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1

Detection of Infectious Enteroviruses, Enterovirus Genomes, Somatic Coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis Phages in Treated Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, three types of treated wastewater were tested for infectious enteroviruses, the enterovirus genome, somatic coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis phages. The aim of this work was to determine whether the presence of the two types of bacteriophages or of the enterovirus genome was a good indicator of infectious enterovirus contamination. The enterovirus genome was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase

C. GANTZER; A. MAUL; J. M. AUDIC; L. SCHWARTZBROD; Facultede Pharmacie

1998-01-01

2

Production of Enterovirus Antigens for Human Enterovirus Types.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program has a four-fold purpose: (1) to produce reference seeds of various enteroviruses; (2) to produce seed virus and antiserum to specific simian viruses; (3) to ampoule and test designated reference human picornaviruses; and (4) to test certain si...

S. S. Kalter

1966-01-01

3

Typing of Enteroviruses by Use of Microwell Oligonucleotide Arrays? †  

PubMed Central

We have developed a straightforward assay for the rapid typing of enteroviruses using oligonucleotide arrays in microtiter wells. The viral nucleic acids are concomitantly amplified and labeled during reverse transcription-PCR, and unpurified PCR products are used for hybridization. DNA strands are separated by alkaline denaturation, and hybridization is started by neutralization. The microarray hybridization reactions and the subsequent washes are performed in standard 96-well microtiter plates, which makes the method easily adaptable to high-throughput analysis. We describe here the assay principle and its potential in clinical laboratory use by correctly identifying 10 different enterovirus reference strains. Furthermore, we explore the detection of unknown sequence variants using serotype consensus oligonucleotide probes. With just two consensus probes for the coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9) serotype, we detected 23 out of 25 highly diverse CVA9 isolates. Overall, the assay involves several features aiming at ease of performance, robustness, and applicability to large-scale studies.

Susi, P.; Hattara, L.; Waris, M.; Luoma-aho, T.; Siitari, H.; Hyypia, T.; Saviranta, P.

2009-01-01

4

Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mice as an Infectious Animal Model for Enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus (CVA) are the most common causative factors for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and neurological disorders in children. Lack of a reliable animal model is an issue in investigating EV71-induced disease manifestation in humans, and the current clinical therapies are symptomatic. We generated a novel EV71-infectious model with hSCARB2-transgenic mice expressing the discovered receptor human SCARB2 (hSCARB2). The challenge of hSCARB2-transgenic mice with clinical isolates of EV71 and CVA16 resulted in HFMD-like and neurological syndromes caused by E59 (B4) and N2838 (B5) strains, and lethal paralysis caused by 5746 (C2), N3340 (C4), and CVA16. EV71 viral loads were evident in the tissues and CNS accompanied the upregulated pro-inflammatory mediators (CXCL10, CCL3, TNF-?, and IL-6), correlating to recruitment of the infiltrated T lymphocytes that result in severe diseases. Transgenic mice pre-immunized with live E59 or the FI-E59 vaccine was able to resist the subsequent lethal challenge with EV71. These results indicate that hSCARB2-transgenic mice are a useful model for assessing anti-EV71 medications and for studying the pathogenesis induced by EV71.

Lin, Yi-Wen; Yu, Shu-Ling; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Lin, Hsiang-Yin; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Hsiao, Kuang-Nan; Chitra, Ebenezer; Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Chang, Hsuen-Wen; Sia, Charles; Chong, Pele; Chow, Yen-Hung

2013-01-01

5

Infectious entry pathway of adenovirus type 2.  

PubMed Central

Internalization of the infectious fraction of human adenovirus type 2 into HeLa cells was followed by a quantitative internalization assay. Treatments known to selectively block receptor-mediated endocytosis reduced the internalization of infectious virus to an extent close to the reduction of endocytosis of transferrin. This suggests that one of the first steps in the infectious cycle of adenovirus type 2 is internalization by the coated-pit and -vesicle pathway. Images

Varga, M J; Weibull, C; Everitt, E

1991-01-01

6

Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated With Enterovirus Infection in Gut Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus infections have been linked to type 1 diabetes in several studies. Enteroviruses also have tropism to pancreatic islets and can cause ?-cell damage in experimental models. Viral persistence has been suspected to be an important pathogenetic factor. This study evaluates whether gut mucosa is a reservoir for enterovirus persistence in type 1 diabetic patients. Small-bowel mucosal biopsy samples from 39 type 1 diabetic patients, 41 control subjects, and 40 celiac disease patients were analyzed for the presence of enterovirus using in situ hybridization (ISH), RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. The presence of virus was compared with inflammatory markers such as infiltrating T cells, HLA-DR expression, and transglutaminase 2–targeted IgA deposits. Enterovirus RNA was found in diabetic patients more frequently than in control subjects and was associated with a clear inflammation response in the gut mucosa. Viral RNA was often detected in the absence of viral protein, suggesting defective replication of the virus. Patients remained virus positive in follow-up samples taken after 12 months’ observation. The results suggest that a large proportion of type 1 diabetic patients have prolonged/persistent enterovirus infection associated with an inflammation process in gut mucosa. This finding opens new opportunities for studying the viral etiology of type 1 diabetes.

Oikarinen, Maarit; Tauriainen, Sisko; Oikarinen, Sami; Honkanen, Teemu; Collin, Pekka; Rantala, Immo; Maki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri; Hyoty, Heikki

2012-01-01

7

Clinical manifestations of CNS infections caused by enterovirus type 71  

PubMed Central

Purpose Enterovirus 71, one of the enteroviruses that are responsible for both hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina, can cause neural injury. During periods of endemic spread of hand-foot-andmouth disease caused by enterovirus 71, CNS infections are also frequently diagnosed and may lead to increased complications from neural injury, as well as death. We present the results of our epidemiologic research on the clinical manifestations of children with CNS infections caused by enterovirus 71. Methods The study group consisted of 42 patients admitted for CNS infection by enterovirus 71 between April 2009 and October 2009 at the Department of Pediatrics of 5 major hospitals affiliated with the Catholic University of Korea. We retrospectively reviewed initial symptoms and laboratory findings on admission, the specimen from which enterovirus 71 was isolated, fever duration, admission period, treatment and progress, and complications. We compared aseptic meningitis patients with encephalitis patients. Results Of the 42 patients (23 men, 19 women), hand-foot-and-mouth disease was most prevalent (n=39), followed by herpangina (n=3), upon initial clinical diagnosis. Among the 42 patients, 15 (35.7%) were classified as severe, while 27 (64.3%) were classified as mild. Factors such as age, fever duration, presence of seizure, and use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) were statistically different between the 2 groups. Conclusion Our results indicate that patients with severe infection caused by enterovirus 71 tended to be less than 3 years old, presented with at least 3 days of fever as well as seizure activity, and received IVIG treatment.

Choi, Cheol Soon; Choi, Yun Jung; Choi, Ui Yoon; Han, Ji Whan; Jeong, Dae Chul; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jong Hyun

2011-01-01

8

[Encephalomyelitis caused by enterovirus type 71 in children].  

PubMed

Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Europe (Bulgaria, 1975; Hungary, 1978) and South-East Asia (Malaysia, 1977; Taiwan, 1998; Singapore, 2000-2007; People's Republic of China, 2007-2009). HFMD afflicted children less than 10 years of age and resulted in recovery within 3-7 days. In a small percentage of infants (aged 6 months to 3 years), HFMD was accompanied by acute neurological complications, such as serous meningitis, poliomyelitis-like syndrome (extremity pareses and muscle paralyses); brain stem encephalitis (myoclonic jerks, tremor, lethargy, swallowing and speech disorders, cardiopulmonary failure, pulmonary edema, shock, coma, death). X-ray study revealed pulmonary hemorrhages and edema. Mortality rates were as high as 82-94% in severe cases. Incapacitating motor, respiratory, and psychoemotional disorders persisted in some surviving children. Pathomorphologically, patients with central nervous system disease and cardiopulmonary failure were found to have acute inflammation of the grey matter of the brain stem (medulla oblongata, pons) and spinal cord. Inflammatory changes in the lung and myocardial tissues were negligible or absent. Fatal pulmonary edema was neurogenic in origin and resulted from damage to the respiratory and vasomotor centers of the brain stem. PMID:21381332

Koroleva, G A; Lukashev, A N; Khudiakova, L V; Mustafina, A N; Lashkevich, V A

2010-01-01

9

Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of Enterovirus 71: insights into the factors ensuring experimental success.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV 71) is a causative agent of mild Hand Foot and Mouth Disease but is capable of causing severe complications in the CNS in young children. Reverse genetics technology is currently widely used to study the pathogenesis of the virus. The aim of this work was to determine and evaluate the factors which can contribute to infectivity of EV 71 RNA transcripts in vitro. Two strategies, overlapping RT-PCR and long distance RT-PCR, were employed to obtain the full-length genome cDNA clones of the virus. The length of the poly(A) tail and the presence of non-viral 3'-terminal sequences were studied in regard to their effects on infectivity of the in vitro RNA transcripts of EV 71 in cell culture. The data revealed that only cDNA clones obtained after long distance RT-PCR were infectious. No differences were observed in virus titres after transfection with in vitro RNA harbouring a poly(A) tail of 18 or 30 adenines in length, irrespective of the non-viral sequences at the 3'-terminus. PMID:24361875

Lazouskaya, Natallia V; Palombo, Enzo A; Poh, Chit-Laa; Barton, Peter A

2014-03-01

10

DETERMINATION OF MINIMAL INFECTIOUS DOSE OF AN ENTEROVIRUS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The goals of this project were to determine the minimal infectious dose and medical significance of an enteric virus ingested in drinking water. The study was conducted under double-blind, placebo-controlled, random-selection conditions. A total of 149 susceptible (antibody-free)...

11

[Social and economic significance of enterovirus infection and its role in etiologic structure of infectious diseases in the world].  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses comprised by more than 100 serotypes, they spread everywhere and can cause wide spectrum of diseases as well as significant social and economic loss. Influenza-like illness and mild forms of enterovirus infection (herpangina, exanthema) are widespread and causes of significant number of visits in clinics. Economic cost of mild form of enterovirus infection is not high although great number of cases (10 - 15 mln cases yearly in USA) determines its important economic significance. Single cases and outbreaks of enterovirus aseptic meningitis occur less frequently but lead to significant economic burden due to hospitalization costs. Enteroviruses are also cause up to 30% of sepsis-like disease in newborns and play important role in infant morbidity and mortality. Potential of enteroviruses as a source of new diseases in humans has a special significance for practical healthcare. In XX century enteroviruses became a cause of pandemics of paralytic poliomyelitis, hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, and foot-and-mouth-like disease, which caused vast social and economic loss, and emergence of new forms of enterovirus infection is quite possible in XXI century. PMID:21061587

Lukashev, A N; Ivanova, O E; Khudiakova, L V

2010-01-01

12

Enterovirus Infection and Progression From Islet Autoimmunity to Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To investigate whether enterovirus infections predict progression to type 1 diabetes in genetically predisposed children repeatedly positive for islet autoantibodies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Since 1993, the Diabetes and Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) has followed 2,365 genetically predisposed children for islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. Venous blood and rectal swabs were collected every 3–6 months after seroconversion for islet autoantibodies (against GAD, insulin, or insulinoma-associated antigen-2 [IA-2]) until diagnosis of diabetes. Enteroviral RNA in serum or rectal swabs was detected using reverse transcriptase PCR with primers specific for the conserved 5? noncoding region, detecting essentially all enterovirus serotypes. RESULTS Of 140 children who seroconverted to repeated positivity for islet autoantibodies at a median age of 4.0 years, 50 progressed to type 1 diabetes during a median follow-up of 4.2 years. The risk of progression to clinical type 1 diabetes in the sample interval following detection of enteroviral RNA in serum (three diabetes cases diagnosed among 17 intervals) was significantly increased compared with that in intervals following a negative serum enteroviral RNA test (33 cases diagnosed among 1,064 intervals; hazard ratio 7.02 [95% CI 1.95–25.3] after adjusting for number of autoantibodies). Results remained significant after adjustment for ZnT8-autoantibodies and after restriction to various subgroups. Enteroviral RNA in rectal swabs was not predictive of progression to type 1 diabetes. No evidence for viral persistence was found. CONCLUSIONS This novel observation suggests that progression from islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes may increase after an enterovirus infection characterized by the presence of viral RNA in blood.

Stene, Lars C.; Oikarinen, Sami; Hyoty, Heikki; Barriga, Katherine J.; Norris, Jill M.; Klingensmith, Georgeanna; Hutton, John C.; Erlich, Henry A.; Eisenbarth, George S.; Rewers, Marian

2010-01-01

13

Detection of enterovirus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of type 1 diabetic patients beyond the stage of acute infection.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that enteroviral RNA can be detected in blood at the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The infection may play a role in triggering T1D and genetic host factors may contribute to this process. We investigated (1) whether enterovirus is present at the onset of T1D in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma, throat, or stool, and (2) whether enteroviral presence is linked with HLA-DR type and/or polymorphisms in melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1), factors of antiviral immunity. To this end, PBMC, plasma, throat, and stool samples from 10 T1D patients and 20 unrelated controls were tested for the presence of enteroviruses (RT-PCR), for HLA-DR type, and polymorphisms in MDA5 and OAS1. Enterovirus RNA was detected in PBMC of 4/10 T1D patients, but none of 20 controls. Plasma was positive in 2/10 T1D patients and none of 20 controls, suggesting that enteroviruses found at the onset of T1D are mainly present in PBMC. All throat samples from positive T1D patients were virus-negative and only 1 fecal sample was positive. The negative results for all throat and most stool samples argues against acute infection. Enterovirus presence was linked with HLA-DR4, but not with polymorphisms in MDA5 or OAS1. PMID:20121407

Schulte, Barbara M; Bakkers, Judith; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; Melchers, Willem J G; Westerlaken, Ciska; Allebes, Wil; Aanstoot, Henk-Jan; Bruining, G Jan; Adema, Gosse J; Van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Galama, Jochem M D

2010-02-01

14

Detection of astroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenovirus types 40 and 41 in surface waters collected and evaluated by the information collection rule and an integrated cell culture-nested PCR procedure.  

PubMed

We evaluated the use of an integrated cell culture-reverse transcription-PCR (ICC-RT-PCR) procedure coupled with nested PCR to detect human astroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenovirus types 40 and 41 in surface water samples that were collected and evaluated by using the Information Collection Rule (ICR) method. The results obtained with the ICC-RT-PCR-nested PCR method were compared to the results obtained with the total culturable virus assay-most-probable-number (TCVA-MPN) method, the method recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for monitoring viruses in surface and finished waters. Twenty-nine ICR surface water samples were analyzed. Viruses were concentrated by using filter adsorption-beef extract elution and organic flocculation techniques, and then the preparations were evaluated for viruses by visualizing cytopathic effects in the Buffalo green monkey kidney (BGMK) cell line. In the ICC-RT-PCR-nested PCR technique we used Caco-2 cells to propagate astroviruses and enteroviruses (ICC step), and we used BGMK cells to propagate adenovirus types 40 and 41, as well as enteroviruses. Fifteen of the 29 samples (51.7%) were positive for astrovirus as determined by the ICC-RT-PCR-nested PCR method, and eight of these samples (27.5%) contained infectious astrovirus. Seventeen of the 29 samples (58.6%) were positive for enteroviruses when the BGMK cell line was used, and six (27.6%) of these samples were determined to be infectious. Fourteen of the 29 samples (48.3%) were positive for adenovirus types 40 and 41, and 11 (37.9%) of these samples were determined to be infectious. Twenty-seven of the 29 samples (93.1%) were positive for a virus, and 19 (68.9%) of the samples were positive for an infectious virus. Only 5 of the 29 samples (17.2%) were positive as determined by the TCVA-MPN method. The ICC-RT-PCR-nested PCR method provided increased sensitivity compared to the TCVA-MPN method. PMID:10831432

Chapron, C D; Ballester, N A; Fontaine, J H; Frades, C N; Margolin, A B

2000-06-01

15

Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: the enterovirus link to type 1 diabetes: critical review of human studies  

PubMed Central

OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES Metabolic diseases, host responses, cancer, autoinflammatory diseases, allergy. The hypothesis that under some circumstances enteroviral infections can lead to type 1 diabetes (T1D) was proposed several decades ago, based initially on evidence from animal studies and sero-epidemiology. Subsequently, enterovirus RNA has been detected more frequently in serum of patients than in control subjects, but such studies are susceptible to selection bias and reverse causality. Here, we review critically recent evidence from human studies, focusing on longitudinal studies with potential to demonstrate temporal association. Among seven longitudinal birth cohort studies, the evidence that enterovirus infections predict islet autoimmunity is quite inconsistent in our interpretation, due partially, perhaps, to heterogeneity in study design and a limited number of subjects studied. An association between enterovirus and rapid progression from autoimmunity to T1D was reported by one longitudinal study, but although consistent with evidence from animal models, this novel observation awaits replication. It is possible that a potential association with initiation and/or progression of islet autoimmunity can be ascribed to a subgroup of the many enterovirus serotypes, but this has still not been investigated properly. There is a need for larger studies with frequent sample intervals and collection of specimens of sufficient quality and quantity for detailed characterization of enterovirus. More research into the molecular epidemiology of enteroviruses and enterovirus immunity in human populations is also warranted. Ultimately, this knowledge may be used to devise strategies to reduce the risk of T1D in humans.

Stene, L C; Rewers, M

2012-01-01

16

Inhibition of miR-146a prevents enterovirus-induced death by restoring the production of type I interferon.  

PubMed

There are no antivirals or vaccines available to treat Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections. Although the type I interferon response, elicited upon virus infection, is critical to establishing host antiviral innate immunity, EV71 fails to induce this response efficiently. Here we provide new insights into potential anti-EV71 therapy by showing that neutralization of EV71-induced miR-146a prevents death in mice by restarting the production of type I interferon. EV71 infection upregulates miR-146a, which targets IRAK1 and TRAF6 involved in TLR signalling and type I interferon production. We further identify AP1 as being responsible for the EV71-induced expression of miR-146a. Surprisingly, knocking out miR-146a or neutralizing virus-induced miR-146a by specific antagomiR restores expressions of IRAK1 and TRAF6, augments IFN? production, inhibits viral propagation and improves survival in the mouse model. Our results suggest that enterovirus-induced miR-146a facilitates viral pathogenesis by suppressing IFN production and provide a clue to developing preventive and therapeutic strategies for enterovirus infections. PMID:24561744

Ho, Bing-Ching; Yu, I-Shing; Lu, Li-Fan; Rudensky, Alexander; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Tsai, Chang-Wu; Chang, Yih-Leong; Wu, Chen-Tu; Chang, Luan-Yin; Shih, Shin-Ru; Lin, Shu-Wha; Lee, Chun-Nan; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Sung-Liang

2014-01-01

17

Enterovirus 71 Inhibits Cellular Type I Interferon Signaling by Downregulating JAK1 Protein Expression.  

PubMed

Abstract Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe disease and lead to death in children. Recurring outbreaks of EV71 have been reported in several countries. Interferons (IFNs) have been used for decades to treat several types of viral infection, but have a limited ability to inhibit EV71 replication. Herein, we intend to investigate the mechanisms by which EV71 inhibits the cellular type I IFN response. In this study, MRC-5 (human embryonic lung fibroblast) or RD (human rhabdomyosarcoma) cells were infected with EV71, and then treated with or without IFN-?2b. Cells were harvested and analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the level of IFNAR1. Cell lysis were prepared to detect the levels of STAT1, STAT2, phosphorylated STAT1, phosphorylated STAT2, IFNAR1, JAK1, and TYK2 by Western blotting. The phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2 induced by IFN were inhibited without significant downregulation of IFNAR1 in EV71-infected cells. The EV71-induced suppression of STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation was not rescued by the protein tyrosine phosphatases inhibitor, and was independent of suppressor of cytokine signaling protein 1/3 levels. The phosphorylation of JAK1 and TYK2 were inhibited accompanied by EV71-induced downregulation of JAK1, which occurred at a post-transcriptional level and was proteasome independent. JAK1 expression did not decrease, and IFN-?-stimulated STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation were not blocked in HEK293T cells overexpressing the EV71 viral protein 2A or 3C. This study demonstrates that EV71 inhibits the cellular type I IFN antiviral pathway by downregulating JAK1, while the expression of IFNAR1 does not significantly alter in EV71-infected cells. Additionally, the EV71 viral proteins 2A and 3C do not act as antagonists of cellular type I IFN signaling. PMID:24905060

Liu, Ying; Zhang, Zhe; Zhao, Xinghui; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wu, Shipo; Liu, Ju; Chi, Xiangyang; Song, Xiaohong; Fu, Ling; Yu, Yingqun; Hou, Lihua; Chen, Wei

2014-08-01

18

Non-Polio Enterovirus  

MedlinePLUS

... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Non-Polio Enterovirus Share Compartir About Non-Polio Enteroviruses Overview Provides basic information about non-polio enterovirus infection… Symptoms Lists symptoms of non-polio enterovirus ...

19

Protection against Enterovirus 71 with Neutralizing Epitope Incorporation within Adenovirus Type 3 Hexon  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with high mortality among children. Various neutralizing B cell epitopes of EV71 have been identified as potential vaccine candidates. Capsid-incorporation of antigens into adenovirus (Ad) has been developed for a novel vaccine approach. We constructed Ad3-based EV71 vaccine vectors by incorporating a neutralizing epitope SP70 containing 15 amino acids derived from capsid protein VP1 of EV71 within the different surface-exposed domains of the capsid protein hexon of Ad3EGFP, a recombinant adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein. Thermostability and growth kinetic assays suggested that the SP70 epitope incorporation into hypervariable region (HVR1, HVR2, or HVR7) of the hexon did not affect Ad fitness. The SP70 epitopes were thought to be exposed on all hexon-modified intact virion surfaces. Repeated administration of BALB/c mice with the modified Ads resulted in boosting of the anti-SP70 humoral immune response. Importantly, the modified Ads immunization of mother mice conferred protection in vivo to neonatal mice against the lethal EV71 challenge, and the modified Ads-immunized mice serum also conferred passive protection against the lethal challenge in newborn mice. Compared with the recombinant GST-fused SP70 protein immunization, immunization with the Ads containing SP70 in HVR1 or HVR2 elicited higher SP70-specific IgG titers, higher neutralization titers, and conferred more effective protection to neonatal mice. Thus, this study provides valuable information for hexon-modified Ad3 vector development as a promising EV71 vaccine candidate and as an epitope-delivering vehicle for other pathogens.

Tian, Xingui; Su, Xiaobo; Li, Xiao; Li, Haitao; Li, Ting; Zhou, Zhichao; Zhong, Tianhua; Zhou, Rong

2012-01-01

20

Serologic Evidence of an Association between Enteroviruses and the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum was collected from 128 patients ?18 years of age admitted to the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh with new-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and from 120 control-patients who were frequency-matched to case-patients for age, sex, and date of bleed. Serum was tested for IgM against 14 enterovirus serotypes: coxsackieviruses B1-B6 and A9, echoviruses 4, 6, 9, 11, 30, and 34,

Rita F. Helfand; Howard E. Gary Jr.; Charlotte Y. Freeman; Larry J. Anderson; Mark A. Pallansch

1995-01-01

21

Identification of chicken enterovirus-like viruses, duck hepatitis virus type 2 and duck hepatitis virus type 3 as astroviruses.  

PubMed

Earlier work identified and biologically characterized antigenically distinct enterovirus-like viruses (ELVs) of chickens. Three of these ELVs can now be identified as astroviruses. Characterization involved the use of a hitherto undescribed, degenerate primer-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to amplify astrovirus open reading frame (ORF) 1b-specific cDNA fragments followed by nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of the amplified fragments. ELV-1 was confirmed as an isolate of the astrovirus avian nephritis virus (ANV). ELV-4 (isolate 612) and ELV-3 (isolates FP3 and 11672) were antigenically and genetically related to the second characterized astrovirus of chickens, namely chicken astrovirus (CAstV). Using indirect immunofluorescence, the FP3 and 11672 ELV-3 isolates were very closely related to one another, and less closely related to ELV-4 and the previously described CAstV (P22 18.8.00 reference isolate). Comparative analyses based on the ORF 1b amplicon sequences showed that the FP3 and 11672 ELV-3 isolates shared high nucleotide (95%) and amino acid (98%) identities with one another, and lower nucleotide (76% to 79%) and amino acid (84% to 85%) identity levels with ELV-4 and the reference CAstV P22 18.8.00 isolates. The combined degenerate primer RT-PCR and sequencing methods also provided a nucleotide sequence specific to duck hepatitis virus type 2 (DHV-2) (renamed duck astrovirus) and duck hepatitis virus type 3 (DHV-3), which, for the first time, can also be identified as an astrovirus. Phylogenetic analyses based on the amplified ORF 1b sequences showed that ANV was the most distantly related avian astrovirus, with DHV-3 being more closely related to turkey astrovirus type 2 than DHV-2. PMID:19156577

Todd, D; Smyth, V J; Ball, N W; Donnelly, B M; Wylie, M; Knowles, N J; Adair, B M

2009-02-01

22

Complete Genome Characterization of a Novel Enterovirus Type EV-B106 Isolated in China, 2012  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus B106 (EV-B106) is a recently identified member of enterovirus species B. In this study, we report the complete genomic characterization of an EV-B106 strain (148/YN/CHN/12) isolated from an acute flaccid paralysis patient in Yunnan Province, China. The new strain had 79.2–81.3% nucleotide and 89.1–94.8% amino acid similarity in the VP1 region with the other two EV-B106 strains from Bolivia and Pakistan. When compared with other EV serotypes, it had the highest (73.3%) VP1 nucleotide similarity with the EV-B77 prototype strain CF496-99. However, when aligned with all EV-B106 and EV-B77 sequences available from the GenBank database, two major frame shifts were observed in the VP1 coding region, which resulted in substantial (20.5%) VP1 amino acid divergence between the two serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and similarity plot analysis revealed multiple recombination events in the genome of this strain. This is the first report of the complete genome of EV-B106.

Tang, Jingjing; Tao, Zexin; Ding, Zhengrong; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Bingjun; Zhao, Zhixian; Zhang, Lifen; Xu, Wenbo

2014-01-01

23

The Evolution of Vp1 Gene in Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group That Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99  

PubMed Central

Genus Enterovirus (Family Picornaviridae,) consists of twelve species divided into genetically diverse types by their capsid protein VP1 coding sequences. Each enterovirus type can further be divided into intra-typic sub-clusters (genotypes). The aim of this study was to elucidate what leads to the emergence of novel enterovirus clades (types and genotypes). An evolutionary analysis was conducted for a sub-group of Enterovirus C species that contains types Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA-21), CVA-24, Enterovirus C95 (EV-C95), EV-C96 and EV-C99. VP1 gene datasets were collected and analysed to infer the phylogeny, rate of evolution, nucleotide and amino acid substitution patterns and signs of selection. In VP1 coding gene, high intra-typic sequence diversities and robust grouping into distinct genotypes within each type were detected. Within each type the majority of nucleotide substitutions were synonymous and the non-synonymous substitutions tended to cluster in distinct highly polymorphic sites. Signs of positive selection were detected in some of these highly polymorphic sites, while strong negative selection was indicated in most of the codons. Despite robust clustering to intra-typic genotypes, only few genotype-specific ‘signature’ amino acids were detected. In contrast, when different enterovirus types were compared, there was a clear tendency towards fixation of type-specific ‘signature’ amino acids. The results suggest that permanent fixation of type-specific amino acids is a hallmark associated with evolution of different enterovirus types, whereas neutral evolution and/or (frequency-dependent) positive selection in few highly polymorphic amino acid sites are the dominant forms of evolution when strains within an enterovirus type are compared.

Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ivanova, Olga; Samoilovich, Elena; Al-Hello, Haider; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

2014-01-01

24

Best Viral Elution Method Available for Quantification of Enteroviruses in Sludge by Both Cell Culture and Reverse Transcription-PCR  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to select one or several virus extraction techniques that enable simultaneous detection of enterovirus genomes and infectious particles in different types of urban sludge. Eight techniques were compared by using 16 different liquid and solid sludge samples. The numbers of infectious enteroviruses in cell cultures were determined by using the most-probable-number method. The enterovirus genome was quantified by a single-tube reverse transcription-PCR using TaqMan technology. The results were statistically analyzed by Friedman's test, a nonparametric test for analysis of randomized block data using only ranks in terms of extraction technique efficiency. Two techniques seemed to yield higher viral titers as determined by simultaneous detection by cell culture and PCR. The first involved a 10% beef extract solution at pH 9 and sonication; the second involved a 0.3 M NaCl–7% beef extract solution at pH 7.5 followed by Freon treatment. In solid sludge, no significant differences were observed among the eight techniques tested. Both of the best techniques can be used for simultaneous detection of infectious enterovirus particles and genomes in any type of urban sludge.

Monpoeho, S.; Maul, A.; Mignotte-Cadiergues, B.; Schwartzbrod, L.; Billaudel, S.; Ferre, V.

2001-01-01

25

Evolutionary Dynamics and Temporal/Geographical Correlates of Recombination in the Human Enterovirus Echovirus Types 9, 11, and 30?  

PubMed Central

The relationship between virus evolution and recombination in species B human enteroviruses was investigated through large-scale genetic analysis of echovirus type 9 (E9) and E11 isolates (n = 85 and 116) from 16 European, African, and Asian countries between 1995 and 2008. Cluster 1 E9 isolates and genotype D5 and A E11 isolates showed evidence of frequent recombination between the VP1 and 3Dpol regions, the latter falling into 23 (E9) and 43 (E11) clades interspersed phylogenetically with 46 3Dpol clades of E30 and with those of other species B serotypes. Remarkably, only 2 of the 112 3Dpol clades were shared by more than one serotype (E11 and E30), demonstrating an extremely large and genetically heterogeneous recombination pool of species B nonstructural-region variants. The likelihood of recombination increased with geographical separation and time, and both were correlated with VP1 divergence, whose substitution rates allowed recombination half-lives of 1.3, 9.8, and 3.1 years, respectively, for E9, E11, and E30 to be calculated. These marked differences in recombination dynamics matched epidemiological patterns of periodic epidemic cycles of 2 to 3 (E9) and 5 to 6 (E30) years and the longer-term endemic pattern of E11 infections. Phylotemporal analysis using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which placed recombination events within the evolutionary reconstruction of VP1, showed a close relationship with VP1 lineage expansion, with defined recombination events that correlated with their epidemiological periodicity. Whether recombination events contribute directly to changes in transmissibility that drive epidemic behavior or occur stochastically during periodic population bottlenecks is an unresolved issue vital to future understanding of enterovirus molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis.

McWilliam Leitch, E. C.; Cabrerizo, M.; Cardosa, J.; Harvala, H.; Ivanova, O. E.; Kroes, A. C. M.; Lukashev, A.; Muir, P.; Odoom, J.; Roivainen, M.; Susi, P.; Trallero, G.; Evans, D. J.; Simmonds, P.

2010-01-01

26

Human IgG subclasses against enterovirus Type 71: neutralization versus antibody dependent enhancement of infection.  

PubMed

The emerging human enterovirus 71 (EV71) represents a growing threat to public health, and no vaccine or specific antiviral is currently available. Human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is clinical used in treating severe EV71 infections. However, the discovery of antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) of EV71 infection illustrates the complex roles of antibody in controlling EV71 infection. In this study, to identify the distinct role of each IgG subclass on neutralization and enhancement of EV71 infection, different lots of pharmaceutical IVIG preparations manufactured from Chinese donors were used for IgG subclass fractionation by pH gradient elution with the protein A-conjugated affinity column. The neutralization and ADE capacities on EV71 infection of each purified IgG subclass were then assayed, respectively. The neutralizing activity of human IVIG is mainly mediated by IgG1 subclass and to less extent by IgG2 subclass. Interestingly, IgG3 fraction did not have neutralizing activity but enhanced EV71 infection in vitro. These results revealed the different roles of human IgG subclasses on EV71 infection, which is of critical importance for the rational design of immunotherapy and vaccines against severe EV71 diseases. PMID:23700449

Cao, Rui-Yuan; Dong, Da-Yong; Liu, Rui-Ju; Han, Jian-Feng; Wang, Guang-Chuan; Zhao, Hui; Li, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Lin, Fang; Zhang, Fu-Jun; Chen, Wei; Qin, E-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng

2013-01-01

27

Resequencing microarray probe design for typing genetically diverse viruses: human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

Background Febrile respiratory illness (FRI) has a high impact on public health and global economics and poses a difficult challenge for differential diagnosis. A particular issue is the detection of genetically diverse pathogens, i.e. human rhinoviruses (HRV) and enteroviruses (HEV) which are frequent causes of FRI. Resequencing Pathogen Microarray technology has demonstrated potential for differential diagnosis of several respiratory pathogens simultaneously, but a high confidence design method to select probes for genetically diverse viruses is lacking. Results Using HRV and HEV as test cases, we assess a general design strategy for detecting and serotyping genetically diverse viruses. A minimal number of probe sequences (26 for HRV and 13 for HEV), which were potentially capable of detecting all serotypes of HRV and HEV, were determined and implemented on the Resequencing Pathogen Microarray RPM-Flu v.30/31 (Tessarae RPM-Flu). The specificities of designed probes were validated using 34 HRV and 28 HEV strains. All strains were successfully detected and identified at least to species level. 33 HRV strains and 16 HEV strains could be further differentiated to serotype level. Conclusion This study provides a fundamental evaluation of simultaneous detection and differential identification of genetically diverse RNA viruses with a minimal number of prototype sequences. The results demonstrated that the newly designed RPM-Flu v.30/31 can provide comprehensive and specific analysis of HRV and HEV samples which implicates that this design strategy will be applicable for other genetically diverse viruses.

Wang, Zheng; Malanoski, Anthony P; Lin, Baochuan; Kidd, Carolyn; Long, Nina C; Blaney, Kate M; Thach, Dzung C; Tibbetts, Clark; Stenger, David A

2008-01-01

28

Simultaneously Typing Nine Serotypes of Enteroviruses Associated with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease by a GeXP Analyzer-Based Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay  

PubMed Central

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious enteroviral disease occurring primarily in young children and caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), and other serotypes of coxsackievirus and echovirus. In this study, a GeXP analyzer-based multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay (GeXP assay) consisting of chimeric primer-based PCR amplification with fluorescent labeling and capillary electrophoresis separation was developed to simultaneously identify nine serotypes of enteroviruses associated with HFMD in China, including EV71, CVA16, CVA4, -5, -9, and -10, and CVB1, -3, and -5. The RNAs extracted from cell cultures of viral isolates and synthetic RNAs via in vitro transcription were used to analyze the specificity and sensitivity of the assay. The GeXP assay detected as little as 0.03 tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of EV71 and CVA16, 10 copies of panenterovirus, EV71, CVA16, CVB1, and CVB5, and 100 copies of 10 (including panenterovirus) premixed RNA templates. A total of 180 stool specimens collected from HFMD patients and persons suspected of having HFMD were used to evaluate the clinical performance of this assay. In comparison with the results of conventional methods, the sensitivities of the GeXP assay for detection of panenterovirus, EV71, and CVA16 were 98.79% (163/165), 91.67% (44/48), and 91.67% (33/36), respectively, and the specificities were 80.00% (12/15), 98.48% (130/132), and 100% (144/144), respectively. The concordance of typing seven other serotypes of enteroviruses with the results of conventional methods was 92.59% (25/27). In conclusion, the GeXP assay is a rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput method for typing nine serotypes of HFMD-associated enteroviruses.

Hu, Xiumei; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Xiaomian; Xu, Banglao; Yang, Mengjie; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Chen; Li, Jin; Bai, Ruyin

2012-01-01

29

Recombination in the Evolution of Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group that Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99  

PubMed Central

Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus). However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C) species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A–C). In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5?UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses.

Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ivanova, Olga; Samoilovich, Elena; Al-Hello, Haider; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

2014-01-01

30

Comparison of cell cultures for rapid isolation of enteroviruses.  

PubMed Central

Cell culture isolation is still the most reliable method for the detection of enteroviruses from clinical specimens. Rapid diagnosis of enterovirus infection affects patient management. To increase yield and enhance the rapidity of enterovirus isolation in cell cultures, we used Buffalo green monkey kidney (BGM) cells and subpassages of primary human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells in addition to the human diploid fibroblast (MRC-5) cells and primary cynomolgus or rhesus monkey kidney (MK) cells routinely used for enterovirus culturing. Growth characteristics of enteroviruses from 421 specimens were studied. All specimens were cultured in MRC-5, MK, and BGM cells, and 204 of these specimens were also cultured in HEK cells. Forty-two percent of the enteroviruses became positive within 3 days, and 85% did so within 7 days. MRC-5 cells provided the highest yield of enteroviruses overall and were the best cell type for the recovery of poliovirus and echovirus. MK cells provided the second best yield but were more useful than MRC-5 cells for coxsackievirus. BGM cells supported the growth of additional isolates of coxsackievirus and enhanced the speed of isolation. HEK cells supported the growth of additional isolates of both coxsackievirus and echovirus, but subculturing was always required for definite enterovirus cytopathic effects. The recovery rate increased 11% when two additional cell lines were used. The use of two tubes of MK cells significantly increased the yield of all enterovirus types. We conclude that the use of multiple appropriate cell lines increases yield and enhances the rapidity of enterovirus isolation.

Chonmaitree, T; Ford, C; Sanders, C; Lucia, H L

1988-01-01

31

Characterization of Enteroviruses from Non-Human Primates in Cameroon Revealed Virus Types Widespread in Humans along with Candidate New Types and Species.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses (EVs) infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP) are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases. PMID:25079078

Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Bessaud, Maël; Joffret, Marie-Line; Endegue Zanga, Marie-Claire; Balanant, Jean; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Njouom, Richard; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Delpeyroux, Francis; Rousset, Dominique

2014-07-01

32

Preparation of North American Type II PRRSV Infectious Clone Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is still one of the most important infectious diseases threatening the swine industry. To construct North American type II PRRSV infectious clone containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, we amplify gfp gene, flanked by PRRSV Nsp2 gene fragments upstream and downstream, using overlap PCR method from pcDNA-EF1-GFP plasmid and FL12 plasmid containing PRRSV infectious genome as the templates. The Nsp2 fragment-flanked gfp gene was inserted into Nsp2 gene of the FL12 plasmid by Spe I and Xho I sites to generate PRRSV infectious recombinant plasmid (FL12-GFP) containing gfp gene. The recombinant PRRSV expressing GFP (PRRSV-GFP) was rescued in baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21) cells by transfecting PRRSV mRNA synthesized in vitro and amplified in Marc-145 cells. The PRRSV-GFP infectivity and replication capacity were identified. Results showed that, by adopting overlap PCR strategy, the gfp gene was successfully inserted into and fused with PRRSV Nsp2 gene in the PRRSV infectious clone plasmid FL-12 to generate FL12-GFP plasmid. The recombinant PRRSV-GFP was generated through transfecting PRRSV mRNA in BHK-2 cells. Like its parental virus, the recombinant PRRSV-GFP maintains its infectivity to Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). This study provides essential conditions for further investigation on PRRSV.

Wang, Liyue; Zhang, Kao; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wen, Jiexia; Zhang, Jianlou; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhong, Fei

2014-01-01

33

Production of Enterovirus Antisera.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of enterovirus antisera in horses and of rhinovirus antisera in goats is reported. Eight other coxsackie virus, one echo virus, and eight rhinovirus antigens are in progress. Data on inoculations, bleedings, and stored and transferred sera ...

R. W. Brown

1967-01-01

34

Molecular Classification of Enteroviruses Not Identified by Neutralization Tests  

PubMed Central

We isolated six viruses from patients diagnosed with aseptic meningitis or hand, foot, and mouth disease. The cytopathic effect of these viruses on cultured cells was like that of enteroviruses. However, viral neutralization tests against standard antisera were negative. Phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences of these 6 viruses and 29 serotypes of enteroviruses classified 3 of the viruses as serotype echovirus type 18 (EV18) and 3 as serotype human enterovirus 71 (HEV71). These results were confirmed by remicroneutralization tests with HEV-monospecific antisera or an additional phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP4 genes is more useful than neutralization tests with enterovirus serotype-specific antisera in identifying enterovirus serotypes.

Iritani, Nobuhiro; Seto, Yoshiyuki

2002-01-01

35

Recombination in Circulating Enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

Recombination is a well-known phenomenon for enteroviruses. However, the actual extent of recombination in circulating nonpoliovirus enteroviruses is not known. We have analyzed the phylogenetic relationships in four genome regions, VP1, 2A, 3D, and the 5? nontranslated region (NTR), of 40 enterovirus B strains (coxsackie B viruses and echoviruses) representing 11 serotypes and isolated in 1981 to 2002 in the former Soviet Union states. In the VP1 region, strains of the same serotype expectedly grouped with their prototype strain. However, as early as the 2A region, phylogenetic grouping differed significantly from that in the VP1 region and indicated recombination within the 2A region. Moreover, in the 5? NTR and 3D region, only 1 strain of 40 grouped with its prototype strain. Instead, we observed a major group in both the 5? NTR and the 3D region that united most (in the 5? NTR) or all (in the 3D region) of the strains studied, regardless of the serotype. Subdivision within that major group in the 3D region correlated with the time of virus isolation but not with the serotype. Therefore, we conclude that a majority, if not all, circulating enterovirus B strains are recombinants relative to the prototype strains, isolated mostly in the 1950s. Moreover, the ubiquitous recombination has allowed different regions of the enterovirus genome to evolve independently. Thus, a novel model of enterovirus genetics is proposed: the enterovirus genome is a stable symbiosis of genes, and enterovirus species consist of a finite set of capsid genes responsible for different serotypes and a continuum of nonstructural protein genes that seem to evolve in a relatively independent manner.

Lukashev, Alexander N.; Lashkevich, Vasilii A.; Ivanova, Olga E.; Koroleva, Galina A.; Hinkkanen, Ari E.; Ilonen, Jorma

2003-01-01

36

Human Chromosome 2 Carries a Gene Required for Production of Infectious Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) replicates only in certain primate cells. In murine cells expressing cyclin T1, a posttranscriptional block exists such that small amounts of capsid and little infectious virus are released. This block is relieved in part by fusion with human cells. Here we have tested a panel of mouse-human somatic cell hybrids for production of infectious virus. Only those containing human chromosome 2 were permissive, which correlated with capsid production. The effect was specific to HIV in that release of murine leukemia virus was minimally affected by the presence of chromosome 2. Although expression of Vpu markedly increased capsid production in the absence of chromosome 2, it did not result in a corresponding increase in infectious HIV. The presence of chromosome 2 did not have consistent effects on the amount of unspliced viral RNA, whereas the amount of cell-associated Gag p55 was increased a fewfold. These results suggest that processing of HIV Gag can be corrected by one or more genes present on human chromosome 2 to allow production of infectious HIV from murine cells.

Coskun, Ayse K.; van Maanen, Marc; Nguyen, Van; Sutton, Richard E.

2006-01-01

37

Detection of Astroviruses, Enteroviruses, and Adenovirus Types 40 and 41 in Surface Waters Collected and Evaluated by the Information Collection Rule and an Integrated Cell Culture-Nested PCR Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the use of an integrated cell culture-reverse transcription-PCR (ICC-RT-PCR) procedure coupled with nested PCR to detect human astroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenovirus types 40 and 41 in surface water samples that were collected and evaluated by using the Information Collection Rule (ICR) method. The results obtained with the ICC-RT-PCR-nested PCR method were compared to the results obtained with the

CHRISTOPHER D. CHAPRON; NICOLA A. BALLESTER; JUSTIN H. FONTAINE; CHRISTINE N. FRADES; AARON B. MARGOLIN

2000-01-01

38

Detection of human enteroviruses and parechoviruses as part of the national enterovirus surveillance in the Netherlands, 1996-2011.  

PubMed

Laboratories of the Dutch Working Group on Clinical Virology have routinely performed enterovirus diagnostics in the Netherlands since the early 1960s, with country-wide coverage. Enterovirus-positive samples are typed for clinical and epidemiological purposes, as well as to document the absence of poliovirus circulation. Human parechoviruses 1 and 2, initially recognized as enteroviruses, and since 2006 also the higher numbered human parechovirus types, have been detected as part of this surveillance. The purpose of this report is to describe the national enterovirus surveillance data from stool specimens collected in the Netherlands between 1996 and 2011 by all the participating laboratories. Since 2007, the average annual percentage of human enterovirus- and parechovirus-positive specimens increased from 6.5 to 10.8% and from 0.3 to 2.5% of the total numbers of specimens tested, respectively, following a gradual implementation of molecular diagnostics directly on clinical samples. Increased detection rates were observed for human enterovirus species A coxsackieviruses (from 0.1 to 0.5%). Human enteroviruses of species B, C, and D were detected at average rates of 4.7, 0.04, and 0.005%, respectively. The introduction of molecular diagnostics also resulted in an increase in the number of untyped enterovirus-positive specimens for which the presence of poliovirus was not excluded (from 1.3 to 3.1% since 2007). To increase knowledge on human entero- and parechovirus epidemiology and type-specific pathogenesis, as well as to warrant the quality of the poliovirus surveillance in the Netherlands, it is of importance to continue the typing of enterovirus- and parechovirus-positive samples. PMID:23780695

van der Sanden, S M G; Koopmans, M P G; van der Avoort, H G A M

2013-12-01

39

Association of incidence of type 1 diabetes with mortality from infectious disease and with antibiotic susceptibility at a country level.  

PubMed

To investigate the association between country incidence of type 1 diabetes and mortality from infectious disease and antibiotic susceptibility. An ecological study to explore the relationship at a country level of the reported incidence of type 1 diabetes (DiaMond) to infectious disease mortality (World Health Organisation) and to antibiotic susceptibility (Alexander Project). There were significant negative correlations between the incidence of type 1 diabetes and mortality for all infectious diseases studied. There were also significant positive correlations between the incidence of type 1 diabetes and antibiotic susceptibilities of Strep. pneumoniae, but not to those of Haem. influenzae. Since infectious disease mortality and antibiotic susceptibility are surrogate markers for bacterial exposure, our results provide support for a negative association between bacterial exposure in a community and its incidence of type 1 diabetes. The consistency of our results as well as the highly statistically significant results of most of the associations studied reinforces the validity of our findings. PMID:23512474

Abela, Alexia-Giovanna; Fava, Stephen

2013-12-01

40

Molecular Characterization and Pathogenicity of Infectious Bronchitis Coronaviruses: Complicated Evolution and Epidemiology in China Caused by Cocirculation of Multiple Types of Infectious Bronchitis Coronaviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To monitor and study the molecular epidemiology, evolution and pathogenicity of infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) in China in recent years and further our knowledge of the evolution of IBVs. Methods: Thirty-seven IBV isolates were isolated from commercial chickens in China. The isolates were characterized by RT-PCR, sequencing, typing and analyzing the entire S1 gene. In addition, 4 selected IBV

Shengwang Liu; Xiaonan Zhang; Yu Wang; Chengren Li; Zongxi Han; Yuhao Shao; Huixin Li; Xiangang Kong

2009-01-01

41

Oligomeric organization of gp120 on infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles.  

PubMed Central

The oligomeric structure of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein (gp120) was examined by treating infectious virions with chemical cross-linking agents and subjecting the protein to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and velocity centrifugation. Immunoblots of cross-linked samples revealed three gp120 bands and an approximately threefold shift in gp120 sedimentation. Our finding of cross-linking solely between gp120 suggests that the gp120 subunits are closely associated in the native envelope structure. Images

Weiss, C D; Levy, J A; White, J M

1990-01-01

42

Enterovirus infections: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Enterovirus infections are common in both children and adults and range from benign short-lived febrile illnesses to life-threatening infections. Recent developments in nucleic acid amplification techniques now allow the rapid and sensitive diagnosis of enterovirus infections, which in turn can lead to improvements in patient management that shorten hospitalizations and reduce costs. New antiviral drugs have been developed that inhibit enterovirus replication, and early clinical trials of these compounds suggest that effective therapy for enterovirus infections is now possible. PMID:11176247

Sawyer, M H

2001-02-01

43

Fatal enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an outbreak of hand-foot-mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 (EV-71) in 1997, 4 children presented with sudden cardiopulmonary collapse and minimal neurologic features. All children received cardiopulmonary resuscitation but died within a few hours of admission. Postmortem studies showed infection by EV-71 with extensive damage to the medulla and pons. We postulate an etiologic link between EV-71 and brainstem

Lucy C. S. Lum; K. T. Wong; S. K. Lam; K. B. Chua; A. Y. T. Goh; W. L. Lim; B. B. Ong; G. Paul; S. AbuBakar; M. Lambert

1998-01-01

44

Discovery of a Bovine Enterovirus in Alpaca  

PubMed Central

A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen.

McClenahan, Shasta D.; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L.; Krause, Philip R.; Uhlenhaut, Christine

2013-01-01

45

[Enteroviruses responsible for acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis].  

PubMed

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is an epidemic form of highly contagious conjunctivitis, characterized by conjunctival hemorrhages. The first AHC outbreak was described in 1969 in Ghana, West Africa, and was called Apollo disease, from the Apollo landing on the moon. This outbreak was caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV70) together with a Coxsackievirus A24 (CVA24v) variant, which are the major etiological agents involved in AHC outbreaks worldwide. AHC is known to be directly transmitted by close person-to-person contact or indirectly through soiled ophthalmological materials or unsafe recreational water. Recently, a possible airborne virus spread was suggested which could explain the high transmission rate of the disease. In the absence of a specific antiviral therapy, a rapid diagnosis of the causative agent is required to distinguish AHC due to enteroviruses from other ocular infectious diseases, for there are active drugs, or to quickly implement proper public health measures to limit the extension of the outbreak. However, virus identification remains difficult and time-consuming. Moreover, virological diagnosis is difficult to implement in developing countries where AHC has recently become a major problem for public health. PMID:19836177

Lévêque, N; Huguet, P; Norder, H; Chomel, J-J

2010-04-01

46

Establishment of an infectious RNA transcription system for Striped jack nervous necrosis virus, the type species of the betanodaviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system has been established to produce infectious RNA transcripts for Striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), the type species of the betanodaviruses, which infect fish. An enzymological analysis suggested that both RNA1 and RNA2 of SJNNV have a 5« cap. Both RNAs were largely resistant to 3« polyadenylation and ligation, suggesting the presence of an interfering 3« structure, while

Tokinori Iwamoto; Kazuyuki Mise; Koh-ichiro Mori; Misao Arimoto; Toshihiro Nakai

47

Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against feline infectious peritonitis virus type II and antigenic relationship between feline, porcine, and canine coronaviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with neutralizing activity against feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) strain 79-1149 (type II) were prepared. When the polypeptide specificity recognized by these monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was investigated by Western immunoblotting, all of the MAbs reacted with peplomer glycoprotein (S) of the virus. By competitive binding assay these MAbs were found to recognize at least 3

T. Hohdatsu; S. Okada; H. Koyama

1991-01-01

48

Cellular receptors for human enterovirus species a.  

