food or drink items, utensils, tooth brushes, cigarettes, joints, or any diseases of concern. #12;10/23/14 2 Specific Infectious Diseases 1) Influenza (flu) http

Su, Xiao

258

Concentration of enteroviruses from large volumes of tap water, treated sewage, and seawater.  

PubMed Central

Methods are described for the efficient concentration of an enterovirus from large volumes of tap water, sewage, and seawater. Virus in acidified water (pH 3.5) in the presence of aluminum chloride was adsorbed to a 10-inch (ca. 25.4 cm) fiberglass depth cartridge and a 10-inch pleated epoxy-fiberglass filter in a series at flow rates of up to 37.8 liters (10 gallons) per min. Adsorbed viruses were eluted from the filters with glycine buffer (pH 10.5 to 11.5), and the eluate was reconcentrated by using a combination of aluminum flocculation followed by hydroextraction. With this procedure, poliovirus in large volumes of tap water, seawater, and sewage could be concentrated with an average efficiency of 52, 53, and 50%, respectively. It was demonstrated that this method is capable of detecting surface solid-associated viruses originating from sewage treatment plants. No difference in virus recovery between laboratory batch studies and a set-up with acid-salt injection was found. This unified scheme for the concentration of viruses has many advantages over previously described systems. These include: high operating flow rates, low weight and small size, effectiveness with a variety of waters with widely varying qualities, and filters with a high resistance to clogging. PMID:205175

Gerba, C P; Farrah, S R; Goyal, S M; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

1978-01-01

259

Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits the Replication and Viability of Enterovirus 71 In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an etiology for a number of diseases in humans. Traditional Chinese herbs have been reported to be effective for treating EV71 infection. However, there is no report about the antiviral effects of CHA against EV71. In this study, plaque reduction assay demonstrated that the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of CHA on EV71 replication is 6.3 µg/ml. When both CHA (20 µg/ml) and EV71 were added, or added post-infection at different time points, CHA was able to effectively inhibit EV71 replication between 0 and 10 h. In addition, CHA inhibited EV71 2A transcription and translation in EV71-infected RD cells, but did not affect VP1, 3C, and 3D expression. Furthermore, CHA inhibited secretions of IL-6, TNF-?, IFN-? and MCP-1 in EV71-infected RD cells. Altogether, these results revealed that CHA may have antiviral properties for treating EV71 infection. PMID:24098754

Hou, Xueling; Peng, Hongjun; Zhang, Li; Shi, Mei; Ji, Yun; Wang, Yuyue

2013-01-01

260

Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16.  

PubMed

Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 (IC(50) = 35.88??g/mL) and CVA16 (IC(50) = 42.91??g/mL). Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions. PMID:22666293

Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Zhang, Yongjun; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Kung, Szu-Hao; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

2012-01-01

261

Enterovirus 71 infection and acute neurological disease among children in Brazil (1988-1990).  

PubMed

Surveillance for Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infection in children up to 15 years of age was carried out in Brazil, from 1988 to 1990. Patients with acute neurological diseases (AND) such as flaccid paralysis, Bell's palsy, acute cerebellar ataxia and Guillain-Barré syndrome were included in the study. EV-71 infection was detected in 24 of 426 children (5.6%) with AND. EV-71 infection was confirmed only by virus isolation in 13 children, by virus isolation and seroconversion in 4, and by seroconversion alone in 7. EV-71 was also isolated from 15 of the 427 household contacts (3.5%) of 165 AND patients. There was some evidence of high infectivity of EV-71: household clusters were detected in the case of 7 of 24 children (29.1%) infected with EV-71 and manifesting AND; EV-71 was isolated from 11/40 household contacts (27.5%) of the infected patients but from only 4/387 household contacts (1.0%) of children in whom it was not possible to demonstrate EV-71 infection. Seven of the 24 children infected with EV-71 exhibited residual motor deficiency when examined 6 months after the disease onset. The relevance of these results for the Plan for Global Eradication of Wild Poliovirus is discussed, as well as the need to increase knowledge about the behaviour of this virus and its possible association with AND. PMID:9692141

Takimoto, S; Waldman, E A; Moreira, R C; Kok, F; Pinheiro, F de P; Saes, S G; Hatch, M; de Souza, D F; Carmona, R de C; Shout, D; de Moraes, J C; Costa, A M

1998-01-01

262

Identification of small interfering RNAs which inhibit the replication of several Enterovirus 71 strains in China.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV 71) is one of the commonest causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which infects mainly young children. It has been associated with severe neurological complications worldwide, and has caused significant deaths in many provinces of China from March to May 2008. In this study, RNA interference (RNAi) was used as an antiviral agent to inhibit EV 71 replication in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. Three small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting extremely conserved regions among multiple EV 71 strains in China could effectively block the replication of EV 71 strain Shzh-98. Combination transfection of these three siRNAs could produce a strong inhibitory effect not only in strain Shzh-98, but also in one epidemic strain Fuyang-0805 isolated from a child in the city of Fuyang with a clinical diagnosis of HFMD in 2008. These strategies and results suggest that RNAi has potential therapeutic use for the suppression of EV 71 infection in a broad spectrum of viral strains. PMID:19490979

Wu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Rong; Zhao, Lina; Guo, Deyin; Jin, Qi

2009-08-01

263

Genetic diversity and C2-like subgenogroup strains of enterovirus 71, Taiwan, 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is known of having caused numerous outbreaks of hand-foot-mouth disease, and other clinical manifestations globally. In 2008, 989 EV-71 strains were isolated in Taiwan. Results In this study, the genetic and antigenic properties of these strains were analyzed and the genetic diversity of EV-71 subgenogroups surfacing in Taiwan was depicted, which includes 3 previously reported subgenogroups of C5, B5, and C4, and one C2-like subgenogroup. Based on the phylogenetic analyses using their complete genome nucleotide sequences and neutralization tests, the C2-like subgenogroup forms a genetically distinct cluster from other subgenogroups, and the antisera show a maximum of 128-fold decrease of neutralization titer against this subgenogroup. In addition, the subgenogroup C4 isolates of 2008 were found quite similar genetically to the Chinese strains that caused outbreaks in recent years and thus they should be carefully watched. Conclusions Other than to be the first report describing the existence of C2-like subgenogroup of EV-71 in Taiwan, this article also foresees a potential of subgenogroup C4 outbreaks in Taiwan in the near future. PMID:20959020

2010-01-01

264

Altered cellular but not humoral reactions in children with complicated enterovirus 71 infections in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV 71) infections have high neurovirulence and fatality. Immune responses were assessed in 78 patients with EV 71 infection. EV 71 meningoencephalitis occurred more frequently in younger children and in boys. C-reactive protein levels were not elevated, although total leukocyte counts were increased in these patients. The CD40-ligand expression on T cells significantly decreased in children with meningoencephalitis (P=.041). Polymorphism of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) at position 49 of exon 1 showed a higher frequency of G/G genotype in patients with EV 71 meningoencephalitis than in those without meningoencephalitis (18/31 vs. 14/47; P=.045) and in control subjects (18/31 vs. 25/93l; P=.007). Specific EV 71 neutralizing antibody titers were detectable but did not differ in children with and without meningoencephalitis in the acute and convalescent stages. Results from this study suggest that younger children with a certain CTLA-4 polymorphism and altered cellular but not humoral response may be linked to EV 71 meningoencephalitis. PMID:11237800

Yang, K D; Yang, M Y; Li, C C; Lin, S F; Chong, M C; Wang, C L; Chen, R F; Lin, T Y

2001-03-15

265

Inhibition of Enterovirus 71 replication by 7-hydroxyflavone and diisopropyl-flavon7-yl Phosphate.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, which has been continuously prevalent in Asia in recent years. In children, severe cases can lead to death, and no prophylactic or therapeutic measures against EV71 infection are available. The 3C proteases of EV71 play an important role in viral replication and are an ideal drug target. In previous work, we resolved the crystal structure for EV71 3Cpro. In this report, we took advantage of the automated docking program AutoDock 4.0 to simulate EV71 3Cpro-ligand conformation. 7-hydroxyflavone (HF) and its phosphate ester(FIP) were predicted to bind with EV71 3Cpro.In an in vitro protease inhibition assay, FIP inhibited EV71 3Cpro protease activity. Both flavones were highly active against EV71, protecting cells from EV71 infection. Replication of viral RNA and formation of EV71 plaque were all strongly inhibited in cells. These results indicated that HF and FIP may serve as potential protective agents in the treatment of patients with chronic EV71 infection. PMID:24664133

Wang, Jianmin; Su, Haoxiang; Zhang, Ting; Du, Jiang; Cui, Sheng; Yang, Fan; Jin, Qi

2014-01-01

266

Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16  

PubMed Central

Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 35.88??g/mL) and CVA16 (IC50 = 42.91??g/mL). Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions. PMID:22666293

Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Zhang, Yongjun; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Kung, Szu-Hao; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

2012-01-01

267

Seroepidemiology of human enterovirus71 and coxsackievirusA16 among children in Guangdong province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness. Mainly induced by the Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A 16 infections, the frequently occurred HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public health problem in Southeast Asia. Currently,only a few studies have investigated the human immunity to HFMD in China. In this study, we conducted a cohort study in Guangdong province, China. Methods Stored serum samples from children less than 10 years old were analyzed. The levels of EV71 and CA16 specific antibodies before, during and shortly after the 2008 large outbreak of HFMD were evaluated by the microneutralization test. The geometric mean titer (GMT) was calculated and compared. Statistical significance was taken as P?

2013-01-01

268

Characterization of the enterovirus 71 VP1 protein as a vaccine candidate.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important agent responsible for hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), which can cause severe neurological complications and death in children. However, there is no specific treatment for EV71 infection, and a safe and effective vaccine is needed urgently. In this study, an effective and economical method for the production of EV71-VP1 protein was developed, and the VP1 protein was evaluated in humoral and cellular immune responses as an EV71 vaccine. The results revealed that the VP1 protein induced high titers of cross-neutralizing antibodies for different EV71 subtypes, and elicited significant splenocyte proliferation. The high levels of IFN-r and IL-10 showed the VP1 protein induced a mixed Th1 and Th2 immune response. Vaccinated female mice could confer protection in their neonatal offspring. Compared with the inactivated EV71, the VP1 protein elicited similar humoral and cellular responses, but the engineered protein is safer, less expensive and can be produced more efficiently. Therefore, EV71-VP1 protein can induce effective immunologic protection against EV71 and is an ideal candidate against EV71 infection. J. Med. Virol. 87:256-262, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25043151

Zhou, Shi-Li; Ying, Xiao-Ling; Han, Xue; Sun, Xian-Xun; Jin, Qi; Yang, Fan

2015-02-01

269

A prospective Korean multicenter study for infectious complications in patients undergoing prostate surgery: risk factors and efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis.  

PubMed

This multicenter study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and identify the risk factors for infectious complications after prostate surgery in Korean patients. A total of 424 patients who underwent surgery of the prostate were reviewed. All patients underwent urinalysis and urine culture preoperatively and postoperatively. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and risk factors for infectious complications were investigated. Infectious complications were observed in 34.9% of all patients. Factors independently associated with infectious complications were diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.09-3.65, P=0.025) and operation time (adjusted OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13, P=0.004). Clinicians should be aware of the high risk of infectious complications in patients with diabetes and those who undergo a prolonged operation time. Neither the type nor duration of prophylactic antibiotics resulted in differences in infectious complications. PMID:25246747

Hwang, Eu Chang; Jung, Seung Il; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Lee, Gilho; Bae, Jae Hyun; Na, Yong Gil; Min, Seung Ki; Son, Hwancheol; Lee, Sun Ju; Chung, Jae Min; Chung, Hong; Cho, In Rae; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Chang, In Ho

2014-09-01

270

A Prospective Korean Multicenter Study for Infectious Complications in Patients Undergoing Prostate Surgery: Risk Factors and Efficacy of Antibiotic Prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

This multicenter study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and identify the risk factors for infectious complications after prostate surgery in Korean patients. A total of 424 patients who underwent surgery of the prostate were reviewed. All patients underwent urinalysis and urine culture preoperatively and postoperatively. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and risk factors for infectious complications were investigated. Infectious complications were observed in 34.9% of all patients. Factors independently associated with infectious complications were diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.09-3.65, P=0.025) and operation time (adjusted OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13, P=0.004). Clinicians should be aware of the high risk of infectious complications in patients with diabetes and those who undergo a prolonged operation time. Neither the type nor duration of prophylactic antibiotics resulted in differences in infectious complications. Graphical Abstract PMID:25246747

2014-01-01

271

Exact solution of a stochastic susceptible-infectious-recovered model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model describes the evolution of three species of individuals which are subject to an infection and recovery mechanism. A susceptible S can become infectious with an infection rate ? by an infectious I type provided that both are in contact. The I type may recover with a rate ? and from then on stay immune. Due to the coupling between the different individuals, the model is nonlinear and out of equilibrium. We adopt a stochastic individual-based description where individuals are represented by nodes of a graph and contact is defined by the links of the graph. Mapping the underlying master equation onto a quantum formulation in terms of spin operators, the hierarchy of evolution equations can be solved exactly for arbitrary initial conditions on a linear chain. In the case of uncorrelated random initial conditions, the exact time evolution for all three individuals of the SIR model is given analytically. Depending on the initial conditions and reaction rates ? and ? , the I population may increase initially before decaying to zero. Due to fluctuations, isolated regions of susceptible individuals evolve, and unlike in the standard mean-field SIR model, one observes a finite stationary distribution of the S type even for large population size. The exact results for the ensemble-averaged population size are compared with simulations for single realizations of the process and also with standard mean-field theory, which is expected to be valid on large fully connected graphs.

Schütz, Gunter M.; Brandaut, Marian; Trimper, Steffen

2008-12-01

272

Stress and infectious disease in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on the role of stress in infectious disease as measured either by illness behaviors (symptoms and use of health services) or by verified pathology. Substantial evidence was found for an association between stress and increased illness behavior, and less convincing but provocative evidence was found for a similar association between stress and infectious pathology. Introverts, isolates,

Sheldon Cohen; Gail M. Williamson

1991-01-01

273

An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

2001-01-01

274

Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases…

Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

1970-01-01

275

Clinical and Translational Infectious Diseases Research  

E-print Network

Clinical and Translational Infectious Diseases Research Anita Shet, M.D. Associate Professor, Pediatrics St. John's Medical College, Bangalore MBBS: St John's Medical College, Bangalore MD: Univ of Minnesota, USA Infectious Diseases Fellowship: Univ of Minnesota, USA HIV Research: Rockefeller University

Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

276

Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a

Peter Daszak; Lee Berger; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt; D. Earl Green; Rick Speare

1999-01-01

277

Genetics of susceptibitlity to human infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before Robert Koch's work in the late nineteenth century, diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy were widely believed to be inherited disorders. Heritability of susceptibility to several infectious diseases has been confirmed by studies in the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, old and new, continue to be an important cause of mortality worldwide. A greater understanding of disease processes is needed

Graham S. Cooke; Adrian V. S. Hill

2001-01-01

278

Health outcomes and infectious disease control  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of improved health systems, antibiotics and vaccines throughout the 20th century, the prospects for control of infectious diseases improved. During the same time-frame, an approach to disease control was developed which used the health outcomes resulting from various interventions to choose, guide and modify those interventions. Despite these major advances in the control of diseases, infectious diseases

Aileen J. Plant; R. Louise Rushworth

1997-01-01

279

Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process  

PubMed Central

We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:25024856

To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

2014-01-01

280

The return of infectious disease.  

