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Sample records for infectious enterovirus type

  1. Detection of infectious enteroviruses, enterovirus genomes, somatic coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis phages in treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gantzer, C; Maul, A; Audic, J M; Schwartzbrod, L

    1998-11-01

    In this study, three types of treated wastewater were tested for infectious enteroviruses, the enterovirus genome, somatic coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis phages. The aim of this work was to determine whether the presence of the two types of bacteriophages or of the enterovirus genome was a good indicator of infectious enterovirus contamination. The enterovirus genome was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Infectious enteroviruses were quantified by cell culturing (BGM cells), and the bacteriophages were quantified by plaque formation on the host bacterium (Escherichia coli or B. fragilis) in agar medium. Forty-eight samples of treated wastewater were analyzed. Sixteen samples had been subjected to a secondary treatment for 8 to 12 h (A), 16 had been subjected to a secondary treatment for 30 h (B1), and 16 had been subjected to both secondary and tertiary treatments (B2). The mean concentrations of somatic coliphages were 4.9 x 10(4) PFU . liter-1 for treatment line A, 9.8 x 10(3) PFU . liter-1 for B1, and 1.4 x 10(3) PFU . liter-1 for B2, with all the samples testing positive (100%). The mean concentrations of B. fragilis phages were 1.7 x 10(3) PFU . liter-1 for A (100% positive samples), 17 to 24 PFU . liter-1 for B1 (44% positive samples), and 0.8 to 13 PFU . liter-1 for B2 (6% positive samples). The mean concentrations of infectious enteroviruses were 4 most probable number of cytopathogenic units (MPNCU) . liter-1 for A (31% positive samples) and <1 MPNCU . liter-1 for B1 and B2 (0% positive samples). The percentages of samples testing positive for the enterovirus genome were 100% for A, 56% for B1, and 19% for B2. The percentages of samples testing positive for the enterovirus genome were significantly higher than those for infectious enteroviruses. This finding may have been due to the presence of noninfectious enteroviruses or to the presence of infectious enteroviruses that do not multiply in BGM cell cultures. However, under our experimental conditions, nondetection of the genome implies the absence of infectious viruses. There was a significant correlation between the concentration of somatic coliphages or B. fragilis phages and the presence of infectious enteroviruses or the presence of the enterovirus genome. However, the somatic coliphage concentration did not lead to fluctuations in the infectious enterovirus concentration, whereas the B. fragilis phage concentration did. PMID:9797281

  2. Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species.

    PubMed

    Marjomki, Varpu; Turkki, Paula; Huttunen, Moona

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus B species (EV-B) are responsible for a vast number of mild and serious acute infections. They are also suspected of remaining in the body, where they cause persistent infections contributing to chronic diseases such as type I diabetes. Recent studies of the infectious entry pathway of these viruses revealed remarkable similarities, including non-clathrin entry of large endosomes originating from the plasma membrane invaginations. Many cellular factors regulating the efficient entry have recently been associated with macropinocytic uptake, such as Rac1, serine/threonine p21-activated kinase (Pak1), actin, Na/H exchanger, phospholipace C (PLC) and protein kinase C? (PKC?). Another characteristic feature is the entry of these viruses to neutral endosomes, independence of endosomal acidification and low association with acidic lysosomes. The biogenesis of neutral multivesicular bodies is crucial for their infection, at least for echovirus 1 (E1) and coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9). These pathways are triggered by the virus binding to their receptors on the plasma membrane, and they are not efficiently recycled like other cellular pathways used by circulating receptors. Therefore, the best "markers" of these pathways may be the viruses and often their receptors. A deeper understanding of this pathway and associated endosomes is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of enterovirus uncoating and genome release from the endosomes to start efficient replication. PMID:26690201

  3. Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species

    PubMed Central

    Marjomki, Varpu; Turkki, Paula; Huttunen, Moona

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus B species (EV-B) are responsible for a vast number of mild and serious acute infections. They are also suspected of remaining in the body, where they cause persistent infections contributing to chronic diseases such as type I diabetes. Recent studies of the infectious entry pathway of these viruses revealed remarkable similarities, including non-clathrin entry of large endosomes originating from the plasma membrane invaginations. Many cellular factors regulating the efficient entry have recently been associated with macropinocytic uptake, such as Rac1, serine/threonine p21-activated kinase (Pak1), actin, Na/H exchanger, phospholipace C (PLC) and protein kinase C? (PKC?). Another characteristic feature is the entry of these viruses to neutral endosomes, independence of endosomal acidification and low association with acidic lysosomes. The biogenesis of neutral multivesicular bodies is crucial for their infection, at least for echovirus 1 (E1) and coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9). These pathways are triggered by the virus binding to their receptors on the plasma membrane, and they are not efficiently recycled like other cellular pathways used by circulating receptors. Therefore, the best markers of these pathways may be the viruses and often their receptors. A deeper understanding of this pathway and associated endosomes is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of enterovirus uncoating and genome release from the endosomes to start efficient replication. PMID:26690201

  4. Enteroviruses, hygiene and type 1 diabetes: toward a preventive vaccine.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Kristen M; von Herrath, Matthias; Tracy, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses and humans have long co-existed. Although recognized in ancient times, poliomyelitis and type 1 diabetes (T1D) were exceptionally rare and not epidemic, due in large part to poor sanitation and personal hygiene which resulted in repeated exposure to fecal-oral transmitted viruses and other infectious agents and viruses and the generation of a broad protective immunity. As a function of a growing acceptance of the benefits of hygienic practices and microbiologically clean(er) water supplies, the likelihood of exposure to diverse infectious agents and viruses declined. The effort to vaccinate against poliomyelitis demonstrated that enteroviral diseases are preventable by vaccination and led to understanding how to successfully attenuate enteroviruses. Type 1 diabetes onset has been convincingly linked to infection by numerous enteroviruses including the group B coxsackieviruses (CVB), while studies of CVB infections in NOD mice have demonstrated not only a clear link between disease onset but an ability to reduce the incidence of T1D as well: CVB infections can suppress naturally occurring autoimmune T1D. We propose here that if we can harness and develop the capacity to use attenuated enteroviral strains to induce regulatory T cell populations in the host through vaccination, then a vaccine could be considered that should function to protect against both autoimmune as well as virus-triggered T1D. Such a vaccine would not only specifically protect from certain enterovirus types but more importantly, also reset the organism's regulatory rheostat making the further development of pathogenic autoimmunity less likely. PMID:25430610

  5. Hemoagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests with enterovirus type 70.

    PubMed Central

    Kono, R; Tajiri, E; Miyamura, K; Sasagawa, A; Tsuruhara, T

    1978-01-01

    Human type "O," guinea pig, and chicken erythrocytes were agglutinated by enterovirus type 70 at 4 degrees C or room temperature. A hemagglutination inhibition test, using human "O" erythrocytes, is described for the serological diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by enterovirus type 70. Images PMID:209057

  6. Molecular Typing of Enteroviruses: Current Status and Future Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Peter; Kmmerer, Ulrike; Korn, Klaus; Mulders, Mick N.; Pyry, Tuija; Weissbrich, Benedikt; Kandolf, Reinhard; Cleator, Graham M.; van Loon, Anton M.

    1998-01-01

    Human enteroviruses have traditionally been typed according to neutralization serotype. This procedure is limited by the difficulty in culturing some enteroviruses, the availability of antisera for serotyping, and the cost and technical complexity of serotyping procedures. Furthermore, the impact of information derived from enterovirus serotyping is generally perceived to be low. Enteroviruses are now increasingly being detected by PCR rather than by culture. Classical typing methods will therefore no longer be possible in most instances. An alternative means of enterovirus typing, employing PCR in conjunction with molecular genetic techniques such as nucleotide sequencing or nucleic acid hybridization, would complement molecular diagnosis, may overcome some of the problems associated with serotyping, and would provide additional information regarding the epidemiology and biological properties of enteroviruses. We argue the case for developing a molecular typing system, discuss the genetic basis of such a system, review the literature describing attempts to identify or classify enteroviruses by molecular methods, and suggest ways in which the goal of molecular typing may be realized. PMID:9457433

  7. Enterovirus and type 1 diabetes: What is the matter?

    PubMed Central

    Bergamin, Carla Sanchez; Dib, Sergio Atala

    2015-01-01

    A complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors can trigger the immune-mediated mechanism responsible for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) establishment. Environmental factors may initiate and possibly sustain, accelerate, or retard damage to β-cells. The role of environmental factors in this process has been exhaustive studied and viruses are among the most probable ones, especially enteroviruses. Improvements in enterovirus detection methods and randomized studies with patient follow-up have confirmed the importance of human enterovirus in the pathogenesis of T1DM. The genetic risk of T1DM and particular innate and acquired immune responses to enterovirus infection contribute to a tolerance to T1DM-related autoantigens. However, the frequency, mechanisms, and pathways of virally induced autoimmunity and β-cell destruction in T1DM remain to be determined. It is difficult to investigate the role of enterovirus infection in T1DM because of several concomitant mechanisms by which the virus damages pancreatic β-cells, which, consequently, may lead to T1DM establishment. Advances in molecular and genomic studies may facilitate the identification of pathways at earlier stages of autoimmunity when preventive and therapeutic approaches may be more effective. PMID:26131324

  8. Molecular Identification and Typing of Enteroviruses Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Manzara, Stefania; Muscillo, Michele; La Rosa, Giuseppina; Marianelli, Cinzia; Cattani, Paola; Fadda, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    Enterovirus characterization and typing require an integrated technological approach, using both immunological and molecular methods. The seventy-nine enteroviruses included in this study were isolated from cell cultures and classified as enteroviruses on the basis of an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) against common enterovirus antigens and a neutralization test based on the Lim Benyesh-Melnick (LBM) pool. The final identification was carried out using a number of different molecular approaches, including reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and nucleotide sequence analysis of amplicons from various regions of the genome. Twenty-seven poliovirus strains (set A) were identified using LBM pool analysis, RFLP analysis, and IFA. Use of the LBM pool method showed that 35 out of 79 strains were nonpoliovirus (set B), while 17 specimens tested negative (set C). Sets B and C were further investigated. Twenty-five specimens from set B and 8 from set C were identified by IFA. Six specimens from set B and five from set C were identified by RFLP analysis. Specimens in sets B and C were treated using RT-PCR; the resulting amplicons were subjected to nucleotide sequence analysis. The VP1 region was analyzed using two sets of deoxyinosine degenerate primers. Where the VP1 test gave no signal, the VP4-VP2 region was analyzed. Where both tests were negative, a 5? noncoding region analysis was performed. Interestingly, analysis of the VP1 region showed that two specimens from set C were strains of enterovirus 71, whose presence was unexpected in Italy. As in other European epidemiological studies, the strain found most frequently was echovirus 30. PMID:12454151

  9. Maternal Enterovirus Infection as a Risk Factor for Type 1 Diabetes in the Exposed Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Viskari, Hanna; Knip, Mikael; Tauriainen, Sisko; Huhtala, Heini; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Surcel, Helj-Marja; Hyty, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Maternal enterovirus infections during pregnancy have been linked to an increased risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association in a unique series of pregnant mothers whose child progressed to clinical type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Maternal and in utero enterovirus infections were studied in 171 offspring who presented with type 1 diabetes before the age of 11 years and in 316 control subjects matched for date and place of birth, sex, and HLA-DQ risk alleles for diabetes. Acute enterovirus infections were diagnosed by increases in enterovirus IgG and IgM in samples taken from the mother at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy and cord blood samples taken at delivery. RESULTS Signs of maternal enterovirus infection were observed in altogether 19.3% of the mothers of affected children and in 12.0% of the mothers of control children (P = 0.038). This difference was seen in different HLA risk groups and in both sexes of the offspring, and it was unrelated to the age of the child at the diagnosis of diabetes or the age of the mother at delivery. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that an enterovirus infection during pregnancy is not a major risk factor for type 1 diabetes in childhood but may play a role in some susceptible subjects. PMID:22432113

  10. Molecular typing of enteroviruses associated with viral meningitis in Cyprus, 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jan; Koptides, Dana; Tryfonos, Christina; Christodoulou, Christina

    2006-08-01

    Human enteroviruses are responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases affecting many different organ systems. Although infection is usually asymptomatic, infections of the central nervous system manifested as meningitis or encephalitis can pose a serious public health problem, especially during outbreaks. In this study, samples from 218 patients diagnosed with enteroviral meningitis between January 2000 and December 2002 were analysed in order to assess the epidemiology of human enteroviruses as a cause of viral meningitis in Cyprus. A new typing strategy, based on partial sequencing of the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR), prediction of type, and selection of type-specific primers for sensitive VP1 PCR amplification, was developed. As clustering in the 5'NCR was concordant with clustering in the VP1 region, quick and reliable typing by VP1 sequencing was achieved without virus isolation in cell culture. The most frequent enterovirus serotypes identified were Human echovirus 30 (55.5%), Human echovirus 13 (15.1%), Human echovirus 6 (13.8%) and Human echovirus 9 (8.3%). Human coxsackieviruses B2, B1 and B5, Human echovirus 4, Human enterovirus 71 and Human coxsackievirus A6 represented rather rare serotypes. This is the first molecular epidemiological study of enterovirus meningitis in Cyprus. Serotype distribution corresponded basically with observations in other European countries, suggesting the spread of enteroviruses by tourism. PMID:16849723

  11. RAPID PCR-BASED MONITORING OF INFECTIOUS ENTEROVIRUSES IN DRINKING WATER. (R824756)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Currently, the standard method for the detection of enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus in water involves cell culture assay which is expensive and time consuming. Direct RT-PCR offers a rapid and sensitive alternative to virus detection but sensitivity is oft...

  12. Propidium monoazide reverse transcriptase PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus.

    PubMed

    Karim, Mohammad R; Fout, G Shay; Johnson, Clifford H; White, Karen M; Parshionikar, Sandhya U

    2015-07-01

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the public health significance of positive findings are limited. In this study, PMA RT-PCR and RT-qPCR assays were evaluated for selective detection of infectious poliovirus, murine norovirus (MNV-1), and Norwalk virus. Viruses were inactivated using heat, chlorine, and ultraviolet light (UV). Infectious and non-infectious viruses were treated with PMA before RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. PMA RT-PCR was able to differentiate selectively between infectious and heat and chlorine inactivated poliovirus. PMA RT-PCR was able to differentiate selectively between infectious and noninfectious murine norovirus only when inactivated by chlorine. However, PMA RT-PCR could not differentiate infectious Norwalk virus from virus particles rendered non-infectious by any treatment. PMA RT-PCR assay was not able to differentiate between infectious and UV inactivated viruses suggesting that viral capsid damage may be necessary for PMA to enter and bind to the viral genome. PMA RT-PCR on naked MNV-1 and Norwalk virus RNA suggest that PMA RT-PCR can be used to detect intact, potentially infectious MNV-1 and Norwalk viruses and can be used to exclude the detection of free viral RNA by PCR assay. PMID:25796356

  13. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  14. Use of Cell Culture-PCR Assay Based on Combination of A549 and BGMK Cell Lines and Molecular Identification as a Tool To Monitor Infectious Adenoviruses and Enteroviruses in River Water

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Han, Euiri; Kim, Sang-Jong

    2004-01-01

    Viral contamination in environmental samples can be underestimated because a single cell line might reproduce only some enteric viruses and some enteric viruses do not exhibit apparent cytopathic effects in cell culture. To overcome this problem, we evaluated a cell culture-PCR assay based on a combination of A549 and Buffalo green monkey kidney (BGMK) cell lines as a tool to monitor infectious adenoviruses and enteroviruses in river water. Water samples were collected 10 times at each of four rivers located in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea, and then cultured on group 1 cells (BGMK cells alone) and group 2 cells (BGMK and A549 cells). Reverse transcription and multiplex PCR were performed, followed by phylogenetic analysis of the amplicons. Thirty (75.0%) of the 40 samples were positive for viruses based on cell culture, and the frequency of positive samples grown on group 2 cells (65.0%) was higher than the frequency of positive samples grown on group 1 cells (50.0%). The number of samples positive for adenoviruses was higher with A549 cells (13 samples) than with BGMK cells (one sample); the numbers of samples positive for enteroviruses were similar with both types of cells. By using phylogenetic analysis, adenoviral amplicons were grouped into subgenera A, C, D, and F, and enteroviral amplicons were grouped into coxsackieviruses B3 and B4 and echoviruses 6, 7, and 30, indicating that A549 and BGMK cells were suitable for recovering a wide range of adenoviral and enteroviral types. The cell culture-PCR assay with a combination of A549 and BGMK cells and molecular identification could be a useful tool for monitoring infectious adenoviruses and enteroviruses in aquatic environments. PMID:15528536

  15. DETERMINATION OF MINIMAL INFECTIOUS DOSE OF AN ENTEROVIRUS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of this project were to determine the minimal infectious dose and medical significance of an enteric virus ingested in drinking water. The study was conducted under double-blind, placebo-controlled, random-selection conditions. A total of 149 susceptible (antibody-free)...

  16. Infectious triggers in type 1 diabetes: is there a case for epitope mimicry?

    PubMed

    Afonso, G; Mallone, R

    2013-09-01

    Environmental factors are the main contributors to type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis, yet they remain unidentified. Enteroviruses are proposed candidate triggers due to temporal correlations between infection and T1D autoimmunity and to detection of viral proteins in diseased islets. However, such correlations are not universal and may be relatively uncommon. Furthermore, evidence of a cause-effect relationship is lacking, as infection of non-obese diabetic mice with Coxsackie enteroviruses can either trigger or blunt disease. The proposed mechanisms are either non-antigen-specific (i.e. ?-cell destruction and release of sequestered antigens, islet inflammation) or antigen-specific (i.e. epitope mimicry, by which immune responses to enteroviruses may be diverted against homologous ?-cell antigens). The case for the latter mechanisms is even less stringent, as there is little evidence of promiscuous antigen recognition at the single T-cell level. Other infectious agents may thus be implicated. Demonstration of their role will require fulfilling the Koch's postulates, namely isolation of the agent preferentially in T1D patients, including before disease onset; and T1D induction when the agent is inoculated into mice. The same is needed for cross-reactive T cells to support epitope mimicry mechanisms. Generation of alternative (humanized) mouse models that could be challenged with candidate microbes is needed. PMID:24003924

  17. External quality assessment of enterovirus detection and typing. European Union Concerted Action on Virus Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    van Loon, A. M.; Cleator, G. C.; Ras, A.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study of an enterovirus proficiency panel for use in isolation and serotyping and/or the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) carried out by 12 laboratories in nine European countries. Eleven laboratories reported results of virus isolation and serotyping. In addition, four laboratories reported results of a PCR for enterovirus detection. Correct virus isolation results were obtained for 105 of 110 samples (95.5%, four false-negatives, one false-positive), and correct PCR results for 39 of 40 (97.5%, one false-negative). The highest isolation rate (87.5%) was observed in primary and tertiary monkey kidney cells; on monkey kidney cell lines, human diploid fibroblasts or human heteroploid cells the isolation rate varied between 64% and 71.4%. Serotyping results were less satisfactory. Only 63 of 106 (59.4%) isolated viruses were typed correctly. Major problems were seen with samples containing mixtures of enteroviruses and with enterovirus 71 or echovirus 4, with 9%, 50%, and 55% correct results, respectively. These results underline the need for improvement of enterovirus typing, especially in view of the poliomyelitis eradication initiative. PMID:10212511

  18. Establishment of a panel of in-house polyclonal antibodies for the diagnosis of enterovirus infections.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Osamu; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Sato, Yuko; Nakajima, Noriko; Koike, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Takuya; Sata, Tetsutaro; Yamashita, Teruo; Minagawa, Hiroko; Taguchi, Fumihiro; Hasegawa, Hideki; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Noriyo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a reliable method of virus detection for the diagnosis of critical enterovirus infections such as acute infective encephalitis, encephalomyelitis and myocarditis. Because histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of paraffin-embedded tissues play an important role in recognizing infectious agents in tissue samples, six in-house polyclonal antibodies raised against three representative enteroviruses using an indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry were examined. This panel of polyclonal antibodies recognized three serotypes of enterovirus. Two of the polyclonal antibodies were raised against denatured virus particles from enterovirus A71, one was raised against the recombinant VP1 protein of coxsackievirus B3, and the other for poliovirus type 1 were raised against denatured virus particles, the recombinant VP1 protein and peptide 2C. Western blot analysis revealed that each of these antibodies recognized the corresponding viral antigen and none cross-reacted with non-enteroviruses within the family Picornaviridae. However, all cross-reacted to some extent with the antigens derived from other serotypes of enterovirus. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry revealed that the virus capsid and non-structural proteins were localized in the cytoplasm of affected culture cells, and skeletal muscles and neurons in neonatal mice experimentally-infected with human enterovirus. The antibodies also recognized antigens derived from recent clinical isolates of enterovirus A71, coxsackievirus B3 and poliovirus. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that representative antibodies tested showed the same recognition pattern according to each serotype. Thus, the panel of in-house anti-enterovirus polyclonal antibodies described herein will be an important tool for the screening and pathological diagnosis for enterovirus infections, and may be useful for the classification of different enterovirus serotypes, including coxsackieviruses A and B, echoviruses, enterovirus A71 and poliovirus. PMID:25263613