PubMed

Human enterovirus species A (HEV-A) is one of the four species of HEV in the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae. Among HEV-A, coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Some other types of HEV-A are commonly associated with herpangina. Although HFMD and herpangina due to HEV-A are common febrile diseases among infants and children, EV71 can cause various neurological diseases, such as aseptic meningitis and fatal encephalitis. Recently, two human transmembrane proteins, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), were identified as functional receptors for EV71 and CVA16. In in vitro infection experiments using the prototype HEV-A strains, PSGL-1 and SCARB2 could be responsible for the specific receptors for EV71 and CVA16. However, the involvement of both receptors in the in vitro and in vivo infections of clinical isolates of HEV-A has not been clarified yet. To elucidate a diverse array of the clinical outcome of HEV-A-associated diseases, the identification and characterization of HEV-A receptors may provide useful information in understanding the HEV-A pathogenesis at a molecular level. PMID:22470371

Nishimura, Yorihiro; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

49

Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as three major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In Coastal Washington State IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in Coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were eight IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving seven different fish culture facilities in four separate watersheds. During the same time period IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from six coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from Coastal Washington revealed the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV, and that there were two distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007–2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in Coastal steelhead trout during 2007–2009 and type mG139M was dominant between 2010–2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all Coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007–2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the Coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of Coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout.

Breyta, R.; Jones, A.; Stewart, B.; Brunson, R.; Thomas, J.; Kerwin, J.; Bertolini, J.; Mumford, S.; Patterson, C.; Kurath, G.

2013-01-01

50

Evidence of Recombination among Enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

Human enteroviruses consist of more than 60 serotypes, reflecting a wide range of evolutionary divergence. They have been genetically classified into four clusters on the basis of sequence homology in the coding region of the single-stranded RNA genome. To explore further the genetic relationships between human enteroviruses and to characterize the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for variation, previously sequenced genomes were subjected to detailed comparison. Bootstrap and genetic similarity analyses were used to systematically scan the alignments of complete genomic sequences. Bootstrap analysis provided evidence from an early recombination event at the junction of the 5? noncoding and coding regions of the progenitors of the current clusters. Analysis within the genetic clusters indicated that enterovirus prototype strains include intraspecies recombinants. Recombination breakpoints were detected in all genomic regions except the capsid protein coding region. Our results suggest that recombination is a significant and relatively frequent mechanism in the evolution of enterovirus genomes.

Santti, Juhana; Hyypia, Timo; Kinnunen, Leena; Salminen, Mika

1999-01-01

51

Enterovirus infections: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses cause infections that present in diverse ways and affect people of all ages. Infections peak during summer and fall epidemics and cause 10 to 15 million symptomatic infections annually in the United States. The 70 enteroviral serotypes cause illness that ranges from nonspecific fevers and rashes to life-threatening myocarditis or central nervous system disease. These common infections create a significant burden on our society and healthcare system. New developments in rapid diagnosis of enterovirus infections using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positively affect patient management and have the potential to reduce the healthcare impact of enterovirus infection. The future holds promise for effective antiviral drugs that can treat enterovirus infections and decrease their significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:12118843

Sawyer, Mark H

2002-01-01

52

Occurrence and genetic typing of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Kamchatka, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a well known rhabdoviral pathogen of salmonid fish in North America that has become established in Asia and Europe. On the Pacific coast of Russia, IHNV was first detected in hatchery sockeye from the Kamchatka Peninsula in 2001. Results of virological examinations of over 10 000 wild and cultured salmonid fish from Kamchatka during 1996 to 2005 revealed IHNV in several sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations. The virus was isolated from spawning adults and from juveniles undergoing epidemics in both hatchery and wild sockeye populations from the Bolshaya watershed. No virus was detected in 2 other water-sheds, or in species other than sockeye salmon. Genetic typing of 8 virus isolates by seguence analysis of partial glycoprotein and nucleocapsid genes revealed that they were genetically homogeneous and fell within the U genogroup of IHNV. In phylogenetic analyses, the Russian IHNV sequences were indistinguishable from the sequences of North American U genogroup isolates that occur throughout Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. The high similarity, and in some cases identity, between Russian and North American IHNV isolates suggests virus transmission or exposure to a common viral reservoir in the North Pacific Ocean. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

Rudakova, S. L.; Kurath, G.; Bochkova, E. V.

2007-01-01

53

Effects of a major earthquake on blood donor types and infectious diseases marker rates.  

PubMed

This observational study attempted to identify the effect of a natural disaster on the safety of blood supply and donor types with the influx of donors after a severe earthquake. Blood donation rate, blood discard rate and safety of blood donations responding to the earthquake, as projected from the infectious disease marker rate, were evaluated in blood donated immediately before (1 July-17 August) and after 17 August 1999 (17 August-21 August). These were compared with the results from the corresponding periods in 1998 and 2000 for donations at a university medical centre and two regional blood centres. 8055 units of allogeneic blood were collected at two regional blood centres, and 450 units were collected at a university medical centre during 4 days. Viral marker rates were nearly the same at the former but were slightly lower at the latter. The blood discard rate was nearly twice the comparative periods at the former, but it remained unchanged at the latter. Voluntary donors replaced the replacement donors during 4 days. This analysis highlights the size of the pool of potential donors that are available as a national resource that can be motivated to give blood with the right motivation. PMID:15859974

Sönmezoglu, M; Kocak, N; Oncul, O; Ozbayburtlu, S; Hepgul, Z; Kosan, E; Aksu, Y; Bayik, M

2005-04-01

54

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis due to enterovirus 70 in India.  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis occurred in Delhi, India, during August and September 1996. The etiologic agent was confirmed as enterovirus type 70 by a modified centrifugation-enhanced culture method followed by immunofluorescence and neutralization tests. After nearly a decade, this virus is reemerging as a cause of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in India.

Maitreyi, R. S.; Dar, L.; Muthukumar, A.; Vajpayee, M.; Xess, I.; Vajpayee, R. B.; Seth, P.; Broor, S.

1999-01-01

55

Full genome sequence of a bovine enterovirus isolated in china.  

PubMed

We report the full genome sequence of an isolate of bovine enterovirus type B from China. The virus (BEV-BJ001) was isolated from Beijing, China, from fecal swabs of cattle suffering from severe diarrhea. This genome sequence will give useful insight for future molecular epidemiological studies in China. PMID:24970832

Peng, Xiao-Wei; Dong, Hao; Wu, Qing-Min; Lu, Yan-Li

2014-01-01

56

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis due to enterovirus 70 in India.  

PubMed

An outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis occurred in Delhi, India, during August and September 1996. The etiologic agent was confirmed as enterovirus type 70 by a modified centrifugation-enhanced culture method followed by immunofluorescence and neutralization tests. After nearly a decade, this virus is reemerging as a cause of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in India. PMID:10221880

Maitreyi, R S; Dar, L; Muthukumar, A; Vajpayee, M; Xess, I; Vajpayee, R B; Seth, P; Broor, S

1999-01-01

57

Enterovirus Genotype EV-104 in Humans, Italy, 2008-2009  

PubMed Central

In an epidemiologic investigation of respiratory infections in Italy, October 2008–September 2009, we tested samples from patients for respiratory viruses. Human enterovirus genotype EV-104 (identified in Switzerland) was found in 3 immunocompromised and 2 immunocompetent patients. EV-104 is closely related to human rhinoviruses; thus, both types of viruses should be sought in respiratory syndromes.

Piralla, Antonio; Rovida, Francesca; Baldanti, Fausto

2010-01-01

58

Full Genome Sequence of a Bovine Enterovirus Isolated in China  

PubMed Central

We report the full genome sequence of an isolate of bovine enterovirus type B from China. The virus (BEV-BJ001) was isolated from Beijing, China, from fecal swabs of cattle suffering from severe diarrhea. This genome sequence will give useful insight for future molecular epidemiological studies in China.

Peng, Xiao-wei; Dong, Hao; Wu, Qing-min

2014-01-01

59

Symmetry-Related Clustering of Positive Charges Is a Common Mechanism for Heparan Sulfate Binding in Enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

Coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9), a member of the Picornaviridae family, uses an RGD motif in the VP1 capsid protein to bind to integrin ?v?6 during cell entry. Here we report that two CAV9 isolates can bind to the heparan sulfate/heparin class of proteoglycans (HSPG). Sequence analysis identified an arginine (R) at position 132 in VP1 in these two isolates, rather than a threonine (T) as seen in the nonbinding strains tested. We introduced a T132R substitution into the HSPG-nonbinding strain Griggs and recovered infectious virus capable of binding to immobilized heparin, unlike the parental Griggs strain. The known CAV9 structure was used to identify the location of VP1 position 132, 5 copies of which were found to cluster around the 5-fold axis of symmetry, presumably producing a region of positive charge which can interact with the negatively charged HSPG. Analysis of several enteroviruses of the same species as CAV9, Human enterovirus B (HEV-B), identified examples from 5 types in which blocking of infection by heparin was coincident with an arginine (or another basic amino acid, lysine) at a position corresponding to 132 in VP1 in CAV9. Together, these data show that membrane-associated HSPG can serve as a (co)receptor for some CAV9 and other HEV-B strains and identify symmetry-related clustering of positive charges as one mechanism by which HSPG binding can be achieved. This is a potentially powerful mechanism by which a single amino acid change could generate novel receptor binding capabilities, underscoring the plasticity of host-cell interactions in enteroviruses.

McLeish, Nigel J.; Williams, Cigdem H.; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Roivainen, Merja M.

2012-01-01

60

Onychomadesis outbreak in Valencia, Spain associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by enteroviruses.  

PubMed

This report evaluates the June 2008 onychomadesis outbreak in Valencia, Spain. The study sample consisted of 221 onychomadesis cases and 77 nonaffected individuals who lived close to those affected. We collected data on dietary variables, hygiene products, and individual pathological histories. Feces and blood specimens were collected from 44 cases and 24 controls to evaluate exposure to infectious agents. Pathological background data revealed a high frequency (61%) of hand, foot, and mouth disease among the onychomadesis cases. Coxsackievirus A10 was the most commonly detected enterovirus in both case and control groups (49%). Other enteroviruses such as coxsackieviruses A5, A6, A16, B1, and B3; echoviruses 3, 4, and 9; and enterovirus 71 were present in low frequencies in the case and control groups (3-9%). The 2008 onychomadesis outbreak in the metropolitan area of Valencia was associated with an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease primarily caused by coxsackievirus A10. PMID:20553401

Davia, Javier López; Bel, Pablo Hernández; Ninet, Violeta Zaragoza; Bracho, María Alma; González-Candelas, Fernando; Salazar, Antonio; Gobernado, Miguel; Bosch, Isabel Febrer

2011-01-01

61

Enteroviruses isolated from herpangina and hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Korean children.  

PubMed

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are commonly prevalent illness in young children. They are similarly characterized by lesions on the skin and oral mucosa. Both diseases are associated with various enterovirus serotypes. In this study, enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Korea in 2009 were isolated and analyzed. Demographic data for patients with HFMD and herpangina were compared and all enterovirus isolates were amplified in the VP1 region by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Among the enterovirus isolates, prevalent agents were coxsackievirus A16 in HFMD and coxsackievirus A5 in herpangina. More prevalent months for HFMD were June (69.2%) and May (11.5%), and June (40.0%) and July (24.0%) for herpangina. Age prevalence of HFMD patients with enterovirus infection was 1?year (23.1%), 4?years (19.2%), and over 5?years (19.2%). However, the dominant age group of herpangina patients with enterovirus infection was 1?year (48.0%) followed by 2?years (28.0%). Comparison of pairwise VP1 nucleotide sequence alignment of all isolates within the same serotypes revealed high intra-type variation of CVA2 isolates (84.6-99.3% nucleotide identity). HFMD and herpangina showed differences in demographic data and serotypes of isolated enteroviruses, but there was no notable difference in amino acid sequences by clinical syndromes in multiple comparison of the partial VP1 gene sequence. PMID:22985487

Park, KwiSung; Lee, BaeckHee; Baek, KyoungAh; Cheon, DooSung; Yeo, SangGu; Park, JoonSoo; Soh, JaeWan; Cheon, HaeKyung; Yoon, KyungAh; Choi, YoungJin

2012-01-01

62

Enteroviruses isolated from herpangina and hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Korean children  

PubMed Central

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are commonly prevalent illness in young children. They are similarly characterized by lesions on the skin and oral mucosa. Both diseases are associated with various enterovirus serotypes. In this study, enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Korea in 2009 were isolated and analyzed. Demographic data for patients with HFMD and herpangina were compared and all enterovirus isolates were amplified in the VP1 region by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Among the enterovirus isolates, prevalent agents were coxsackievirus A16 in HFMD and coxsackievirus A5 in herpangina. More prevalent months for HFMD were June (69.2%) and May (11.5%), and June (40.0%) and July (24.0%) for herpangina. Age prevalence of HFMD patients with enterovirus infection was 1?year (23.1%), 4?years (19.2%), and over 5?years (19.2%). However, the dominant age group of herpangina patients with enterovirus infection was 1?year (48.0%) followed by 2?years (28.0%). Comparison of pairwise VP1 nucleotide sequence alignment of all isolates within the same serotypes revealed high intra-type variation of CVA2 isolates (84.6–99.3% nucleotide identity). HFMD and herpangina showed differences in demographic data and serotypes of isolated enteroviruses, but there was no notable difference in amino acid sequences by clinical syndromes in multiple comparison of the partial VP1 gene sequence.

2012-01-01

63

Structure determination of enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease but may induce fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 crystallized in a body-centered orthorhombic space group with two particles in general orientations in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Determination of the particle orientations required that the locked rotation function excluded the twofold symmetry axes from the set of icosahedral symmetry operators. This avoided the occurrence of misleading high rotation-function values produced by the alignment of icosahedral and crystallographic twofold axes. Once the orientations and positions of the particles had been established, the structure was solved by molecular replacement and phase extension.

Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

2012-01-01

64

Structure determination of enterovirus 71  

SciTech Connect

Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease but may induce fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 crystallized in a body-centered orthorhombic space group with two particles in general orientations in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Determination of the particle orientations required that the locked rotation function excluded the twofold symmetry axes from the set of icosahedral symmetry operators. This avoided the occurrence of misleading high rotation-function values produced by the alignment of icosahedral and crystallographic twofold axes. Once the orientations and positions of the particles had been established, the structure was solved by molecular replacement and phase extension.

Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G. (Purdue); (Sentinext)

2013-02-20

65

Prototypical Recombinant Multi-Protease-Inhibitor-Resistant Infectious Molecular Clones of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1  

PubMed Central

The many genetic manifestations of HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) resistance present challenges to research into the mechanisms of PI resistance and the assessment of new PIs. To address these challenges, we created a panel of recombinant multi-PI-resistant infectious molecular clones designed to represent the spectrum of clinically relevant multi-PI-resistant viruses. To assess the representativeness of this panel, we examined the sequences of the panel's viruses in the context of a correlation network of PI resistance amino acid substitutions in sequences from more than 10,000 patients. The panel of recombinant infectious molecular clones comprised 29 of 41 study-defined PI resistance amino acid substitutions and 23 of the 27 tightest amino acid substitution clusters. Based on their phenotypic properties, the clones were classified into four groups with increasing cross-resistance to the PIs most commonly used for salvage therapy: lopinavir (LPV), tipranavir (TPV), and darunavir (DRV). The panel of recombinant infectious molecular clones has been made available without restriction through the NIH AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program. The public availability of the panel makes it possible to compare the inhibitory activities of different PIs with one another. The diversity of the panel and the high-level PI resistance of its clones suggest that investigational PIs active against the clones in this panel will retain antiviral activity against most if not all clinically relevant PI-resistant viruses.

Varghese, Vici; Mitsuya, Yumi; Fessel, W. Jeffrey; Liu, Tommy F.; Melikian, George L.; Katzenstein, David A.; Schiffer, Celia A.; Holmes, Susan P.

2013-01-01

66

Prevalence and Characterization of Enterovirus Infections among Pediatric Patients with Hand Foot Mouth Disease, Herpangina and Influenza Like Illness in Thailand, 2012.  

PubMed

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand. PMID:24887237

Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

2014-01-01

67

Prevalence and Characterization of Enterovirus Infections among Pediatric Patients with Hand Foot Mouth Disease, Herpangina and Influenza Like Illness in Thailand, 2012  

PubMed Central

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand.

Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

2014-01-01

68

Molecular characterization of enteroviruses associated with neurological infections in Spain, 2008.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the etiology of viral neurological infections in Spain, a national study was performed in 2008. The results obtained have been published. Enteroviruses were the most frequent cause of the aseptic meningitis and infant febrile syndromes. The present report supplements the previous study with the genotyping of the detected enteroviruses. Typing was by amplification of partial VP1 region and sequencing in 70 (53%) of the 132 available cerebrospinal fluid samples positive for enteroviruses. Twelve different genotypes within the B species were identified. Echovirus 4 was predominant (24%), followed by echovirus 30 (19%), echovirus 9 (17%), and echovirus 6 (14%). In summary, a co-circulation of several enterovirus types associated with meningitis in children under 15 years old was observed. Although infrequently detected, echovirus 4 was the predominant genotype identified due to an aseptic meningitis outbreak which occurred in the Canary Islands in 2008. PMID:23893817

Cabrerizo, M; Trallero, G; Echevarría, J E; Moreno-Docón, A; Pena, M J; Pérez-Ruiz, M; Avellón, A; de Ory, F

2013-11-01

69

Activity of Pleconaril against Enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

The activity of pleconaril in cell culture against prototypic enterovirus strains and 215 clinical isolates of the most commonly isolated enterovirus serotypes was examined. The latter viruses were isolated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during the 1970s and 1980s from clinically ill subjects. Pleconaril at a concentration of ?0.03 ?M inhibited the replication of 50% of all clinical isolates tested. Ninety percent of the isolates were inhibited at a drug concentration of ?0.18 ?M. The most sensitive serotype, echovirus serotype 11, was also the most prevalent enterovirus in the United States from 1970 to 1983. Pleconaril was further tested for oral activity in three animal models of lethal enterovirus infection: coxsackievirus serotype A9 infection in suckling mice, coxsackievirus serotype A21 strain Kenny infection in weanling mice, and coxsackievirus serotype B3 strain M infection in adult mice. Treatment with pleconaril increased the survival rate in all three models for both prophylactic and therapeutic dosing regimens. Moreover, pleconaril dramatically reduced virus levels in target tissues of coxsackievirus serotype B3 strain M-infected animals. Pleconaril represents a promising new drug candidate for potential use in the treatment of human enteroviral infections.

Pevear, Daniel C.; Tull, Tina M.; Seipel, Martin E.; Groarke, James M.

1999-01-01

70

First full genome sequence of a human enterovirus a120, isolated in madagascar.  

PubMed

We report the first complete genome sequence of an enterovirus isolate belonging to the human enterovirus A species of the Picornaviridae family and to type A120 (EV-A120). The EV-A120 isolate MAD-2741-11 was obtained from the stool of a healthy child living on Madagascar Island. The isolate genome was amplified by a reverse transcription-PCR method, and the consensus sequence was determined. PMID:24948760

Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Joffret, Marie-Line; Delpeyroux, Francis; Heraud, Jean-Michel

2014-01-01

71

First Full Genome Sequence of a Human Enterovirus A120, Isolated in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

We report the first complete genome sequence of an enterovirus isolate belonging to the human enterovirus A species of the Picornaviridae family and to type A120 (EV-A120). The EV-A120 isolate MAD-2741-11 was obtained from the stool of a healthy child living on Madagascar Island. The isolate genome was amplified by a reverse transcription-PCR method, and the consensus sequence was determined.

Joffret, Marie-Line; Delpeyroux, Francis; Heraud, Jean-Michel

2014-01-01

72

Human papillomavirus type 18 chimeras containing the L2/L1 capsid genes from evolutionarily diverse papillomavirus types generate infectious virus.  

PubMed

Papillomaviruses (PVs) comprise a large family of viruses infecting nearly all vertebrate species, with more than 100 human PVs identified. Our previous studies showed that a mutant chimera HPV18/16 genome, consisting of the upper regulatory region and early ORFs of HPV18 and the late ORFs of HPV16, was capable of producing infectious virus in organotypic raft cultures. We were interested in determining whether the ability of this chimeric genome to produce infectious virus was the result of HPV18 and HPV16 being similarly oncogenic, anogenital types and whether more disparate PV types could also interact functionally. To test this we created a series of HPV18 chimeric genomes where the ORFs for the HPV18 capsid genes were replaced with the capsid genes of HPV45, HPV39, HPV33, HPV31, HPV11, HPV6b, HPV1a, CRPV, and BPV1. All chimeras were able to produce infectious chimeric viral particles, although with lower infectivity than wild-type HPV18. Steps in the viral life cycle and characteristics of the viral particles were examined to identify potential causes for the decrease in infectivity. PMID:21762735

Bowser, Brian S; Chen, Horng-Shen; Conway, Michael J; Christensen, Neil D; Meyers, Craig

2011-09-01

73

An infectious molecular clone of an unusual macrophage-tropic and highly cytopathic strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.  

PubMed Central

We isolated and molecularly cloned a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain (89.6) which is unusual because it is both macrophage-tropic and extremely cytopathic in lymphocytes. Moreover, this is the first well-characterized infectious molecularly cloned macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain derived from peripheral blood. HIV-1 89.6 differs markedly from other macrophage-tropic isolates within the envelope V3 region, which is important in determining cell tropism and cytopathicity. HIV-1 89.6 may thus represent a transitional isolate between noncytopathic macrophage-tropic viruses and cytopathic lymphocyte-tropic viruses. Images

Collman, R; Balliet, J W; Gregory, S A; Friedman, H; Kolson, D L; Nathanson, N; Srinivasan, A

1992-01-01

74

Prevalence of Nonpolio Enteroviruses in the Sewage of Guangzhou City, China, from 2009 to 2012  

PubMed Central

The human-pathogenic viruses in urban sewage have been extensively monitored to obtain information on circulating viruses in human communities. Enteroviruses (EVs) excreted by patients who present with diverse clinical syndromes can remain infectious in the environment for several weeks, and limited data on circulating environmental EVs are available. A 4-year (2009 to 2012) surveillance study was conducted to detect nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in the urban sewage of Guangzhou city, China. After the viruses in the sewage samples were concentrated and isolated, molecular identification was used to detect and type the NPEVs. During the 4-year study, 17 different NPEV serotypes were identified in the sewage of Guangzhou city. The most common serotypes were echovirus 11 (ECHO11), ECHO6, ECHO7, and ECHO12 and coxsackie group B viruses 5 (CVB5) and CVB3. The predominant serotypes were influenced by spatial and temporal factors and differed each year. CVB5 was commonly detected in 2009 and 2010 but was rarely isolated in 2011 and 2012. In contrast, CVB3 was not observed in 2009 and 2010 but was increasingly detected in 2011 and 2012. Our study provides an overview of the serotype distribution and circulation patterns of NPEVs in the sewage of Guangzhou, China. In the absence of a systematic EV disease surveillance system, the detection and characterization of sewage-borne NPEVs will help us better understand the changes in EV disease trends and the epidemic background of circulating EVs, which could help interpret the EV trends and warn of future outbreaks in this area.

Lu, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Yoshida, Hiromu; Guo, Xue; Liu, Leng; Li, Hui; Zeng, Hanri; Fang, Ling; Mo, Yanling; Yi, Lina; Chosa, Toru; Xu, Wenbo; Ke, Changwen

2013-01-01

75

Crystal Structure of Human Enterovirus 71  

SciTech Connect

Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus associated with fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Here, we report the crystal structure of enterovirus 71 and show that, unlike in other enteroviruses, the 'pocket factor,' a small molecule that stabilizes the virus, is partly exposed on the floor of the 'canyon.' Thus, the structure of antiviral compounds may require a hydrophilic head group designed to interact with residues at the entrance of the pocket.

Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G. (Purdue); (Sentinext)

2013-04-08

76

Post-infectious disease syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Many post-infectious syndromes have been recognized in the last 50 years, some following viral infections and others closely related to bacterial disease. The occurrence of prolonged fatigue following an apparent viral illness of varying severity is also well documented. The lack of a recognizable precipitating cause and the tendency for epidemic fatigue to occur among hospital staff led many to believe that the illness may be psychogenic in origin. However, there is serological evidence that some cases may follow enterovirus infections or occasionally delayed convalescence from infectious mononucleosis. Much interesting work is currently in progress relating fatigue to persisting immunological abnormalities, and the development of molecular immunology makes this a most exciting field of research. This paper reviews the evidence for and against a definitive post-viral fatigue syndrome and examines the results of research carried out in the last 50 years.

Bannister, B. A.

1988-01-01

77

Molecular Identification of Enterovirus by Analyzing a Partial VP1 Genomic Region with Different Methods  

PubMed Central

VP1 is the most suitable region for use in the identification of enterovirus. Although VP1 sequencing methods may vary, it is necessary to agree on a common strategy of sequence analysis. Identification of a strain type may be achieved by three different approaches: pairwise sequence alignment, multiple-sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Other methods are also available, but they are not simple enough to be performed at a virology laboratory. The performances of these methods were evaluated with nucleotide and protein sequences obtained from 32 original samples, 8 enterovirus isolates, and 64 GenBank sequences. Pairwise sequence alignment methods had very different results. The DNASTAR package identified only 28.8% of enterovirus strains, while the Genetics Computer Group package identified 50.0 or 72.1% of enterovirus strains when nucleotide or amino acid sequences were analyzed, respectively. Multiple-sequence alignment methods identified 94.2% (Clustal W program) or 92.3% (Pileup program) of the enterovirus strains, while the phylogenetic method increased this rate to 99.0%. Comparative evaluation of these analysis methods showed that the Clustal W program (version 1.81), a freely available multiple-sequence alignment program, presented one of the best performances when used with the correct criteria. Other commercial and expensive programs did not achieve the same performances, making them less suitable for molecular typing of enteroviruses. Finally, although phylogenetic inference is the most demanding method in terms of knowledge of the user, it remained the best option analyzed.

Palacios, G.; Casas, I.; Tenorio, A.; Freire, C.

2002-01-01

78

Production of Enterovirus Antigens for Human Enterovirus Types.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program has a three-fold purpose: (1) to produce reference seeds for Echo viruses 9, 13, 15, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30 and 31 and Coxsackieviruses A-20A, 2, 3, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 16; (2) to produce seed virus and antiserum in rabbits to specific s...

S. S. Kalter

1965-01-01

79

Enterovirus 74 Infection in Children  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 74 (EV74) is a rarely detected viral infection of children. In 2010, EV74 was identified in New Zealand in a 2 year old child with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) through routine polio AFP surveillance. A further three cases of EV74 were identified in children within six months. These cases are the first report of EV74 in New Zealand. In this study we describe the near complete genome sequence of four EV74 isolates from New Zealand, which shows only limited sequence identity in the non-structural proteins when compared to the other two known EV74 sequences. As is typical of enteroviruses multiple recombination events were evident, particularly in the P2 region and P3 regions. This is the first complete EV74 genome sequenced from a patient with acute flaccid paralysis.

Peacey, Matthew; Hall, Richard J.; Wang, Jing; Todd, Angela K.; Yen, Seiha; Chan-Hyams, Jasmine; Rand, Christy J.; Stanton, Jo-Ann; Huang, Q. Sue

2013-01-01

80

Secondary enterovirus infection in the murine model of myocarditis. Pathologic and immunologic aspects.  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses are implicated as etiologic agents in the inflammatory diseases myocarditis and polymyositis. In this report, we show that a previous enterovirus exposure in mice can influence development of myocardial inflammation with a second enteroviral exposure. Inoculation of 25-day-old male C3H/HeJ mice with 10(3) or 10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU) of infectious or ultra violet (UV)-inactivated coxsackievirus B2 (CVB2), followed by inoculation 28 days later with 10(5) PFU of a myocarditic variant of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3-m) results in more intense myocardial inflammation and injury than is seen in age-matched mice inoculated with CVB3-m alone. More severe disease occurs with the lower primary dose of CVB2. Neutralizing antibody to CVB2 is detected early after primary inoculation and neutralizing antibody to CVB3 is first detected 5 days after secondary inoculation. In vitro proliferation of splenocytes from mice inoculated with one or both viruses occurs in response to both CVB2 and CVB3 antigens. We recently demonstrated that murine T cells are capable of recognizing an enterovirus group antigen. Thus cell-mediated immune responses to a conserved antigenic epitope(s) among the enteroviruses may be involved in the exacerbation of myocardial inflammatory disease during a second enterovirus infection. The secondary infection model described here may more accurately mirror virus-induced myocarditis in the human population because the majority of adults have been exposed to several enteroviruses before induction of disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Beck, M. A.; Chapman, N. M.; McManus, B. M.; Mullican, J. C.; Tracy, S.

1990-01-01

81

Identification of Enteroviruses in Naturally Infected Captive Primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent study, we investigated cases of diarrheal disease among monkeys at a U.S. primate center. In that study, enteroviruses were detected in a high proportion of the fecal specimens tested. To determine whether the enterovirus detections represented the circulation of one or more simian enteroviruses within the colony or the transmission of human enteroviruses from animal handlers, we

W. Allan Nix; Baoming Jiang; Kaija Maher; Elizabeth Strobert; M. Steven Oberste

2008-01-01

82

Resistance and Protective Immunity in Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Exposed to M Type Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Differential virulence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates from the U and M phylogenetic subgroups is clearly evident in the Redfish Lake (RFL) strain of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. In these fish, experimental immersion challenges with U isolates cause extremely high mortality and M isolates cause low or no mortality. When survivors of M virus immersion challenges were exposed to a secondary challenge with virulent U type virus they experienced high mortality, indicating that the primary M challenge did not elicit protective immunity. Delivery of a moderate dose (2 × 104 plaque-forming units [PFU]/fish) of virus by intraperitoneal injection challenge did not overcome RFL sockeye salmon resistance to M type IHNV. Injection challenge with a high dose (5 × 106 PFU/fish) of M type virus caused 10% mortality, and in this case survivors did develop protective immunity against a secondary U type virus challenge. Thus, although it is possible for M type IHNV to elicit cross-protective immunity in this disease model, it does not develop after immersion challenge despite entry, transient replication of M virus to low levels, stimulation of innate immune genes, and development of neutralizing antibodies in some fish.

Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle; Purcell, Maureen; LaPatra, Scott E.

2010-01-01

83

Mapping ongoing European research activities examining the infectious aetiology of chronic conditions.  

PubMed

Chronic conditions contribute to the majority of the mortality and morbidity burden in Europe. The extent to which infectious agents are responsible for the chronic disease burden remains elusive. The complex nature of the natural history of chronic conditions calls for an overview of ongoing research activities linking infectious agents with these conditions in order to guide research endeavours, direct research funding, steer prevention efforts, and point health policy towards promising interventions. A selection of websites hosted by institutions either financing or conducting research within the European Union was screened for ongoing research activities examining infectious aetiology of chronic conditions. The searches were conducted until September 2011, applying search strategies and inclusion criteria predefined in a study protocol. In total, 25 research activities met the inclusion criteria. Of those, ten activities were focused to investigate infectious aetiology of cancer, four focused on type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 11 focused on a wide spectrum of other chronic conditions. The identified research projects did not cover areas such as mental and behavioural disorders. Infectious agents analysed included enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, human rhinoviruses, P. gingivalis, human papillomaviruses, cytomegalovirus, Helicobacter spp. and human parvovirus. Only three projects specifically addressed therapeutic interventions. Ultimately, linking infectious agents with chronic conditions may translate into prevention efforts with vaccinations or treatment strategies with antimicrobial agents, and could, thus, eventually reduce the heavy disease burden from chronic conditions. However, little translational research on therapeutic interventions was found in our search and should be fostered, particularly for more established infectious-chronic disease associations. PMID:23046318

Semenza, J C; Svederud, I; Medin, E; Orrskog, S; Tsolova, S

2013-09-01

84

Co-circulation of enteroviruses between apes and humans.  

PubMed

A total of 139 stool samples from wild chimpanzees, gorillas and bonobos in Cameroon and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were screened for enteroviruses (EVs) by reverse transcription PCR. Enterovirus RNA was detected in 10 % of samples, comprising eight from 58 sampled chimpanzees (13.8 %), one from 40 bonobos (2.5 %) and five from 40 gorillas (12.2 %). Three viruses isolated from chimpanzees grouped with human isolate EV-A89 and four (four chimpanzees, one gorilla) represented a newly identified type, EV-A119. These species A virus types overlapped with those circulating in human populations in the same area. The remaining six strains comprised a new species D type, EV-D120, infecting one chimpanzee and four gorillas, and a single EV variant infecting a bonobo that was remarkably divergent from other EVs and potentially constitutes a new enterovirus species. The study demonstrates both the circulation of genetically divergent EV variants in apes and monkeys as well as those shared with local human populations. PMID:24189620

Harvala, Heli; Van Nguyen, Dung; McIntyre, Chloe; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Simmonds, Peter

2014-02-01

85

Molecular and functional characterization of two infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) proteins with type I interferon antagonizing activity.  

PubMed

In this study we characterize two proteins encoded by the two smallest genomic segments of the piscine orthomyxovirus infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Both proteins, encoded by the un-spliced ORF from genomic segment 7 (s7ORF1) and the larger ORF from segment 8 (s8ORF2), are involved in modulation of the type I interferon (IFN) response. The data suggests that the s7ORF1 protein is collinearly encoded, non-structural, contains no nuclear localisation signals, localises mainly to the cytoplasmic perinuclear area and does not bind single- or double-stranded RNA. On the other hand, genomic segment 8 uses a bicistronic coding strategy and the encoded s8ORF2 protein is a structural component of the viral particle. This protein contains two nuclear localisation signals, has a predominantly nuclear localisation, binds both double-stranded RNA and poly-A tailed single-stranded RNA, but not double-stranded DNA. In poly I:C stimulated salmon cells both ISAV proteins independently down-regulate the type I IFN promoter activity. Thus, ISAV counteracts the type I IFN response by the action of at least two of its gene products, rather than just one, as appears to be the case for other known members of the Orthomyxoviridae. PMID:18304672

García-Rosado, Esther; Markussen, Turhan; Kileng, Oyvind; Baekkevold, Espen S; Robertsen, Børre; Mjaaland, Siri; Rimstad, Espen

2008-05-01

86

High Susceptibility for Enterovirus Infection and Virus Excretion Features in Tunisian Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies  

PubMed Central

To estimate the susceptibility to enterovirus infection and the frequency of long-term poliovirus excreters in Tunisian patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), enteroviruses were assessed in stool specimens of 82 patients with humoral, combined, and other PIDs. Isolated viruses were typed and intratyped by standard molecular techniques, and the whole VP1 region of poliovirus isolates was sequenced. Polioviruses were detected in 6 patients; all isolates were vaccine related. Five patients rapidly stopped excretion; one excreted a poliovirus type 1 isolate for several months, and the isolate accumulated up to 14 mutations in the VP1 region. Nonpolio enteroviruses were identified in 6 patients; 4 of them kept excreting the same strain for more than 6 months. The rate of enterovirus infection was 13.4% of the PID patients and 20.7% of those with an IgG defect; it greatly exceeded the rates generally found in Tunisian supposed-immunocompetent individuals (4.1% during the study period; P = 0.001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Interestingly, patients with combined immunodeficiencies were at a higher risk for enterovirus infection than those with an exclusively B cell defect. A major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen expression defect was found in 54% of enterovirus-positive patients and in the unique long-term poliovirus excreter. The study results also suggest that substitutive immunoglobulin therapy may help clearance of a poliovirus infection and that most PID patients have the ability to stop poliovirus excretion within a limited period. However, the high susceptibility of these patients to enterovirus infection reinforces the need for enhanced surveillance of these patients until the use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is stopped.

Driss, Nadia; Ben-Mustapha, Imen; Mellouli, Fethi; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Touzi, Henda; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Ben Ghorbel, Mohamed; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha

2012-01-01

87

High degree of genetic diversity of non-polio enteroviruses identified in Georgia by environmental and clinical surveillance, 2002-2005.  

PubMed

Enterovirus surveillance data are useful for establishing temporal and geographical patterns of circulation and for virus characterization to determine phylogenetic relationships between strains. Almost no information is available on circulating enteroviruses in Georgia and the surrounding region. To describe enterovirus circulation in Georgia, determine relationships with previously characterized strains and assess the role of environmental and clinical enterovirus surveillance, this study analysed a total of 112 non-polio enterovirus isolates identified during 2002-2005 from sewage and human stool samples. Viruses were isolated in cell culture using standard methods and typed by partial sequencing of the VP1 gene. A total of 20 different non-polio enterovirus serotypes were identified over the 4-year period. The most commonly detected enteroviruses included echovirus (E) 6 (21 isolates; 18.8?%), E20, E3 and E7 (11 isolates each; 9.8?%), E11, coxsackievirus (CV) B4 and CVB5 (seven isolates each; 6.3?%), and E13, E19 and E30 (six isolates each; 5.4?%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that many serotypes were represented by more than one genetic lineage. The present study showed a very high degree of enterovirus diversity in Georgia and demonstrated the added value of environmental enterovirus surveillance, particularly in settings with limited clinical surveillance. Several serotypes would not have been detected without having both clinical and environmental surveillance in place. Several serotypes detected in Georgia were among those rarely reported in the USA and Europe (e.g. E3, E20 and E19). As the emergence of new genetic lineages of enterovirus in a particular area is often associated with large-scale outbreaks, continued monitoring of enterovirus strains by both environmental and clinical surveillance and genetic characterization should be encouraged. PMID:20671086

Khetsuriani, N; Kutateladze, T; Zangaladze, E; Shutkova, T; Peñaranda, S; Nix, W A; Pallansch, M A; Oberste, M S

2010-11-01

88

Infectious Virions Produced from a Human Papillomavirus Type 18/16 Genomic DNA Chimera  

PubMed Central

The organotypic raft culture system has allowed the study of the differentiation-dependent aspects of the human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle. However, genetic strategies to more completely understand the HPV life cycle are limited. The generation of chimeric viruses has been a useful tool in other virus systems to analyze infection and replication. To investigate the specificity of the interaction of nonstructural genes of one HPV type with the structural genes of another HPV type, we have replaced the L2 and L1 open reading frames (ORFs) of HPV type 18 (HPV18) with the L2 and L1 ORFs of HPV type 16 (HPV16). The resulting HPV18/16 chimeric construct was introduced into primary keratinocytes, where it was stably maintained episomally at a range of 50 to 100 copies of HPV genomic DNA, similar to that typically found in HPV-infected cells in vivo. The integrity of the HPV18/16 genomic DNA chimera was demonstrated. Upon differentiation in raft cultures, late viral functions, including viral DNA amplification, capsid gene expression, and virion morphogenesis, occurred. Chimeric HPV18/16 virions were purified from the raft cultures and were capable of infecting keratinocytes in vitro. Additionally, infection was specifically neutralized with human HPV16 virus-like particle (VLP)-specific antiserum and not with human HPV18 VLP-specific antiserum. Our data demonstrate that the nonstructural genes of HPV18 functionally interact with the structural genes of HPV16, allowing the complete HPV life cycle to occur. We believe that this is the first report of the propagation of chimeric HPV by normal life cycle pathways.

Meyers, Craig; Bromberg-White, Jennifer L.; Zhang, Jiaping; Kaupas, Michelle E.; Bryan, Janine T.; Lowe, Robert S.; Jansen, Kathrin U.

2002-01-01

89

Enterovirus genotypes causing hand foot and mouth disease in Shanghai, China: a molecular epidemiological analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A rapid expansion of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks has occurred and caused deaths in China in recent years, but little is known about the other etiologic agents except enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16). The objective of this study is to determine the genotype compositions of enterovirus causing HFMD in Shanghai and identify any associations between enterovirus types and clinical manifestations. Methods Stool specimens were collected from patients hospitalized for treatment of HFMD, from May 2010 to April 2011. Enterovirus was detected by reverse transcription PCR and directly genotyped by sequencing the PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis was based on the VP1 partial gene. Results Of 290 specimens, 277 (95.5%) tested positive for enterovirus. The major genotypes were EV71 (63.8%), CA10 (9.0%), CA6 (8.3%), CA16 (6.9%), CA12 (2.4%), and CA4 (1.4%). The EV71 strains belonged to the C4a subtype and CA16 belonged to the B subtype. CA6 was closely related to strains detected in Japan, Taiwan and China, and CA10, CA12 and CA4 were phylogenetically similar to other strains circulating in China. Mean hospital stays and the prevalence of complications in patients with EV71 infection were higher than those in patients in CA6, CA10 or CA16 infection (P?enterovirus genotypes. It deserves our attention as early identification of enterovirus genotypes is important for diagnosis and treatment of HFMD patients.

2013-01-01

90

A novel enterovirus and parechovirus multiplex one-step real-time PCR-validation and clinical experience.  

PubMed

As the number of new enteroviruses and human parechoviruses seems ever growing, the necessity for updated diagnostics is relevant. We have updated an enterovirus assay and combined it with a previously published assay for human parechovirus resulting in a multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay. The multiplex assay was validated by analysing the sensitivity and specificity of the assay compared to the respective monoplex assays, and a good concordance was found. Furthermore, the enterovirus assay was able to detect 42 reference strains from all 4 species, and an additional 9 genotypes during panel testing and routine usage. During 15 months of routine use, from October 2008 to December 2009, we received and analysed 2187 samples (stool samples, cerebrospinal fluids, blood samples, respiratory samples and autopsy samples) were tested, from 1546 patients and detected enteroviruses and parechoviruses in 171 (8%) and 66 (3%) of the samples, respectively. 180 of the positive samples could be genotyped by PCR and sequencing and the most common genotypes found were human parechovirus type 3, echovirus 9, enterovirus 71, Coxsackievirus A16, and echovirus 25. During 2009 in Denmark, both enterovirus and human parechovirus type 3 had a similar seasonal pattern with a peak during the summer and autumn. Human parechovirus type 3 was almost invariably found in children less than 4 months of age. In conclusion, a multiplex assay was developed allowing simultaneous detection of 2 viruses, which can cause similar clinical symptoms. PMID:23845901

Nielsen, Alex Christian Yde; Böttiger, Blenda; Midgley, Sofie Elisabeth; Nielsen, Lars Peter

2013-11-01

91

Analysis of the infectious entry pathway of human papillomavirus type 33 pseudovirions.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus type 33 (HPV-33) pseudovirus infection is a slow process dependent on the initial interaction with cell-surface heparan sulfate (T. Giroglou, L. Florin, F. Schafer, R. E. Streeck, and M. Sapp, 2001a, J. Virol. 75, 1565-1570). We have now further dissected the initial steps of pseudovirus uptake using removal of cell-surface proteoglycans and selective inhibition of entry pathways. Treatment of cells with heparinase I, but not with phosphoinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC), prevented binding of papillomavirus-like particles and infection with HPV-33 pseudovirions, indicating that GPI-linked proteoglycans (glypicans) are not required for productive infection. The slow entry of pseudovirions was inhibited by cytochalasin D and nocodazole in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting actin polymerization and intact microtubuli be required. Inhibitors of the caveolae-mediated uptake did not significantly affect pseudoinfection. Interestingly, pseudoinfection was blocked by selective inhibitors of endosomal acidification up to 12 h postinfection. Together, our results suggest that binding of HPV pseudovirions to heparan sulfate proteoglycans, most likely syndecans, is followed by delayed internalization via the endosomal pathway. PMID:12202231

Selinka, Hans-Christoph; Giroglou, Tzenan; Sapp, Martin

2002-08-01

92

Humoral immune responses of type 1 diabetes patients to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis lend support to the infectious trigger hypothesis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a zoonotic pathogen whose association with Crohn's disease in humans is under scrutiny. The objective of this work was to investigate its association with other chronic diseases such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), where the involvement of a persistent pathogen such as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis could be the trigger. For this purpose, 59 diabetic patients and 59 healthy controls were investigated for the presence of antibodies against two recombinant proteins of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the whole-cell lysate. Extremely significant humoral immune responses to recombinant heparin binding hemagglutinin and glycosyl transferase proteins and the whole-cell lysates of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacilli were observed in T1DM patients and compared to those of healthy controls. Finding evidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis involvement in T1DM is perhaps a novel finding that might serve as a foundation stone in establishing an infectious etiology for T1DM. PMID:18077612

Sechi, Leonardo A; Rosu, Valentina; Pacifico, Adolfo; Fadda, Giovanni; Ahmed, Niyaz; Zanetti, Stefania

2008-02-01

93

Infectious diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diarrhoea remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality world wide. Viruses, bacteria and protozoa are responsible for the majority of infections, which are transmitted most commonly by the faecal–oral route through water, food and person-to-person transmission. Clinical presentation of infectious diarrhoea conforms to three patterns: acute watery diarrhoea; dysentery; and persistent diarrhoea, which can include steatorrhoea. Diagnosis still

Paul Kelly

2011-01-01

94

Comparative analysis of four Massachusetts type infectious bronchitis coronavirus genomes reveals a novel Massachusetts type strain and evidence of natural recombination in the genome.  

PubMed

Four Massachusetts-type (Mass-type) strains of infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) were compared genetically with the pathogenic M41 and H120 vaccine strains using the complete genomic sequences. The results revealed that strains ck/CH/LNM/091017 and ck/CH/LDL/101212 were closely related to the H120 vaccine, which suggests that they might represent re-isolations of vaccine strains or variants of vaccine strains that have resulted from the accumulated point mutations after several passages in chickens. In contrast, strains ck/CH/LHLJ/07VII and ck/CH/LHLJ/100902 had a close genetic relationship with the pathogenic M41 strain. In addition, molecular markers have been identified that distinguish between field and vaccine (or vaccine-like) Mass-type viruses, which may be able to differentiate between field and vaccine strains for diagnostic purposes. Phylogenetic analysis, and pairwise comparison of full-length genomes and the nine genes, identified the occurrence of recombination events in the genome of strain CK/VH/LHLJ/07VII, which suggests that this virus originated from recombination events between M41- and H120-like strains at the switch site located at the 3' end of the nucleocapsid (N) genes. To our knowledge, this is the first time that evidence for the evolution and natural recombination under field conditions between Mass-type pathogenic and vaccinal IBV strains has been documented. These findings provide insights into the emergence and evolution of the Mass-type IB coronaviruses and may help to explain the emergence of Mass-type IBV in chicken flocks all over the world. PMID:23178317

Liu, Xiaoli; Shao, Yuhao; Ma, Huijie; Sun, Chuyang; Zhang, Xiaonan; Li, Chengren; Han, Zongxi; Yan, Baolong; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

2013-03-01

95

Enterovirus myocarditis as a cause of neonatal collapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven neonates required intensive care at our institution with enterovirus myocarditis, 2001–2003. Presentation was at a median age of 9 days. All had ischaemic electrocardiograms, poor ventricular function, raised creatine kinase, and enterovirus RNA detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Four survived. Enterovirus myocarditis may be an under recognised cause of neonatal collapse.

D Inwald; O Franklin; D Cubitt; M Peters; A Goldman; M Burch

2004-01-01

96

Genome Characterisation of Enteroviruses 117 and 118: A New Group within Human Enterovirus Species C  

PubMed Central

The more than 120 genotypes of human enteroviruses (HEVs) reflect a wide range of evolutionary divergence, and there are 23 currently classified as human enterovirus C species (HEV-C). Two new HEV-C (EV-C117 and EV-C118) were identified in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Pediatric Research Initiative (CAP-PRI) study, and the present paper describes the characterisation of the complete genome of one EV-C117 strain (LIT22) and two EV-C118 (ISR38 and ISR10) strains. The EV-C117 and EV-C118 5?UTR sequences were related to those of EV-C104, EV-C105 and EV-C109, and were slightly shorter than those of other HEV A-D species. Similarity plot analyses showed that EV-C117 and EV-C118 have a P1 region that is highly divergent from that of the other HEV-C, and phylogenetic analyses highly supported a monophyletic group consisting of EV-C117, EV-C118, EV-C104, EV-C105 and EV-C109 strains. Phylogenetic, Simplot and Bootscan analyses indicated that recombination was not the main mechanism of EV-C117 and EV-C118 evolution, thus strengthening the hypothesis of the monophyletic origin of the coding regions, as in the case of other HEV-C. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed the emergence of a new group within HEV-C that is divided into two subgroups. Nucleotide and amino acid identity in VP1 sequences have been established as useful criteria for assigning new HEV types, but analysis of the complete P1 region improves resolution.

Scala, Alessia; Greenberg, David; Usonis, Vytautas; Principi, Nicola; Baldanti, Fausto; Esposito, Susanna

2013-01-01

97

Genome characterisation of enteroviruses 117 and 118: a new group within human enterovirus species C.  