PubMed

This article presents the history of efforts to control the spread of infectious disease from the post-antibiotic era to 1995. Since World War II, public health strategy has focused on the eradication of microbes using powerful medical weaponry. The goal was to push humanity through a żhealth transition,ż leaving the age of infectious disease permanently behind. But recent developments have shown that this grandiose optimism was premature. As people move across international borders, unwanted microbial hitch-hikers tag along, as happened in the case of Ebola. In large cities, sex industries arise and multiple-partner sex becomes more common, prompting rapid increases in sexually transmitted disease. Moreover, the practice of sharing syringes is a ready vehicle for the transmission of microbes while unhygienic health facilities become centers for the dissemination of disease rather than its control. Black market access to antimicrobials has led to overuse or outright misuse of the drugs and the emergence of resistant bacteria and parasites. Consequently, old organisms, aided by mankind's misuse of disinfectants and drugs, may take on new and more lethal forms. Even when allegations of biological warfare are not flying, it is often difficult to obtain accurate information about outbreaks of disease, particularly in countries dependent on foreign investment or tourism or both. Unfortunately, only 6 laboratories in the world meet security and safety standards that would make them suitable sites for research on the world's deadliest microbes. National security warrants bolder steps involving focusing not only on microbes directly dangerous to humans, but also on those that could pose major threats to crops or livestock. Unfortunately, economic crises have led to budget cuts, particularly in health care, at all levels of government in the US. PMID:12349255

Garrett, L

1996-11-01

281

Toll-like receptor 9-mediated protection of enterovirus 71 infection in mice is due to the release of danger-associated molecular patterns.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a positive-stranded RNA virus, is the major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with severe neurological symptoms. Antiviral type I interferon (alpha/beta interferon [IFN-?/?]) responses initiated from innate receptor signaling are inhibited by EV71-encoded proteases. It is less well understood whether EV71-induced apoptosis provides a signal to activate type I interferon responses as a host defensive mechanism. In this report, we found that EV71 alone cannot activate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling, but supernatant from EV71-infected cells is capable of activating TLR9. We hypothesized that TLR9-activating signaling from plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) may contribute to host defense mechanisms. To test our hypothesis, Flt3 ligand-cultured DCs (Flt3L-DCs) from both wild-type (WT) and TLR9 knockout (TLR9KO) mice were infected with EV71. More viral particles were produced in TLR9KO mice than by WT mice. In contrast, alpha interferon (IFN-?), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), IFN-?, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-10 levels were increased in Flt3L-DCs from WT mice infected with EV71 compared with TLR9KO mice. Seven-day-old TLR9KO mice infected with a non-mouse-adapted EV71 strain developed neurological lesion-related symptoms, including hind-limb paralysis, slowness, ataxia, and lethargy, but WT mice did not present with these symptoms. Lung, brain, small intestine, forelimb, and hind-limb tissues collected from TLR9KO mice exhibited significantly higher viral loads than equivalent tissues collected from WT mice. Histopathologic damage was observed in brain, small intestine, forelimb, and hind-limb tissues collected from TLR9KO mice infected with EV71. Our findings demonstrate that TLR9 is an important host defense molecule during EV71 infection. Importance: The host innate immune system is equipped with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are useful for defending the host against invading pathogens. During enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection, the innate immune system is activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which include viral RNA or DNA, and these PAMPs are recognized by PRRs. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR7/8 recognize viral nucleic acids, and TLR9 senses unmethylated CpG DNA or pathogen-derived DNA. These PRRs stimulate the production of type I interferons (IFNs) to counteract viral infection, and they are the major source of antiviral alpha interferon (IFN-?) production in pDCs, which can produce 200- to 1,000-fold more IFN-? than any other immune cell type. In addition to PAMPs, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are known to be potent activators of innate immune signaling, including TLR9. We found that EV71 induces cellular apoptosis, resulting in tissue damage; the endogenous DNA from dead cells may activate the innate immune system through TLR9. Therefore, our study provides new insights into EV71-induced apoptosis, which stimulates TLR9 in EV71-associated infections. PMID:25078697

Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Lin, Su-I; Chen, I-Hua; Lien, Shu-Pei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chong, Pele; Liu, Shih-Jen

2014-10-01

282

Occupational assessment, screening and vaccination against specified infectious diseases PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

Occupational assessment, screening and vaccination against specified infectious diseases PROCEDURES the infectious diseases specified in this policy directive. Part 1 I have read and understand the requirements of the NSW Health Occupational Assessment, Screening and Vaccination against Specified Infectious Diseases

Viglas, Anastasios

283

76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

2011-05-10

284

Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: infectious causes.  

PubMed

Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD) is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases. PMID:17642966

Ayyagari, A; Agarwal, J; Garg, A

2003-01-01

285

Recurrent pericarditis: infectious or autoimmune?  

PubMed

The etiology and pathogenesis of idiopathic recurrent acute pericarditis (IRAP) remain controversial standing like a bridge that crosses infectious, autoimmune and autoinflammatory pathways. Anything may cause acute pericarditis; Echo-virus, and Coxsackie are the most frequently involved viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Coxiella burnetii the most common bacteria, but in 85% of cases it remains "idiopathic". Recurrences occur in up to 20-50% of patients. An immuno-mediated pathogenesis is suggested by the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines in pericardial fluid, the presence of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) in sera of the patients, the occurrence of new autoimmune diagnoses and the good response to anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive therapy. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) must be used at recommended dosages, till the resolution of symptoms and normalization of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Corticosteroids should be used rarely, at low doses, with an extremely low tapering and with osteoporosis prevention. Colchicine leads to a clinically important and statistically significant benefit, reducing recurrences by 50%. The long term outcome of IRAP is good, without evidence of constriction even after a very long follow-up. PMID:18708165

Brucato, Antonio; Maestroni, Silvia; Cumetti, Davide; Thiella, Giuseppe; Alari, Gabriella; Brambilla, Giovanni; Imazio, Massimo; Doria, Andrea; Palmieri, Giancarlo; Adler, Yehuda

2008-10-01

286

Clinical severity of rhinovirus/enterovirus compared to other respiratory viruses in children  

PubMed Central

Background Human rhinovirus/enterovirus (HRV/ENT) infections are commonly identified in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs), but data on their clinical severity remain limited. Objectives We compared the clinical severity of HRV/ENT to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A/B (FLU), and other common respiratory viruses in children. Patients/Methods Retrospective study of children with ARIs and confirmed single positive viral infections on mid-turbinate swabs by molecular assays. Outcome measures included hospital admission and, for inpatients, a composite endpoint consisting of intensive care admission, hospitalization >5 days, oxygen requirements or death. Results A total of 116 HRV/ENT, 102 RSV, 99 FLU, and 64 other common respiratory viruses were identified. Children with single HRV/ENT infections presented with significantly higher rates of underlying immunosuppressive conditions compared to those with RSV (37·9% versus 13·6%; P < 0·001), FLU (37·9% versus 22%; P = 0·018) or any other single viral infection (37·9% versus 22·5%; P = 0·024). In multivariable analysis adjusted for underlying conditions and age, children with HRV/ENT infections had increased odds of hospitalization compared to children with RSV infections (OR 2·6; 95% CI 1·4, 4·8; P < 0·003) or FLU infections (OR 3·0; 95% CI 1·6, 5·8; <0·001) and increased odds of severe clinical disease among inpatients (OR 3·0; 95% CI 1·6,5·6; P = 0·001) when compared to those with FLU infections. Conclusions Children with HRV/ENT had a more severe clinical course than those with RSV and FLUA/B infections and often had significant comorbidities. These findings emphasize the importance of considering HRV/ENT infection in children presenting with severe acute respiratory tract infections. PMID:24801963

Asner, Sandra A; Petrich, Astrid; Hamid, Jemila S; Mertz, Dominik; Richardson, Susan E; Smieja, Marek

2014-01-01

287

Global reemergence of enterovirus D68 as an important pathogen for acute respiratory infections.  

PubMed

We previously detected enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in children with severe acute respiratory infections in the Philippines in 2008-2009. Since then, the detection frequency of EV-D68 has increased in different parts of the world, and EV-D68 is now recognized as a reemerging pathogen. However, the epidemiological profile and clinical significance of EV-D68 is yet to be defined, and the virological characteristics of EV-D68 are not fully understood. Recent studies have revealed that EV-D68 is detected among patients with acute respiratory infections of differing severities ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infections to severe pneumonia including fatal cases in pediatric and adult patients. In some study sites, the EV-D68 detection rate was higher among patients with lower respiratory tract infections than among those with upper respiratory tract infections, suggesting that EV-D68 infections are more likely to be associated with severe respiratory illnesses. EV-D68 strains circulating in recent years have been divided into three distinct genetic lineages with different antigenicity. However, the association between genetic differences and disease severity, as well as the occurrence of large-scale outbreaks, remains elusive. Previous studies have revealed that EV-D68 is acid sensitive and has an optimal growth temperature of 33?°C. EV-D68 binds to ?2,6-linked sialic acids; hence, it is assumed that it has an affinity for the upper respiratory track where these glycans are present. However, the lack of suitable animal model constrains comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of EV-D68. © 2014 The Authors. Reviews in Medical Virology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25471236

Imamura, Tadatsugu; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2014-12-01

288

Antiviral effects of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids against enterovirus 71 infection.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and fatal neurological and systemic complications in children. However, there is currently no clinical approved antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of the viral infection. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activities of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids (GLTs), Lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3-one,15;26-dihydroxy (GLTA) and Ganoderic acid Y (GLTB), against EV71 infection. The results showed that the two natural compounds display significant anti-EV71 activities without cytotoxicity in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells as evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay. The mechanisms by which the two compounds affect EV71 infection were further elucidated by three action modes using Ribavirin, a common antiviral drug, as a positive control. The results suggested that GLTA and GLTB prevent EV71 infection through interacting with the viral particle to block the adsorption of virus to the cells. In addition, the interactions between EV71 virion and the compounds were predicated by computer molecular docking, which illustrated that GLTA and GLTB may bind to the viral capsid protein at a hydrophobic pocket (F site), and thus may block uncoating of EV71. Moreover, we demonstrated that GLTA and GLTB significantly inhibit the replication of the viral RNA (vRNA) of EV71 replication through blocking EV71 uncoating. Thus, GLTA and GLTB may represent two potential therapeutic agents to control and treat EV71 infection. PMID:24845570

Zhang, Wenjing; Tao, Junyan; Yang, Xiaoping; Yang, Zhuliang; Zhang, Li; Liu, Hongsheng; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

2014-07-01

289

Recombinant tandem multi-linear neutralizing epitopes of human enterovirus 71 elicited protective immunity in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as the leading cause of viral encephalitis in children, especially in the Asia-Pacific regions. EV71 vaccine development is of high priority at present, and neutralization antibodies have been documented to play critical roles during in vitro and in vivo protection against EV71 infection. Results In this study, a novel strategy to produce EV71 vaccine candidate based on recombinant multiple tandem linear neutralizing epitopes (mTLNE) was proposed. The three well identified EV71 linear neutralizing epitopes in capsid proteins, VP1-SP55, VP1-SP70 and VP2-SP28, were sequentially linked by a Gly-Ser linker ((G4S)3), and expressed in E.coli in fusion with the Trx and His tag at either terminal. The recombinant protein mTLNE was soluble and could be purified by standard affinity chromatography. Following three dosage of immunization in adult mice, EV71-specific IgG and neutralization antibodies were readily induced by recombinant mTLNE. IgG subtyping demonstrated that lgG1 antibodies dominated the mTLNE-induced humoral immune response. Especially, cytokine profiling in spleen cells from the mTLNE-immunized mice revealed high production of IL-4 and IL-6. Finally, in vivo challenge experiments showed that passive transfer with anti-mTLNE sera conferred full protection against lethal EV71 challenge in neonatal mice. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that this rational designed recombinant mTLNE might have the potential to be further developed as an EV71 vaccine in the future. PMID:24885030

2014-01-01

290

Protease 2A induces stress granule formation during coxsackievirus B3 and enterovirus 71 infections.  

PubMed

BackgroundStress granules (SGs) are granular aggregates in the cytoplasm that are formed under a variety of stress situations including viral infection. Previous studies indicate that poliovirus, a member of Picornaviridae, can induce SG formation. However, the exact mechanism by which the picornaviruses induce SG formation is unknown.MethodThe localization of SG markers in cells infected with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) or enterovirus 71 (EV71) and in cells expressing each viral protein was determined via immunofluorescence assays or plasmid transfection. Eight plasmids expressing mutants of the 2A protease (2Apro) of CVB3 were generated using a site-directed mutagenesis strategy. The cleavage efficiencies of eIF4G by CVB3 2Apro, and its mutants were determined via western blotting assays.ResultsIn this study, we found that CVB3 infection induced SG formation, as evidenced by the co-localization of some accepted SG markers in viral infection-induced granules. Furthermore, we identified that 2Apro of CVB3 was the key viral component that triggered SG formation. A 2Apro mutant with the G122E mutation, which exhibited very low cleavage efficiency toward eIF4G, significantly attenuated its capacity for SG induction, indicating that the protease activity was required for 2Apro to initiate SG formation. Finally, we observed that SGs also formed in EV71-infected cells. Expression of EV71 2Apro alone was also sufficient to cause SG formation.ConclusionBoth CVB3 and EV71 infections can induce SG formation, and 2Apro plays a crucial role in the induction of SG formation during these infections. This finding may help us to better understand how picornaviruses initiate the SG response. PMID:25410318

Wu, Shuo; Wang, Yan; Lin, Lexun; Si, Xiaoning; Wang, Tianying; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Tong, Lei; Luan, Ying; Chen, Yang; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Fengmin; Zhao, Wenran; Zhong, Zhaohua

2014-11-20

291

Lineages, Sub-Lineages and Variants of Enterovirus 68 in Recent Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 68 (EV68) was first isolated in 1962. Very few cases of EV68 infection were described over the ensuing 40 years. However, in the past few years, an increase in severe respiratory tract infections associated with EV68 has been reported. We identified two clusters of EV68 infection in South London, UK, one each in the autumn/winters of 2009 and 2010. Sequence comparison showed significant homology of the UK strains with those from other countries including the Netherlands, Japan and the Philippines, which reported EV68 outbreaks between 2008 and 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of all available VP1 sequences indicated the presence of two modern EV68 lineages. The 2010 UK strains belonged to lineage 2. Lineage 1 could be further divided into two sub-lineages: some Japanese and Dutch strains collected between 2004 and 2010 form a distinct sub-lineages (sub-lineage 1.1), whereas other strains from the UK, Japan, Netherlands and Philippines collected between 2008 and 2010 represent sub-lineage 1.2. The UK 2009 strains together with several Dutch and Japanese strains from 2009/2010 represents one variant (1.2.1), whereas those from the Philippines a second variant (1.2.2). Based on specific deletions and substitutions, we suggest rules for the assignment of lineages and sub-lineages. Molecular epidemiological analysis indicates rapid recent evolution of EV68 and this may explain the recent findings of a global resurgence of EV68. Continuous global monitoring of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of EV68 is recommended. PMID:22536453

Lauinger, Ina L.; Bible, Jon M.; Halligan, Eugene P.; Aarons, Emma J.; MacMahon, Eithne; Tong, Cheuk Y. W.

2012-01-01

292

A Mouse-Adapted Enterovirus 71 Strain Causes Neurological Disease in Mice after Oral Infection  

PubMed Central

A mouse-adapted enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain with increased virulence in mice, MP4, was generated after four serial passages of the parental EV71 strain 4643 in mice. Strain MP4 exhibited a larger plaque size, grew more rapidly, and was more cytotoxic in vitro than strain 4643. Although strains 4643 and MP4 both induced apoptosis of SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells, MP4 was more virulent than 4643 in 1-day-old mice (50% lethal doses, 102 and 104 PFU/mouse, respectively). Strain MP4 (5 × 106 PFU/mouse), but not 4643, could orally infect 7-day-old mice, resulting in rear-limb paralysis followed by death 5 to 9 days after inoculation with the virus. Histopathologically, neuronal loss and apoptosis were evident in the spinal cords as well as the brain stems of the infected mice. The limb muscles displayed massive necrosis. There was early and transient virus replication in the intestines, whereas the spinal cord, brain, and muscle became the sites of viral replication during the late phase of the infection. Virus transmission occurred among infected and noninfected cagemates, as demonstrated by the occurrence of seroconversion and the presence of viable viruses in the stool samples of the latter. Protection against EV71 challenge was demonstrated following administration of hyperimmune serum 1 day after inoculation with the virus. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the genome of EV71 strain MP4 revealed four nucleotide changes on the 5? untranslated region, three on the VP2 region, and eight on the 2C region, resulting in one and four amino acid substitutions in the VP2 and 2C proteins, respectively. PMID:15254164

Wang, Ya-Fang; Chou, Chun-Ting; Lei, Huan-Yao; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wang, Shih-Min; Yan, Jing-Jou; Su, Ih-Jen; Wang, Jen-Reng; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Chen, Shun-Hua; Yu, Chun-Keung

2004-01-01

293

Human enterovirus 71 subgenotype B3 lacks coxsackievirus A16-like neurovirulence in mice infection  

PubMed Central

Background At least three different EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from an outbreak in Malaysia in 1998. The subgenotypes C2 and B4 were associated with the severe and fatal infections, whereas the B3 virus was associated with mild to subclinical infections. The B3 virus genome sequences had ?85% similarity at the 3' end to CV-A16. This offers opportunities to examine if there are characteristic similarities and differences in virulence between CV-A16, EV-71 B3 and EV-71 B4 and to determine if the presence of the CV-A16-liked genes in EV-71 B3 would also confer the virus with a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection. Results Analysis of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) subgenotype B3 genome sequences revealed that the 3D RNA polymerase and domain Z of the 3'-untranslating region RNA secondary structure had high similarity to CV-A16. Intracerebral inoculation of one-day old mice with the virus resulted in 16% of the mice showing swollen hind limbs and significantly lower weight gain in comparison to EV-71 B4-infected mice. None of the mice presented with hind leg paralysis typical in all the CV-A16 infected mice. CV-A16 genome sequences were amplified from the CV-A16-infected mice brain but no amplification was obtained from all the EV-71-inoculated mice suggesting that no replication had taken place in the suckling mice brain. Conclusion The findings presented here suggest that EV-71 B3 viruses had CV-A16-liked non-structural gene features at the 3'-end of the genome. Their presence could have affected virulence by affecting the mice general health but was insufficient to confer the EV-71 B3 virus a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection. PMID:16122396

Chan, Yoke-Fun; AbuBakar, Sazaly

2005-01-01

294

Sialylated glycans as receptor and inhibitor of enterovirus 71 infection to DLD-1 intestinal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Many viruses recognize specific sugar residues, particularly sulfated or sialylated glycans, as the infection receptors. A change of sialic acid (2-6)-linked galactose (SA-?2,6Gal) to SA-?2,3Gal determines the receptor for avian flu infection. The receptor for enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection that frequently causes fatal encephalitis in Asian children remains unclear. Currently, there is no effective vaccine or anti-virus agent for EV71 infection. Using DLD-1 intestinal cells, this study investigated whether SA-linked glycan on DLD-1 intestinal cells was a receptor for EV71, and whether natural SA-linked sugars from human milk could block EV71 infection. Results EV71 specifically infected DLD-1 intestinal cells but not K562 myeloid cells. Depletion of O-linked glycans or glycolipids, but not N-linked glycans, significantly decreased EV71 infection of DLD-1 cells. Pretreatment of DLD-1 cells with sialidase (10 mU, 2 hours) significantly reduced 20-fold EV71 replication (p < 0.01). Taken together, these results suggest that SA-linked O-glycans and glycolipids, but not N-glycans, on DLD-1 cells were responsible for EV71 infection. Purified SA-?2,3Gal and SA-?2,6Gal from human milk significantly inhibited EV71 infection of DLD-1 cells, indicating terminal SA-linked glycans could be receptors and inhibitors of EV71 infection. Conclusion This is the first in the literature to demonstrate that EV71 uses SA-linked glycans as receptors for infection, and natural SA-linked glycans from human milk can protect intestinal cells from EV71 infection. Further studies will test how a SA-containing glycan can prevent EV71 in the future. PMID:19751532

Yang, Betsy; Chuang, Hau; Yang, Kuender D

2009-01-01

295

Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues. PMID:21437001

Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

2011-01-01

296

Infectious microbial diseases and host defense responses in Sydney rock oysters  

PubMed Central

Aquaculture has long been seen as a sustainable solution to some of the world's growing food shortages. However, experience over the past 50 years indicates that infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes limit the productivity of aquaculture. In extreme cases, these types of infectious agents threaten the viability of entire aquaculture industries. This article describes the threats from infectious diseases in aquaculture and then focuses on one example (QX disease in Sydney rock oysters) as a case study. QX appears to be typical of many emerging diseases in aquaculture, particularly because environmental factors seem to play a crucial role in disease outbreaks. Evidence is presented that modulation of a generic subcellular stress response pathway in oysters is responsible for both resistance and susceptibility to infectious microbes. Understanding and being able to manipulate this pathway may be the key to sustainable aquaculture. PMID:24795701

Raftos, David A.; Kuchel, Rhiannon; Aladaileh, Saleem; Butt, Daniel

2014-01-01

297

Identification of enterovirus 71 isolates from an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) with fatal cases of encephalomyelitis in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen enterovirus 71 (EV71) isolates were obtained from both fatal and non-fatal infections of patients seen in Peninsula Malaysia and in Sarawak during an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Malaysia in 1997, with incidences of fatal brainstem encephalomyelitis. The isolates were identified using immunofluorescence staining, neutralization assays, and partial sequencing of the 5? untranslated regions (UTR).