  19. Enterovirus infections with special reference to enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Hsiung, G D; Wang, J R

    2000-03-01

    The enteroviruses comprise a large group of immunologically distinct serotypes of viruses belonging to the family of Picornaviridae. Many enteroviruses cause diseases in human, but the infections are generally mild as asymptomatic, therefore, enteroviruses are considered to be unimportant as human pathogens. However, enteroviruses may also result in serious or even fatal disease (as shown in the enterovirus 71 (EV71) epidemic in Taiwan in 1998). There are three types of polioviruses, Coxsackievirus group A and group B viruses, and echoviruses group. All together a total of 67 types are available. Starting from enterovirus type 68 to 71, they are named as enterovirus types. Enterovirus type 72 is hepatitis A virus. Paralytic disease of poliomyelitis was recorded in ancient time but characterization of poliovirus was not reported until the turn of the 19th century that poliomyelitis was a viral disease. The major breakthrough for diagnosing and controlling of poliomyelitis was the discovery that poliovirus can be propagated in human embryonic tissues in cultures. As soon as cultures of human and monkey cells began to use for isolating polioviruses in stool specimen of patients, more unknown viruses were isolated which unlike polioviruses nor Coxsackie viruses; they were called "orphan" viruses or human enteric viruses, name later simplified to "echoviruses". Morphologically all enteroviruses are alike. They are small, ether insensitive viruses with an RNA genome. Their nucleic acid is single stranded, and the nucleocapsid has a cubic (icosahedral) symmetry, and is naked. The host ranges of enteroviruses vary greatly from one type to the next and even among strains of the same type. Polioviruses have a very restricted host range among laboratory animals. Virus isolation is the best method for diagnosis of enterovirus infection, but infection in the central nervous system (CNS) may be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Currently final identification and serotyping of enteroviruses are by indirect immunofluorescent tests using monoclonal antibody or by neutralization test using antiserum pools described by Lim and Benyesh-Melnick. The incidence and prevalence of diseases associated with the enterovirus infections are varied. The circulation of enteroviruses recently in Tainan and the epidemic of EV71 in Taiwan in 1998 are described in this review. Although poliovirus infection may be eradicated from the world due to the efficient vaccination program, there is no specific antiviral agents for either treatment or prevention for other enterovirus infections. In 1991, a new antiviral "pleconaril" which is a novel orally bioavailable and systematically acting small molecule inhibitor for picornaviruses. "Pleconaril" is currently in clinical trials for treatment of enterovirus meningitis and respiratory infections. PMID:10806956

  20. Detection of astroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenovirus types 40 and 41 in surface waters collected and evaluated by the information collection rule and an integrated cell culture-nested PCR procedure.

    PubMed

    Chapron, C D; Ballester, N A; Fontaine, J H; Frades, C N; Margolin, A B

    2000-06-01

    We evaluated the use of an integrated cell culture-reverse transcription-PCR (ICC-RT-PCR) procedure coupled with nested PCR to detect human astroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenovirus types 40 and 41 in surface water samples that were collected and evaluated by using the Information Collection Rule (ICR) method. The results obtained with the ICC-RT-PCR-nested PCR method were compared to the results obtained with the total culturable virus assay-most-probable-number (TCVA-MPN) method, the method recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for monitoring viruses in surface and finished waters. Twenty-nine ICR surface water samples were analyzed. Viruses were concentrated by using filter adsorption-beef extract elution and organic flocculation techniques, and then the preparations were evaluated for viruses by visualizing cytopathic effects in the Buffalo green monkey kidney (BGMK) cell line. In the ICC-RT-PCR-nested PCR technique we used Caco-2 cells to propagate astroviruses and enteroviruses (ICC step), and we used BGMK cells to propagate adenovirus types 40 and 41, as well as enteroviruses. Fifteen of the 29 samples (51.7%) were positive for astrovirus as determined by the ICC-RT-PCR-nested PCR method, and eight of these samples (27.5%) contained infectious astrovirus. Seventeen of the 29 samples (58.6%) were positive for enteroviruses when the BGMK cell line was used, and six (27.6%) of these samples were determined to be infectious. Fourteen of the 29 samples (48.3%) were positive for adenovirus types 40 and 41, and 11 (37.9%) of these samples were determined to be infectious. Twenty-seven of the 29 samples (93.1%) were positive for a virus, and 19 (68.9%) of the samples were positive for an infectious virus. Only 5 of the 29 samples (17.2%) were positive as determined by the TCVA-MPN method. The ICC-RT-PCR-nested PCR method provided increased sensitivity compared to the TCVA-MPN method. PMID:10831432

  1. Enterovirus 71 inhibits cellular type I interferon signaling by downregulating JAK1 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Zhe; Zhao, Xinghui; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wu, Shipo; Liu, Ju; Chi, Xiangyang; Song, Xiaohong; Fu, Ling; Yu, Yingqun; Hou, Lihua; Chen, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe disease and lead to death in children. Recurring outbreaks of EV71 have been reported in several countries. Interferons (IFNs) have been used for decades to treat several types of viral infection, but have a limited ability to inhibit EV71 replication. Herein, we intend to investigate the mechanisms by which EV71 inhibits the cellular type I IFN response. In this study, MRC-5 (human embryonic lung fibroblast) or RD (human rhabdomyosarcoma) cells were infected with EV71, and then treated with or without IFN-?2b. Cells were harvested and analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the level of IFNAR1. Cell lysis were prepared to detect the levels of STAT1, STAT2, phosphorylated STAT1, phosphorylated STAT2, IFNAR1, JAK1, and TYK2 by Western blotting. The phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2 induced by IFN were inhibited without significant downregulation of IFNAR1 in EV71-infected cells. The EV71-induced suppression of STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation was not rescued by the protein tyrosine phosphatases inhibitor, and was independent of suppressor of cytokine signaling protein 1/3 levels. The phosphorylation of JAK1 and TYK2 were inhibited accompanied by EV71-induced downregulation of JAK1, which occurred at a post-transcriptional level and was proteasome independent. JAK1 expression did not decrease, and IFN-?-stimulated STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation were not blocked in HEK293T cells overexpressing the EV71 viral protein 2A or 3C. This study demonstrates that EV71 inhibits the cellular type I IFN antiviral pathway by downregulating JAK1, while the expression of IFNAR1 does not significantly alter in EV71-infected cells. Additionally, the EV71 viral proteins 2A and 3C do not act as antagonists of cellular type I IFN signaling. PMID:24905060

  2. A Novel Recombinant Enterovirus Type EV-A89 with Low Epidemic Strength in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Lan; Sun, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Sikandaner, Huerxidan; Tang, Haishu; Wang, Dongyan; Zhu, Zhen; Zhu, Shuangli; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is a novel member of the EV-A species. To date, only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been published. Here, we report the molecular identification and genomic characterization of a Chinese EV-A89 strain, KSYPH-TRMH22F/XJ/CHN/2011, isolated in 2011 from a contact of an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patient during AFP case surveillance in Xinjiang China. This was the first report of EV-A89 in China. The VP1 coding sequence of this strain demonstrated 93.2% nucleotide and 99.3% amino acid identity with the EV-A89 prototype strain. In the P2 and P3 regions, the Chinese EV-A89 strain demonstrated markedly higher identity than the prototype strains of EV-A76, EV-A90, and EV-A91, indicating that one or more recombination events between EV-A89 and these EV-A types might have occurred. Long-term evolution of these EV types originated from the same ancestor provides the spatial and temporal circumstances for recombination to occur. An antibody sero-prevalence survey against EV-A89 in two Xinjiang prefectures demonstrated low positive rates and low titres of EV-A89 neutralization antibody, suggesting limited range of transmission and exposure to the population. This study provides a solid foundation for further studies on the biological and pathogenic properties of EV-A89. PMID:26685900

  3. A Novel Recombinant Enterovirus Type EV-A89 with Low Epidemic Strength in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Lan; Sun, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Sikandaner, Huerxidan; Tang, Haishu; Wang, Dongyan; Zhu, Zhen; Zhu, Shuangli; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is a novel member of the EV-A species. To date, only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been published. Here, we report the molecular identification and genomic characterization of a Chinese EV-A89 strain, KSYPH-TRMH22F/XJ/CHN/2011, isolated in 2011 from a contact of an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patient during AFP case surveillance in Xinjiang China. This was the first report of EV-A89 in China. The VP1 coding sequence of this strain demonstrated 93.2% nucleotide and 99.3% amino acid identity with the EV-A89 prototype strain. In the P2 and P3 regions, the Chinese EV-A89 strain demonstrated markedly higher identity than the prototype strains of EV-A76, EV-A90, and EV-A91, indicating that one or more recombination events between EV-A89 and these EV-A types might have occurred. Long-term evolution of these EV types originated from the same ancestor provides the spatial and temporal circumstances for recombination to occur. An antibody sero-prevalence survey against EV-A89 in two Xinjiang prefectures demonstrated low positive rates and low titres of EV-A89 neutralization antibody, suggesting limited range of transmission and exposure to the population. This study provides a solid foundation for further studies on the biological and pathogenic properties of EV-A89. PMID:26685900

  4. Sapronosis: a distinctive type of infectious agent.

    PubMed

    Kuris, Armand M; Lafferty, Kevin D; Sokolow, Susanne H

    2014-08-01

    Sapronotic disease agents have evolutionary and epidemiological properties unlike other infectious organisms. Their essential saprophagic existence prevents coevolution, and no host-parasite virulence trade-off can evolve. However, the host may evolve defenses. Models of pathogens show that sapronoses, lacking a threshold of transmission, cannot regulate host populations, although they can reduce host abundance and even extirpate their hosts. Immunocompromised hosts are relatively susceptible to sapronoses. Some particularly important sapronoses, such as cholera and anthrax, can sustain an epidemic in a host population. However, these microbes ultimately persist as saprophages. One-third of human infectious disease agents are sapronotic, including nearly all fungal diseases. Recognition that an infectious disease is sapronotic illuminates a need for effective environmental control strategies. PMID:25028088

  5. Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: the innate immune response to enteroviruses and its possible role in regulating type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lind, K; Hhn, M H; Flodstrm-Tullberg, M

    2012-01-01

    OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES Metabolic diseases, host responses, cancer, autoinflammatory diseases, allergy. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease arising as a consequence of a misdirected T cell response to the pancreatic beta cell. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the innate immune system as a regulator of disease development. Genome-wide association studies have identified diabetes-associated polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins with functions related to the innate immune response. Moreover, enteroviruses, known to activate a strong innate immune response, have been implicated in the disease pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the innate immune response elicited by enteroviruses and how this response may regulate T1D development. PMID:22385234

  6. Enterovirus D68

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC web page http://www.cdc.gov/non-polio-enterovirus/about/EV-D68.html . ... Non-polio enterovirus ... October 10, 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/non-polio-enterovirus/about/EV-D68.html. Accessed January 11, ...

  7. Detection of enterovirus 70 with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, L J; Hatch, M H; Flemister, M R; Marchetti, G E

    1984-01-01

    To improve the ability to identify enterovirus-70 (EV-70) from patients with acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, we developed four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to EV-70. We reacted the four MAbs against nine previously characterized strains of EV-70 and heterologous viruses by virus neutralization, indirect immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two of the MAbs neutralized all nine strains of EV-70 and none of the other enterovirus types tested. Two of the MAbs gave a positive reaction with all nine strains by indirect immunofluorescence, and three reacted with all nine strains by ELISA. None of the MAbs gave a positive reaction with heterologous viruses, including those associated with eye disease, by indirect immunofluorescence or ELISA. The two neutralizing MAbs failed to give a positive reaction with some of the strains of EV-70 by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA, yet they neutralized these viruses. By ELISA with a polyclonal serum as capture antibody and a mixture of MAbs as detector antibody, we were able to detect from 10(2.2) to 10(5.8) 50% tissue culture infective doses of virus and to type lyophilized isolates of EV-70 sent from Taiwan from which we could not recover infectious virus. By choosing the appropriate MAb, or mixture of MAbs, we could construct a test which had the type specificity and strain sensitivity needed to type isolates of EV-70. PMID:6092426

  8. Therapeutic Use of Native and Recombinant Enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Yl-Pelto, Jani; Tripathi, Lav; Susi, Petri

    2016-01-01

    Research on human enteroviruses has resulted in the identification of more than 100 enterovirus types, which use more than 10 protein receptors and/or attachment factors required in cell binding and initiation of the replication cycle. Many of these "viral" receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells. Receptor binding and the ability to replicate in specific target cells define the tropism and pathogenesis of enterovirus types, because cellular infection often results in cytolytic response, i.e., disruption of the cells. Viral tropism and cytolytic properties thus make native enteroviruses prime candidates for oncolytic virotherapy. Copy DNA cloning and modification of enterovirus genomes have resulted in the generation of enterovirus vectors with properties that are useful in therapy or in vaccine trials where foreign antigenic epitopes are expressed from or on the surface of the vector virus. The small genome size and compact particle structure, however, set limits to enterovirus genome modifications. This review focuses on the therapeutic use of native and recombinant enteroviruses and the methods that have been applied to modify enterovirus genomes for therapy. PMID:26907330

  9. Development of Novel Vaccines against Enterovirus-71

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Pinn Tsin Isabel; Poh, Chit Laa

    2015-01-01

    The hand, foot and mouth disease is caused by a group of Enteroviruses such as Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus CV-A5, CV-A8, and CV-A16. Mild symptoms of EV-A71 infection in children range from high fever, vomiting, rashes and ulcers in mouth but can produce more severe symptoms such as brainstem and cerebellar encephalitis, leading up to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The lack of vaccines and antiviral drugs against EV-A71 highlights the urgency of developing preventive and treatment agents against EV-A71 to prevent further fatalities. Research groups have developed experimental inactivated vaccines, recombinant Viral Protein 1 (VP1) vaccine and virus-like particles (VLPs). The inactivated EV-A71 vaccine is considered the safest viral vaccine, as there will be no reversion to the infectious wild type strain. The recombinant VP1 vaccine is a cost-effective immunogen, while VLPs contain an arrangement of epitopes that can elicit neutralizing antibodies against the virus. As each type of vaccine has its advantages and disadvantages, increased studies are required in the development of such vaccines, whereby high efficacy, long-lasting immunity, minimal risk to those vaccinated, safe and easy production, low cost, dispensing the need for refrigeration and convenient delivery are the major goals in their design. PMID:26729152

  10. Development of Novel Vaccines against Enterovirus-71.

    PubMed

    Yee, Pinn Tsin Isabel; Poh, Chit Laa

    2015-01-01

    The hand, foot and mouth disease is caused by a group of Enteroviruses such as Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus CV-A5, CV-A8, and CV-A16. Mild symptoms of EV-A71 infection in children range from high fever, vomiting, rashes and ulcers in mouth but can produce more severe symptoms such as brainstem and cerebellar encephalitis, leading up to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The lack of vaccines and antiviral drugs against EV-A71 highlights the urgency of developing preventive and treatment agents against EV-A71 to prevent further fatalities. Research groups have developed experimental inactivated vaccines, recombinant Viral Protein 1 (VP1) vaccine and virus-like particles (VLPs). The inactivated EV-A71 vaccine is considered the safest viral vaccine, as there will be no reversion to the infectious wild type strain. The recombinant VP1 vaccine is a cost-effective immunogen, while VLPs contain an arrangement of epitopes that can elicit neutralizing antibodies against the virus. As each type of vaccine has its advantages and disadvantages, increased studies are required in the development of such vaccines, whereby high efficacy, long-lasting immunity, minimal risk to those vaccinated, safe and easy production, low cost, dispensing the need for refrigeration and convenient delivery are the major goals in their design. PMID:26729152

  11. Precise genotyping and recombination detection of Enterovirus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) with different genotypes cause diverse infectious diseases in humans and mammals. A correct EV typing result is crucial for effective medical treatment and disease control; however, the emergence of novel viral strains has impaired the performance of available diagnostic tools. Here, we present a web-based tool, named EVIDENCE (EnteroVirus In DEep conception, http://symbiont.iis.sinica.edu.tw/evidence), for EV genotyping and recombination detection. We introduce the idea of using mixed-ranking scores to evaluate the fitness of prototypes based on relatedness and on the genome regions of interest. Using phylogenetic methods, the most possible genotype is determined based on the closest neighbor among the selected references. To detect possible recombination events, EVIDENCE calculates the sequence distance and phylogenetic relationship among sequences of all sliding windows scanning over the whole genome. Detected recombination events are plotted in an interactive figure for viewing of fine details. In addition, all EV sequences available in GenBank were collected and revised using the latest classification and nomenclature of EV in EVIDENCE. These sequences are built into the database and are retrieved in an indexed catalog, or can be searched for by keywords or by sequence similarity. EVIDENCE is the first web-based tool containing pipelines for genotyping and recombination detection, with updated, built-in, and complete reference sequences to improve sensitivity and specificity. The use of EVIDENCE can accelerate genotype identification, aiding clinical diagnosis and enhancing our understanding of EV evolution. PMID:26678286

  12. Precise genotyping and recombination detection of Enterovirus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chieh-Hua; Wang, Yu-Bin; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Hsiung, Chao; Lin, Chung-Yen

    2015-12-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) with different genotypes cause diverse infectious diseases in humans and mammals. A correct EV typing result is crucial for effective medical treatment and disease control; however, the emergence of novel viral strains has impaired the performance of available diagnostic tools. Here, we present a web-based tool, named EVIDENCE (EnteroVirus In DEep conception, http://symbiont.iis.sinica.edu.tw/evidence), for EV genotyping and recombination detection. We introduce the idea of using mixed-ranking scores to evaluate the fitness of prototypes based on relatedness and on the genome regions of interest. Using phylogenetic methods, the most possible genotype is determined based on the closest neighbor among the selected references. To detect possible recombination events, EVIDENCE calculates the sequence distance and phylogenetic relationship among sequences of all sliding windows scanning over the whole genome. Detected recombination events are plotted in an interactive figure for viewing of fine details. In addition, all EV sequences available in GenBank were collected and revised using the latest classification and nomenclature of EV in EVIDENCE. These sequences are built into the database and are retrieved in an indexed catalog, or can be searched for by keywords or by sequence similarity. EVIDENCE is the first web-based tool containing pipelines for genotyping and recombination detection, with updated, built-in, and complete reference sequences to improve sensitivity and specificity. The use of EVIDENCE can accelerate genotype identification, aiding clinical diagnosis and enhancing our understanding of EV evolution. PMID:26678286

  13. Enterovirus D68

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What is Polio? Enterovirus D68 Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Need to Know about Enterovirus D68” in English Spanish Haitian Creole (translation provided by State of New ...

  14. Enterovirus (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Signing Kids Up for Sports 15-Minute Meal: ... not more than a few days. Keep in Mind Although enteroviruses can cause serious illness, enterovirus infections ...

  15. Characterization of Enteroviruses from Non-Human Primates in Cameroon Revealed Virus Types Widespread in Humans along with Candidate New Types and Species

    PubMed Central

    Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Bessaud, Mal; Joffret, Marie-Line; Endegue Zanga, Marie-Claire; Balanant, Jean; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Njouom, Richard; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Delpeyroux, Francis; Rousset, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP) are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases. PMID:25079078

  16. Characterization of Enteroviruses from non-human primates in cameroon revealed virus types widespread in humans along with candidate new types and species.