PubMed

The more than 120 genotypes of human enteroviruses (HEVs) reflect a wide range of evolutionary divergence, and there are 23 currently classified as human enterovirus C species (HEV-C). Two new HEV-C (EV-C117 and EV-C118) were identified in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Pediatric Research Initiative (CAP-PRI) study, and the present paper describes the characterisation of the complete genome of one EV-C117 strain (LIT22) and two EV-C118 (ISR38 and ISR10) strains. The EV-C117 and EV-C118 5'UTR sequences were related to those of EV-C104, EV-C105 and EV-C109, and were slightly shorter than those of other HEV A-D species. Similarity plot analyses showed that EV-C117 and EV-C118 have a P1 region that is highly divergent from that of the other HEV-C, and phylogenetic analyses highly supported a monophyletic group consisting of EV-C117, EV-C118, EV-C104, EV-C105 and EV-C109 strains. Phylogenetic, Simplot and Bootscan analyses indicated that recombination was not the main mechanism of EV-C117 and EV-C118 evolution, thus strengthening the hypothesis of the monophyletic origin of the coding regions, as in the case of other HEV-C. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed the emergence of a new group within HEV-C that is divided into two subgroups. Nucleotide and amino acid identity in VP1 sequences have been established as useful criteria for assigning new HEV types, but analysis of the complete P1 region improves resolution. PMID:23565264

Piralla, Antonio; Daleno, Cristina; Scala, Alessia; Greenberg, David; Usonis, Vytautas; Principi, Nicola; Baldanti, Fausto; Esposito, Susanna

2013-01-01

98

Ability of Massachusetts-type infectious bronchitis virus to increase colibacillosis susceptibility incommercial broilers: A comparison between vaccine and virulent field virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abilities of Massachusetts-type vaccine virus and virulent infectious bronchitis (IB) field virus to increase colibacillosis susceptibility were compared. In four experiments, 29-day-old female commercial broilers housed in isolators, were infected intratracheally and oculonasally with IB vaccine strains (HI20 and H52) or virulent IB field strains (D387 and M41) (4.8 or 6.8 log10 median embryo infective dose, per broiler). Five

M. G. R. Matthijs; J. H. H. van Eck; W. J. M. Landman; J. A. Stegeman

2003-01-01

99

Differential growth of U and M type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in a rainbow trout–derived cell line, RTG-2  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of salmonids. In rainbow trout, IHNV isolates in the M genogroup are highly pathogenic, while U genogroup isolates are significantly less pathogenic. We show here that, at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1, a representative U type strain yielded 42-fold less infectious virus than an M type strain in the rainbow trout–derived RTG-2 cell line at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). However, at an MOI of 10, there was only fivefold difference in the yield of infectious virus between the U and M strains. Quantification of extracellular viral genomic RNA suggested that the number of virus particles released from cells infected with the U strain at a MOI of 1 was 47-fold lower than from M-infected cells, but U and M virions were equally infectious by particle to infectivity ratios. At an MOI of 1, U strain intracellular viral genome accumulation and transcription were 37- and 12-fold lower, respectively, than those of the M strain at 24 h p.i. Viral nucleocapsid (N) protein accumulation in U strain infections was fivefold lower than in M strain infections. These results suggest that the block in U type strain growth in RTG-2 cells was because of the effects of reduced genome replication and transcription. The reduced growth of the U strain does not seem to be caused by defective genes, because the U and M strains grew equally well in the permissive epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line at an MOI of 1. This suggests that host-specific factors in RTG-2 cells control the growth of the IHNV U and M strains differently, leading to growth restriction of the U type virus during the RNA synthesis step.

Gael Kurath;Maureen Purcell;Wargo, , Andrew;Park, Jeong, Woo;Moon, Chang, Hoon

2010-01-01

100

Identification of the essential and non-essential transcription units for protein synthesis, DNA replication and infectious virus production of Porcine circovirus type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. A plasmid-based transfection system capable of yielding infectious Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) was established and mutational analysis was conducted to investigate the involvement of each viral transcription unit in protein synthesis, DNA replication and progeny virus production. During PCV1 replication in PK15 cells, twelve viral-specific RNAs are synthesized. They include the capsid protein RNA ( CR), eight Rep-associated

A. K. Cheung

2004-01-01

101

Enterovirus detection in stool specimen: relevance for poliovirus and enterovirus surveillance.  

PubMed

Detection of enterovirus genome by PCR in clinical samples is now extensively used for the diagnostic of enterovirus infections given its rapidity and high sensitivity. In contrast, its use in surveillance programs targeting specific enterovirus serotypes remains less frequent. The most sensitive protocols are those amplifying in the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR). However the possibility to use sequence analysis of the 5'UTR amplicons for serotype identification is not yet well established. In this report, stool samples from polio suspected cases and their healthy contacts were tested. The results of direct detection of enterovirus genome by PCR and serotype identification based on sequence analysis of the PCR products in the 5'UTR were compared to those of standard cell-culture-based protocols. Standard protocols detected enterovirus isolates in 7.4% of cases while 9.8% of samples were positive by PCR. Serotype identification based on sequence analysis of amplicons showed concordant results with serotypes determined on virus isolates by seroneutralisation or sequencing in the VP1 gene in 39% of cases only. These results confirm that the use of PCR amplification from stool samples improves the sensitivity of enterovirus detection but do not recommend the use of sequence analysis of the 5'UTR PCR product to determine enterovirus serotype. PMID:19388578

Haddad-Boubaker, S; Yahia, A Ben; Rezig, D; Farès, W; Touzi, H; Triki, H

2007-01-01

102

ADSORPTION OF ENTEROVIRUSES TO SOIL CORES AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT ELUTION BY ARTIFICIAL RAINWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The adsorption and elution of a variety of human enteroviruses in a highly permeable, sandy soil was studied by using cores (43 by 125 mm) collected from an operating recharge basin on Long Island. Viruses studied included field and reference strains of polioviruses types 1 and 3...

103

[Infectious diseases].  

PubMed

In 2008, several publications have highlighted the role of climate change and globalization on the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Studies have shown the extension towards Europe of diseases such as Crimea-Congo fever (Kosovo, Turkey and Bulgaria), leismaniosis (Cyprus) and chikungunya virus infection (Italy). The article also contains comments on Plasmodium knowlesi, a newly identified cause of severe malaria in humans, as well as an update on human transmission of the H5NI avian influenza virus. It also mentions new data on Bell's palsy as well as two vaccines (varicella-zoster and pneumococcus), and provides a list of recent guidelines for the treatment of common infectious diseases. PMID:19216322

Chapuis-Taillard, Caroline; de Vallière, Serge; Bochud, Pierre-Yves

2009-01-01

104

Detection of enterovirus genome sequence from diarrheal feces of goat.  

PubMed

Goat diarrheal feces were subjected to metagenome analysis by the next-generation sequencing. Nucleotide sequences with homology to enteroviruses were obtained. Primers for RT-PCR were designed based on the nucleotide sequence of these sequences at the 5'-untranslated region, and we determined 563 bp nucleotide sequences that showed homology to bovine-like and ovine enteroviruses (77-87 %). We named the virus detected in this study goat enterovirus G1 (GEV-G1). In the phylogenetic analysis, GEV-G1 belonged to a cluster containing ovine enteroviruses. To our knowledge, this is the first report on nucleotide sequences of an enterovirus infecting Japanese goats. PMID:24691818

Omatsu, Tsutomu; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Hirata, Teppei; Shiroma, Yasushi; Okazaki, Sachiko; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Nishiura, Naomi; Sassa, Yukiko; Furuya, Tetsuya; Nagai, Makoto; Ochiai, Hideharu; Tamaki, Shirou; Mizutani, Tetsuya

2014-06-01

105

Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the threat of a warmer, wetter world and a larger global population, scientists are researching how climate change may impact the spread of infectious diseases,Âsuch as cholera and dengue fever, and how outbreaks may be prevented. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

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2010-10-07

106

Binding of glutathione to enterovirus capsids is essential for virion morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses (family of the Picornaviridae) cover a large group of medically important human pathogens for which no antiviral treatment is approved. Although these viruses have been extensively studied, some aspects of the viral life cycle, in particular morphogenesis, are yet poorly understood. We report the discovery of TP219 as a novel inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus and poliovirus. We show that TP219 binds directly glutathione (GSH), thereby rapidly depleting intracellular GSH levels and that this interferes with virus morphogenesis without affecting viral RNA replication. The inhibitory effect on assembly was shown not to depend on an altered reducing environment. Using TP219, we show that GSH is an essential stabilizing cofactor during the transition of protomeric particles into pentameric particles. Sequential passaging of coxsackievirus B3 in the presence of low GSH-levels selected for GSH-independent mutants that harbored a surface-exposed methionine in VP1 at the interface between two protomers. In line with this observation, enteroviruses that already contained this surface-exposed methionine, such as EV71, did not rely on GSH for virus morphogenesis. Biochemical and microscopical analysis provided strong evidence for a direct interaction between GSH and wildtype VP1 and a role for this interaction in localizing assembly intermediates to replication sites. Consistently, the interaction between GSH and mutant VP1 was abolished resulting in a relocalization of the assembly intermediates to replication sites independent from GSH. This study thus reveals GSH as a novel stabilizing host factor essential for the production of infectious enterovirus progeny and provides new insights into the poorly understood process of morphogenesis. PMID:24722756

Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; van der Linden, Lonneke; Jiang, Ping; Thys, Bert; Canela, María-Dolores; Aguado, Leire; Rombaut, Bart; Wimmer, Eckard; Paul, Aniko; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Neyts, Johan

2014-04-01

107

Binding of Glutathione to Enterovirus Capsids Is Essential for Virion Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses (family of the Picornaviridae) cover a large group of medically important human pathogens for which no antiviral treatment is approved. Although these viruses have been extensively studied, some aspects of the viral life cycle, in particular morphogenesis, are yet poorly understood. We report the discovery of TP219 as a novel inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus and poliovirus. We show that TP219 binds directly glutathione (GSH), thereby rapidly depleting intracellular GSH levels and that this interferes with virus morphogenesis without affecting viral RNA replication. The inhibitory effect on assembly was shown not to depend on an altered reducing environment. Using TP219, we show that GSH is an essential stabilizing cofactor during the transition of protomeric particles into pentameric particles. Sequential passaging of coxsackievirus B3 in the presence of low GSH-levels selected for GSH-independent mutants that harbored a surface-exposed methionine in VP1 at the interface between two protomers. In line with this observation, enteroviruses that already contained this surface-exposed methionine, such as EV71, did not rely on GSH for virus morphogenesis. Biochemical and microscopical analysis provided strong evidence for a direct interaction between GSH and wildtype VP1 and a role for this interaction in localizing assembly intermediates to replication sites. Consistently, the interaction between GSH and mutant VP1 was abolished resulting in a relocalization of the assembly intermediates to replication sites independent from GSH. This study thus reveals GSH as a novel stabilizing host factor essential for the production of infectious enterovirus progeny and provides new insights into the poorly understood process of morphogenesis.

Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Thys, Bert; Canela, Maria-Dolores; Aguado, Leire; Wimmer, Eckard; Paul, Aniko; Perez-Perez, Maria-Jesus; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Neyts, Johan

2014-01-01

108

Infectious Diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The mechanisms of disease production by enteric pathogens include mucosal adherence, mucosal invasion, and the effect of toxins\\u000a and destruction of absorptive cells.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical syndromes of infectious diarrhea include food poisoning, viral gastroenteritis, diarrhea in the returning traveler,\\u000a community-acquired infectious diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infection, and subacute to chronic diarrhea due to parasitic diseases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Bloody diarrhea in an

Manie Beheshti; W. Lance George

109

Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Infectious diseases have keywords that represent viral, bacterial, mycobacterial, treponemal, borrelial, fungal, and yeast\\u000a organisms. Viruses include herpes simplex, varicella zoster, and variola. Even though variola (smallpox) is not present anywhere\\u000a in the world, because bioterrorism is a constant threat, it is included here. Terroristic use of this organism could lead\\u000a to devastating plagues because few people are immunized. The

Herbert B. Allen

110

Infectious diarrhea  

PubMed Central

Diarrhea caused by enteric infections is a major factor in morbidity and mortality worldwide. An estimated 2–4 billion episodes of infectious diarrhea occur each year and are especially prevalent in infants. This review highlights the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying diarrhea associated with the three classes of infectious agents, i.e., bacteria, viruses and parasites. Several bacterial pathogens have been chosen as model organisms, including Vibrio cholerae as a classical example of secretory diarrhea, Clostridium difficile and Shigella species as agents of inflammatory diarrhea and selected strains of pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) to discuss the recent advances in alteration of epithelial ion absorption. Many of the recent studies addressing epithelial ion transport and barrier function have been carried out using viruses and parasites. Here, we focus on the rapidly developing field of viral diarrhea including rotavirus, norovirus and astrovirus infections. Finally we discuss Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica as examples of parasitic diarrhea. Parasites have a greater complexity than the other pathogens and are capable of creating molecules similar to those produced by the host, such as serotonin and PGE2. The underlying mechanisms of infectious diarrhea discussed include alterations in ion transport and tight junctions as well as the virulence factors, which alter these processes either through direct effects or indirectly through inflammation and neurotransmitters.

2010-01-01

111

Inactivation of Enterovirus by Glutaraldehyde  

PubMed Central

A study on the rate of inactivation by glutaraldehyde of coxsackievirus was conducted using different concentrations, temperatures, and pH values. It was found, that 2% glutaraldehyde at pH 7.4 and 25 C, as recommended for a sporicide, reduced the titer of infectious virus by 2 log10 U in 1 min or less. The reduction was not negatively affected by high concentrations of organic matter (serum and animal spillings) in the reaction mixtures.

Saitanu, Kriensag; Lund, Ebba

1975-01-01

112

Enteroviruses and Bacteriophages in Bathing Waters  

PubMed Central

A new procedure for detecting and counting enteroviruses based on the VIRADEN method applied to 10 liters of seawater was examined. It improved the efficiency of detection by taking into account both the number of positive isolations and numbers found with traditional methods. It was then used to quantify viruses in bathing waters. A number of bacterial indicators and bacteriophages were also tested. Cultivable enteroviruses were detected in 55% of the samples, most of which complied with bacteriological criteria. In contrast, viral genomes were only detected in 20% of the samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Somatic coliphages outnumbered all other indicators. F-specific RNA phages were detected in only 15% of the samples, whereas phages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were detected in 70% of samples. A numerical relationship between the numbers of enteroviruses and the numbers of enterococci and somatic coliphages was observed. In situ inactivation experiments showed that viruses persisted significantly longer than the bacterial indicators. Only somatic coliphages and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides persisted longer than the viruses. These results explain the numbers of enteroviruses and indicators in bathing waters attending the numbers usually found in sewage in the area. Somatic coliphages show a very good potential to predict the risk of viruses being present in bathing waters.

Moce-Llivina, Laura; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Juan

2005-01-01

113

Multiple Heparan Sulfate Binding Site Engagements Are Required for the Infectious Entry of Human Papillomavirus Type 16  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) entry is accompanied by multiple receptor-induced conformational changes (CCs) affecting both the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Interaction of heparan sulfate (HS) with L1 is essential for successful HPV16 entry. Recently, cocrystallization of HPV16 with heparin revealed four distinct binding sites. Here we characterize mutant HPV16 to delineate the role of engagement with HS binding sites during infectious internalization. Site 1 (Lys278, Lys361), which mediates primary binding, is sufficient to trigger an L2 CC, exposing the amino terminus. Site 2 (Lys54, Lys356) and site 3 (Asn57, Lys59, Lys442, Lys443) are engaged following primary attachment and are required for infectious entry. Site 2 mutant particles are efficiently internalized but fail to undergo an L1 CC on the cell surface and subsequent uncoating in the endocytic compartment. After initial attachment to the cell, site 3 mutants undergo L1 and L2 CCs and then accumulate on the extracellular matrix (ECM). We conclude that the induction of CCs following site 1 and site 2 interactions results in reduced affinity for the primary HS binding site(s) on the cell surface, which allows engagement with site 3. Taken together, our findings suggest that HS binding site engagement induces CCs that prepare the virus for downstream events, such as the exposure of secondary binding sites, CCs, transfer to the uptake receptor, and uncoating.

Richards, Kathleen F.; Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Dasgupta, Jhimli; Chen, Xiaojiang S.

2013-01-01

114

Diverse apoptotic pathways in enterovirus 71-infected cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms related to the neuropathogenesis of enterovirus 71 infection remain unclear. This investigation conducts a comprehensive\\u000a study of the apoptotic pathways in neural and non-neural cells following enterovirus 71 infection. Infections with enterovirus\\u000a 71 not only induce classical cytopathic effects in SF268 (human glioblastoma), SK-N-MC (human neuroblastoma), RD, and Vero\\u000a cells, but also induce classic signs of apoptosis in all

Shih-Cheng Chang; Jing-Yi Lin; Lily Yen-Cheng Lo; Mei-Ling Li; Shin-Ru Shih

2004-01-01

115

Validation of rt-PCR assays for molecular characterization of porcine teschoviruses and enteroviruses.  

PubMed

Porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) and teschoviruses (PTVs) are described as causative agents of neurological disorders, fertility disorders and dermal lesions of swine. Difficulties in the serological detection of these viruses may lead to a significant underestimation of infections with clinical symptoms. With the recent availability of genome sequence data for all the serotypes, molecular diagnosis is a possibility. The present study describes a new approach to molecular 'serotyping' of PTVs and PEV-B viruses, involving the amplification and sequencing of a genomic fragment of the VP1 coding region. A molecular characterization of Italian entero-teschovirus isolates was performed using a set of previously published and newly designed polymerase chain reaction primers. A total of 33 porcine isolates and 10 reference strains were analysed. Porcine enterovirus-B samples were first diagnosed as positive for enterovirus by amplification of the 5'-non-translated region. Samples were then typed by amplification and sequencing of a portion of the VP1 coding region. Porcine enterovirus-A and PTVs were detected by a published assay in the 5'-NC region that allows them to be differentiated according to the size of amplification product, using the same set of primers. For serotype characterization of PTV, we evaluated four different regions: the N terminus of the capsid protein VP2, the region encoding for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the capsid VP1 and VP4 regions. The newly designed primers in the VP1 region was proved to be broad in range and suitable for serotype assessment and therefore constitute a useful diagnostic tool for molecular diagnosis of porcine teschovirus/enterovirus strains and for the study of molecular epidemiology and evolution of these viruses. PMID:16907956

La Rosa, G; Muscillo, M; Di Grazia, A; Fontana, S; Iaconelli, M; Tollis, M

2006-08-01

116

Either a CD4 +or CD8 +T cell function is sufficient for clearance of infectious virus from trigeminal ganglia and establishment of herpes simplex virus type 1 latency in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following ocular infection of normal mice, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes a latent infection in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) with the complete absence of detectable infectious virus. In this study, the role of CD4+and CD8+T cell dependent immune responses is examined in relation to clearing infectious virus from the TG following HSV-1 ocular challenge. Nude mice, which lack

Homayon Ghiasi; Guey-Chuen Perng; Anthony B Nesburn; Steven L Wechsler

1999-01-01

117

Survival of enteroviruses in rapid-infiltration basins during the land application of wastewater.  

PubMed Central

The downward migration through soil of seeded poliovirus type 1 and echovirus type 1 and of naturally occurring enteroviruses during infiltration of sewage effluent through rapid-infiltration basins was investigated. After 5 days of flooding, the amount of seeded poliovirus type 1 that had migrated 5 to 10 cm downward through the soil profile was found to be 11% of that remaining at the initial burial depth. The amount of echovirus type 1 determined to have moved an equal distance was at least 100-fold less. Migration of naturally occurring enteroviruses during infiltration of sewage effluent through soil could not be measured with accuracy because of the possibility of virus survival from previous applications of effluent. The rate of inactivation for seeded poliovirus 1 and echovirus 1 buried in the infiltration basins ranged between 0.04 and 0.15 log10 units per day during the time when the basins were flooded. Inactivation of these same seeded virus types and of indigenous enterovirus populations in the infiltration basins during the drying portion of the sewage application cycle ranged between 0.11 and 0.52 log10 units per day. The rate of virus inactivation was dependent upon the rate of soil moisture loss. These results indicate that drying cycles during the land application of wastewater enhance virus inactivation in the soil.

Hurst, C J; Gerba, C P; Lance, J C; Rice, R C

1980-01-01

118

Cryoglobulins and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The relationship between infectious diseases due to various pathogenetic factors and cryoglobulin production mechanisms has\\u000a been investigated. Cryoglobulins have been evidenced in infections caused by very heterogeneous pathogens, i.e. leptospirosis,\\u000a psittacosis, Mediterranean tick typhus, brucellosis, gram-negative bacterial septicemias, in which they had never been previously\\u000a reported. In type A hepatitis a high cryoglobulin prevalence (91%) has been confirmed during the

Massimo Galli; Fulvio Invernizzi; Marilynn Chemotti; Giuseppe Monti; Maria G. Gasparro; Francesco Caredda; Cristina Negri; Mauro Moroni

1986-01-01

119

Autism spectrum disorder secondary to enterovirus encephalitis.  

PubMed

Millions of children are infected by enteroviruses each year, usually exhibiting only mild symptoms. Nevertheless, these viruses are also associated with severe and life-threatening infections, such as meningitis and encephalitis. We describe a 32-month-old patient with enteroviral encephalitis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid, with unfavorable clinical course with marked developmental regression, autistic features, persistent stereotypes and aphasia. She experienced slow clinical improvement, with mild residual neurologic and developmental deficits at follow-up. Viral central nervous system infections in early childhood have been associated with autism spectrum disorders but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. This case report is significant in presenting a case of developmental regression with autistic features and loss of language improving on follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of enterovirus encephalitis leading to an autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24782421

Marques, Filipa; Brito, Maria João; Conde, Marta; Pinto, Mónica; Moreira, Ana

2014-05-01

120

Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71, coxsackievirus A16 and A6 associated with hand, foot and mouth disease in Spain.  

PubMed

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a childhood illness frequently caused by genotypes belonging to the enterovirus A species, including coxsackievirus (CV)-A16 and enterovirus (EV)-71. Between 2010 and 2012, several outbreaks and sporadic cases of HFMD occurred in different regions of Spain. The objective of the present study was to describe the enterovirus epidemiology associated with HFMD in the country. A total of 80 patients with HFMD or atypical rash were included. Detection and typing of the enteroviruses were performed directly in clinical samples using molecular methods. Enteroviruses were detected in 53 of the patients (66%). CV-A6 was the most frequent genotype, followed by CV-A16 and EV-71, but other minority types were also identified. Interestingly, during almost all of 2010, CV-A16 was the only causative agent of HFMD but by the end of the year and during 2011, CV-A6 became predominant, while CV-A16 was not detected. In 2012, however, both CV-A6 and CV-A16 circulated. EV-71 was associated with HFMD symptoms only in three cases during 2012. All Spanish CV-A6 sequences segregated into one major genetic cluster together with other European and Asian strains isolated between 2008 and 2011, most forming a particular clade. Spanish EV-71 strains belonged to subgenogroup C2, as did most of the European sequences circulated. In conclusion, the recent increase of HFMD cases in Spain and other European countries has been due to a larger incidence of circulating species A enteroviruses, mainly CV-A6 and CV-A16, and the emergence of new genetic variants of these viruses. PMID:24033818

Cabrerizo, M; Tarragó, D; Muñoz-Almagro, C; Del Amo, E; Domínguez-Gil, M; Eiros, J M; López-Miragaya, I; Pérez, C; Reina, J; Otero, A; González, I; Echevarría, J E; Trallero, G

2014-03-01

121

First Identification and Characterization of Porcine Enterovirus G in the United States  

PubMed Central

Porcine enterovirus G (EV-G) is a member of the family Picornavirdae, genus Enterovirus. To date, eleven EV-G types (EV-G1 through EV-G11) have been identified in pigs from Asia and Europe however they have never been reported in North America. In this study, we isolated and characterized the complete genome of NP/2013/USA, an EV-G from a porcine diarrhea sample from the United States. The complete genome consists of 7,390 nucleotides excluding the 3? poly(A) tail, and has an open reading frame that encodes a 2,169 amino acid polyprotein. NP/2013/USA was most similar at the nucleotide (84%) and amino acid (95%) level to the HM131607, an EV-G1 type isolated from China in 2012.

Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Hesse, Richard A.; Hause, Ben M.

2014-01-01

122

Enterovirus-associated neurological disease with special reference to Enterovirus-associated neurological disease with special reference to Enterovirus-associated neurological disease with special reference to Enterovirus-associated neurological disease with special reference to Enterovirus-associated neurological disease with special reference to  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus as a cause of neurological diseases is well known since the last century. Until recently, the poliovirus is regarded as the most important enteroviral cause of neurological disease in terms of its worldwide distribution, morbidity and mortality. With the anticipated eradication of poliovirus worldwide, its importance is gradually diminishing. The emergence of a non-polio enterovirus viz., enterovirus 71 to

Kum Thong

123

Construction of an Excisable Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Containing a Full-Length Infectious Clone of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1: Viruses Reconstituted from the Clone Exhibit Wild-Type Properties In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

In recent years, several laboratories have reported on the cloning of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genomes as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) in Escherichia coli and on procedures to manipulate these genomes by using the bacterial recombination machinery. However, the HSV-BACs reported so far are either replication incompetent or infectious, with a deletion of one or more viral genes due to the BAC vector insertion. For use as a multipurpose clone in research on HSV-1, we attempted to generate infectious HSV-BACs containing the full genome of HSV-1 without any loss of viral genes. Our results were as follows. (i) E. coli (YEbac102) harboring the full-length HSV-1 genome (pYEbac102) in which a BAC flanked by loxP sites was inserted into the intergenic region between UL3 and UL4 was constructed. (ii) pYEbac102 was an infectious molecular clone, given that its transfection into rabbit skin cells resulted in production of infectious virus (YK304). (iii) The BAC vector sequence was almost perfectly excisable from the genome of the reconstituted virus YK304 by coinfection of Vero cells with YK304 and a recombinant adenovirus, AxCANCre, expressing Cre recombinase. (iv) As far as was examined, the reconstituted viruses from pYEbac102 could not be phenotypically differentiated from wild-type viruses in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the viruses grew as well in Vero cells as did the wild-type virus and exhibited wild-type virulence in mice on intracerebral inoculation. (v) The infectious molecular clone pYEbac102 is in fact useful for mutagenesis of the HSV-1 genome by bacterial genetics, and a recombinant virus carrying amino acid substitutions in both copies of the ?0 gene was generated. pYEbac102 will have multiple applications to the rapid generation of genetically engineered HSV-1 recombinants in basic research into HSV-1 and in the development of HSV vectors in human therapy.

Tanaka, Michiko; Kagawa, Hiroyuki; Yamanashi, Yuji; Sata, Tetsutaro; Kawaguchi, Yasushi

2003-01-01

124

Enterovirus Infections of the Central Nervous System Review  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses (EV) frequently infect the central nervous system (CNS) and induce neurological diseases. Although the CNS is composed of many different cell types, the spectrum of tropism for each EV is considerable. These viruses have the ability to completely shut down host translational machinery and are considered highly cytolytic, thereby causing cytopathic effects. Hence, CNS dysfunction following EV infection of neuronal or glial cells might be expected. Perhaps unexpectedly given their cytolytic nature, EVs may establish a persistent infection within the CNS, and the lasting effects on the host might be significant with unanticipated consequences. This review will describe the clinical aspects of EV-mediated disease, mechanisms of disease, determinants of tropism, immune activation within the CNS, and potential treatment regimes.

Rhoades, Ross E.; Tabor-Godwin, Jenna M.; Tsueng, Ginger; Feuer, Ralph

2011-01-01

125

High Frequency of Human Enterovirus Species C Circulation in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Four poliomyelitis outbreaks caused by vaccine-derived polioviruses have been reported recently, including one in Madagascar in 2002. In all cases, the viral strains involved were recombinant between poliovirus vaccine strains and nonpoliovirus strains, probably enterovirus species C. Nevertheless, little is known about the circulation and epidemiology of enteroviruses in the regions where these outbreaks occurred. To assess the circulation of enteroviruses (particularly enterovirus species C) in Madagascar, we genetically characterized 55 enterovirus strains isolated between 1994 and 2002. The strains were identified and compared by partially sequencing the region encoding the VP1 capsid protein. Phylogenetic analysis and pairwise comparison with prototype enterovirus strains distinguished two different species: 25 isolates belonged to human enterovirus B species, and 30 isolates were identified as coxsackievirus A13, A15, A17, A18, A20, A21, and A24, belonging to the human enterovirus species C. The relatively high frequency and the wide distribution of species C coxsackie A viruses in different regions of Madagascar suggest that they had been silently and widely circulating in the country during the whole study period. The circulation of coxsackie A viruses, combined with the low routine oral polio vaccine coverage, may have played a role in the emergence of the recent outbreak in Madagascar.

Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mala; Rousset, Dominique; Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Chevaliez, Stephane; Guillot, Sophie; Balanant, Jean; Delpeyroux, Francis

2005-01-01

126

Passive protection effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins on enterovirus 71 infected mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to evaluate the passive protective efficiency of immunoglobulin in yolk (IgY) specific against human enterovirus type 71 (EV71). The antibody was raised by intramuscular immunization to 10 White Leghorn hens, with inactivated human EV71 serving as the antigen. The titer and specificity of the antibody were analyzed from purified IgY in the egg yolks

Jenn-Fa Liou; Chih-Wei Chang; Jui-jane Tailiu; Chun-Keung Yu; Huan-Yao Lei; Lih-Ren Chen; Chein Tai

2010-01-01

127

Phagocytosis of Enterovirus-Infected Pancreatic ?-Cells Triggers Innate Immune Responses in Human Dendritic Cells  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder in which enteroviruses, such as coxsackie B viruses and echoviruses, are possible environmental factors that can trigger or accelerate disease. The development or acceleration of type 1 diabetes depends on the balance between autoreactive effector T-cells and regulatory T-cells. This balance is particularly influenced by dendritic cells (DCs). The goal of this study was to investigate the interaction between enterovirus-infected human pancreatic islets and human DCs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In vitro phagocytosis of human or porcine primary islets or Min6 mouse insuloma cells by DCs was investigated by flow cytometry and confocal analysis. Subsequent innate DC responses were monitored by quantitative PCR and Western blotting of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). RESULTS In this study, we show that both mock- and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-infected human and porcine pancreatic islets were efficiently phagocytosed by human monocyte–derived DCs. Phagocytosis of CVB3-infected, but not mock-infected, human and porcine islets resulted in induction of ISGs in DCs, including the retinoic acid–inducible gene (RIG)-I–like helicases (RLHs), RIG-I, and melanoma differentiation–associated gene 5 (Mda5). Studies with murine Min6 insuloma cells, which were also efficiently phagocytosed, revealed that increased ISG expression in DCs upon encountering CVB-infected cells resulted in an antiviral state that protected DCs from subsequent enterovirus infection. The observed innate antiviral responses depended on RNA within the phagocytosed cells, required endosomal acidification, and were type I interferon dependent. CONCLUSIONS Human DCs can phagocytose enterovirus-infected pancreatic cells and subsequently induce innate antiviral responses, such as induction of RLHs. These responses may have important consequences for immune homeostasis in vivo and may play a role in the etiology of type 1 diabetes.

Schulte, Barbara M.; Kramer, Matthijs; Ansems, Marleen; Lanke, Kjerstin H.W.; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Piganelli, Jon D.; Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo; Galama, Jochem M.D.; Adema, Gosse J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.M.

2010-01-01

128

Agglutination of African Primate and Rodent Erythrocytes by Adenoviruses, Reoviruses, and Enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

African nonhuman primate and rodent erythrocytes were tested for agglutination by adenoviruses, reoviruses, and enteroviruses. Squirrel erythrocytes were agglutinated by reovirus serotypes and adenovirus types 3, 11, 16, and 21. Adenoviruses also agglutinated brazza monkey erythrocytes to the same titers as those obtained with either rhesus or grey monkey cells. Prototype reovirus types 1 and 2 agglutinated grey monkey erythrocytes to much lower titers than either squirrel or human group O red cells. Among the enteroviruses tested, only echovirus types 7 and 12 agglutinated grey, red-tail, brazza, and rhesus monkey erythrocytes. The specificity of agglutination of squirrel, grey, and brazza monkey erythrocytes by reoviruses, echoviruses, and adenoviruses, respectively, was confirmed by hemagglutination-inhibition tests. The titers obtained were similar to those obtained with erythrocytes usually used in these tests. Erythrocytes of bush babies, potto unstriped grass mice, swamp rat, rusty-nosed rat, bush rat, harsh-furred mice, soft-furred rat, and giant rat were not agglutinated by adenoviruses, reoviruses, or enteroviruses.

Mutanda, L. N.; Munube, G. M. R.

1972-01-01

129

Restricted growth of U-type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout cells may be linked to casein kinase II activity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previously, we demonstrated that a representative M genogroup type strain of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from rainbow trout grows well in rainbow trout-derived RTG-2 cells, but a U genogroup type strain from sockeye salmon has restricted growth, associated with reduced genome replication and mRNA transcription. Here, we analysed further the mechanisms for this growth restriction of U-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells, using strategies that assessed differences in viral genes, host immune regulation and phosphorylation. To determine whether the viral glycoprotein (G) or non-virion (NV) protein was responsible for the growth restriction, four recombinant IHNV viruses were generated in which the G gene of an infectious IHNV clone was replaced by the G gene of U- or M-type IHNV and the NV gene was replaced by NV of U- or M-type IHNV. There was no significant difference in the growth of these recombinants in RTG-2 cells, indicating that G and NV proteins are not major factors responsible for the differential growth of the U- and M-type strains. Poly I:C pretreatment of RTG-2 cells suppressed the growth of both U- and M-type IHNV, although the M virus continued to replicate at a reduced level. Both viruses induced type 1 interferon (IFN1) and the IFN1 stimulated gene Mx1, but the expression levels in M-infected cells were significantly higher than in U-infected cells and an inhibitor of the IFN1-inducible protein kinase PKR, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), did not affect the growth of U- or M-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells. These data did not indicate a role for the IFN1 system in the restricted growth of U-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells. Prediction of kinase-specific phosphorylation sites in the viral phosphoprotein (P) using the NetPhosK program revealed differences between U- and M-type P genes at five phosphorylation sites. Pretreatment of RTG-2 cells with a PKC inhibitor or a p38MAPK inhibitor did not affect the growth of the U- and M-type viruses. However, 100 ?m of the casein kinase II (CKII) inhibitor, 5,6-dichloro-1-?-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB), reduced the titre of the U type 8.3-fold at 24 h post-infection. In contrast, 100 ?m of the CKII inhibitor reduced the titre of the M type only 1.3-fold at 48 h post-infection. Our data suggest that the different growth of U- and M-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells may be linked to a differential requirement for cellular protein kinases such as CKII for their growth.

Park, J. W.; Moon, C. H.; Harmache, A.; Wargo, A. R.; Purcell, M. K.; Bremont, M.; Kurath, G.

2011-01-01

130

Evaluation of single-round infectious, chimeric dengue type 1 virus as an antigen for dengue functional antibody assays.  

PubMed

Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are endemic throughout tropical and subtropical countries. Four serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV-1 to DENV-4), each with several genotypes including various subclades, are co-distributed in most endemic areas. Infection-neutralizing and -enhancing antibodies are believed to play protective and pathogenic roles, respectively. Measurement of these functional antibodies against a variety of viral strains is thus important for evaluating coverage and safety of dengue vaccine candidates. Although transportation of live virus materials beyond national borders is increasingly limited, this difficulty may be overcome using biotechnology that enables generation of an antibody-assay antigen equivalent to authentic virus based on viral sequence information. A rapid system to produce flavivirus single-round infectious particles (SRIPs) was recently developed using a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) subgenomic replicon plasmid. This system allows production of chimeric SRIPs that have surface proteins of other flaviviruses. In the present study, SRIPs of DENV-1 (D1-SRIPs) were evaluated as an antigen for functional antibody assays. Inclusion of the whole mature capsid gene of JEV into the replicon plasmid provided higher D1-SRIP yields than did its exclusion in cases where a DENV-1 surface-protein-expressing plasmid was used for co-transfection of 293T cells with the replicon plasmid. In an assay to measure the balance between neutralizing and enhancing activities, dose (antibody dilution)-dependent activity curves in dengue-immune human sera or mouse monoclonal antibodies obtained using D1-SRIP antigen were equivalent to those obtained using DENV-1 antigen. Similar results were obtained using additional DENV-2 and DENV-3 systems. In a conventional Vero-cell neutralization test, a significant correlation was shown between antibody titers obtained using D1-SRIP and DENV-1 antigens. These results demonstrate the utility of D1-SRIPs as an alternative antigen to authentic DENV-1 in functional antibody assays. SRIP antigens may contribute to dengue vaccine candidate evaluation, understanding of dengue pathogenesis, and development of serodiagnostic systems. PMID:24950360

Yamanaka, Atsushi; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Konishi, Eiji

2014-07-23

131

Comparative RNAi screening reveals host factors involved in enteroviruses infection of polarized endothelial monolayers  

PubMed Central

Summary Enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus B (CVB) and poliovirus (PV), can access the CNS through the blood brain barrier (BBB) endothelium to cause aseptic meningitis. To identify cellular components required for CVB and PV infection of human brain microvascular endothelial cells, an in vitro BBB model, we performed comparative RNAi screens and identified 117 genes that influenced infection. Whereas a large proportion of genes whose depletion enhanced infection (17 of 22) were broadly anti-enteroviral, only 46 of the 95 genes whose depletion inhibited infection were required by both CVB and PV and included components of cell signaling pathways such as adenylate cyclases. Downregulation of genes including Rab GTPases, Src tyrosine kinases, and tyrosine phosphatases, displayed specificity in their requirement for either CVB or PV infection. These findings highlight the pathways hijacked by enteroviruses for entry and replication in the BBB endothelium, a specialized and clinically relevant cell type for these viruses.

Coyne, Carolyn B.; Bozym, Rebecca; Morosky, Stefanie A.; Hanna, Sheri L.; Mukherjee, Amitava; Tudor, Matthew; Kim, Kwang Sik; Cherry, Sara

2011-01-01

132

Generation of infectious HCV pseudo typed particles and its utilization for studying the role of CD81 & SRBI receptors in HCV infection.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into isolated primary liver cells and cell lines requires interaction with the cell surface receptors. The study of HCV attachment with host cell surface receptors has been hindered by the unavailability of competent cell culture based system for HCV propagation. This problem has been overcome by the development of genetically tagged infectious HCV pseudo particles (HCVpp) harboring unmodified E1 and E2 glycoproteins. Studies using cell binding assays together with infection assays using HCVpp have shown that CD81 and scavenger receptor (SRBI) are actively involved in binding with envelope proteins facilitating the viral entrance process. This paper aimed to develop HCVpp of local HCV 3a Pakistani isolate and to study the viral tropism role of CD81 and SRBI receptors in HCV infectivity. HCV E1 and E2 genes were amplified and cloned in mammalian expression vector pcDNA 3.1/myc. The expressing plasmid of HCV E1-E2 glycoprotein in native form was co-transfected into 293FT cells with lentiviral packaging plasmid encoding the MLV Gag-Pol core proteins, and a packaging competent MLV-derived genome (pMLVYCMV-Luc) encoding the luciferase marker protein to produce infectious HCVpp. Anti-CD81 antibody (CBL579), anti-SRBI type II antibody (sc-20441) HCV anti-E2 mouse IgG1 (sc-65457) and HCV anti-E1 antibody mouse IgG1 (sc-65459) were used in this setup. We showed that primary site of viral replication is liver which involve CD81 and SRBI receptors for HCV gp-dependent infection with HCVpp. This is the preliminary reported cell cultured based mechanism from Pakistan which facilitated functional studies of different antiviral agents. Understanding of this technique will help in development of new antiviral therapeutics focusing on earlier steps of HCV life cycle. We have developed infectious pseudo particles of local 3a-isolate and concluded that a number of liver-specific surface proteins function along with CD81 and SRBI receptor regarding HCV infectivity. To endeavors and to identify this liver specific co-receptor molecule(s) will provide insights into the role of these molecules in the initial steps of HCV life cycle. PMID:24549717

Rafique, Shazia; Idrees, Muhammad; Ali, Amjad; Sahibzada, Kashif Iqbal; Iqbal, Muhammad

2014-06-01

133

Cytokine and Chemokine Production by Human Pancreatic Islets Upon Enterovirus Infection  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses of the human enterovirus B species (HEV-Bs) (e.g., coxsackie B viruses [CVBs] and echoviruses) have been implicated as environmental factors that trigger/accelerate type 1 diabetes, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the cytokines and chemokines that are produced by human pancreatic islets upon infection with CVBs. To this end, we studied the response of human islets of Langerhans upon mock or CVB3 infection. Using quantitative PCR, we showed that upon CVB3 infection, transcription of interferon (IFN), IFN-stimulated genes, and inflammatory genes was induced. Analysis of secreted cytokines and chemokines by Luminex technology confirmed production and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?) as well as various chemotactic proteins, such as IFN-?–induced protein 10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?, MIP-1?, and IL-8. Infection with other HEV-Bs induced similar responses, yet their extent depended on replication efficiency. Ultra violet–inactivated CVB3 did not induce any response, suggesting that virus replication is a prerequisite for antiviral responses. Our data represent the first comprehensive overview of inflammatory mediators that are secreted by human islets of Langerhans upon CVB infection and may shed light on the role of enteroviruses in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis.

Schulte, Barbara M.; Lanke, Kjerstin H.W.; Piganelli, Jon D.; Kers-Rebel, Esther D.; Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo; Huijbens, Richard J.F.; Radstake, Timothy R.D.J.; Engelse, Marten A.; de Koning, Eelco J.P.; Galama, Jochem M.; Adema, Gosse J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.M.

2012-01-01

134

Cytokine and chemokine production by human pancreatic islets upon enterovirus infection.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses of the human enterovirus B species (HEV-Bs) (e.g., coxsackie B viruses [CVBs] and echoviruses) have been implicated as environmental factors that trigger/accelerate type 1 diabetes, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the cytokines and chemokines that are produced by human pancreatic islets upon infection with CVBs. To this end, we studied the response of human islets of Langerhans upon mock or CVB3 infection. Using quantitative PCR, we showed that upon CVB3 infection, transcription of interferon (IFN), IFN-stimulated genes, and inflammatory genes was induced. Analysis of secreted cytokines and chemokines by Luminex technology confirmed production and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?) as well as various chemotactic proteins, such as IFN-?-induced protein 10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?, MIP-1?, and IL-8. Infection with other HEV-Bs induced similar responses, yet their extent depended on replication efficiency. Ultra violet-inactivated CVB3 did not induce any response, suggesting that virus replication is a prerequisite for antiviral responses. Our data represent the first comprehensive overview of inflammatory mediators that are secreted by human islets of Langerhans upon CVB infection and may shed light on the role of enteroviruses in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:22596052

Schulte, Barbara M; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; Piganelli, Jon D; Kers-Rebel, Esther D; Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo; Huijbens, Richard J F; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Engelse, Marten A; de Koning, Eelco J P; Galama, Jochem M; Adema, Gosse J; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

2012-08-01

135

Expression and immunogenicity of novel subunit enterovirus 71 VP1 antigens  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EV71 is a major emerging infectious disease in many Asian countries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivated EV71 vaccines are in clinical studies but their safety and efficacy are unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing subunit based EV71 vaccines is significant and novel antigen design is needed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA immunization is an efficient tool to test the immunogenicity of VP1 based EV71 vaccines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple VP1 antigens are developed showing immunogenic potential. -- Abstract: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness in young children. HFMD is caused by viruses belonging to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. Recently, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a virulent agent for HFMD with severe clinical outcomes. In the current report, we conducted a pilot antigen engineering study to optimize the expression and immunogenicity of subunit VP1 antigen for the design of EV71 vaccines. DNA immunization was adopted as a simple technical approach to test different designs of VP1 antigens without the need to express VP1 protein in vitro first. Our studies indicated that the expression and immunogenicity of VP1 protein can be improved with alternated VP1 antigen designs. Data presented in the current report revealed novel pathways to optimize the design of VP1 antigen-based EV71 vaccines.

Xu, Juan [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Nanjing Medical University (China); Wang, Shixia [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States); Gan, Weihua [Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China)] [Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Zhang, Wenhong [Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (China)] [Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (China); Ju, Liwen [School of Public Health, Fudan University (China)] [School of Public Health, Fudan University (China); Huang, Zuhu [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Lu, Shan, E-mail: shan.lu@umassmed.edu [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States)

2012-04-20

136

Pathogenesis of a bovine enterovirus-1 isolate in experimentally infected calves.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis and virulence of Bovine enterovirus-1 (BEV-1) in cattle is largely unknown. Reports concerning its virulence suggest that there might be an association between BEV-1 infections and a range of diseases in cattle that vary from respiratory to enteric to reproductive disease and infertility. In the current study, the pathogenesis associated with acute infection of BEV-1 in calves experimentally inoculated with the Oklahoma isolate of BEV-1 was described. Although interpretation of the study was limited by lack of an effective control group, results suggest that an association between inoculation of BEV-1, virus localization, and the potential development of lesions in the brain and heart probably exists. In the experiment, BEV-1 virus localized to the terminal ileum, ileocecal and cecocolonic junctions, spiral colon, and ileocecal lymph nodes; BEV-1 virus was detected in the cytoplasm of enterocytes, lamina propria macrophages, endothelium, neurons of the submucosal and myenteric plexi, and lymphocytes of the submucosal lymphoid tissue. Although no clinical signs were noted following acute infection, BEV-1 was localized in the cerebellar white matter of a calf with encephalitis and in the heart of another calf with coronary arteritis. The current study suggests that the BEV-1 isolate is infectious to young calves and that BEV-1 potentially can have a similar pathogenesis to that observed in natural or experimental enterovirus infections in other species. PMID:21245281

Blas-Machado, U; Saliki, J T; Sánchez, S; Brown, C C; Zhang, J; Keys, D; Woolums, A; Harvey, S B

2011-11-01

137

Esophagitis - infectious  

MedlinePLUS

... type of infection, and makes it harder to treat. Common causes include: HIV / AIDS Chemotherapy Diabetes Leukemia or lymphoma Organ transplants (due to drugs that suppress the immune system) Other conditions that suppress or weaken your immune ...

138

Anti-enterovirus 71 effects of chrysin and its phosphate ester.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause severe disease and even lead to death in children, and an effective antiviral drug is currently unavailable. The anti-EV71 effect of chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid commonly found in many plants, was tested in this report. By using the predicting program Autodock 4.0 and an in vitro protease inhibition assay, we found that chrysin could suppress viral 3Cpro activity. Replication of viral RNA and production of viral capsid protein and the infectious virion were strongly inhibited by chrysin, without noticeable cytotoxicity. Cytopathic effects on cells were also prevented. Diisopropyl chrysin-7-yl phosphate (CPI), the phosphate ester for chrysin, was generated through a simplified Atheron-Todd reaction to achieve stronger anti-viral activity. CPI was also able to bind with and inhibit viral 3Cpro activity in vitro. As expected, CPI demonstrated more potent antiviral activity against EV71. PMID:24598537

Wang, Jianmin; Zhang, Ting; Du, Jiang; Cui, Sheng; Yang, Fan; Jin, Qi

2014-01-01

139

The detection of enteroviruses in sewage using Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

The work presented here demonstrates the utility of Caco-2 cells to detect enteroviruses in sewage. Viruses were concentrated by beef extract elution and organic flocculation prior to analysis by cell culture assays and RT-PCR. Enteroviruses were detected in all sewage samples, but only one sample was positive solely in RT-PCR assay. We proved that Caco-2 cells were more effective than RD and L20B cells in enterovirus isolation, depending on procedures used in the inoculation process. PMID:23829085

Wieczorek, Magdalena; Kuryk, ?ukasz; Witek, Agnieszka; Diuwe, Anna; Litwi?ska, Bogumi?a

2013-01-01

140

Use of bituminous coal for concentration of enteroviruses from sewage and effluent.  

PubMed

A method has been developed for concentration of enteroviruses from untreated and treated domestic wastewater using bituminous coal bed as a virus adsorbent. A bed made from 1.5 g of 120 mesh coal powder was used for concentrating enteroviruses from 100 ml of clarified sewage at different pH values with and without addition of AlCl3. To enhance the adsorption of viruses, requisite quantities of aluminium chloride were added so that a final concentration of 0.0005 M could be achieved. At pH 3.0 maximum adsorption (82.8%) of poliovirus type 1 from artificially contaminated clarified sewage was observed without addition of AlCl3. However, at pH 5.0 maximum virus adsorption of 98.7% was achieved after addition of aluminium chloride. An average recovery of 86.9% of adsorbed viruses at pH 5.0 was achieved from coal bed with 3% flocculating beef extract at pH 9.5. This method for concentration of enteroviruses incorporating use of coal was compared with that of Millipore membrane filter method applied to raw sewage and clarified sewage. The results obtained from the methodology using coal as adsorbent was subjected to Student's "t" test and it was observed that its efficiency is confirmed for recovery of enteroviruses from raw and nonclarified sewage. These results are also comparable with that obtained with MF method. The results presented in this paper are indicative of the potential of this method for both treated and raw sewage. PMID:12188128

Lakhe, S B; Paunikar, W N; Parhad, N M

2002-07-01

141

Enter at your own risk: how enteroviruses navigate the dangerous world of pattern recognition receptor signaling.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses are the most common human viral pathogens worldwide. This genus of small, non-enveloped, single stranded RNA viruses includes coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, echovirus, and poliovirus species. Infection with these viruses can induce mild symptoms that resemble the common cold, but can also be associated with more severe syndromes such as poliomyelitis, neurological diseases including aseptic meningitis and encephalitis, myocarditis, and the onset of type I diabetes. In humans, polarized epithelial cells lining the respiratory and/or digestive tracts represent the initial sites of infection by enteroviruses. Control of infection in the host is initiated through the engagement of a variety of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs act as the sentinels of the innate immune system and serve to alert the host to the presence of a viral invader. This review assembles the available data annotating the role of PRRs in the response to enteroviral infection as well as the myriad ways by which enteroviruses both interrupt and manipulate PRR signaling to enhance their own replication, thereby inducing human disease. PMID:23764548

Harris, Katharine G; Coyne, Carolyn B

2013-09-01

142

The multi-targeted kinase inhibitor sorafenib inhibits enterovirus 71 replication by regulating IRES-dependent translation of viral proteins.  