Sazaly AbuBakar; Hui-Yee Chee; Muhannad F. Al-Kobaisi; Jiang Xiaoshan; Kaw Bing Chua; Sai Kit Lam

1999-01-01

298

Assessment of an Enterovirus Sewage Surveillance System by Comparison of Clinical Isolates with Sewage Isolates from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Collected August 1994 to December 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity and serotypes of enteroviruses (EVs) in the influent of a local sewage treatment plant were compared to local clinical EV cases to determine if testing of sewage is adequate for an EV surveillance system. The study was carried out from August 1994 to December 2002. Monthly influent specimens were processed by organic flocculation, and dilutions of concentrate were

Gerald Sedmak; David Bina; Jeffrey MacDonald

2003-01-01

299

DETECTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL VIRUSES IN SLUDGE: ENHANCEMENT OF ENTEROVIRUS PLAQUE ASSAY TITERS WITH 5-IODO-2'-DEOXYURIDINE AND COMPARISON TO ADENOVIRUS AND COLIPHAGE TITERS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Enteroviruses present in the primary sludge of two wastewater treatment plants were quantitated by plaque assay using a continuous African green monkey kidney cell line (BGM). Incubation of BGM monolayers with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (50 micrograms/ml) for 4 days prior to use enha...

300

Route prediction model of infectious diseases for 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many types of respiratory infectious diseases caused by germs, virus, mycetes and parasites. Researchers recently have tried to develop mathematical models to predict the epidemic of infectious diseases. However, with the development of ground transportation system in modern society, the spread of infectious diseases became faster and more complicated in terms of the speed and the pathways. The route of infectious diseases during Vancouver Olympics was predicted based on the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. In this model only the air traffic as an essential factor for the intercity migration of infectious diseases was involved. Here, we propose a multi-city transmission model to predict the infection route during 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea based on the pre-existing SIR model. Various types of transportation system such as a train, a car, a bus, and an airplane for the interpersonal contact in both inter- and intra-city are considered. Simulation is performed with assumptions and scenarios based on realistic factors including demographic, transportation and diseases data in Korea. Finally, we analyze an economic profit and loss caused by the variation of the number of tourists during the Olympics.

Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Lee, Taikjin

2014-03-01

301

Detection of a low-grade enteroviral infection in the islets of Langerhans of living patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

The Diabetes Virus Detection study (DiViD) is the first to examine fresh pancreatic tissue at the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes for the presence of viruses. Minimal pancreatic tail resection was performed 3-9 weeks after onset of type 1 diabetes in 6 adult patients (age 24-35 years). The presence of enteroviral capsid protein 1 (VP1) and the expression of class I HLA were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Enterovirus RNA was analyzed from isolated pancreatic islets and from fresh frozen whole pancreatic tissue using PCR and sequencing. Non-diabetic organ donors served as controls. VP1 was detected in the islets of all type 1 diabetes patients (2 of 9 controls). Hyperexpression of class I HLA molecules was found in the islets of all patients (1 of 9 controls). Enterovirus specific RNA sequences were detected in 4 of 6 cases (0 of 6 controls). The results were confirmed in different laboratories. Only 1.7 % of the islets contained VP1 positive cells and the amount of enterovirus RNA was low. The results provides evidence for the presence of enterovirus in pancreatic islets of type 1 diabetic patients, being consistent with the possibility that a low grade enteroviral infection in the pancreatic islets contribute to disease progression in humans. PMID:25422108

Krogvold, Lars; Edwin, Bjřrn; Buanes, Trond; Frisk, Gun; Skog, Oskar; Anagandula, Mahesh; Korsgren, Olle; Undlien, Dag; Eike, MortenC; Richardson, Sarah J; Leete, Pia; Morgan, Noel G; Oikarinen, Sami; Oikarinen, Maarit; Laiho, Jutta E; Hyöty, Heikki; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Hanssen, Kristian F; Dahl-Jřrgensen, Knut

2014-11-24

302

Eradication of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations  

SciTech Connect

A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.

Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.

1987-04-01

303

Infectious Diseases and Immunizations. Matrix No. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes the major advances achieved by research in the fields of infectious diseases and immunizations during the 1970s, and delineates directions for future research in these fields. (Author/MP)

Sever, John L.

304

Neuropsychological sequelae of adolescent infectious diseases.  

PubMed

This article discusses the neuropsychological sequelae of adolescent infectious diseases. Primary care physicians are encouraged to extend their clinical activities beyond the primary medical care aspects of the infectious disease process to encompass a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, continuum of health care approach. Patient, disease, and socioecologic parameters are the foundation of this approach. This article is designed to help primary care physicians appreciate the complexity of neuropsychological infectious disease issues in the adolescent. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is emphasized because the legion of related sequelae demands a comprehensive health care approach and serves as a model for discussing other principal infectious diseases such as encephalitis (particularly Lyme disease) and bacterial meningitis. PMID:12270806

Obrecht, Robert E; Patrick, Peter D

2002-10-01

305

Enterovirus 71 can directly infect the brainstem via cranial nerves and infection can be ameliorated by passive immunization.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease may be complicated by encephalomyelitis. We investigated EV71 brainstem infection and whether this infection could be ameliorated by passive immunization in a mouse model. Enterovirus 71 was injected into unilateral jaw/facial muscles of 2-week-old mice, and hyperimmune sera were given before or after infection. Harvested tissues were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and viral titration. In unimmunized mice, viral antigen and RNA were detected within 24 hours after infection only in ipsilateral cranial nerves, motor trigeminal nucleus, reticular formation, and facial nucleus; viral titers were significantly higher in the brainstem than in the spinal cord samples. Mice given preinfection hyperimmune serum showed a marked reduction of ipsilateral viral antigen/RNA and viral titers in the brainstem in a dose-dependent manner. With optimum hyperimmune serum given after infection, brainstem infection was significantly reduced in a time-dependent manner. A delay in disease onset and a reduction of disease severity and mortality were also observed. Thus, EV71 can directly infect the brainstem, including the medulla, via cranial nerves, most likely by retrograde axonal transport. This may explain the sudden cardiorespiratory collapse in human patients with fatal encephalomyelitis. Moreover, our results suggest that passive immunization may still benefit EV71-infected patients who have neurologic complications. PMID:25289894

Tan, Soon Hao; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

2014-11-01

306

Kaempferol inhibits enterovirus 71 replication and internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity through FUBP and HNRP proteins.  

PubMed

Flavonoids are associated with multiple biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-enterovirus activity. An internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) required for viral protein translation is a potential drug target for enterovirus 71 (EV71). Regulation translation initiation requires the interaction of IRES specific trans-acting host factors with viral IRES element. By evaluation of 12 flavonoids against EV71 infection, we found that (a) 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, kaempferol, quercetin, hesperetin and hesperidin exhibited more than 80% of cell survival and inhibition of EV71 infection; however, no anti-oxidative effects were noted from these flavonoids; (b) among them, only 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, kaempferol and hesperetin showed 40% of viral IRES activity; (c) kaempferol interfered with EV71 virus replication and pseudotyped virus production; and (d) FUBP1, FUBP3, HNRPD, HNRH1 and HNRPF proteins are associated with EV71 5'-UTR as shown using RNA affinity pull-down assay coupled with LC-MS/MS analysis. We firstly found that kaempferol may change the composition of these IRES associated trans-acting factors, and affect IRES function and EV71 virus replication. These studies help not only to understand the IRES function but also the mechanism by which drug induced cellular proteins are acting against EV71 infection. PMID:25212137

Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lai, Chien-Chen; Lan, Yu-Ching; Lai, Chih-Ho; Hung, Chien-Hui; Hsueh, Kai-Chung; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Chang, Hebron C; Wan, Lei; Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan; Lin, Ying-Ju

2011-09-15

307

Development of a method for detection of enteroviruses in shellfish by PCR with poliovirus as a model.  

PubMed Central

The application of the PCR to complex samples is hindered by amplification inhibitors. We describe a reverse transcription-PCR-based method capable of inhibitor removal for the detection of enteroviruses in shellfish. Initial virus extraction stages based on a modified polyethylene glycol precipitation technique (G.D. Lewis and T.G. Metcalf, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:1983-1988, 1988) were followed by virus purification with 1,1,2-trichloro,2,2,1-trifluoroethane and concentration by ultrafiltration. A guanidine isothiocyanate-glass powder extraction system was utilized for sample lysis, RNase protection, and nucleic acid purification. Removal of PCR inhibitors and method sensitivity were quantified in shellfish (oysters and mussels) seeded with poliovirus. PCR sample tolerance exceeded 4 g for depurated shellfish; however, polluted field samples were more inhibitory. Virus recoveries of 31% for oyster extracts and 17% for mussel extracts and nucleic acid extraction reverse transcription-PCR detection limits down to 1 PFU yielded an overall sensitivity limit of < 10 PFU of poliovirus in up to 5 g of shellfish. PCR-positive results were obtained from a variety of polluted field samples naturally contaminated with human enteroviruses. The methods developed for virus recovery and PCR inhibitor removal should be equally applicable to detection of other RNA viruses such as hepatitis A virus, Norwalk virus, and other small round-structured viruses in shellfish. Images PMID:7521997

Lees, D N; Henshilwood, K; Doré, W J

1994-01-01

308

Chemical modification of the plant isoprenoid cytokinin N(6)-isopentenyladenosine yields a selective inhibitor of human enterovirus 71 replication.  

PubMed

In this study, we demonstrate that N(6)-isopentenyladenosine, which essentially is a plant cytokinin-like compound, exerts a potent and selective antiviral effect on the replication of human enterovirus 71 with an EC50 of 1.0 ± 0.2 ?M and a selectivity index (SI) of 5.7. The synthesis of analogs with modification of the N(6)-position did not result in a lower EC50 value. However, in particular with the synthesis of N(6)-(5-hexene-2-yne-1-yl)adenosine (EC50 = 4.3 ± 1.5 ?M), the selectivity index was significantly increased: because of a reduction in the adverse effect of this compound on the host cells, an SI > 101 could be calculated. With this study, we for the first time provide proof that a compound class that is based on the plant cytokinin skeleton offers an interesting starting point for the development of novel antivirals against mammalian viruses, in the present context in particular against enterovirus 71. PMID:25461889

Tararov, Vitali I; Tijsma, Aloys; Kolyachkina, Svetlana V; Oslovsky, Vladimir E; Neyts, Johan; Drenichev, Mikhail S; Leyssen, Pieter; Mikhailov, Sergey N

2015-01-27

309

In vivo dynamics of enterovirus protease revealed by fluorescence resonance emission transfer (FRET) based on a novel FRET pair  

SciTech Connect

An in vivo protease assay suitable for analysis by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was developed on the basis of a novel FRET pair. The specifically designed fusion substrate consists of green fluorescent protein 2 (GFP{sup 2})-peptide-red fluorescent protein 2 (DsRed2), with a cleavage motif for the enterovirus 2A protease (2A{sup pro}) embedded within the peptide region. FRET can be readily visualized in real-time from cells expressing the fusion substrate until a proteolytic cleavage by 2A{sup pro} from the input virus. The level of FRET decay is a function of the amount and infection duration of the inoculated virus as measured by a fluorometer assay. The FRET biosensor also responded well to other related enteroviruses but not to a phylogenetically distant virus. Western blot analysis confirmed the physical cleavage of the fusion substrate upon the infections. The study provides proof of principle for applying the FRET technology to diagnostics, screening procedures, and cell biological research.

Hsu, Y.-Y. [Faculty of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Y.-N. [Faculty of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang Wenyen [Incubation Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kao, Fu-Jen [Institute of Biophotonics, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kung, S.-H. [Faculty of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: szkung@ym.edu.tw

2007-02-23

310

Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines.  

PubMed Central

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. PMID:10603206

Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

1999-01-01

311

[Human genetics and infectious diseases (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Infectious diseases, especially the worldwide epidemic diseases such as plague, smallpox, syphilis, tuberculosis have to a great extent selective effects. This is demonstrated inter alia in the different "selection values" in the ABO blood group system. Under present day civilized living conditions O carriers have a preservation advantage over blood group A. The deletion of the selection factor "infectious disease", which entails a decline of immunity, may nevertheless regain importance if environmental changes occur. PMID:6792533

Jörgensen, G

1981-09-25

312

Unmet diagnostic needs in infectious disease.  

PubMed

Accurate diagnosis is critical to providing appropriate care in infectious diseases (ID). New technologies for infectious disease diagnostics are emerging, but gaps remain in test development and availability. The Emerging Infections Network surveyed ID physicians to assess unmet diagnostic needs. Responses reflected the urgent need to identify drug-resistant infections and highlighted the potential for early diagnosis to improve antibiotic stewardship. Information gained from this survey can help inform recommendations for new diagnostic test development in the future. PMID:25456043

Blaschke, Anne J; Hersh, Adam L; Beekmann, Susan E; Ince, Dilek; Polgreen, Philip M; Hanson, Kimberly E

2015-01-01

313

Passive antibody therapy for infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody-based therapies are currently undergoing a renaissance. After being developed and then largely abandoned in the twentieth century, many antibody preparations are now in clinical use. However, most of the reagents that are available target non-infectious diseases. Interest in using antibodies to treat infectious diseases is now being fuelled by the wide dissemination of drug-resistant microorganisms, the emergence of new

Ekaterina Dadachova; Liise-anne Pirofski; Arturo Casadevall

2004-01-01

314

Infectious Mononucleosis and Mononucleosis Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Infectious mononucleosis (IM) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) mononucleosis are caused by a primary infection with related viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and CMV. Despite the similarity of clinical manifestations, basic differences exist: (1) The heterophil antibody (HA) response is absent in CMV mononucleosis, whereas it is present in IM. (2) In IM atypical lymphocytosis reflects proliferation of B cells early and of T cells later in the disease course; in CMV mononucleosis the situation appears complex. (3) In blood, EBV is restricted to B lymphocytes, whereas CMV is found in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. (4) Complications of CMV mononucleosis such as hepatitis and pneumonitis may be due to virus cytopathic effect in target organs. Prominent tonsillopharyngitis with adenopathy, and visceral complications of IM are related to lymphoproliferation which is self-limited except in males with a rare familial defect in defense against EBV. Immune complex-mediated pathology may occur in both diseases. (5) CMV is frequently transmitted to a fetus in utero or to an infant during or after birth, and this occasionally leads to severe cytomegalic inclusion disease; vertical transmission of EBV appears to be exceptional. (6) Secondary EBV infections are associated with certain malignancies whereas such an association has not been recognized in the case of CMV. Toxoplasma gondii is another cause of HA-negative mononucleosis. Its complications in the heart, in skeletal muscle and in the central nervous system are related to direct invasion by the parasite. Cellular immunity plays an important role in defense against all three agents. PMID:195404

Fiala, Milan; Heiner, Douglas C.; Turner, Jerrold A.; Rosenbloom, Barry; Guze, Lucien B.