    PubMed

    Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Bessaud, Mal; Joffret, Marie-Line; Endegue Zanga, Marie-Claire; Balanant, Jean; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Njouom, Richard; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Delpeyroux, Francis; Rousset, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP) are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases. PMID:25079078

  17. Natural interspecies recombinant bovine/porcine enterovirus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Boros, Akos; Pankovics, Péter; Knowles, Nick J; Reuter, Gábor

    2012-09-01

    Members of the genus Enterovirus (family Picornaviridae) are believed to be common and widespread among humans and different animal species, although only a few enteroviruses have been identified from animal sources. Intraspecies recombination among human enteroviruses is a well-known phenomenon, but only a few interspecies examples have been reported and, to our current knowledge, none of these have involved non-primate enteroviruses. In this study, we report the detection and complete genome characterization (using RT-PCR and long-range PCR) of a natural interspecies recombinant bovine/porcine enterovirus (ovine enterovirus type 1; OEV-1) in seven (44 %) of 16 faecal samples from 3-week-old domestic sheep (Ovis aries) collected in two consecutive years. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding region revealed that OEV-1 (ovine/TB4-OEV/2009/HUN; GenBank accession no. JQ277724) was a novel member of the species Porcine enterovirus B (PEV-B), implying the endemic presence of PEV-B viruses among sheep. However, the 5' UTR of OEV-1 showed a high degree of sequence and structural identity to bovine enteroviruses. The presumed recombination breakpoint was mapped to the end of the 5' UTR at nucleotide position 814 using sequence and SimPlot analyses. The interspecies-recombinant nature of OEV-1 suggests a closer relationship among bovine and porcine enteroviruses, enabling the exchange of at least some modular genetic elements that may evolve independently. PMID:22647375

  18. Molecular Classification of Enteroviruses Not Identified by Neutralization Tests

    PubMed Central

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Seto, Yoshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    We isolated six viruses from patients diagnosed with aseptic meningitis or hand, foot, and mouth disease. The cytopathic effect of these viruses on cultured cells was like that of enteroviruses. However, viral neutralization tests against standard antisera were negative. Phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences of these 6 viruses and 29 serotypes of enteroviruses classified 3 of the viruses as serotype echovirus type 18 (EV18) and 3 as serotype human enterovirus 71 (HEV71). These results were confirmed by remicroneutralization tests with HEV-monospecific antisera or an additional phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP4 genes is more useful than neutralization tests with enterovirus serotype-specific antisera in identifying enterovirus serotypes. PMID:11927028

  19. Inflammatory, vascular, and infectious myelopathies in children.

    PubMed

    Verhey, Leonard H; Banwell, Brenda L

    2013-01-01

    Acute nontraumatic myelopathies of childhood include inflammatory, infectious, and vascular etiologies. Inflammatory immune-mediated disorders of the spinal cord can be categorized as idiopathic isolated transverse myelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis. In recent years, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, West Nile virus, enterovirus-71, and Lyme disease have been increasingly recognized as infectious etiologies of myelopathy, and poliomyelitis remains an important etiology in world regions where vaccination programs have not been universally available. Vascular etiologies include vasculopathies (systemic lupus erythematosus, small vessel primary angiitis of the central nervous system), arteriovenous malformations, and spinal cord infarction (fibrocartilaginous embolism, diffuse hypoxic ischemia-mediated infarction). Vascular myelopathies are less common than inflammatory and infectious myelopathies, but are more likely to lead to devastating clinical deficits. Current therapeutic strategies include acute anti-inflammatory treatment and rehabilitation. Stem cell transplantation, nerve graft implantation, and stimulation of endogenous repair mechanisms represent promising strategies for spinal cord repair. PMID:23622308

  20. Basic reproduction number of coxsackievirus type A6 and A16 and enterovirus 71: estimates from outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease in Singapore, a tropical city-state.

    PubMed

    Lim, C T K; Jiang, L; Ma, S; James, L; Ang, L W

    2016-04-01

    Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6), coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) were the major enteroviruses causing nationwide hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics in Singapore in the last decade. We estimated the basic reproduction number (R 0) of these enteroviruses to obtain a better understanding of their transmission dynamics. We merged records of cases from HFMD outbreaks reported between 2007 and 2012 with laboratory results from virological surveillance. R 0 was estimated based on the cumulative number of reported cases in the initial growth phase of each outbreak associated with the particular enterovirus type. A total of 33 HFMD outbreaks were selected based on the inclusion criteria specified for our study, of which five were associated with CV-A6, 13 with CV-A16, and 15 with EV-A71. The median R 0 was estimated to be 5·04 [interquartile range (IQR) 3·57-5·16] for CV-A6, 2·42 (IQR 1·85-3·36) for CV-A16, and 3·50 (IQR 2·36-4·53) for EV-A71. R 0 was not significantly associated with number of infected children (P = 0·86), number of exposed children (P = 0·94), and duration of the outbreak (P = 0·05). These enterovirus-specific R 0 estimates will be helpful in providing insights into the potential growth of future HFMD epidemics and outbreaks for timely implementation of disease control measures, together with disease dynamics such as severity of the cases. PMID:26374168

  1. Differences in virus receptor for type I and type II feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    PubMed

    Hohdatsu, T; Izumiya, Y; Yokoyama, Y; Kida, K; Koyama, H

    1998-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPVs) are classified into type I and type II serogroups. Here, we report that feline aminopeptidase N (APN), a cell-surface metalloprotease on the intestinal, lung and kidney epithelial cells, is a receptor for type II FIPV but not for type I FIPV. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) R-G-4, which blocks infection of Felis catus whole fetus (fcwf-4) cells by type II FIPV, was obtained by immunizing mice with fcwf-4 cells which are highly susceptible to FIPV. This MAb also blocked infection of fcwf-4 cells by type II feline enteric coronavirus (FECV), canine coronavirus (CCV), and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). On the other hand, it did not block infection by type I FIPVs. MAb R-G-4 recognized a polypeptide of relative molecular mass 120-130 kDa in feline intestinal brush-border membrane (BBM) proteins. The polypeptide possessed aminopeptidase activity, and the first 15 N-terminal amino acid sequence was identical to that of the feline APN. Feline intestinal BBM proteins and the polypeptide reacted with MAb R-G-4 (feline APN) inhibited the infectivity of type II FIPV, type II FECV, CCV and TGEV to fcwf-4 cells, but did not inhibit the infectivity of type I FIPVs. PMID:9645192

  2. Global quantitative proteomic analysis of human glioma cells profiled host protein expression in response to enterovirus type 71 infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei-Ke; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Sheng-Lin; Xianyu, Ling-Zhi; Lu, Song-Ya

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the leading causes of hand, foot and mouth disease with neurological complications in some cases. To study the pathogenesis of EV71 infection, large-scale analyses of EV71 infected cells have been performed. However, most of these studies employed rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells or used transcriptomic strategy. Here, we performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis of EV71-infected U251 cells, a human glioma cell line. A total of 3125 host proteins were quantified, in which 451 were differentially regulated as a result of EV71 infection at 8 or 20 hpi or both. Gene Ontology analysis indicates the regulated proteins were enriched in "metabolic process", "biological regulation" and "cellular process", implying that these biological processes were affected by EV71 infection. Furthermore, functional study indicated that TRAF2 and TRAF6 among the up-regulated proteins could inhibit the replication of EV71 at the early phase post infection, and the anti-EV71 function of both proteins was independent of interferon β. Our study not only provided an overview of cellular response to EV71 infection in a human glioma cell line, but also found that TRAF2 and TRAF6 might be potential targets to inhibit the replication of EV71. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002454 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002454). PMID:26350028

  3. Echovirus 22 is an atypical enterovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Coller, B A; Chapman, N M; Beck, M A; Pallansch, M A; Gauntt, C J; Tracy, S M

    1990-01-01

    Although echovirus 22 (EV22) is classified as an enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae, it is atypical of the enterovirus paradigm, typified by the polioviruses and the coxsackie B viruses. cDNA reverse transcribed from coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) RNA does not hybridize to genomic RNA of EV22, and conversely, cDNA made to EV22 does not hybridize to CVB3 genomic RNA or to molecular clones of CVB3 or poliovirus type 1. EV22 cDNA does not hybridize to viral RNA of encephalomyocarditis virus or to a molecular clone of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, members of the cardiovirus genus. The genomic RNA of EV22 cannot be detected by the polymerase chain reaction using generic enteroviral primers. EV22 does not shut off host cell protein synthesis, and the RNA of EV22 is efficiently translated in vitro in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Murine enterovirus-immune T cells recognize and proliferate against EV22 as an antigen in vitro, demonstrating that EV22 shares an epitope(s) common to enteroviruses but not found among other picornaviruses. Images PMID:2159539

  4. Enterovirus A71 Meningoencephalitis Outbreak, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Akhmadishina, Ludmila V.; Govorukhina, Marina V.; Kovalev, Evgeniy V.; Nenadskaya, Svetlana A.; Ivanova, Olga E.

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-eight cases of enterovirus infection, including 25 neuroinfections, occurred in Rostov-on-Don, Russia, during MayJune 2013. The outbreak was caused by an enterovirus A type 71 (EV-A71) subgenotype C4 lineage that spread to neighboring countries from China ?3 years earlier. Enterovirus associated neuroinfection may emerge in areas with a preceding background circulation of EV-A71 with apparently asymptomatic infection. PMID:26196217

  5. Laboratory production in vivo of infectious human papillomavirus type 11

    SciTech Connect

    Kreider, J.W.; Howett, M.K.; Leure-Dupree, A.E.; Zaino, R.J.; Weber, J.A.

    1987-02-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) induce among patients natural lesions which produce small amounts of virus. Infection of human cell cultures does not lead to the multiplication of virus, which also does not replicate in experimental animals. The authors have developed a unique system for the laboratory production of HPV type 11 (HPV-11). Fragments of human neonatal foreskin were infected with an extract of naturally occurring human vulvar condylomata and grafted beneath the renal capsule of athymic mice. Later (3 to 5 months), condylomatous cysts developed from those grafts. Nuclei of koilocytotic cells contained large amounts of capsid antigen and intranuclear virions. The experimentally induced condylomata were homogenized, and the virions were extracted and used to infect another generation of human foreskin grafts in athymic mice. The HPV-11 DNA content and infectivity of the natural and experimental condylomata were similar. Extracts of experimental condylomata were subjected to differential ultracentrifugation and sedimentation in CsCl density gradients. A single, opalescent band was visible at a density of 1.34 g/ml. It contained HPV virions with HPV-11 DNA. This report is the first demonstration of the laboratory production of an HPV.

  6. Preparation of North American type II PRRSV infectious clone expressing green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyue; Zhang, Kao; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wen, Jiexia; Zhang, Jianlou; Zhang, Yonghong; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is still one of the most important infectious diseases threatening the swine industry. To construct North American type II PRRSV infectious clone containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, we amplify gfp gene, flanked by PRRSV Nsp2 gene fragments upstream and downstream, using overlap PCR method from pcDNA-EF1-GFP plasmid and FL12 plasmid containing PRRSV infectious genome as the templates. The Nsp2 fragment-flanked gfp gene was inserted into Nsp2 gene of the FL12 plasmid by Spe I and Xho I sites to generate PRRSV infectious recombinant plasmid (FL12-GFP) containing gfp gene. The recombinant PRRSV expressing GFP (PRRSV-GFP) was rescued in baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21) cells by transfecting PRRSV mRNA synthesized in vitro and amplified in Marc-145 cells. The PRRSV-GFP infectivity and replication capacity were identified. Results showed that, by adopting overlap PCR strategy, the gfp gene was successfully inserted into and fused with PRRSV Nsp2 gene in the PRRSV infectious clone plasmid FL-12 to generate FL12-GFP plasmid. The recombinant PRRSV-GFP was generated through transfecting PRRSV mRNA in BHK-2 cells. Like its parental virus, the recombinant PRRSV-GFP maintains its infectivity to Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). This study provides essential conditions for further investigation on PRRSV. PMID:24895571

  7. Preparation of North American Type II PRRSV Infectious Clone Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liyue; Zhang, Kao; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wen, Jiexia; Zhang, Jianlou; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhong, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is still one of the most important infectious diseases threatening the swine industry. To construct North American type II PRRSV infectious clone containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, we amplify gfp gene, flanked by PRRSV Nsp2 gene fragments upstream and downstream, using overlap PCR method from pcDNA-EF1-GFP plasmid and FL12 plasmid containing PRRSV infectious genome as the templates. The Nsp2 fragment-flanked gfp gene was inserted into Nsp2 gene of the FL12 plasmid by Spe I and Xho I sites to generate PRRSV infectious recombinant plasmid (FL12-GFP) containing gfp gene. The recombinant PRRSV expressing GFP (PRRSV-GFP) was rescued in baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21) cells by transfecting PRRSV mRNA synthesized in vitro and amplified in Marc-145 cells. The PRRSV-GFP infectivity and replication capacity were identified. Results showed that, by adopting overlap PCR strategy, the gfp gene was successfully inserted into and fused with PRRSV Nsp2 gene in the PRRSV infectious clone plasmid FL-12 to generate FL12-GFP plasmid. The recombinant PRRSV-GFP was generated through transfecting PRRSV mRNA in BHK-2 cells. Like its parental virus, the recombinant PRRSV-GFP maintains its infectivity to Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). This study provides essential conditions for further investigation on PRRSV. PMID:24895571

  8. Discovery of a Bovine Enterovirus in Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    McClenahan, Shasta D.; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L.; Krause, Philip R.; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen. PMID:23950875

  9. Enterovirus Species B Bias of RD Cell Line and Its Influence on Enterovirus Diversity Landscape.

    PubMed

    Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

    2015-12-01

    Despite its widespread use in poliovirus isolation, studies show that most RD cell line isolates are species B enteroviruses (EB), it was therefore employed to further catalogue the EB diversity in two different regions of Nigeria. Concentrates of 18 environmental samples were inoculated into RD cell line. Isolates were subjected to PCR assays to detect enteroviruses, species C and B members and partial VP1 gene which was subsequently sequenced and used for identification and phylogenetic analysis. Isolates were further passaged in L20B cell line to detect polioviruses. Sixty-eight isolates were recovered from the 18 concentrates, all of which were positive for the enterovirus 5'-UTR screen. Thirteen of the 68 isolates were positive for the species C screen and replicated in L20B cell line, eleven of which also contained species B enteroviruses. Some of the mixed isolates were successfully typed, but as species B members. In all, isolates recovered in this study were identified as CVB5, E6, E7, E11, E13, E19, E20, E33, EVB75 and WPV3, while some could not be typed. Alongside the ten different enterovirus serotypes confirmed, results of this study document for the first time in Nigeria, EVB75. It showed the EB bias of RD cell line might indicate something much more fundamental in its biology. Finally, the finding of WPV3 in a region considered low risk for poliovirus emphasizes the need to expand poliovirus environmental surveillance to enable early detection of poliovirus silent circulation before occurrence of clinical manifestations. PMID:26403309

  10. Human Chromosome 2 Carries a Gene Required for Production of Infectious Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ayse K.; van Maanen, Marc; Nguyen, Van; Sutton, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) replicates only in certain primate cells. In murine cells expressing cyclin T1, a posttranscriptional block exists such that small amounts of capsid and little infectious virus are released. This block is relieved in part by fusion with human cells. Here we have tested a panel of mouse-human somatic cell hybrids for production of infectious virus. Only those containing human chromosome 2 were permissive, which correlated with capsid production. The effect was specific to HIV in that release of murine leukemia virus was minimally affected by the presence of chromosome 2. Although expression of Vpu markedly increased capsid production in the absence of chromosome 2, it did not result in a corresponding increase in infectious HIV. The presence of chromosome 2 did not have consistent effects on the amount of unspliced viral RNA, whereas the amount of cell-associated Gag p55 was increased a fewfold. These results suggest that processing of HIV Gag can be corrected by one or more genes present on human chromosome 2 to allow production of infectious HIV from murine cells. PMID:16537608

  11. Animal orphan enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kalter, Seymour S.

    1960-01-01

    Since the discovery, some ten years ago, of the pathogenic effect of polioviruses on non-nervous-tissue cells, tissue-culture methods have come to be widely used in virological research. Through these improved techniques for studying viruses, a large number of new cytopathogenic agents have been isolated from the intestinal tract of man. Many of these agents have been obtained from persons suffering from polio-like disease, but others have been isolated from apparently normal persons. The term orphans is used to designate those viruses which cannot definitely be associated with any recognized disease syndrome. The existence of these enteric pathogenic human orphan (ECHO) viruses, and their association with clinical disease in certain cases, stimulated interest in their animal counter-parts, which might constitute a serious threat to both human and animal health. In this paper, the author reviews the information at present available on the occurrence of the so-called orphan enteroviruses in monkeys, cattle, swine, and other animals in various parts of the world, and discusses the possible interrelationships of these animal viruses with each other and with the human enteroviruses. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:14404195

  12. Innate Immunity and Immune Evasion by Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Pathinayake, Prabuddha S.; Hsu, Alan C-Y.; Wark, Peter A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide and it is the main etiological agent for outbreaks of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection is often associated with severe gastroenterological, pulmonary, and neurological diseases that are most prevalent in children. Currently, no effective vaccine or antiviral drugs exist against EV71 infection. A lack of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of EV71 infection in the host and the virus-host interactions is a major constraint to developing specific antiviral strategies against this infection. Previous studies have identified and characterized the function of several viral proteins produced by EV71 that interact with the host innate immune proteins, including type I interferon signaling and microRNAs. These interactions eventually promote efficient viral replication and increased susceptibility to the disease. In this review we discuss the functions of EV71 viral proteins in the modulation of host innate immune responses to facilitate viral replication. PMID:26694447

  13. Innate Immunity and Immune Evasion by Enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Pathinayake, Prabuddha S; Hsu, Alan C-Y; Wark, Peter A B

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide and it is the main etiological agent for outbreaks of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection is often associated with severe gastroenterological, pulmonary, and neurological diseases that are most prevalent in children. Currently, no effective vaccine or antiviral drugs exist against EV71 infection. A lack of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of EV71 infection in the host and the virus-host interactions is a major constraint to developing specific antiviral strategies against this infection. Previous studies have identified and characterized the function of several viral proteins produced by EV71 that interact with the host innate immune proteins, including type I interferon signaling and microRNAs. These interactions eventually promote efficient viral replication and increased susceptibility to the disease. In this review we discuss the functions of EV71 viral proteins in the modulation of host innate immune responses to facilitate viral replication. PMID:26694447

  14. The Autophagic Machinery in Enterovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jeffrey K. F.; Sam, I-Ching; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family comprises many important human pathogens, including polioviruses, rhinovirus, enterovirus A71, and enterovirus D68. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe life-threatening diseases. Currently, no effective vaccine is available against enteroviruses except for poliovirus. Enteroviruses subvert the autophagic machinery to benefit their assembly, maturation, and exit from host. Some enteroviruses spread between cells via a process described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL). The early and late phases of autophagy are regulated through various lipids and their metabolizing enzymes. Some of these lipids and enzymes are specifically regulated by enteroviruses. In the present review, we summarize the current understanding of the regulation of autophagic machinery by enteroviruses, and provide updates on recent developments in this field. PMID:26828514

  15. Occurrence of different types of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in fish.

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Y L; Engelking, H M; Leong, J C

    1986-01-01

    The virion protein patterns of 71 isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from the Pacific Northwest were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of [35S]-methionine-labeled virus. This analysis led to the classification of these virus isolates into four or more types. Type 1 virus was characterized by a nucleocapsid protein with an approximate molecular weight of 40,500. Type 2 and type 3 viruses have nucleocapsid proteins with molecular weights of 42,800 and 43,250, respectively. Type 2 virus was responsible for the recent epizootics of IHNV among fish in the lower Columbia River. The California IHNV isolates were type 3 with the exception of some of those isolated from fish at the Coleman Hatchery on the Sacramento River. These Coleman Hatchery isolates belonged to a type 4 virus group characterized by a larger glycoprotein of approximately 70,000 molecular weight. All other viruses examined had glycoproteins of 67,000 molecular weight. The "type 5" virus isolates were grouped together because they were not sufficiently distinct to warrant classification into a separate type. These findings have been useful in determining that a particular virus type is characteristic for a geographic area and will infect many different salmonid species in that area and the same type isolated from parental fish is responsible for the subsequent outbreak of the diseases in progeny. Images PMID:3789723

  16. [Epidemiologic and etiologic characteristic of enterovirus infections in Khabarovsk region].