PubMed

The activation of ERK and p38 signal cascade in host cells has been demonstrated to be essential for picornavirus enterovirus 71 (EV71) replication and up-regulation of virus-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) expression. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of sorafenib, a clinically approved anti-cancer multi-targeted kinase inhibitor, on the propagation and pathogenesis of EV71, with a view to its possible mechanism and potential use in the design of therapy regimes for Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients with life threatening neurological complications. In this study, non-toxic concentrations of sorafenib were shown to inhibit the yield of infectious progeny EV71 (clinical BC08 strain) by about 90% in three different cell types. A similar inhibitory effect of sorafenib was observed on the synthesis of both viral genomic RNA and the VP1 protein. Interestingly, sorafenib exerted obvious inhibition of the EV71 internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation, the first step in picornavirus replication, by linking it to a firefly luciferase reporter gene. Sorafenib was also able to prevent both EV71-induced CPE and the activation of ERK and p38, which contributes to up-regulation COX-2/PGE2 expression induced by the virus. Overall, this study shows that sorafenib strongly inhibits EV71 replication at least in part by regulating viral IRES-dependent translation of viral proteins, indicating a novel potential strategy for the treatment of HFMD patients with severe neurological complications. To our knowledge, this is the first report that investigates the mechanism by which sorafenib inhibits EV71 replication. PMID:24680956

Gao, Meng; Duan, Hao; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Meng; Guo, Jitao; Zhao, Zhenlong; Meng, Lirong; Peng, Yihong

2014-06-01

143

The Infectious Molecular Clone and Pseudotyped Virus Models of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Exhibit Significant Differences in Virion Composition with Only Moderate Differences in Infectivity and Inhibition Sensitivity ?  

PubMed Central

Two frequently employed methods for generating well-characterized, genetically defined infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vitro include the use of infectious molecular clones (IMCs) and pseudoviruses (PVs) competent for single-round infection. We compared six matched pairs of IMCs and PVs. The relative amounts of Env incorporated and efficiency of cleavage differed substantially between the two systems. Altering the ratio of proviral genome and env expression plasmids can produce pseudovirions that are structurally more similar to the matched IMCs. Differences in Env incorporation and cleavage translated into moderate differences in assays infectivity and sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies and entry inhibitors.

Provine, Nicholas M.; Puryear, Wendy Blay; Wu, Xueling; Overbaugh, Julie; Haigwood, Nancy L.

2009-01-01

144

Antineuronal antibodies and infectious pathogens in severe acute pediatric encephalitis.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of acute encephalitis is divided into either direct infection or by immune-mediated inflammation, but the cause is still unknown. This retrospective study aimed to screen antineuronal antibodies in children with severe acute encephalitis. Thirty-four children (22 boys and 12 girls) underwent assessments such as antineuronal antibodies survey for autoimmune encephalitis and polymerase chain reaction/viral culture and antibody assays for all commonly recognized causes of infectious encephalitis. Sixteen (47.1%) were positive for autoantibodies, including antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in 16 and voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies in 1. Sixteen patients (47.1%) had presumed infectious etiologies, including 6 with influenza, 6 with Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 3 with enterovirus, and 1 with herpes simplex virus. In this study, influenza and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection are the main presumed causes of severe acute encephalitis in children, although an immune-mediated mechanism may also play a role. PMID:23143714

Lin, Jainn-Jim; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Chou, I-Jun; Lin, Yun-Tong

2014-01-01

145

Diseases caused by enterovirus 71 infection.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review was to explore the epidemiology, pathogenesis, virology, and management of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. Published literature was surveyed by Medline using the keyword "EV71." The reported incidence of cases of hand-foot-mouth disease/herpangina varied from year to year; seasonal variations in incidence were observed, with a peak in incidence during the summer season. Most cases of hand-foot-mouth disease/herpangina hospitalized for complications occurred in children less than 5 years old. The brainstem was the most likely major target of EV71 infection. Different enteroviruses cocirculate in the community annually. The emergence of the EV71 epidemic in the Asia Pacific region has been associated with the circulation of 5 genetic lineages (genotypes B3, B4, C1, C2, C4) that appear to be undergoing rapid evolutionary changes. The relationship between the gene structure of the EV71 virus and the factors that ensure its survival, ease of transmission, and evasion of immunity is still unclear. EV71 central nervous system involvement causes serious clinical illness, death, and long-term neurologic and psychiatric disorders in young children. EV71 infection has emerged as an important public health problem. Vaccine development is recommended for the prevention of EV71 infection in the future. PMID:20118685

Lee, Ta-Chung; Guo, How-Ran; Su, Huey-Jen Jenny; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Kow-Tong

2009-10-01

146

COPI Is Required for Enterovirus 71 Replication  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is found in Asian countries where it causes a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Picornaviruses undergo RNA replication in association with membranes of infected cells. COPI and COPII have been shown to be involved in the formation of picornavirus-induced vesicles. Replication of several picornaviruses, including poliovirus and Echovirus 11 (EV11), is dependent on COPI or COPII. Here, we report that COPI, but not COPII, is required for EV71 replication. Replication of EV71 was inhibited by brefeldin A and golgicide A, inhibitors of COPI activity. Furthermore, we found EV71 2C protein interacted with COPI subunits by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay, indicating that COPI coatomer might be directed to the viral replication complex through viral 2C protein. Additionally, because the pathway is conserved among different species of enteroviruses, it may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies.

Wang, Jianmin; Wu, Zhiqiang; Jin, Qi

2012-01-01

147

Virus Infections in Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

The precise etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still unknown, but viruses have long been suggested as a potential environmental trigger for the disease. However, despite decades of research, the body of evidence supporting a relationship between viral infections and initiation or acceleration of islet autoimmunity remains largely circumstantial. The most robust association with viruses and T1D involves enterovirus species, of which some strains have the ability to induce or accelerate disease in animal models. Several hypotheses have been formulated to mechanistically explain how viruses may affect islet autoimmunity and ?-cell decay. The recent observation that certain viral infections, when encountered at the right time and infectious dose, can prevent autoimmune diabetes illustrates that potential relationships may be more complex than previously thought. Here, we provide a concise summary of data obtained in mouse models and humans, and identify future avenues toward a better characterization of the association between viruses and T1D.

Coppieters, Ken T.; Boettler, Tobias; von Herrath, Matthias

2012-01-01

148

Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is perceived as a progressive immune-mediated disease, the clinical diagnosis of which is preceded by an asymptomatic preclinical period of highly variable duration. It has long been postulated that the disease process leading to overt T1D is triggered by an infectious agent, the strongest candidate being a diabetogenic enterovirus. The initiation and progression of the disorder likely requires, in addition to genetic T1D susceptibility, a trigger, an exogenous antigen capable of driving the development of this disease. This may be a dietary antigen similar to gluten in celiac disease. Recent data further suggests that the initiation of autoimmunity is preceded by inflammation reflected by a proinflammatory metabolic serum profile. The cause of the inflammation remains open, but given that the intestinal microbiome appears to differ between individuals who progress to clinical T1D and nonprogressors, one may speculate that changes in the gut microflora might contribute to the inflammatory process.

Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli

2012-01-01

149

Human Rhinovirus 87 and Enterovirus 68 Represent a Unique Serotype with Rhinovirus and Enterovirus Features  

PubMed Central

It has recently been reported that all but one of the 102 known serotypes of the genus Rhinovirus segregate into two genetic clusters (C. Savolainen, S. Blomqvist, M. N. Mulders, and T. Hovi, J. Gen. Virol. 83:333-340, 2002). The only exception is human rhinovirus 87 (HRV87). Here we demonstrate that HRV87 is genetically and antigenically highly similar to enterovirus 68 (EV68) and is related to EV70, the other member of human enterovirus group D. The partial nucleotide sequences of the 5? untranslated region, capsid regions VP4/VP2 and VP1, and the 3D RNA polymerase gene of the HRV87 prototype strain F02-3607 Corn showed 97.3, 97.8, 95.2, and 95.9% identity to the corresponding regions of EV68 prototype strain Fermon. The amino acid identities were 100 and 98.1% for the products of the two capsid regions and 97.9% for 3D RNA polymerase. Antigenic cross-reaction between HRV87 and EV68 was indicated by microneutralization with monotypic antisera. Phylogenetic analysis showed definite clustering of HRV87 and EV68 with EV70 for all sequences examined. Both HRV87 and EV68 were shown to be acid sensitive by two different assays, while EV70 was acid resistant, which is typical of enteroviruses. The cytopathic effect induced by HRV87 or EV68 was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to the decay-accelerating factor known to be the receptor of EV70. We conclude that HRV87 and EV68 are strains of the same picornavirus serotype presenting features of both rhinoviruses and enteroviruses.

Blomqvist, Soile; Savolainen, Carita; Raman, Laura; Roivainen, Merja; Hovi, Tapani

2002-01-01

150

Rapid Method to Determine Labeling Specificity of Radioactive Enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

The specificity of labeling enteroviruses with 32P-labeled NaH2PO4 or 14C-leucine can be determined by comparing the percent adsorption of infective particles and radioactivity to membrane (Millipore) filters.

Herrmann, John E.; Cliver, D. O.

1973-01-01

151

Infectious Complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Infections are the most frequently occurring complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Myelosuppressive\\u000a medications, the conditioning regimen (chemotherapy, radiation therapy), mucosal damage, type of transplant, immune-suppressive\\u000a therapy, and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) all predispose the HSCT patient to life-threatening infections. Abnormal B-\\u000a and T-lymphocyte function results in impaired cellular and humoral immune function. Infections that can occur in the setting

Lynne Strasfeld

152

Expression of the C-type lectins DC-SIGN or L-SIGN alters host cell susceptibility for the avian coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus  

PubMed Central

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), an avian coronavirus, is a cause of great economic loss in the poultry industry. The virus mainly infects respiratory epithelium, but can be also detected in other organs. The functional receptor for the virus has not been found and field strains of IBV do not infect conventional cell lines. Recently, it has been shown that the C-type lectins DC-SIGN/L-SIGN can promote entry of several coronaviruses. Here we examine whether DC-SIGN/L-SIGN are entry determinants for IBV. We show that by introducing human DC-SIGN/L-SIGN into non-permissive cells, infection by the IBV is dramatically increased. DC-SIGN mediated infection was inhibited by mannan and anti-lectin antibodies, and was independent of sialic acid levels on the cell. Enhancement of IBV infection also occurred for different serotypes of IBV. Our findings demonstrated that even in the absence of avian-specific receptor, DC-SIGN-like lectins are capable of mediating efficient IBV infection.

Zhang, Yueting; Buckles, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Gary R.

2013-01-01

153

A shutoff and exonuclease mutant of murine gammaherpesvirus-68 yields infectious virus and causes RNA loss in type I interferon receptor knockout cells.  

PubMed

Significant loss of RNA followed by severely reduced cellular protein pool, a phenomenon termed host shutoff, is associated with a number of lytic virus infections and is a critical player in viral pathogenesis. Until recently, viral DNA exonucleases were associated only with processing of viral genomic DNA and its encapsidation. However, recent observations have identified host shutoff and exonuclease function for the highly conserved viral exonucleases in ?-herpesviruses, which include Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus and the mouse model murine gammaherpesvirus-68, also referred to as MHV-68. In this study, we show that although ablation of the MHV-68 exonuclease ORF37 caused a restrictive phenotype in WT IFN-?/? receptor-positive cells such as NIH 3T3, lack of ORF37 was tolerated in cells lacking the IFN-?/? receptor: the ORF37Stop virus was capable of forming infectious particles and caused loss of mRNA in IFN-?/? receptor knockout cells. Moreover, ORF37Stop virus was able to establish lytic infection in the lungs of mice lacking the IFN-?/? receptor. These observations provide evidence that lytic MHV-68 infection and subsequent loss of mRNA can take place independently of ORF37. Moreover, efficient growth of ORF37Stop virus also identifies a role for this family of viral nucleases in providing a window of opportunity for virus growth by overcoming type I IFN-dependent responses. PMID:24552788

Sheridan, Victoria; Polychronopoulos, Louise; Dutia, Bernadette M; Ebrahimi, Bahram

2014-05-01

154

Relations between Long-term Glycemic Control and Postoperative Wound and Infectious Complications after Total Knee Arthroplasty in Type 2 Diabetics  

PubMed Central

Background The authors examined whether poor preoperative glucose control, as indicated by the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of more than 8%, is associated with postoperative wound and infectious complications in diabetic patients that have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods One hundred and sixty-seven TKAs performed in 115 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, from January 2001 through March 2007, were retrospectively reviewed. Logistic regression was used to identify the variables that had a significant effect on the risk of wound complications or early deep infection. The variables considered were age, gender, body mass index, comorbidities, operation time, antibiotic-impregnated cement use, amount of blood transfusion, close suction drain use, duration of diabetes, method of diabetes treatment, diabetes complications, and preoperative HbA1c level. Results The overall incidence of wound complications was 6.6% (n = 11) and there were seven cases (4.2%) of early postoperative deep infection. Logistic regression revealed that the independent risk factors of wound complications were preoperative HbA1C ? 8% (odds ratio [OR], 6.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 33.0) and operation time (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.03). No variable examined was found to be significantly associated with the risk of early postoperative deep infection. Conclusions Poorly controlled hyperglycemia before surgery may increase the incidence of wound complications among diabetic patients after TKA.

Han, Hyuk-Soo

2013-01-01

155

Non-Infectious Meningitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Symptoms Causes Non–infectious meningitis causes include Cancers Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) Certain drugs Head injury Brain surgery ... Non-infectious meningitis can be caused by cancers, systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus), certain drugs, head injury, and brain ...

156

Hematology of Infectious Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Cytogenesis of blood cells in health and under the influence of infectious agents; The lymphoreticular system; The myeloid system of cells; Blood proteins and immunoglobulins; Metals of life and their role in hematologic reactions in infectious ...

J. Aleksandrowicz J. Lisiewicz

1976-01-01

157

HLA-DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 genotype and frequency of enterovirus in longitudinal monthly fecal samples from healthy infants.  

PubMed

Enterovirus infections may be involved in the etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D), which is strongly associated with certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II haplotypes. Our aim was to assess whether HLA genotypes conferring varying degrees of risk for T1D were associated with enterovirus gut infections. From the general Norwegian population, 190 healthy infants at high-risk for T1D (DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2), and 383 infants without this genotype were identified. Non-DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2 genotypes were further categorized as conferring either an increased-to-moderate risk (DR4-DQ8 or DR3-DQ2), were protective (DQB1*06:02), or were neutral (all other genotypes). A total of 4626 monthly fecal samples taken between age 3 and 12?mo were tested for enterovirus RNA using real-time PCR. Enterovirus prevalence was 11.5% among high-risk children, and 12.2% in other children (adjusted odds ratio: 1.23, p=0.12). The prevalence was 11.3% in those with increased-to-moderate risk, 13.0% in the protective group, and 12.6% in the neutral group (likelihood ratio test, 3 d.f.: p=0.37). In conclusion, there was no statistically significant association between HLA genotype and the occurrence of human enterovirus gut infections. PMID:22691100

Witsø, Elisabet; Cinek, Ondrej; Tapia, German; Rasmussen, Trond; Stene, Lars C; Rønningen, Kjersti S

2012-06-01

158

Rapid Detection of Enteroviruses in Small Volumes of Natural Waters by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR  

PubMed Central

Despite viral contamination of recreational waters, only bacterial, not viral, indicators are monitored routinely, due to a lack of rapid and cost-effective assays. We used negatively charged filters to capture enteroviruses from seawater and freshwater. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Poliovirus (6.6 to 330,000 virus particles/ml) was added to samples from watersheds in Los Angeles, California, and analysis showed that with 50-ml samples, a cellulose acetate/nitrate (HA) filter yielded final recovery of 51% (r2 = 0.99) in fresh water and 23% (r2 = 0.90) in seawater. However, for additions of low levels of virus (more likely to represent field samples; <104 enterovirus particles/ml), the recovery was lower and more variable, with HA being best in freshwater (17%, r2 = 0.97) and the type GF/F glass filter having higher average recovery in seawater (GF/F, 17%; r2 = 0.93; HA 12%, r2 = 0.87). The optimized method was used with 1-liter field samples from two very different freshwater “creeks” that drain into Santa Monica Bay, California: Topanga Creek (TC), a relatively pristine mountain creek, and Ballona Creek (BC), a concrete-lined urban storm drain. One TC site out of 10 and 2 BC sites out of 7 tested significantly positive for enteroviruses, with higher enterovirus concentrations in BC than in TC (ca. 10 to 25 versus 1 equivalent enterovirus particle/ml). The presented filtration-qRT-PCR approach is fast (<8 h from sampling to results), sensitive, and cost efficient and is promising for monitoring viral contamination in environmental water samples.

Fuhrman, Jed A.; Liang, Xiaolin; Noble, Rachel T.

2005-01-01

159

Enterovirus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in children with malignancy: report of three cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses can cause severe manifestations in children with malignancy. Infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (IAHS) due to enterovirus is a rare entity in children. Patients with malignancy and IAHS due to enterovirus were retrospectively evaluated at the University of Athens' Hematology-Oncology pediatric unit within a 6-year period (2000-2006). IAHS occurred in three cases among 56 patients with documented enteroviral infection. The diagnosis of IAHS was confirmed by bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), sequencing of the amplified alleles, and immunohistochemistry were performed to document the presence of enterovirus. The type of enterovirus was specified by indirect immunofluorescence assay. At the early phase of the disease, patients presented mild, non-specific viral symptoms, persistent unexplained fever, and pancytopenia. At the late phase, patients had more severe manifestations, such as persistent high fever, diarrhea, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, and hepatic dysfunction. The therapeutic approach consisted of supportive care, administration of immunoglobulin (400 mg/kg or 2 g/kg), and pleconaril. All patients had fatal outcome; two patients succumbed to multiorgan failure (MOF), while one patient succumbed to ventricular fibrillation. IAHS usually has fulminant course and leads to severe and life-threatening complications, such as liver failure and MOF. IAHS should always be included in the differential diagnosis of viral syndrome or unexplained fever. The therapeutic approach for IAHS should be administered as early as possible, before the progression to irreversible tissue damage. Early therapeutic intervention involving high doses of immunoglobulin might be beneficial for the patient's outcome. PMID:17318619

Katsibardi, Katerina; Moschovi, Maria A; Theodoridou, Maria; Spanakis, Nicholas; Kalabalikis, Panagiotis; Tsakris, Athanassios; Tzortzatou-Stathopoulou, Fotini

2008-01-01

160

CD4+ T-cell death induced by infectious and noninfectious HIV-1: role of type 1 interferon-dependent, TRAIL/DR5-mediated apoptosis  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that direct and indirect mechanisms contribute to the unresolved issue of CD4+ T-cell depletion that results from HIV-1 infection. We recently reported that plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) are elevated in HIV-1–infected patients and that they correlate with viral load. The present study investigates the expression of TRAIL death receptor 5 (DR5) in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-1–infected patients and its role in CD4+ T-cell death. DR5 expression was elevated and associated with the apoptotic marker annexin V. Apoptosis was reduced in CD4+ T cells when cultured with anti-DR5 antibody. CD4+, but not CD8+, T cells from uninfected donors expressed TRAIL, DR5, and activated caspase-3 when cultured with infectious or noninfectious HIV-1, resulting in preferential apoptosis of CD4+ T cells. TRAIL, caspase-3 expression, and apoptosis were type 1 interferon (IFN) dependent. Induction of apoptosis and DR5 expression required glycoprotein 120 (gp120)–CD4 interaction. Finally, we analyzed DR5 expression by CD4+ T cells in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)–treated patients. The decreased viral loads and increased CD4 counts of HAART-responsive patients were associated with a decrease in DR5 mRNA expression by CD4+ T lymphocytes. We propose a novel model in which a type 1 IFN–regulated TRAIL /DR5 mechanism induces apoptosis of HIV-1–exposed CD4+ T cells.

Herbeuval, Jean-Philippe; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Boasso, Adriano; Hardy, Andrew W.; Chougnet, Claire; Dolan, Matthew J.; Yagita, Hideo; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Shearer, Gene M.

2005-01-01

161

CD4+ T-cell death induced by infectious and noninfectious HIV-1: role of type 1 interferon-dependent, TRAIL/DR5-mediated apoptosis.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that direct and indirect mechanisms contribute to the unresolved issue of CD4(+) T-cell depletion that results from HIV-1 infection. We recently reported that plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) are elevated in HIV-1-infected patients and that they correlate with viral load. The present study investigates the expression of TRAIL death receptor 5 (DR5) in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-1-infected patients and its role in CD4(+) T-cell death. DR5 expression was elevated and associated with the apoptotic marker annexin V. Apoptosis was reduced in CD4(+) T cells when cultured with anti-DR5 antibody. CD4(+), but not CD8(+), T cells from uninfected donors expressed TRAIL, DR5, and activated caspase-3 when cultured with infectious or noninfectious HIV-1, resulting in preferential apoptosis of CD4(+) T cells. TRAIL, caspase-3 expression, and apoptosis were type 1 interferon (IFN) dependent. Induction of apoptosis and DR5 expression required glycoprotein 120 (gp120)-CD4 interaction. Finally, we analyzed DR5 expression by CD4(+) T cells in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated patients. The decreased viral loads and increased CD4 counts of HAART-responsive patients were associated with a decrease in DR5 mRNA expression by CD4(+) T lymphocytes. We propose a novel model in which a type 1 IFN-regulated TRAIL /DR5 mechanism induces apoptosis of HIV-1-exposed CD4(+) T cells. PMID:16046522

Herbeuval, Jean-Philippe; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Boasso, Adriano; Hardy, Andrew W; Chougnet, Claire; Dolan, Matthew J; Yagita, Hideo; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Shearer, Gene M

2005-11-15

162

SUPPRESSION OF VIRAL REPLICATION BY GUANIDINE: A COMPARISON OF HUMAN ADENOVIRUSES AND ENTEROVIRUSES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison was made of the relative sensitivities of laboratory strain human adenoviruses and enteroviruses, and recently isolated human enteroviruses, to the presence of guanidine hydrochloride in cell culture media. The concentration of guanidine hydrochloride used was 100 mi...

163

Enterovirus infection in Korean children and anti-enteroviral potential candidate agents  

PubMed Central

Although most enterovirus infections are not serious enough to be life threatening, several enteroviruses such as enterovirus 71 are responsible for severe, potentially life-threatening disease. The epidemic patterns of enteroviruses occur regularly during the year, but they may change due to environmental shifts induced by climate change due to global warming. Therefore, enterovirus epidemiological studies should be performed continuously as a basis for anti-viral studies. A great number of synthesized antiviral compounds that work against enteroviruses have been developed but only a few have demonstrated effectiveness in vivo. No proven effective antiviral agents are available for enterovirus disease therapy. The development of a new antiviral drug is a difficult task due to poor selective toxicity and cost. To overcome these limitations, one approach is to accelerate the availability of other existing antiviral drugs approved for antiviral effect against enteroviruses, and the other way is to screen traditional medicinal plants.

Park, Kwi Sung; Choi, Young Jin

2012-01-01

164

[A method for recovery of enteroviruses from milk].  

PubMed

A method of detection of enteric viruses in milk was studied. The high protein content of milk and the protein nature of enterovirus allowed the detection of these viruses using the organic acid flocculation method. The poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney strains) and the E.C.H.O.1 isolated from the environment were used as virus model and were inoculated to creamed, half-creamed and whole UHT commercialized milk. The method consists on a milk sample clarification with acid precipitation and centrifugation. The clarified extract is reduced to a final volume of 10 to 15 ml after addition of beef extract powder and protein precipitation. This technique allows the recovery of 26 to 36% of poliovirus type 1 and 10 to 46% of E.C.H.O.1 viruses. In this work, the ferric chloride (FeCl3), added in 0.5 to 1 mM final concentration, was used as an adjuvant for the organic acid precipitation. PMID:1668634

Hassen, A; Hachicha, R; Jedidi, N; Agbalika, F; Harteman, P

1991-01-01

165

Antigenic and Receptor Binding Properties of Enterovirus 68  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Increased detection of enterovirus 68 (EV68) among patients with acute respiratory infections has been reported from different parts of the world in the late 2000s since its first detection in pediatric patients with lower-respiratory-tract infections in 1962. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for this trend are still unknown. We therefore aimed to study the antigenicity and receptor binding properties of EV68 detected in recent years in comparison to the prototype strain of EV68, the Fermon strain. We first performed neutralization (NT) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests using antisera generated for EV68 strains detected in recent years. We found that the Fermon strain had lower HI and NT titers than recently detected EV68 strains. The HI and NT titers were also significantly different between strains of different genetic lineages among recently detected EV68 strains. We further studied receptor binding specificities of EV68 strains for sialyloligosaccharides using glycan array analysis. In glycan array analysis, all tested EV68 strains showed affinity for ?2-6-linked sialic acids (?2-6 SAs) compared to ?2-3 SAs. Our study demonstrates that emergence of strains with different antigenicity is the possible reason for the increased detection of EV68 in recent years. Additionally, we found that EV68 preferably binds to ?2-6 SAs, which suggests that EV68 might have affinity for the upper respiratory tract. IMPORTANCE Numbers of cases of enterovirus 68 (EV68) infection in different parts of the world increased significantly in the late 2000s. We studied the antigenicity and receptor binding properties of recently detected EV68 strains in comparison to the prototype strain of EV68, Fermon. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titers were significantly different between strains of different genetic lineages among recently detected EV68 strains. We further studied receptor binding specificities of EV68 strains for sialyloligosaccharides using glycan array analysis, which showed affinity for ?2-6-linked sialic acids (?2-6 SAs) compared to ?2-3 SAs. Our study suggested that the emergence of strains with different antigenicities was the possible reason for the increased detections of EV68 in recent years. Additionally, we revealed that EV68 preferably binds to ?2-6 SAs. This is the first report describing the properties of EV68 receptor binding to the specific types of sialic acids.

Imamura, Tadatsugu; Okamoto, Michiko; Nakakita, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Akira; Saito, Mariko; Tamaki, Raita; Lupisan, Socorro; Roy, Chandra Nath; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Kan-etsu; Mizuta, Katsumi; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Suzuki, Yasuo

2014-01-01

166

Antigenic and receptor binding properties of enterovirus 68.  

PubMed

Increased detection of enterovirus 68 (EV68) among patients with acute respiratory infections has been reported from different parts of the world in the late 2000s since its first detection in pediatric patients with lower-respiratory-tract infections in 1962. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for this trend are still unknown. We therefore aimed to study the antigenicity and receptor binding properties of EV68 detected in recent years in comparison to the prototype strain of EV68, the Fermon strain. We first performed neutralization (NT) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests using antisera generated for EV68 strains detected in recent years. We found that the Fermon strain had lower HI and NT titers than recently detected EV68 strains. The HI and NT titers were also significantly different between strains of different genetic lineages among recently detected EV68 strains. We further studied receptor binding specificities of EV68 strains for sialyloligosaccharides using glycan array analysis. In glycan array analysis, all tested EV68 strains showed affinity for ?2-6-linked sialic acids (?2-6 SAs) compared to ?2-3 SAs. Our study demonstrates that emergence of strains with different antigenicity is the possible reason for the increased detection of EV68 in recent years. Additionally, we found that EV68 preferably binds to ?2-6 SAs, which suggests that EV68 might have affinity for the upper respiratory tract. Importance: Numbers of cases of enterovirus 68 (EV68) infection in different parts of the world increased significantly in the late 2000s. We studied the antigenicity and receptor binding properties of recently detected EV68 strains in comparison to the prototype strain of EV68, Fermon. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titers were significantly different between strains of different genetic lineages among recently detected EV68 strains. We further studied receptor binding specificities of EV68 strains for sialyloligosaccharides using glycan array analysis, which showed affinity for ?2-6-linked sialic acids (?2-6 SAs) compared to ?2-3 SAs. Our study suggested that the emergence of strains with different antigenicities was the possible reason for the increased detections of EV68 in recent years. Additionally, we revealed that EV68 preferably binds to ?2-6 SAs. This is the first report describing the properties of EV68 receptor binding to the specific types of sialic acids. PMID:24371050

Imamura, Tadatsugu; Okamoto, Michiko; Nakakita, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Akira; Saito, Mariko; Tamaki, Raita; Lupisan, Socorro; Roy, Chandra Nath; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Kan-etsu; Mizuta, Katsumi; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Suzuki, Yasuo; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2014-03-01

167

Serotype-specific detection of enterovirus 71 in clinical specimens by DNA microchip array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus 71 is an important pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality in children in Taiwan. Virus isolation in cell cultures has been the standard method for enterovirus 71 identification in Clinical Virology Laboratories. However, virus isolation takes 5–10 days when using cell culture. A microchip for enterovirus 71 detection was developed as an alternative diagnostic method. The novel approach

Shin-Ru Shih; Yih-Weng Wang; Guang-Wu Chen; Luan-Yin Chang; Tzou-Yien Lin; Mei-Chen Tseng; Chiayn Chiang; Kuo-Chien Tsao; Chung Guei Huang; Mei-Ren Shio; Jui-Hung Tai; Shin-Hwan Wang; Rei-Lin Kuo; Wu-Tse Liu

2003-01-01

168

Presentation, diagnosis, and management of enterovirus infections in neonates.  

PubMed

The nonpoliovirus enteroviruses commonly infect newborns, with consequences ranging from asymptomatic infection and benign illness, to severe, life-threatening disease. Frequently occurring symptoms include fever, irritability, lethargy, anorexia, and rash. Although most illnesses are mild, severe disease develops in a subset of newborns infected in the first 2 weeks of life. Severe disease may consist of sepsis, meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, pneumonia, hepatitis, and/or coagulopathy. Substantial mortality rates have been reported, and long-term sequelae may occur among survivors. Risk factors and clinical features associated with severe disease include absence of neutralizing antibody to the infecting serotype, maternal illness prior to or at delivery, prematurity, illness onset within the first few days of life, multiorgan disease, severe hepatitis, positive serum viral culture, and specific infecting serotype (e.g. group B coxsackieviruses and echovirus 11). Whereas the mainstay of diagnosis has traditionally been viral isolation in tissue culture, the polymerase chain reaction has been demonstrated to be more sensitive than culture, highly specific, and rapid. Immunoglobulin has been used as a therapeutic agent for neonates with enterovirus disease; however, clinical efficacy has not been proven. Specific antiviral therapy for enteroviruses is in development. Pleconaril is an investigational agent that inhibits viral attachment to host cell receptors and uncoating of viral nucleic acid. It has broad and potent anti-enterovirus activity, excellent oral bioavailability, and is well tolerated. Some clinical trials have demonstrated benefit in children and adults with enterovirus meningitis, and in adults with upper respiratory tract infections caused by picornaviruses (rhinoviruses or enteroviruses). Data summarizing compassionate use for severe enterovirus diseases (including neonatal sepsis) also suggest possible benefit. Limited pharmacokinetic data are available in infants and neonates. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of pleconaril in neonates with severe hepatitis, coagulopathy, and/or myocarditis is currently being conducted. PMID:14969566

Abzug, Mark J

2004-01-01

169

Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology.  

PubMed

In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection of a suitable internal control gene, real time PCR parameters were evaluated for three candidate genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 28S rRNA and beta-actin to IBDVs. Based on this beta-actin was selected as an internal control for quantification of IBDVs in BF. All BF samples with D78, DK01 or F52/70 inoculation were detected as virus positive at day 1 post inoculation (p.i.). The D78 viral load peaked at day 4 and day 8 p.i., while the DK01 and F52/70 viral load showed relatively high levels at day 2 p.i. In cloacal swabs, viruses detectable were at day 2 p.i. for DK01 and F52/70, day 8 p.i. for D78. Importantly, the primers set were specific as the D78 primer set gave no amplification of F52/70 and DK01 and the DK01 primer set gave no amplification of D78, thus DK01 and D78 could be quantified simultaneously in dually infected chickens by use of these two set of primers. The method described here is robust and may sever as a useful tool with high capacity for diagnostics as well as in viral pathogenesis studies. PMID:16678230

Li, Y P; Handberg, K J; Kabell, S; Kusk, M; Zhang, M F; Jørgensen, P H

2007-02-01

170

Ability of Massachusetts-type infectious bronchitis virus to increase colibacillosis susceptibility in commercial broilers: a comparison between vaccine and virulent field virus.  

PubMed

The abilities of Massachusetts-type vaccine virus and virulent infectious bronchitis (IB) field virus to increase colibacillosis susceptibility were compared. In four experiments, 29-day-old female commercial broilers housed in isolators, were infected intratracheally and oculonasally with IB vaccine strains (H120 and H52) or virulent IB field strains (D387 and M41) (4.8 or 6.8 log(10) median embryo infective dose, per broiler). Five days later, Escherichia coli 506 strain was given intratracheally (5.6 to 8.8 log(10) colony forming units/broiler). The incidence of nasal discharge at 3 and 5 days after IB virus infection was used to assess the clinical effect of the IB infection, while mortality, body weight uniformity and E. coli lesions at 7 days following E. coli inoculation were used as parameters for colibacillosis. Nasal discharge was observed in 6/117 (5%), 26/119 (22%), 35/119 (29%) and 115/120 (96%) of broilers infected with H120, H52, D387 and M41 virus, respectively. Apart from H52 and D387, differences between IBV strains were significant. IB vaccine and virulent IB viruses did not generally differ significantly in their ability to induce colibacillosis susceptibility. Mean colibacillosis lesion scores of H52-infected birds even significantly exceeded those of birds infected with the other IB viruses. The ability of H120 virus to induce colibacillosis susceptibility tended to be the weakest. The practical consequences of these findings are discussed. PMID:14522702

Matthijs, M G R; van Eck, J H H; Landman, W J M; Stegeman, J A

2003-10-01

171

[The use of immunoglobulins in the treatment of infectious diseases].  

PubMed

The use of immunoglobulins in the treatment of infectious diseases has a long tradition. Initially immunoglobulins from hyperimmunised animals were used for their antitoxic and antimicrobial activity. The development of preparations of human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and the observations of their long-term use enabled to assess their usefulness in the treatment of the diseases of proven or probable infectious etiology. In the treatment of infectious diseases IVIG are currently used as immunomodulating drugs or immunosuppressive therapy, more frequently than the specific antibodies against the viruses, bacteria or their toxins. In practice of the infectious ward IVIG are used as a drug of choice in the treatment of Kawasaki disease, in toxic epidermolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. As adjunctive therapy IVIG are used in the infection with parvovirus B19, in hemophagocytic syndrome, for treatment of infections presenting with a severe toxemia caused by Clostridium difficile, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The rationale for the use of IVIG may be also serious infections caused by enteroviruses, particularly neuroinfections. The use of IVIG in the treatment of sepsis is controversial, since their effectiveness is not proven. PMID:21751556

Szenborn, Leszek

2011-06-01

172

[Traps in infectious serology].  

PubMed

The role of serology in infectious disease diagnosis is highlighted by HIV and viral hepatitis diagnosis developed since the 80's. However, long before these recent developments serum reactivity played its role in diagnosing, active or previous severe bacterial infection in diseases such as typhoid fever (Widal), brucellosis (Wright test), syphilis (VDRL, Wassermann test), typhus (Weil-Felix test) etc. From early infection to immunity, serology analyzes the patient's immunological memory enabling the fight against infections. The resulting information depends on the type of pathogen, the site of infection, the host and the stage of disease. Together with the direct tests for the detection of pathogens, serological tests form the basis of microbiological diagnosis. To better understand the utility of serology, we will provide an overview and show its pitfalls. PMID:22097446

Lienhard, Reto

2011-10-12

173

Target Peptide Sequence within Infectious Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Does Not Ensure Envelope-Specific T-Helper Cell Reactivation: Influences of Cysteine Protease and Gamma Interferon-Induced Thiol Reductase Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent clinical trials have shown that the presence of a robust human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T-cell response may not be sufficient to prevent or control HIV-1 infection. Studies of antigen processing in the context of infectious HIV-1 are therefore warranted. Envelope-specific, major histocompat- ibility complex class II-restricted murine T-cell hybridomas were tested for responsiveness to splenic antigen- presenting

Robert Sealy; Wendy Chaka; Sherri Surman; Scott A. Brown; Peter Cresswell; Julia L. Hurwitz

2008-01-01

174

Treatment of potentially life-threatening enterovirus infections with pleconaril.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses usually cause self-limited disease that, although associated with high morbidity, is rarely fatal. In certain patient populations, however, the enteroviruses may cause potentially life-threatening infections. Pleconaril is a novel compound that integrates into the capsid of picornaviruses, including enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, preventing the virus from attaching to cellular receptors and uncoating to release RNA into the cell. Pleconaril was used on a compassionate-release basis to treat patients with potentially life-threatening enterovirus infections, and for 38 of these patients sufficient follow-up data were available for determining responses to therapy. Response was evaluated in 4 categories: clinical, virological, laboratory, and radiological. Most patients (28 [78%] of 36), including 12 of 16 with chronic enterovirus meningoencephalitis, were judged to have a clinical response temporally associated with pleconaril therapy. Similarly, nearly all patients whose virological responses (12 [92%] of 13), laboratory responses (14 [88%] of 16), and radiological responses (3 [60%] of 5) could be evaluated were judged to have responded favorably to a course of pleconaril treatment. Adverse effects were minimal and the drug was generally well-tolerated. PMID:11170912

Rotbart, H A; Webster, A D

2001-01-15

175

Co-Circulation and Evolution of Polioviruses and Species C Enteroviruses in a District of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Between October 2001 and April 2002, five cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) were reported in the southern province of the Republic of Madagascar. To determine viral factors that favor the emergence of these pathogenic VDPVs, we analyzed in detail their genomic and phenotypic characteristics and compared them with co-circulating enteroviruses. These VDPVs appeared to belong to two independent recombinant lineages with sequences from the type 2 strain of the oral poliovaccine (OPV) in the 5?-half of the genome and sequences derived from unidentified species C enteroviruses (HEV-C) in the 3?-half. VDPV strains showed characteristics similar to those of wild neurovirulent viruses including neurovirulence in poliovirus-receptor transgenic mice. We looked for other VDPVs and for circulating enteroviruses in 316 stools collected from healthy children living in the small area where most of the AFP cases occurred. We found vaccine PVs, two VDPVs similar to those found in AFP cases, some echoviruses, and above all, many serotypes of coxsackie A viruses belonging to HEV-C, with substantial genetic diversity. Several coxsackie viruses A17 and A13 carried nucleotide sequences closely related to the 2C and the 3Dpol coding regions of the VDPVs, respectively. There was also evidence of multiple genetic recombination events among the HEV-C resulting in numerous recombinant genotypes. This indicates that co-circulation of HEV-C and OPV strains is associated with evolution by recombination, resulting in unexpectedly extensive viral diversity in small human populations in some tropical regions. This probably contributed to the emergence of recombinant VDPVs. These findings give further insight into viral ecosystems and the evolutionary processes that shape viral biodiversity.

Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mala; Guillot, Sophie; Iber, Jane; Balanant, Jean; Blondel, Bruno; Riquet, Franck; Martin, Javier; Kew, Olen; Randriamanalina, Bakolalao; Razafinimpiasa, Lalatiana; Rousset, Dominique; Delpeyroux, Francis

2007-01-01

176

Simultaneous concentration of four enteroviruses from tap, waste, and natural waters.  

PubMed

The efficiency of virus recovery from water was investigated by using a method which enabled the concentration of a mixture of four enteroviruses with determination of their individual recovery efficiencies. The four viruses used (poliovirus 1, coxsackievirus A9, coxsackievirus B1, and echovirus 7) represented each of the four major subgroups of enteroviruses. This method, which was based on selective antibody neutralization, was used to investigate the effects of input water quality on enterovirus concentration by Balston filters (grade C; Balston, Inc., Lexington, Mass.) and organic flocculation. With tap water, the average recovery efficiency of the four viruses was 97%. Concentration from natural waters, including samples from two lakes (Lake Kinneret and the Hula Nature Reserve) and the Mediterranean Sea, resulted in similarly high average recovery efficiencies. Echovirus 7 was recovered with a slightly lower average efficiency from these types of water than were the other viruses. In comparison with other types of water, virus concentration from Jerusalem wastewater generally had a slightly lower efficiency of recovery, ranging from 63 to 75% for each of the viruses, with an overall average of 68%. The ability of each concentration step, membrane filtration or organic flocculation, to recover the viruses from water was assayed. For the filtration step, although there were not large differences in virus recoveries from tap water, echovirus 7 was recovered with the lowest efficiency (72%), and poliovirus 1 was recovered with the highest (87%) efficiency. Overall virus recovery by the filtration step was least efficient for wastewater (73%) and most efficient for seawater (107%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6331314

Guttman-Bass, N; Nasser, A

1984-06-01

177

Deferoxamine Compensates for Decreases in B Cell Counts and Reduces Mortality in Enterovirus 71-Infected Mice  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in children under six years of age. No vaccine or antiviral therapy is currently available. In this work, we found that the number of B cells was reduced in enterovirus 71-infected mice. Deferoxamine, a marine microbial natural product, compensated for the decreased levels of B cells caused by enterovirus 71 infection. The neutralizing antibody titer was also improved after deferoxamine treatment. Furthermore, deferoxamine relieved symptoms and reduced mortality and muscle damage caused by enterovirus 71 infection. This work suggested that deferoxamine has the potential for further development as a B cell-immunomodulator against enterovirus 71.

Yang, Yajun; Ma, Jing; Xiu, Jinghui; Bai, Lin; Guan, Feifei; Zhang, Li; Liu, Jiangning; Zhang, Lianfeng

2014-01-01

178

Monitoring Antigenic Variations of Enterovirus 71: Implications for Virus Surveillance and Vaccine Development  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes life-threatening epidemics in Asia and can be phylogenetically classified into three major genogroups (A?C) including 11 genotypes (A, B1?B5, and C1?C5). Recently, EV71 epidemics occurred cyclically in Taiwan with different genotypes. In recent years, human studies using post-infection sera obtained from children have detected antigenic variations among different EV71 strains. Therefore, surveillance of enterovirus 71 should include phylogenetic and antigenic analysis. Due to limitation of sera available from children with EV71 primary infection, suitable animal models should be developed to generate a panel of antisera for monitoring EV71 antigenic variations. Twelve reference strains representing the 11 EV71 genotypes were grown in rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Infectious EV71 particles were purified and collected to immunize rabbits. The rabbit antisera were then employed to measure neutralizing antibody titers against the 12 reference strains and 5 recent strains. Rabbits immunized with genogroup B and C viruses consistently have a lower neutralizing antibody titers against genogroup A (?8-fold difference) and antigenic variations between genogroup B and C viruses can be detected but did not have a clear pattern, which are consistent with previous human studies. Comparison between human and rabbit neutralizing antibody profiles, the results showed that ?8-fold difference in rabbit cross-reactive antibody ratios could be used to screen EV71 isolates for identifying potential antigenic variants. In conclusion, a rabbit model was developed to monitor antigenic variations of EV71, which are critical to select vaccine strains and predict epidemics.

Chia, Min-Yuan; Chung, Wan-Yu; Chiang, Pai-Shan; Chien, Yeh-Sheng; Ho, Mei-Shang; Lee, Min-Shi

2014-01-01

179

Identification of Site-Specific Adaptations Conferring Increased Neural Cell Tropism during Human Enterovirus 71 Infection  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the most virulent enteroviruses, but the specific molecular features that enhance its ability to disseminate in humans remain unknown. We analyzed the genomic features of EV71 in an immunocompromised host with disseminated disease according to the different sites of infection. Comparison of five full-length genomes sequenced directly from respiratory, gastrointestinal, nervous system, and blood specimens revealed three nucleotide changes that occurred within a five-day period: a non-conservative amino acid change in VP1 located within the BC loop (L97R), a region considered as an immunogenic site and possibly important in poliovirus host adaptation; a conservative amino acid substitution in protein 2B (A38V); and a silent mutation in protein 3D (L175). Infectious clones were constructed using both BrCr (lineage A) and the clinical strain (lineage C) backgrounds containing either one or both non-synonymous mutations. In vitro cell tropism and competition assays revealed that the VP197 Leu to Arg substitution within the BC loop conferred a replicative advantage in SH-SY5Y cells of neuroblastoma origin. Interestingly, this mutation was frequently associated in vitro with a second non-conservative mutation (E167G or E167A) in the VP1 EF loop in neuroblastoma cells. Comparative models of these EV71 VP1 variants were built to determine how the substitutions might affect VP1 structure and/or interactions with host cells and suggest that, while no significant structural changes were observed, the substitutions may alter interactions with host cell receptors. Taken together, our results show that the VP1 BC loop region of EV71 plays a critical role in cell tropism independent of EV71 lineage and, thus, may have contributed to dissemination and neurotropism in the immunocompromised patient.

Schibler, Manuel; Martinez, Yannick; Gerlach, Daniel; van Belle, Sandra; Turin, Lara; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

2012-01-01

180

Comparison of the haemagglutination inhibition test and the serum neutralisation test in tracheal organ cultures for typing infectious bronchitis virus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five strains of infectious bronchitis (IB) virus, which had been compared antigenically by the serum neutralisation (SN) test in tracheal organ cultures (OC), were arbitarily coded and then compared by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Their antigenic relationships were found to be similar by the two methods but, because of the high and variable cross reactions found in the HI

Jane K. A. Cook; A. J. Brown; C. D. Bracewell

1987-01-01

181

Detection and identification of enteroviruses from various drinking water sources in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryTwenty-three water samples, including seventeen from surface water reservoirs, three from the raw water of groundwater treatment plants, and three from small water systems, were collected in Taiwan and investigated for the presence of, as well as the species of enteroviruses. RT-PCR was used for the detection of enteroviruses. Results revealed that 23.5% of raw water samples from reservoirs were positive for enteroviruses. In addition, one of the three groundwater samples and two of the three small system water samples were positive for enteroviruses. Water samples that were positive for enteroviruses subsequently were evaluated by real-time PCR. The results indicated that enterovirus concentration in groundwater was lower than that in samples obtained from surface water sources. Enteroviruses were identified by nucleic acid sequencing in the 5'-untranslated regions. Three clusters of enteroviruses were identified as coxsackievirus A2, coxsackievirus A6, and enterovirus 71. The presence of enteroviruses indicates the possibility of waterborne transmission of enteroviruses in Taiwan, if water is not adequately treated.

Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chen, Chien-Hsien; Wan, Min-Tao; Chang, Po-Jen; Fan, Cheng-Wei

2009-02-01

182

New Respiratory Enterovirus and Recombinant Rhinoviruses among Circulating Picornaviruses  

PubMed Central

Rhinoviruses and enteroviruses are leading causes of respiratory infections. To evaluate genotypic diversity and identify forces shaping picornavirus evolution, we screened persons with respiratory illnesses by using rhinovirus-specific or generic real-time PCR assays. We then sequenced the 5? untranslated region, capsid protein VP1, and protease precursor 3CD regions of virus-positive samples. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis identified the large genotypic diversity of rhinoviruses circulating in humans. We identified and completed the genome sequence of a new enterovirus genotype associated with respiratory symptoms and acute otitis media, confirming the close relationship between rhinoviruses and enteroviruses and the need to detect both viruses in respiratory specimens. Finally, we identified recombinants among circulating rhinoviruses and mapped their recombination sites, thereby demonstrating that rhinoviruses can recombine in their natural host. This study clarifies the diversity and explains the reasons for evolution of these viruses.

Junier, Thomas; Gerlach, Daniel; Van Belle, Sandra; Turin, Lara; Cordey, Samuel; Muhlemann, Kathrin; Regamey, Nicolas; Aubert, John-David; Soccal, Paola M.; Eigenmann, Philippe; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Kaiser, Laurent

2009-01-01

183

Adsorption of enteroviruses to soil cores and their subsequent elution by artificial rainwater.  

PubMed

The adsorption and elution of a variety of human enteroviruses in a highly permeable, sandy soil was studied by using cores (43 by 125 mm) collected from an operating recharge basin on Long Island. Viruses studied included field and reference strains of polioviruses types 1 and 3 and reference strains of coxsackie virus B3 and echovirus types 1 and 6. Viruses suspended in treated sewage effluent were allowed to percolate through soil cores, and the filtrate was assayed for unadsorbed viruses. To determine the likelihood of desorption and mobilization, soil-bound viruses were subjected to a rinse with either treated sewage effluent or simulated rainwater which reflected the anion, cation, and pH characteristics of a typical northeastern United States rainfall. The results demonstrated that all polioviruses tested, including both reference and field strains, adsorbed extremely well to cores. Adsorption was somewhat reduced when clean, unconditioned soils were used. Soil-bound poliovirus strain LSc was not significantly mobilized by flooding columns with either a sewage effluent or rainwater rinse. One virus was mobilized by both types of rinses. The amount of viruses mobilized by rainwater rinses ranged from 24 to 66%. Variable adsorption-elution results were observed with other enteroviruses. Two guanidine-resistant mutants of poliovirus LSc demonstrated a soil adsorption-elution profile different from that of the parent strain. The data support the conclusion that soil adsorption-elution behavior is strain dependent and that poliovirus, particularly strain LSc, represents an inappropriate model. PMID:231936

Landry, E F; Vaughn, J M; Thomas, M Z; Beckwith, C A

1979-10-01

184

The ecology of enteroviruses in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 100 different enteric viruses are known to be excreted in human feces. More than 1 million viruses may be excreted per gram of feces, and concentrations as high as 500,000 infectious virus particles per liter have been detected in raw sewage. Certain enteric viruses can persist for long periods of time in the environment. Reported survival times range

Joseph L. Melnick; Charles P. Gerba; Gerald Berg

1980-01-01

185

Enterovirus 71: epidemiology, pathogenesis and management.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major cause of neurological threat in the world following the eradication of poliovirus. Most EV71 infections commonly result in hand-foot-mouth disease or herpangina, and some cases are associated with brainstem encephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis. Mortality was high in EV71 brainstem encephalitis complicated with pulmonary edema, particularly in children below 5 years of age. Destruction of vasomotor in the brainstem by EV71 produces autonomic nervous system dysregulation prior to the pulmonary edema. The pulmonary edema is the result of increased pulmonary vascular permeability caused by the direct brainstem lesions and/or a systemic inflammatory response syndrome produced by the release of cytokines and chemokines. There is currently no specific antiviral agent to treat or vaccine to prevent EV71 diseases. Treating severe EV71 brainstem encephalitis patients with intravenous IgG and milrinone is associated with significantly decreased mortality by attenuated sympathetic activity and cytokine production. PMID:19681701

Wang, Shih-Min; Liu, Ching-Chuan

2009-08-01

186

Human enterovirus 71 epidemics: what's next?  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) epidemics have affected various countries in the past 40 years. EV71 commonly causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, but can result in neurological and cardiorespiratory complications in severe cases. Genotypic changes of EV71 have been observed in different places over time, with the emergence of novel genotypes or subgenotypes giving rise to serious outbreaks. Since the late 1990s, intra- and inter-typic recombination events in EV71 have been increasingly reported in the Asia-Pacific region. In particular, ‘double-recombinant’ EV71 strains belonging to a novel genotype D have been predominant in mainland China and Hong Kong over the last decade, though co-circulating with a minority of other EV71 subgenotypes and coxsackie A viruses. Continuous surveillance and genome studies are important to detect potential novel mutants or recombinants in the near future. Rapid and sensitive molecular detection of EV71 is of paramount importance in anticipating and combating EV71 outbreaks.

Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2013-01-01

187

Bovine Enteroviruses as Indicators of Fecal Contamination  

PubMed Central

Surface waters frequently have been contaminated with human enteric viruses, and it is likely that animal enteric viruses have contaminated surface waters also. Bovine enteroviruses (BEV), found in cattle worldwide, usually cause asymptomatic infections and are excreted in the feces of infected animals in large numbers. In this study, the prevalence and genotype of BEV in a closed herd of cattle were evaluated and compared with BEV found in animals in the immediate environment and in environmental specimens. BEV was found in feces from 76% of cattle, 38% of white-tailed deer, and one of three Canada geese sharing the same pastures, as well as the water obtained from animal watering tanks, from the pasture, from streams running from the pasture to an adjacent river, and from the river, which emptied into the Chesapeake Bay. Furthermore, BEV was found in oysters collected from that river downstream from the farm. These findings suggest that BEV could be used as an indicator of fecal pollution originating from animals (cattle and/or deer). Partial sequence analysis of the viral genomes indicates that different viral variants coexist in the same area. The possibility of identifying the viral strains found in the animals and in the contaminated areas by sequencing the RNA genome, could provide a tool to find the origin of the contamination and should be useful for epidemiological and viral molecular evolution studies.

Ley, Victoria; Higgins, James; Fayer, Ronald

2002-01-01

188

The enteroviruses: problems in need of treatments.  

PubMed

Specific antiviral therapy is currently not available for enterovirus (EV) infections. Poliomyelitis, EV 71 neurologic disease, and neonatal EV disease are three manifestations of EV infections that exemplify the importance of developing antivirals for EV infections. Despite tremendous strides in the effort to eradicate polio through vaccination, challenges remain, including the potential for transmission of neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses which have genetically reverted from live-attenuated, oral poliovirus vaccine virus. EV 71 emerged in the late 1990 s in eastern Asia as a neurovirulent virus that causes large outbreaks of hand-foot-mouth disease, herpangina, and fever, and, in some children, meningitis, acute flaccid paralysis, and brainstem encephalitis complicated by pulmonary edema and cardiopulmonary collapse. EV infections in neonates can cause severe disease characterized by meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, pneumonitis, and/or hepatitis and coagulopathy. Prototypic agents for specific therapy of EV infections that act upon numerous potential viral targets exist. Three candidate compounds are currently in development: pleconaril (active against many EVs), V-073 (anti-poliovirus), and BTA-798 (active against many rhinoviruses and EVs). The three conditions described illustrate why development of antiviral medications for EV infections is a medically important need. PMID:24119825

Abzug, Mark J

2014-01-01

189

Strategies to develop antivirals against enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important human pathogen which may cause severe neurological complications and death in children. The virus caused several outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region during the past two decades and has been considered a significant public health problem in the post-poliovirus eradication era. Unlike poliovirus, there is no effective vaccine or approved antivirals against EV71. To explore anti-EV71 agents therefore is of vital importance. Several strategies have been employed to develop antivirals based on the molecular characteristics of the virus. Among these, some small molecules that were developed against human rhinoviruses and poliovirus are under evaluation. In this review, we discuss the recent development of such small molecules against EV71, known drug resistance and possible solutions to it, and animal models for evaluating the efficacy of these antivirals. Although further investigation is required for clinical applications of the existing candidates, the molecular mechanisms revealed for the inhibition of EV71 replication can be used for designing new molecules against this virus in the future.

2013-01-01

190

GLOBALIZATION OF HUMAN INFECTIOUS DISEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization has facilitated the spread of numerous infectious agents to all corners of the planet. Analysis of the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) database quantitatively illustrates that the globalization of human infectious agents depends significantly on the range of hosts used. Infectious agents specific to humans are broadly and uniformly distributed, whereas zoonotic infectious agents are far more

Katherine F. Smith; Dov F. Sax; Steven D. Gaines; Vanina Guernier; Jean-François Guégan

2007-01-01

191

Enterovirus 71 pathogenicity in monkeys and cotton rats.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurovirulent non-polio enterovirus that can cause severe central nervous system (CNS) infection in infants. Vervet monkeys infected intracerebrally or intramuscularly with EV71 isolates from the Bulgarian outbreak of 1975 developed clinical manifestations and pathological signs of encephalomyelitis and spinal poliomyelitis that were similar to EV71 neuroinfection in children. In addition, vervet monkeys with encephalomyelitis had severe alterations in the choroid plexus. EV71 neuroinfection could also be reproduced in young (3- to 4-week old) cotton rats with clinical and pathological signs comparable with those observed in vervet monkeys. PMID:24158347

Koroleva, Galina A; Karmysheva, Valentina Ya; Lukashev, Alexander N

2014-05-01

192

Infectious causes of chronic diarrhoea.  

PubMed

Infections are an uncommon cause of chronic diarrhoea. Parasites are most likely, including protozoa like giardia, cryptosporidia and cyclospora. Bacteria are unlikely to cause chronic diarrhoea in immunocompetent individuals with the possible exception of Yersinia, Plesiomonas and Aeromonas. Infectious diarrhoea can trigger other causes of chronic diarrhoea, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and "Brainerd-type" diarrhoea. A thorough evaluation should detect most infections causing chronic diarrhoea. PMID:23384802

Kaiser, Lisa; Surawicz, Christina M

2012-10-01

193

Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. The virus replicates not only in the epithelium of upper and lower respiratory tract tissues, but also in many tissues along the alimentary tract and elsewhere e.g.

Dave Cavanagh

2007-01-01

194

Comparison of enterovirus and adenovirus concentration and enumeration methods in seawater from Southern California, USA and Baja Malibu, Mexico.  

PubMed

Despite being important etiological agents of waterborne illness, the sources, transport and decay of human viruses in recreational waters are not well understood. This study examines enterovirus and adenovirus concentrations in coastal water samples collected from four beaches impacted by microbial pollution: (1) Malibu Lagoon, Malibu; (2) Tijuana River, Imperial Beach; (3) Baja Malibu, Baja California; and (4) Punta Bandera, Baja California. Water samples were concentrated using a flocculation-based skim milk method and dead-end membrane filtration (MF). Viruses were enumerated using cell culture infectivity assays and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR). Across concentration and quantification methods, enteroviruses were detected more often than adenoviruses. For both viruses, MF followed by (RT)QPCR yielded higher concentrations than skim milk flocculation followed by (RT)QPCR or cell culture assays. Samples concentrated by skim milk flocculation and enumerated by (RT)QPCR agreed more closely with concentrations enumerated by cell culture assays than MF followed by (RT)QPCR. The detection of viruses by MF and (RT)QPCR was positively correlated with the presence of infectious viruses. Further research is needed to determine if detection of viruses by rapid methods such as (RT)QPCR can be a useful water quality monitoring tool to assess health risks in recreational waters. PMID:22960486

Sassoubre, Lauren M; Love, David C; Silverman, Andrea I; Nelson, Kara L; Boehm, Alexandria B

2012-09-01

195

Equine Infectious Anemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equine infectious anemia is a disease that affects horses, mules, and burros. EIA, also known as swamp fever, is found in all areas of the United States. Highly infectious, EIA is spread by mosquitoes, biting flies, and by use of contaminated equipment su...

1994-01-01

196

Immunosenescence and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases are major causes, with malignancies, of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Increased susceptibility to infections may result from underlying dysfunction of an aged immune system; moreover, inappropriate immunologic functions associated with aging can determine an insufficient response to vaccines. Impairments of cellular, humoral and innate immunity in the elderly, contributing to increased incidence of infectious diseases, are

Lia Ginaldi; Maria Francesca Loreto; Maria Pia Corsi; Marco Modesti; Massimo De Martinis

2001-01-01

197

Equine Infectious Anemia: 2001 Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equine infectious anemia (EIA) has been recognized as a major infectious disease of equines for more than 150 years. Since 1970, tools have been available to identify persistently infected carriers of the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). Testing of ...

2001-01-01

198

RT-PCR and cell culture infectivity assay to detect enteroviruses during drinking water treatment processes.  

PubMed

In this study, 62 water samples were collected from two water treatment plants (WTPs) in Suez Canal cities (Port Said and Ismaillia) and one plant in Cairo (Giza WTP) in addition to the beginning of the two Nile river branches (Rosetta and Damietta). Viruses were concentrated by adsorption-elution ethod sing 142 mm-diameter nitrocellulose membrane of 0.45 microm pore size and eluted with 3% beef extract at pH 9.5. The concentrated samples were inoculated for 3 successive passages in three cell culture types (Vero, BGM and RD). Enterovirus RNAs in CPE-induced samples were extracted by guanidinium thiocyanate/ phenol/chloroform and heat shock methods and detected by RT-PCR and neutralization test. The results showed that eight samples [14.5% (8/62)] contained enteroviruses most of them were polioviruses [87.5% (7/8)] and coxsackievirus type B2 [12.5% (1/8)]. The three cell cultures were of the same sensitivity to detect the isolated viruses. Also, RT-PCR followed by neutralization assay facilitates and accelerate the results. The guanidinium thiocyanate extraction method was more sensitive than heat shock method. The results turned our attention to review our technology of water treatment and disinfection step in addition to the selection of suitable intake for the drinking water treatment plants. PMID:17219867

Ali, M A; El-Esnawy, N A; Shoaeb, A R; Ibraheim, M; El-Hawaary, S E

1999-01-01

199

Characterization of a novel porcine enterovirus in domestic pig in Hungary.  

PubMed

Porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) of genus Enterovirus are small, non-enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive sense genomic RNA, belonging to the family Picornaviridae. The discovery of two distinct serotypes (PEV9 and 10) was first reported in 1979. Despite the sporadic detection and partial genome sequences of these viruses our knowledge about the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of PEV types in domestic pigs is very deficient. In this study, we identified a novel PEV from fecal samples of clinically healthy pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) in Hungary by RT-PCR using human enterovirus generic primer pairs for 5'UTR region, with subsequent partial VP1 and complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Among 45 fecal and blood sample pairs collected at the same farm from domestic pigs divided into three age groups (10 days, 4 weeks, and 3 months of age, N = 15 each group) six (40%) of the 15 fecal samples of 10-day-old pigs were enterovirus-positive. PEV was not detected in serum samples. Sequence- and phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome of swine/K23/2008/HUN (HQ702854) show relationship to PEV strains but it is separated from the PEV9 and 10, especially in structural regions. Swine/K23/2008/HUN has average of 77 and 75% amino acid identity in the P1 region, and only 61% in VP1 region to PEV9 and 10, respectively. The partial VP1 sequences of the Hungarian PEV strains show 99% nucleotide identity compared to each other. PEVs could be capable of at least local endemic spread among newborn piglets and cause no clinical symptoms or viraemia. Sequence data indicates that the Hungarian PEV strain belongs to a novel PEV. To clarify the taxonomic confusion related to PEV--as a consequence of recent extensive taxonomic changes among porcine enteric picornaviruses--we propose that PEV9 and PEV10 should be reclassified as PEV1 and PEV2. In this classification swine/K23/2008/HUN represents PEV3. PMID:21504800

Boros, Ákos; Pankovics, Péter; Reuter, Gábor

2011-07-01

200

Infectious keratitis in leprosy  

PubMed Central

AIM—To describe leprosy characteristics, ocular features, and type of organisms that produce infective corneal ulcers in leprosy patients.?METHOD—The records of all leprosy patients admitted for treatment of corneal ulcers between 1992 and 1997 were reviewed.?RESULTS—63 leprosy patients, 53 males and 10 females, are described. 16 were tuberculoid and 47 lepromatous. 25 patients had completed multidrug therapy. 10 patients had face patches, eight had type I reaction, and 10 had type II reaction. 43 (68%) patients had hand deformities. In 54% of patients pain was absent as a presenting symptom. 19 patients gave a history of trauma. In 15 patients ulcers had also occurred on the other eye, five of them having occurred during the study period and the rest before 1992. Of the 68 eyes with corneal ulcers, 28 had madarosis, 34 had lagophthalmos, nine had ectropion, three had trichiasis, six had blocked nasolacrimal ducts, and 39 decreased corneal sensation. In 14 eyes, a previous lagophthalmos surgery had been done. 16 patients were blind at presentation. 32% of ulcers were located centrally. After treatment only 18% of the eyes showed visual improvement. Five types of fungus were cultured, two of them rare ocular pathogens.?CONCLUSIONS—Corneal ulcers occur more in males and in the lepromatous group of patients. Decreased corneal sensation, lagophthalmos and hand deformity are closely associated. Indigenous treatment and late presentations were notable in many patients. Visual outcome is not good. There is increased risk of developing an ulcer in the other eye. Fungal corneal ulcers are not uncommon.?? Keywords: infectious keratitis; corneal ulcers; leprosy

John, D.; Daniel, E.

1999-01-01

201

Ecology of Infectious Diseases (EID)  

NSF Publications Database

... Infectious Diseases (EID) Synopsis of Program: The Ecology of Infectious Diseases special ... Requirements Proposal Review Information NSF Proposal Review Process Review Protocol and Associated ...

202

Picornavirus and enterovirus diversity with associated human diseases.  

PubMed

Members of the Picornaviridae family are non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses with a 30nm icosahedral capsid. This virus family exhibits a considerable amount of genetic variability driven both by mutation and recombination. Recently, three previously unknown human picornaviruses, namely the human Saffold cardiovirus, cosavirus and salivirus, have been identified in stools or respiratory samples from subjects presenting symptoms ranging from gastroenteritis to acute flaccid paralysis. However, these viruses were also frequently detected in asymptomatic subjects and their clinical relevance remains to be elucidated. The Enterovirus genus is a prototype example of the Picornaviridae heterogeneity at both genetic and phenotypic levels. This genus is divided into 10 species, seven of which contain human viruses, including three Rhinovirus species. Both human rhino- and enteroviruses are also characterized by high levels of genetic variability, as exemplified by the existence of over 250 different serotypes and the recent discovery of new enterovirus genotypes and the Rhinovirus C species. Despite their common genomic features, rhinoviruses are restricted to the respiratory tract, whereas the vast majority of enteroviruses infect the gastrointestinal tract and can spread to other organs, such as the heart or the central nervous system. Understanding the genetic determinants of such phenotypic diversity is an important challenge and a field for future investigation. Better characterization of these ubiquitous human pathogens may help to develop vaccines or antiviral treatments and to monitor the emergence of new strains. PMID:23201849

Tapparel, Caroline; Siegrist, Fredy; Petty, Tom J; Kaiser, Laurent

2013-03-01

203

[Infectious agents in the G.I. tract diseases (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The distribution of normal intestinal flora changes in the different gut segments and is influenced by gastric pH, peristalsis, bactericidal activity of Immunoglobulins A (locally produced). Saprophytic bacteria prevent the growth of pathogenous microorganisms, partake in the production of vitamins (K, B group), can be responsible for the production of carcinogens and co-carcinogens by acting on bile-acids, food or drugs ingested, can affect the morphology of the intestinal mucosa. Enteroviruses are transient intestinal microorganisms, responsible for infectious disease whose highest incidence is summer and autumn, whose frequency is particularly elevated in malnourished subjects. PMID:6258609

Magnani, G; De Simoni, M; Ferrari, C; Giuberti, T; Pedretti, G; Sacchini, D; Spadini, G

1980-01-01

204

Membrane Adsorption with Direct Cell Culture Combined with Reverse Transcription-PCR as a Fast Method for Identifying Enteroviruses from Sewage  

PubMed Central

We present a new approach for the detection and identification of enteroviruses concentrated and isolated from sewage. Samples were collected from two study sites located at Nicosia and Limassol sewage treatment plants in Cyprus. Viruses were adsorbed to cellulose nitrate membrane filters, cultured directly from the membrane filters by using the VIRADEN method, and identified by reverse transcription-PCR, followed by 5? untranslated region (5?-UTR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the VP1 protein coding region. Initial subgrouping based on the HpaII restriction profile showed that all of the isolates except one belonged to the same genetic subcluster. Partial VP1 sequencing revealed that most isolates belonged to serotypes coxsackie B4 (42.5%) and coxsackie ?9 (30%), whereas coxsackie B2 (17.5%) and coxsackie B1 (3%) isolates were less frequently observed. One poliovirus type 2 isolate (2.5%) of vaccine origin was also found. The HpaII digests predicted the genetic subcluster for all isolates. They also accurately differentiated the isolates as nonpolio or polio isolates. This approach seems to be very promising for environmental surveillance of enterovirus circulation and epidemiology, with all of the significant effects that this entails for public health. Partial VP1 sequencing is efficient for molecular serotyping of enteroviruses, while 5?-UTR RFLP analysis with HpaII can also be considered an asset for the initial subclassification of enterovirus isolates.

Papaventsis, D.; Siafakas, N.; Markoulatos, P.; Papageorgiou, G. T.; Kourtis, C.; Chatzichristou, E.; Economou, C.; Levidiotou, S.

2005-01-01

205

Detection of enterovirus capsid protein VP1 in myocardium from cases of myocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy by immunohistochemistry: further evidence of enterovirus persistence in myocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of enteroviruses with myocardial disease has been investigated extensively by molecular biological techniques to detect viral RNA, but remains controversial. This retrospective study investigated the involvement of enterovirus in myocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) by detection of viral antigens in myocardial samples from a new patient series using an optimized immunohistochemical technique. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy, autopsy or explanted

Hongyi Zhang; Yanwen Li; Dougal R. McClean; Peter J. Richardson; Richard Florio; Mary Sheppard; Karen Morrison; Najma Latif; Michael J. Dunn; Leonard C. Archard

2004-01-01

206

Modeling Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... simulations with the help of customized programs called computational models. Different models address different questions. The ones ... 2004, a network of researchers has been building computational models of infectious disease outbreaks. The network is ...

207

Ethics and infectious disease.  

PubMed

Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude by providing sociological and historical explanations of why the topic of infectious disease has not already received more attention from bioethicists. PMID:16167406

Selgelid, Michael J

2005-06-01

208

An eight-year study of epidemiologic features of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan.  

PubMed

In 1998, an epidemic of enterovirus 71 (EV 71) infection occurred in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of EV 71 infection in Taiwan. Between March 1998 and December 2005, a total of 1,548 severe cases of hand-foot-mouth disease and herpangina (HFMD/HA) was reported to the Center for Disease Control in Taiwan. A seasonal variation in number of severe cases was observed, with the annual peak in second quarter. Deaths from severe HFMD/HA varied from year to year (chi(2) for trend = 6.781, P = 0.009). Most (92%) cases occurred in children infectious disease causing serious clinical illness and deaths of young children. Vaccine development is recommended to prevent future EV 71 infections. PMID:17620652

Chen, Shou-Chien; Chang, Hsiao-Ling; Yan, Tsong-Rong; Cheng, Yan-Tzong; Chen, Kow-Tong

2007-07-01

209

Genomic analysis of two novel human enterovirus C genotypes found in respiratory samples from Peru  

PubMed Central

We report the discovery of two enteroviruses detected in nasopharyngeal samples obtained from subjects with respiratory disease in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both viruses belong to a clade within the species Human enterovirus C, which includes the recently characterized human enteroviruses 109 and 104. Members of this clade have undergone significant genomic rearrangement, as indicated by deletions in the hypervariable region of the 5? UTR and the VP1 protein, as well as recombination within the non-structural genes. Our findings and review of published sequences suggests that several novel human enterovirus C serotypes are currently circulating worldwide.

Hirschberg, David L.; Sameroff, Stephen; Haq, Saddef; Luna, Giannina; Bennett, Andrew J.; Silva, Maria; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew; Bausch, Daniel G.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2013-01-01

210

Human Enterovirus in the Gastrocnemius of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by myofiber degeneration and loss of function in muscles of the lower limbs. Human enterovirus (HEV) infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of muscle diseases. However, its association with PAD has not been studied. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that infectious HEV is present in skeletal muscle of patients with PAD and is associated with severity of disease. Methods and Results Gastrocnemius biopsies from 37 patients with PAD and 14 controls were examined for the presence of HEV RNA, viral capsid protein, viral RNA copy number, and viral infectivity. HEV RNA was detected in 54% of the biopsies from patients with PAD but was not detected in muscle biopsies from control patients. This difference in prevalence among PAD and control patients was significant at P<0.001. Viral RNA copy numbers were increased significantly at the later stages of disease; Fontaine Stage IV (105.50 copies/mg muscle wet weight, at P<0.005) and Stage III (104.87 copies/mg, at P<0.010) compared to Stage II (102.50 copies/mg). Viral replication was confirmed by the presence of the negative?strand of viral RNA in all specimens positive for HEV RNA. Cultures of HeLa and human skeletal muscle cells treated with muscle homogenates showed HEV replication and the presence of HEV capsid protein. Conclusion Our data identified infectious HEV in the gastrocnemius of PAD patients but not in controls. Viral copy number and prevalence of infection were higher in the later stages of disease. Our data point to the need for further studies to determine the contribution of HEV infection to the pathophysiology of PAD.

Kim, Julian K. S.; Zhu, Zhen; Casale, George; Koutakis, Panagiotis; McComb, Rodney D.; Swanson, Stanley; Thompson, Jonathan; Miserlis, Dimitrios; Johanning, Jason M.; Haynatzki, Gleb; Pipinos, Iraklis I.

2013-01-01

211

Infectious diarrhea: an overview.  

PubMed

Diarrheal disease, which is most often caused by infectious pathogens, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children. This is particularly true in developing countries. Recent outbreaks of infectious diarrhea in developed countries, including the USA, are often attributed to food handling and distribution practices and highlight the need for continued vigilance in this area. Another common cause of infectious diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), has historically been associated with the use of antibiotics and exposure to a health-care setting but is now increasingly common in the community in persons who lack the typical risk factors. Recent scientific advances have also led to new and proposed new therapies for infectious diarrhea, including fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for recurrent C. difficile infection (RCDI), probiotics for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and CDI, and the use of zinc supplementation in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. Other therapies that have been in use for decades, such as the oral rehydration solution (ORS), continue to be the targets of scientific advancement in an effort to improve delivery and efficacy. Finally, post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is an increasingly recognized occurrence. Attempts to understand the mechanism behind this phenomenon are underway and may provide insight into potential treatment options. PMID:25064318

Dickinson, Brandon; Surawicz, Christina M

2014-08-01

212

Causal inference for vaccine effects on infectiousness.  

PubMed

If a vaccine does not protect individuals completely against infection, it could still reduce infectiousness of infected vaccinated individuals to others. Typically, vaccine efficacy for infectiousness is estimated based on contrasts between the transmission risk to susceptible individuals from infected vaccinated individuals compared with that from infected unvaccinated individuals. Such estimates are problematic, however, because they are subject to selection bias and do not have a causal interpretation. Here, we develop causal estimands for vaccine efficacy for infectiousness for four different scenarios of populations of transmission units of size two. These causal estimands incorporate both principal stratification, based on the joint potential infection outcomes under vaccine and control, and interference between individuals within transmission units. In the most general scenario, both individuals can be exposed to infection outside the transmission unit and both can be assigned either vaccine or control. The three other scenarios are special cases of the general scenario where only one individual is exposed outside the transmission unit or can be assigned vaccine. The causal estimands for vaccine efficacy for infectiousness are well defined only within certain principal strata and, in general, are identifiable only with strong unverifiable assumptions. Nonetheless, the observed data do provide some information, and we derive large sample bounds on the causal vaccine efficacy for infectiousness estimands. An example of the type of data observed in a study to estimate vaccine efficacy for infectiousness is analyzed in the causal inference framework we developed. PMID:22499732

Halloran, M Elizabeth; Hudgens, Michael G

2012-01-01

213

Increasing Mild Enterovirus Cases Provides An Important Signal of Up-coming Trends in Elevating Severe Enterovirus Cases  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was to elucidate the spatio-temporal correlations between the mild and severe enterovirus cases through integrating enterovirus-related three surveillance systems in Taiwan. With these fully understanding epidemiological characteristics, hopefully, we can develop better measures and indicators from mild cases to provide early warning signals and thus minimizing subsequent numbers of severe cases. Introduction In July 2012, the 54 children infected with enterovirus-71(EV-71) were died in Cambodia [1]. The media called it as mystery illness and made Asian parents worried. In fact, the severe epidemics of enterovirus occurred frequently in Asia, including Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and China [2]. The clinical severity varied from asymptomatic to mild (hand-foot-mouth disease and herpangina) and severe pulmonary edema/hemorrhage and encephalitis [3]. Up to now, the development of vaccine for EV-71 and the more effective antiviral drug was still ongoing [4]. Therefore, surveillance for monitoring the enterovirus activity and understanding the epidemiological characteristics between mild and severe enterovirus cases was crucial. Methods Three main databases including national notifiable diseases surveillance, sentinel physician surveillance and laboratory surveillance from July 1, 1999 to December 31, 2008 were analyzed. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was applied for measuring the consistency of the trend. The Poisson space-time scan statistic [5] was used for identifying the most likely clusters. We used GIS (ArcMap, version9.0; ESRI Inc.,Redlands, CA, USA) for visualization of detected clusters. Results Temporal analysis found that the Pearson’s correlation between mild EV cases and severe EV cases occurring in the same week was 0.553 (p<0.01) in Figure 1. Such a correlation became moderate (data) when mild EV cases happened in 1?4 weeks before the current severe EV cases. Among the 1,517 severe EV cases notified to Taiwan CDC during the study period, the mean age was 27 months, 61.4% was male and 12% were fatal. These severe EV cases were significantly associated with the positive isolation rate of EV-71, with much higher correlation than the mild cases [ 0.498 p<0.01 vs. 0.278, p<0.01]. Using the space-time cluster method, we identified three possible clusters in June 2008 in six cities/counties (Figure 2). Conclusions Taiwan’s surveillance data indicate that local public health professionals can monitor the trends in the numbers of mild EV cases in community to provide early warning signals for local residents to prevent the severity of future waves.

Chan, Ta-Chien; Chen, Rung-Hung; King, Chwan-Chuen

2013-01-01

214

[Can obesity be infectious?].  

PubMed

Currently the presence of obesity is increasing and it has become the basic civilisation illness of our times. Up to date no attention has been paid to the possibility of etiology of infectious obesity. Recently some publications have appeared whose authors suggest a possibility of an infectious derivation of some forms of obesity. Six pathogens causing obesity in animals have been described: canine distemper virus (CDV), avian adenovirus, Borna disease virus (BDV), SMAM-1, human adenovirus Ad-36, scrapie agent, Rous-associated virus-7 (RAV-7). Among them two viruses occur in humans: human adenovirus Ad-36 and avian adenovirus SMAM-1. PMID:16541729

Adrych, Krystian

2005-01-01

215

Infectious waste feed system  

DOEpatents

An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

Coulthard, E. James (York, PA)

1994-01-01

216

The small nonstructural protein (NS2) of the parvovirus minute virus of mice is required for efficient DNA replication and infectious virus production in a cell-type-specific manner.  

PubMed

Seven mutations which affect only the small nonstructural protein NS2 were introduced into the infectious clone of the autonomous parvovirus, minute virus of mice (MVM). The majority of these mutants were severely defective for replication following transfection of normal host murine A9 fibroblasts; however, all were found to replicate more efficiently and produce infectious virus in certain other cell types, including human NB324K. The isolation of viral stocks from NB324K cells permitted a more detailed analysis of the mutant defect on A9 cells. NS2 mutant NS2-2018 was shown to be approximately 10-fold deficient for viral monomer replicative-form DNA production within a single-burst cycle in infected A9 cells and produced a reduced amount of progeny single strand. Mutant NS2-2018 generated wild-type levels of monomer replicative-form DNA on NB324K cells but made reduced levels of progeny single strand and small plaques on these cells. The accumulation of NS1 is reduced late in NS2-2018 infection of A9 cells, but NS1 accumulates to wild-type levels late in NB324K cell infections. NS1 nuclear localization is not dependent on NS2 in A9 or NB324K cells. These results indicate that NS2 participates in MVM DNA replication and is required for efficient viral growth. The requirement for NS2 during MVM replication is also host cell specific. This requirement is significantly more pronounced in the normal host murine A9 cells than in certain other cell types, including NB324K. PMID:2147041

Naeger, L K; Cater, J; Pintel, D J

1990-12-01

217

The small nonstructural protein (NS2) of the parvovirus minute virus of mice is required for efficient DNA replication and infectious virus production in a cell-type-specific manner.  

PubMed Central

Seven mutations which affect only the small nonstructural protein NS2 were introduced into the infectious clone of the autonomous parvovirus, minute virus of mice (MVM). The majority of these mutants were severely defective for replication following transfection of normal host murine A9 fibroblasts; however, all were found to replicate more efficiently and produce infectious virus in certain other cell types, including human NB324K. The isolation of viral stocks from NB324K cells permitted a more detailed analysis of the mutant defect on A9 cells. NS2 mutant NS2-2018 was shown to be approximately 10-fold deficient for viral monomer replicative-form DNA production within a single-burst cycle in infected A9 cells and produced a reduced amount of progeny single strand. Mutant NS2-2018 generated wild-type levels of monomer replicative-form DNA on NB324K cells but made reduced levels of progeny single strand and small plaques on these cells. The accumulation of NS1 is reduced late in NS2-2018 infection of A9 cells, but NS1 accumulates to wild-type levels late in NB324K cell infections. NS1 nuclear localization is not dependent on NS2 in A9 or NB324K cells. These results indicate that NS2 participates in MVM DNA replication and is required for efficient viral growth. The requirement for NS2 during MVM replication is also host cell specific. This requirement is significantly more pronounced in the normal host murine A9 cells than in certain other cell types, including NB324K. Images

Naeger, L K; Cater, J; Pintel, D J

1990-01-01

218

Non-polio enteroviruses in acute flaccid paralysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Human enteroviruses are the major cause of aseptic meningitis and also cause a wide range of other acute illnesses, including\\u000a neonatal sepsis like disease, meningitis, acute flaccid paralysis and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Infection in neonates\\u000a is particularly life threatening.Methods : Stool samples of 523 children (age < 4 years) showing symptoms of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) were studied. National

Amit Kapoor; A. Ayyagari; T. N. Dhole

2001-01-01

219

RT-PCR and chemiluminescent ELISA for detection of enteroviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification (RT-PCR) is now used commonly to detect the presence of enteric RNA viruses in environmental samples. A sensitive, non-isotopic microtitre plate hybridisation assay was developed and applied for detection of enteroviruses in environmental samples. Following reverse transcription, viral cDNA was labelled with digoxigenin (DIG)-dUTP during the PCR amplification step. The labelled PCR

G. E Greening; L Woodfield; G. D Lewis

1999-01-01

220

Antiviral activity of pyridyl imidazolidinones against enterovirus 71 variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyridyl imidazolidinone is a novel class of capsid binder which can inhibit enterovirus 71 (EV71). In this study, we tested\\u000a the susceptibility of six recombinant viruses with different single-site mutations in VP1. Eleven modified pyridyl imidazolidinones\\u000a were synthesized and used to probe the interaction between these compounds and the EV71 VP1 protein. We found that the D31N\\u000a or E98K mutant

Tzu-Chun Chen; Shu-Cheng Liu; Peng-Nien Huang; Hwan-You Chang; Jyh-Haur Chern; Shin-Ru Shih

2008-01-01

221

Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

... school 3 years training as a doctor of internal medicine 2-3 years specialized training in infectious diseases ... difficult certification examination by the American Board of Internal Medicine in both internal medicine and infectious diseases. Back ...

222

Isolation of enteroviruses from water, suspended solids, and sediments from Galveston Bay: survival of poliovirus and rotavirus adsorbed to sediments.  

PubMed Central

The distribution and quantitation of enteroviruses among water, suspended solids, and compact sediments in a polluted estuary are described. Samples were collected sequentially from water, suspended solids, fluffy sediments (uppermost layer of bottom sediments), and compact sediment. A total of 103 samples were examined of which 27 (26%) were positive for virus. Polioviruses were recovered most often, followed by coxsackie B viruses and echoviruses 7 and 29. Virus was found most often attached to suspended solids: 72% of these samples were positive, whereas only 14% of water samples without solids yielded virus. Fluffy sediments yielded virus in 47% of the samples, whereas only 5% of compact bottom-sediment samples were positive. When associated with solids, poliovirus and rotavirus retained their infectious quality for 19 days. The same viruses remained infectious for only 9 days when freely suspended in seawater. Collection of suspended solids at ambient water pH appears to be very useful for the detection of virus; it has advantages over collecting and processing large volumes of water, with accompanying pH adjustment and salt addition for processing.

Rao, V C; Seidel, K M; Goyal, S M; Metcalf, T G; Melnick, J L

1984-01-01

223

INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS - DIAGNOSTIC POTENTIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Infectious mononucleosis is a disease in children and adolescents. It is common mainly in countries with temperate and cold climate. Patients usually present with fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, often hepatosplenomegaly. Haematologic abnormalities include a peripheral blood lymphocytosis, more than 10 % of the leucocytes in blood consisit of atypical lymphocytes. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an etiologic agent. In organism

Milena Karcheva; S. Gecheva; V. Slavcheva; G. Veleva

2008-01-01

224

Introduction: Infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In any discussion of the great challenges facing humanity in addressing global environmental problems, a small number of topics automatically rise to the top: climate change, the loss of biodiversity, and the sustainability of the services ecosystems provide us. But no threats to human welfare are more urgent than those posed by infectious diseases; we suffer already the devastating consequences

SIMON A. LEVIN

2007-01-01

225

Detection and genotyping of enteroviruses in cerebrospinal fluid in patients in Victoria, Australia, 2007-2013.  

PubMed

Genotyping by VP1 fragment polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid sequencing to detect enterovirus (EV) genotypes was performed directly on 729 EV PCR positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected between 2007 and 2012 from Victorian hospital inpatients. The overall genotype identification rate from CSF-positive material was 43%. The four most common genotypes identified were Echovirus 6 (24%), Echovirus 30 (17%), Echovirus 25 (10%), and Coxsackievirus A9 (10%), together comprising 61% of all EVs typed. The seasonal distribution of all EVs identified followed the recognized pattern of mainly summer epidemics. Three of the four predominant genotypes were present in each of the 6 years in which the study was conducted, with 20 other EV genotypes also detected, often in only a single year. Genotyping of EVs directly in CSF is faster, simpler and more sensitive than traditional virus neutralization assays performed on EV positive samples. J. Med. Virol. 86:1609-1613, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24474149

Papadakis, Georgina; Chibo, Doris; Druce, Julian; Catton, Michael; Birch, Chris

2014-09-01

226

Reverse Transcription Multiplex PCR for Differentiation between Polio and Enteroviruses from Clinical and Environmental Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the rapid detection of polioviruses and their differentiation from nonpoliovirus enteroviruses, we developed a protocol in which clinical or environmental specimens are first inoculated onto cell cultures in tubes. After overnight incubation, the cultures are subjected to reverse transcription multiplex PCR with a primer pair which detects all enteroviruses (T. Hyypia¨, P. Auvinen, and M. Maaronen, J. Gen. Virol.

DENISE EGGER; LUIS PASAMONTES; MARIANNE OSTERMAYER; ANDKURT BIENZ

1995-01-01

227

The detection of enteroviruses in large volume concentrates of recreational waters by the polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and simple method was developed to detect enteroviruses in large-volume water samples. It relies on the adsorption of the virus capsids to silica particles under acidic conditions, allowing their recovery by relatively gentle centrifugation. Different reagents used in enterovirus concentration and detection were seeded with Coxsackievirus B5 and used to optimise the recovery method, which was then used

R Pallin; A. P Wyn-Jones; N. F Lightfoot

1997-01-01

228

Towards the design of combination therapy for the treatment of enterovirus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here on a comparative study of the activity of 10 enterovirus inhibitors against poliovirus 1, enterovirus 71 and human rhinovirus 14. Three of the selected molecules (Pleconaril, BTA-798 and V-073) are in clinical development. The in vitro antiviral activity of pairwise combinations of inhibitors indicated that most combinations resulted in an additive to slightly synergistic antiviral activity. However,

Hendrik Jan Thibaut; Pieter Leyssen; Gerhard Puerstinger; Alexandra Muigg; Johan Neyts; Armando Mirko De Palma

2011-01-01

229

Cooperative Effect of the Attenuation Determinants Derived from Poliovirus Sabin 1 Strain Is Essential for Attenuation of Enterovirus 71 in the NOD\\/SCID Mouse Infection Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and is also associated with serious neurological disorders. An attenuated EV71 strain (EV71(S1-3)) has been established in the cyno- molgus monkey infection model; this strain contains the attenuation determinants derived from the type 1 poliovirus vaccine strain, Sabin 1 (PV1(Sabin)), in the 5 nontranslated region (NTR), 3D

Minetaro Arita; Yasushi Ami; Takaji Wakita; Hiroyuki Shimizu

2008-01-01

230

Infectious diseases: an ecological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the middle of the 20th century, infectious diseases were no longer the major causes of mortality in developed countries. The eradication of smallpox reinforced the perception that infectious diseases could be eliminated. Improved sanitation, clean water, and better living conditions, along with vaccines and antimicrobial agents, brought many infectious diseases under control in industrialised countries, but infections continued to

Mary E Wilson

1995-01-01

231

Enterovirus infection in children attending two outpatient clinics in Zhejiang province, China.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses are responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease, and have caused many deaths in China during recent years. But the natural history of enterovirus infection in children, especially asymptomatic children, is not yet clear. From April 2011 to May 2012, 505 stool and throat swab samples of children attending outpatients clinics in two hospitals were collected weekly to test for Enterovirus 71, Coxsackievirus A16, and other enterovirus nucleic acids by real-time RT-PCR. Two hundred sixty-four patients were enterovirus positive, the positive rate was 52.3%, 27.5% (22/80) in children without a rash and 56.9% (242/425) in children with a rash. Coxsackievirus A16 positive rate of male (24%, 61/254) was higher than that of female (15.2%, 26/171) (?(2) ?=?4.87, P?=?0.027). The highest positive rate of enterovirus infection was 63.5% in the 2-year-old age group. Comparing children with and without a rash, within the same age groups, no statistical difference was found (P?>?0.05). The seasonal distribution of Enterovirus 71 had only one peak in May, but Coxsackievirus A16 had two peaks in April and October. In patients with a rash, the frequency of Enterovirus 71 was relatively high before July, and then that of Coxsackievirus A16 increased gradually. In the case of Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16, stool specimens had a higher positive rate than throat swab specimens' (?(2) ?=?3.88, P?=?0.05; ?(2) ?=?15.13, P?Enterovirus infection was more frequent in males 2-3 year-old children, with the implicated virus varying by season. Targeted prevention and control measures should be carried out. J. Med. Virol. 86:1602-1608, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24519430

Cai, Jian; Lv, Huakun; Lin, Junfen; Chen, Zhiping; Fang, Chunfu; Han, Jiankang

2014-09-01

232

Prospective Identification of Enteroviruses Involved in Meningitis in 2006 through Direct Genotyping in Cerebrospinal Fluid?  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus infections were investigated with special emphasis on performing rapid molecular identification of enterovirus serotypes responsible for aseptic meningitis directly in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Enterovirus genotyping was carried out directly with specimens tested for the diagnostic procedure, using two seminested PCR assays designed to amplify the complete and partial gene sequences encoding the VP1 and VP4/VP2 capsid proteins, respectively. The method was used for identifying the enterovirus serotypes involved in meningitis in 45 patients admitted in 2005. Enterovirus genotyping was achieved in 98% of the patients studied, and we obtained evidence of 10 of the most frequent serotypes identified earlier by genotyping of virus isolates. The method was applied for the prospective investigation of 54 patients with meningitis admitted consecutively in 2006. The enterovirus serotypes involved were identified with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 52 patients (96%) and comprised 13 serotypes within the human enterovirus B species and 1 within the human enterovirus A species. The three most common serotypes were echovirus 13 (E13; 24%), E6 (23%), and coxsackievirus B5 (11.5%), a pattern different from that observed in 2005. Genotyping of virus isolates was also performed in 35 patients in 2006 (meningitis, n = 31; other diseases, n = 4). By comparison, direct genotyping in CSF yielded a more complete pattern of enterovirus serotypes, thereby allowing the detection of rare serotypes: three less common serotypes (CB2, E21, and E27) were not detected by indirect genotyping alone. The study shows the feasibility of prospective enterovirus genotyping within 1 week in a laboratory setting.

Mirand, Audrey; Henquell, Cecile; Archimbaud, Christine; Chambon, Martine; Charbonne, Francoise; Peigue-Lafeuille, Helene; Bailly, Jean-Luc

2008-01-01

233

Isolation and Detection of Enterovirus RNA from Large-Volume Water Samples by Using the NucliSens miniMAG System and Real-Time Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification  

PubMed Central

Concentration of water samples is a prerequisite for the detection of the low virus levels that are present in water and may present a public health hazard. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, standardized molecular method for the detection of enteroviruses in large-volume surface water samples, using a concentration method suitable for the detection of infectious viruses as well as virus RNA. Concentration of water was achieved by a conventional filter adsorption-elution method and ultrafiltration, resulting in a 10,000-fold concentration of the sample. Isolation of virus RNA by a silica-based RNA extraction method was compared with the nonmagnetic and magnetic NucliSens RNA isolation methods. By using the silica-based RNA extraction method in two out of five samples, enterovirus RNA was detected, whereas four out of five samples were positive following RNA isolation with magnetic silica beads. Moreover, estimated RNA levels increased at least 100 to 500 times. Furthermore, we compared enterovirus detection by an in-house reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with a novel commercially available real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay. We found that the rapid real-time NASBA assay was slightly less sensitive than our in-house RT-PCR. The advantages, however, of a commercial real-time NASBA assay, like the presence of an internal control RNA, standardization, and enormous decrease in turnaround time, makes it an attractive alternative to RT-PCR.

Rutjes, Saskia A.; Italiaander, Ronald; van den Berg, Harold H. J. L.; Lodder, Willemijn J.; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

2005-01-01

234

Isolation and detection of enterovirus RNA from large-volume water samples by using the NucliSens miniMAG system and real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.  

PubMed

Concentration of water samples is a prerequisite for the detection of the low virus levels that are present in water and may present a public health hazard. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, standardized molecular method for the detection of enteroviruses in large-volume surface water samples, using a concentration method suitable for the detection of infectious viruses as well as virus RNA. Concentration of water was achieved by a conventional filter adsorption-elution method and ultrafiltration, resulting in a 10,000-fold concentration of the sample. Isolation of virus RNA by a silica-based RNA extraction method was compared with the nonmagnetic and magnetic NucliSens RNA isolation methods. By using the silica-based RNA extraction method in two out of five samples, enterovirus RNA was detected, whereas four out of five samples were positive following RNA isolation with magnetic silica beads. Moreover, estimated RNA levels increased at least 100 to 500 times. Furthermore, we compared enterovirus detection by an in-house reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with a novel commercially available real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay. We found that the rapid real-time NASBA assay was slightly less sensitive than our in-house RT-PCR. The advantages, however, of a commercial real-time NASBA assay, like the presence of an internal control RNA, standardization, and enormous decrease in turnaround time, makes it an attractive alternative to RT-PCR. PMID:16000783

Rutjes, Saskia A; Italiaander, Ronald; van den Berg, Harold H J L; Lodder, Willemijn J; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

2005-07-01

235

Emerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The definition of "emerging" infectious diseases includes those diseases "whose incidences in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." The journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases continues to be an invaluable resource for public health professionals, scholars, and others. On the journal's homepage, users can read over the current issue and take a look at all of the articles and various commentaries contained within. Visitors can also peruse the archive, which dates back to the journal's first issue in 1995. As with many online journals, visitors can sign up to receive their RSS feed and they even have a podcast archive. The podcasts are a nice bonus, and they include programs like "Strategies For Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries" and "The Mystery of Increased Hospitalization of Elderly Patients".

236

Infectious Considerations in Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

Haddon, Robert

2009-01-01

237

Interleukin-12 in infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that is crucially involved in a wide range of infectious diseases. In several experimental models of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infection, endogenous IL-12 is required for early control of infection and for generation and perhaps maintenance of acquired protective immunity, directed by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and mediated by phagocytes. Although the relative roles of IL-12 and gamma interferon in Th1-cell priming may be to a significant extent pathogen dependent, common to most infections is that IL-12 regulates the magnitude of the gamma interferon response at the initiation of infection, thus potentiating natural resistance, favoring Th1-cell development; and inhibiting Th2 responses. Treatment of animals with IL-12, either alone or as a vaccine adjuvant, has been shown to prevent disease by many of the same infectious agents, by stimulating innate resistance or promoting specific reactivity. Although IL-12 may enhance protective memory responses in vaccination or in combination with antimicrobial chemotherapy, it is yet unclear whether exogenous IL-12 can alter established responses in humans. Continued investigation into the possible application of IL-12 therapy to human infections is warranted by the role of the cytokine in inflammation, immunopathology, and autoimmunity.

Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Bistoni, F

1997-01-01

238

Capacity for Infectious HIV-1 Virion Capture Differs by Envelope Antibody Specificity  

PubMed Central

Antibody capacity to recognize infectious virus is a prerequisite of many antiviral functions. We determined the infectious virion capture index (IVCI) of different antibody specificities. Whereas broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), except for an MPER bNAb, selectively captured infectious virions, non-bNAbs and mucosal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive IgG captured subsets of both infectious and noninfectious virions. Infectious virion capture was additive with a mixture of antibodies, providing proof of concept for vaccine-induced antibodies that together have improved capacity to recognize infectious virions.

Liu, Pinghuang; Williams, LaTonya D.; Shen, Xiaoying; Bonsignori, Mattia; Vandergrift, Nathan A.; Overman, R. Glenn; Moody, M. Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Stieh, Daniel J.; McCotter, Kerrie L.; French, Audrey L.; Hope, Thomas J.; Shattock, Robin; Haynes, Barton F.

2014-01-01

239

Vaccines and infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The exponential growth in vaccine research over the last decade, in which many infectious diseases now appear to be amenable\\u000a to prevention through immunization, is built upon three factors: first, a richer understanding of the immune response (in\\u000a particular, cellular immunity), second, a greater finesse in understanding the molecular biology of pathogenicity, and third,\\u000a an expanding use of genetic engineering

Mark A. Fletcher; Pierre Saliou

240

Development and evaluation of EPA method 1615 for detection of enterovirus and norovirus in water.  

PubMed

The U.S. EPA developed a sample concentration and preparation assay in conjunction with the total culturable virus assay for concentrating and measuring culturable viruses in source and drinking waters as part of the Information Collection Rule (ICR) promulgated in 1996. In an effort to improve upon this method, the U.S. EPA recently developed Method 1615: Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Method 1615 uses a culturable virus assay with reduced equipment and labor costs compared to the costs associated with the ICR virus method and introduces a new molecular assay for the detection of enteroviruses and noroviruses by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. In this study, we describe the optimization of several new components of the molecular assay and examine virus recovery from ground, reagent-grade, and surface water samples seeded with poliovirus type 3 and murine norovirus. For the culturable virus and molecular assays, mean poliovirus recovery using the complete method was 58% and 20% in groundwater samples, 122% and 39% using low-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, 42% and 48% using high-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, and 11% and 10% in surface water with high turbidity, respectively. Murine norovirus recovery by the molecular assay was 30% in groundwater samples, less than 8% in both low- and high-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, and 6% in surface water with high turbidity. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of Method 1615 for use with groundwater samples and highlights the need for further research into its effectiveness with surface water. PMID:23087037

Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Brinkman, Nichole E; Griffin, Shannon M; McMinn, Brian R; Rhodes, Eric R; Varughese, Eunice A; Grimm, Ann C; Parshionikar, Sandhya U; Wymer, Larry; Fout, G Shay

2013-01-01

241

Development and Evaluation of EPA Method 1615 for Detection of Enterovirus and Norovirus in Water  

PubMed Central

The U.S. EPA developed a sample concentration and preparation assay in conjunction with the total culturable virus assay for concentrating and measuring culturable viruses in source and drinking waters as part of the Information Collection Rule (ICR) promulgated in 1996. In an effort to improve upon this method, the U.S. EPA recently developed Method 1615: Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Method 1615 uses a culturable virus assay with reduced equipment and labor costs compared to the costs associated with the ICR virus method and introduces a new molecular assay for the detection of enteroviruses and noroviruses by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. In this study, we describe the optimization of several new components of the molecular assay and examine virus recovery from ground, reagent-grade, and surface water samples seeded with poliovirus type 3 and murine norovirus. For the culturable virus and molecular assays, mean poliovirus recovery using the complete method was 58% and 20% in groundwater samples, 122% and 39% using low-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, 42% and 48% using high-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, and 11% and 10% in surface water with high turbidity, respectively. Murine norovirus recovery by the molecular assay was 30% in groundwater samples, less than 8% in both low- and high-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, and 6% in surface water with high turbidity. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of Method 1615 for use with groundwater samples and highlights the need for further research into its effectiveness with surface water.

Brinkman, Nichole E.; Griffin, Shannon M.; McMinn, Brian R.; Rhodes, Eric R.; Varughese, Eunice A.; Grimm, Ann C.; Parshionikar, Sandhya U.; Wymer, Larry; Fout, G. Shay

2013-01-01

242

Immunoserology of infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated.