1977-01-01

315

Acute Infectious Morbidity in Multiple Gestation  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Physiologic and immunologic changes in pregnancy result in increased susceptibility to infection. These shifts are more pronounced in pregnancies complicated by multiple gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the association between multiple gestation and risk of infectious morbidity. Study Design. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2008–2010 was used to identify pregnant women during admission for delivery with International Classification of Diseases codes. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for demographic data, preexisting medical conditions, and acute medical and infectious complications for women with multiple versus singleton gestations. Results. Among women with multiple gestation, 38.4 per 1,000 women had an infectious complication compared to 12.8 per 1,000 women with singletons. The most significant infectious morbidity associated with multiple gestation was intestinal infections, pyelonephritis, influenza, and pneumonia. After controlling for confounding variables, infectious complications at delivery persisted for women with multiples, though the association was dependent on mode of delivery. Conclusions. Women with multiple gestations are at increased risk for infectious morbidity identified at the time of delivery. This association was diminished among women who had a cesarean suggesting that operative delivery is not responsible for this association.

Grotegut, Chad A.; Heine, R. Phillips

2015-01-01

316

Nucleic acid in-situ hybridization detection of infectious agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limitations of traditional culture methods and newer polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for detection and speciation of infectious agents demonstrate the need for more rapid and better diagnostics. Nucleic acid hybridization is a detection technology that has gained wide acceptance in cancer and prenatal cytogenetics. Using a modification of the nucleic acid hybridization technique known as fluorescence in-situ hybridization, infectious agents can be detected in a variety of specimens with high sensitivity and specificity. The specimens derive from all types of human and animal sources including body fluids, tissue aspirates and biopsy material. Nucleic acid hybridization can be performed in less than one hour. The result can be interpreted either using traditional fluorescence microscopy or automated platforms such as micro arrays. This paper demonstrates proof of concept for nucleic acid hybridization detection of different infectious agents. Interpretation within a cytologic and histologic context is possible with fluorescence microscopic analysis, thereby providing confirmatory evidence of hybridization. With careful probe selection, nucleic acid hybridization promises to be a highly sensitive and specific practical diagnostic alternative to culture, traditional staining methods, immunohistochemistry and complicated nucleic acid amplification tests.

Thompson, Curtis T.

2000-04-01

317

Introduction The management of infectious diseases is complex,  

E-print Network

Review Introduction The management of infectious diseases is complex, especially in an intensive review the development of such models applied to infectious disease management. We use the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases Any diagnosis, including that of an infectious disease, is based

Lucas, Peter

318

Infectious Diseases and Immunity Ph.D. Program UC Berkeley  

E-print Network

Infectious Diseases and Immunity Ph.D. Program UC Berkeley Ph.D. Degree Program The Graduate Group in Infectious Diseases and Immunity provides the opportunity for the study of the biology of infectious agents of infectious diseases. The degree program is unique in emphasizing integrated, multidisciplinary training

Sjölander, Kimmen

319

Multiple Classes of Antiviral Agents Exhibit In Vitro Activity against Human Rhinovirus Type C  

PubMed Central

Human rhinovirus type C (HRV-C) is a newly discovered enterovirus species frequently associated with exacerbation of asthma and other acute respiratory conditions. Until recently, HRV-C could not be propagated in vitro, hampering in-depth characterization of the virus replication cycle and preventing efficient testing of antiviral agents. Herein we describe several subgenomic RNA replicon systems and a cell culture infectious model for HRV-C that can be used for antiviral screening. The replicon constructs consist of genome sequences from HRVc15, HRVc11, HRVc24, and HRVc25 strains, with the P1 capsid region replaced by a Renilla luciferase coding sequence. Following transfection of the replicon RNA into HeLa cells, the constructs produced time-dependent increases in luciferase signal that can be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by known inhibitors of HRV replication, including the 3C protease inhibitor rupintrivir, the nucleoside analog inhibitor MK-0608, and the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III? (PI4K-III?) kinase inhibitor PIK93. Furthermore, with the exception of pleconaril and pirodavir, the other tested classes of HRV inhibitors blocked the replication of full-length HRVc15 and HRVc11 in human airway epithelial cells (HAEs) that were differentiated in the air-liquid interface, exhibiting antiviral activities similar to those observed with HRV-16. In summary, this study is the first comprehensive profiling of multiple classes of antivirals against HRV-C, and the set of newly developed quantitative HRV-C antiviral assays represent indispensable tools for the identification and evaluation of novel panserotype HRV inhibitors. PMID:24366736

Aguayo, Esmeralda; Rodriguez, Madeleine; Lee, Gary; Jordan, Robert; Cihlar, Tomas; Birkus, Gabriel

2014-01-01

320

Simultaneous Detection of Infectious Human Echoviruses and Adenoviruses by an In Situ Nuclease-Resistant Molecular  

E-print Network

of enteroviruses and adenoviruses, at low concen- trations, in a single cell. A549 cells were seeded in 12-well.4% crystal violet- 0.1% phenol-12% ethanol solution for 1 h. The excess solution was aspirated, cells were

Chen, Wilfred

321

Ruminant Genetics and Infectious Disease Infectious disease in cattle production remains a significant threat to productivity, profitability, animal wel-  

E-print Network

Ruminant Genetics and Infectious Disease Infectious disease in cattle production remains the need for novel approaches to disease control. One of the opportunities to mitigate infectious disease threats is to use genetic selection for cattle with natural resistance to infectious disease. Resistance

322

Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits enterovirus 71 replication by down-regulating ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). The severe neurological complications caused by EV71 infection and the lack of effective therapeutic medicine underline the importance of searching for antiviral substances. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an antioxidant, has been reported to inhibit the replication of coxsackievirus B (CVB) through dysregulating ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In this study, we demonstrated that PDTC exerted potent antiviral effect on EV71. Viral RNA synthesis, viral protein expression, and the production of viral progeny were significantly reduced by the treatment of PDTC in Vero cells infected with EV71. Similar to the previous report about the inhibitory effect of PDTC on UPS, we found that PDTC treatment led to decreased levels of polyubiquitinated proteins in EV71-infected cells. The inhibitory effect of PDTC on UPS was further confirmed by the increased accumulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins p21 and p53, which are normally degraded through UPS, while the expression levels of both proteins remained unchanged. We also showed that PDTC had no impact on the activity of proteasome. Thus, we demonstrated that the down-regulation of PDTC on UPS was the result of its inhibition on ubiquitination. More importantly, this study provides evidence that the inhibition on UPS was required for the antiviral activity of PDTC, since MG132, a potent proteasome inhibitor, significantly inhibited the cytopathic effect and viral protein synthesis in EV71-infected cells. We also found that the antioxidant property of PDTC did not contribute to its antiviral effect, since N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a potent antioxidant, could not inhibit viral replication. In addition, CPE and viral protein synthesis were not inhibited in the cells pretreated with PDTC 2h before viral infection and then cultured in the media with no PDTC supplement, while the antioxidant effect of PDTC was retained. PDTC also showed significant inhibition on apoptosis induced by EV71 infection when it was applied at the early stage of viral infection. Our results collectively suggest that PDTC could be a potential anti-EV71 compound which possesses both antiviral and anti-apoptotic capacity. PMID:25456405

Lin, Lexun; Qin, Ying; Wu, Heng; Chen, Yang; Wu, Shuo; Si, Xiaoning; Wang, Hui; Wang, Tianying; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Zhai, Xia; Tong, Lei; Pan, Bo; Zhang, Fengmin; Zhong, Zhaohua; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Wenran

2015-01-01

323

Infectious Agent Identification Cards Infectious agent identification cards contain information on pathogens that are used in  

E-print Network

Infectious Agent Identification Cards Infectious agent identification cards contain information on pathogens that are used in research facilities on campus. These cards are meant to aid medical personnel. As such they should be carried on the person of all personnel who work with these agents. Each card contains pertinent

Rose, Michael R.

324

Infectious burden and atherosclerosis: A clinical issue  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases of multifactorial etiology, are the leading cause of death worldwide. In the last decade, more infectious agents, labeled as “infectious burden”, rather than any single pathogen, have been showed to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis through different mechanisms. Some microorganisms, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae), human cytomegalovirus, etc. may act directly on the arterial wall contributing to endothelial dysfunction, foam cell formation, smooth muscle cell proliferation, platelet aggregation as well as cytokine, reactive oxygen specie, growth factor, and cellular adhesion molecule production. Others, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), influenza virus, etc. may induce a systemic inflammation which in turn may damage the vascular wall (e.g., by cytokines and proteases). Moreover, another indirect mechanism by which some infectious agents (such as H. pylori, C. pneumoniae, periodontal pathogens, etc.) may play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is molecular mimicry. Given the complexity of the mechanisms by which each microorganism may contribute to atherosclerosis, defining the interplay of more infectious agents is far more difficult because the pro-atherogenic effect of each pathogen might be amplified. Clearly, continued research and a greater awareness will be helpful to improve our knowledge on the complex interaction between the infectious burden and atherosclerosis. PMID:25032197

Sessa, Rosa; Pietro, Marisa Di; Filardo, Simone; Turriziani, Ombretta

2014-01-01

325

Radiolabeled antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Novel approaches to treatment of infectious diseases are urgently needed. This need has resulted in renewing the interest in antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a cancer treatment modality, which utilizes radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During the last decade we have translated RIT into the field of experimental fungal, bacterial and HIV infections. In addition, successful proof of principle experiments with radiolabeled pan-antibodies that bind to antigens shared by major pathogenic fungi were performed in vitro. The armamentarium of pan-antibodies would result in reducing the dependence on microorganism-specific antibodies and thus would speed up the development of RIT of infections. We believe that the time is ripe for deploying RIT into the clinic to combat infectious diseases. PMID:25599011

Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

2014-01-01

326

Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases  

E-print Network

Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets ($\\sim 0.4\\ \\mu$m) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets ($\\sim 4\\ \\mu$m) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localised susceptible population...

Robinson, M; Drossinos, Y

2011-01-01

327

Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

Lafferty, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

328

Cocirculation of infectious diseases on networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider multiple diseases spreading in a static configuration model network. We make standard assumptions that infection transmits from neighbor to neighbor at a disease-specific rate and infected individuals recover at a disease-specific rate. Infection by one disease confers immediate and permanent immunity to infection by any disease. Under these assumptions, we find a simple, low-dimensional ordinary differential equations model which captures the global dynamics of the infection. The dynamics depend strongly on initial conditions. Although we motivate this Rapid Communication with infectious disease, the model may be adapted to the spread of other infectious agents such as competing political beliefs, or adoption of new technologies if these are influenced by contacts. As an example, we demonstrate how to model an infectious disease which can be prevented by a behavior change.

Miller, Joel C.

2013-06-01

329

Prevalence of infectious keratitis in Central China  

PubMed Central

Background The baseline data pertaining to the national epidemiological survey of infectious keratitis remain scarce in China, and currently there is no corneal blindness control strategy developed by the nation. Methods Geographically defined cluster sampling was used to randomly select a cross-section of residents from representative urban and rural populations in Hubei Province. Participants were selected from village registers, followed by door-to-door household visits. The assessment items included a structured interview, visual acuity testing, external eye examination, and anterior segment examination using slit lamp. Causes and sequelae of corneal disease were identified according to uniform customized protocol. Results The prevalence of presenting corneal diseases was 0.8% (211/26 305), while the prevalence of infectious keratitis was 0.148% (39/26 305). The prevalences of viral, bacterial, and fungal keratitis were 0.065, 0.068, and 0.015%, respectively. There were no significant differences found between the prevalences of viral (accounting for 43.6%) and bacterial (accounting for 46.2%) corneal ulcers. cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis were not found. Infectious keratitis was the leading cause of corneal blindness (85.7%), and the prevalence of blindness in at least one eye resulting from infected corneas was 0.091% (95% CI: 0.067-0.127%). Conclusions Viral and bacterial mechanisms constitute the most important risk factors for infectious corneal ulcers in Central China. To reduce the rate and severity of infectious keratitis, he public health care policy should be focused on designing cost-effective strategies and operational programs for the prevention and prompt treatment of infectious corneal ulcers. PMID:24690368

2014-01-01

330

Protein Microarrays and Biomarkers of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

Protein microarrays are powerful tools that are widely used in systems biology research. For infectious diseases, proteome microarrays assembled from proteins of pathogens will play an increasingly important role in discovery of diagnostic markers, vaccines, and therapeutics. Distinct formats of protein microarrays have been developed for different applications, including abundance-based and function-based methods. Depending on the application, design issues should be considered, such as the need for multiplexing and label or label free detection methods. New developments, challenges, and future demands in infectious disease research will impact the application of protein microarrays for discovery and validation of biomarkers. PMID:21614200

Natesan, Mohan; Ulrich, Robert G.

2010-01-01

331

Epidemiology of infectious syphilis in Singapore.  

PubMed Central

The incidence of early infectious syphilis in Singapore rose from 8.7 per 100,000 in 1980 to 25 per 100,000 in 1984. In this epidemiological study of 100 patients with early syphilis, 70 were men, the mean age was 31.7 (range 17 to 68) years, 25 patients had primary syphilis, 47 secondary syphilis, and the remaining 28 had early latent syphilis. Female prostitutes were cited as sources of infection by 46 and homosexual contacts by 11. Reduced herd immunity, decreased use of penicillin, greater population movement, and decreased surveillance and awareness have contributed to this rise in infectious syphilis. PMID:3721513

Thirumoorthy, T; Lee, C T; Lim, K B

1986-01-01

332

Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis  

DOEpatents

Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

Willard, K.E.

1982-08-10

333

Clinical and etiological characteristics of enterovirus 71-related diseases during a recent 2-year period in Korea.  

PubMed

Human enterovirus 71 (EV 71) has caused large-scale outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), particularly in the Asian-Pacific region. In this study, we report a major outbreak of EV 71 infection in Korea and describe the clinical differences between EV 71 and non-EV 71 enterovirus infections. We prospectively enrolled patients with suspected viral infections during a recent 2-year period through a nationwide surveillance system. We identified 719 patients with suspected HFMD or herpangina using real-time PCR and genotyping based on VP1 sequence analysis. The major pathogen causing HFMD changed substantially from 2008 to 2009, with EV 71 becoming the most common cause of HFMD in Korea in 2009. We successfully identified the enteroviral genotypes for 218 of the 719 patients. Patients with EV 71 infections tended to be younger than those with non-EV 71 enteroviral infections and presented with HFMD and meningoencephalitis. In addition, the occurrence of fever, headache, and neck stiffness was significantly higher in patients with EV 71 infections. Multivariable analysis showed that for patients presenting with HFMD, fever, or a sore throat, each covariate was independently associated with EV 71 infection; the adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses) for these variables were 31.86 (10.04 to 101.09), 4.76 (1.71 to 13.25), and 0.18 (0.04 to 0.77), respectively. Our results indicate that EV 71 was a major cause of HFMD in Korea during the study period. In addition, we found that clinical symptoms may be helpful in the early identification of patients with EV 71 infections. PMID:20463159

Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kang, Byounghak; Hong, Jiyoung; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Jonghyun; Cheon, Doo-Sung

2010-07-01

334

Clinical and Etiological Characteristics of Enterovirus 71-Related Diseases during a Recent 2-Year Period in Korea?  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 71 (EV 71) has caused large-scale outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), particularly in the Asian-Pacific region. In this study, we report a major outbreak of EV 71 infection in Korea and describe the clinical differences between EV 71 and non-EV 71 enterovirus infections. We prospectively enrolled patients with suspected viral infections during a recent 2-year period through a nationwide surveillance system. We identified 719 patients with suspected HFMD or herpangina using real-time PCR and genotyping based on VP1 sequence analysis. The major pathogen causing HFMD changed substantially from 2008 to 2009, with EV 71 becoming the most common cause of HFMD in Korea in 2009. We successfully identified the enteroviral genotypes for 218 of the 719 patients. Patients with EV 71 infections tended to be younger than those with non-EV 71 enteroviral infections and presented with HFMD and meningoencephalitis. In addition, the occurrence of fever, headache, and neck stiffness was significantly higher in patients with EV 71 infections. Multivariable analysis showed that for patients presenting with HFMD, fever, or a sore throat, each covariate was independently associated with EV 71 infection; the adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses) for these variables were 31.86 (10.04 to 101.09), 4.76 (1.71 to 13.25), and 0.18 (0.04 to 0.77), respectively. Our results indicate that EV 71 was a major cause of HFMD in Korea during the study period. In addition, we found that clinical symptoms may be helpful in the early identification of patients with EV 71 infections. PMID:20463159

Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kang, Byounghak; Hong, Jiyoung; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Jonghyun; Cheon, Doo-Sung

2010-01-01

335

Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission  

PubMed Central

Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit the ability of the rescue effect to ensure locally extinct populations become recolonized and can drive metapopulations down in size so that extinction by mechanisms other than disease may become more likely. It further highlights that, in the context of environmental transmission, the environmental persistence time of pathogens and the probability of acquiring infection by environmental transmission can affect host metapopulations both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additional spillover sources of infection from alternate reservoir hosts are also included in the model and a synthesis of all three types of transmission, acting alone or in combination, is performed revealing that movement-based transmission is the only necessary condition for a decline in the proportion of occupied sites with increasing movement rate, but that the presence of other types of transmission can reverse this qualitative result. By including the previously neglected role of environmental transmission, this work contributes to the general discussion of when dispersal by wild animals is beneficial or detrimental to populations experiencing infectious disease. PMID:22957148

Park, Andrew W

2012-01-01

336

Infectious Disease: Connecting Innate Immunity to Biocidal Polymers  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease is a critically important global healthcare issue. In the U.S. alone there are 2 million new cases of hospital-acquired infections annually leading to 90,000 deaths and 5 billion dollars of added healthcare costs. Couple these numbers with the appearance of new antibiotic resistant bacterial strains and the increasing occurrences of community-type outbreaks, and clearly this is an important problem. Our review attempts to bridge the research areas of natural host defense peptides (HDPs), a component of the innate immune system, and biocidal cationic polymers. Recently discovered peptidomimetics and other synthetic mimics of HDPs, that can be short oligomers as well as polymeric macromolecules, provide a unique link between these two areas. An emerging class of these mimics are the facially amphiphilic polymers that aim to emulate the physicochemical properties of HDPs but take advantage of the synthetic ease of polymers. These mimics have been designed with antimicrobial activity and, importantly, selectivity that rivals natural HDPs. In addition to providing some perspective on HDPs, selective mimics, and biocidal polymers, focus is given to the arsenal of biophysical techniques available to study their mode of action and interactions with phospholipid membranes. The issue of lipid type is highlighted and the important role of negative curvature lipids is illustrated. Finally, materials applications (for instance, in the development of permanently antibacterial surfaces) are discussed as this is an important part of controlling the spread of infectious disease. PMID:18160969

Gabriel, Gregory J.; Som, Abhigyan; Madkour, Ahmad E.; Eren, Tarik; Tew, Gregory N.