    PubMed

    Reznik, V I; Kozhevnikova, N V; Karavianskaia, T N; Voronkova, G M; Pereskokova, M A; Ivanova, O E; Frolova, N V; Eremeeva, T P; Lukashev, A N; Shubin, F N; Kompanets, G G; Lebedava, L A; Isaeva, N V; Savosina, L V; Golubeva, E M

    2007-01-01

    Results of epidemiologic, virologic, and serologic studies of enterovirus infections in Khabarovsk region from 1975 to 2006 were analyzed. Patterns of epidemic process of these infections were established: periodic change of dominating type of pathogen in the population; onset of the large epidemic peaks of incidence during emergence of circulation of new for the given area serotypes of enteroviruses; possibility of realization of several routes of virus transmission. Role of water factor in the progress of the epidemic process was revealed. Etiology of the large epidemic rise of aseptic meningitis incidence in Khabarovsk region in 2006 was established--the leading pathogens were ECHO viruses serotypes E6 and E30. PMID:18038544

  17. Enterovirus D68: acute respiratory illness and the 2014 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Khan, Feras

    2015-05-01

    Enteroviruses cause illnesses ranging from benign upper respiratory infections to severe meningitis and encephalitis. A recent uptick in the number of patients, many of them children, with respiratory infections caused by enterovirus 68 (EV-D68) has captured the attention of health care providers and public health administrators. In the United States, this type of infection was confirmed in 1152 people during 2014. This article examines recent trends in EV-D68 infections, reviewing past outbreaks and the 2014 outbreak, and describes the increasing cases of acute flaccid myelitis and their possible connection with EV-D68. PMID:26065305

  18. Infectious Arthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infected joint One type of infectious arthritis is reactive arthritis. The reaction is to an infection somewhere else ... is usually the knee, ankle, or toe. Sometimes, reactive arthritis is set off by an infection in the ...

  19. Antiviral activity of substituted homoisoflavonoids on enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Tait, Sabrina; Salvati, Anna Laura; Desideri, Nicoletta; Fiore, Lucia

    2006-12-01

    The antiviral activity of homoisoflavonoids, a class of flavonoids, was determined in vitro against a large panel of enteroviruses. The inhibition of viral replication was monitored on BGM (Buffalo Green Monkey) cells, and the concentration required for 50% inhibition (IC50), as well as the selectivity index (SI) were determined. None of the substances were effective against Sabin type 1 poliovirus (PV1), but most of them showed a low cytotoxicity and a marked antiviral activity against Coxsackie virus B1, B3, B4, A9 and echovirus 30. PMID:16934879

  20. Enterovirus D68 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Niesters, Hubert; Principi, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1962 in children hospitalized for pneumonia and bronchiolitis, the Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its discovery, during the long period of surveillance up to 2005, EV-D68 was reported only as a cause of sporadic outbreaks. In recent years, many reports from different countries have described an increasing number of patients with respiratory diseases due to EV-D68 associated with relevant clinical severity. In particular, an unexpectedly high number of children have been hospitalized for severe respiratory disease due to EV-D68, requiring intensive care such as intubation and mechanical ventilation. Moreover, EV-D68 has been associated with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction in children, which has caused concerns in the community. As no specific antiviral therapy is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Moreover, because no vaccines are available, conventional infection control measures (i.e., standard, for contacts and droplets) in both community and healthcare settings are recommended. However, further studies are required to fully understand the real importance of this virus. Prompt diagnosis and continued surveillance of EV-D68 infections are essential to managing and preventing new outbreaks. Moreover, if the association between EV-D68 and severe diseases will be confirmed, the development of adequate preventive and therapeutic approaches are a priority. PMID:26610548

  1. Enterovirus D68 Infection.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Niesters, Hubert; Principi, Nicola

    2015-11-01

    First described in 1962 in children hospitalized for pneumonia and bronchiolitis, the Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its discovery, during the long period of surveillance up to 2005, EV-D68 was reported only as a cause of sporadic outbreaks. In recent years, many reports from different countries have described an increasing number of patients with respiratory diseases due to EV-D68 associated with relevant clinical severity. In particular, an unexpectedly high number of children have been hospitalized for severe respiratory disease due to EV-D68, requiring intensive care such as intubation and mechanical ventilation. Moreover, EV-D68 has been associated with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction in children, which has caused concerns in the community. As no specific antiviral therapy is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Moreover, because no vaccines are available, conventional infection control measures (i.e., standard, for contacts and droplets) in both community and healthcare settings are recommended. However, further studies are required to fully understand the real importance of this virus. Prompt diagnosis and continued surveillance of EV-D68 infections are essential to managing and preventing new outbreaks. Moreover, if the association between EV-D68 and severe diseases will be confirmed, the development of adequate preventive and therapeutic approaches are a priority. PMID:26610548

  2. Cell and tissue tropism of enterovirus 71 and other enteroviruses infections.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a member of Picornaviridae that causes mild and self-limiting hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). However, EV71 infections can progress to polio-like paralysis, neurogenic pulmonary edema, and fatal encephalitis in infants and young children. Large EV71 outbreaks have been reported in Taiwan, China, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, and Australia. This virus is considered a critical emerging public health threat. EV71 is an important crucial neurotropic enterovirus for which there is currently no effective antiviral drug or vaccine. The mechanism by which EV71 causes severe central nervous system complications remains unclear. The interaction between the virus and the host is vital for viral replication, virulence, and pathogenicity. SCARB2 or PSGL-1 receptor binding is the first step in the development of viral infections, and viral factors (e.g., 5' UTR, VP1, 3C, 3D, 3' UTR), host factors and environments (e.g., ITAFs, type I IFN) are also involved in viral infections. The tissue tropism and pathogenesis of viruses are determined by a combination of several factors. This review article provides a summary of host and virus factors affecting cell and tissue tropism and the pathogenesis of enteroviruses. PMID:24602216

  3. Structure determination of enterovirus 71

    SciTech Connect

    Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2013-02-20

    Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease but may induce fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 crystallized in a body-centered orthorhombic space group with two particles in general orientations in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Determination of the particle orientations required that the locked rotation function excluded the twofold symmetry axes from the set of icosahedral symmetry operators. This avoided the occurrence of misleading high rotation-function values produced by the alignment of icosahedral and crystallographic twofold axes. Once the orientations and positions of the particles had been established, the structure was solved by molecular replacement and phase extension.

  4. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine dysregulation in human infectious, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, D R; Clerici, M; Shearer, G M

    1996-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, Mosmann, Coffman, and their colleagues discovered that murine CD4+ helper T-cell clones could be distinguished by the cytokines they synthesized. The isolation of human Th1 and Th2 clones by Romagnani and coworkers in the early 1990s has led to a large number of reports on the effects of Th1 and Th2 on the human immune system. More recently, cells other than CD4+ T cells, including CD8+ T cells, monocytes, NK cells, B cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and other cells, have been shown to be capable of producing "Th1" and "Th2" cytokines. In this review, we examine the literature on human diseases, using the nomenclature of type 1 (Th1-like) and type 2 (Th2-like) cytokines, which includes all cell types producing these cytokines rather than only CD4+ T cells. Type 1 cytokines include interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor beta, while type 2 cytokines include IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13. In general, type 1 cytokines favor the development of a strong cellular immune response whereas type 2 cytokines favor a strong humoral immune response. Some of these type 1 and type 2 cytokines are cross-regulatory. For example, gamma interferon and IL-12 decrease the levels of type 2 cytokines whereas IL-4 and IL-10 decrease the levels of type 1 cytokines. We use this cytokine perspective to examine human diseases including infections due to viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, as well as selected neoplastic, atopic, rheumatologic, autoimmune, and idiopathic-inflammatory conditions. Clinically, type 1 cytokine-predominant responses should be suspected in any delayed-type hypersensitivity-like granulomatous reactions and in infections with intracellular pathogens, whereas conditions involving hypergammaglobulinemia, increased immunoglobulin E levels, and/or eosinophilia are suggestive of type 2 cytokine-predominant conditions. If this immunologic concept is relevant to human diseases, the potential exists for novel cytokine-based therapies and novel cytokine-directed preventive vaccines for such diseases. PMID:8894351

  5. Hydrophobic pocket targeting probes for enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Mari; Salorinne, Kirsi; Lahtinen, Tanja; Malola, Sami; Permi, Perttu; Hkkinen, Hannu; Marjomki, Varpu

    2015-11-01

    Visualization and tracking of viruses without compromising their functionality is crucial in order to understand virus targeting to cells and tissues, and to understand the subsequent subcellular steps leading to virus uncoating and replication. Enteroviruses are important human pathogens causing a vast number of acute infections, and are also suggested to contribute to the development of chronic diseases like type I diabetes. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to target site-specifically the hydrophobic pocket of enteroviruses. A probe, a derivative of Pleconaril, was developed and conjugated to various labels that enabled the visualization of enteroviruses under light and electron microscopes. The probe mildly stabilized the virus particle by increasing the melting temperature by 1-3 degrees, and caused a delay in the uncoating of the virus in the cellular endosomes, but could not however inhibit the receptor binding, cellular entry or infectivity of the virus. The hydrophobic pocket binding moiety of the probe was shown to bind to echovirus 1 particle by STD and tr-NOESY NMR methods. Furthermore, binding to echovirus 1 and Coxsackievirus A9, and to a lesser extent to Coxsackie virus B3 was verified by using a gold nanocluster labeled probe by TEM analysis. Molecular modelling suggested that the probe fits the hydrophobic pockets of EV1 and CVA9, but not of CVB3 as expected, correlating well with the variations in the infectivity and stability of the virus particles. EV1 conjugated to the fluorescent dye labeled probe was efficiently internalized into the cells. The virus-fluorescent probe conjugate accumulated in the cytoplasmic endosomes and caused infection starting from 6 hours onwards. Remarkably, before and during the time of replication, the fluorescent probe was seen to leak from the virus-positive endosomes and thus separate from the capsid proteins that were left in the endosomes. These results suggest that, like the physiological hydrophobic content, the probe may be released upon virus uncoating. Our results collectively thus show that the gold and fluorescently labeled probes may be used to track and visualize the studied enteroviruses during the early phases of infection opening new avenues to follow virus uncoating in cells. PMID:26440968

  6. Hydrophobic pocket targeting probes for enteroviruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martikainen, Mari; Salorinne, Kirsi; Lahtinen, Tanja; Malola, Sami; Permi, Perttu; Häkkinen, Hannu; Marjomäki, Varpu

    2015-10-01

    Visualization and tracking of viruses without compromising their functionality is crucial in order to understand virus targeting to cells and tissues, and to understand the subsequent subcellular steps leading to virus uncoating and replication. Enteroviruses are important human pathogens causing a vast number of acute infections, and are also suggested to contribute to the development of chronic diseases like type I diabetes. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to target site-specifically the hydrophobic pocket of enteroviruses. A probe, a derivative of Pleconaril, was developed and conjugated to various labels that enabled the visualization of enteroviruses under light and electron microscopes. The probe mildly stabilized the virus particle by increasing the melting temperature by 1-3 degrees, and caused a delay in the uncoating of the virus in the cellular endosomes, but could not however inhibit the receptor binding, cellular entry or infectivity of the virus. The hydrophobic pocket binding moiety of the probe was shown to bind to echovirus 1 particle by STD and tr-NOESY NMR methods. Furthermore, binding to echovirus 1 and Coxsackievirus A9, and to a lesser extent to Coxsackie virus B3 was verified by using a gold nanocluster labeled probe by TEM analysis. Molecular modelling suggested that the probe fits the hydrophobic pockets of EV1 and CVA9, but not of CVB3 as expected, correlating well with the variations in the infectivity and stability of the virus particles. EV1 conjugated to the fluorescent dye labeled probe was efficiently internalized into the cells. The virus-fluorescent probe conjugate accumulated in the cytoplasmic endosomes and caused infection starting from 6 hours onwards. Remarkably, before and during the time of replication, the fluorescent probe was seen to leak from the virus-positive endosomes and thus separate from the capsid proteins that were left in the endosomes. These results suggest that, like the physiological hydrophobic content, the probe may be released upon virus uncoating. Our results collectively thus show that the gold and fluorescently labeled probes may be used to track and visualize the studied enteroviruses during the early phases of infection opening new avenues to follow virus uncoating in cells.Visualization and tracking of viruses without compromising their functionality is crucial in order to understand virus targeting to cells and tissues, and to understand the subsequent subcellular steps leading to virus uncoating and replication. Enteroviruses are important human pathogens causing a vast number of acute infections, and are also suggested to contribute to the development of chronic diseases like type I diabetes. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to target site-specifically the hydrophobic pocket of enteroviruses. A probe, a derivative of Pleconaril, was developed and conjugated to various labels that enabled the visualization of enteroviruses under light and electron microscopes. The probe mildly stabilized the virus particle by increasing the melting temperature by 1-3 degrees, and caused a delay in the uncoating of the virus in the cellular endosomes, but could not however inhibit the receptor binding, cellular entry or infectivity of the virus. The hydrophobic pocket binding moiety of the probe was shown to bind to echovirus 1 particle by STD and tr-NOESY NMR methods. Furthermore, binding to echovirus 1 and Coxsackievirus A9, and to a lesser extent to Coxsackie virus B3 was verified by using a gold nanocluster labeled probe by TEM analysis. Molecular modelling suggested that the probe fits the hydrophobic pockets of EV1 and CVA9, but not of CVB3 as expected, correlating well with the variations in the infectivity and stability of the virus particles. EV1 conjugated to the fluorescent dye labeled probe was efficiently internalized into the cells. The virus-fluorescent probe conjugate accumulated in the cytoplasmic endosomes and caused infection starting from 6 hours onwards. Remarkably, before and during the time of replication, the fluorescent probe was seen to leak from the virus-positive endosomes and thus separate from the capsid proteins that were left in the endosomes. These results suggest that, like the physiological hydrophobic content, the probe may be released upon virus uncoating. Our results collectively thus show that the gold and fluorescently labeled probes may be used to track and visualize the studied enteroviruses during the early phases of infection opening new avenues to follow virus uncoating in cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the synthesis of the probes, UV-Vis absorption spectra of the probe (2), PAGE separation and the absorption spectra of the gold labeled probe (3), details of the NMR experiments, determination of the cytotoxicity of the studied molecules, TEM micrographs of the gold labeled probe (3) with enteroviruses, live cell imaging of the fluorescent probe (4) in cells, and additional details of modeling of the hydrophobic pockets. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04139b

  7. Evaluation of RT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry as Tools for Detection of Enterovirus in the Human Pancreas and Islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Skog, Oskar; Ingvast, Sofie; Korsgren, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteroviruses have been implicated in the etiology of type 1 diabetes, supported by immunoreactivity of enteroviral protein in islets, but presence of enteroviral genome has rarely been reported. Failure to detect enterovirus with RT-PCR has been attributed to the possible presence of PCR inhibitors and that only few cells are infected. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate strategies for detection of enterovirus in human islets. Study design A scenario was modeled with defined infected islets among a large number of uninfected pancreatic cells and the sensitivity of immunohistochemistry and PCR for detection of enterovirus was evaluated. Results Enterovirus was detected with PCR when only one single human islet, infected in vitro with a low dose of virus, was mixed with an uninfected pancreatic biopsy. Enterovirus could not be detected by immunohistochemistry under the same conditions, demonstrating the superior sensitivity of PCR also in pancreatic tissue with only a small fraction of infected cells. In addition, we demonstrate that pancreatic cell culture supernatant does not cause degradation of enterovirus at 37C, indicating that under normal culture conditions released virus is readily detectable. Utilizing PCR, the pancreases of two organ donors that died at onset of type 1 diabetes were found negative for enterovirus genome despite islet cells being positive using immunohistochemistry. Conclusions These data suggest that PCR should be the preferred screening method for enterovirus in the pancreas and suggest cautious interpretation of immunostaining for enterovirus that cannot be confirmed with PCR. PMID:25132399

  8. Prevalence and Characterization of Enterovirus Infections among Pediatric Patients with Hand Foot Mouth Disease, Herpangina and Influenza Like Illness in Thailand, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand. PMID:24887237

  9. Crystal Structure of Human Enterovirus 71

    SciTech Connect

    Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2013-04-08

    Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus associated with fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Here, we report the crystal structure of enterovirus 71 and show that, unlike in other enteroviruses, the 'pocket factor,' a small molecule that stabilizes the virus, is partly exposed on the floor of the 'canyon.' Thus, the structure of antiviral compounds may require a hydrophilic head group designed to interact with residues at the entrance of the pocket.

  10. Enteroviruses in recreational waters of Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, M. S.; Coyle, P. V.; Connolly, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    Virus surveillance of Northern Ireland recreational waters, between April 1986 and May 1989 demonstrated widespread enteroviral contamination of coastal and inland waters. In 1986, enteroviruses were detected in 4 of 46 (8.7%) water samples, collected from 6 coastal bathing waters. In 1987, 49 of 107 (45.8%) samples, from 16 coastal bathing waters, yielded enteroviruses; 33 of the enterovirus positive samples passed one or both of the coliform standards outlined by the European Economic Community (EEC) bathing water directive (76/160/EEC). Enteroviruses were also detected in 33 of 39 (84.6%) samples tested from 3 inland recreational waters. PMID:1318220

  11. Estimation of contamination sources of human enteroviruses in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system by PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochang C; Xu, Limei; Zhang, Chongmiao; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method was employed to estimate the contamination sources of human enteroviruses and understand how their dominant strains vary in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system consisting of sewage collection, wastewater treatment with membrane bioreactor and open lakes for reclaimed water storage and reuse. After PCR-DGGE using a selected primer set targeting enteroviruses, phylogenetic analysis of acquired enterovirus gene sequences was performed. Enteroviruses identified from the septic tank were much more diverse than those from grey water and kitchen wastewater. Several unique types of enterovirus different from those in wastewater samples were dominant in a biological wastewater treatment unit. Membrane filtration followed by chlorination was proved effective for physically eliminating enteroviruses; however, secondary contamination likely occurred as the reclaimed water was stored in artificial lakes. Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) viral pathogen, was detected mainly from the artificial lakes, implying that wastewater effluent was not the contamination source of EV71 and that there were unidentified non-point sources of the contamination with the HFMD viral pathogen in the reclaimed water stored in the artificial lakes. The PCR-DGGE targeting enteroviruses provided robust evidence about viral contamination sources in the wastewater treatment and reclamation system. PMID:24715657

  12. Estimation of contamination sources of human enteroviruses in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system by PCR-DGGE.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ji Z; Wang XC; Xu L; Zhang C; Funamizu N; Okabe S; Sano D

    2014-06-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method was employed to estimate the contamination sources of human enteroviruses and understand how their dominant strains vary in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system consisting of sewage collection, wastewater treatment with membrane bioreactor and open lakes for reclaimed water storage and reuse. After PCR-DGGE using a selected primer set targeting enteroviruses, phylogenetic analysis of acquired enterovirus gene sequences was performed. Enteroviruses identified from the septic tank were much more diverse than those from grey water and kitchen wastewater. Several unique types of enterovirus different from those in wastewater samples were dominant in a biological wastewater treatment unit. Membrane filtration followed by chlorination was proved effective for physically eliminating enteroviruses; however, secondary contamination likely occurred as the reclaimed water was stored in artificial lakes. Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) viral pathogen, was detected mainly from the artificial lakes, implying that wastewater effluent was not the contamination source of EV71 and that there were unidentified non-point sources of the contamination with the HFMD viral pathogen in the reclaimed water stored in the artificial lakes. The PCR-DGGE targeting enteroviruses provided robust evidence about viral contamination sources in the wastewater treatment and reclamation system.

  13. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyta, R.; Jones, A.; Stewart, B.; Brunson, R.; Thomas, J.; Kerwin, J.; Bertolini, J.; Mumford, S.; Patterson, C.; Kurath, G.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as three major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In Coastal Washington State IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in Coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were eight IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving seven different fish culture facilities in four separate watersheds. During the same time period IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from six coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from Coastal Washington revealed the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV, and that there were two distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007–2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in Coastal steelhead trout during 2007–2009 and type mG139M was dominant between 2010–2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all Coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007–2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the Coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of Coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout.