James, K

1990-01-01

243

A Predicted Secondary Structural Domain within the Internal Ribosome Entry Site of Echovirus 12 Mediates a Cell-Type-Specific Block to Viral Replication  

PubMed Central

The enterovirus 5? nontranslated region (NTR) contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), which facilitates translation initiation of the viral open reading frame in a 5? (m7GpppN) cap-independent manner, and cis-acting signals for positive-strand RNA replication. For several enteroviruses, the 5? NTR has been shown to determine the virulence phenotype. We have constructed a chimera consisting of the putative IRES element from the Travis strain of echovirus 12 (ECV12), a wild-type, relatively nonvirulent human enterovirus, exchanged with the homologous region of a full-length infectious clone of coxsackievirus B3 (CBV3). The resulting chimera, known as ECV12(5?NTR)CBV3, replicates similarly to CBV3 in human and simian cell lines yet, unlike CBV3, is completely restricted for growth on two primary murine cell lines at 37°C. By utilizing a reverse-genetics approach, the growth restriction phenotype was localized to the predicted stem-loop II within the IRES of ECV12. In addition, a revertant of ECV12(5?NTR)CBV3 was isolated which possessed three transition mutations and had restored capability for replication in the utilized murine cell lines. Assays for cardiovirulence indicated that the ECV12 IRES is responsible for a noncardiovirulent phenotype in a murine model for acute myocarditis. The results indicate that the 5? NTRs of ECV12 and CBV3 exhibit variable intracellular requirements for function and serve as secondary determinants of tissue or species tropism.

Bradrick, Shelton S.; Lieben, Elizabeth A.; Carden, Bruce M.; Romero, Jose R.

2001-01-01

244

First construction of infectious clone for newly emerging mutation porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) followed by comparison with PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes in biological characteristics in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), is a serious economic problem in the swine industry. Different genotypes (PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d) of the virus are present in the clinical cases in China, and it is necessary to elucidate the pathogenic difference among different genotypes of PCV2. In this study, four strains of different genotypes were isolated, two were ordinary strains and another two were mutation strains, which there are one and two amino acids elongation in the capsid protein (Cap) of PCV2, respectively. Representative strains of different genotypes of the virus were constructed by infectious molecular clone and biological characterization of the rescued viruses were identified in vitro. Results Four PCV2 isolates (PCV2a/CL, PCV2b/YJ, PCV2b/JF and PCV2d/BDH) of different genotypes were isolated from the clinical cases of PMWS in China. Four infectious clones of PCV2 were constructed and the rescued viruses were harvested after transfection into PK15 cells. The rescued viruses were verified by nucleotide sequence analysis, morphology of the viruses and immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). The rescued viruses propagated stably after consecutive incubation for more than ten passages, and virus propagation reached its peak 72h post infection (PI), and the virus titers were up to 105.7 TCID50/ml. By using neutralizing 1D2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) of PCV2, the antigen capture ELISA showed that only the PCV2a/rCL and PCV2b/rJF strains has immunoreactivity with the 1D2 mAb, however, another two rescued strains (PCV2b/rYJ and PCV2d/rBDH) do not, which indicated the antigenic difference among the rescued viruses of different genotypes. In addition, here is the first report of obtaining the newly emerging PCV2 with mutation in vitro by infectious molecular clone technology. Conclusions Conclusions drawn from this study show that PCV2 has prevailing differences in genomic and ORF2 gene length and antigen in swine herds in China. Four representative clones for different genotypes were constructed and rescued, which will facilitate further studies on the pathogenic differences resulting from different subtypes of PCV2.

2011-01-01

245

Expression of microRNA-1234 related signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of activated B-cell like type from high and low infectious disease areas.  

PubMed

Abstract Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease, and infectious agents are suspected to be involved in the tumorigenesis of DLBCL. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs modulating protein expression. We compared miRNA expression profiles in lymph node tissues of patients with DLBCL of the activated B-cell like (ABC) type from two geographical areas with different background exposures, Sweden and Egypt. We showed previously that DLBCL tissues of the ABC-type in Swedish patients had a higher expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) compared to Egyptian patients. Here, we analyzed the involvement of miRNAs in STAT3 regulation. miR-1234 was significantly up-regulated in Egyptian patients with DLBCL compared to Swedish patients (p < 0.03). The miR-1234 expression level correlated inversely with the expression of STAT3. The Stat3 protein was down-regulated in cells transfected with miR-1234, suggesting that STAT3 might be a potential target for miR-1234. miR-1234 and STAT3 might be involved in the tumorigenesis of DLBCL of ABC type and possibly associated with environmental background exposure. PMID:23841503

Högfeldt, Therese; Johnsson, Per; Grandér, Dan; Bahnassy, Abeer A; Porwit, Anna; Eid, Salem; Österborg, Anders; Zekri, Abdel-Rahman N; Lundahl, Joachim; Khaled, Mustafa Hussein; Mellstedt, Håkan; Moshfegh, Ali

2014-05-01

246

Class I ADP-Ribosylation Factors Are Involved in Enterovirus 71 Replication  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in infants and children. Replication of enterovirus 71 depends on host cellular factors. The viral replication complex is formed in novel, cytoplasmic, vesicular compartments. It has not been elucidated which cellular pathways are hijacked by the virus to create these vesicles. Here, we investigated whether proteins associated with the cellular secretory pathway were involved in enterovirus 71 replication. We used a loss-of-function assay, based on small interfering RNA. We showed that enterovirus 71 RNA replication was dependent on the activity of Class I ADP-ribosylation factors. Simultaneous depletion of ADP-ribosylation factors 1 and 3, but not three others, inhibited viral replication in cells. We also demonstrated with various techniques that the brefeldin-A-sensitive guanidine nucleotide exchange factor, GBF1, was critically important for enterovirus 71 replication. Our results suggested that enterovirus 71 replication depended on GBF1-mediated activation of Class I ADP-ribosylation factors. These results revealed a connection between enterovirus 71 replication and the cellular secretory pathway; this pathway may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies.

Wang, Jianmin; Du, Jiang; Jin, Qi

2014-01-01

247

Accuracy of Diagnostic Methods and Surveillance Sensitivity for Human Enterovirus, South Korea, 1999-2011  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999–2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results increased. A seasonal trend of outbreaks was documented. Genotypes enterovirus 71, echovirus 30, coxsackievirus B5, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B2 were the most common genotypes identified. Accurate test results correlated clinical syndromes to enterovirus genotypes: aseptic meningitis to echovirus 30, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B5; hand, foot and mouth disease to coxsackievirus A16; and hand, foot and mouth disease with neurologic complications to enterovirus 71. There are currently no treatments specific to human EV infections; surveillance of enterovirus infections such as this study provides may assist with evaluating the need to research and develop treatments for infections caused by virulent human EV genotypes.

Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyejin; Song, Jaehyoung; Ahn, Jeongbae; Kang, Byunghak; Kim, Kisoon; Choi, Wooyoung; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Cheon-Hyun; Cho, Kyungsoon; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Min-Ji

2013-01-01

248

Identification of Enteroviruses by Using Monoclonal Antibodies against a Putative Common Epitope  

PubMed Central

A common epitope region of enteroviruses was identified by sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA), followed by immunoscreening of 11 cDNA libraries from two Korean enterovirus isolates (echoviruses 7 and 30) and a coxsackievirus B3 (ATCC-VR 30). The putative common epitope region was localized in the N terminus of VP1 when the displayed recombinant proteins from the phages were chased by the convalescent-phase sera. The genomic region encoding the common epitope region was amplified and then expressed by using the vector pGEX-5X-1. The antigenicity of the expressed recombinant protein was identified by Western blotting with guinea pig antisera for six different serotypes of enteroviruses. After successive immunization of mice with the recombinant common epitope protein, splenocytes were extracted and hybridized with P3X63-Ag8-653 cells. A total of 24 hybridomas that produced monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the putative common epitope of enteroviruses were selected. Four of these were immunoglobulin G1 isotypes with a kappa light chain. These MAbs recognized 15 Korean endemic serotypes and prototypes of enteroviruses in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. These results suggest that the expressed protein might be a useful antigen for producing group common antibodies and that the use of the MAbs against the putative common epitope of enteroviruses might be a valuable diagnostic tool for rapidly identifying a broad range of enteroviruses.

Shin, Soo-Youn; Kim, Ki-Soon; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Chung, Yoon-Seok; Park, Kwi-Sung; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kang, Yoonsung; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Moon, Youngjoon; Choi, Jee-Hye; Cho, Hang-Eui; Min, Na-Young; Son, Jin-Sook; Park, Young-Hoon; Jee, Youngmee; Yoon, Jae-Deuk; Song, Chul-Yong; Lee, Kwang-Ho

2003-01-01

249

Accuracy of diagnostic methods and surveillance sensitivity for human enterovirus, South Korea, 1999-2011.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999-2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results increased. A seasonal trend of outbreaks was documented. Genotypes enterovirus 71, echovirus 30, coxsackievirus B5, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B2 were the most common genotypes identified. Accurate test results correlated clinical syndromes to enterovirus genotypes: aseptic meningitis to echovirus 30, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B5; hand, foot and mouth disease to coxsackievirus A16; and hand, foot and mouth disease with neurologic complications to enterovirus 71. There are currently no treatments specific to human EV infections; surveillance of enterovirus infections such as this study provides may assist with evaluating the need to research and develop treatments for infections caused by virulent human EV genotypes. PMID:23876671

Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyejin; Song, Jaehyoung; Ahn, Jeongbae; Kang, Byunghak; Kim, Kisoon; Choi, Wooyoung; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Cheon-Hyun; Cho, Kyungsoon; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Min-Ji; Cheon, Doo-Sung

2013-08-01

250

Complete genome analysis of porcine enterovirus B isolated in Korea.  

PubMed

The complete genome sequence of porcine enterovirus B (PEV-B) from a Korean isolate was analyzed. The genome size was 7,393 bp. Previously, full genome sequences of PEV-B had been reported from the United Kingdom, Hungary, and China. The Korean PEV-B isolate presented polyprotein gene nucleotide sequence similarities of 77.9, 73.7, 78.9, and 80.3%, respectively, to PEV-B UKG/410/73, LP54, PEV15, and Chinese strains (Ch-ah-f1). PMID:22923807

Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Song, DaeSub; Seon, Bo Hyeon; Kim, Hye-Kwon; Park, Seong-Jun; An, Dong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Man; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Park, Bong-Kyun

2012-09-01

251

Inactivation of Adenoviruses, Enteroviruses, and Murine Norovirus in Water by Free Chlorine and Monochloramine?  

PubMed Central

Inactivation of infectious viruses during drinking water treatment is usually achieved with free chlorine. Many drinking water utilities in the United States now use monochloramine as a secondary disinfectant to minimize disinfectant by-product formation and biofilm growth. The inactivation of human adenoviruses 2, 40, and 41 (HAdV2, HAdV40, and HAdV41), coxsackieviruses B3 and B5 (CVB3 and CVB5), echoviruses 1 and 11 (E1 and E11), and murine norovirus (MNV) are compared in this study. Experiments were performed with 0.2 mg of free chlorine or 1 mg of monochloramine/liter at pH 7 and 8 in buffered reagent-grade water at 5°C. CT values (disinfectant concentration × time) for 2- to 4-log10 (99 to 99.99%) reductions in virus titers were calculated by using the efficiency factor Hom model. The enteroviruses required the longest times for chlorine inactivation and MNV the least time. CVB5 required the longest exposure time, with CT values of 7.4 and 10 mg·min/liter (pH 7 and 8) for 4-log10 inactivation. Monochloramine disinfection was most effective for E1 (CT values ranged from 8 to 18 mg·min/liter for 2- and 3-log10 reductions, respectively). E11 and HAdV2 were the least susceptible to monochloramine disinfection (CT values of 1,300 and 1,600 mg-min/liter for 3-log10 reductions, respectively). Monochloramine inactivation was most successful for the adenoviruses, CVB5, and E1 at pH 7. A greater variation in inactivation rates between viruses was observed during monochloramine disinfection than during chlorine disinfection. These data will be useful in drinking water risk assessment studies and disinfection system planning.

Cromeans, Theresa L.; Kahler, Amy M.; Hill, Vincent R.

2010-01-01

252

Complete nucleotide sequence of infectious Coxsackievirus B3 cDNA: two initial 5' uridine residues are regained during plus-strand RNA synthesis.  

PubMed Central

A full-length reverse-transcribed, infectious cDNA copy of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) was used to determine the nucleotide sequence of this cardiotropic enterovirus. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence of the viral precursor polyprotein with the sequences of other group B coxsackieviruses (CVB1 and CVB4) demonstrates a high degree of genetic identity. They share about 80% homology at the nucleotide level and about 90% when the amino acid sequences of the polyproteins are compared. The potential processing sites of the coxsackievirus polyproteins, as deduced from alignment with the poliovirus sequence, are conserved among these enteroviruses with the exception of the cleavage sites between VP1 and 2Apro and between polypeptides 2B and 2C. Comparison of the 5' termini of the enteroviral genomes reveals a high degree of identity, including the initial 5' consensus UUAAAACAGC, suggesting essential functions in virus replication. An important finding concerning the molecular basis of infectivity was that both recombinant CVB3 cDNA and in vitro-synthesized CVB3 RNA transcripts are infectious, although two initial 5' uridine residues found on the authentic CVB3 RNA were missing. Here, we report that cDNA-generated CVB3, as well as CVB3 generated by in vitro-synthesized RNA transcripts, regains the authentic initial 5' uridine residues during replication in transfected cells, indicating that the picornaviral primer molecule VPg-pUpU may be uridylylated in a template-independent fashion. The generation of virus or virus mutants with infectious recombinant CVB3 cDNA and in vitro-synthesized infectious CVB3 transcripts should provide a valuable means for studying the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of this cardiotropic enterovirus. Images

Klump, W M; Bergmann, I; Muller, B C; Ameis, D; Kandolf, R

1990-01-01

253

Complete nucleotide sequence of infectious Coxsackievirus B3 cDNA: two initial 5' uridine residues are regained during plus-strand RNA synthesis.  

PubMed

A full-length reverse-transcribed, infectious cDNA copy of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) was used to determine the nucleotide sequence of this cardiotropic enterovirus. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence of the viral precursor polyprotein with the sequences of other group B coxsackieviruses (CVB1 and CVB4) demonstrates a high degree of genetic identity. They share about 80% homology at the nucleotide level and about 90% when the amino acid sequences of the polyproteins are compared. The potential processing sites of the coxsackievirus polyproteins, as deduced from alignment with the poliovirus sequence, are conserved among these enteroviruses with the exception of the cleavage sites between VP1 and 2Apro and between polypeptides 2B and 2C. Comparison of the 5' termini of the enteroviral genomes reveals a high degree of identity, including the initial 5' consensus UUAAAACAGC, suggesting essential functions in virus replication. An important finding concerning the molecular basis of infectivity was that both recombinant CVB3 cDNA and in vitro-synthesized CVB3 RNA transcripts are infectious, although two initial 5' uridine residues found on the authentic CVB3 RNA were missing. Here, we report that cDNA-generated CVB3, as well as CVB3 generated by in vitro-synthesized RNA transcripts, regains the authentic initial 5' uridine residues during replication in transfected cells, indicating that the picornaviral primer molecule VPg-pUpU may be uridylylated in a template-independent fashion. The generation of virus or virus mutants with infectious recombinant CVB3 cDNA and in vitro-synthesized infectious CVB3 transcripts should provide a valuable means for studying the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of this cardiotropic enterovirus. PMID:2157045

Klump, W M; Bergmann, I; Müller, B C; Ameis, D; Kandolf, R

1990-04-01

254

Infectious causes of appendicitis.  

PubMed

The pathologic spectrum of the inflamed appendix encompasses a wide range of infectious entities, some with specific histologic findings, and others with nonspecific findings that may require an extensive diagnostic evaluation. The appendix is exclusively involved in some of these disorders, and in others may be involved through extension from other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. This review discusses the pathologic features of bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections affecting the appendix, including adenovirus; cytomegalovirus; Yersinia, Actinomyces, Mycobacterium, or Histoplasma species; Enterobius vermicularis; schistosomiasis; and Strongyloides stercoralis. Pertinent ancillary diagnostic techniques and the clinical context and significance of the various infections are also discussed. PMID:20937462

Lamps, Laura W

2010-12-01

255

Laboratory diagnosis of infectious endophthalmitis  

PubMed Central

AIM To analyze the lab diagnosis and etiology of infectious endophthalmitis. METHODS The medical and microbial records of 36 patients diagnosed with infectious endophthalmitis and 8 patients diagnosed with intraocular lens (IOL)-related inflammation between Nov. 1999 and Dec. 2009 were retrospectively reviewed for lab diagnosis and etiology. RESULTS The inflammatory cell counts in all aqueous humor specimens from infectious endophthalmitis patients were more than in all aqueous humor specimens from patients with IOL-related inflammation. Sixteen of the 36 aqueous humor samples (44.4%) and 11 of the 24 vitreous humor samples (45.8%) from infectious endophthalmitis patients showed positive results in smears; while 17 aqueous humor samples (47.2%) and 15 vitreous humor samples (62.5%) from infectious endophthalmitis patients showed positive results in culture. CONCLUSION The inflammatory cell count may be an important index for infectious endophthalmitis; while, smears can show etiological information earlier.

Ma, Wen-Jiang; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Shao-Zhen

2011-01-01

256

Epidemiology of Enterovirus 71 in The Netherlands, 1963 to 2008?  

PubMed Central

The incidence of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has greatly increased in the Asian Pacific region since 1997. Several large outbreaks, caused by different subgenogroups of EV71, occurred with high rates of morbidity and a substantial number of deaths. In 2007, 58 cases of EV71 infection requiring hospitalization were reported in The Netherlands after a period of low endemicity of 21 years. These events triggered a study on the epidemiology of EV71 in The Netherlands. Genetic analysis of the VP1 capsid region of 199 EV71 isolates collected from 1963 to 2008 as part of enterovirus surveillance activities revealed a change in the prevailing subgenogroups over time. From 1963 to 1986 infections were caused by three different and successive lineages belonging to subgenogroup B (the novel lineage designated B0, as well as B1 and B2). In 1987, following a major epidemic the previous year, the B genogroup was replaced by genogroup C strains of lineages C1 and, later, C2. Analyses of the clinical data suggested that there were differences between infection with genogroup B and with genogroup C strains in terms of the age groups affected and the severity of illness. From comparative analysis with genomic data available in the public domain, we concluded that EV71 strain evolution shows a global pattern, which leads to the question of whether the recently emerged C4 lineage strains will also spread outside of Asia.

van der Sanden, Sabine; Koopmans, Marion; Uslu, Gokhan; van der Avoort, Harrie

2009-01-01

257

National Foundation for Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Reasons to Get Vaccinated Vaccine Safety Newsroom Image Library News Conferences Press Releases Public Service Announcements Blogs Related Links Antimicrobial Resistance Bioterrorism Infectious ...

258

The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

Kurane, Ichiro

2010-01-01

259

Evaluation of an enterovirus group-specific anti-VP1 monoclonal antibody, 5-D8/1, in comparison with neutralization and PCR for rapid identification of enteroviruses in cell culture.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the usefulness of a commercially available monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against a group-specific epitope of the capsid protein VP1 of enteroviruses for the rapid identification of these viruses in cell culture. The MAb was assayed in an indirect immunofluorescence test with cultured cells infected by various serotypes of enterovirus; all 39 serotypes tested, including echoviruses 22 and 23, which are considered atypical enteroviruses, were reactive. The MAb was also tested with 61 strains recovered from clinical specimens inoculated into cell cultures in comparison with seroneutralization with intersecting pools of hyperimmune sera and PCR with primers from the 5' untranslated region of enteroviruses. There was total agreement between the results obtained with the MAb and those obtained by PCR, even for those strains of enteroviruses which were found to be untypeable with polyclonal antisera. These data demonstrate the usefulness of the MAb for rapid identification of enteroviruses in cell culture.

Trabelsi, A; Grattard, F; Nejmeddine, M; Aouni, M; Bourlet, T; Pozzetto, B

1995-01-01

260

Complicated infectious coryza outbreaks in Argentina.  

PubMed

Seventeen complicated outbreaks of infectious coryza in layer, broiler-breeder, and broiler flocks were studied. In the layer flock outbreaks, drops in egg production of up to 35% were seen. In the broiler flocks and several of the layer flocks, losses due to persistent mortality and/or culling varied between 2 and 5%. Signs of infectious coryza in both layers and broiler-breeders were typical; in broilers, however, swollen head-like syndrome was seen. Except in one flock, no viral diseases were clinically or serologically detected. Excluding broiler-breeders, birds from most other flocks were serologically positive for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and some were also positive for M. synoviae. Haemophilus paragallinarum was isolated from all of the outbreaks, but only as a pure culture in three outbreaks. Isolation of H. paragallinarum from sites such as liver, kidney, and particularly tarsal arthritis and ocular globes appears to be reported for the first time. Serovar A was isolated in eight outbreaks, serovar B in six, serovar C in one, and untypable serovars in two. The severity of these infectious coryza outbreaks may have been increased by concurrent salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, and mycoplasmosis, although under certain conditions H. paragallinarum is able to cause septicemia. Ten of the outbreaks occurred in birds vaccinated against infectious coryza; this may be due to the use of vaccines that do not provide protection against the types of H. paragallinarum that affect poultry in the region. PMID:7832727

Sandoval, V E; Terzolo, H R; Blackall, P J

1994-01-01

261

Structure of human enterovirus 71 in complex with a capsid-binding inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus causing hand, foot, and mouth disease that may progress to fatal encephalitis in infants and small children. As of now, no cure is available for enterovirus 71 infections. Small molecule inhibitors binding into a hydrophobic pocket within capsid viral protein 1 were previously shown to effectively limit infectivity of many picornaviruses. Here we report a 3.2-Å-resolution X-ray structure of the enterovirus 71 virion complexed with the capsid-binding inhibitor WIN 51711. The inhibitor replaced the natural pocket factor within the viral protein 1 pocket without inducing any detectable rearrangements in the structure of the capsid. Furthermore, we show that the compound stabilizes enterovirus 71 virions and limits its infectivity, probably through restricting dynamics of the capsid necessary for genome release. Thus, our results provide a structural basis for development of antienterovirus 71 capsid-binding drugs.

Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Yap, Moh Lan; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

2013-01-01

262

Characterization of Infections of Human Leukocytes by Non-Polio Enteroviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the detailed susceptibilities of leukocytes to clinically important non-polio enteroviruses (EVs), primary monocytes and various human leukocyte cell lines were infected with coxsackievirus A24 (CVA24), coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and enterovirus 70 (EV70). The permissiveness was then assessed by determining virus replication and resultant cytopathic effects. Different EVs varied markedly in their ability to infect leukocyte cell lines. CVB3

Jenie Yoonoo Hwang; Eun Jung Jun; Ilseon Seo; Minna Won; Jeonghyun Ahn; Yoo Kyum Kim; Heuiran Lee

2012-01-01

263

Enterovirus infections following T-cell depleted allogeneic transplants in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anecdotally, enteroviruses have been reported to cause serious complications post BMT, but the exact impact of these viruses in the post transplant period has not been reported. We prospectively evaluated stool, urine and throat samples for enteroviruses by viral culture together with relevant body fluids by RT-PCR in 64 allograft recipients receiving grafts T-cell depleted by Campath-1H, following both conventional

S Chakrabarti; H Osman; K E Collingham; C D Fegan; D W Milligan

2004-01-01

264

Towards the design of combination therapy for the treatment of enterovirus infections.  

PubMed

We report here on a comparative study of the activity of 10 enterovirus inhibitors against poliovirus 1, enterovirus 71 and human rhinovirus 14. Three of the selected molecules (Pleconaril, BTA-798 and V-073) are in clinical development. The in vitro antiviral activity of pairwise combinations of inhibitors indicated that most combinations resulted in an additive to slightly synergistic antiviral activity. However, the combination of ribavirin with a nucleoside polymerase inhibitor resulted in a pronounced antagonistic effect. PMID:21466823

Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Leyssen, Pieter; Puerstinger, Gerhard; Muigg, Alexandra; Neyts, Johan; De Palma, Armando Mirko

2011-06-01

265

Dynamic Communicability Predicts Infectiousness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using real, time-dependent social interaction data, we look at correlations between some recently proposed dynamic centrality measures and summaries from large-scale epidemic simulations. The evolving network arises from email exchanges. The centrality measures, which are relatively inexpensive to compute, assign rankings to individual nodes based on their ability to broadcast information over the dynamic topology. We compare these with node rankings based on infectiousness that arise when a full stochastic SI simulation is performed over the dynamic network. More precisely, we look at the proportion of the network that a node is able to infect over a fixed time period, and the length of time that it takes for a node to infect half the network. We find that the dynamic centrality measures are an excellent, and inexpensive, proxy for the full simulation-based measures.

Mantzaris, Alexander V.; Higham, Desmond J.

266

Enterovirus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in children with malignancy: report of three cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteroviruses can cause severe manifestations in children with malignancy. Infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (IAHS)\\u000a due to enterovirus is a rare entity in children. Patients with malignancy and IAHS due to enterovirus were retrospectively\\u000a evaluated at the University of Athens’ Hematology-Oncology pediatric unit within a 6-year period (2000–2006). IAHS occurred\\u000a in three cases among 56 patients with documented enteroviral infection. The diagnosis

Katerina Katsibardi; Maria A. Moschovi; Maria Theodoridou; Nicholas Spanakis; Panagiotis Kalabalikis; Athanassios Tsakris; Fotini Tzortzatou-Stathopoulou

2008-01-01

267

BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

268

INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threats to the security of states can result from the deliberate use of pathogens (biological weapons), their accidental release from research laboratories, or naturally occurring outbreaks of particular infectious diseases. This article discusses emerging opportunities for international cooperation against infectious diseases through the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The new process for reviewing the BWC

Christian Enemark

2005-01-01

269

Global mapping of infectious disease.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer 'cognitive surplus' through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

Hay, Simon I; Battle, Katherine E; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F; George, Dylan B; Gething, Peter W

2013-03-19

270

Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.

271

The efficacy of viral capsid inhibitors in human enterovirus infection and associated diseases.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses are members of picornavirus family which causes diverse and severe diseases in humans and animals. Clinical manifestations of enterovirus infections include fever, hand, foot, and mouth disease, and herpangina. Enteroviruses also cause potentially severe and life-threatening infections such as meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, polio-like syndrome, and neonatal sepsis. With the emergence of enterovirus all over the world as the major causative agent of HFMD fatalities in recent years and in the absence of any effective anti-enteroviral therapy, there is clearly a need to find a specific antiviral therapy. Steps such as viral attachment, uncoating, viral RNA replication, and protein synthesis in the replication cycle can serve as potential targets for antiviral agents. Agents targeted at viral protein 1 (VP1), a relatively conserved capsid structure mediating viral adsorption and uncoating process, is of great potential to be anti-enterovirus drugs. Recently, considerable efforts have been made in the development of antiviral compounds targeting the capsid protein of enterovirus. This review summarizes the development of small molecules targeting enteroviral capsid protein as effective antiviral therapy. PMID:17430140

Li, Chin; Wang, Hongtao; Shih, Shin-Ru; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Li, Mei-Ling

2007-01-01

272

Environmental triggers of type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is perceived as a progressive immune-mediated disease, the clinical diagnosis of which is preceded by an asymptomatic preclinical period of highly variable duration. It has long been postulated that the disease process leading to overt T1D is triggered by an infectious agent, the strongest candidate being a diabetogenic enterovirus. The initiation and progression of the disorder likely requires, in addition to genetic T1D susceptibility, a trigger, an exogenous antigen capable of driving the development of this disease. This may be a dietary antigen similar to gluten in celiac disease. Recent data further suggests that the initiation of autoimmunity is preceded by inflammation reflected by a proinflammatory metabolic serum profile. The cause of the inflammation remains open, but given that the intestinal microbiome appears to differ between individuals who progress to clinical T1D and nonprogressors, one may speculate that changes in the gut microflora might contribute to the inflammatory process. PMID:22762021

Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli

2012-07-01

273

A combination vaccine comprising of inactivated enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 elicits balanced protective immunity against both viruses.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which is an infectious disease frequently occurring in children. A bivalent vaccine against both EV71 and CA16 is highly desirable. In the present study, we compare monovalent inactivated EV71, monovalent inactivated CA16, and a combination vaccine candidate comprising of both inactivated EV71 and CA16, for their immunogenicity and in vivo protective efficacy. The two monovalent vaccines were found to elicit serum antibodies that potently neutralized the homologous virus but had no or weak neutralization activity against the heterologous one; in contrast, the bivalent vaccine immunized sera efficiently neutralized both EV71 and CA16. More importantly, passive immunization with the bivalent vaccine protected mice against either EV71 or CA16 lethal infections, whereas the monovalent vaccines only prevented the homologous but not the heterologous challenges. Together, our results demonstrate that the experimental bivalent vaccine comprising of inactivated EV71 and CA16 induces a balanced protective immunity against both EV71 and CA16, and thus provide proof-of-concept for further development of multivalent vaccines for broad protection against HFMD. PMID:24657161

Cai, Yicun; Ku, Zhiqiang; Liu, Qingwei; Leng, Qibin; Huang, Zhong

2014-05-01

274

Rapid and highly sensitive detection of Enterovirus 71 by using nanogold-enhanced electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is an emerging infectious disease causing neurological complications and/or death within two to three days after the development of fever and rash. A low viral titre in clinical specimens makes the detection of EV71 difficult. Conventional approaches for detecting EV71 are time consuming, poorly sensitive, or complicated, and cannot be used effectively for clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, EV71 and Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) may cross react in conventional assays. Therefore, a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and user-friendly test is needed. We developed an EV71-specific nanogold-modified working electrode for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the detection of EV71. Our results show that EV71 can be distinguished from CA16, Herpes simplex virus, and lysozyme, with the modified nanogold electrode being able to detect EV71 in concentrations as low as 1 copy number/50 ?l reaction volume, and the duration between sample preparation and detection being 11 min. This detection platform may have the potential for use in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:23787733

Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Lu, Yu-Ning; Wang, Fang-Yu; Tsai, Li-Yun; Shieh, Juo-Yu; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Juan, Chien-Chang; Tu, Lung-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ching

2013-07-19

275

Development of a Virus Concentration Method and Its Application to Detection of Enterovirus and Norwalk Virus from Coastal Seawater  

PubMed Central

We developed a new procedure for concentration of enteric viruses from water using a negatively charged membrane. Rinsing the membrane with 0.5 mM H2SO4 (pH 3.0) in order to elute cations prior to viral elution with 1 mM NaOH (pH 10.5) promoted poliovirus recovery yields from 33 to 95% when applied to pure water and 38 to 89% when applied to natural seawater from Tokyo Bay, Japan, respectively. This method showed average recovery yields of spiked poliovirus of 62% (n = 8) from 1 liter of artificial seawater. This method showed higher recovery yields (>61%) than that of the conventional method using positively charged membrane (6%) when applied to seawater. This method is also free from beef extract elution, which has an inhibitory effect in the subsequent viral genome detection by reverse transcription-PCR. Naturally occurring Norwalk viruses from 2 liters of Tokyo Bay water in winter and infectious enteroviruses from 2 liters of recreational coastal seawater in summer were detected by using this viral concentration method.

Katayama, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Akihiro; Ohgaki, Shinichiro

2002-01-01

276

Isolation of Ether-Resistant Enteroviruses from Sewage: Methodology  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to determine whether polio type 1 (Mahoney and coxsackie A8 viruses adsorb onto cotton fibers of sewer swabs. Negative results were obtained. It has been shown that viruses may exist in sewage as free virus particles or as bound (adsorbed) virus particles. The sewer-swab method of sampling is superior because it filters out the bound virus over several days; when collected, it represents a catch (grab) sample at that particular time which may or may not contain free virus. A simple method for the preparation of sewage inocula for virus isolations is described which samples the bound virus fraction. Only ether-resistant viruses can be isolated, and an ultracentrifuge is not required. By this method, an isolation rate between 60 and 80% of positive sewer swabs can be achieved. Corresponding figures of 84 and 96% were achieved by concentration of sewer-swab eluates with an ultracentrifuge. Quantitative studies showed that the virus concentration in raw sewage can be as high as one infectious particle per 0.5 ml.

Duff, Michael F.

1970-01-01

277

NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF WARMWATER FISHES  

EPA Science Inventory

Compared with infectious diseases and disorders, few non-infectious diseases and disorders in cultured fish have severe biologic or economic impact. Culture practices, however, often establish environments that promote infectious disease by weakening the immune response or by pro...

278

Multi-center intervention study on glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum, high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) after local anti-infectious periodontal treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontal disease.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether periodontal treatment incorporating topical antibiotic therapy affects on levels of glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontal disease, and to explore the relationship between CRP and glycemic control. The whole intervention group (n=32), which underwent anti-infectious periodontal treatment, showed only transient reduction in HbA1c levels without any change in hs-CRP, while the control group (n=17) did not show any changes in HbA1c or hs-CRP. Multiple regression analysis of all subjects revealed that BMI and change in hs-CRP correlated significantly with the reduction of HbA1c at 6 months after the periodontal treatment. Based on the results of multiple regression analysis, the intervention group was subdivided into two groups: those in which hs-CRP levels decreased (CRP-D group), and those in which hs-CRP levels unchanged or increased (CRP-N group) (n=16, respectively), and re-analysis was conducted based upon these subgroups. In the CRP-D subgroup, HbA1c was significantly reduced at the end of the study, but it did not decrease in the CRP-N subgroup. The decrease of HbA1c in the CRP-D subgroup following periodontal treatment was significantly greater than that in the CRP-N subgroup. BMI of each group remained unchanged in this study at the end of the study. Thus, the results suggested that periodontal treatment with topical antibiotics improves HbA1c through reduction of CRP, which may relate to amelioration of insulin resistance, in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontal disease. PMID:19168253

Katagiri, S; Nitta, H; Nagasawa, T; Uchimura, I; Izumiyama, H; Inagaki, K; Kikuchi, T; Noguchi, T; Kanazawa, M; Matsuo, A; Chiba, H; Nakamura, N; Kanamura, N; Inoue, S; Ishikawa, I; Izumi, Y

2009-03-01

279

THE LOCATION AND NATURE OF ENTEROVIRUS RECEPTORS IN SUSCEPTIBLE CELLS  

PubMed Central

It is shown that enterovirus receptors are found mainly in the microsomal fraction of disrupted primate cells. Greater virus adsorption was exhibited by disrupted cells than by intact cells, indicating that enterovinis receptor may be present on intracellular membranes as well as on the surface of the cell. Polio-virus receptor is an integral part of, or is firmly attached to, the insoluble lipoproteins of the cell. All attempts to solubilize receptor have either destroyed virus-adsorbing activity, or have failed to separate it from sedimentable lipoproteins. The destruction of poliovirus receptor activity by proteolytic enzymes, surface active agents, organic solvents, concentrated urea solutions, phenol, formaldehyde, etc., all strongly indicate that this receptor function depends upon integrity of a protein portion of the membrane lipoproteins.

Holland, John J.; McLaren, Leroy C.

1961-01-01

280

Beta-actin variant is necessary for Enterovirus 71 replication.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main etiological agents of the Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and has been known to cause fatal neurological complications such as herpangina, aseptic meningitis, poliomyelitis-like paralysis and encephalitis. EV71 is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region and causes occasional epidemics. In order to better understand EV71 infection, we compared the proteome between EV71-susceptible and EV71-resistant human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell line. We found significant differences in the ?-actin variants between the EV71-susceptible RD cells and EV71-resistant RD cells, suggesting that ?-actin, in association with other proteins such as annexin 2 is required in vesicular transport of EV71. This finding further support our previous study that actin potentially plays a role in pathogenesis and the establishment of the disease in HFMD. PMID:23535377

Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Lin, Zhiyang; Lee, Jia Jun; Chow, Vincent Tak Kwong; Poh, Chit Laa; Tan, Eng Lee

2013-04-19

281

Urea-lysine method for recovery of enteroviruses from sludge.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses added to sludge and indigenous viruses present in sludge were recovered by treating the sludge flocs with a 4 M urea solution buffered at pH 9 with 0.5 M lysine. Eluted viruses were absorbed to aluminum hydroxide flocs and collected by centrifugation. The flocs were solubilized with 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-3% beef extract at pH 9. After dialysis to remove the ethylenediaminetraacetic acid, viruses were further concentrated by organic flocculation. Approximately 40% of poliovirus and coxsackievirus B-3 added to 500 to 1,000 ml of sludge could be recovered in final sample volumes of less than 10 ml. Polioviruses, echoviruses, and coxsackieviruses were recovered from different samples of wastewater sludge. PMID:6263183

Farrah, S R; Scheuerman, P R; Bitton, G

1981-02-01

282

"Eczema Coxsackium" and Unusual Cutaneous Findings in an Enterovirus Outbreak  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the atypical cutaneous presentations in the coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6)–associated North American enterovirus outbreak of 2011–2012. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case series of pediatric patients who presented with atypical cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) from July 2011 to June 2012 at 7 academic pediatric dermatology centers. Patients were included if they tested positive for CVA6 or if they met clinical criteria for atypical HFMD (an enanthem or exanthem characteristic of HFMD with unusual morphology or extent of cutaneous findings). We collected demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data including history of skin conditions, morphology and extent of exanthem, systemic symptoms, and diagnostic test results. RESULTS: Eighty patients were included in this study (median age 1.5 years, range 4 months–16 years). Seventeen patients were CVA6-positive, and 63 met clinical inclusion criteria. Ninety-nine percent of patients exhibited a vesiculobullous and erosive eruption; 61% of patients had rash involving >10% body surface area. The exanthem had a perioral, extremity, and truncal distribution in addition to involving classic HFMD areas such as palms, soles, and buttocks. In 55% of patients, the eruption was accentuated in areas of eczematous dermatitis, termed “eczema coxsackium.” Other morphologies included Gianotti-Crosti–like (37%), petechial/purpuric (17%) eruptions, and delayed onychomadesis and palm and sole desquamation. There were no patients with serious systemic complications. CONCLUSIONS: The CVA6-associated enterovirus outbreak was responsible for an exanthem potentially more widespread, severe, and varied than classic HFMD that could be confused with bullous impetigo, eczema herpeticum, vasculitis, and primary immunobullous disease.

Oza, Vikash; Frieden, Ilona J.; Cordoro, Kelly M.; Yagi, Shigeo; Howard, Renee; Kristal, Leonard; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Schaffer, Julie; Maguiness, Sheilagh; Bayliss, Susan; Lara-Corrales, Irene; Garcia-Romero, Maria Teresa; Kelly, Dan; Salas, Maria; Oberste, M. Steven; Nix, W. Allan; Glaser, Carol; Antaya, Richard

2013-01-01

283

Serum cytokine profiles of children with human enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease.  

PubMed

Cytokine profiles may impact the pathogenicity and severity of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by human enterovirus (HEV) 71. In 91 severe or mild HEV 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease children, serum was collected between days 2 and 10 or day >10. Serum cytokines including Type 1 T helper (Th1) cytokines: interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-?), IL-12, and IL-18, Type 1 T helper (Th2) cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, proinflammatory cytokines: IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), were assessed during the early stage and recovery. In the patients with mild illness, the peaks of IL-8 and IL-10 were observed on day 6 and that of IL-18 was on day 4. In the patients with severe illness, all cytokines spiked on day 3 and peaked on day 11. All cytokines except IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-? were significantly correlated with immunoglobulin M levels by the end of the disease course. Cytokine profile variations between the patients with mild and severe illness may indicate prognosis and strain virulence, useful in clinical treatment of patients. PMID:24619468

Han, Jun; Wang, Ying; Gan, Xing; Song, Juan; Sun, Peng; Dong, Xiao-Ping

2014-08-01

284

Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control.

Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

2007-01-01

285

Synthetic peptides for efficient discrimination of anti-enterovirus antibodies at the serotype level.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses are important human pathogens, causing a broad spectrum of diseases from minor common colds to fatal myocarditis. However, certain disease syndromes are caused by one or few serotypes. Serotype identification is difficult due to the laborious neutralization tests that lack of sensitivity, while in commercial ELISAs homotypic antibodies' activities are largely masked by the recognition of genera-specific epitopes by heterotypic antibodies. In the present study homotypic assays were developed with the ability to discriminate different enterovirus serotypes. Seventy-three children sera, positive for IgM antibodies against enterovirus genus and 49 healthy children were examined for the presence of antibodies against 14 synthetic peptides derived from a non-conserved region of the VP1 protein of coxsackieviruses B2, B3, B4, B5, A9, A16, A24, echoviruses 6, 7, 9, 11, 30, enterovirus 71 and parechovirus 1. 50% of the anti-enterovirus IgM positive sera (>150BU) reacted with the peptides with the majority of them to preferentially recognize one of them, supporting the homotypic nature of our assay. Inhibition studies yielded homologous inhibition rates 67-95% suggesting that specific peptide recognition actually occurred. The diagnostic value of our assay was tested in blood samples drawn over a 1.5-year period from a 5-year old patient. The anti-enterovirus reactivity was clearly attributed to echovirus serotype 11. The IgM/IgG antibody ratio was reversed 4 months later and subsequently IgM antibodies dropped below the cutoff point. In this paper we demonstrate that our assay can be used to discriminate between antibodies targeting different enterovirus serotypes. PMID:24929043

Routsias, John G; Mavrouli, Maria D; Antonaki, Georgia; Spanakis, Nikolaos; Tsakris, Athanassios

2014-08-01

286

Incidence and case-fatality rates resulting from the 1998 enterovirus 71 outbreak in Taiwan.  

PubMed

In 1998, an epidemic of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina caused by enterovirus 71 occurred in Taiwan, leaving many fatalities and severely handicapped survivors in its wake. The reasons this rather common pathogen would cause such a large-scale epidemic remain unknown. A seroepidemiological survey to elucidate the epidemiological characteristics of this outbreak, including its incidence and case-fatality rates was undertaken. Microneutralization tests for antibodies against enterovirus 71 were used to screen four collections of serum samples: 1) 202 specimens taken from individuals > or = 4 years old in 1994; 2) 245 specimens collected from individuals of all ages in 1997; 3) 1,258 specimens collected from individuals of all ages in 1999; and 4) sera samples from a birth cohort of 81 children who had yearly blood samples taken from 1988-98. After the maternal antibody had declined, the seropositive rates began to increase with age. Approximately half of all children aged 6 years or older were enterovirus 71 seropositive. Significantly higher seropositive rates were noted in 1999 than in 1997, in children aged 0.5-3 years. The incidence of enterovirus 71 infection during the epidemic was estimated to be 13-22%, with the higher rates in younger children. The case-fatality rate was highest (96.96 per 100,000) in infants aged 6-11 months, and declined in older children. The results showed that enterovirus 71 is endemic in Taiwan. The apparent lack of large-scale enterovirus 71 activity in the 3 years before 1998 might have been the prelude to the epidemic's appearance in 1998, and might suggest that enterovirus 71 infection will reappear every few years. The lack of a protective antibody in younger children may account for the high incidence and case-fatality rate in this age group. PMID:11992582

Lu, Chun-Yi; Lee, Chin-Yun; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Shao, Wen-Yi; Lee, Ping-Ing; Twu, Shiing-Jer; Yeh, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Shang-Ching; Shih, Wen-Yi; Wu, Shiow-Ing; Huang, Li-Min

2002-06-01

287

Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus.  

PubMed

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. The virus replicates not only in the epithelium of upper and lower respiratory tract tissues, but also in many tissues along the alimentary tract and elsewhere e.g. kidney, oviduct and testes. It can be detected in both respiratory and faecal material. There is increasing evidence that IBV can infect species of bird other than the chicken. Interestingly breeds of chicken vary with respect to the severity of infection with IBV, which may be related to the immune response. Probably the major reason for the high profile of IBV is the existence of a very large number of serotypes. Both live and inactivated IB vaccines are used extensively, the latter requiring priming by the former. Their effectiveness is diminished by poor cross-protection. The nature of the protective immune response to IBV is poorly understood. What is known is that the surface spike protein, indeed the amino-terminal S1 half, is sufficient to induce good protective immunity. There is increasing evidence that only a few amino acid differences amongst S proteins are sufficient to have a detrimental impact on cross-protection. Experimental vector IB vaccines and genetically manipulated IBVs--with heterologous spike protein genes--have produced promising results, including in the context of in ovo vaccination. PMID:17296157

Cavanagh, Dave

2007-01-01

288

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens  

PubMed Central

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control.

Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

2012-01-01

289

FastStats: Infectious Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... tuberculosis cases: 10,528 (2011) Number of new salmonella cases: 51,887 (2011) Number of new Lyme ... table 10 [PDF - 330 KB] More data AIDS/HIV Infectious Disease Prevalence in Los Angeles County–A ...

290

76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder...SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to participate...occupational exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information gathered...

2011-07-05

291

Novel infectious agents causing uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In any patient with uveitis, an infectious cause should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known\\u000a diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinician\\u000a should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air\\u000a travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern

Moncef Khairallah; Soon Phaik Chee; Sivakumar R. Rathinam; Sonia Attia; Venu Nadella

2010-01-01

292

Oral immunization with recombinant enterovirus 71 VP1 formulated with chitosan protects mice against lethal challenge  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the etiologic agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-Pacific region, Many strategies have been applied to develop EV71 vaccines but no vaccines are currently available. Mucosal immunization of the VP1, a major immunogenic capsid protein of EV71, may be an alternative way to prevent EV71 infection. Results In this study, mucosal immunogenicity and protect function of recombinant VP1 protein (rVP1) in formulation with chitosan were tested and assessed in female ICR mouse model. The results showed that the oral immunization with rVP1 induced VP1-specific IgA antibodies in intestine, feces, vagina, and the respiratory tract and serum-specific IgG and neutralization antibodies in vaccinated mice. Splenocytes from rVP1-immunized mice induced high levels of Th1 (cytokine IFN-?), Th2 (cytokine IL-4) and Th3 (cytokine TGF-?) type immune responses after stimulation. Moreover, rVP1-immunized mother mice conferred protection (survival rate up to 30%) on neonatal mice against a lethal challenge of 103 plaque-forming units (PFU) EV71. Conclusions These data indicated that oral immunization with rVP1 in formulation with chitosan was effective in inducing broad-spectrum immune responses and might be a promising subunit vaccine candidate for preventing EV71 infection.

2014-01-01

293

Enteroviruses in mussels and marine sediments and depuration of naturally accumulated viruses by green lipped mussels (Perna canaliculus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys were carried out over 16 months to assess the distribution of enteroviruses of human origin in sediments and mussels near two sewage outfalls on the North Taranaki Coast, New Zealand. Enteroviruses were present in high numbers in both sediments and shellfish near the New Plymouth sewage outfall with maximum virus levels of 32 000 pfu 100 g of wet

Gillian Lewis; Margaret W. Loutit; Frank J. Austin

1986-01-01

294

Enterovirus genomes in wastewater: concentration on glass wool and glass powder and detection by RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard methods for detecting enteroviruses in environmental samples require cell culture, which is time consuming and expensive. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a rapid, sensitive method for detecting enteroviruses in water. However, environmental samples often contain substances that inhibit PCR amplification of target RNA. Hence the virus must be concentrated by procedures that do not interfere with amplification.

C. Gantzer; S. Senouci; A. Maul; Y. Levi; L. Schwartzbrod

1997-01-01

295

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are characterized by a new or an increased occurrence within the last few decades. They\\u000a include the following categories Emerging diagnosis of infectious diseases: old diseases that are newly classified as infectious\\u000a diseases because of the discovery of a responsible infectious agent.

Thomas Löscher; Luise Prüfer-Krämer

296

Detection of Non-Polio Enteroviruses From 17 Years of Virological Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance has been conducted as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy on poliomyelitis eradication. Aside from poliovirus, which is the target pathogen, isolation, and identification of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) is also done by neutralization test using pools of antisera which can only identify limited number of NPEVs. In the Philippines, despite the significant number of isolated NPEVs, no information is available with regard to its occurrence, diversity, and pattern of circulation. In this study, a total of 790 NPEVs isolated from stool samples submitted to the National Reference Laboratory from 1992 to 2008 were analyzed; neutralization test was able to type 55% (442) of the isolates. Of the remaining 356 isolates, which were untyped by using neutralization test, 348 isolates were analyzed further by RT-PCR targeting the VP1 gene. A total of 47 serotypes of NPEV strains were identified using neutralization test and molecular typing, including 28 serotypes of human enterovirus B (HEV-B), 12 serotypes of HEV-A, and 7 of HEV-C. The HEV-B group (625/790; 79%) constituted the largest proportion of isolates, followed by HEV-C (108/790; 13.7%), HEV-A (57/790; 7.2%), and no HEV-D. Coxsackievirus (CV) B, echovirus (E)6, E11, and E13 were the most frequent isolates. E6, E11, E13, E14, E25, E30, E33, CVA20, and CVA24 were considered as endemic strains, some NPEVs recurred and few serotypes existed only for 1–3 years during the study period. Despite some limitations in this study, plural NPEVs with multiple patterns of circulation in the Philippines for 17 years were identified. J. Med. Virol. 84:624–631, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Apostol, Lea Necitas; Suzuki, Akira; Bautista, Analisa; Galang, Hazel; Paladin, Fem Julia; Fuji, Naoko; Lupisan, Socorro; Olveda, Remigio; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2012-01-01

297

Detection of non-polio enteroviruses from 17 years of virological surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in the Philippines.  

PubMed

Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance has been conducted as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy on poliomyelitis eradication. Aside from poliovirus, which is the target pathogen, isolation, and identification of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) is also done by neutralization test using pools of antisera which can only identify limited number of NPEVs. In the Philippines, despite the significant number of isolated NPEVs, no information is available with regard to its occurrence, diversity, and pattern of circulation. In this study, a total of 790 NPEVs isolated from stool samples submitted to the National Reference Laboratory from 1992 to 2008 were analyzed; neutralization test was able to type 55% (442) of the isolates. Of the remaining 356 isolates, which were untyped by using neutralization test, 348 isolates were analyzed further by RT-PCR targeting the VP1 gene. A total of 47 serotypes of NPEV strains were identified using neutralization test and molecular typing, including 28 serotypes of human enterovirus B (HEV-B), 12 serotypes of HEV-A, and 7 of HEV-C. The HEV-B group (625/790; 79%) constituted the largest proportion of isolates, followed by HEV-C (108/790; 13.7%), HEV-A (57/790; 7.2%), and no HEV-D. Coxsackievirus (CV) B, echovirus (E)6, E11, and E13 were the most frequent isolates. E6, E11, E13, E14, E25, E30, E33, CVA20, and CVA24 were considered as endemic strains, some NPEVs recurred and few serotypes existed only for 1-3 years during the study period. Despite some limitations in this study, plural NPEVs with multiple patterns of circulation in the Philippines for 17 years were identified. PMID:22337302

Apostol, Lea Necitas; Suzuki, Akira; Bautista, Analisa; Galang, Hazel; Paladin, Fem Julia; Fuji, Naoko; Lupisan, Socorro; Olveda, Remigio; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2012-04-01

298

Adaptation of enterovirus 71 to adult interferon deficient mice.  