2007-01-01

337

75 FR 49502 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2010-08-13

338

75 FR 26760 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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2010-05-12

339

75 FR 81631 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2010-12-28

340

76 FR 55074 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2011-09-06

341

77 FR 29676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2012-05-18

342

78 FR 3011 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2013-01-15

343

75 FR 3472 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date:...

2010-01-21

344

78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2013-09-23

345

75 FR 28029 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date:...

2010-05-19

346

Natural regulatory T cells in infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the control exerted by natural CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (natural Treg cells) during infectious processes. Natural Treg cells may limit the magnitude of effector responses, which may result in failure to adequately control infection. However, natural Treg cells also help limit collateral tissue damage caused by vigorous antimicrobial immune responses. We describe here various situations in

Barry T Rouse; Yasmine Belkaid

2005-01-01

347

Global trends in emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID `events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940

Kate E. Jones; Nikkita G. Patel; Marc A. Levy; Adam Storeygard; Deborah Balk; John L. Gittleman; Peter Daszak

2008-01-01

348

Genetics and genomics of infectious disease susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human genetic variation is a major determinant of susceptibility to many common infectious diseases. Malaria was the first disease to be studied extensively and many susceptibility and resistance loci have been identified. However, genes for other diseases such as HIV\\/AIDS and mycobacterial infections are now being identified using a variety of approaches. A large number of genes appear to influence

Adrian Vs Hill

1999-01-01

349

Infectious disease and amphibian population declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of recent papers have impli- cated pathogens and parasites in amphibian population declines. Here, we review evidence on the link between infectious disease and amphibian population declines. We conclude that available data provide the clearest link for the fungal disease amphibian chytridiomycosis, although other pathogens are also implicated. We suggest additional experimental and observa- tional data that need

Peter Daszak; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt

2003-01-01

350

[Combined physiotherapy of chronic infectious prostatitis].  

PubMed

Our experience with therapy of 259 outpatients with chronic infectious prostatitis (CIP) aged 16-55 years has demonstrated that combined treatment of CIP with rectal digital massage of the prostate, electrophoresis of chimotripsin solution with dimexide and local magnetotherapy (Intramag unit) significantly raises treatment efficacy, shortens treatment, prevents complications. PMID:17472003

Churakov, A A; Popkov, V M; Zemskov, S P; Glybochko, P V; Bliumberg, B I

2007-01-01

351

Reactive arthritis or chronic infectious arthritis?  

PubMed Central

Microbes reach the synovial cavity either directly during bacteraemia or by transport within lymphoid cells or monocytes. This may stimulate the immune system excessively, triggering arthritis. Some forms of ReA correspond to slow infectious arthritis due to the persistence of microbes and some to an infection triggered arthritis linked to an extra-articular site of infection. PMID:12079895

Sibilia, J; Limbach, F

2002-01-01

352

Genetic analysis of enterovirus 71 isolated from fatal and non-fatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease during an epidemic in Taiwan, 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large scale outbreak of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Taiwan in 1998, in which more than 80 children died of shock syndrome with pulmonary edema\\/hemorrhage. Enterovirus 71 was implicated as the cause of this outbreak. In order to understand the virological basis responsible for mortality on this scale, nucleotide sequences of VP1 that is important for serotypic specificity, and

Shin-Ru Shih; Mei-Shang Ho; Kuei-Hsiang Lin; Shu-Li Wu; Yen-Tsun Chen; Cheng-Nan Wu; Tzou-Yien Lin; Luan-Yin Chang; Kuo-Chien Tsao; Hsiao-Chen Ning; Pi-Yueh Chang; Shih-Ming Jung; Chuen Hsueh; Kenneth S. Chang

2000-01-01

353

MRI characteristics and follow-up findings in patients with neurological complications of enterovirus 71-related hand, foot, and mouth disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and clinical and MRI follow-up findings of patients with neurological complications of enterovirus 71-related hand, foot and mouth disease. Methods: Data were collected from 12 patients who developed neurological complications of enterovirus 71-related hand, foot, and mouth disease during an enterovirus-71 outbreak in Hainan Province, China, from May 2008 to October 2011. Patients were followed up for 2 years. Results: In the six patients with brainstem encephalitis, MRI showed posterior brainstem abnormalities with hyperintense areas on T2-weighted images and hypointense areas on T1-weighted images. In the four patients with acute flaccid paralysis but no brainstem encephalitis, sagittal MRI images showed linear hyperintense areas in the anterior spinal cord, transverse T2-weighted images showed hyperintense areas in the spinal cord, and contrast-enhanced axial T1-weighted images showed strong enhancement of the anterior horns or nerve roots. In the two patients with aseptic meningitis, MRI showed widening of the subarachnoid space and ventricles. The MRI and clinical signs of aseptic meningitis resolved within 4 weeks in both patients. Patients with isolated pontine abnormalities recovered faster than those with multiple brainstem abnormalities, patients with isolated brainstem encephalitis recovered faster than those with associated acute flaccid paralysis, patients with paralysis of one limb recovered faster than those with paralysis of multiple limbs, and patients with isolated thoracolumbar cord abnormalities recovered faster than those with cervical cord abnormalities. Conclusions: MRI is useful for assessment of the neurological complications of enterovirus 71-related hand, foot, and mouth disease. Patients who develop neurological complications characteristically have MRI abnormalities of the posterior brainstem or bilateral anterior horns of parts of the spinal cord. The MRI findings can help to predict prognosis. PMID:25356127

Chen, Feng; Liu, Tao; Li, Jianjun; Xing, Zengbao; Huang, Shixiong; Wen, Guoqiang

2014-01-01

354

Equine infectious anemia and equine infectious anemia virus in 2013: a review.  

PubMed

A detailed description of equine infectious anemia virus and host responses to it are presented. Current control and eradication of the infection are discussed with suggestions for improvements to increase their effectiveness. PMID:24183747

Cook, R F; Leroux, C; Issel, C J

2013-11-29

355

Observational, Hypothesis-Driven and Genomics Research Strategies for Analyzing Inherited Differences in Responses to Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first phase of research on genetic factors influencing susceptibility to infectious diseases was observational and descriptive. It began with the identification of children and adults with selective and non-selective immunodeficiencies. The types of infections to which these patients are susceptible provided evidence for the roles of T-cells, B-cells, leukocytes, and complement in controlling infectious diseases. Later the biochemical bases

A. C. Allison

2009-01-01

356

Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Page Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases By Emily Carlson Posted December 2, 2013 Collecting, ... historical health data shows the incidence of 56 infectious diseases in the United States (top) and the effect ...

357

Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks  

E-print Network

Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, ...

Hill, Alison Lynn

358

National Infectious Diseases Surveillance data of South Korea  

PubMed Central

The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease to the system. These reported data are incorporated into the database of the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System, which has been providing web-based real-time surveillance data on infectious diseases since 2001. In addition, the KCDC analyzes reported data and publishes the Infectious Disease Surveillance Yearbook annually. PMID:25420951

Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhee

2014-01-01

359

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... you for your interest in the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). The dedicated members ... site provides an introduction to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) and contains official ...

360

Route of nutrition has no effect on the development of infectious complications.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Infection is a serious complication of nutritional support, causing a high rate of mortality and morbidity. Critically ill patients having nutritional support are prone to infectious complications. Questions regarding the effects of the route of nutrition in infectious complications have been asked. We aimed to determine the relationship between the route of nutrition and the risk of developing infectious complications in severely ill patients on nutritional support in an intensive care unit. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on the files of 144 severely ill patients who had either enteral or parenteral nutrition during follow-up in an intensive care unit. The primary diagnoses of patients were heterogenous. RESULTS: Sixty-eight (35.8%) of them acquired novel infections during the hospitalization period. Forty-nine and 19 of the 68 infected patients had enteral and parenteral nutrition support, respectively. Seventy-six (40%) of the patients were free of infection. Fifty-one of 76 infection-free patients had enteral nutrition support, and 25 of them had parenteral nutrition support. Pulmonary infections, urinary tract infections, catheter infections and septicemia were the most frequent types of infectious complications. There was no significant difference in the rate of infectious complications between enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: We conclude that the route of the nutritional support in severely ill patients having nutritional support in an intensive care unit does not affect the rate of infectious complications. We think that comorbid medical conditions and the need of intensive care unit support are more important parameters that determine the risk of development of infectious complications. PMID:17225842

Selcuk, Haldun; Kanbay, Mehmet; Korkmaz, Murat; Gulsener, Pinar; Gur, Gurden; Yilmaz, Ugur; Boyacioglu, Sedat

2006-01-01

361

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) as a Pharmacological Target for Prevention and Treatment of Infectious  

E-print Network

is to focus on the other side of Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10, but strengthening the defenses. Just as vaccines harness the power of the adaptive immune system to prevent, with differing effects in different cell types. Strategies to modulate HIF levels for infectious disease therapy

Nizet, Victor

362

New journal selection for quantitative survey of infectious disease research: application for Asian trend analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Quantitative survey of research articles, as an application of bibliometrics, is an effective tool for grasping overall trends in various medical research fields. This type of survey has been also applied to infectious disease research; however, previous studies were insufficient as they underestimated articles published in non-English or regional journals. METHODS: Using a combination of Scopus™ and PubMed, the

Hiromi Takahashi-Omoe; Katsuhiko Omoe; Nobuhiko Okabe

2009-01-01

363

Chest neoplasms with infectious etiologies  

PubMed Central

A wide spectrum of thoracic tumors have known or suspected viral etiologies. Oncogenic viruses can be classified by the type of genomic material they contain. Neoplastic conditions found to have viral etiologies include post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, lymphoid granulomatosis, Kaposi’s sarcoma, Castleman’s disease, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma, leukemia and lymphomas. Viruses involved in these conditions include Epstein-Barr virus, human herpes virus 8, human papillomavirus, Simian virus 40, human immunodeficiency virus, and Human T-lymphotropic virus. Imaging findings, epidemiology and mechanism of transmission for these diseases are reviewed in detail to gain a more thorough appreciation of disease pathophysiology for the chest radiologist. PMID:22224176

Restrepo, Carlos S; Chen, Melissa M; Martinez-Jimenez, Santiago; Carrillo, Jorge; Restrepo, Catalina

2011-01-01

364

Transmission of Human Enterovirus 85 Recombinants Containing New Unknown Serotype HEV-B Donor Sequences in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, China  

PubMed Central

Background Human enterovirus 85 (HEV85), whose prototype strain (Strain BAN00-10353/BAN/2000) was isolated in Bangladesh in 2000, is a recently identified serotype within the human enterovirus B (HEV-B) species. At present, only one nucleotide sequence of HEV85 (the complete genome sequence of the prototype strain) is available in the GenBank database. Principal Findings In this study, we report the genetic characteristics of 33 HEV85 isolates that circulated in the Xinjiang Uighur autonomous region of China in 2011. Sequence analysis revealed that all these Chinese HEV85 isolates belong to 2 transmission chains, and intertypic recombination was found with the new unknown serotype HEV-B donor sequences. Two HEV85 isolates recovered from a patient presenting acute flaccid paralysis and one of his contacts were temperature-insensitive strains, and some nucleotide substitutions in the non-coding regions and in the 2C or 3D coding regions may have affected the temperature sensitivity of HEV85 strains. Conclusions The Chinese HEV85 recombinant described in this study trapped a new unknown serotype HEV-B donor sequence, indicating that new unknown HEV-B serotypes exist or circulate in Xinjiang of China. Our study also indicated that HEV85 is a prevalent and common enterovirus serotype in Xinjiang. PMID:23383202

Tian, Huifang; Huang, Guohong; Cui, Hui; Li, Xiaolei; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Zhen; Li, Jing; Zheng, Peng; Jiang, Huafang; Zhang, Bo; Tan, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Hui; An, Hongqiu; Xu, Wenbo

2013-01-01

365

Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in final reclaimed effluent  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples collected throughout several reclamation facilities were analyzed for the presence of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum by the focus detection method-most-probable-number cell culture technique. Results revealed the presence of infectious C. parvum oocysts in 40% of the final disinfected effluent samples. Sampled effluent contained on average seven infectious oocysts per 100 liters. Thus, reclaimed water is not pathogen free but contains infectious C. parvum.

Gennaccaro, A.L.; McLaughlin, M.R.; Quintero-Betancourt, W.; Huffman, D.E.; Rose, J.B.

2003-01-01

366

CHAPTER TEN Is Infectious Disease Just Another Type  

E-print Network

-Prey Interaction? Spencer R. Hall, Kevin D. Lafferty, James H. Brown, Carla E. Cáceres, Jonathan M. Chase, Andrew P. Dobson, Robert D. Holt, Clive G. Jones, Sarah E. Randolph, and Pejman Rohani Summary Which factors

Hall, Spencer

367

Infectious Disease Hospitalizations Among Infants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. This study describes the burden and epidemiologic features of infectious disease hospitalizations among infants in the United States. METHODS. Hospitalizations with an infectious disease listed as a primary diagnosis for infants (1 year of age) in the United States during 2003 were examined by using the Kids' Inpatient Database. National estimates of infectious disease hospitalizations, hospitalization rates, and various

Krista L. Yorita; Robert C. Holman; James J. Sejvar; Claudia A. Steiner; Lawrence B. Schonberger

2010-01-01

368

Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

369

Immunopathogenesis of infectious disease: injury and death from friendly fire  

E-print Network

EDITORIAL Immunopathogenesis of infectious disease: injury and death from friendly fire Immunology and Cell Biology (2007) 85, 5. doi:10.1038/sj.icb.7100016 Infectious diseases continue to be a major health and mortality resulting from infectious diseases remain a predicament. In addition, the emergence of new

Cai, Long

370

Assistant or Associate Professor Division of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Assistant or Associate Professor Division of Infectious Diseases Department of Medicine The Department of Medicine/Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine at Stanford University of Infectious Diseases will be considered, including those with clinical and bench-based research programs

Quake, Stephen R.

371

PH 412 Syllabus 2014 Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Prevention  

E-print Network

PH 412 Syllabus 2014 PH 412 Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Prevention Spring Quarter 2014 Thursdays 6-9pm McGaw 2-322 Chad Achenbach, MD, MPH Assistant Professor in Medicine ­ Infectious Diseases hours: By Appointment Infectious Diseases Epidemiology and Prevention will focus on major concepts

Contractor, Anis

372

Contact Tracing to Control Infectious Disease: When Enough is Enough  

E-print Network

Contact Tracing to Control Infectious Disease: When Enough is Enough Benjamin Armbruster Margaret L develop and apply a simulation model of contact tracing and the spread of an infectious disease among;1 Introduction Studies of infectious disease control efforts -- such as screening, vaccination, and contact

MacIver, Malcolm A.

373

49 CFR 173.199 - Category B infectious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...subchapter. (1) A Category B infectious substance must be packaged...device containing a Category B infectious substance must be inspected...ineffective at transmitting disease. (9) A packaging containing...inner packagings of Category B infectious substances may not contain...

2013-10-01

374

49 CFR 173.199 - Category B infectious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...subchapter. (1) A Category B infectious substance must be packaged...device containing a Category B infectious substance must be inspected...ineffective at transmitting disease. (9) A packaging containing...inner packagings of Category B infectious substances may not contain...