  14. Occurrence and genetic typing of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Kamchatka, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudakova, S.L.; Kurath, G.; Bochkova, E.V.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a well known rhabdoviral pathogen of salmonid fish in North America that has become established in Asia and Europe. On the Pacific coast of Russia, IHNV was first detected in hatchery sockeye from the Kamchatka Peninsula in 2001. Results of virological examinations of over 10 000 wild and cultured salmonid fish from Kamchatka during 1996 to 2005 revealed IHNV in several sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations. The virus was isolated from spawning adults and from juveniles undergoing epidemics in both hatchery and wild sockeye populations from the Bolshaya watershed. No virus was detected in 2 other water-sheds, or in species other than sockeye salmon. Genetic typing of 8 virus isolates by seguence analysis of partial glycoprotein and nucleocapsid genes revealed that they were genetically homogeneous and fell within the U genogroup of IHNV. In phylogenetic analyses, the Russian IHNV sequences were indistinguishable from the sequences of North American U genogroup isolates that occur throughout Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. The high similarity, and in some cases identity, between Russian and North American IHNV isolates suggests virus transmission or exposure to a common viral reservoir in the North Pacific Ocean. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  15. A novel dromedary camel enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae from dromedaries in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Li, Tong; Jose, Shanty; Yip, Cyril C Y; Huang, Yi; Wong, Emily Y M; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-07-01

    The recent emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus from the Middle East and the discovery of the virus from dromedary camels have boosted interest in the search for novel viruses in dromedaries. Whilst picornaviruses are known to infect various animals, their existence in dromedaries was unknown. We describe the discovery of a novel picornavirus, dromedary camel enterovirus (DcEV), from dromedaries in Dubai. Among 215 dromedaries, DcEV was detected in faecal samples of four (1.9 %) dromedaries [one (0.5 %) adult dromedary and three (25 %) dromedary calves] by reverse transcription PCR. Analysis of two DcEV genomes showed that DcEV was clustered with other species of the genus Enterovirus and was most closely related to and possessed highest amino acid identities to the species Enterovirus E and Enterovirus F found in cattle. The G+C content of DcEV was 45 mol%, which differed from that of Enterovirus E and Enterovirus F (49-50 mol%) by 4-5 %. Similar to other members of the genus Enterovirus, the 5' UTR of DcEV possessed a putative type I internal ribosome entry site. The low ratios of the number of nonsynonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ka/Ks) of various coding regions suggested that dromedaries are the natural reservoir in which DcEV has been stably evolving. These results suggest that DcEV is a novel species of the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae. Western blot analysis using recombinant DcEV VP1 polypeptide showed a high seroprevalence of 52 % among serum samples from 172 dromedaries for IgG, concurring with its much higher infection rates in dromedary calves than in adults. Further studies are important to understand the pathogenicity, epidemiology and genetic evolution of DcEV in this unique group of animals. PMID:25805410

  16. Co-circulation of enteroviruses between apes and humans.

    PubMed

    Harvala, Heli; Van Nguyen, Dung; McIntyre, Chloe; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Simmonds, Peter

    2014-02-01

    A total of 139 stool samples from wild chimpanzees, gorillas and bonobos in Cameroon and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were screened for enteroviruses (EVs) by reverse transcription PCR. Enterovirus RNA was detected in 10 % of samples, comprising eight from 58 sampled chimpanzees (13.8 %), one from 40 bonobos (2.5 %) and five from 40 gorillas (12.2 %). Three viruses isolated from chimpanzees grouped with human isolate EV-A89 and four (four chimpanzees, one gorilla) represented a newly identified type, EV-A119. These species A virus types overlapped with those circulating in human populations in the same area. The remaining six strains comprised a new species D type, EV-D120, infecting one chimpanzee and four gorillas, and a single EV variant infecting a bonobo that was remarkably divergent from other EVs and potentially constitutes a new enterovirus species. The study demonstrates both the circulation of genetically divergent EV variants in apes and monkeys as well as those shared with local human populations. PMID:24189620

  17. Divergent Requirement for a DNA Repair Enzyme during Enterovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Maciejewski, Sonia; Nguyen, Joseph H. C.; Gómez-Herreros, Fernando; Cortés-Ledesma, Felipe; Caldecott, Keith W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses of the Enterovirus genus of picornaviruses, including poliovirus, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and human rhinovirus, commandeer the functions of host cell proteins to aid in the replication of their small viral genomic RNAs during infection. One of these host proteins is a cellular DNA repair enzyme known as 5′ tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2). TDP2 was previously demonstrated to mediate the cleavage of a unique covalent linkage between a viral protein (VPg) and the 5′ end of picornavirus RNAs. Although VPg is absent from actively translating poliovirus mRNAs, the removal of VPg is not required for the in vitro translation and replication of the RNA. However, TDP2 appears to be excluded from replication and encapsidation sites during peak times of poliovirus infection of HeLa cells, suggesting a role for TDP2 during the viral replication cycle. Using a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line lacking TDP2, we found that TDP2 is differentially required among enteroviruses. Our single-cycle viral growth analysis shows that CVB3 replication has a greater dependency on TDP2 than does poliovirus or human rhinovirus replication. During infection, CVB3 protein accumulation is undetectable (by Western blot analysis) in the absence of TDP2, whereas poliovirus protein accumulation is reduced but still detectable. Using an infectious CVB3 RNA with a reporter, CVB3 RNA could still be replicated in the absence of TDP2 following transfection, albeit at reduced levels. Overall, these results indicate that TDP2 potentiates viral replication during enterovirus infections of cultured cells, making TDP2 a potential target for antiviral development for picornavirus infections. PMID:26715620

  18. Enterovirus inactivation in soil.

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, J G; O'Brien, R T

    1979-01-01

    The inactivation of radioactively labeled poliovirus type 1 and coxsackievirus B 1 in soils saturated with surface water, groundwater, and septic tank liquor was directly proportional to temperature. Virus persistence was also related to soil type and the liquid amendment in which viruses were suspended. At 37 degrees C, no infectivity was recovered from saturated soil after 12 days; at 4 degrees C, viruses persisted for at least 180 days. No infectivity was recovered from dried soil regardless of temperature, soil type, or liquid amendment. Additional experiments showed that evaporation of soil water was largely responsible for the decreased recovery of infectivity from drying soil. Increased rates of virus inactivation at low soil moisture levels were also demonstrated. PMID:44178

  19. High Susceptibility for Enterovirus Infection and Virus Excretion Features in Tunisian Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Driss, Nadia; Ben-Mustapha, Imen; Mellouli, Fethi; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Touzi, Henda; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Ben Ghorbel, Mohamed; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the susceptibility to enterovirus infection and the frequency of long-term poliovirus excreters in Tunisian patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), enteroviruses were assessed in stool specimens of 82 patients with humoral, combined, and other PIDs. Isolated viruses were typed and intratyped by standard molecular techniques, and the whole VP1 region of poliovirus isolates was sequenced. Polioviruses were detected in 6 patients; all isolates were vaccine related. Five patients rapidly stopped excretion; one excreted a poliovirus type 1 isolate for several months, and the isolate accumulated up to 14 mutations in the VP1 region. Nonpolio enteroviruses were identified in 6 patients; 4 of them kept excreting the same strain for more than 6 months. The rate of enterovirus infection was 13.4% of the PID patients and 20.7% of those with an IgG defect; it greatly exceeded the rates generally found in Tunisian supposed-immunocompetent individuals (4.1% during the study period; P = 0.001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Interestingly, patients with combined immunodeficiencies were at a higher risk for enterovirus infection than those with an exclusively B cell defect. A major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen expression defect was found in 54% of enterovirus-positive patients and in the unique long-term poliovirus excreter. The study results also suggest that substitutive immunoglobulin therapy may help clearance of a poliovirus infection and that most PID patients have the ability to stop poliovirus excretion within a limited period. However, the high susceptibility of these patients to enterovirus infection reinforces the need for enhanced surveillance of these patients until the use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is stopped. PMID:22914367

  20. Rhinoviruses and Respiratory Enteroviruses: Not as Simple as ABC.

    PubMed

    Royston, Lna; Tapparel, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoviruses (RVs) and respiratory enteroviruses (EVs) are leading causes of upper respiratory tract infections and among the most frequent infectious agents in humans worldwide. Both are classified in the Enterovirus genus within the Picornaviridae family and they have been assigned to seven distinct species, RV-A, B, C and EV-A, B, C, D. As viral infections of public health significance, they represent an important financial burden on health systems worldwide. However, the lack of efficient antiviral treatment or vaccines against these highly prevalent pathogens prevents an effective management of RV-related diseases. Current advances in molecular diagnostic techniques have revealed the presence of RV in the lower respiratory tract and its role in lower airway diseases is increasingly reported. In addition to an established etiological role in the common cold, these viruses demonstrate an unexpected capacity to spread to other body sites under certain conditions. Some of these viruses have received particular attention recently, such as EV-D68 that caused a large outbreak of respiratory illness in 2014, respiratory EVs from species C, or viruses within the newly-discovered RV-C species. This review provides an update of the latest findings on clinical and fundamental aspects of RV and respiratory EV, including a summary of basic knowledge of their biology. PMID:26761027

  1. Rhinoviruses and Respiratory Enteroviruses: Not as Simple as ABC

    PubMed Central

    Royston, Léna; Tapparel, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoviruses (RVs) and respiratory enteroviruses (EVs) are leading causes of upper respiratory tract infections and among the most frequent infectious agents in humans worldwide. Both are classified in the Enterovirus genus within the Picornaviridae family and they have been assigned to seven distinct species, RV-A, B, C and EV-A, B, C, D. As viral infections of public health significance, they represent an important financial burden on health systems worldwide. However, the lack of efficient antiviral treatment or vaccines against these highly prevalent pathogens prevents an effective management of RV-related diseases. Current advances in molecular diagnostic techniques have revealed the presence of RV in the lower respiratory tract and its role in lower airway diseases is increasingly reported. In addition to an established etiological role in the common cold, these viruses demonstrate an unexpected capacity to spread to other body sites under certain conditions. Some of these viruses have received particular attention recently, such as EV-D68 that caused a large outbreak of respiratory illness in 2014, respiratory EVs from species C, or viruses within the newly-discovered RV-C species. This review provides an update of the latest findings on clinical and fundamental aspects of RV and respiratory EV, including a summary of basic knowledge of their biology. PMID:26761027

  2. Susceptibility of the VERO line of African green monkey kidney cells to human enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Patricia M.; Phillpotts, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The relative susceptibility of VERO cells and primary rhesus monkey kidney cells to 47 prototype strains of human enteroviruses is described. Of these strains, types 4, 14, 16, 17, 18, 21, 31 and 34 and Coxsackie virus A 9 failed to cause CPE in the VERO cells whilst only one, echovirus type 34, failed to cause CPE in the monkey kidney cells. A comparison is given of the efficiency of the two cell cultures for enterovirus isolation from clinical material. Results show that VERO cells are as useful as primary monkey kidney for the isolation of Coxsackie B viruses but less satisfactory for isolating echoviruses. They are satisfactory for the isolation of single types of poliovirus and appear to be more satisfactory than primary monkey kidney cells for the isolation of mixtures of polioviruses. The identification of enteroviruses by neutralization tests in VERO cells is successful. PMID:4361500

  3. Prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy nursery school children in Accra

    PubMed Central

    Attoh, Juliana; Obodai, Evangeline; Adiku, Theophilus; Odoom, John Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human enteroviruses are common in children causing asymptomatic infections ranging from mild to severe illnesses. In Ghana, information on the prevalence of non-polio enterovirus causing acute flaccid paralysis is available but data on surveillance of these viruses in school children is scanty. Here, the prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy children in selected school in Accra was studied. Methods Stool samples from 273 apparently healthy children less than eight years of age in 9 selected nursery schools were collected between December 2010 and March 2011and processed for human enteroviruses on L20B, RD and Hep-2 cell lines. Positive Isolates were characterized by microneutralisation assay with antisera pools from RIVM, the Netherlands according to standard methods recommended by WHO. Results Of the 273 samples processed, 66 (24.2%) non-polio enteroviruses were isolated. More growth was seen on Hep-2C (46%) only than RD (18%) only and on both cell lines (34%). No growth was seen on L20B even after blind passage. Excretion of non-polio enteroviruses was found in all the schools with majority in BD school. Serotyping of the isolates yielded predominantly Coxsackie B viruses followed by echoviruses 13 and 7. More than half of the isolates could not be typed by the antisera pools. Conclusion The study detected 13 different serotypes of non-polio enteroviruses in circulation but no poliovirus was found. BD school was found to have the highest prevalence of NPEV. Complete identification through molecular methods is essential to establish the full range of NPEVs in circulation in these schools. PMID:25400833

  4. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  5. A two-plasmid strategy for engineering a dengue virus type 3 infectious clone from primary Brazilian isolate.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jefferson J S; Cordeiro, Marli T; Bertani, Giovani R; Marques, Ernesto T A; Gil, Laura H V G

    2014-12-01

    Dengue infections represent one of the most prevalent arthropod-borne diseases worldwide, causing a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes. Engineered infectious clone is an important tool to study Dengue virus (DENV) biology. Functional full-length cDNA clones have been constructed for many positive-strand RNA viruses and have provided valuable tools for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in viral genome replication, virion assembly, virus pathogenesis and vaccine development. We report herein the successful development of an infectious clone from a primary Brazilian isolate of dengue virus 3 (DENV3) of the genotype III. Using a two-plasmid strategy, DENV3 genome was divided in two parts and cloned separately into a yeast-bacteria shuttle vector. All plasmids were assembled in yeast by homologous recombination technique and a full-length template for transcription was obtained by in vitro ligation of the two parts of the genome. Transcript-derived DENV3 is infectious upon transfection into BHK-21 cells and in vitro characterization confirmed its identity. Growth kinetics of transcript-derived DENV3 was indistinguishable from wild type DENV3. This system is a powerful tool that will help shed light on molecular features of DENV biology, as the relationship of specific mutations and DENV pathogenesis. PMID:25590713

  6. Phosphatidylserine vesicles enable efficient en bloc transmission of enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Han; Du, WenLi; Hagemeijer, Marne C; Takvorian, Peter M; Pau, Cyrilla; Cali, Ann; Brantner, Christine A; Stempinski, Erin S; Connelly, Patricia S; Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Jiang, Ping; Wimmer, Eckard; Altan-Bonnet, Grégoire; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal

    2015-02-12

    A central paradigm within virology is that each viral particle largely behaves as an independent infectious unit. Here, we demonstrate that clusters of enteroviral particles are packaged within phosphatidylserine (PS) lipid-enriched vesicles that are non-lytically released from cells and provide greater infection efficiency than free single viral particles. We show that vesicular PS lipids are co-factors to the relevant enterovirus receptors in mediating subsequent infectivity and transmission, in particular to primary human macrophages. We demonstrate that clustered packaging of viral particles within vesicles enables multiple viral RNA genomes to be collectively transferred into single cells. This study reveals a novel mode of viral transmission, where enteroviral genomes are transmitted from cell-to-cell en bloc in membrane-bound PS vesicles instead of as single independent genomes. This has implications for facilitating genetic cooperativity among viral quasispecies as well as enhancing viral replication. PMID:25679758

  7. Direct Detection of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) in Clinical Specimens from a Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Outbreak in Singapore by Reverse Transcription-PCR with Universal Enterovirus and EV71-Specific Primers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sunita; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Phoon, M. C.; Chan, K. P.; Poh, Chit Laa

    2002-01-01

    A recent outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Singapore in 2000 affected several thousand children and resulted in four deaths. The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with universal pan-enterovirus primers and enterovirus 71 (EV71) type-specific primers for the direct detection of enteroviruses in clinical specimens derived from this outbreak. With the universal primers, EV71 RNA sequences were successfully detected by RT-PCR and direct sequencing in 71% of positive specimens. Three pairs of EV71 type-specific primers were evaluated for rapid detection of EV71 directly from clinical specimens and cell culture isolates. By using a seminested RT-PCR strategy, specific identification of EV71 sequences directly in clinical specimens was achieved, with a detection rate of 53%. In contrast, cell culture could isolate EV71 in only 20% of positive specimens. EV71 was detected directly from brain, heart, and lung specimens of two deceased siblings. Although more than one type of enterovirus was identified in clinical specimens from this outbreak, 90% of the enteroviruses were confirmed as EV71. The data demonstrate the clinical applicability of pan-enterovirus and seminested RT-PCR for the detection of EV71 RNA directly from clinical specimens in an outbreak situation. PMID:12149336

  8. [Infectious encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Stahl, Jean-Paul; Tattevin, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    Infectious encephalitis is a severe disease of the central nervous system with high case fatality ratio and long-term sequels. Although a high proportion remains unexplained, the most frequently identified cause in all countries was always herpes simplex virus type 1. The generalisation of acyclovir dramatically improved the survival rate of herpes simplex encephalitis patients. However, a high proportion of patients still experience neuropsychological sequels. Bacteria are a usual cause of encephalitis in France. Mycobaterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes in particular should be considered in the early treatment of encephalitis patients at the time of admission. Auto-antibodies encephalitis and ADEM, although not infectious diseases, can mimick viral encephalitis and should be included in the differential diagnosis of encephalitis patients. PMID:22288343

  9. Cytotoxic and viral neutralizing antibodies crossreact with streptococcal M protein, enteroviruses, and human cardiac myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, M W; Antone, S M; Gulizia, J M; McManus, B M; Fischetti, V A; Gauntt, C J

    1992-01-01

    The development of autoimmunity in certain instances is related to infectious agents. In this report, cytotoxic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize epitopes on both enteroviruses and the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes are described. Murine anti-streptococcal mAbs that were crossreactive with streptococcal M protein, human cardiac myosin, and other alpha-helical coiled-coil molecules were found to neutralize coxsackieviruses B3 and B4 or poliovirus type 1. The viral-neutralizing anti-streptococcal mAbs were also cytotoxic for heart and fibroblast cell lines and reacted with viral capsid proteins on a Western immunoblot. Alignment of amino acid sequences shared between streptococcal M protein, coxsackie-virus B3 capsid protein VP1, and myosin revealed 40% identity in a 14- to 15-amino acid overlap. Synthetic peptides containing these sequences blocked mAb reactivity with streptococcal M protein. The data show that antibodies against alpha-helical structures of bacterial and viral antigens can lead to cytotoxic reactions and may be one mechanism to explain the origin of autoimmune heart disease. Images PMID:1311095

  10. Understanding Enterovirus 71 Neuropathogenesis and Its Impact on Other Neurotropic Enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2015-09-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) belongs to the species group A in the Enterovirus genus within the Picornaviridae family. EV-A71 usually causes self-limiting hand, foot and mouth disease or herpangina but rarely causes severe neurological complications such as acute flaccid paralysis and encephalomyelitis. The pathology and neuropathogenesis of these neurological syndromes is beginning to be understood. EV-A71 neurotropism for motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem, and other neurons, is mainly responsible for central nervous system damage. This review on the general aspects, recent developments and advances of EV-A71 infection will focus on neuropathogenesis and its implications on other neurotropic enteroviruses, such as poliovirus and the newly emergent Enterovirus D68. With the imminent eradication of poliovirus, EV-A71 is likely to replace it as an important neurotropic enterovirus of worldwide importance. PMID:26276025

  11. Direct Identification of Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Suspected Meningitis by Nested PCR Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Krasota, Alexandr; Loginovskih, Natalia; Ivanova, Olga; Lipskaya, Galina

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1%) patients compared with 75 (47.2%), 53 (33.3%) and 31 (19.5%) achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14), E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71) in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF. PMID:26751470

  12. Direct Identification of Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Suspected Meningitis by Nested PCR Amplification.