PubMed

Non-polio enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71), have caused severe and fatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-Pacific region. The development of a vaccine or antiviral against these pathogens has been hampered by the lack of a reliable small animal model. In this study, a mouse adapted EV71 strain was produced by conducting serial passages through A129 (?/? interferon (IFN) receptor deficient) and AG129 (?/?, ? IFN receptor deficient) mice. A B2 sub genotype of EV71 was inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) into neonatal AG129 mice and brain-harvested virus was subsequently passaged through 12 and 15 day-old A129 mice. When tested in 10 week-old AG129 mice, this adapted strain produced 100% lethality with clinical signs including limb paralysis, eye irritation, loss of balance, and death. This virus caused only 17% mortality in same age A129 mice, confirming that in the absence of a functional IFN response, adult AG129 mice are susceptible to infection by adapted EV71 isolates. Subsequent studies in adult AG129 and young A129 mice with the adapted EV71 virus examined the efficacy of an inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine and determined the role of humoral immunity in protection. Passive transfer of rabbit immune sera raised against the EV71 vaccine provided protection in a dose dependent manner in 15 day-old A129 mice. Intramuscular injections (i.m.) in five week-old AG129 mice with the alum adjuvanted vaccine also provided protection against the mouse adapted homologous strain. No clinical signs of disease or mortality were observed in vaccinated animals, which received a prime-and-boost, whereas 71% of control animals were euthanized after exhibiting systemic clinical signs (P<0.05). The development of this animal model will facilitate studies on EV71 pathogenesis, antiviral testing, the evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates, and has the potential to establish correlates of protection studies. PMID:23527208

Caine, Elizabeth A; Partidos, Charalambos D; Santangelo, Joseph D; Osorio, Jorge E

2013-01-01

299

Newly emerging C group enteroviruses may elude diagnosis due to a divergent 5'-UTR.  

PubMed

Human enterovirus (HEV) 105 was first reported in 2012 in children from Peru and Congo. We report on the identification of a novel HEV-C105 strain in a pediatric patient in Cyprus with an upper respiratory tract infection. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of 5'-UTRs of all known HEVs revealed that our isolate belongs to a group of recently identified HEV-C viruses exhibiting a 5'-UTR distinct from all other previously known enteroviruses. This has important implications for diagnosis, as this region is the primary target for diagnostic assays. Increased awareness in laboratories may thus increase the rate of detection of enteroviruses belonging to this subspecies, or lead to the discovery of further genotypes. PMID:24080070

Richter, Jan; Tryfonos, Christina; Panagiotou, Christakis; Nikolaou, Elpiniki; Koliou, Maria; Christodoulou, Christina

2013-12-01

300

Molecular Evolution of Enterovirus 68 Detected in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of Enterovirus 68 (EV68) has recently been increased. However, underlying evolutionary mechanism of this increasing trend is not fully understood. Methods Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 5,240 patients with acute respiratory infections in the Philippines from June 2009 to December 2011. EV68 was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting for 5? untranslated region (5?UTR), viral protein 1 (VP1), and VP4/VP2. Phylogenetic trees were generated using the obtained sequences. Results Of the 5,240 tested samples, 12 EV68 positive cases were detected between August and December in 2011 (detection rate, 0.23%). The detection rate was higher among inpatients than outpatients (p<0.0001). Among VP1 sequences detected from 7 patients in 2011, 5 in lineage 2 were diverged from those detected in the Philippines in 2008, however, 2 in lineage 3 were not diverged from strains detected in the Philippines in 2008 but closely associated with strains detected in the United States. Combined with our previous report, EV68 occurrences were observed twice in the Philippines within the last four years. Conclusions EV68 detections might be occurring in cyclic patterns, and viruses might have been maintained in the community while some strains might have been newly introduced.

Imamura, Tadatsugu; Suzuki, Akira; Lupisan, Socorro; Okamoto, Michiko; Aniceto, Rapunzel; Egos, Rutchie J.; Daya, Edgardo E.; Tamaki, Raita; Saito, Mariko; Fuji, Naoko; Roy, Chandra Nath; Opinion, Jaime M.; Santo, Arlene V.; Macalalad, Noel G.; Tandoc, Amado; Sombrero, Lydia; Olveda, Remigio; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2013-01-01

301

Cytokine Immunopathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 Brain Stem Encephalitis  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the most important causes of herpangina and hand, foot, and mouth disease. It can also cause severe complications of the central nervous system (CNS). Brain stem encephalitis with pulmonary edema is the severe complication that can lead to death. EV71 replicates in leukocytes, endothelial cells, and dendritic cells resulting in the production of immune and inflammatory mediators that shape innate and acquired immune responses and the complications of disease. Cytokines, as a part of innate immunity, favor the development of antiviral and Th1 immune responses. Cytokines and chemokines play an important role in the pathogenesis EV71 brain stem encephalitis. Both the CNS and the systemic inflammatory responses to infection play important, but distinctly different, roles in the pathogenesis of EV71 pulmonary edema. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and milrinone, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has been shown to modulate inflammation, to reduce sympathetic overactivity, and to improve survival in patients with EV71 autonomic nervous system dysregulation and pulmonary edema.

Wang, Shih-Min; Lei, Huan-Yao; Liu, Ching-Chuan

2012-01-01

302

Cytokine immunopathogenesis of enterovirus 71 brain stem encephalitis.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the most important causes of herpangina and hand, foot, and mouth disease. It can also cause severe complications of the central nervous system (CNS). Brain stem encephalitis with pulmonary edema is the severe complication that can lead to death. EV71 replicates in leukocytes, endothelial cells, and dendritic cells resulting in the production of immune and inflammatory mediators that shape innate and acquired immune responses and the complications of disease. Cytokines, as a part of innate immunity, favor the development of antiviral and Th1 immune responses. Cytokines and chemokines play an important role in the pathogenesis EV71 brain stem encephalitis. Both the CNS and the systemic inflammatory responses to infection play important, but distinctly different, roles in the pathogenesis of EV71 pulmonary edema. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and milrinone, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has been shown to modulate inflammation, to reduce sympathetic overactivity, and to improve survival in patients with EV71 autonomic nervous system dysregulation and pulmonary edema. PMID:22956971

Wang, Shih-Min; Lei, Huan-Yao; Liu, Ching-Chuan

2012-01-01

303

Animal models of enterovirus 71 infection: applications and limitations  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus that is responsible for several outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region over the past 15 years. Appropriate animal models are needed to understand EV71 neuropathogenesis better and to facilitate the development of effective vaccines and drugs. Non-human primate models have been used to characterize and evaluate the neurovirulence of EV71 after the early outbreaks in late 1990s. However, these models were not suitable for assessing the neurovirulence level of the virus and were associated with ethical and economic difficulties in terms of broad application. Several strategies have been applied to develop mouse models of EV71 infection, including strategies that employ virus adaption and immunodeficient hosts. Although these mouse models do not closely mimic human disease, they have been applied to determine the pathogenesis of and treatment and prevention of the disease. EV71 receptor-transgenic mouse models have recently been developed and have significantly advanced our understanding of the biological features of the virus and the host-parasite interactions. Overall, each of these models has advantages and disadvantages, and these models are differentially suited for studies of EV71 pathogenesis and/or the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this paper, we review the characteristics, applications and limitation of these EV71 animal models, including non-human primate and mouse models.

2014-01-01

304

Seroepidemiology and Molecular Epidemiology of Enterovirus 71 in Russia  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging human pathogen causing massive epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications in Asia. EV71 also circulates in Europe, however it does not cause large outbreaks. The reason for distinct epidemiological patterns of EV71 infection in Europe and Asia and the risk of EV71 epidemic in Europe and Russia remain unknown. Seroepidemiology of EV71 and molecular epidemiology of occasional EV71 isolates were studied to explore circulation of EV71 in Russia. In six regions of Russian Federation, seroprevalence of EV71 in sera collected in 2008 ranged from 5% to 20% in children aged 1–2 years and from 19% to 83% in children aged 3–5 years. The seroprevalence among elder children was significantly higher (41–83% vs. 19–27%) in Asian regions of Russia. EV71 strains identified in Russia in 2001–2011 belonged to subtypes C1 and C2, while genotype C4 that was causing epidemics in Asia since 1998 emerged in 2009 and became dominant in 2013.

Akhmadishina, Ludmila V.; Eremeeva, Tatiana P.; Trotsenko, Olga E.; Ivanova, Olga E.; Mikhailov, Mikhail I.; Lukashev, Alexander N.

2014-01-01

305

Clinical features, diagnosis, and management of enterovirus 71.  

PubMed

Although poliomyelitis has been mostly eradicated worldwide, large outbreaks of the related enterovirus 71 have been seen in Asia-Pacific countries in the past 10 years. This virus mostly affects children, manifesting as hand, foot, and mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, poliomyelitis-like acute flaccid paralysis, brainstem encephalitis, and other severe systemic disorders, including especially pulmonary oedema and cardiorespiratory collapse. Clinical predictors of severe disease include high temperature and lethargy, and lumbar puncture might reveal pleocytosis. Many diagnostic tests are available, but PCR of throat swabs and vesicle fluid, if available, is among the most efficient. Features of inflammation, particularly in the anterior horns of the spinal cord, the dorsal pons, and the medulla can be clearly seen on MRI. No established antiviral treatment is available. Intravenous immunoglobulin seems to be beneficial in severe disease, perhaps through non-specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms, but has not been tested in any formal trials. Milrinone might be helpful in patients with cardiac dysfunction. PMID:20965438

Ooi, Mong How; Wong, See Chang; Lewthwaite, Penny; Cardosa, Mary Jane; Solomon, Tom

2010-11-01

306

Differential Effects of the Putative GBF1 Inhibitors Golgicide A and AG1478 on Enterovirus Replication?  

PubMed Central

The genus Enterovirus, belonging to the family Picornaviridae, includes well-known pathogens, such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and rhinovirus. Brefeldin A (BFA) impedes replication of several enteroviruses through inhibition of Golgi-specific BFA resistance factor 1 (GBF1), a regulator of secretory pathway integrity and transport. GBF1 mediates the GTP exchange of Arf1, which in activated form recruits coatomer protein complex I (COP-I) to Golgi vesicles, a process important in transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicles. Recently, the drugs AG1478 and Golgicide A (GCA) were put forward as new inhibitors of GBF1. In this study, we investigated the effects of these putative GBF1 inhibitors on secretory pathway function and enterovirus replication. We show that both drugs induced fragmentation of the Golgi vesicles and caused dissociation of Arf1 and COP-I from Golgi membranes, yet they differed in their effect on GBF1 localization. The effects of AG1478, but not those of GCA, could be countered by overexpression of Arf1, indicating a difference in their molecular mechanism of action. Consistent with this idea, we observed that GCA drastically reduced replication of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and other human enterovirus species, whereas AG1478 had no effect at all on enterovirus replication. Time-of-addition studies and analysis of RNA replication using a subgenomic replicon both showed that GCA suppresses RNA replication of CVB3, which could be countered by overexpression of GBF1. These results indicate that, in contrast to AG1478, GCA inhibits CVB3 RNA replication by targeting GBF1. AG1478 and GCA may be valuable tools to further dissect enterovirus replication.

van der Linden, Lonneke; van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Lanke, Kjerstin H. W.; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

2010-01-01

307

Differential effects of the putative GBF1 inhibitors Golgicide A and AG1478 on enterovirus replication.  

PubMed

The genus Enterovirus, belonging to the family Picornaviridae, includes well-known pathogens, such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and rhinovirus. Brefeldin A (BFA) impedes replication of several enteroviruses through inhibition of Golgi-specific BFA resistance factor 1 (GBF1), a regulator of secretory pathway integrity and transport. GBF1 mediates the GTP exchange of Arf1, which in activated form recruits coatomer protein complex I (COP-I) to Golgi vesicles, a process important in transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicles. Recently, the drugs AG1478 and Golgicide A (GCA) were put forward as new inhibitors of GBF1. In this study, we investigated the effects of these putative GBF1 inhibitors on secretory pathway function and enterovirus replication. We show that both drugs induced fragmentation of the Golgi vesicles and caused dissociation of Arf1 and COP-I from Golgi membranes, yet they differed in their effect on GBF1 localization. The effects of AG1478, but not those of GCA, could be countered by overexpression of Arf1, indicating a difference in their molecular mechanism of action. Consistent with this idea, we observed that GCA drastically reduced replication of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and other human enterovirus species, whereas AG1478 had no effect at all on enterovirus replication. Time-of-addition studies and analysis of RNA replication using a subgenomic replicon both showed that GCA suppresses RNA replication of CVB3, which could be countered by overexpression of GBF1. These results indicate that, in contrast to AG1478, GCA inhibits CVB3 RNA replication by targeting GBF1. AG1478 and GCA may be valuable tools to further dissect enterovirus replication. PMID:20504936

van der Linden, Lonneke; van der Schaar, Hilde M; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

2010-08-01

308

An interaction between glutathione and the capsid is required for the morphogenesis of C-cluster enteroviruses.  

PubMed

Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular thiol playing an essential role in preserving a reduced cellular environment. Cellular GSH levels can be efficiently reduced by the GSH biosynthesis inhibitor, L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). The aim of our study was to determine the role of GSH in the growth of two C-cluster enteroviruses, poliovirus type 1 (PV1) and coxsackievirus A20 (CAV20). Our results show that the growth of both PV1 and CAV20 is strongly inhibited by BSO and can be partially reversed by the addition of GSH. BSO has no effect on viral protein synthesis or RNA replication but it strikingly reduces the accumulation of 14S pentamers in infected cells. GSH-pull down assays show that GSH directly interacts with capsid precursors and mature virus made in the absence of BSO whereas capsid precursors produced under GSH-depletion do not bind to GSH. In particular, the loss of binding of GSH may debilitate the stability of 14S pentamers, resulting in their failure to assemble into mature virus. Immunofluorescence cell imaging demonstrated that GSH-depletion did not affect the localization of viral capsid proteins to the replication complex. PV1 BSO resistant (BSOr) mutants evolved readily during passaging of the virus in the presence of BSO. Structural analyses revealed that the BSOr mutations, mapping to VP1 and VP3 capsid proteins, are primarily located at protomer/protomer interfaces. BSOr mutations might, in place of GSH, aid the stability of 14S particles that is required for virion maturation. Our observation that BSOr mutants are more heat resistant and need less GSH than wt virus to be protected from heat inactivation suggests that they possess a more stable capsid. We propose that the role of GSH during enterovirus morphogenesis is to stabilize capsid structures by direct interaction with capsid proteins both during and after the formation of mature virus particles. PMID:24722315

Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Liu, Ying; Wang, Chunling; Strauss, Michael; Rehage, Nina; Chen, Ying-Han; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal; Hogle, James; Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen; Paul, Aniko V; Jiang, Ping

2014-04-01

309

Limited duration of vaccine poliovirus and other enterovirus excretion among human immunodeficiency virus infected children in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Immunodeficient persons with persistent vaccine-related poliovirus infection may serve as a potential reservoir for reintroduction of polioviruses after wild poliovirus eradication, posing a risk of their further circulation in inadequately immunized populations. Methods To estimate the potential for vaccine-related poliovirus persistence among HIV-infected persons, we studied poliovirus excretion following vaccination among children at an orphanage in Kenya. For 12 months after national immunization days, we collected serial stool specimens from orphanage residents aged <5 years at enrollment and recorded their HIV status and demographic, clinical, immunological, and immunization data. To detect and characterize isolated polioviruses and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV), we used viral culture, typing and intratypic differentiation of isolates by PCR, ELISA, and nucleic acid sequencing. Long-term persistence was defined as shedding for ? 6 months. Results Twenty-four children (15 HIV-infected, 9 HIV-uninfected) were enrolled, and 255 specimens (170 from HIV-infected, 85 from HIV-uninfected) were collected. All HIV-infected children had mildly or moderately symptomatic HIV-disease and moderate-to-severe immunosuppression. Fifteen participants shed vaccine-related polioviruses, and 22 shed NPEV at some point during the study period. Of 46 poliovirus-positive specimens, 31 were from HIV-infected, and 15 from HIV-uninfected children. No participant shed polioviruses for ? 6 months. Genomic sequencing of poliovirus isolates did not reveal any genetic evidence of long-term shedding. There was no long-term shedding of NPEV. Conclusion The results indicate that mildly to moderately symptomatic HIV-infected children retain the ability to clear enteroviruses, including vaccine-related poliovirus. Larger studies are needed to confirm and generalize these findings.

2009-01-01

310

Systematic reviews of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The World Wide Web provides ready access to a wealth of information on infectious diseases topics. Systematic reviews and practice guidelines help to focus that evidence with in-depth literature analysis of a specific question. These reviews are typically rigidly structured, often periodically updated, and include critical evaluation of available data. In this article, Web sites of organizations that publish systematic reviews and practice guidelines for infectious diseases are identified and reviewed with regard to ease of use, comprehensiveness, quality of information, and cost. Examples of information available in databases of practice guidelines and systematic reviews are provided. A hypothetical case is used to illustrate the use of electronic resources in evidence-based infectious diseases practice. PMID:12015699

Schmitt, Steven K; Mehta, Neil

2002-06-01

311

Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters.

MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

2013-01-01

312

Genetic and antigenic characterization of enterovirus 71 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2011.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) frequently causes fatal infections in young children in Asia. In 2011, EV71 epidemics occurred in southern Vietnam. We conducted genetic and antigenic analysis of the EV71 isolates and found that 94% of them were genotype C4a related to two lineages circulating in China and 6% were genotype C5 which have circulated in Vietnam since 2003. Antigenic variants were not detected. EV71 vaccines are being developed. Longitudinal enterovirus surveillance data are critical to formulate vaccination policy in Vietnam. PMID:23922846

Thoa, Le Phan Kim; Chiang, Pai-Shan; Khanh, Truong Huu; Luo, Shu-Ting; Dan, Tran Ngoc Hanh; Wang, Ya-Fang; Thuong, Tang Chi; Chung, Wan-Yu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Wang, Jen-Ren; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Thinh, Le Quoc; Su, Ih-Jen; Dung, Than Duc; Lee, Min-Shi

2013-01-01

313

Genetic and Antigenic Characterization of Enterovirus 71 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2011  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) frequently causes fatal infections in young children in Asia. In 2011, EV71 epidemics occurred in southern Vietnam. We conducted genetic and antigenic analysis of the EV71 isolates and found that 94% of them were genotype C4a related to two lineages circulating in China and 6% were genotype C5 which have circulated in Vietnam since 2003. Antigenic variants were not detected. EV71 vaccines are being developed. Longitudinal enterovirus surveillance data are critical to formulate vaccination policy in Vietnam.

Thoa, Le Phan Kim; Chiang, Pai-Shan; Khanh, Truong Huu; Luo, Shu-Ting; Dan, Tran Ngoc Hanh; Wang, Ya-Fang; Thuong, Tang Chi; Chung, Wan-Yu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Wang, Jen-Ren; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Thinh, Le Quoc; Su, Ih-Jen; Dung, Than Duc; Lee, Min-Shi

2013-01-01

314

Differential interferon pathway gene expression patterns in Rhabdomyosarcoma cells during Enterovirus 71 or Coxsackievirus A16 infection.  

PubMed

Exposure of cells to type I interferon (IFN) induces an antiviral state that prevents viral infection, but viruses can utilize multiple tactics to antagonize the host immune system. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are two major pathogens that cause hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is prevalent among children. We found that both EV71 and CA16 have different reactions to type I IFN pretreatment and induction patterns of type I IFN on Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. Further, a human-? and ? IFN PCR array was employed to analyze the expressions of 84 genes related to the type I IFN pathway. We found significant up-regulation of multiple genes in the presence of type I IFN and differential regulation patterns during EV71 or CA16 infection in RD cells. For instance, EV71 infection repressed the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, whereas CA16 infection normally triggers the JAK-STAT pathway, leading to the expression of ISGs. Taken together, this study provides a comprehensive view of the differential impacts of EV71 and CA16 infection on 84 genes in the IFN pathway, shedding light on the different resistances of these viruses to type I IFN treatment and cytotoxic effects in RD cells. PMID:24735544

Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Zhiyong; Tien, Po

2014-05-01

315

Enterovirus 71 uses cell surface heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan as an attachment receptor.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections are usually associated with mild hand, foot, and mouth disease in young children but have been reported to cause severe neurological complications with high mortality rates. To date, four EV-71 receptors have been identified, but inhibition of these receptors by antagonists did not completely abolish EV-71 infection, implying that there is an as yet undiscovered receptor(s). Since EV-71 has a wide range of tissue tropisms, we hypothesize that EV-71 infections may be facilitated by using receptors that are widely expressed in all cell types, such as heparan sulfate. In this study, heparin, polysulfated dextran sulfate, and suramin were found to significantly prevent EV-71 infection. Heparin inhibited infection by all the EV-71 strains tested, including those with a single-passage history. Neutralization of the cell surface anionic charge by polycationic poly-d-lysine and blockage of heparan sulfate by an anti-heparan sulfate peptide also inhibited EV-71 infection. Interference with heparan sulfate biosynthesis either by sodium chlorate treatment or through transient knockdown of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 and exostosin-1 expression reduced EV-71 infection in RD cells. Enzymatic removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by heparinase I/II/III inhibited EV-71 infection. Furthermore, the level of EV-71 attachment to CHO cell lines that are variably deficient in cell surface glycosaminoglycans was significantly lower than that to wild-type CHO cells. Direct binding of EV-71 particles to heparin-Sepharose columns under physiological salt conditions was demonstrated. We conclude that EV-71 infection requires initial binding to heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor. PMID:23097443

Tan, Chee Wah; Poh, Chit Laa; Sam, I-Ching; Chan, Yoke Fun

2013-01-01

316

Enterovirus 71 Uses Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan as an Attachment Receptor  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections are usually associated with mild hand, foot, and mouth disease in young children but have been reported to cause severe neurological complications with high mortality rates. To date, four EV-71 receptors have been identified, but inhibition of these receptors by antagonists did not completely abolish EV-71 infection, implying that there is an as yet undiscovered receptor(s). Since EV-71 has a wide range of tissue tropisms, we hypothesize that EV-71 infections may be facilitated by using receptors that are widely expressed in all cell types, such as heparan sulfate. In this study, heparin, polysulfated dextran sulfate, and suramin were found to significantly prevent EV-71 infection. Heparin inhibited infection by all the EV-71 strains tested, including those with a single-passage history. Neutralization of the cell surface anionic charge by polycationic poly-d-lysine and blockage of heparan sulfate by an anti-heparan sulfate peptide also inhibited EV-71 infection. Interference with heparan sulfate biosynthesis either by sodium chlorate treatment or through transient knockdown of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 and exostosin-1 expression reduced EV-71 infection in RD cells. Enzymatic removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by heparinase I/II/III inhibited EV-71 infection. Furthermore, the level of EV-71 attachment to CHO cell lines that are variably deficient in cell surface glycosaminoglycans was significantly lower than that to wild-type CHO cells. Direct binding of EV-71 particles to heparin-Sepharose columns under physiological salt conditions was demonstrated. We conclude that EV-71 infection requires initial binding to heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor.

Tan, Chee Wah; Poh, Chit Laa; Sam, I-Ching

2013-01-01

317

Epidemiological survey of enterovirus infections occurring in Taiwan between 2000 and 2005: analysis of sentinel physician surveillance data.  

PubMed

Enterovirus (EV) infections are common. There are more than 60 known serotypes, and each has different epidemiologic or medical importance. Over 700 physicians from 75% of basic administrative units of Taiwan participated in the "Sentinel Physician Surveillance of Infectious Disease" and reported weekly to the Center for Disease Control-Taiwan with data on various infections. Data of laboratory-confirmed EV infections from this surveillance between 2000 and 2005 was analyzed. EV serotypes were determined by immunofluorescence staining and/or viral VP1 sequence analysis. A total of 12,236 EV cases, or approximately 1,300-2,500 per year, were identified, and 52% of the cases occurred between April and July. The median age was 3 years, and 57.6% of patients were male. Coxsackievirus A (CA) 16 and EV71, which primarily manifest as hand-foot-and-mouth disease, were the most prevalent serotypes every year except 2004. Other prevalent serotypes and associated symptoms varied from year to year. Echovirus (E) 30 and E6, which are associated with aseptic meningitis, were prevalent in 2001 and 2002, CA4 and CA10, which cause herpangina, were predominant in 2004, and coxsackievirus B (CB) 4 and CB3, which are associated with neonatal febrile disease, were most common in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Some of these epidemics overlapped with outbreaks of the same serotypes in other Asian Pacific countries. Of all serotypes, EV71 was associated with the highest number of severe complications in patients. Surveying the epidemic pattern, disease spectra, and severity associated with each EV serotype provided important information for public health and medical personnel. PMID:17935170

Tseng, Fan-Chen; Huang, Han-Chin; Chi, Chia-Yu; Lin, Tsuey-Li; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Jian, Jhih-Wei; Hsu, Li-Ching; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Chang, Ya-Wen; Wang, Hsuan-Chen; Hsu, Yun-Wei; Su, Ih-Jen; Wang, Jen-Ren

2007-12-01

318

Display of VP1 on the Surface of Baculovirus and Its Immunogenicity against Heterologous Human Enterovirus 71 Strains in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. It is often associated with severe neurological diseases and has caused high mortalities in recent outbreaks across the Asia Pacific region. Currently, there is no effective vaccine and antiviral agents available against EV71 infections. VP1 is one of the major immunogenic capsid protein of EV71 and plays a crucial role in viral infection. Antibodies against VP1 are important for virus neutralization. Methodology/Principal Finding In the present study, infectious EV71 viruses were generated from their synthetic complementary DNA using the human RNA polymerase I reverse genetics system. Secondly, the major immunogenic capsid protein (VP1) of EV71-Fuyang (subgenogroup C4) was displayed on the surface of recombinant baculovirus Bac-Pie1-gp64-VP1 as gp64 fusion protein under a novel White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) immediate early ie1 promoter. Baculovirus expressed VP1 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that VP1 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired VP1 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. After two immunizations in mice, Bac-Pie1-gp64-VP1 elicited neutralization antibody titer of 1?64 against EV71 (subgenogroup C4) in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, the antisera showed high cross-neutralization activities against all 11 subgenogroup EV71 strains. Conclusion Our results illustrated that Bac-Pie1-gp64-VP1 retained native epitopes of VP1 and acted as an effective EV71 vaccine candidate which would enable rapid production without any biosafety concerns.

Kiener, Tanja K.; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Kwang, Jimmy

2011-01-01

319

Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories.

Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

2013-01-01

320

Molecular diagnostics of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years, the development and appli- cation of molecular diagnostic techniques has initiated a revolution in the diagnosis and monitoring of infectious diseases. Microbial phenotypic characteristics, such as protein, bacteriophage, and chromatographic profiles, as well as biotyping and susceptibility testing, are used in most routine laboratories for identification and differ- entiation. Nucleic acid techniques, such as plasmid

Yi-Wei Tang; Gary W. Procop; David H. Persing

321

Combinatorial immunotherapies for infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combating pathogenic organisms by combinatorial approaches involving appropriate immune response molecules and antimicrobial drugs represents a progessively more apparent and successful therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of acute and chronic persistent infectious diseases. This review explores areas of current innovation and provides an update of the present state of knowledge concerning combination of chemotherapy with several immune-based interventions in infections.

Hartmut Hengel; K. Noel Masihi

2003-01-01

322

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Fluoxetine Inhibits Replication of Human Enteroviruses B and D by Targeting Viral Protein 2C  

PubMed Central

Although the genus Enterovirus contains many important human pathogens, there is no licensed drug for either the treatment or the prophylaxis of enterovirus infections. We report that fluoxetine (Prozac)—a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor—inhibits the replication of human enterovirus B (HEV-B) and HEV-D but does not affect the replication of HEV-A and HEV-C or human rhinovirus A or B. We show that fluoxetine interferes with viral RNA replication, and we identified viral protein 2C as the target of this compound.

Ulferts, Rachel; van der Linden, Lonneke; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Lanke, Kjerstin H. W.; Leyssen, Pieter; Coutard, Bruno; De Palma, Armando M.; Canard, Bruno; Neyts, Johan

2013-01-01

323

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine inhibits replication of human enteroviruses B and D by targeting viral protein 2C.  

PubMed

Although the genus Enterovirus contains many important human pathogens, there is no licensed drug for either the treatment or the prophylaxis of enterovirus infections. We report that fluoxetine (Prozac)--a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor--inhibits the replication of human enterovirus B (HEV-B) and HEV-D but does not affect the replication of HEV-A and HEV-C or human rhinovirus A or B. We show that fluoxetine interferes with viral RNA replication, and we identified viral protein 2C as the target of this compound. PMID:23335743

Ulferts, Rachel; van der Linden, Lonneke; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; Leyssen, Pieter; Coutard, Bruno; De Palma, Armando M; Canard, Bruno; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

2013-04-01

324

[Pentapeptides prevent enterovirus 71 proliferation in rhabdomyosarcoma cells and mice].  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). This article presented the inhibitory activity of pentapeptides on the EV71 infection in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) and suckling mice. The EV71 VP1 capsid protein expression levels and mRNA levels were analyzed by Western blotting and real-time PCR. The antiviral activity of pentapeptides in vivo was evaluated by weight changes and EV71 VP1 protein expression levels in intestines of suckling mice. Results revealed that the pentapeptide P010157 was able to inhibit EV71 replication in RD cells. After being incubated with the P010157 at a concentration of 100 microg x mL(-1) for 48 h, the level of EV71 vp1 mRNA in RD cells decreased by (92.0 +/- 6.3)%. The estimated EC50 was 2.2 microg x mL(-1). P010157 was able to inhibit EV 71-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) in RD cells. The cytotoxic activity of the compound was evaluated against RD cells by MTS assay. The results showed that P010157 had no obvious toxicity. In addition, the treated mice with P010157 did not exhibit weight loss, as was observed in untreated mice. EV71 replication reduced significantly as revealed by Western blotting. These findings suggest that P010157 could prevent EV71 proliferation in vitro and in vivo. P010157 is a novel compound for antiviral therapies against EV71, which merited further investigation. PMID:24974461

Yang, Zhuo; Tian, Bo

2014-04-01

325

Enterovirus 71 infection: An experience in Korea, 2009.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been recognized as a frequent cause of epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) associated with severe neurological symptoms. In the spring of 2009, HFMD was epidemic in Korea. Severe cases with complication, including death, have been reported and it has become a public health issue. Most symptomatic EV71 infections commonly result in HFMD or herpangina. These clinical manifestations can be associated with neurologic syndromes frequently. Neurologic syndromes observed in EV71 include meningitis, meningoencephalomyelitis, poliomyelitis-like paralytic disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, cerebellar ataxia, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, benign intracranial hypertension, and brainstem encephalitis. Examinations for EV 71 were performed from the stools, respiratory secretion or CSF of the children by realtime PCR. Gene analysis showed that most of them were caused by EV71 subgenotype C4a which was prevalent in China, 2008. Public health measures including personal and environmental hygiene, must to target daycare centers, kindergartens, and schools where highly susceptible children congregate. To prevent the spread of infection, preschools where transmission persists for more than 2 incubation periods, have been recommended for closure, and trigger criteria for voluntary closure was instituted. During closure, operators are to thoroughly clean the centers before they are allowed to reopen. In addition, parents are advised to ensure that their children adopt a high standard of personal hygiene and to keep the infected child at home until full recovery. Because the outbreaks occur in a cyclical pattern, surveillance system to predict next outbreaks and adequate public health measures to control need to be planned for future. Control of EV71 epidemics through surveillance and public health intervention needs to be maintained in Korea. Future research should focus on understanding of EV71 virulence, identification of the receptor(s) for EV71, development of antiviral agents and development of vaccine. PMID:21189926

Kim, Kyung Hyo

2010-05-01

326

The Interplays between Autophagy and Apoptosis Induced by Enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the causative agent of human diseases with distinct severity, from mild hand, foot and mouth disease to severe neurological syndromes, such as encephalitis and meningitis. The lack of understanding of viral pathogenesis as well as lack of efficient vaccine and drugs against this virus impedes the control of EV71 infection. EV71 virus induces autophagy and apoptosis; however, the relationship between EV71-induced autophagy and apoptosis as well as the influence of autophagy and apoptosis on virus virulence remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, it was observed that the Anhui strain of EV71 induced autophagy and apoptosis in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD-A) cells. Additionally, by either applying chemical inhibitors or knocking down single essential autophagic or apoptotic genes, inhibition of EV71 induced autophagy inhibited the apoptosis both at the autophagosome formation stage and autophagy execution stage. However, inhibition of autophagy at the stage of autophagosome and lysosome fusion promoted apoptosis. In reverse, the inhibition of EV71-induced apoptosis contributed to the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-I (LC3-I) to LC3-II and degradation of sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/P62). Furthermore, the inhibition of autophagy in the autophagsome formation stage or apoptosis decreased the release of EV71 viral particles. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, the results of this study not only revealed novel aspect of the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in EV71 infection, but also provided a new insight to control EV71 infection.

Wang, Bei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Ji; Huang, He; Wang, Jianwei; Jin, Qi; Zhao, Zhendong

2013-01-01

327

Enterovirus 71 infection: An experience in Korea, 2009  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been recognized as a frequent cause of epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) associated with severe neurological symptoms. In the spring of 2009, HFMD was epidemic in Korea. Severe cases with complication, including death, have been reported and it has become a public health issue. Most symptomatic EV71 infections commonly result in HFMD or herpangina. These clinical manifestations can be associated with neurologic syndromes frequently. Neurologic syndromes observed in EV71 include meningitis, meningoencephalomyelitis, poliomyelitis-like paralytic disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, cerebellar ataxia, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, benign intracranial hypertension, and brainstem encephalitis. Examinations for EV 71 were performed from the stools, respiratory secretion or CSF of the children by realtime PCR. Gene analysis showed that most of them were caused by EV71 subgenotype C4a which was prevalent in China, 2008. Public health measures including personal and environmental hygiene, must to target daycare centers, kindergartens, and schools where highly susceptible children congregate. To prevent the spread of infection, preschools where transmission persists for more than 2 incubation periods, have been recommended for closure, and trigger criteria for voluntary closure was instituted. During closure, operators are to thoroughly clean the centers before they are allowed to reopen. In addition, parents are advised to ensure that their children adopt a high standard of personal hygiene and to keep the infected child at home until full recovery. Because the outbreaks occur in a cyclical pattern, surveillance system to predict next outbreaks and adequate public health measures to control need to be planned for future. Control of EV71 epidemics through surveillance and public health intervention needs to be maintained in Korea. Future research should focus on understanding of EV71 virulence, identification of the receptor(s) for EV71, development of antiviral agents and development of vaccine.

2010-01-01

328

Persistent Infection of Thymic Epithelial Cells with Coxsackievirus B4 Results in Decreased Expression of Type 2 Insulin-Like Growth Factor  

PubMed Central

It has been hypothesized that a disturbance of central self-tolerance to islet ? cells may play a role in the enteroviral pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Whether enteroviruses can induce an impaired expression of ?-cell self-antigens in thymic epithelial cells has been investigated in a murine thymic epithelial (MTE) cell line. This cell line was permissive to the diabetogenic group B4 coxsackievirus (CV-B4) strain CV-B4 E2 and spontaneously expressed type 2 insulin-like growth factor (Igf2), the dominant self-antigen of the insulin family. In this model, a persistent replication of CV-B4 E2 was obtained, as attested to by the prolonged detection of intracellular positive- and negative-strand viral RNA by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and capsid protein VP1 by immunofluorescent staining and by the release of infectious particles in culture supernatants. The chronic stage of the infection was characterized by a low proportion of VP1-positive cells (1 to 2%), whereas many cells harbored enteroviral RNA, as displayed by RT-PCR without extraction applied directly to a few cells. Igf2 mRNA and IGF-2 protein were dramatically decreased in CV-B4 E2-infected MTE cell cultures compared with mock-infected cultures, whereas housekeeping and interleukin-6 (Il6) gene expression was maintained and Igf1 mRNA was decreased, but to a lower extent. Inoculation of CV-B3, CV-B4 JVB, or echovirus 1 resulted in a low level of IGF-2 in culture supernatants as well, whereas herpes simplex virus 1 stimulated the production of the protein. Thus, a persistent infection of a thymic epithelial cell line with enteroviruses like CV-B4 E2 can result in a disturbed production of IGF-2, a protein involved in central self-tolerance toward islet ? cells.

Jaidane, Hela; Caloone, Delphine; Lobert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Sane, Famara; Dardenne, Olivier; Naquet, Philippe; Gharbi, Jawhar; Aouni, Mahjoub; Geenen, Vincent

2012-01-01

329

Enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease, Southern Vietnam, 2011.  

PubMed

We prospectively studied 3,791 children hospitalized during 2011 during a large outbreak of enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease in Vietnam. Formal assessment of public health interventions, use of intravenous immunoglobulin and other therapies, and factors predisposing for progression of disease is needed to improve clinical management. PMID:23194699

Khanh, Truong Huu; Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Thanh, Tran Tan; Thoa, Le Phan Kim; Thuong, Tang Chi; Hang, Vu thi Ty; Farrar, Jeremy; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen van Vinh; van Doorn, H Rogier

2012-12-01

330

Enterovirus, Cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Screening in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is frequently classified as ‘idiopathic’ since the causative factor is not identified in most cases. In the present study we determined whether SSNHL is associated with common viral infections, namely enterovirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Between April 2004 and March 2005, we conducted a prospective cohort study on 48 unselected patients with unilateral

Menachem Gross; Dana G. Wolf; Josef Elidan; Ron Eliashar

2007-01-01

331

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 in the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade witnessed a significant increase in epidemic activity of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) in the Western Pacific Region (WPR). In most European countries, this risk is unrecognized despite occasional cases of severe disease and two severe outbreaks in Eastern Europe 30 years ago. In this study we report the first examination of the molecular epidemiology of EV71 in

Jon M. Bible; Miren Iturriza-Gomara; Brian Megson; David Brown; Panagiotis Pantelidis; Pam Earl; Justin Bendig; C. Y. William Tong

2008-01-01

332

Enterovirus?Associated Encephalitis in the California Encephalitis Project, 1998–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Encephalitis is a relatively rare presentation of enterovirus (EV) infections. Clinical and epidemi- ologic characteristics of EV encephalitis (EVE) have not been well characterized. Methods. Patients with encephalitis enrolled in the California Encephalitis Project from 1998 to 2005 were tested for a range of pathogens, including EV, using a standardized diagnostic algorithm. EVE was categorized as \\

Somayeh Honarmand; Carol Glaser; Shigeo Yagi; David Schnurr; Larry Anderson; Nino Khetsuriani

2008-01-01

333

Complete genome sequence of a human enterovirus 71 strain isolated in wuhan, china, in 2010.  

PubMed

The complete genome sequence of a human enterovirus 71 strain (EV71/wuhan/3018/2010), which was isolated in Wuhan in 2010, was amplified by a reverse transcription-PCR method and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome sequence classified this strain into subgenogroup A. PMID:24371206

Yang, Zhu; Lu, Songya; Xian, Jianchun; Ye, Jun; Xiao, Li; Luo, Jun; Zen, Ke; Liu, Fenyong

2013-01-01

334

Evaluation of methods using celite to concentrate norovirus, adenovirus and enterovirus from wastewater  

EPA Science Inventory

Enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. These viruses are shed in the feces of infected individuals and can accumulate in wastewater. Therefore, wastewater is a source of a potentially diverse group of enteric viru...

335

Inhibition of Enterovirus 71 in Virus-infected Mice by RNA Interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. It is often associated with neurological complications and has caused high mortality levels in recent outbreaks in the Asia Pacific region. Currently, there is no effective antiviral therapy against EV71 infections. In this study, we have evaluated and compared the efficacies of

Eng Lee Tan; Theresa May Chin Tan; Vincent Tak Kwong Chow; Chit Laa Poh

2007-01-01

336

Survey of human enterovirus occurrence in fresh and marine surface waters on Long Island.  

PubMed Central

A variety of surface water systems, including a lake, a creek, and two marine embayments, were analyzed on a monthly basis for indigenous human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. Findings are discussed in terms of the probable pollution sources to each system and their relationship to data from previous studies.

Vaughn, J M; Landry, E F; Thomas, M Z; Vicale, T J; Penello, W F

1979-01-01

337

Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator. PMID:18956484

Huang, Mei-Chuan; Lin, Jim Juimin

2008-11-01

338

Children With Islet Autoimmunity and Enterovirus Infection Demonstrate a Distinct Cytokine Profile  

PubMed Central

Cytokines are upregulated in prediabetes, but their relationship with Enterovirus (EV) infection and development of islet autoimmunity is unknown. Cytokines (n = 65) were measured using Luminex xMAP technology in a nested case-control study of 67 children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes: 27 with islet autoantibodies (Ab+) and 40 age-matched persistently autoantibody negative (Ab?) control subjects. Of 74 samples, 37 (50%) were EV-PCR+ in plasma and/or stool (EV+) and the remainder were negative for EV and other viruses (EV?). Fifteen cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were elevated (P ? 0.01) in Ab+ versus Ab? children (interleukin [IL]-1?, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12(p70), IL-16, IL-17, IL-20, IL-21, IL-28A, tumor necrosis factor-?, chemokine C-C motif ligand [CCL]13, CCL26, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and thrombopoietin); most have proinflammatory effects. In EV+ versus EV? children, IL-10 was higher (P = 0.005), while IL-21 was lower (P = 0.008). Cytokine levels did not differ between Ab+EV+ and Ab+EV? children. Heat maps demonstrated clustering of some proinflammatory cytokines in Ab+ children, suggesting they are coordinately regulated. In conclusion, children with islet autoimmunity demonstrate higher levels of multiple cytokines, consistent with an active inflammatory process in the prediabetic state, which is unrelated to coincident EV infection. Apart from differences in IL-10 and IL-21, EV infection was not associated with a specific cytokine profile.

Yeung, Wing-Chi G.; Al-Shabeeb, Ammira; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Wilkins, Marc R.; Catteau, Jacki; Howard, Neville J.; Rawlinson, William D.; Craig, Maria E.

2012-01-01

339

Children with islet autoimmunity and enterovirus infection demonstrate a distinct cytokine profile.  

PubMed

Cytokines are upregulated in prediabetes, but their relationship with Enterovirus (EV) infection and development of islet autoimmunity is unknown. Cytokines (n = 65) were measured using Luminex xMAP technology in a nested case-control study of 67 children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes: 27 with islet autoantibodies (Ab(+)) and 40 age-matched persistently autoantibody negative (Ab(-)) control subjects. Of 74 samples, 37 (50%) were EV-PCR(+) in plasma and/or stool (EV(+)) and the remainder were negative for EV and other viruses (EV(-)). Fifteen cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were elevated (P ? 0.01) in Ab(+) versus Ab(-) children (interleukin [IL]-1?, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12(p70), IL-16, IL-17, IL-20, IL-21, IL-28A, tumor necrosis factor-?, chemokine C-C motif ligand [CCL]13, CCL26, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and thrombopoietin); most have proinflammatory effects. In EV(+) versus EV(-) children, IL-10 was higher (P = 0.005), while IL-21 was lower (P = 0.008). Cytokine levels did not differ between Ab(+)EV(+) and Ab(+)EV(-) children. Heat maps demonstrated clustering of some proinflammatory cytokines in Ab(+) children, suggesting they are coordinately regulated. In conclusion, children with islet autoimmunity demonstrate higher levels of multiple cytokines, consistent with an active inflammatory process in the prediabetic state, which is unrelated to coincident EV infection. Apart from differences in IL-10 and IL-21, EV infection was not associated with a specific cytokine profile. PMID:22474026

Yeung, Wing-Chi G; Al-Shabeeb, Ammira; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Wilkins, Marc R; Catteau, Jacki; Howard, Neville J; Rawlinson, William D; Craig, Maria E

2012-06-01

340

Association of functional polymorphisms in the MxA gene with susceptibility to enterovirus 71 infection.  

PubMed

Myxovirus resistance A (MxA) is an antiviral protein induced by type I interferons ? and ? (IFN-? and IFN-?) that can inhibit virus replication. We examined whether the MxA polymorphisms were related to the risk and severity of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in Chinese populations. The MxA C-123A and G-88T polymorphisms were genotyped in two independent case-control populations in China by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). MxA messenger RNA was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 45 healthy children and 19 patients with EV71 infection. Significantly decreased susceptibility to EV71 infection was observed for the -123A allele and -88T allele carriers, with ORs (95% CIs) estimated as 0.56 (0.39-0.81) and 0.64 (0.47-0.88), respectively, in the northern population. This association was confirmed in the southern population, with ORs (95% CIs) estimated as 0.58 (0.38-0.89) and 0.67(0.47-0.95), respectively. The A- 123T- 88 haplotype was also significantly associated with lower risk of EV71 infection in both the northern (OR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.44-0.85) and the southern population (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.43-0.92). Furthermore, we observed higher MxA messenger RNA levels in IFN?1a-stimulated PBMCs from the -123A or -88T allele carriers compared with that from nocarriers. Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in the MxA promoter may play a role in mediating the susceptibility to EV71 infection in Chinese population. PMID:24085612

Zhang, Xiaoai; Xu, Hongmei; Chen, Xiaodan; Li, Xiujun; Wang, Xianjun; Ding, Shujun; Zhang, Renli; Liu, Lijuan; He, Cui; Zhuang, Lu; Li, Hao; Zhang, Panhe; Yang, Hong; Li, Tingyu; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wuchun

2014-02-01

341

Evolutionary trajectory of the VP1 gene of human enterovirus 71 genogroup B and C viruses.  

PubMed

From 1963 to 1986, human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) infections in the Netherlands were successively caused by viruses of subgenogroups B0, B1 and B2. A genogroup shift occurred in 1987, after which viruses of subgenogroups C1 and C2 were detected exclusively. This is in line with HEV71 typing in Australia, Europe and the USA, but is distinct from that in the Asian Pacific region, where HEV71 subgenogroups B3-B5 and C4-C5 have caused large outbreaks since 1997. To understand these observations in HEV71 epidemiology, the VP1-encoding regions of 199 HEV71 strains isolated in the Netherlands between 1963 and 2008 were used to study the detailed evolutionary trajectory and population dynamics of HEV71. Genogroup B viruses showed an epochal evolution, whereas genogroup C viruses evolved independently, which is in line with the co-circulation of C1 and C2 viruses in the Netherlands since 1997. Considering that strains from the Netherlands are interspersed phylogenetically with GenBank reference strains, the evolution of B1-B2, C1-C2 viruses has a global nature. Phylodynamic analysis confirmed that increased reporting of HEV71 infections in 1986 and 2007 reflected true epidemics of B2 and C2 viruses, respectively. Sequence analysis of the complete capsid region of a subset of isolates revealed several (sub)genogroup-specific residues. Subgenogroup B2-specific rabbit antiserum showed cross-neutralization of B0, B1 and B2 viruses, but not of subgenogroup C1 or C2 viruses, probably explaining the global shift to genogroup C in 1987 following a B2 epidemic. Anti-C1 rabbit serum neutralized both genogroup B and C viruses. Global herd immunity against C1 and C2 viruses possibly explains why epidemics with subgenogroups B4 and C4 are restricted to the Asian Pacific region. PMID:20375223

van der Sanden, Sabine; van der Avoort, Harrie; Lemey, Philippe; Uslu, Gökhan; Koopmans, Marion

2010-08-01

342

Characterisation of strains of infectious bronchitis virus isolated in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine isolates of infectious bronchitis (IB)?like viruses were made from 23 flocks (broilers or layers) in Chile experiencing the types of disease problems commonly associated with IBV. Their identity as IB viruses was confirmed. The histological changes they caused in tracheal organ cultures (OC) are described.Serum neutralisation tests performed in embryonated eggs (??method) suggested that four of the isolates were

Aida Cubillos; Jorge Ulloa; Victor Cubillos; Jane K. A. Cook

1991-01-01

343

Life course epidemiology and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a traditional view that divided epidemiology into infectious and chronic diseases. Since we now know that at least 15% of cancers worldwide are caused by infections,1 that infections frequently have a natural history lasting decades and that the same epidemiological methods can be applied to both infectious and non-infectious diseases, this view can be considered purely historical.