2014-10-01

375

Infectious Diseases, Human Capital and Economic Aditya Goenka  

E-print Network

Infectious Diseases, Human Capital and Economic Growth Aditya Goenka (NUS) Lin Liu (University of infectious diseases, which is endogenous deter- mined itself, is the key factor in deciding whether countries, O11. Key Words: Infectious Diseases; Endogenous Growth; Epidemiology; Poverty Trap; Public Health

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

376

REVIEWS AND SYNTHESES Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

REVIEWS AND SYNTHESES Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases Sonia Altizer,1 * Andrew availability are ubiquitous and can exert strong pressures on population dynamics. Infectious diseases provide and persistence of infectious diseases, and that population-level responses can range from simple annual cycles

377

Hidden Cluster Detection for Infectious Disease Control and Quarantine Management  

E-print Network

Hidden Cluster Detection for Infectious Disease Control and Quarantine Management Yain-Whar Si, Kan {fstasp,ma46511,robertb,ccfong}@umac.mo Abstract. Infectious diseases that are caused by pathogenic in this paper. Key words: Infectious Disease, Cluster Detection, Contact Tracing, SARS, Health Care Information

Fong, Chi Chiu "Simon"

378

Statistical studies of infectious disease incidence Niels G. Becker  

E-print Network

Statistical studies of infectious disease incidence Niels G. Becker La Trobe University, Bundoora] Summary. Methods for the analysis of data on the incidence of an infectious disease are reviewed±acquired immune de®ciency syndrome epidemic. Infectious disease data seem particularly suited to analysis

Britton, Tom

379

Spreading Processes Modeling Infectious Disease Dynamics with Networks  

E-print Network

Spreading Processes Modeling Infectious Disease Dynamics with Networks #12;What is epidemiology-location Network Ref: Meyers et al (2003) Emerging Infectious Diseases 9, 204-210 #12;Office Hours Shweta Bansal control the spread? #12;S I R susceptible infectious recovered Compartmental models I dt dR IIIS dt d

Albert, RĂ©ka

380

49 CFR 173.199 - Category B infectious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...subchapter. (1) A Category B infectious substance must be packaged...device containing a Category B infectious substance must be inspected...ineffective at transmitting disease. (9) A packaging containing...inner packagings of Category B infectious substances may not contain...

2011-10-01

381

Mathematical Techniques in the Evolutionary Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

1 Mathematical Techniques in the Evolutionary Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases Troy Day The epidemiology of infectious diseases is a vibrant and growing area of research. Mathematics has come to play of infectious disease stems, in part, from the high levels of genetic variation that are often generated through

Linder, Tamás

382

Real-Time Event Extraction Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

E-print Network

Real-Time Event Extraction for Infectious Disease Outbreaks Ralph Grishman grishman of information on infectious disease outbreaks. A web crawler is used to retrieve current news stories of information on infectious disease outbreaks, linked back to the reports from which they are derived

383

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change  

E-print Network

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology, Boston, MA 02115, USA Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health for the surveillance and control of plant EIDs. Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are caused by pathogens that: (i

Schweik, Charles M.

384

49 CFR 173.199 - Category B infectious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...subchapter. (1) A Category B infectious substance must be packaged...device containing a Category B infectious substance must be inspected...ineffective at transmitting disease. (9) A packaging containing...inner packagings of Category B infectious substances may not contain...

2010-10-01

385

INFECTIOUS DISEASE The University of Texas at Austiniv  

E-print Network

INFECTIOUS DISEASE Plan Annex 2014 VIII #12;#12;#12;The University of Texas at Austiniv #12;Infectious Disease Plan Annex v CONTENTS RECORD OF CHANGES..................................................43 #12;The University of Texas at Austinvi #12;Infectious Disease Plan Annex 01 RECORD OF CHANGES

Johnston, Daniel

386

Statistical Inference and Computational Efficiency for Spatial Infectious-Disease  

E-print Network

Statistical Inference and Computational Efficiency for Spatial Infectious-Disease Models of an individual-level infectious disease model for making inference on the biological process underlying infectious disease models is com- plex and computationally demanding, emphasis is put on a minimal

Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

387

49 CFR 173.199 - Category B infectious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...subchapter. (1) A Category B infectious substance must be packaged...device containing a Category B infectious substance must be inspected...ineffective at transmitting disease. (9) A packaging containing...inner packagings of Category B infectious substances may not contain...

2012-10-01

388

Methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate challenges in children with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans.  

PubMed

Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a characteristic feature of asthma, but is also frequently demonstrated by children and adults with chronic obstructive lung diseases. AHR is usually measured by bronchial challenges using direct or indirect stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare these two types of bronchial challenge in children with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). Methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenges were used as tools for the evaluation of AHR to direct and indirect stimuli, respectively, in children with post-infectious BO (n = 28). These results were compared with those of asthmatic (n = 30) and control children (n = 25). Altogether, twenty-two patients (78.6%) with post-infectious BO were hyperreactive to methacholine with a provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PC20) of <16 mg x mL(-1), but only six (21.4%) were hyperreactive to AMP with a PC20 of <200 mg x mL(-1). All patients with asthma responded positively to methacholine, and most (28, 93.3%) also responded positively to AMP. The majority of controls were insensitive to both challenges. Airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine is a frequent, but by no means universal, finding in children with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans, but is usually not accompanied by airway hyperresponsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate. This finding suggests that airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans has characteristics that differ from those of asthmatic subjects. PMID:16387933

Yoo, Y; Yu, J; Kim, D K; Choi, S H; Kim, C K; Koh, Y Y

2006-01-01

389

The relationship between infectious and non-infectious herd factors with pneumonia at slaughter and productive parameters in fattening pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship between infectious and non-infectious herd factors with the occurrence of pneumonia at slaughter and productive parameters in fattening pigs on 39 fattening herds. A questionnaire was used to obtain environmental and management factors (non-infectious factors). Blood samples and lungs were obtained from 35 pigs in each herd at slaughter. Serological testing was performed for antibodies

Jorge Martínez; Bernardo Peris; Ernesto A. Gómez; Juan M. Corpa

2009-01-01

390

Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:19785214

Wilson, Mary E

2004-01-01

391

Anti-infectious agents against MRSA.  

PubMed

Clinically useful antibiotics, ?-lactams and vancomycin, are known to inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a unique cell wall structure consisting of peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid. In recent years, new anti-infectious agents (spirohexaline, tripropeptin C, DMPI, CDFI, cyslabdan, 1835F03, and BPH-652) targeting MRSA cell wall biosynthesis have been discovered using unique screening methods. These agents were found to inhibit important enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis such as undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UPP) synthase, FemA, flippase, or UPP phosphatase. In this review, the discovery, the mechanism of action, and the future of these anti-infectious agents are described. PMID:23262449

Koyama, Nobuhiro; Inokoshi, Junji; Tomoda, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

392

Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe  

PubMed Central

We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

Suk, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

393

Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

Wilson, M. E.

1995-01-01

394

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created over fifty years ago, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NAID) "conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases." In recent years, the scope of the institute's research activities has expanded to include emerging issues such as the possibility of bioterrorism and West Nile virus. The site contains a wealth of information on the activities of NAID, such as the most recent publications, organizational hierarchy, and funding opportunities for researchers and scholars. The newsroom area is quite thorough, as visitors have access to the database of news releases dating back to 1995 and access to SciBites, which features brief summaries of articles about NAID-funded research, updated weekly. The site is notable for its extensive special section on the growing battery of research on biodefense strategies.

395

Rediscovering Biology - Unit 5: Emerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is the jumping-off point for an educational unit on emerging infectious diseases. There are links to a course outline and classroom activity worksheets, a 30-minute video, an online textbook chapter, a collection of relevant images and animations that supplement the chapter, transcripts of interviews with five experts featured in the video, and a glossary and bibliography. The video and textbook chapter cover two main phenomena of emerging diseases - evolution of antibiotic resistance, and mutation of disease organisms due to novel environmental pressures. There are detailed explanations of microbial evolution by mutation and acquisition of new genetic material, as well as case studies of infectious diseases spread by animals. The course outline provides a structure for incorporating the video, the textbook chapter, and five classroom activities into a 2.5hr session appropriate for high school or undergraduate students.

Annenberg Media Learner.org

396

Imported Infectious Diseases in Mobile Populations, Spain  

PubMed Central

Migration has contributed to the emergence of certain infectious diseases. To determine which infectious diseases were most common among 2 mobile immigrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans and Latin Americans) in Spain, we analyzed health and demographic characteristics of 2,198 immigrants referred to the Tropical Medicine Unit of Ramón y Cajal Hospital over a 20-year period. The most frequent diagnoses were for latent tuberculosis (716 patients [32.6%]), filariasis (421 [19.2%]), hepatropic virus chronic infection (262 [19.2%]), intestinal parasites (242 [11.0%]), and malaria (212 [9.6%]). Health screening of immigrant populations is needed to ensure early diagnosis and treatment of potentially transmissible infections. PMID:19891861

Monge-Maillo, Begońa; Jiménez, B. Carolina; Pérez-Molina, José A.; Norman, Francesca; Navarro, Miriam; Pérez-Ayala, Ana; Herrero, Juan M.; Zamarrón, Pilar

2009-01-01

397

Vaccination against infectious diseases: what is promising?  

PubMed

Vaccination has proven to be one of the best weapons protecting the mankind against infectious diseases. Along with the huge progress in microbiology, numerous highly efficacious and safe vaccines have been produced by conventional technology (cultivation), by the use of molecular biology (genetic modification), or by synthetic chemistry. Sterilising prevention is achieved by the stimulation of antibody production, while the stimulation of cell-mediated immune responses may prevent the outbreak of disease in consequence of an acute or reactivated infection. From several examples, two rules are deduced to evaluate the perspectives of future vaccine developments: They are promising, if (1) the natural infectious disease induces immunity or (2) passive immunisation (transfer of antibodies, adoptive transfer of lymphocytes) is successful in preventing infection. PMID:25064610

Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Berger, Annemarie

2014-12-01

398

Infectious Bursal Disease Virus and Antarctic Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic isolation of the Antarctic continent coupled with the extreme climate has historically been assumed to protect\\u000a the indigenous Antarctic wildlife from exposure to infectious agents found among animals in more temperate regions. However,\\u000a with the number of tourists visiting the region more than doubling in the last 10 years (IAATO 2004) and climate change predicted\\u000a to enhance the

J. M. Watts; G. D. Miller; G. R. Shellam

399

[Surgical and infectious complications after kidney transplantation].  

PubMed

Analysis of 100 consecutive cadaverous renal transplants revealed significantly better long-term graft function and patient survival rates and lower incidence of surgical postoperative complications in the second 50 transplants in comparison with the first 50 transplants. The incidence of infectious complications declined with the decrease in the corticosteroids dosage. Severe mycotic infections were prevented by prophylactic administration of antimycotic drugs and by shortening the period of prophylactic antibiotic treatment to 24 hours. PMID:2336590

Valenta, J; Klecka, J; Podzimek, A; Opatrný, K

1990-01-01

400

The value of an infectious diseases specialist.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases (ID) specialists have played a major role in patient care, infection control, and antibiotic management for many years. With the rapidly changing nature of health care, it has become necessary for ID specialists to articulate their value to multiple audiences. This article summarizes the versatile attributes possessed by ID specialists and delineates their value to patients, hospitals, and other integral groups in the health care continuum. PMID:12684914

Petrak, Russell M; Sexton, Daniel J; Butera, Michael L; Tenenbaum, Marvin J; MacGregor, Mary C; Schmidt, Mary E; Joseph, W Patrick; Kemmerly, Sandra A; Dougherty, Mark J; Bakken, Johan S; Curfman, Maria F; Martinelli, Lawrence P; Gainer, R Brooks

2003-04-15

401

Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread.  

SciTech Connect

Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of pathogen resistant crop strains in the case of plant diseases. None of these approaches is rapid, and none address the potential persistence of the pathogen in the environment, which could lead to further spread of the agent and damage after quarantine is lifted. Pathogen spread in agricultural environments commonly occurs via transfer on agricultural equipment (transportation trailers, tractors, trucks, combines, etc.), having components made from a broad range of materials (galvanized and painted steel, rubber tires, glass and Plexiglas shields, etc), and under conditions of heavy organic load (mud, soil, feces, litter, etc). A key element of stemming the spread of an outbreak is to ensure complete inactivation of the pathogens in the agricultural environment and on the equipment used in those environments. Through the combination of enhanced agricultural pathogen decontamination chemistry and a validated inactivation verification methodology, important technologies for incorporation as components of a robust response capability will be enabled. Because of the potentially devastating economic impact that could result from the spread of infectious agricultural diseases, the proposed capability components will promote critical infrastructure protection and greater border and food supply security. We investigated and developed agricultural pathogen decontamination technologies to reduce the threat of infectious-agent spread, and thus enhance agricultural biosecurity. Specifically, enhanced detergency versions of the patented Sandia decontamination chemistry were developed and tested against a few surrogate pathogens under conditions of relatively heavy organic load. Tests were conducted on surfaces commonly found in agricultural environments. Wide spectrum decontamination efficacy, low corrosivity, and biodegradability issues were addressed in developing an enhanced detergency formulation. A method for rapid assessment of loss of pathogenic activity (inactivation) was also assessed. This enhanced technology will enable rapid assessment of contamination following an intentional event, and will also be extremely useful in routine assessment of agricultural environments. The primary effort during the second year was progress towards a demonstration of both decontamination and viral inactivation technologies of Foot and Mouth virus (FMDv) using the modified SNL chemistry developed through this project. Lab studies using a surrogate virus (bovine enterovirus) were conducted using DF200, modified DF200 chemistry, and decontaminants currently recommended for use in heavily loaded organic, agricultural environments (VirkonS, 10% bleach, sodium hydroxide and citric acid). Tests using actual FMD virus will be performed at the Department of Homeland Security's Plum Island facilities in the fall of 2005. Success and the insight gained from this project will lead to enhanced response capability, which will benefit agencies such as USDA, DHS, DOD, and the agricultural industry.

Betty, Rita G.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David

2005-10-01

402

Challenges of infectious diseases in the USA.  

PubMed

In the USA, infectious diseases continue to exact a substantial toll on health and health-care resources. Endemic diseases such as chronic hepatitis, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections affect millions of individuals and widen health disparities. Additional concerns include health-care-associated and foodborne infections--both of which have been targets of broad prevention efforts, with success in some areas, yet major challenges remain. Although substantial progress in reduction of the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases has been made, continued cases and outbreaks of these diseases persist, driven by various contributing factors. Worldwide, emerging and reemerging infections continue to challenge prevention and control strategies while the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance needs urgent action. An important priority for control of infectious disease is to ensure that scientific and technological advances in molecular diagnostics and bioinformatics are well integrated into public health. Broad and diverse partnerships across governments, health care, academia, and industry, and with the public, are essential to effectively reduce the burden of infectious diseases. PMID:24996590

Khabbaz, Rima F; Moseley, Robin R; Steiner, Riley J; Levitt, Alexandra M; Bell, Beth P

2014-07-01

403

Infectious diseases in the operating room.  

PubMed

Patients with infectious diseases have special implications for infection control in the operating room. The increased use and abuse of antibiotics has ushered in a category of resistant organisms. These multiresistant organisms are spread by direct or indirect contact, primarily from the hands of caregivers or contact with contaminated environmental surfaces. Another category of infectious diseases is prions (pronounced pree-ons). Unlike other infectious diseases, human prions diseases are not spread through routine exposures such as direct contact, droplet, and airborne routes. The causative agent is highly resistant to traditional disinfecting and sterilization processes. This article provides an overview of the multiresistant infections of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin along with the human prions diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, German-Straüssler-Scheinker syndrome, kuru, and fatal familial insomnia. We provide a template of precautions that can be used in developing operating room and anesthesia infection control protocols for this patient population. PMID:11271038

Homa, D G; Palfreyman, M A

2000-02-01

404

The Role of HIV-1 gp41 Glycoprotein in Infectious Tropism Inferred from Physico-Chemical Properties of its Amino Acid Sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a statistical analysis of the amino acid sequence of the gp41 ectodomain of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1. We found strong correlations between physicochemical properties of highly variable residues and the viral infectious tropism.

Figueroa, E.; Villarreal, C.; Huerta, L.; Cocho, G.

2006-09-01

405

Distribution of enterovirus 71 RNA in inflammatory cells infiltrating different tissues in fatal cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease.  