    PubMed

    Krasota, Alexandr; Loginovskih, Natalia; Ivanova, Olga; Lipskaya, Galina

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1%) patients compared with 75 (47.2%), 53 (33.3%) and 31 (19.5%) achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14), E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71) in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF. PMID:26751470

  13. Etiology of Multiple Non-EV71 and Non-CVA16 Enteroviruses Associated with Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Jinan, China, 2009June 2013

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunrong; Yang, Mengjie; Liu, Lanzheng; Yang, Guoliang; Ma, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease caused by human enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and other enteroviruses. It is of interest that other enteroviruses associated with HFMD in Jinan have been rarely reported. The aim of the present study is to detect and characterize the circulating serotypes of non-EV71 and non-CVA16 enteroviruses associated with HFMD in Jinan city, Shandong province, China. A total of 400 specimens were collected from clinically diagnosed HFMD cases in Jinan from January 2009 to June 2013. All specimens were infected with non-EV71 and non-CVA16 enteroviruses previously confirmed by RT-PCR or real-time PCR according to the protocols at that time. The GeXP-based multiplex RT-PCR assay (GeXP assay) was performed to investigate the pathogen spectrum of 15 enteroviruses (coxsackieviruses A4, A5, A6, A9, A10, A16; coxsackieviruses B1, B3, B5; Echoviruses 6, 7, 11, 13, 19 and EV71) infections associated with HMFD. For GeXP assay negative samples, reverse transcription nested PCR (nested RT-PCR) based on the 5 -untranslated region (5- UTR) sequence and phylogenetic analysis were conducted to further explore the etiology of multiple enteroviruses. The results showed that a total of twenty serotypes of enteroviruses (including EV71 and CVA16) were identified by GeXP assay and nested RT-PCR. The most circulating twelve serotypes of enteroviruses with HFMD in Jinan from 2009 to June 2013 were EV71, CVA16, CVA10, CVA6, CVA12, CVA2, Echo3, CVA4, CVA9, CVB1, CVB3 and Echo6. CVA10 and CVA6 were the most prevalent pathogens other than EV71 and CVA16 in Jinan and their most prevalent seasons were spring and summer, and a slight increase was observed in autumn and early winter. It should be noted that mixed-infections were identified by GeXP assay and the phylogenetic tree clearly discriminated the multiple pathogens associated with HFMD. Our results thus demonstrate that there was a clear lack of a reliable testing method for EV71 and CVA16 and multiple non-EV71 and non-CVA16 enteroviruses associated with HFMD were present in Jinan. The GeXP assay combined with nested RT-PCR based on 5-UTR region could meet the need for the national surveillance of multiple enteroviruses or the investigation of epidemic outbreaks triggered by enteroviruses in the future. PMID:26562154

  14. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section... nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists of primers, probes, enzymes, and controls for the amplification and detection of enterovirus ribonucleic...

  15. Genetic and serological typing of European infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johansson, T.; Einer-Jensen, K.; Batts, W.; Ahrens, P.; Bjorkblom, C.; Kurath, G.; Bjorklund, H.; Lorenzen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes the lethal disease infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in juvenile salmon and trout. The nucleocapsid (N) protein gene and partial glycoprotein (G) gene (nucleotides 457 to 1061) of the European isolates IT-217A, FR-32/87, DE-DF 13/98 11621, DE-DF 4/99-8/99, AU-9695338 and RU-FR1 were sequenced and compared with IHNV isolates from the North American genogroups U, M and L. In phylogenetic studies the N gene of the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, though in a different subgroup than the isolates from the USA. Analyses of the partial G gene of these European isolates clustered them in the M genogroup close to the root while the Russian isolate clustered in the U genogroup. The European isolates together with US-WRAC and US-Col-80 were also tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the N protein. MAbs 136-1 and 136-3 reacted equally at all concentrations with the isolates tested, indicating that these antibodies identify a common epitope. MAb 34D3 separated the M and L genogroup isolates from the U genogroup isolate. MAb 1DW14D divided the European isolates into 2 groups. MAb 1DW14D reacted more strongly with DE-DF 13/98 11621 and RU-FR1 than with IT-217A, FR- 32/87, DE-DF 4/99-8/99 and AU-9695338. In the phylogenetic studies, the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, whereas in the serological studies using MAbs, the European M genogroup isolates could not be placed in the same specific group. These results indicate that genotypic and serotypic classification do not correlate. ?? 2009 Inter-Research.

  16. Enterovirus-induced production of pro-inflammatory and T-helper cytokines by human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Vreugdenhil, G R; Wijnands, P G; Netea, M G; van der Meer, J W; Melchers, W J; Galama, J M

    2000-12-01

    Enteroviruses are associated with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in humans. In these conditions, the cytokine network is supposed to have an important role in inflammation and modulation of the (auto)immune response. In the present study, we demonstrate that coxsackie virus B4 and poliovirus type 1 induce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha in freshly isolated human leucocytes. Furthermore, enteroviruses stimulate the production of cytokines belonging to Th(1)pathways (IFN-gamma, IL-2), and IL-10, which play a role in regulation of the cellular and humoral immune response. PMID:11097750

  17. Identification of the peptide derived from S1 domain that inhibits type I and type II feline infectious peritonitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Doki, Tomoyoshi; Takano, Tomomi; Koyama, Yusuke; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) can cause a lethal disease in cats, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). A therapeutic drug that is effective against FIP has not yet been developed. Peptides based on viral protein amino acid sequences have recently been attracting attention as new antiviral drugs. In the present study, we synthesized 30 overlapping peptides based on the amino acid sequence of the S1 domain of the type I FIPV strain KU-2 S protein, and investigated their inhibitory effects on FIPV infection. To evaluate the inhibitory effects on type I FIPV infection of these peptides, we investigated a method to increase the infection efficiency of poorly replicative type I FIPV. The efficiency of type I FIPV infection was increased by diluting the virus with medium containing a polycation. Of the 30 peptides, I-S1-8 (S461-S480), I-S1-9 (S471-S490), I-S1-10 (S481-S500), I-S1-16 (S541-S560), and I-S1-22 (S601-S620) significantly decreased the infectivity of FIPV strain KU-2 while I-S1-9 and I-S1-16 exhibited marked inhibitory effects on FIPV infection. The inhibitory effects on FIPV infection of these 2 peptides on other type I and type II FIPV strains, feline herpesvirus (FHV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) were also examined. These 2 peptides specifically inhibited type I and type II FIPV, but did FHV or FCV infection. In conclusion, the possibility of peptides derived from the S protein of type I FIPV strain KU-2 as anti-FIPV agents effective not only for type I, but also type II FIPV was demonstrated in vitro. PMID:25896976

  18. Molecular Evolution of the Human Enteroviruses: Correlation of Serotype with VP1 Sequence and Application to Picornavirus Classification

    PubMed Central

    Oberste, M. Steven; Maher, Kaija; Kilpatrick, David R.; Pallansch, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Sixty-six human enterovirus serotypes have been identified by serum neutralization, but the molecular determinants of the serotypes are unknown. Since the picornavirus VP1 protein contains a number of neutralization domains, we hypothesized that the VP1 sequence should correspond with neutralization (serotype) and, hence, with phylogenetic lineage. To test this hypothesis and to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among the human enteroviruses, we determined the complete VP1 sequences of the prototype strains of 47 human enterovirus serotypes and 10 antigenic variants. Our sequences, together with those available from GenBank, comprise a database of complete VP1 sequences for all 66 human enterovirus serotypes plus additional strains of seven serotypes. Phylogenetic trees constructed from complete VP1 sequences produced the same four major clusters as published trees based on partial VP2 sequences; in contrast to the VP2 trees, however, in the VP1 trees strains of the same serotype were always monophyletic. In pairwise comparisons of complete VP1 sequences, enteroviruses of the same serotype were clearly distinguished from those of heterologous serotypes, and the limits of intraserotypic divergence appeared to be about 25% nucleotide sequence difference or 12% amino acid sequence difference. Pairwise comparisons suggested that coxsackie A11 and A15 viruses should be classified as strains of the same serotype, as should coxsackie A13 and A18 viruses. Pairwise identity scores also distinguished between enteroviruses of different clusters and enteroviruses from picornaviruses of different genera. The data suggest that VP1 sequence comparisons may be valuable in enterovirus typing and in picornavirus taxonomy by assisting in the genus assignment of unclassified picornaviruses. PMID:9971773

  19. Risk of infectious diseases in children attending different types of day-care setting. Epicrèche Research Group.

    PubMed

    Collet, J P; Burtin, P; Gillet, J; Bossard, N; Ducruet, T; Dürr, F

    1994-01-01

    This population-based prospective cohort study compared the risk of recurrent infections in children attending family day care (< or = 3 children per family), small (10-20 children) day-care centers (DCCs), and large (> or = 40 children) DCCs. The parents of a total of 1,242 children participated in the study (97% of the families initially contacted). An infectious episode was defined as the acute occurrence of a new symptom lasting for at least 48 h and resulting in specific treatment. Two episodes were counted as such only if they were separated by a symptom-free week. Surveillance was under the responsibility of a nursing director and was similar for all three types of DCCs. During the 8.5-month follow-up period, 3,639 infectious episodes were recorded. Compared to those in family day-care, children attending small DCCs presented a higher risk for > or = 6 total infectious episodes [odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-3.7]; > or = 5 upper respiratory tract infections (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.4-3.4); > or = 2 episodes of otitis media (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.0-2.6); > or = 2 episodes of conjunctivitis (OR = 4.1; 95% CI = 2.1-8.2); and > or = 2 episodes of croup (OR = 4.1; 95% CI = 1.6-10.9). The risk for children attending large DCCs was intermediate between those in family day care and those in small DCCs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7800966

  20. Full Genome Sequence-Based Comparative Study of Wild-Type and Vaccine Strains of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Niero, Giulia; Moreno, Ana; Massi, Paola; Franchin, Elisa; Toppo, Stefano; Salata, Cristiano; Palù, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by an alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Recently, full genome sequences of wild-type and vaccine strains have been determined worldwide, but none was from Europe. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse the complete genome sequences of five ILTV strains. Sequences were also compared to reveal the similarity of strains across time and to discriminate between wild-type and vaccine strains. Genomes of three ILTV field isolates from outbreaks occurred in Italy in 1980, 2007 and 2011, and two commercial chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines were sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences technology. The comparison with the Serva genome showed that 35 open reading frames (ORFs) differed across the five genomes. Overall, 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 27 amino acid differences in 19 ORFs and two insertions in the UL52 and ORFC genes were identified. Similarity among the field strains and between the field and the vaccine strains ranged from 99.96% to 99.99%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship among them, as well. This study generated data on genomic variation among Italian ILTV strains revealing that, even though the genetic variability of the genome is well conserved across time and between wild-type and vaccine strains, some mutations may help in differentiating among them and may be involved in ILTV virulence/attenuation. The results of this study can contribute to the understanding of the molecular bases of ILTV pathogenicity and provide genetic markers to differentiate between wild-type and vaccine strains. PMID:26890525

  1. ADSORPTION OF ENTEROVIRUSES TO SOIL CORES AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT ELUTION BY ARTIFICIAL RAINWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adsorption and elution of a variety of human enteroviruses in a highly permeable, sandy soil was studied by using cores (43 by 125 mm) collected from an operating recharge basin on Long Island. Viruses studied included field and reference strains of polioviruses types 1 and 3...

  2. Nucleic acid detection systems for enteroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Rotbart, H A

    1991-01-01

    The enteroviruses comprise nearly 70 human pathogens responsible for a wide array of diseases including poliomyelitis, meningitis, myocarditis, and neonatal sepsis. Current diagnostic tests for the enteroviruses are limited in their use by the slow growth, or failure to grow, of certain serotypes in culture, the antigenic diversity among the serotypes, and the low titer of virus in certain clinical specimens. Within the past 6 years, applications of molecular cloning techniques, in vitro transcription vectors, automated nucleic acid synthesis, and the polymerase chain reaction have resulted in significant progress toward nucleic acid-based detection systems for the enteroviruses that take advantage of conserved genomic sequences across many, if not all, serotypes. Similar approaches to the study of enteroviral pathogenesis have already produced dramatic advances in our understanding of how these important viruses cause their diverse clinical spectra. PMID:1649002

  3. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000–2012) and Tunisia (2011–2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs. PMID:26709514

  4. Development and evaluation of a 'real-time' RT-PCR for the detection of enterovirus and parechovirus RNA in CSF and throat swab samples.

    PubMed

    Corless, Caroline E; Guiver, Malcolm; Borrow, Raymond; Edwards-Jones, Valerie; Fox, Andrew J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Mutton, Kenneth J

    2002-08-01

    A two-step reverse transcriptase TaqMantrade mark duplex PCR (RT-PCR) assay was developed using the ABI 7700 Sequence Detection System for the detection of enterovirus (EV) and parechovirus type 1 and 2 (PEV) RNA from samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and throat swabs. Using sequence-specific fluorescent dye labeled probes and continuous 'real-time' monitoring, PCR amplified product accumulation was measured. Based on limiting dilutions, the TaqMantrade mark enterovirus and parechovirus RT-PCR showed an increase of two orders of magnitude compared to cell culture with sensitivity of 100% (7/7) when assessed using enterovirus cell culture positive samples (CSF, TS). The assays were specific for enterovirus and parechovirus and did not amplify a wide selection of virus and bacterial isolates. RNA was amplified from 22 enterovirus serotypes: coxsackie A7, A9, A21; coxsackie B2, B3, B4, B5; echovirus 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 18, 19, 30, 31; poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, and parechovirus types 1 and 2. The assay was used to assess the incidence of enterovirus and parechovirus RNA in cell culture negative CSF and throat swab samples (n = 200). An additional 33 (15.9%) enterovirus and 2 (1%) parechovirus were identified as positive by RT-PCR. Also, of 100 CSF samples from suspected cases of meningococcal meningitis submitted for meningococcal PCR testing, 59 (59%) were enterovirus and 2 (2%) parechovirus 1 and 2 were positive by RT-PCR. The TaqMantrade mark duplex assay offers a more rapid and sensitive alternative to conventional cell culture for the diagnosis of enterovirus and parechovirus infection. Closed tube real-time detection using the ABI Sequence Detection System obviates the need for post-PCR manipulation, which reduces hands on time and eliminates the risk of contamination from amplified PCR product. PMID:12116004

  5. Resistance and Protective Immunity in Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Exposed to M Type Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle; Purcell, Maureen K.; LaPatra, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Differential virulence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates from the U and M phylogenetic subgroups is clearly evident in the Redfish Lake (RFL) strain of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. In these fish, experimental immersion challenges with U isolates cause extremely high mortality and M isolates cause low or no mortality. When survivors of M virus immersion challenges were exposed to a secondary challenge with virulent U type virus they experienced high mortality, indicating that the primary M challenge did not elicit protective immunity. Delivery of a moderate dose (2 × 104 plaque-forming units [PFU]/fish) of virus by intraperitoneal injection challenge did not overcome RFL sockeye salmon resistance to M type IHNV. Injection challenge with a high dose (5 × 106 PFU/fish) of M type virus caused 10% mortality, and in this case survivors did develop protective immunity against a secondary U type virus challenge. Thus, although it is possible for M type IHNV to elicit cross-protective immunity in this disease model, it does not develop after immersion challenge despite entry, transient replication of M virus to low levels, stimulation of innate immune genes, and development of neutralizing antibodies in some fish.

  6. Isolation of polioviruses and other enteroviruses in south Greece between 1994 and 1998.

    PubMed

    Siafakas, N; Georgopoulou, A; Markoulatos, P; Spyrou, N

    2000-01-01

    During the five-year period between 1994 and 1998, a total of 217 clinical samples were assessed for the isolation of enteroviruses at the Enterovirus Reference Centre for South Greece. Fourteen enterovirus strains belonging to different serotypes were isolated. These field strains were detected by cell culture in appropriate cell lines. They were subsequently identified by neutralizing antibodies with the LBM (Lim-Benyesh Melnick) mixed antisera pools up to 1995 and RIVM (National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands) pools from 1996 onwards. The isolated viruses included two strains of poliovirus type 2 Sabin-like, three strains of poliovirus type 1 non-Sabin-like, one Coxsackie B2 (CBV2) strain, one Coxsackie B5 (CBV5) strain, one Echo 5 (ECV5) strain, one Echo 7 (ECV7) strain, three Coxsackie A16 (CAV16) strains, and two currently enteroviral strains unidentified by RIVM pools. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using poliovirus-specific primers or poliovirus type-specific primers and enterovirus specific primers from the highly conserved 5'-UTR, the latter followed by RFLP, was also applied in 6 clinical isolates (3 strains of poliovirus type 1 non-Sabin-like, 1 polio type 2 Sabin-like, and 2 non-identified by RIVM pools enteroviruses). The advantages and the drawbacks of these assays against the conventional ones are discussed here. The isolations and the subsequent identification of the strains were carried out from fecal samples of clinical cases that included hand-foot-and-mouth disease, meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis. The reappearance of non-Sabin-like poliovirus strains in Greece in 1996 after 14 years is considered to have an important medical and clinical value. PMID:10906768

  7. Coxsackievirus B1-based antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA with broad specificity for enteroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Swanink, C M; Veenstra, L; Poort, Y A; Kaan, J A; Galama, J M

    1993-01-01

    An antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with coxsackievirus B1 as the antigen was evaluated for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies and showed broad specificity for enteroviruses. In total, 116 serum or cerebrospinal fluid samples from 62 patients were tested by ELISA and the complement fixation test (CFT). Additionally, 15 serum samples that contained poliovirus-specific IgM antibody were tested. Serum samples from 200 healthy blood donors were used for standardization of the assays. The sensitivity of the ELISA varied with time of serum sampling, with a relatively low sensitivity when serum was collected within 3 days after the onset of symptoms (23%; 5 of 22) but good sensitivity when serum was collected later (83%; 20 of 24). The sensitivity was better than that of the CFT. The ELISAs were broadly reactive as concluded from typing of virus isolates that were simultaneously obtained. The assay did, furthermore, detect antibody against poliovirus type 3. Sera that contained rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, or cardiolipin antibody (by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test) did not react in this ELISA. Nonspecific reactivity did occur, however, in cases of infectious mononucleosis and in Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The enterovirus-specific ELISA is found to be simple to perform, more sensitive than the CFT, and far less laborious than the neutralization test. PMID:8308117

  8. Detection of adenoviruses and enteroviruses in polluted waters by nested PCR amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Puig, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Allard, A; Wadell, G; Girones, R

    1994-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the rapid detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses in environmental samples. Several systems for virus concentration and extraction of nucleic acid were tested by adding adenovirus type 2 and poliovirus type 1 to different sewage samples. The most promising method for virus recovery involved the concentration of viruses by centrifugation and elution of the virus pellets by treatment with 0.25 N glycine buffer, pH 9.5. Nucleic acid extraction by adsorption of RNA and DNA to silica particles was the most efficient. One aliquot of the extracted nucleic acids was used for a nested two-step PCR, with specific primers for all adenoviruses; and another aliquot was used to synthesize cDNA for a nested two-step PCR with specific primers for further detection of seeded polioviruses or all enteroviruses in the river water and sewage samples. The specificity and sensitivity were evaluated, and 24 different enterovirus strains and the 47 human adenovirus serotypes were recognized by the primers used. The sensitivity was estimated to be between 1 and 10 virus particles for each of the species tested. Twenty-five samples of sewage and polluted river water were analyzed and showed a much higher number of positive isolates by nested PCR than by tissue culture analysis. The PCR-based detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses shows good results as an indicator of possible viral contamination in environmental wastewater. Images PMID:8085832

  9. Enteroviruses and bacteriophages in bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Moc-Llivina, Laura; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Juan

    2005-11-01

    A new procedure for detecting and counting enteroviruses based on the VIRADEN method applied to 10 liters of seawater was examined. It improved the efficiency of detection by taking into account both the number of positive isolations and numbers found with traditional methods. It was then used to quantify viruses in bathing waters. A number of bacterial indicators and bacteriophages were also tested. Cultivable enteroviruses were detected in 55% of the samples, most of which complied with bacteriological criteria. In contrast, viral genomes were only detected in 20% of the samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Somatic coliphages outnumbered all other indicators. F-specific RNA phages were detected in only 15% of the samples, whereas phages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were detected in 70% of samples. A numerical relationship between the numbers of enteroviruses and the numbers of enterococci and somatic coliphages was observed. In situ inactivation experiments showed that viruses persisted significantly longer than the bacterial indicators. Only somatic coliphages and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides persisted longer than the viruses. These results explain the numbers of enteroviruses and indicators in bathing waters attending the numbers usually found in sewage in the area. Somatic coliphages show a very good potential to predict the risk of viruses being present in bathing waters. PMID:16269717

  10. Enteroviruses and Bacteriophages in Bathing Waters

    PubMed Central

    Mocé-Llivina, Laura; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Juan

    2005-01-01

    A new procedure for detecting and counting enteroviruses based on the VIRADEN method applied to 10 liters of seawater was examined. It improved the efficiency of detection by taking into account both the number of positive isolations and numbers found with traditional methods. It was then used to quantify viruses in bathing waters. A number of bacterial indicators and bacteriophages were also tested. Cultivable enteroviruses were detected in 55% of the samples, most of which complied with bacteriological criteria. In contrast, viral genomes were only detected in 20% of the samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Somatic coliphages outnumbered all other indicators. F-specific RNA phages were detected in only 15% of the samples, whereas phages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were detected in 70% of samples. A numerical relationship between the numbers of enteroviruses and the numbers of enterococci and somatic coliphages was observed. In situ inactivation experiments showed that viruses persisted significantly longer than the bacterial indicators. Only somatic coliphages and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides persisted longer than the viruses. These results explain the numbers of enteroviruses and indicators in bathing waters attending the numbers usually found in sewage in the area. Somatic coliphages show a very good potential to predict the risk of viruses being present in bathing waters. PMID:16269717

  11. Immunogenicity and Pathogenicity of Chimeric Infectious DNA Clones of Pathogenic Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Nonpathogenic PCV1 in Weanling Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fenaux, M.; Opriessnig, T.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

    2003-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), whereas the ubiquitous porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) is nonpathogenic for pigs. We report here the construction and characterization of two chimeric infectious DNA clones of PCV1 and PCV2. The chimeric PCV1-2 clone contains the PCV2 capsid gene cloned in the backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 genome. A reciprocal chimeric PCV2-1 DNA clone was also constructed by replacing the PCV2 capsid gene with that of PCV1 in the backbone of the PCV2 genome. The PCV1, PCV2, and chimeric PCV1-2 and PCV2-1 DNA clones were all shown to be infectious in PK-15 cells, and their growth characteristics in vitro were determined and compared. To evaluate the immunogenicity and pathogenicity of the chimeric infectious DNA clones, 40 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) pigs were randomly assigned into five groups of eight pigs each. Group 1 pigs received phosphate-buffered saline as the negative control. Group 2 pigs were each injected in the superficial inguinal lymph nodes with 200 ?g of the PCV1 infectious DNA clone. Group 3 pigs were each similarly injected with 200 ?g of the PCV2 infectious DNA clone, group 4 pigs were each injected with 200 ?g of the chimeric PCV1-2 infectious DNA clone, and group 5 pigs were each injected with 200 ?g of the reciprocal chimeric PCV2-1 infectious DNA clone. As expected, seroconversion to antibodies to the PCV2 capsid antigen was detected in group 3 and group 4 pigs. Group 2 and 5 pigs all seroconverted to PCV1 antibody. Gross and microscopic lesions in various tissues of animals inoculated with the PCV2 infectious DNA clone were significantly more severe than those found in pigs inoculated with PCV1, chimeric PCV1-2, and reciprocal chimeric PCV2-1 infectious DNA clones. These data indicated that the chimeric PCV1-2 virus with the immunogenic ORF2 capsid gene of pathogenic PCV2 cloned into the nonpathogenic PCV1 genomic backbone induces a specific antibody response to the pathogenic PCV2 capsid antigen but is attenuated in pigs. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the usefulness of the chimeric PCV1-2 infectious DNA clone as a genetically engineered live-attenuated vaccine against PCV2 infection and PMWS. PMID:14512571

  12. WHO collaborative studies on enterovirus reference antisera*

    PubMed Central

    Hampil, Bettylee; Melnick, Joseph L.