Andrew J Hall; Leland J Yee; Sara L Thomas

2002-01-01

344

Revisiting Emerging Infectious Diseases: The Unfinished Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases present a formidable threat to the world today. Not only are new infectious diseases emerging, but those presumed to be contained or eradicated are re-emerging. Developing nations, with the least resources to respond, bear the greatest burden of this threat. However, with the potential to spread rapidly and ubiquitously, infectious diseases present a significant risk to the health

Gilbert C. Kombe; Danielle M. Darrow

2001-01-01

345

Comparison of diagnostic clinical samples and environmental sampling for enterovirus and parechovirus surveillance in Scotland, 2010 to 2012.  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses (EV) and parechoviruses (HPeV) within the family Picornaviridae are the most common causes of viral central nervous system (CNS)-associated infections including meningitis and neonatal sepsis-like disease. The frequencies of EV and HPeV types identified in clinical specimens collected in Scotland over an eight-year period were compared to those identified in sewage surveillance established in Edinburgh. Of the 35 different EV types belonging to four EV species (A to D) and the four HPeV types detected in this study, HPeV3 was identified as the most prevalent picornavirus in cerebrospinal fluid samples, followed by species B EV. Interestingly, over half of EV and all HPeV CNS-associated infections were observed in young infants (younger than three months). Detection of species A EV including coxsackievirus A6 and EV71 in clinical samples and sewage indicates that these viruses are already widely circulating in Scotland. Furthermore, species C EV were frequently identified EV in sewage screening but they were not present in any of 606 EV-positive clinical samples studied, indicating their likely lower pathogenicity. Picornavirus surveillance is important not only for monitoring the changing epidemiology of these infections but also for the rapid identification of spread of emerging EV and/or HPeV types. PMID:24762664

Harvala, H; Calvert, J; Van Nguyen, D; Clasper, L; Gadsby, N; Molyneaux, P; Templeton, K; McWilliams Leitch, C; Simmonds, P

2014-01-01

346

Combating enterovirus replication: state-of-the-art on antiviral research.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses form an important genus within the large family of Picornaviridae. They are small, non-enveloped (+)RNA viruses, many of which are important pathogens in human and veterinary science. Despite their huge medical and socio-economical impact, there is still no approved antiviral therapy at hand for the treatment of these infections. Three capsid-targeting molecules (pleconaril, BTA-798 and V-073) are in clinical development. Pleconaril and BTA-798 are in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of enterovirus-induced sepsis syndrome and rhinovirus-induced aggravation of pre-existing asthma or COPD respectively. V-073 is in preclinical development for the treatment of poliovirus infections in the context of the worldwide polio eradication program. The capsid binding molecules have shown good in vitro potency against a number of enterovirus species, but lack activity against others. Another potential drawback of capsid inhibitors in the clinical setting could be the rapid emergence of drug resistance. It will therefore be important to develop inhibitors that affect other stages in the viral replication cycle. Several viral proteins, such as the viral 3C protease, the putative 2C helicase and the 3D RNA-dependent RNA polymerase may be/are excellent targets for inhibition of viral replication. Also host cell factors that are crucial in viral replication may be considered as potential targets for an antiviral approach. Unraveling these complex virus-host interactions will also provide better insights into the replication of enteroviruses. This review aims to summarize and discuss known inhibitors and potential viral and cellular targets for antiviral therapy against enteroviruses. PMID:21889497

Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; De Palma, Armando M; Neyts, Johan

2012-01-15

347

[Diagnostic significance of immunoglobulins in infectious allergic bronchial asthma].  

PubMed

In 100 patients with infectious allergic bronchial asthma the levels of IgM. IgG and IgA were determined by Mancini's method and the levels of IgE, tissue and microbial antibodies by the Prausnitz - Küstner test before and after combined treatment carried out under conditions of the microclimate of the salt mines in the village of Solotvino. The data on the content of immunoglobulins in the blood serum allowed the authors to establish 3 types of immediate hypersensitivity. THe decreased content of IgM in the blood serum indirectly revealed the role of immune complexes in the pathogenesis of infectious allergic bronchial asthma. The high content of IgE suggested that atopy could take some part in the infectious process. PMID:6459694

Zheltva?, V V; Kazankevich, V P; Chekotilo, V M; Valkovtsi, A A

1981-11-01

348

Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrPC) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrPC causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrPC sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrPC sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrPC mutations.

Castilla, Joaquin; Pintado, Belen; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Andreoletti, Olivier; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Arroba, Ana-Isabel; Parra-Arrondo, Beatriz; Ferrer, Isidro; Manzanares, Jorge; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos

2013-01-01

349

One-year survey of enteroviruses, adenoviruses, and reoviruses isolated from effluent at an activated-sludge purification plant.  

PubMed Central

Samples of raw sewage, primary effluent, and secondary effluent from a large activated-sludge purification plant near Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) were collected every second week for 1 year. Viruses were detected in all secondary effluent samples and in six of seven samples obtained after final chlorination. Adenoviruses (85% reduction) and reoviruses (28% reduction) were removed less efficiently by this treatment process than were enteroviruses (93% reduction). In addition, 57 of 171 samples of effluent tested were positive for either adenoviruses or reoviruses, or both, when enteroviruses were not isolated. This clearly shows that the use of enteroviruses as sole indicators of viruses in water may miss up to one-third of instances of viral contamination. Enteroviruses and adenoviruses were isolated most frequently in HeLa-R cell cultures, whereas reoviruses were most often isolated in primary monkey kidney cells.

Irving, L G; Smith, F A

1981-01-01

350

Complete Genome Sequence of a Human Enterovirus 71 Strain Isolated from a Fatal Case in Shanghai, China, in 2012  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequence of a human enterovirus 71 strain (SH12-276), isolated from a fatal case in Shanghai in 2012, was determined. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome sequence classified this strain into subgenotype C4.

Wang, Ying; Zhu, Qianqian; Zeng, Mei

2014-01-01

351

Method 1615: Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Version 1.1 - Enteroviruses and noroviruses that may be present in environmental or finished drinking waters are concentrated by passage through electropositive filters. Viruses are eluted from the filters with a beef extract reagent and concentrated using organic flocculation....

352

Infectious pathogens and bronchiolitis outcomes.  

PubMed

Bronchiolitis is a common early childhood illness and an important cause of morbidity, it is the number one cause of hospitalization among US infants. Bronchiolitis is also an active area of research, and recent studies have advanced our understanding of this illness. Although it has long been the conventional wisdom that the infectious etiology of bronchiolitis does not affect outcomes, a growing number of studies have linked specific pathogens of bronchiolitis (e.g., rhinovirus) to short- and long-term outcomes, such as future risk of developing asthma. The authors review the advent of molecular diagnostic techniques that have demonstrated diverse pathogens in bronchiolitis, and they review recent studies on the complex link between infectious pathogens of bronchiolitis and the development of childhood asthma. PMID:24702592

Hasegawa, Kohei; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Camargo, Carlos A

2014-07-01

353

Chemoprophylaxis of Tropical Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Travelers to tropical countries are at risk for a variety of infectious diseases. In some cases effective vaccinations are available, but for other infections chemoprophylaxis can be offered. Malaria prevention has become increasingly complex as Plasmodium species become resistant to available drugs. In certain high risk settings, antibiotics can be used to prevent leptospirosis, scrub typhus and other infections. Post-exposure prophylaxis is appropriate for selected virulent infections. In this article the evidence for chemoprophylaxis will be reviewed.

McBride, William J. H.

2010-01-01

354

[Genomic medicine and infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Relentless progress in our knowledge of the nature and functional consequences of human genetic variation allows for a better understanding of the protracted battle between pathogens and their human hosts. Multiple polymorphisms have been identified that impact our response to infections or to anti-infective drugs, and some of them are already used in the clinic. However, to make personalized medicine a reality in infectious diseases, a sustained effort is needed not only in research but also in genomic education. PMID:24800771

Fellay, Jacques

2014-05-01

355

The infectious burden in atherothrombosis.  

PubMed

Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves multiple mechanisms, including imbalanced lipid metabolism, disturbed equilibrium of the immune response, and chronic inflammation of the artery wall. Several reports have shown a relationship between the development of atherosclerosis and the presence of infectious diseases, widely occurring in the general population, often chronic and/or asymptomatic. Beyond Chlamydia pneumoniae, a large number of infectious agents have been linked with an increased risk of vascular disease, with variable strength of supporting data: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Helicobacter pylori, influenza A virus, herpes virus, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Infections may contribute to atherosclerosis either via direct infection of vascular cells or via the indirect effects of cytokines or acute phase proteins induced by infection at "nonvascular" sites. More recently, investigators reported that the aggregate burden ("infectious burden") of these chronic infections, rather than the effects of a single organism, might contribute to atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications. However, the role of infection, as a proinflammatory cause of atherosclerosis, is still debated in the literature. This article will review available data suggesting a relationship between different infective pathogens and atherothrombosis, the hypothesized mechanisms, and the potential role for antimicrobial treatment. PMID:22660918

Tufano, Antonella; Di Capua, Mirko; Coppola, Antonio; Conca, Paolo; Cimino, Ernesto; Cerbone, Anna Maria; Di Minno, Giovanni

2012-07-01

356

Non-infectious orbital vasculitides  

PubMed Central

Non-infectious vasculitides comprise a large number of diseases. Many of these diseases can cause inflammation within the orbit and a clinical presentation, which mimics numerous other processes. Orbital disease can often be the initial presentation of a systemic process and early diagnosis can help prevent long-term, potentially fatal consequences. The evaluation and treatment of non-infectious orbital vasculitides are often complicated and require a thorough understanding of the disease and underlying systemic associations. The long-term prognosis visually and systemically must be weighed against the risks and benefits of the treatment regimen. A large variety of corticosteroid formulations currently exist and are the mainstay of initial treatment. Traditional steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents are also an important arsenal against these vasculitides. Recently, a new class of drugs called biologics, which target the various mediators of the inflammation cascade, may potentially provide more effective and less toxic treatment. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on non-infectious orbital vasculitides.

Perumal, B; Black, E H; Levin, F; Servat, J J

2012-01-01

357

Kaempferol inhibits enterovirus 71 replication and internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity through FUBP and HNRP proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids are associated with multiple biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-enterovirus activity. An internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) required for viral protein translation is a potential drug target for enterovirus 71 (EV71). Regulation translation initiation requires the interaction of IRES specific trans-acting host factors with viral IRES element. By evaluation of 12 flavonoids against EV71 infection, we found that (a)

Fuu-Jen Tsai; Cheng-Wen Lin; Chien-Chen Lai; Yu-Ching Lan; Chih-Ho Lai; Chien-Hui Hung; Kai-Chung Hsueh; Ting-Hsu Lin; Hebron C. Chang; Lei Wan; Jim Jinn-Chyuan Sheu; Ying-Ju Lin

2011-01-01

358

Rapid and Sensitive Routine Detection of All Members of the Genus Enterovirus in Different Clinical Specimens by Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a rapid and sensitive method for the routine detection of all members of the enterovirus genus in different clinical specimens by using real-time TaqMan quantitative PCR. Multiple primer and probe sets were selected in the highly conserved 5-untranslated region of the enterovirus genome. Our assay detected all 60 different enterovirus species tested, whereas no reactivity was observed with

Monique Nijhuis; Noortje van Maarseveen; Rob Schuurman; Sandra Verkuijlen; Machiel de Vos; Karin Hendriksen; Anton M. van Loon

2002-01-01

359

Rapid Detection of Enterovirus RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens with a Novel Single-Tube Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-tube real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay for enterovirus detection in cerebrospi- nal fluid (CSF) was developed based on a fluorogenic probe and primers directed to highly conserved sequences in the 5 untranslated region of the enterovirus genome. Quantitative detection of enterovirus genome was demonstrated in a linear range spanning at least 5 logs. Endpoint titration experiments revealed that the

WALTER A. VERSTREPEN; SOFIE KUHN; MARK M. KOCKX; MARTINE E. VAN DE VYVERE; AN H. MERTENS

360

Far upstream element binding protein 1 binds the internal ribosomal entry site of enterovirus 71 and enhances viral translation and viral growth.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is associated with severe neurological disorders in children, and has been implicated as the infectious agent in several large-scale outbreaks with mortalities. Upon infection, the viral RNA is translated in a cap-independent manner to yield a large polyprotein precursor. This mechanism relies on the presence of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element within the 5'-untranslated region. Virus-host interactions in EV71-infected cells are crucial in assisting this process. We identified a novel positive IRES trans-acting factor, far upstream element binding protein 1 (FBP1). Using binding assays, we mapped the RNA determinants within the EV71 IRES responsible for FBP1 binding and mapped the protein domains involved in this interaction. We also demonstrated that during EV71 infection, the nuclear protein FBP1 is enriched in cytoplasm where viral replication occurs. Moreover, we showed that FBP1 acts as a positive regulator of EV71 replication by competing with negative ITAF for EV71 IRES binding. These new findings may provide a route to new anti-viral therapy. PMID:21880596

Huang, Peng-Nien; Lin, Jing-Yi; Locker, Nicolas; Kung, Yu-An; Hung, Chuan-Tien; Lin, Jhao-Yin; Huang, Hsing-I; Li, Mei-Ling; Shih, Shin-Ru

2011-12-01

361

The thiazolobenzimidazole TBZE-029 inhibits enterovirus replication by targeting a short region immediately downstream from motif C in the nonstructural protein 2C.  

PubMed

TBZE-029 {1-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-6-trifluoromethyl-1H,3H-thiazolo[3,4-a]benzimidazole} is a novel selective inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses. We show that TBZE-029 exerts its antiviral activity through inhibition of viral RNA replication, without affecting polyprotein processing. To identify the viral target of TBZE-029, drug-resistant coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) was selected. Genotyping of resistant clones led to the identification of three amino acid mutations in nonstructural protein 2C, clustered at amino acid positions 224, 227, and 229, immediately downstream of NTPase/helicase motif C. The mutations were reintroduced, either alone or combined, into an infectious full-length CVB3 clone. In particular the mutations at positions 227 and 229 proved essential for the altered sensitivity of CVB3 to TBZE-029. Resistant virus exhibited cross-resistance to the earlier-reported antienterovirus agents targeting 2C, namely, guanidine hydrochloride, HBB [2-(alpha-hydroxybenzyl)-benzimidazole], and MRL-1237 {1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-[(4-imino-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)methyl]benzimidazole hydrochloride}. The ATPase activity of 2C, however, remained unaltered in the presence of TBZE-029. PMID:18337578

De Palma, Armando M; Heggermont, Ward; Lanke, Kjerstin; Coutard, Bruno; Bergmann, Mirko; Monforte, Anna-Maria; Canard, Bruno; De Clercq, Erik; Chimirri, Alba; Pürstinger, Gerhard; Rohayem, Jacques; van Kuppeveld, Frank; Neyts, Johan

2008-05-01

362

The Thiazolobenzimidazole TBZE-029 Inhibits Enterovirus Replication by Targeting a Short Region Immediately Downstream from Motif C in the Nonstructural Protein 2C?  

PubMed Central

TBZE-029 {1-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-6-trifluoromethyl-1H,3H-thiazolo[3,4-a]benzimidazole} is a novel selective inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses. We show that TBZE-029 exerts its antiviral activity through inhibition of viral RNA replication, without affecting polyprotein processing. To identify the viral target of TBZE-029, drug-resistant coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) was selected. Genotyping of resistant clones led to the identification of three amino acid mutations in nonstructural protein 2C, clustered at amino acid positions 224, 227, and 229, immediately downstream of NTPase/helicase motif C. The mutations were reintroduced, either alone or combined, into an infectious full-length CVB3 clone. In particular the mutations at positions 227 and 229 proved essential for the altered sensitivity of CVB3 to TBZE-029. Resistant virus exhibited cross-resistance to the earlier-reported antienterovirus agents targeting 2C, namely, guanidine hydrochloride, HBB [2-(alpha-hydroxybenzyl)-benzimidazole], and MRL-1237 {1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-[(4-imino-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)methyl]benzimidazole hydrochloride}. The ATPase activity of 2C, however, remained unaltered in the presence of TBZE-029.

De Palma, Armando M.; Heggermont, Ward; Lanke, Kjerstin; Coutard, Bruno; Bergmann, Mirko; Monforte, Anna-Maria; Canard, Bruno; De Clercq, Erik; Chimirri, Alba; Purstinger, Gerhard; Rohayem, Jacques; van Kuppeveld, Frank; Neyts, Johan

2008-01-01

363

SOCS proteins in infectious diseases of mammals.  

PubMed

As for most biological processes, the immune response to microbial infections has to be tightly controlled to remain beneficial for the host. Inflammation is one of the major consequences of the host's immune response. For its orchestration, this process requires a fine-tuned interplay between interleukins, endothelial cells and various types of recruited immune cells. Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins are crucially involved in the complex control of the inflammatory response through their actions on various signalling pathways including the JAK/STAT and NF-?B pathways. Due to their cytokine regulatory functions, they are frequent targets for exploitation by infectious agents trying to escape the host's immune response. This review article aims to summarize our current knowledge regarding SOCS family members in the different mammalian species studied so far, and to display their complex molecular interactions with microbial pathogens. PMID:23219158

Delgado-Ortega, Mario; Marc, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle; Trapp, Sascha; Berri, Mustapha; Meurens, François

2013-01-15

364

Chimeric Porcine Circoviruses (PCV) Containing Amino Acid Epitope Tags in the C Terminus of the Capsid Gene Are Infectious and Elicit both Anti-Epitope Tag Antibodies and Anti-PCV Type 2 Neutralizing Antibodies in Pigs?  

PubMed Central

A chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV1-2) with the capsid gene of pathogenic PCV2 cloned into the genomic backbone of nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in pigs but elicits protective immunity against PCV2. In this study, short epitope tags were inserted into the C terminus of the capsid protein of the chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine virus, resulting in a tractable marker virus that is infectious both in vitro and in vivo. Pigs experimentally infected with the epitope-tagged PCV1-2 vaccine viruses produced tag-specific antibodies, as well as anti-PCV2 neutralizing antibodies, indicating that the epitope-tagged viruses could potentially serve as a positive-marker modified live-attenuated vaccine.

Beach, Nathan M.; Smith, Sara M.; Ramamoorthy, Sheela; Meng, Xiang-Jin

2011-01-01

365

Genital tract viral load in HIV Type 1-positive women correlates with specific cytokine levels in cervical-vaginal secretions but is not a determinant of infectious virus or anti-HIV activity.  

PubMed

As the AIDS epidemic continues with women being disproportionately affected, it is crucial to understand factors that predict the risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission. We investigated whether genital tract viral load (GTVL) in cervical-vaginal lavages (CVL) from HIV-1-positive women with moderately low CD4 T cell counts correlates with cytokine levels, antimicrobial concentrations, and intrinsic anti-HIV activity. CVL were collected from 19 HIV-1-positive women with moderately low CD4 T cell counts [mean 381 cells/mm(3) (227-536 cells/mm(3))]. None of the women was on antiretroviral therapy. The women were categorized into those with detectable GTVL or those with undetectable GTVL (detectable GTVL RNA levels >?400 copies/ml). Women were also categorized according to bacterial vaginosis (BV) status irrespective of GTVL. The TZM-bl assay was used to determine the presence of infectious virus and anti-HIV activity. Significantly higher levels of RANTES, Eotaxin, Fractalkine, IL-1?, IL-6, MCP-1, MIP1?, MIP1?, TNF-?, and GM-CSF were observed in women with detectable GTVL compared to women with undetectable GTVL. No significant differences were observed in the following cytokines and chemokines: G-CSF, IL-1RA, IL-8, and IP-10. GTVL did not correlate either with antimicrobials known to have anti-HIV activity or with the presence of infectious virus. BV status did not have a significant effect on anti-HIV activity. These findings further our understanding of the role of GTVL in determining the cytokine and chemokine milieu in the female reproductive tract. PMID:22356616

Mukura, Lucy R; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Wira, Charles R

2012-11-01

366

Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis  

PubMed Central

Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mount, Gram?s stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

Gupta, Noopur

2008-01-01

367

Etiologic role of infectious agents.  

PubMed

A consensus statement found in most peer-reviewed literature on sarcoidosis is that the etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown. It is timely to review whether this statement should be revised. Many infectious agents meet the basic requirements of inducing granulomatous inflammation and immunologic responses consistent with sarcoidosis including oligoclonal expansion of CD4+ T cells, polarized Th1 and possibly Th17 responses, and dysregulated regulatory T-cell function. Studies over the past decade provide increasing and complementary data to implicate a role for infectious agents in sarcoidosis etiology. These studies used different methodologies such as polymerase chain reaction and mass spectrometry to document microbial nucleic acids and proteins in sarcoidosis tissues. Multiple studies report antigen-specific immune responses to specific microbial proteins in sarcoidosis. In aggregate, these studies provide compelling evidence that mycobacteria play a major etiologic role in sarcoidosis in the United States and Europe. Studies from Japan support a role for Propionibacteria as a major etiologic agent in the country. There is controversy over how these (or other) infectious agents cause sarcoidosis. The hypothesis that chronic sarcoidosis is caused by a viable, replicating mycobacterial or other infection has no direct pathologic, microbiologic, or clinical evidence. A novel hypothesis links microbial triggers to a sarcoidosis outcome from the accumulation of aggregated proinflammatory serum amyloid A within granulomas, providing a mechanism for chronic disease in the absence of any viable tissue infection. Further studies are needed to provide more definitive evidence for these competing hypotheses before the statement that the etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown becomes obsolete. PMID:25007081

Chen, Edward S; Moller, David R

2014-06-01

368

Infectious cellular load in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals and susceptibility of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from their exposed partners to non-syncytium-inducing HIV-1 as major determinants for HIV-1 transmission in homosexual couples.  

PubMed

To study risk factors for homosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we compared 10 monogamous homosexual couples between whom transmission of HIV-1 had occurred with 10 monogamous homosexual couples between whom HIV-1 transmission had not occurred despite high-risk sexual behavior. In the group of individuals who did not transmit virus, peripheral cellular infectious load was lower and the CD4+ T-cell counts were higher than in the group of transmitters. HIV-1 RNA levels in serum did not differ between transmitters and nontransmitters. Compared with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal healthy blood donors, 8 of 10 nonrecipients and only 3 of 8 recipients had PBMC with reduced susceptibility to in vitro infection with non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) HIV-1 variants isolated from either their respective partners or an unrelated individual. No difference in susceptibility was observed for infection with a syncytium-inducing variant. Among the individuals who had PBMC with reduced susceptibility, five nonrecipients and one recipient had PBMC that were equally or even less susceptible to NSI variants than PBMC that had low susceptibility and that were derived from healthy blood donors that were heterozygous for a 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5 delta32). Three of these individuals (all nonrecipients) had a CCR5 delta32 heterozygous genotype themselves, confirming an association between low susceptibility to NSI variants and CCR5 delta32 heterozygosity. All three recipients with less susceptible PBMC had partners with a high infectious cellular load; inversely, both nonrecipients with normally susceptible PBMC had partners with a very low infectious cellular load. These results suggest that a combination of susceptibility of target cells and inoculum size upon homosexual exposure largely determines whether HIV-1 infection is established. PMID:9420218

Blaak, H; van't Wout, A B; Brouwer, M; Cornelissen, M; Kootstra, N A; Albrecht-van Lent, N; Keet, R P; Goudsmit, J; Coutinho, R A; Schuitemaker, H

1998-01-01

369

[Current therapeutics in infectious dermatology].  

PubMed

NEW AGENTS: Among new treatments used for infectious dermatology diseases, new agents for genital herpes, valaciclovir and famciclovir, have greatly simplified therapeutic schemes. Cidofovir has also been shown to be effective against aciclovir-resistant cutaneous and mucosal herpetic lesions and for the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. NEW ADMINISTRATION ROUTES: For genital papillomavirus infections, trials using systemic or intralesional administered interferon have not provided conclusive evidence but imiquimode appears to be quite promising. Itaconazole and fluconazole are effective for onchomycoses. NEW POSSIBILITIES: Ivermectine is effective against scabies, but must be reserved for particularly severe forms. Finally, the emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains resistant to fluoroquinolones is disquieting. PMID:10874915

Lascaux, A S; Chosidow, O

370

Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Since 1990, Mongolia’s health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcus, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies.

Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

2003-01-01

371

A Dominant EV71-Specific CD4+ T Cell Epitope Is Highly Conserved among Human Enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity plays a central role in determining the immunopathogenesis of viral infections. However, the role of CD4+ T cells in EV71 infection, which causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), has yet to be elucidated. We applied a sophisticated method to identify promiscuous CD4+ T cell epitopes contained within the sequence of the EV71 polyprotein. Fifteen epitopes were identified, and three of them are dominant ones. The most dominant epitope is highly conserved among enterovirus species, including HFMD-related coxsackieviruses, HFMD-unrelated echoviruses and polioviruses. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cells specific to the epitope indeed cross-reacted with the homolog of poliovirus 3 Sabin. Our findings imply that CD4+ T cell responses to poliovirus following vaccination, or to other enteroviruses to which individuals may be exposed in early childhood, may have a modulating effect on subsequent CD4+ T cell response to EV71 infection or vaccine.

Wei, Ruicheng; Yang, Chunfu; Zeng, Mei; Terry, Frances; Zhu, Kai; Yang, Chunhui; Altmeyer, Ralf; Martin, William; De Groot, Anne S.; Leng, Qibin

2012-01-01

372

Human enterovirus surveillance in the Slovak Republic from 2001 to 2011.  

PubMed

We report the outcome of an 11-year programme monitoring sewage water and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy for polio eradication in the Slovak Republic (SR). Polioviruses (PV) and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV), prior to and after the change in polio vaccination strategy, were detected. Sewage treatment plant samples from 48 localities spread over the Western, Central and Eastern regions and clinical material from AFP cases were examined. The WHO standard procedures were followed with regard to virus isolation and identification. There were 538 commonly detected human enteroviruses (HEVs) including 213 (40%) coxsackie B viruses (CBV), 200 (37%) echoviruses and 113 (21%) Sabin-like PVs (PV1, 2, 3) including vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) isolates. The percentage of PV isolates fell from 66% to 30% during 2001-2005 and thereafter fell to zero. CBV5, CBV2 and echovirus 3 were the NPEVs endemic during the study period. PMID:23507533

Klement, C; Kissova, R; Lengyelova, V; Stipalova, D; Sobotova, Z; Galama, J M D; Bopegamage, S

2013-12-01

373

Surveillance of enterovirus infections in Yokohama city from 2004 to 2008.  

PubMed

A survey of human enterovirus (HEV) infections from 2004 to 2008 was conducted in Yokohama City, Japan. A total of 260 clinical samples in 247 patients were shown to be positive for enterovirus. Among them, 25 serotypes were identified, including 3 serotypes of poliovirus (19 samples). The prevalence rates of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina, and respiratory illness associated with nonpolio HEV infections were also analyzed. Seven serotypes were highly associated with HFMD or herpangina. These 7 virus serotypes were prevalent during summer and autumn with a peak in July, and were prevalent in children under 6 years old with a peak from 1 to 2 years old. HEV-related diseases were not limited to HFMD and herpangina but also included respiratory illnesses, such as the common cold. The results of this study suggested the importance of periodic surveys to monitor severe diseases caused by HEVs. PMID:19934543

Momoki, Soga Tomoko

2009-11-01

374

[Outbreak of acute enterovirus intestinal infection in Sakhalin region in August 2010].  

PubMed

The investigation of cases of acute intestinal infections in the Sakhalin region of Russia in August, 2010 is described. Epidemiological and molecular biological studies were conducted. After initial PCR screening and determining the nucleotide sequences of the positive samples the following enteroviruses were found: Coxsackie A2 - 42 samples (45%), Coxsackie A4--31 sample (34%), Enterovirus 71--6 samples (6,5%), Coxsackievirus B5--6 samples (6,5%), Coxsackie B3--4 samples (4%) and Coxsackie B1--4 samples (4%). The phylogenetic analysis of sequences showed that the closest analogues for the nucleotide sequences of these genotypes were previously identified in Japan, Korea and China in 2000-2010. PMID:22642180

Demina, A V; Ternovo?, V A; Darizhapov, B B; Iakubich, T V; Sementsova, A O; Demina, O K; Protopopova, E V; Loktev, V B; Agafonov, A P; Netesov, S V

2012-01-01

375

Infectious Diseases and the Immune System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson is design to explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. Primarily, it focuses on infectious diseases and how the immune system defend the body against infectious diseases. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engage, analytical and inquisitive in learning about infectious diseases and the immune system.

Cruz, Arnel D.

2012-06-28

376

Informatics for Infectious Disease Research and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The goal of infectious disease informatics is to optimize the clinical and public health management of infectious diseases\\u000a through improvements in the development and use of antimicrobials, the design of more effective vaccines, the identification\\u000a of biomarkers for life-threatening infections, a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and biosurveillance and\\u000a clinical decision support. Infectious disease informatics can lead to more targeted

Vitali Sintchenko

377

Improvement of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of enterovirus RNA.  

PubMed

We describe an improvement of an earlier reported real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of enterovirus RNA, based on the 5' exonuclease digestion of a dual-labeled fluorogenic probe by Taq DNA polymerase. A different extraction method, real-time RT-PCR instrument and primer set were evaluated. Our data show that the optimized assay yields a higher sensitivity and reproducibility and resulted in a significant reduced hands-on time per sample. PMID:19583870

Piqueur, Marian A C; Verstrepen, Walter A; Bruynseels, Peggy; Mertens, An H

2009-01-01

378

Improvement of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of enterovirus RNA  

PubMed Central

We describe an improvement of an earlier reported real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of enterovirus RNA, based on the 5' exonuclease digestion of a dual-labeled fluorogenic probe by Taq DNA polymerase. A different extraction method, real-time RT-PCR instrument and primer set were evaluated. Our data show that the optimized assay yields a higher sensitivity and reproducibility and resulted in a significant reduced hands-on time per sample.

Piqueur, Marian AC; Verstrepen, Walter A; Bruynseels, Peggy; Mertens, An H

2009-01-01

379

Role of non-polio enterovirus infection in pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) infections cause most cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS); 10-30% of patients, however, are negative for VTEC infection. The etiology of HUS in VTEC-negative cases remains poorly understood. Before the association between VTEC infection and HUS was recognized, sporadic cases of HUS with enterovirus infection were reported in the literature. Since May 1988, most cases of

Laura De Petris; Alessandra Gianviti; Daniela Caione; Daniele Innocenzi; Alberto Edefonti; Giovanni Montini; Tommaso De Palo; Alberto Tozzi; Alfredo Caprioli; Gianfranco Rizzoni

2002-01-01

380

Viral protein synthesis is required for Enterovirus 71 to induce apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human glioblastoma cells (SF268) develop apoptosis, as characterized by DNA fragmentation and caspase activation, upon infection\\u000a with Enterovirus 71 (EV71). To determine the step in virus replication that triggers apoptosis, the authors used ultraviolet\\u000a (UV)-inactivated virus, inhibitors of protein and viral RNA synthesis, and chloroquine to block virus uncoating. Activation\\u000a of caspase-3 was detected 24 h after infection with EV71

Shin-Ru Shih; Kuo-Feng Weng; Victor Stollar; Mei-Ling Li

2008-01-01

381

Identification of genes involved in the host response to enterovirus 71 infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may be asymptomatic or may cause diarrhea, rashes, and hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD).\\u000a However, EV71 also has the potential to cause severe neurological disease. To date, little is known about the molecular mechanisms\\u000a of host response to EV71 infection. In this report, we utilized cDNA microarray to profile the kinetics and patterns of host

Shin-Ru Shih; Victor Stollar; Jing-Yi Lin; Shih-Cheng Chang; Guang-Wu Chen; Mei-Ling Li

2004-01-01

382

Neutralizing antibody responses to enterovirus and adenovirus in healthy adults in China  

PubMed Central

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an important public health problem that has emerged over the past several years. HFMD predominantly infects children under seven years old and occasionally causes severe disease in adults. Among the enteroviruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus 16 (CA16) are the major causative agents of HFMD. In addition, adenovirus cocirculates with enterovirus and has become a possible additional pathogenic factor for HFMD in some cases. Here, we have investigated the neutralizing antibody responses to both enterovirus and adenovirus in adults, with the aim of exploring the prevalence trends of these viruses and the nature of protective immunity in humans to these viral infections. Sera from 391 healthy adults from 21 provinces and cities in China were tested for the presence of antibodies against EV71, CA16, adenovirus human serotype 5 (AdHu5) and chimpanzee adenovirus pan7 (AdC7) using neutralization tests. High seroprevalence rates of EV71, CA16 and AdHu5 were found in the population (85.7%, 58.8% and 74.2%, respectively). The coseropositivity rate of these three viruses was 39.4% (154 of 391), with median neutralizing antibody titers of 80, 40 and 640, respectively, and the neutralizing antibody titer for EV71 was found to be correlated with those of CA16 and AdHu5. AdC7 was found to be a rare adenovirus serotype in the human population, with a seropositivity rate of 11.8%, suggesting that it could be a good choice for a vaccine carrier that could be used in vaccine development.

Wang, Xiang; Xing, Man; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Yong; Chi, Yudan; Tang, Xinying; Zhang, Hongbo; Xiong, Sidong; Yu, Luogang; Zhou, Dongming

2014-01-01

383

Role of sediment in the persistence of enteroviruses in the estuarine environment.  

PubMed Central

The survival of four enteroviruses commonly found in sewage effluents was examined when the viruses were adsorped to marine sediments in estuarine water and compared with virus survival in estuarine water alone. Echovirus 1, coxsackieviruses B3 and A9, and poliovirus 1 survived longer when associated with marine sediment. When the estuarine water was polluted with secondarily treated sewage effluent, virus survived for prolonged periods in sediments, but not in the overlaying estuarine water.

Smith, E M; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

1978-01-01

384

Acute infectious conjunctivitis in childhood  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review the etiology, clinical features and management of acute infectious conjunctivitis in children after the newborn period. DATA SOURCES: Articles obtained from MEDLINE published before March 2000. DATA SELECTION AND EXTRACTION: Representative articles on the etiology and clinical features were selected. Twenty-four clinical trials were also selected. From these articles, the main findings from three placebo controlled trials and two comparative clinical trials involving children are summarized in detail. The main findings from 19 comparative clinical trials in adults are briefly summarized. DATA SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSIONS: Acute infectious conjunctivitis caused by bacteria or viruses is a very common problem in children after the neonatal period. The most common bacterial pathogens are nontypable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Diagnostic microbiology tests are not indicated for uncomplicated cases but may be useful for very young or very ill children if there is no response to initial therapy; for nosocomial cases; for cases suspected to be caused by sexually transmitted pathogens; and for outbreaks. Conjunctivitis is usually a mild, self-limited disease, but topical antibiotics are superior to placebo in reducing the duration and severity of symptoms. Most topical agents have equivalent efficacy; therefore, the selection of first-line agents should include inexpensive drugs with few adverse effects. Good choices include polymyxin/gramicidin, polymyxin/trimethoprim or sulfacetamide. Referral to an ophthalmologist should be considered in situations in which the diagnosis of uncomplicated conjunctivitis is in doubt or if there is no prompt response to therapy.

Chawla, Rupesh; Kellner, James D; Astle, William F

2001-01-01

385

Livestock infectious diseases and zoonoses  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases of livestock are a major threat to global animal health and welfare and their effective control is crucial for agronomic health, for safeguarding and securing national and international food supplies and for alleviating rural poverty in developing countries. Some devastating livestock diseases are endemic in many parts of the world and threats from old and new pathogens continue to emerge, with changes to global climate, agricultural practices and demography presenting conditions that are especially favourable for the spread of arthropod-borne diseases into new geographical areas. Zoonotic infections that are transmissible either directly or indirectly between animals and humans are on the increase and pose significant additional threats to human health and the current pandemic status of new influenza A (H1N1) is a topical example of the challenge presented by zoonotic viruses. In this article, we provide a brief overview of some of the issues relating to infectious diseases of livestock, which will be discussed in more detail in the papers that follow.

Tomley, Fiona M.; Shirley, Martin W.

2009-01-01

386

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: a review.  

PubMed

The economic impact of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) warrants continued investigation of the mechanisms by which Moraxella bovis survives on and colonizes the corneal surface. Virulent strains of M bovis produce hemolysin and exhibit different plasmid profiles than nonvirulent strains. Interactions among host, environment, vector, season, and concurrent infection influence the prevalence of IBK. Mycoplasma sp. or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus may enhance or hasten the disease process. The manifestations of IBK may range from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness. Treatment of IBK is dictated by economic considerations, intended animal use, and feasibility of administration. Antibiotic therapy is aimed at achieving drug concentrations in tears to meet or exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged periods. At present, IBK is not a preventable disease. Affected animals must be separated from the herd and vector control vigorously instituted. Carrier animals must be identified and removed from the herd. Vaccination trials have been unsuccessful because of pili antigen cross-reactivity, variable strains, and uncontrolled environmental factors. Recent investigations have determined that M bovis may utilize host iron sources via iron-repressible outer membrane proteins and siderophores for growth. Elucidation of normal defense mechanisms of the bovine eye may lead to new strategies to enhance the immune response against M bovis. PMID:9686385

Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

1998-01-01

387

Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous identification of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16.  

PubMed

Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are two major aetiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Recently there have been several large outbreaks of HFMD in Vietnam and the Asia-Pacific region. In this study, a multiplex RT-PCR assay was developed in order to detect simultaneously HEV71, CVA16 and other human enteroviruses. Enterovirus detection was performed with a mixture of three pairs of oligonucleotide primers: one pair of published primers for amplifying all known enterovirus genomes and two new primer pairs specific for detection of the VP1 genes of HEV71 and CVA16. Enterovirus isolates, CVA16 and HEV71 strains identified previously from patients with HFMD were examined to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex RT-PCR assay. The assay was then applied to the direct detection of these viruses in clinical specimens obtained from HFMD cases identified at Children's Hospital Number 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The multiplex RT-PCR assay showed 100% specificity in screening for enteroviruses and in identifying HEV71 and CVA16. Similar results were obtained when using the multiplex RT-PCR assay to screen for enteroviruses and to identify HEV71 and CVA16 in clinical specimens obtained from HFMD cases identified at the hospital. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a rapid, sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of HEV71 or CVA16 infection in cases of HFMD and is also potentially useful for molecular epidemiological investigations. PMID:20863857

Thao, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Tú, Phan V?n; Thúy, Tran Thi; Cardosa, Mary Jane; McMinn, Peter Charles; Phuektes, Patchara

2010-12-01

388

What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter Growth Charts Immunization Schedules Newsletters Safety Checklists Symptom ... > Health Management - Medical Home > Pediatric Specialists > What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? ...

389

Studies on the pathogenicity of enterovirus-like viruses in chickens.  

PubMed

FP3 and 612 viruses are enterovirus-like viruses. Antibody to these viruses is widespread in chicken flocks, but nothing is known about their pathogenicity. Seven experiments were carried out to investigate the tissue tropism and associated pathology of these novel fowl enterovirus-like viruses and to compare these with the effects of the previously studied enterovirus-like viruses, ELV-1 and avian nephritis (ANV). ANV is now classified as an astrovirus. Preliminary experiments were carried out with FP3 virus, 612 virus and ELV-1 to determine the distribution of viral antigen. Each preliminary experiment was followed by a larger experiment that included more birds and in which a greater range of tissues was studied. It was shown that all four viruses studied replicated in the intestine and had differing abilities to spread to other tissues. Histological changes were present in most antigen-positive tissues but they were usually relatively mild. ELV-1 was associated with the most severe intestinal lesions, followed by FP3 virus. FP3 virus produced lesions in the kidney that were marginally more severe than those caused by the G-4260 strain of ANV. FP3 virus also caused pancreatic lesions. The 612 virus was found to be only mildly pathogenic in specific pathogen free chickens. PMID:17479372

Smyth, J A; Connor, T J; McNeilly, F; Moffet, D A; Calvert, V M; McNulty, M S

2007-04-01

390

Site-specific targeting of enterovirus capsid by functionalized monodisperse gold nanoclusters.  

PubMed

Development of precise protocols for accurate site-specific conjugation of monodisperse inorganic nanoparticles to biological material is one of the challenges in contemporary bionanoscience and nanomedicine. We report here a successful site-specific covalent conjugation of functionalized atomically monodisperse gold clusters with 1.5-nm metal cores to viral surfaces. Water-soluble Au102(para-mercaptobenzoic acid)44 clusters, functionalized by maleimide linkers to target cysteines of viral capsid proteins, were synthesized and conjugated to enteroviruses echovirus 1 and coxsackievirus B3. Quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscopy images and the known virus structures showed high affinity and mutual ordering of the bound gold clusters on the viral surface and a clear correlation between the clusters and the targeted cysteine sites close to the viral surface. Infectivity of the viruses was not compromised by loading of several tens of gold clusters per virus. These advances allow for future investigations of the structure-function relations of enteroviruses and enterovirus-related virus-like particles, including their entry mechanisms into cells and uncoating in cellular endosomes. PMID:24474748

Marjomäki, Varpu; Lahtinen, Tanja; Martikainen, Mari; Koivisto, Jaakko; Malola, Sami; Salorinne, Kirsi; Pettersson, Mika; Häkkinen, Hannu

2014-01-28

391

Identification of Luteolin as Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Inhibitors through Reporter Viruses and Cell Viability-Based Screening  

PubMed Central

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness mainly caused by infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). The frequent HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public health problem. Currently, no vaccine or antiviral drug for EV71/CA16 infections has been approved. In this study, a two-step screening platform consisting of reporter virus-based assays and cell viability?based assays was developed to identify potential inhibitors of EV71/CA16 infection. Two types of reporter viruses, a pseudovirus containing luciferase-encoding RNA replicons encapsidated by viral capsid proteins and a full-length reporter virus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein, were used for primary screening of 400 highly purified natural compounds. Thereafter, a cell viability-based secondary screen was performed for the identified hits to confirm their antiviral activities. Three compounds (luteolin, galangin, and quercetin) were identified, among which luteolin exhibited the most potent inhibition of viral infection. In the cell viability assay and plaque reduction assay, luteolin showed similar 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of about 10 ?M. Luteolin targeted the post-attachment stage of EV71 and CA16 infection by inhibiting viral RNA replication. This study suggests that luteolin may serve as a lead compound to develop potent anti-EV71 and CA16 drugs.

Xu, Lin; Su, Weiheng; Jin, Jun; Chen, Jiawen; Li, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xuyuan; Sun, Meiyan; Sun, Shiyang; Fan, Peihu; An, Dong; Zhang, Huafei; Zhang, Xiguang; Kong, Wei; Ma, Tonghui; Jiang, Chunlai

2014-01-01

392

Identification of Luteolin as Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Inhibitors through Reporter Viruses and Cell Viability-Based Screening.  

PubMed

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness mainly caused by infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). The frequent HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public health problem. Currently, no vaccine or antiviral drug for EV71/CA16 infections has been approved. In this study, a two-step screening platform consisting of reporter virus-based assays and cell viability?based assays was developed to identify potential inhibitors of EV71/CA16 infection. Two types of reporter viruses, a pseudovirus containing luciferase-encoding RNA replicons encapsidated by viral capsid proteins and a full-length reporter virus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein, were used for primary screening of 400 highly purified natural compounds. Thereafter, a cell viability-based secondary screen was performed for the identified hits to confirm their antiviral activities. Three compounds (luteolin, galangin, and quercetin) were identified, among which luteolin exhibited the most potent inhibition of viral infection. In the cell viability assay and plaque reduction assay, luteolin showed similar 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of about 10 ?M. Luteolin targeted the post-attachment stage of EV71 and CA16 infection by inhibiting viral RNA replication. This study suggests that luteolin may serve as a lead compound to develop potent anti-EV71 and CA16 drugs. PMID:25036464

Xu, Lin; Su, Weiheng; Jin, Jun; Chen, Jiawen; Li, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xuyuan; Sun, Meiyan; Sun, Shiyang; Fan, Peihu; An, Dong; Zhang, Huafei; Zhang, Xiguang; Kong, Wei; Ma, Tonghui; Jiang, Chunlai

2014-01-01

393

Genomic analysis of coxsackieviruses A1, A19, A22, enteroviruses 113 and 104: viruses representing two clades with distinct tropism within enterovirus C.  

PubMed

Coxsackieviruses (CV) A1, CV-A19 and CV-A22 have historically comprised a distinct phylogenetic clade within Enterovirus (EV) C. Several novel serotypes that are genetically similar to these three viruses have been recently discovered and characterized. Here, we report the coding sequence analysis of two genotypes of a previously uncharacterized serotype EV-C113 from Bangladesh and demonstrate that it is most similar to CV-A22 and EV-C116 within the capsid region. We sequenced novel genotypes of CV-A1, CV-A19 and CV-A22 from Bangladesh and observed a high rate of recombination within this group. We also report genomic analysis of the rarely reported EV-C104 circulating in the Gambia in 2009. All available EV-C104 sequences displayed a high degree of similarity within the structural genes but formed two clusters within the non-structural genes. One cluster included the recently reported EV-C117, suggesting an ancestral recombination between these two serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of all available complete genome sequences indicated the existence of two subgroups within this distinct Enterovirus C clade: one has been exclusively recovered from gastrointestinal samples, while the other cluster has been implicated in respiratory disease. PMID:23761409

Tokarz, Rafal; Haq, Saddef; Sameroff, Stephen; Howie, Stephen R C; Lipkin, W Ian

2013-09-01

394

Complete genome sequence of a novel human enterovirus C (HEV-C117) identified in a child with community-acquired pneumonia.  

PubMed

The new enterovirus C-117 strain belongs to the human enterovirus C species in the Picornaviridae family. We describe the characterization of the complete genome of this strain identified in a respiratory specimen of a child enrolled in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Pediatric Research Initiative (CAP-PRI) study evaluating the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). PMID:22966184

Daleno, Cristina; Piralla, Antonio; Scala, Alessia; Baldanti, Fausto; Usonis, Vytautas; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

2012-10-01

395

Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Human Enterovirus C (HEV-C117) Identified in a Child with Community-Acquired Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

The new enterovirus C-117 strain belongs to the human enterovirus C species in the Picornaviridae family. We describe the characterization of the complete genome of this strain identified in a respiratory specimen of a child enrolled in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Pediatric Research Initiative (CAP-PRI) study evaluating the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Daleno, Cristina; Piralla, Antonio; Scala, Alessia; Baldanti, Fausto; Usonis, Vytautas; Principi, Nicola

2012-01-01

396

Ribavirin-Resistant Mutants of Human Enterovirus 71 Express a High Replication Fidelity Phenotype during Growth in Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

It has been shown in animal models that ribavirin-resistant poliovirus with a G64S mutation in its 3D polymerase has high replication fidelity coupled with attenuated virulence. Here, we describe the effects of mutagenesis in the human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) 3D polymerase on ribavirin resistance and replication fidelity. Seven substitutions were introduced at amino acid position 3D-G64 of a HEV71 full-length infectious cDNA clone (26M). Viable clone-derived virus populations were rescued from the G64N, G64R, and G64T mutant cDNA clones. The clone-derived G64R and G64T mutant virus populations were resistant to growth inhibition in the presence of 1,600 ?M ribavirin, whereas the growth of parental 26M and the G64N mutant viruses were inhibited in the presence of 800 ?M ribavirin. Nucleotide sequencing of the 2C and 3D coding regions revealed that the rate of random mutagenesis after 13 passages in the presence of 400 ?M ribavirin was nearly 10 times higher in the 26M genome than in the mutant G64R virus genome. Furthermore, random mutations acquired in the 2C coding regions of 26M and G64N conferred resistance to growth inhibition in the presence of 0.5 mM guanidine, whereas the G64R and G64T mutant virus populations remained susceptible to growth inhibition by 0.5 mM guanidine. Interestingly, a S264L mutation identified in the 3D coding region of 26M after ribavirin selection was also associated with both ribavirin-resistant and high replication fidelity phenotypes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the 3D-G64R, 3D-G64T, and 3D-S264L mutations confer resistance upon HEV71 to the antiviral mutagen ribavirin, coupled with a high replication fidelity phenotype during growth in cell culture.

Sadeghipour, Sara; Bek, Emily J.

2013-01-01

397

Spatio-temporal analysis on enterovirus cases through integrated surveillance in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Severe epidemics of enterovirus have occurred frequently in Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Cambodia, and China, involving cases of pulmonary edema, hemorrhage and encephalitis, and an effective vaccine has not been available. The specific aim of this study was to understand the epidemiological characteristics of mild and severe enterovirus cases through integrated surveillance data. Methods All enterovirus cases in Taiwan over almost ten years from three main databases, including national notifiable diseases surveillance, sentinel physician surveillance and laboratory surveillance programs from July 1, 1999 to December 31, 2008 were analyzed. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was applied for measuring the consistency of the trends in the cases between different surveillance systems. Cross correlation analysis in a time series model was applied for examining the capability to predict severe enterovirus infections. Poisson temporal, spatial and space-time scan statistics were used for identifying the most likely clusters of severe enterovirus outbreaks. The directional distribution method with two standard deviations of ellipse was applied to measure the size and the movement of the epidemic. Results The secular trend showed that the number of severe EV cases peaked in 2008, and the number of mild EV cases was significantly correlated with that of severe ones occurring in the same week [r?=?0.553, p?

2014-01-01

398

Therapeutic vaccines against infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Therapeutic vaccines against chronic infectious diseases aim at eliciting broad humoral and cellular immune responses against multiple target antigens. Importantly, the development of such vaccines will help to establish surrogate markers of protection in humans and thus will augment the subsequent development of efficient prophylactic vaccines. A combination of synthetic small-molecule drugs and immunotherapeutics is likely to represent a powerful means of controlling chronic infections in the future. Challenges faced in developing therapeutic vaccines include the following: first, overcoming the potential impairment of immune responses due to established infection; second, optimizing schedules of vaccine administration in combination with standard of care chemotherapy; and third, defining what biological and immunological read-outs should be used to infer vaccine efficacy. PMID:14572538

Moingeon, Philippe; Almond, Jeffrey; de Wilde, Michel

2003-10-01

399

An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

2001-01-01

400

Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are the focus of increased attention and even alarm in the scholarly and popular literature. The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of older and previously recognized infectious diseases both in developing and developed country poses challenges for understanding the ecological web of causation, including social, economic, environmental and biological components. This paper is a synthesis

Jonathan D. Mayera

401

Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are the focus of increased attention and even alarm in the scholarly and popular literature. The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of older and previously recognized infectious diseases both in developing and developed country poses challenges for understanding the ecological web of causation, including social, economic, environmental and biological components. This paper is a synthesis

Jonathan D. Mayer

2000-01-01

402

Confl ict and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in confl ict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well

Michelle Gayer; Dominique Legros; Pierre Formenty; Maire A. Connolly

2007-01-01

403

Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a

Peter Daszak; Lee Berger; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt; D. Earl Green; Rick Speare

1999-01-01

404

Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process  

PubMed Central

We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

2014-01-01

405

Selected Infectious Diseases of Birds of Prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases of bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic origin are common in wild and captive birds of prey presented to veterinary hospitals for medical care. Veterinarians should be knowledgeable of the infectious agents, clinical signs associated with disease, as well as diagnostic methods and treatment to increase the survival rate of raptors infected with these devastating and fatal diseases. The

Michael P. Jones

2006-01-01

406