PubMed

In previous studies of hand, foot, and mouth disease patients fatally infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71), the distribution of viral protein, but not the genome, was determined. To understand the pathogenesis of EV71, however, it is important to investigate the spread of the viral genome. There have been no pathological studies of in situ EV71 viral RNA in inflammatory cells infiltrating various tissues of fatal cases. We therefore first investigated the distribution and classification of inflammatory cells in various tissues and then performed in situ EV71 RNA hybridization in these tissues to better understand the pathogenesis of EV71 infection. EV71 RNA was found mainly in inflammatory cells infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS), intestines, lungs, and tonsils. Most EV71 RNA-positive inflammatory cells in the CNS were macrophages/microglia and neutrophils infiltrating the perivascular cuffing, microglial nodule, neuronophagia, and meninges. CD68+ macrophages and CD15+ neutrophils were diffusely distributed in tissues with severe pathological changes. This study demonstrates the presence of EV71 RNA in inflammatory cells infiltrating tissues in fatally infected patients. Our findings suggest that fatal EV71 infection with extensive infiltration of macrophages/microglia and neutrophils into the CNS results in severe neurological lesions. PMID:25408373

Yu, Pin; Gao, Zifen; Zong, Yuanyuan; Bao, Linlin; Xu, Lili; Deng, Wei; Xu, Yanfeng; Gao, Zhancheng; Yao, Yanfeng; Li, Fengdi; Lv, Qi; Qin, Chuan

2015-01-01

406

IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 are associated with pathogenesis in children with Enterovirus 71 infection  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the aim was to reveal the relationship of serum IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 levels in patient with Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. To elucidate the role of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), we analyzed the cytokine of 112 EV71-infected patients. A significant elevation of serum (interleukin) IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 levels in patients with EV71 infection compare with Un-EV71 infection HFMD patient and Healthy individuals. The production of inflammatory cytokines was increased with disease clinical stage. In addition, the immunological consequences of these cytokine in patient with EV71 infection showed a downward trend after cure. These data suggested that EV71 infection significantly increased the release of circulating IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13. The systemic inflammatory response may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HFMD. Moreover, this study may be designed to evaluate the potential therapeutic of medicine in the treatment of patients with EV71 infection. PMID:25356130

Chen, Zhifeng; Li, Ruiqin; Xie, Zhichao; Huang, Guoqiang; Yuan, Qingchun; Zeng, Jincheng

2014-01-01

407

Recombination in Enteroviruses Is a Biphasic Replicative Process Involving the Generation of Greater-than Genome Length ‘Imprecise’ Intermediates  

PubMed Central

Recombination in enteroviruses provides an evolutionary mechanism for acquiring extensive regions of novel sequence, is suggested to have a role in genotype diversity and is known to have been key to the emergence of novel neuropathogenic variants of poliovirus. Despite the importance of this evolutionary mechanism, the recombination process remains relatively poorly understood. We investigated heterologous recombination using a novel reverse genetic approach that resulted in the isolation of intermediate chimeric intertypic polioviruses bearing genomes with extensive duplicated sequences at the recombination junction. Serial passage of viruses exhibiting such imprecise junctions yielded progeny with increased fitness which had lost the duplicated sequences. Mutations or inhibitors that changed polymerase fidelity or the coalescence of replication complexes markedly altered the yield of recombinants (but did not influence non-replicative recombination) indicating both that the process is replicative and that it may be possible to enhance or reduce recombination-mediated viral evolution if required. We propose that extant recombinants result from a biphasic process in which an initial recombination event is followed by a process of resolution, deleting extraneous sequences and optimizing viral fitness. This process has implications for our wider understanding of ‘evolution by duplication’ in the positive-strand RNA viruses. PMID:24945141

Lowry, Kym; Woodman, Andrew; Cook, Jonathan; Evans, David J.

2014-01-01

408

Trends in Notifiable Infectious Diseases in China: Implications for Surveillance and Population Health Policy  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to analyse trends in notifiable infectious diseases in China, in their historical context. Both English and Chinese literature was searched and diseases were categorised according to the type of disease or transmission route. Temporal trends of morbidity and mortality rates were calculated for eight major infectious diseases types. Strong government commitment to public health responses and improvements in quality of life has led to the eradication or containment of a wide range of infectious diseases in China. The overall infectious diseases burden experienced a dramatic drop during 1975–1995, but since then, it reverted and maintained a gradual upward trend to date. Most notifiable diseases are contained at a low endemic level; however, local small-scale outbreaks remain common. Tuberculosis, as a bacterial infection, has re-emerged since the 1990s and has become prevalent in the country. Sexually transmitted infections are in a rapid, exponential growth phase, spreading from core groups to the general population. Together human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), they account for 39% of all death cases due to infectious diseases in China in 2008. Zoonotic infections, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), rabies and influenza, pose constant threats to Chinese residents and remain the most deadly disease type among the infected individuals. Therefore, second-generation surveillance of behavioural risks or vectors associated with pathogen transmission should be scaled up. It is necessary to implement public health interventions that target HIV and relevant coinfections, address transmission associated with highly mobile populations, and reduce the risk of cross-species transmission of zoonotic pathogens. PMID:22359565

Zhang, Lei; Wilson, David P.

2012-01-01

409

Concentration of enteroviruses, adenoviruses, and noroviruses from drinking water by use of glass wool filters.  

PubMed

Available filtration methods to concentrate waterborne viruses are either too costly for studies requiring large numbers of samples, limited to small sample volumes, or not very portable for routine field applications. Sodocalcic glass wool filtration is a cost-effective and easy-to-use method to retain viruses, but its efficiency and reliability are not adequately understood. This study evaluated glass wool filter performance to concentrate the four viruses on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency contaminant candidate list, i.e., coxsackievirus, echovirus, norovirus, and adenovirus, as well as poliovirus. Total virus numbers recovered were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR); infectious polioviruses were quantified by integrated cell culture (ICC)-qRT-PCR. Recovery efficiencies averaged 70% for poliovirus, 14% for coxsackievirus B5, 19% for echovirus 18, 21% for adenovirus 41, and 29% for norovirus. Virus strain and water matrix affected recovery, with significant interaction between the two variables. Optimal recovery was obtained at pH 6.5. No evidence was found that water volume, filtration rate, and number of viruses seeded influenced recovery. The method was successful in detecting indigenous viruses in municipal wells in Wisconsin. Long-term continuous filtration retained viruses sufficiently for their detection for up to 16 days after seeding for qRT-PCR and up to 30 days for ICC-qRT-PCR. Glass wool filtration is suitable for large-volume samples (1,000 liters) collected at high filtration rates (4 liters min(-1)), and its low cost makes it advantageous for studies requiring large numbers of samples. PMID:18359827

Lambertini, Elisabetta; Spencer, Susan K; Bertz, Phillip D; Loge, Frank J; Kieke, Burney A; Borchardt, Mark A

2008-05-01

410

Public health surveillance and infectious disease detection.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and pandemic influenza, and the anthrax attacks of 2001, have demonstrated that we remain vulnerable to health threats caused by infectious diseases. The importance of strengthening global public health surveillance to provide early warning has been the primary recommendation of expert groups for at least the past 2 decades. However, despite improvements in the past decade, public health surveillance capabilities remain limited and fragmented, with uneven global coverage. Recent initiatives provide hope of addressing this issue, and new technological and conceptual advances could, for the first time, place capability for global surveillance within reach. Such advances include the revised International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and the use of new data sources and methods to improve global coverage, sensitivity, and timeliness, which show promise for providing capabilities to extend and complement the existing infrastructure. One example is syndromic surveillance, using nontraditional and often automated data sources. Over the past 20 years, other initiatives, including ProMED-mail, GPHIN, and HealthMap, have demonstrated new mechanisms for acquiring surveillance data. In 2009 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program, which includes the PREDICT project, to build global capacity for surveillance of novel infections that have pandemic potential (originating in wildlife and at the animal-human interface) and to develop a framework for risk assessment. Improved understanding of factors driving infectious disease emergence and new technological capabilities in modeling, diagnostics and pathogen identification, and communications, such as using the increasing global coverage of cellphones for public health surveillance, can further enhance global surveillance. PMID:22455675

Morse, Stephen S

2012-03-01

411

Infectious complications in patients with liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Liver cirrhosis is the end stage of any chronic liver disease. Complications occurring in patients with liver cirrhosis may be specific to this pathology and to gastroenterology (upper gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy) or may interfere with other specialties (hepatorenal syndrome, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and other localized infectious complications). Over the past few decades, major efforts have been made to increase survival in patients with cirrhosis, but unfortunately, few therapeutic methods have been proven effective. Bacterial infections are frequent and serious complications of liver cirrhosis, resulting in high morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized patients, despite significant progress in health care for those with advanced liver disease. PMID:25341269

Preda, Sînziana; Trifan, Anca; Gîrleanu, Irina; Stanciu, C; Cojocariu, Camelia

2014-01-01

412

The changing pattern of infectious disease.  

PubMed Central

Several factors contribute towards a decrease in the prevalence of infectious disease in a population. These include active control measures, active immunisation, and improvement in the socioeconomic state of the population. There appears, however, to be a progressive increase in the resistance of a population in relation to the length of time the population has been exposed to an agent. This increasing resistance is currently thought to be an expression of natural selection but transmission of actively acquired immunity cannot be ruled out and in the light of current evidence remains a highly probable contributory factor. PMID:6437550

Ikwueke, K

1984-01-01

413

Immigrant and refugee health: common infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Immigrants and refugees are at risk of infectious diseases (IDs) that are rare in the United States. Screening and treatment before entry into the United States are required for some of these diseases, whereas quarantine is mandated for others. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published specific recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of immigrants and refugees before and after they arrive in the United States. In addition, immigrants and refugees who return to their home countries are at greater risk of IDs than other travelers. Health care professionals are required to report certain IDs to state or local health departments. PMID:25127537

Rew, Karl T; Clarke, S Lindsey; Gossa, Weyinshet; Savin, Daniel

2014-08-01

414

The role of infectious disease in marine communities: chapter 5  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine ecologists recognize that infectious diseases play and important role in ocean ecosystems. This role may have increased in some host taxa over time (Ward and Lafferty 2004). We begin this chapter by introducing infectious agents and their relationships with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents in the perspective of marine biodiversity and discuss the various factors that affect parasites. Specifically, we introduce some basin epidemiological concepts, including the effects of stress and free-living diversity on parasites. Following this, we give brief consideration to communities of parasites within their hosts, particularly as these can lead to general insights into community ecology. We also give examples of how infectious diseases affect host populations, scaling up to marine communities. Finally, we present examples of marine infectious disease that impair conservation and fisheries.

Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew

2014-01-01

415

All Hands on Deck: Transdisciplinary Approaches to Emerging Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing burden of emerging infectious diseases worldwide confronts us with numerous challenges, including the imperative\\u000a to design research and responses that are commensurate to understanding the complex social and ecological contexts in which\\u000a infectious diseases occur. A diverse group of scientists met in Hawaii in March 2005 to discuss the linked social and ecological\\u000a contexts in which infectious diseases

Margot W. Parkes; Leslie Bienen; Jaime Breilh; Lee-Nah Hsu; Marian McDonald; Jonathan A. Patz; Joshua P. Rosenthal; Mazrura Sahani; Adrian Sleigh; David Waltner-Toews; Annalee Yassi

2005-01-01

416

Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: Biocomplexity as an Interdisciplinary Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding factors responsible for reemergence of diseases believed to have been controlled and outbreaks of previously\\u000a unknown infectious diseases is one of the most difficult scientific problems facing society today. Significant knowledge gaps\\u000a exist for even the most studied emerging infectious diseases. Coupled with failures in the response to the resurgence of infectious\\u000a diseases, this lack of information is embedded

Bruce A. Wilcox; Rita R. Colwell

2005-01-01

417

Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWater plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored.Methods and FindingsBased on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON), a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study,

Kun Yang; Jeffrey LeJeune; Doug Alsdorf; Bo Lu; C. K. Shum; Song Liang

2012-01-01

418

PARASITES AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the parasites, infectious diseases, and non-infectious diseases related to toxicants found in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) across its range. Documentation of population-level effects is rare although researchers have responded to the recent emergence of West Nile virus with rigorous efforts. West Nile virus shows greater virulence and potential population level effects than any infectious agent detected in

THOMAS J. CHRISTIANSEN; CYNTHIA M. TATE

419

Infectious delivery of alphaherpesvirus bacterial artificial chromosomes.  

PubMed

Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) can accommodate and stably propagate the genomes of large DNA viruses in E. coli. As DNA virus genomes are often per se infectious upon transfection into mammalian cells, their cloning in BACs and easy modification by homologous recombination in bacteria has become an important strategy to investigate the functions of individual virus genes. This chapter describes a strategy to clone the genomes of viruses of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily within the family of the Herpesviridae, which is a group of large DNA viruses that can establish both lytic and latent infections in most animal species including humans. The cloning strategy includes the following steps: (1) Construction of a transfer plasmid that contains the BAC backbone with selection and screening markers, and targeting sequences which support homologous recombination between the transfer plasmid and the alphaherpesvirus genome. (2) Introduction of the transfer plasmid sequences into the alphaherpesvirus genome via homologous recombination in mammalian cells. (3) Isolation of recombinant virus genomes containing the BAC backbone sequences from infected mammalian cells and electroporation into E. coli. (4) Preparation of infectious BAC DNA from bacterial cultures and transfection into mammalian cells. (5) Isolation and characterization of progeny virus. PMID:25239748

Tobler, Kurt; Fraefel, Cornel

2015-01-01

420

Hajj: infectious disease surveillance and control.  

PubMed

Religious festivals attract a large number of pilgrims from worldwide and are a potential risk for the transmission of infectious diseases between pilgrims, and to the indigenous population. The gathering of a large number of pilgrims could compromise the health system of the host country. The threat to global health security posed by infectious diseases with epidemic potential shows the importance of advanced planning of public health surveillance and response at these religious events. Saudi Arabia has extensive experience of providing health care at mass gatherings acquired through decades of managing millions of pilgrims at the Hajj. In this report, we describe the extensive public health planning, surveillance systems used to monitor public health risks, and health services provided and accessed during Hajj 2012 and Hajj 2013 that together attracted more than 5 million pilgrims from 184 countries. We also describe the recent establishment of the Global Center for Mass Gathering Medicine, a Saudi Government partnership with the WHO Collaborating Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Gulf Co-operation Council states, UK universities, and public health institutions globally. PMID:24857703

Memish, Ziad A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Assiri, Abdullah; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Al Harby, Khalid D; Alyemni, Mohamed; Dhafar, Khalid; Gautret, Philippe; Barbeschi, Maurizio; McCloskey, Brian; Heymann, David; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

2014-06-14

421

Global climate change and infectious diseases  

SciTech Connect

The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Shope, R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

1991-12-01

422

Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces.  

PubMed

Infectious prion diseases-scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family-are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their faeces long before they develop clinical signs of prion disease. Intracerebral inoculation of irradiated deer faeces into transgenic mice overexpressing cervid prion protein (PrP) revealed infectivity in 14 of 15 faecal samples collected from five deer at 7-11 months before the onset of neurological disease. Although prion concentrations in deer faeces were considerably lower than in brain tissue from the same deer collected at the end of the disease, the estimated total infectious dose excreted in faeces by an infected deer over the disease course may approximate the total contained in a brain. Prolonged faecal prion excretion by infected deer provides a plausible natural mechanism that might explain the high incidence and efficient horizontal transmission of CWD within deer herds, as well as prion transmission among other susceptible cervids. PMID:19741608

Tamgüney, Gültekin; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Glidden, David V; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

2009-09-24

423

BLT-esterase in infectious mononucleosis.  

PubMed

Peripheral blood lymphocytes of three patients suffering from infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection were analysed for BLT-esterase expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes by a well established cytochemical staining method. During the acute phase of disease with presence of clinical symptoms a very high level of up to 90% BLT-esterase-expressing lymphocytes were detected. The increased percentage of lymphocytes expressing BLT-esterase coincided with the time of greatest symptoms and the peak elevation of hepatocellular enzymes. The still moderately elevated level only gradually decreased to normal during the further recovery period of 2 months during which the patients described episodes of weakness. Peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotype analysis revealed a marked CD8 lymphocytosis, a CD4/CD8 ratio of about 0.2, low number of CD19+ B cells, and a high level of DR+ CD3+ lymphocytes. Reduction of BLT esterase expression during the recovery period coincided with reduction of CD8+ DR+ lymphocytes. By a combination of BLT-esterase staining with immunocytochemical phenotype analysis, 95% of CD8+ lymphocytes were found to be BLT-esterase-positive. BLT-esterase might be involved in the immunodefence against EBV in infectious mononucleosis by inducing apoptosis in EBV-transformed B cells. PMID:7743659

Wagner, L; Wiesholzer, M; Worman, C P; Lang, G; Base, W

1995-05-01

424

First isolation and genomic characterization of enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 from hand foot and mouth disease patients in the Lao PDR  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are major aetiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in Asia. We established the first genomic characterization of strains isolated in 2011 from Lao patients. Isolates were related to EV-A71 genotype C4 and CV-A16 genotype B1a that circulated in neighbouring countries during the same period. This confirms the regional character of hand, foot and mouth disease epidemiology and makes plausible the occurrence of severe disease in the Lao population.