    1968-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the second part of co-operative studies undertaken by the WHO International Reference Centre for Enteroviruses and a number of WHO Regional Virus Reference Centres, WHO Virus Collaborating Laboratories and other laboratories in a comprehensive testing programme of enterovirus equine antisera. The studies were designed to appraise the specificity of immune serum prepared in horses against 16 representative prototype enteroviruses (polioviruses 2 and 3, coxsackieviruses A7, B1, B2, B4, B5 and B6 and echoviruses 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12 and 17). Tests for neutralizing antibody were performed not only against the homologous viruses but also against the homotypic strains available in each laboratory. Tests for heterotypic antibody were made against the entire group of enteroviruses, reoviruses 1-3 and adenoviruses 1-11, 13 and 17. Each serum sample represented a pool of the individual bleedings taken from a group of horses before and after immunization with each virus antigen. The results showed that the homologous geometric mean titres of the immune sera ranged from 7000 to 36 000, whereas the preinoculation sera were negative. Results of the homotypic tests showed the usefulness of the sera. The specificity of the haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody of the sera against coxsackieviruses A7, B1, B5, B6 and echoviruses 3, 7, 12 was demonstrated. The results of the tests performed in tissue culture and mice are discussed. Co-operative testing of other enterovirus equine antisera is now in progress. PMID:4299693

  13. Binding of Glutathione to Enterovirus Capsids Is Essential for Virion Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Thys, Bert; Canela, Mara-Dolores; Aguado, Leire; Wimmer, Eckard; Paul, Aniko; Prez-Prez, Mara-Jess; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Neyts, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Enteroviruses (family of the Picornaviridae) cover a large group of medically important human pathogens for which no antiviral treatment is approved. Although these viruses have been extensively studied, some aspects of the viral life cycle, in particular morphogenesis, are yet poorly understood. We report the discovery of TP219 as a novel inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus and poliovirus. We show that TP219 binds directly glutathione (GSH), thereby rapidly depleting intracellular GSH levels and that this interferes with virus morphogenesis without affecting viral RNA replication. The inhibitory effect on assembly was shown not to depend on an altered reducing environment. Using TP219, we show that GSH is an essential stabilizing cofactor during the transition of protomeric particles into pentameric particles. Sequential passaging of coxsackievirus B3 in the presence of low GSH-levels selected for GSH-independent mutants that harbored a surface-exposed methionine in VP1 at the interface between two protomers. In line with this observation, enteroviruses that already contained this surface-exposed methionine, such as EV71, did not rely on GSH for virus morphogenesis. Biochemical and microscopical analysis provided strong evidence for a direct interaction between GSH and wildtype VP1 and a role for this interaction in localizing assembly intermediates to replication sites. Consistently, the interaction between GSH and mutant VP1 was abolished resulting in a relocalization of the assembly intermediates to replication sites independent from GSH. This study thus reveals GSH as a novel stabilizing host factor essential for the production of infectious enterovirus progeny and provides new insights into the poorly understood process of morphogenesis. PMID:24722756

  14. Incidence of enteroviruses in Mamala Bay, Hawaii using cell culture and direct polymerase chain reaction methodologies.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, K A; Roll, K; Fujioka, R S; Gerba, C P; Pepper, I L

    1998-06-01

    The consequence of point and nonpoint pollution sources, discharged into marine waters, on public recreational beaches in Mamala Bay, Hawaii was evaluated using virus cell culture and direct reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Twelve sites, nine marine, two freshwater (one stream and one canal), and one sewage, were assessed either quarterly or monthly for 1 year to detect the presence of human enteric viruses. Water samples were concentrated from initial volumes of 400 L to final volumes of 30 mL using Filterite electronegative cartridge filters and a modified beef extract elution procedure. Cell culture was applied using the Buffalo Green Monkey kidney cell line to analyze samples for enteroviruses. Positive samples were also evaluated by RT-PCR, using enterovirus-specific primers. Levels of RT-PCR inhibition varied with each concentrated sample. Resin column purification increased PCR detection sensitivity by at least one order of magnitude in a variety of sewage outfall and recreational marine water samples but not in the freshwater canal samples. Using cell culture, viable enteroviruses were found in 50 and 17% of all outfall and canal samples, respectively. Samples were positive at beaches 8% of the time. These data illustrate the potential public health hazard associated with recreational waters. Using direct PCR, viruses were detected at the outfall but were not found in any beach or canal samples, in part, owing to substances that inhibit PCR. Therefore, conventional cell culture is the most effective means of detecting low levels of infectious enteroviruses in environmental waters, whereas direct RT-PCR is rendered less effective by inhibitory compounds and low equivalent reaction volumes. PMID:9734309

  15. Broad-range inhibition of enterovirus replication by OSW-1, a natural compound targeting OSBP.

    PubMed

    Albulescu, Lucian; Strating, Jeroen R P M; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; van der Linden, Lonneke; Shair, Matthew D; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2015-05-01

    Enteroviruses, e.g., polio-, coxsackie- and rhinoviruses, constitute a large genus within the Picornaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses and include many important pathogens linked to a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Despite their huge medical and economic impact, no approved antiviral therapy is yet available. Recently, the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) was implicated as a host factor for enterovirus replication. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of the natural compound OSW-1, a ligand of OSBP that is under investigation as an anti-cancer drug. OSW-1 potently inhibited the replication of all enteroviruses tested, with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range, acted at the genome replication stage and was effective in all tested cell types of three different species. Importantly, OSBP overexpression rescued viral replication, demonstrating that the antiviral effect of OSW-1 is due to targeting OSBP. Together, we here report the anti-enterovirus activity of the natural anti-cancer compound OSW-1. PMID:25752737

  16. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsing-I; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells. PMID:26610549

  17. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsing-I; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2015-11-01

    Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells. PMID:26610549

  18. Infectious disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  19. High-affinity interaction of hnRNP A1 with conserved RNA structural elements is required for translation and replication of enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey D; Tolbert, Michele; Li, Mei-Ling; Tolbert, Blanton S

    2013-07-01

    Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging pathogen of infectious disease and a serious threat to public health. Currently, there are no antivirals or vaccines to slow down or prevent EV71 infections, thus underscoring the urgency to better understand mechanisms of host-enterovirus interactions. EV71 uses a type I internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit via a pathway that requires the cytoplasmic localization of hnRNP A1, which acts as an IRES trans-activating factor. The mechanism of how hnRNP A1 trans activates EV71 RNA translation is unknown, however. Here, we report that the UP1 domain of hnRNP A1 interacts specifically with stem loop II (SLII) of the IRES, via a thermodynamically well-defined biphasic transition that involves conserved bulge 5'-AYAGY-3' and hairpin 5'-RY(U/A)CCA-3' loops. Calorimetric titrations of wild-type and mutant SLII constructs reveal these structural elements are essential to form a high-affinity UP1-SLII complex. Mutations that alter the bulge and hairpin primary or secondary structures abrogate the biphasic transition and destabilize the complex. Notably, mutations within the bulge that destabilize the complex correlate with a large reduction in IRES-dependent translational activity and impair EV71 replication. Taken together, this study shows that a conserved SLII structure is necessary to form a functional hnRNP A1-IRES complex, suggesting that small molecules that target this stem loop may have novel antiviral properties. PMID:23727900

  20. High-affinity interaction of hnRNP A1 with conserved RNA structural elements is required for translation and replication of enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Levengood, Jeffrey D.; Tolbert, Michele; Li, Mei-Ling; Tolbert, Blanton S.

    2013-01-01

    Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging pathogen of infectious disease and a serious threat to public health. Currently, there are no antivirals or vaccines to slow down or prevent EV71 infections, thus underscoring the urgency to better understand mechanisms of host-enterovirus interactions. EV71 uses a type I internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit via a pathway that requires the cytoplasmic localization of hnRNP A1, which acts as an IRES trans-activating factor. The mechanism of how hnRNP A1 trans activates EV71 RNA translation is unknown, however. Here, we report that the UP1 domain of hnRNP A1 interacts specifically with stem loop II (SLII) of the IRES, via a thermodynamically well-defined biphasic transition that involves conserved bulge 5′-AYAGY-3′ and hairpin 5′-RY(U/A)CCA-3′ loops. Calorimetric titrations of wild-type and mutant SLII constructs reveal these structural elements are essential to form a high-affinity UP1-SLII complex. Mutations that alter the bulge and hairpin primary or secondary structures abrogate the biphasic transition and destabilize the complex. Notably, mutations within the bulge that destabilize the complex correlate with a large reduction in IRES-dependent translational activity and impair EV71 replication. Taken together, this study shows that a conserved SLII structure is necessary to form a functional hnRNP A1-IRES complex, suggesting that small molecules that target this stem loop may have novel antiviral properties. PMID:23727900

  1. Characterization of a Novel Enterovirus Serotype and an Enterovirus EV-B93 Isolated from Acute Flaccid Paralysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Sharif, Salmaan; Khurshid, Adnan; Mahmood, Tariq; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

    2013-01-01

    Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. Most of these infections are asymptomatic but few can lead to systemic and neurological disorders like Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP). Acute Flaccid Paralysis is a clinical syndrome and NPEVs have been isolated frequently from the patients suffering from AFP but little is known about their causal relationship. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the NPEV serotypes recovered from 184 stool samples collected from AFP patients in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in north-west of Pakistan. Overall, 44 (95.6 %) isolates were successfully typed through microneutralization assay as a member of enterovirus B species including echovirus (E)-2, E-3, E-4, E-6, E-7, E-11, E-13, E-14, E-21 and E-29 while two isolates (PAK NIH SP6545B and PAK NIH SP1202B) remained untypeable. The VP1 and capsid regions analysis characterized these viruses as EV-B93 and EV-B106. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that PAK NIH isolates had high genetic diversity and represent distinct genotypes circulating in the country. Our findings highlight the role of NPEVs in AFP cases to be thoroughly investigated especially in high disease risk areas, with limited surveillance activities and health resources. PMID:24244603

  2. Use of genomic probes to detect hepatitis A virus and enterovirus RNAs in wild shellfish and relationship of viral contamination to bacterial contamination.

    PubMed Central

    Le Guyader, F; Apaire-Marchais, V; Brillet, J; Billaudel, S

    1993-01-01

    Genomic probes were used to investigate hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enterovirus RNAs in two types of shellfish from natural beds (Atlantic coast, France). After elution concentration, nucleic acid extracted by proteinase K and purified by phenol-chloroform and ethanol precipitation was assayed by dot blot hybridization. The probes used were a specific HAV probe corresponding to the 3' end (3D polymerase coding region) and an enterovirus probe corresponding to the 5' noncoding region. The method was first tested under experimental conditions by using virus-spiked shellfish before being applied under field conditions. Our results show that shellfish were highly contaminated: enterovirus and HAV RNAs were found in 63 and 67%, respectively, of samples examined with the riboprobes. On the same site, viral (HAV and enterovirus) RNAs were found in a larger fraction of cockles than mussels. Statistical tests of dependence showed no relationship between viral contamination and bacterial contamination (evaluated by fecal coliform counts). Images PMID:8285700

  3. Limited sequence heterogeneity among biologically distinct human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from individuals involved in a clustered infectious outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    McNearney, T; Westervelt, P; Thielan, B J; Trowbridge, D B; Garcia, J; Whittier, R; Ratner, L

    1990-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates were obtained over a 3-year period from blood, brain, and lung of three patients in a clustered infectious outbreak. This included a blood donor who was initially asymptomatic but subsequently developed AIDS-related complex and two neonatal transfusion recipients who developed AIDS. Isolates from brain and lung replicated to greater than 30-fold higher levels in primary monocyte cultures than did those from blood; no growth differences on primary lymphocytes were observed. Thirteen clones were obtained from seven isolates, and env sequences were determined. The predicted amino acid sequences among these clones differed by only 0.01% but differed by 15-27% when compared to previously sequenced isolates from other patients. The level of envelope amino acid sequence divergence noted among these isolates is considerably lower than that previously reported for other human immunodeficiency virus isolates. No differences in the envelope unique to lung or brain isolates compared to blood isolates were noted. This study provides evidence that mutations in the envelope may not be necessary for disease progression and that other portions of the viral genome may contribute to cell-specific tropism. Images PMID:2308953

  4. Enterovirus D68 Infection in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Ward, Nicholas S; Hughes, Brenna L; Mermel, Leonard A

    2016-03-01

    The first confirmed US case of severe respiratory tract infection caused by enterovirus D68 in an adult occurred in a pregnant woman with no history of asthma in August 2014. Before she came to the hospital, she had a productive cough, headache, and increasing dyspnea. At the hospital, she was hypoxic and required admittance to the intensive care unit and management with noninvasive bilevel positive pressure assistance. Analysis of a nasopharyngeal swab sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for a viral respiratory panel of tests confirmed enterovirus D68 infection. She eventually had an uneventful vaginal delivery, was discharged without oxygen supplementation, and has resumed normal activities. This case suggests that pregnant women may be a sentinel group infected with this pathogen, similar to what has been described for influenza virus infection. PMID:26932922

  5. Infectious amplification of wild-type human immunodeficiency virus from patients' lymphocytes and modulation by reverse transcriptase inhibitors in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Mathez, D; Schinazi, R F; Liotta, D C; Leibowitch, J

    1993-01-01

    The relative in vitro potency of nine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors was evaluated in a coculture assay which measures the frequencies of infectious primary cells from HIV-positive patients by the limiting dilution technique and measures their apparent reduction under increasing concentrations of drugs. An advantage of this assay is that it utilizes a variety of wild-type viruses not selected by in vitro propagation. Potency ranking placed the (-)-L-enantiomer of 2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'-thiacytidine [(-)-FTC], an oxathiolane pyrimidine nucleoside analog (90% effective concentration = 55 nM), before 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (DDC) (74 nM), (-)-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC) (300 nM), 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) (530 nM), TIBO R82913 (670 nM), and 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (DDI) (6,400 nM). HIV from AZT-naive patients' lymphocytes was more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of (-)-FTC, 3TC, or DDC than was highly AZT-resistant HIV obtained from AZT-treated patients' cells, indicating partial cross-resistance between thymidine and cytidine analogs. Combined inhibitory concentrations of AZT with (-)-FTC, 3TC, DDC, and DDI produced synergistic interactions as determined by the multiple-drug effect analysis. Synergistic interactions were demonstrable with AZT plus (-)-FTC or with AZT plus DDC with cells bearing AZT-resistant HIV. The inhibitory concentrations of AZT established by this cell-to-cell virus transmission assay are closer than those determined by the conventional assay system to the extracellular AZT concentrations required in patients' plasma to achieve comparable levels of HIV inhibition in vivo. PMID:7504908

  6. Polymorphisms in the Innate Immune IFIH1 Gene, Frequency of Enterovirus in Monthly Fecal Samples during Infancy, and Islet Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Wits, Elisabet; Tapia, German; Cinek, Ondrej; Pociot, Flemming Michael; Stene, Lars C.; Rnningen, Kjersti S.