Nguyen, V H; Sibounheuang, B; Phommasone, K; Vongsouvath, M; Newton, P N; Piorkowski, G; Baronti, C; de Lamballerie, X; Dubot-Pérčs, A

2014-01-01

425

Phenotypic Diversity and Emerging New Tools to Study Macrophage Activation in Bacterial Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Macrophage polarization is a concept that has been useful to describe the different features of macrophage activation related to specific functions. Macrophage polarization is responsible for a dichotomic approach (killing vs. repair) of the host response to bacteria; M1-type conditions are protective, whereas M2-type conditions are associated with bacterial persistence. The use of the polarization concept to classify the features of macrophage activation in infected patients using transcriptional and/or molecular data and to provide biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis has most often been unsuccessful. The confrontation of polarization with different clinical situations in which monocytes/macrophages encounter bacteria obliged us to reappraise this concept. With the exception of M2-type infectious diseases, such as leprosy and Whipple’s disease, most acute (sepsis) or chronic (Q fever, tuberculosis) infectious diseases do not exhibit polarized monocytes/macrophages. This is also the case for commensals that shape the immune response and for probiotics that alter the immune response independent of macrophage polarization. We propose that the type of myeloid cells (monocytes vs. macrophages) and the kinetics of the immune response (early vs. late responses) are critical variables for understanding macrophage activation in human infectious diseases. Explorating the role of these new markers will provide important tools to better understand complex macrophage physiology. PMID:25346736

Ka, Mignane B.; Daumas, Aurélie; Textoris, Julien; Mege, Jean-Louis

2014-01-01

426

Phenotypic diversity and emerging new tools to study macrophage activation in bacterial infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Macrophage polarization is a concept that has been useful to describe the different features of macrophage activation related to specific functions. Macrophage polarization is responsible for a dichotomic approach (killing vs. repair) of the host response to bacteria; M1-type conditions are protective, whereas M2-type conditions are associated with bacterial persistence. The use of the polarization concept to classify the features of macrophage activation in infected patients using transcriptional and/or molecular data and to provide biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis has most often been unsuccessful. The confrontation of polarization with different clinical situations in which monocytes/macrophages encounter bacteria obliged us to reappraise this concept. With the exception of M2-type infectious diseases, such as leprosy and Whipple's disease, most acute (sepsis) or chronic (Q fever, tuberculosis) infectious diseases do not exhibit polarized monocytes/macrophages. This is also the case for commensals that shape the immune response and for probiotics that alter the immune response independent of macrophage polarization. We propose that the type of myeloid cells (monocytes vs. macrophages) and the kinetics of the immune response (early vs. late responses) are critical variables for understanding macrophage activation in human infectious diseases. Explorating the role of these new markers will provide important tools to better understand complex macrophage physiology. PMID:25346736

Ka, Mignane B; Daumas, Aurélie; Textoris, Julien; Mege, Jean-Louis

2014-01-01

427

Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Spinal Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Infectious spinal disease is regarded as an infection by a specific organism that affects the vertebral body, intervertebral disc and adjacent perivertebral soft tissue. Its incidence seems to be increasing as a result of larger proportion of the older patients with chronic debilitating disease, the rise of intravenous drug abuser, and the increase in spinal procedure and surgery. In Korea, studies assessing infectious spinal disease are rare and have not been addressed in recent times. The objectives of this study are to describe the epidemiology of all kind of spinal infectious disease and their clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as to assess the diagnostic methodology and the parameters related to the outcomes. Methods A retrospective study was performed in all infectious spinal disease cases presenting from January 2005 to April 2010 to three tertiary teaching hospitals within a city of 1.5 million in Korea. Patient demographics, risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes were assessed. Risk factors entailed the presence of diabetes, chronic renal failure, liver cirrhosis, immunosuppressants, remote infection, underlying malignancy and previous spinal surgery or procedure. We comparatively analyzed the results between the groups of pyogenic and tuberculous spinal infection. SPSS version 14 statistical software was used to perform the analyses of the data. The threshold for statistical significance was established at p<0.05. Results Ninety-two cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Overall, patients of tuberculous spinal infection (TSI) and pyogenic spinal infection (PSI) entailed 20 (21.7%) and 72 (78.3%) cases, respectively. A previous spinal surgery or procedure was the most commonly noted risk factor (39.1%), followed by diabetes (15.2%). The occurrence of both pyogenic and tuberculous spondylitis was predominant in the lumbar spine. Discs are more easily invaded in PSI. At initial presentation, white cell blood count and C-reactive protein levels were higher in PSI compared to TSI (p<0.05). Etiological agents were identified in 53.3%, and the most effective method for identification of etiological agents was tissue culture (50.0%). Staphyococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated infective agent associated with pyogenic spondylitis, followed by E. coli. Surgical treatment was performed in 31.5% of pyogenic spondylitis and in 35.0% of tuberculous spondylitis cases. Conclusion Many previous studies in Korea usually reported that tuberculous spondylitis is the predominant infection. However, in our study, the number of pyogenic infection was 3 times greater than that of tuberculous spinal disease. Etiological agents were identified in a half of all infectious spinal disease. For better outcomes, we should try to identify the causative microorganism before antibiotic therapy and make every effort to improve the result of culture and biopsy. PMID:25289121

Jeong, Se-Jin; Youm, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Ha, Ho-Gyun; Yi, Jin-Seok

2014-01-01

428

Creating a global dialogue on infectious disease surveillance: connecting organizations for regional disease surveillance (CORDS).  

PubMed

Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers - not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework. PMID:23362412

Gresham, Louise S; Smolinski, Mark S; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

2013-01-01

429

Creating a Global Dialogue on Infectious Disease Surveillance: Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS)  

PubMed Central

Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers – not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework. PMID:23362412

Gresham, Louise S.; Smolinski, Mark S.; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

2013-01-01

430

Comparative detection of enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid: GeneXpert system vs. real-time RT-PCR assay.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses (EVs) constitute the most common cause of aseptic meningitis in both children and adults. Molecular techniques have now been recognized as the reference standard for the diagnosis of EV infections, and the rapidity of the molecular diagnosis of EV meningitis has been shown to be a determining factor in the management of patients. The rapid documentation of EV RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is key to adapting patient management and the therapeutic regimen. To shorten the time needed for virological documentation, we implemented EV RNA detection in two point-of-care (POC) laboratories. Here, we present the results of the POC detection of EV RNA with the Xpert EV kit on the GeneXpert integrated system, and a comparison with the real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assay routinely used in the core virology laboratory. From January to September 2009, a total of 310 CSF samples were tested. The rtRT-PCR gave 81 positive, 225 negative and four 'indeterminate' results. POC results were concordant in 81.6% (253/310). Most of the discrepancies consisted of 'indeterminate' results at the POC level (16%). Calculated performances (excluding the indeterminate results) of the Xpert EV kit on the GeneXpert system in POC settings were 100%, 98.9%, 97.6% and 100% for Sensibility, Specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that the implementation of POC detection of EV RNA can provide robust results in <4 h, and may have a significant impact on patient management, therapeutic attitude, and hospitalization costs. PMID:21848972

Ninove, L; Nougairede, A; Gazin, C; Zandotti, C; Drancourt, M; de Lamballerie, X; Charrel, R N

2011-12-01

431

The association of recombination events in the founding and emergence of subgenogroup evolutionary lineages of human enterovirus 71.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for frequent large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease worldwide and represent a major etiological agent of severe, sometimes fatal neurological disease. EV71 variants have been classified into three genogroups (GgA, GgB, and GgC), and the latter two are further subdivided into subgenogroups B1 to B5 and C1 to C5. To investigate the dual roles of recombination and evolution in the epidemiology and transmission of EV71 worldwide, we performed a large-scale genetic analysis of isolates (n = 308) collected from 19 countries worldwide over a 40-year period. A series of recombination events occurred over this period, which have been identified through incongruities in sequence grouping between the VP1 and 3Dpol regions. Eleven 3Dpol clades were identified, each specific to EV71 and associated with specific subgenogroups but interspersed phylogenetically with clades of coxsackievirus A16 and other EV species A serotypes. The likelihood of recombination increased with VP1 sequence divergence; mean half-lives for EV71 recombinant forms (RFs) of 6 and 9 years for GgB and GgC overlapped with those observed for the EV-B serotypes, echovirus 9 (E9), E30, and E11, respectively (1.3 to 9.8 years). Furthermore, within genogroups, sporadic recombination events occurred, such as the linkage of two B4 variants to RF-W instead of RF-A and of two C4 variants to RF-H. Intriguingly, recombination events occurred as a founding event of most subgenogroups immediately preceding their lineage expansion and global emergence. The possibility that recombination contributed to their subsequent spread through improved fitness requires further biological and immunological characterization. PMID:22205739

McWilliam Leitch, E C; Cabrerizo, M; Cardosa, J; Harvala, H; Ivanova, O E; Koike, S; Kroes, A C M; Lukashev, A; Perera, D; Roivainen, M; Susi, P; Trallero, G; Evans, D J; Simmonds, P

2012-03-01

432

Enterovirus 71 3C Protease Cleaves a Novel Target CstF-64 and Inhibits Cellular Polyadenylation  

PubMed Central

Identification of novel cellular proteins as substrates to viral proteases would provide a new insight into the mechanism of cell–virus interplay. Eight nuclear proteins as potential targets for enterovirus 71 (EV71) 3C protease (3Cpro) cleavages were identified by 2D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. Of these proteins, CstF-64, which is a critical factor for 3? pre-mRNA processing in a cell nucleus, was selected for further study. A time-course study to monitor the expression levels of CstF-64 in EV71-infected cells also revealed that the reduction of CstF-64 during virus infection was correlated with the production of viral 3Cpro. CstF-64 was cleaved in vitro by 3Cpro but neither by mutant 3Cpro (in which the catalytic site was inactivated) nor by another EV71 protease 2Apro. Serial mutagenesis was performed in CstF-64, revealing that the 3Cpro cleavage sites are located at position 251 in the N-terminal P/G-rich domain and at multiple positions close to the C-terminus of CstF-64 (around position 500). An accumulation of unprocessed pre-mRNA and the depression of mature mRNA were observed in EV71-infected cells. An in vitro assay revealed the inhibition of the 3?-end pre-mRNA processing and polyadenylation in 3Cpro-treated nuclear extract, and this impairment was rescued by adding purified recombinant CstF-64 protein. In summing up the above results, we suggest that 3Cpro cleavage inactivates CstF-64 and impairs the host cell polyadenylation in vitro, as well as in virus-infected cells. This finding is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that a picornavirus protein affects the polyadenylation of host mRNA. PMID:19779565

Weng, Kuo-Feng; Li, Mei-Ling; Hung, Chuan-Tien; Shih, Shin-Ru

2009-01-01

433

Evolutionary Genetics of Human Enterovirus 71: Origin, Population Dynamics, Natural Selection, and Seasonal Periodicity of the VP1 Gene? †  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is one of the major etiologic causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children worldwide, with fatal instances of neurological complications becoming increasingly common. Global VP1 capsid sequences (n = 628) sampled over 4 decades were collected and subjected to comprehensive evolutionary analysis using a suite of phylogenetic and population genetic methods. We estimated that the common ancestor of human EV-71 likely emerged around 1941 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1929 to 1952), subsequently diverging into three genogroups: B, C, and the now extinct genogroup A. Genealogical analysis revealed that diverse lineages of genogroup B and C (subgenogroups B1 to B5 and C1 to C5) have each circulated cryptically in the human population for up to 5 years before causing large HFMD outbreaks, indicating the quiescent persistence of EV-71 in human populations. Estimated phylogenies showed a complex pattern of spatial structure within well-sampled subgenogroups, suggesting endemicity with occasional lineage migration among locations, such that past HFMD epidemics are unlikely to be linked to continuous transmission of a single strain of virus. In addition, rises in genetic diversity are correlated with the onset of epidemics, driven in part by the emergence of novel EV-71 subgenogroups. Using subgenogroup C1 as a model, we observe temporal strain replacement through time, and we investigate the evidence for positive selection at VP1 immunogenic sites. We discuss the consequences of the evolutionary dynamics of EV-71 for vaccine design and compare its phylodynamic behavior with that of influenza virus. PMID:20089660

Tee, Kok Keng; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Chan, Yoke Fun; Bible, Jon M.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tong, C. Y. William; Takebe, Yutaka; Pybus, Oliver G.

2010-01-01

434

Evaluation of monovalent and bivalent vaccines against lethal Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 infection in newborn mice.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) have caused severe epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia Pacific in recent years, particularly in infants and young children. This disease has become a serious public health problem, as no vaccines or antiviral drugs have been approved for EV71 and CA16 infections. In this study, we compared four monovalent vaccines, including formalin-inactivated EV71 virus (iEV71), EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) (vEV71), formalin-inactivated CVA16 virus (iCVA16) and CVA16 VLPs (vCVA16), along with two bivalent vaccines, including equivalent doses of formalin-inactivated EV71+CVA16 virus (iEV71+iCVA16) and EV71+CVA16 VLPs (vEV71+vCVA16). The IgG titers and neutralization antibodies titers demonstrated that there are no immune interference exists between the two immunogens of EV71 and CVA16. IgG subclass isotyping revealed that IgG1 and IgG2b were induced primarily in all vaccine groups. Furthermore, cross-neutralization antibodies were elicited in mouse sera against other sub-genotypes of EV71 and CVA16. In vivo challenge experiments showed that the immune sera from vaccinated animals could confer passive protection to newborn mice against lethal challenge with 14 LD50 of EV71 and 50 LD50 of CVA16. Our results indicated that bivalent vaccination is promising for HFMD vaccine development. With the advantage of having a better safety profile than inactivated virus vaccines, VLPs should be used to combine both EV71 and CVA16 antigens as a candidate vaccine for prevention of HFMD virus transmission. PMID:25483672

Sun, Shiyang; Jiang, Liping; Liang, Zhenglun; Mao, Qunying; Su, Weiheng; Zhang, Huafei; Li, Xiaojun; Jin, Jun; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Dandan; Fan, Peihu; An, Dong; Yang, Ping; Lu, Jingcai; Lv, Xiuping; Sun, Bo; Xu, Fei; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

2014-08-21

435

Marginal zone lymphomas and infectious agents.  

PubMed

A link with infectious agents, bacteria and viruses in particular, has been reported for many lymphoma entities. Marginal zone lymphomas (extranodal, nodal and splenic forms) are frequently associated with chronic infections, with important clinical, molecular, biological, and therapeutic implications. The well-known correlation between Helicobacter pylori and gastric MALT-lymphoma, the recently reported links between Chlamydophila psittaci and ocular adnexal MALT-lymphoma and Borrelia burgdorferi and cutaneous MALT lymphoma constitute the best studied examples of lymphomagenic activity of bacteria, while the hepatitis C virus represents the most extensively investigated virus associated with marginal zone lymphomas. Biological and clinical features, therapeutic implications and future perspectives of these lymphoma-microbial associations are discussed in this review. PMID:24090976

Ferreri, Andrés J M; Govi, Silvia; Ponzoni, Maurilio

2013-12-01

436

Septic sacroiliitis revealing an infectious endocarditis.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 43-year-old man admitted for right hip ache and fever. Physical examination revealed a fever, an ache at the manipulation of the sacroiliac joint and a limitation of abduction and external rotation of the right hip. There was no murmur in cardiac auscultation. No anomaly was found at the conventional radiographs of the sacroiliac joint, while the pelvic MRI confirmed a right sacroiliitis. A sacroiliac puncture with a study of synovial fluid demonstrated the presence of Streptococcus viridans. The blood culture revealed the same germ. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography confirmed infectious endocarditis with vegetation in the mitral valve. He received penicillin G and gentamicin relayed by pristinamycin because of an allergy to penicillin G with a total duration of treatment of 40?days. His symptoms and the laboratory and radiological tests abnormalities resolved totally with no recurrence. PMID:25123569

Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Hariz, Anis; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

2014-01-01

437

Potential Infectious Etiology of Behçet's Disease.  

PubMed

Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The cause of Behçet's disease remains unknown, but epidemiologic findings suggest that an autoimmune process is triggered by an environmental agent in a genetically predisposed individual. An infectious agent could operate through molecular mimicry, and subsequently the disease could be perpetuated by an abnormal immune response to an autoantigen in the absence of ongoing infection. Potentia bacterial are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mycobacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma fermentans, but the most commonly investigated microorganism is Streptococcus sanguinis. The relationship between streptococcal infections and Behçet's disease is suggested by clinical observations that an unhygienic oral condition is frequently noted in the oral cavity of Behçet's disease patients. Several viral agents, including herpes simplex virus-1, hepatitis C virus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus, may also have some role. PMID:22254152

Galeone, Massimiliano; Colucci, Roberta; D'Erme, Angelo Massimiliano; Moretti, Silvia; Lotti, Torello

2012-01-01

438

Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread  

PubMed Central

Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil and the recent increases in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. We then outline potential approaches for future studies of disease movement, focussing on vector invasion and vector-borne disease importation. Such approaches allow us to explore the potential implications of international air travel, shipping routes and other methods of transport on global pathogen and vector traffic. PMID:16647974

Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

2011-01-01

439

Bilateral self-inflicted infectious dacryoadenitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this report is to present a case of a patient with bilateral lacrimal gland abscesses in the course of dacryoadenitis. A 45-year-old female patient with a long history of cocaine abuse presented with bilateral bacterial dacryoadenitis and upper lid inflammation with purulent discharge from a palpebral wound of the right upper lid. The diagnosis was confirmed with microbiology culture and an orbital CT scan, which revealed lacrimal gland abscesses. The patient admitted to vigorous eye scratching, which we believe was the mechanism responsible for the process. The infection resolved on targeted antibiotic therapy. This is the first reported case of bilateral infectious dacryoadenitis produced in a self-inflicted mechanism in a cocaine addict. PMID:25208047

Latasiewicz, Marta; Chang-Sotomayor, Meilin; Alonso-Caldarelli, Claudia; Farias-Plazas, Fabian; Leszczynska, Anna; Gonzalez-Candial, Miguel

2014-12-01

440

Simulating City-level Airborne Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

With the exponential growth in the world population and the constant increase in human mobility, the danger of outbreaks of epidemics is rising. Especially in high density urban areas such as public transport and transfer points, where people come in close proximity of each other, we observe a dramatic increase in the transmission of airborne viruses and related pathogens. It is essential to have a good understanding of the `transmission highways' in such areas, in order to prevent or to predict the spreading of infectious diseases. The approach we take is to combine as much information as is possible, from all relevant sources and integrate this in a simulation environment that allows for scenario testing and decision support. In this paper we lay out a novel approach to study Urban Airborne Disease spreading by combining traffic information, with geo-spatial data, infection dynamics and spreading characteristics.

Shan, Mei; Yifan, Zhu; Zhenghu, Zu; Tao, Zheng; Boukhanovsky, A V; Sloot, P M A

2012-01-01

441

Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

Koh, H.-L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.