    2011-01-01

    Interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) senses and initiates antiviral activity against enteroviruses. Genetic variants of IFIH1, one common and four rare SNPs have been associated with lower risk for type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to test whether these type 1 diabetes-associated IFIH1 polymorphisms are associated with the occurrence of enterovirus infection in the gut of healthy children, or influence the lack of association between gut enterovirus infection and islet autoimmunity. After testing of 46,939 Norwegian newborns, 421 children carrying the high risk genotype for type 1 diabetes (HLA-DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2) as well as 375 children without this genotype were included for monthly fecal collections from 3 to 35 months of age, and genotyped for the IFIH1 polymorphisms. A total of 7,793 fecal samples were tested for presence of enterovirus RNA using real time reverse transcriptase PCR. We found no association with frequency of enterovirus in the gut for the common IFIH1 polymorphism rs1990760, or either of the rare variants of rs35744605, rs35667974, rs35337543, while the enterovirus prevalence marginally differed in samples from the 8 carriers of a rare allele of rs35732034 (26.1%, 18/69 samples) as compared to wild-type homozygotes (12.4%, 955/7724 samples); odds ratio 2.5, p?=?0.06. The association was stronger when infections were restricted to those with high viral loads (odds ratio 3.3, 95% CI 1.38.4, p?=?0.01). The lack of association between enterovirus frequency and islet autoimmunity reported in our previous study was not materially influenced by the IFIH1 SNPs. We conclude that the type 1 diabetes-associated IFIH1 polymorphisms have no, or only minor influence on the occurrence, quantity or duration of enterovirus infection in the gut. Its effect on the risk of diabetes is likely to lie elsewhere in the pathogenic process than in the modification of gut infection. PMID:22110759

  7. Antibiotics that target mitochondria effectively eradicate cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: treating cancer like an infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Rebecca; Ozsvari, Bela; Lisanti, Camilla L; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Howell, Anthony; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2015-03-10

    Here, we propose a new strategy for the treatment of early cancerous lesions and advanced metastatic disease, via the selective targeting of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a.k.a., tumor-initiating cells (TICs). We searched for a global phenotypic characteristic that was highly conserved among cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types, to provide a mutation-independent approach to cancer therapy. This would allow us to target cancer stem cells, effectively treating cancer as a single disease of "stemness", independently of the tumor tissue type. Using this approach, we identified a conserved phenotypic weak point - a strict dependence on mitochondrial biogenesis for the clonal expansion and survival of cancer stem cells. Interestingly, several classes of FDA-approved antibiotics inhibit mitochondrial biogenesis as a known "side-effect", which could be harnessed instead as a "therapeutic effect". Based on this analysis, we now show that 4-to-5 different classes of FDA-approved drugs can be used to eradicate cancer stem cells, in 12 different cancer cell lines, across 8 different tumor types (breast, DCIS, ovarian, prostate, lung, pancreatic, melanoma, and glioblastoma (brain)). These five classes of mitochondrially-targeted antibiotics include: the erythromycins, the tetracyclines, the glycylcyclines, an anti-parasitic drug, and chloramphenicol. Functional data are presented for one antibiotic in each drug class: azithromycin, doxycycline, tigecycline, pyrvinium pamoate, as well as chloramphenicol, as proof-of-concept. Importantly, many of these drugs are non-toxic for normal cells, likely reducing the side effects of anti-cancer therapy. Thus, we now propose to treat cancer like an infectious disease, by repurposing FDA-approved antibiotics for anti-cancer therapy, across multiple tumor types. These drug classes should also be considered for prevention studies, specifically focused on the prevention of tumor recurrence and distant metastasis. Finally, recent clinical trials with doxycycline and azithromycin (intended to target cancer-associated infections, but not cancer cells) have already shown positive therapeutic effects in cancer patients, although their ability to eradicate cancer stem cells was not yet appreciated. PMID:25625193

  8. Antibiotics that target mitochondria effectively eradicate cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: Treating cancer like an infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Lisanti, Camilla L.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Howell, Anthony; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we propose a new strategy for the treatment of early cancerous lesions and advanced metastatic disease, via the selective targeting of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a.k.a., tumor-initiating cells (TICs). We searched for a global phenotypic characteristic that was highly conserved among cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types, to provide a mutation-independent approach to cancer therapy. This would allow us to target cancer stem cells, effectively treating cancer as a single disease of “stemness”, independently of the tumor tissue type. Using this approach, we identified a conserved phenotypic weak point – a strict dependence on mitochondrial biogenesis for the clonal expansion and survival of cancer stem cells. Interestingly, several classes of FDA-approved antibiotics inhibit mitochondrial biogenesis as a known “side-effect”, which could be harnessed instead as a “therapeutic effect”. Based on this analysis, we now show that 4-to-5 different classes of FDA-approved drugs can be used to eradicate cancer stem cells, in 12 different cancer cell lines, across 8 different tumor types (breast, DCIS, ovarian, prostate, lung, pancreatic, melanoma, and glioblastoma (brain)). These five classes of mitochondrially-targeted antibiotics include: the erythromycins, the tetracyclines, the glycylcyclines, an anti-parasitic drug, and chloramphenicol. Functional data are presented for one antibiotic in each drug class: azithromycin, doxycycline, tigecycline, pyrvinium pamoate, as well as chloramphenicol, as proof-of-concept. Importantly, many of these drugs are non-toxic for normal cells, likely reducing the side effects of anti-cancer therapy. Thus, we now propose to treat cancer like an infectious disease, by repurposing FDA-approved antibiotics for anti-cancer therapy, across multiple tumor types. These drug classes should also be considered for prevention studies, specifically focused on the prevention of tumor recurrence and distant metastasis. Finally, recent clinical trials with doxycycline and azithromycin (intended to target cancer-associated infections, but not cancer cells) have already shown positive therapeutic effects in cancer patients, although their ability to eradicate cancer stem cells was not yet appreciated. PMID:25625193

  9. INFECTIVITY AND PATHOGENICITY OF ENTEROVIRUSES INGESTED WITH DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was designed to examine the relationship of waterborne enteroviruses to infections and disease. Young weanling swine and their homologous enteroviruses were chosen as the model system: The porcine digestive tract is like that of man, but pigs can be handled under more c...

  10. Acute Flaccid Paralysis Associated with Novel Enterovirus C105

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Liana M.; Poulter, Melinda D.; Brenton, J. Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis among children in the United States during summer 2014 was tentatively associated with enterovirus D68 infection. This syndrome in a child in fall 2014 was associated with enterovirus C105 infection. The presence of this virus strain in North America may pose a diagnostic challenge. PMID:26401731

  11. Enterovirus Infections of the Central Nervous System Review

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Ross E.; Tabor-Godwin, Jenna M.; Tsueng, Ginger; Feuer, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) frequently infect the central nervous system (CNS) and induce neurological diseases. Although the CNS is composed of many different cell types, the spectrum of tropism for each EV is considerable. These viruses have the ability to completely shut down host translational machinery and are considered highly cytolytic, thereby causing cytopathic effects. Hence, CNS dysfunction following EV infection of neuronal or glial cells might be expected. Perhaps unexpectedly given their cytolytic nature, EVs may establish a persistent infection within the CNS, and the lasting effects on the host might be significant with unanticipated consequences. This review will describe the clinical aspects of EV-mediated disease, mechanisms of disease, determinants of tropism, immune activation within the CNS, and potential treatment regimes. PMID:21251690

  12. Molecular identification of human enteroviruses in children with neurological infections from the central region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Faras, Adrin; Cabrerizo, Mara; R, Viviana; Glatstein, Nora; Pisano, Beln; Spinsanti, Lorena; Contigiani, Marta Silvia

    2011-01-01

    In the central area of Argentina, epidemiological and molecular characteristics of human enterovirus infections are still unknown. RT-nested PCR of the highly conserved 5'NCR was used to detect enteroviruses in 168 samples of cerebrospinal fluid from hospitalized patients with suspected infection of the central nervous system (2007-2008), and 13 (7.7%) were positive. Molecular typing was performed by sequencing of the 3'-half VP1 region. Echovirus 30 was the predominant type detected, followed by coxsackie viruses A9 and B4. All echovirus 30 strains of 2007 clustered in lineage H, whereas the echovirus 30 isolate obtained in 2008 was more distantly related, possibly representing a new lineage. PMID:20931249

  13. Human Enterovirus Nonstructural Protein 2CATPase Functions as Both an RNA Helicase and ATP-Independent RNA Chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hongjie; Wang, Peipei; Wang, Guang-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xianlin; Wu, Wenzhe; Qiu, Yang; Shu, Ting; Zhao, Xiaolu; Yin, Lei; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2015-01-01

    RNA helicases and chaperones are the two major classes of RNA remodeling proteins, which function to remodel RNA structures and/or RNA-protein interactions, and are required for all aspects of RNA metabolism. Although some virus-encoded RNA helicases/chaperones have been predicted or identified, their RNA remodeling activities in vitro and functions in the viral life cycle remain largely elusive. Enteroviruses are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which includes numerous important human pathogens. Herein, we report that the nonstructural protein 2CATPase of enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the major causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has been regarded as the most important neurotropic enterovirus after poliovirus eradication, functions not only as an RNA helicase that 3′-to-5′ unwinds RNA helices in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent manner, but also as an RNA chaperone that destabilizes helices bidirectionally and facilitates strand annealing and complex RNA structure formation independently of ATP. We also determined that the helicase activity is based on the EV71 2CATPase middle domain, whereas the C-terminus is indispensable for its RNA chaperoning activity. By promoting RNA template recycling, 2CATPase facilitated EV71 RNA synthesis in vitro; when 2CATPase helicase activity was impaired, EV71 RNA replication and virion production were mostly abolished in cells, indicating that 2CATPase-mediated RNA remodeling plays a critical role in the enteroviral life cycle. Furthermore, the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities of 2CATPase are also conserved in coxsackie A virus 16 (CAV16), another important enterovirus. Altogether, our findings are the first to demonstrate the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities associated with enterovirus 2CATPase, and our study provides both in vitro and cellular evidence for their potential roles during viral RNA replication. These findings increase our understanding of enteroviruses and the two types of RNA remodeling activities. PMID:26218680

  14. Human Enterovirus Nonstructural Protein 2CATPase Functions as Both an RNA Helicase and ATP-Independent RNA Chaperone.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hongjie; Wang, Peipei; Wang, Guang-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xianlin; Wu, Wenzhe; Qiu, Yang; Shu, Ting; Zhao, Xiaolu; Yin, Lei; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2015-07-01

    RNA helicases and chaperones are the two major classes of RNA remodeling proteins, which function to remodel RNA structures and/or RNA-protein interactions, and are required for all aspects of RNA metabolism. Although some virus-encoded RNA helicases/chaperones have been predicted or identified, their RNA remodeling activities in vitro and functions in the viral life cycle remain largely elusive. Enteroviruses are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which includes numerous important human pathogens. Herein, we report that the nonstructural protein 2CATPase of enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the major causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has been regarded as the most important neurotropic enterovirus after poliovirus eradication, functions not only as an RNA helicase that 3'-to-5' unwinds RNA helices in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent manner, but also as an RNA chaperone that destabilizes helices bidirectionally and facilitates strand annealing and complex RNA structure formation independently of ATP. We also determined that the helicase activity is based on the EV71 2CATPase middle domain, whereas the C-terminus is indispensable for its RNA chaperoning activity. By promoting RNA template recycling, 2CATPase facilitated EV71 RNA synthesis in vitro; when 2CATPase helicase activity was impaired, EV71 RNA replication and virion production were mostly abolished in cells, indicating that 2CATPase-mediated RNA remodeling plays a critical role in the enteroviral life cycle. Furthermore, the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities of 2CATPase are also conserved in coxsackie A virus 16 (CAV16), another important enterovirus. Altogether, our findings are the first to demonstrate the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities associated with enterovirus 2CATPase, and our study provides both in vitro and cellular evidence for their potential roles during viral RNA replication. These findings increase our understanding of enteroviruses and the two types of RNA remodeling activities. PMID:26218680

  15. Differential growth of U and M type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in a rainbow trout–derived cell line, RTG-2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Purcell, Maureen K.; Wargo, Andrew; Park, Jeong Woo; Moon, Chang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of salmonids. In rainbow trout, IHNV isolates in the M genogroup are highly pathogenic, while U genogroup isolates are significantly less pathogenic. We show here that, at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1, a representative U type strain yielded 42-fold less infectious virus than an M type strain in the rainbow trout–derived RTG-2 cell line at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). However, at an MOI of 10, there was only fivefold difference in the yield of infectious virus between the U and M strains. Quantification of extracellular viral genomic RNA suggested that the number of virus particles released from cells infected with the U strain at a MOI of 1 was 47-fold lower than from M-infected cells, but U and M virions were equally infectious by particle to infectivity ratios. At an MOI of 1, U strain intracellular viral genome accumulation and transcription were 37- and 12-fold lower, respectively, than those of the M strain at 24 h p.i. Viral nucleocapsid (N) protein accumulation in U strain infections was fivefold lower than in M strain infections. These results suggest that the block in U type strain growth in RTG-2 cells was because of the effects of reduced genome replication and transcription. The reduced growth of the U strain does not seem to be caused by defective genes, because the U and M strains grew equally well in the permissive epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line at an MOI of 1. This suggests that host-specific factors in RTG-2 cells control the growth of the IHNV U and M strains differently, leading to growth restriction of the U type virus during the RNA synthesis step.

  16. Construction of a novel porcine circovirus type 2 infectious clone as a basis for the development of a PCV2 iDNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Zeng, Zhi-Yong; Tang, De-Yuan; Liang, Hai-Ying; Liu, Zhao; Dai, Zhen-Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Porcine circovirus-associated disease is a highly contagious disease that has significant economic consequences. The disease is prevalent in many countries and regions. To generate a genetic marker strain of PCV2, a Sal I restriction enzyme site was inserted into the PCV2 clone as a genetic marker by applying iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmids that encode the full-length DNA genome of PCV2 assembled in a pcDNA3.1-based vectors. The mutant PCV2 was rescued by transfecting an infectious clone into PK-15 cells and was characterised by an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). The viral genome could be differentiated from the wild-type parent by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Kunming mice were inoculated with the PCV2 infectious clone or rescued virus via intranasal and intraperitoneal routes. Seroconversion to PCV2-specific antibody appeared in the majority of mice from the two inoculated groups at 7 days postinoculation (DPI), and the specific antibody level was steady for at least 42 days. Viraemia, beginning at 7 DPI and lasting 4 weeks, was detected in the majority of the pigs from the two inoculated groups. The animal experiments revealed that the PCV2 infectious clone and rescued virus both could replicate in mice and induce mice to generate anti-PCV2 antibodies. The infectious clones of PCV2 will be useful for further research investigating a potential tractable iDNA vaccine by reverse genetics technology for attenuated virulance. PMID:25882478

  17. Development of a novel DNA-launched dengue virus type 2 infectious clone assembled in a bacterial artificial chromosome.

    PubMed

    Usme-Ciro, Jose A; Lopera, Jaime A; Enjuanes, Luis; Almazn, Fernando; Gallego-Gomez, Juan C

    2014-02-13

    Major progress in Dengue virus (DENV) biology has resulted from the use of infectious clones obtained through reverse genetics. The construction of these clones is commonly based on high- or low-copy number plasmids, yeast artificial chromosomes, yeast-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors, and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). Prokaryotic promoters have consistently been used for the transcription of these clones. The goal of this study was to develop a novel DENV infectious clone in a BAC under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter and to generate a virus with the fusion envelope-green fluorescent protein in an attempt to track virus infection. The transfection of Vero cells with a plasmid encoding the DENV infectious clone facilitated the recovery of infectious particles that increased in titer after serial passages in C6/36 cells. The plaque size and syncytia phenotypes of the recombinant virus were similar to those of the parental virus. Despite the observation of autonomous replication and the detection of low levels of viral genome after two passages, the insertion of green fluorescent protein and Renilla luciferase reporter genes negatively impacted virus rescue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using a DENV infectious clone under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter to facilitate the recovery of recombinant viruses without the need for in vitro transcription. This novel molecular clone will be useful for establishing the molecular basis of replication, assembly, and pathogenesis, evaluating potential antiviral drugs, and the development of vaccine candidates for attenuated recombinant viruses. PMID:24342140

  18. Cytokine and Chemokine Production by Human Pancreatic Islets Upon Enterovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Barbara M.; Lanke, Kjerstin H.W.; Piganelli, Jon D.; Kers-Rebel, Esther D.; Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo; Huijbens, Richard J.F.; Radstake, Timothy R.D.J.; Engelse, Marten A.; de Koning, Eelco J.P.; Galama, Jochem M.; Adema, Gosse J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Enteroviruses of the human enterovirus B species (HEV-Bs) (e.g., coxsackie B viruses [CVBs] and echoviruses) have been implicated as environmental factors that trigger/accelerate type 1 diabetes, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the cytokines and chemokines that are produced by human pancreatic islets upon infection with CVBs. To this end, we studied the response of human islets of Langerhans upon mock or CVB3 infection. Using quantitative PCR, we showed that upon CVB3 infection, transcription of interferon (IFN), IFN-stimulated genes, and inflammatory genes was induced. Analysis of secreted cytokines and chemokines by Luminex technology confirmed production and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?) as well as various chemotactic proteins, such as IFN-?induced protein 10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?, MIP-1?, and IL-8. Infection with other HEV-Bs induced similar responses, yet their extent depended on replication efficiency. Ultra violetinactivated CVB3 did not induce any response, suggesting that virus replication is a prerequisite for antiviral responses. Our data represent the first comprehensive overview of inflammatory mediators that are secreted by human islets of Langerhans upon CVB infection and may shed light on the role of enteroviruses in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:22596052

  19. [Clinical observations in the enterovirus cerebrospinal meningitis outbreak in the P?otsk region in the fall of 1995].

    PubMed

    Obernikowicz, B

    1998-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological observations in a small outbreak of enterovirus cerebrospinal meningitis were presented. The epidemic consisted of 154 cases who were hospitalized in the observation and infectious disease departments of the Provincial Hospital in P?ock. The outbreak started on September 7, 1995 and lasted 2 months up to November 19, 1995. The initial cases were school children. There were 92 males and 62 females, 64% of patients (92 cases) were inhabitants of urban areas. 114 cases (about 80%) were children under 15 years of age and 56 of them belonged to the youngest age group, below 7 years of age. Etiology of the disease was identified in 17 patients: one case with Coxsackie B4 virus in cerebrospinal fluid, two cases with enterovirus A9 in stool, two cases with enterovirus E30 in stool and two cases with cytopathogenic factor also in stool. In 10 cases enteroviral etiology was confirmed by the positive serological findings. There were two group of patients: I--149 cases with mild cerebrospinal meningitis and II--5 cases of encephalopathy. The course of the disease in the majority of cases was mild, although 3% of cases were severe encephalopatic forms, with symptoms of brain damage. Youngest children with disfunction of the immunological system experienced the most serious course of the disease. PMID:10321092

  20. Occurrence of enteroviruses in community swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Keswick, B H; Gerba, C P; Goyal, S M

    1981-09-01

    Municipal swimming pools and wading pools were examined for the presence of human enteric viruses using a portable virus concentrator at the site to concentrate viruses from 100-gallon to 500-gallon samples. Ten of 14 samples contained viruses; three of these were positive for virus in the presence of residual free chlorine. Enteroviruses were isolated from two pools which exceeded the 0.4 ppm free residual chlorine standard. This study appears to be supportive of recent evidence that indicates a higher incidence of enterovirus infection among bathers. All seven wading pool samples contained virus. Coxsackieviruses B3 and B4, poliovirus 1, and echovirus 7 were isolated. Total coliform bacteria were not adequate indicators of the presence of virus, as six of the samples were positive for virus but negative for coliforms. Total plate counts appeared to provide a better indication of the sanitary quality of the pool water, but viruses could still be detected in samples that met currently recommended bacterial levels. It is possible that swimming and wading pools may serve as a means of transmission of enteroviral disease, especially in children, during summer months. PMID:6267950

  1. Heat shock protein-90-beta facilitates enterovirus 71 viral particles assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Robert Y.L.; Kuo, Rei-Lin; Ma, Wei-Chieh; Huang, Hsing-I; Yu, Jau-Song; Yen, Sih-Min; Huang, Chi-Ruei; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2013-09-01

    Molecular chaperones are reported to be crucial for virus propagation, but are not yet addressed in Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71). Here we describe the specific association of heat shock protein-90-beta (Hsp90β), but not alpha form (Hsp90α), with EV71 viral particles by the co-purification with virions using sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, and by the colocalization with viral particles, as assessed by immunogold electron microscopy. The reduction of the Hsp90β protein using RNA interference decreased the correct assembly of viral particles, without affecting EV71 replication levels. Tracking ectopically expressed Hsp90β protein associated with EV71 virions revealed that Hsp90β protein was transmitted to new host cells through its direct association with infectious viral particles. Our findings suggest a new antiviral strategy in which extracellular Hsp90β protein is targeted to decrease the infectivity of EV71 and other enteroviruses, without affecting the broader functions of this constitutively expressed molecular chaperone. - Highlights: • Hsp90β is associated with EV71 virion and is secreted with the release virus. • Hsp90β effects on the correct assembly of viral particles. • Viral titer of cultured medium was reduced in the presence of geldanamycin. • Viral titer was also reduced when Hsp90β was suppressed by siRNA treatment. • The extracellular Hsp90β was also observed in other RNA viruses-infected cells.

  2. Expression and immunogenicity of novel subunit enterovirus 71 VP1 antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Juan; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Nanjing Medical University ; Wang, Shixia; Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School ; Gan, Weihua; Zhang, Wenhong; Ju, Liwen; Huang, Zuhu; China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University ; Lu, Shan; China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University; Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EV71 is a major emerging infectious disease in many Asian countries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivated EV71 vaccines are in clinical studies but their safety and efficacy are unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing subunit based EV71 vaccines is significant and novel antigen design is needed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA immunization is an efficient tool to test the immunogenicity of VP1 based EV71 vaccines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple VP1 antigens are developed showing immunogenic potential. -- Abstract: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness in young children. HFMD is caused by viruses belonging to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. Recently, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a virulent agent for HFMD with severe clinical outcomes. In the current report, we conducted a pilot antigen engineering study to optimize the expression and immunogenicity of subunit VP1 antigen for the design of EV71 vaccines. DNA immunization was adopted as a simple technical approach to test different designs of VP1 antigens without the need to express VP1 protein in vitro first. Our studies indicated that the expression and immunogenicity of VP1 protein can be improved with alternated VP1 antigen designs. Data presented in the current report revealed novel pathways to optimize the design of VP1 antigen-based EV71 vaccines.

  3. Use of bituminous coal for concentration of enteroviruses from sewage and effluent.

    PubMed

    Lakhe, S B; Paunikar, W N; Parhad, N M

    2002-07-01

    A method has been developed for concentration of enteroviruses from untreated and treated domestic wastewater using bituminous coal bed as a virus adsorbent. A bed made from 1.5 g of 120 mesh coal powder was used for concentrating enteroviruses from 100 ml of clarified sewage at different pH values with and without addition of AlCl3. To enhance the adsorption of viruses, requisite quantities of aluminium chloride were added so that a final concentration of 0.0005 M could be achieved. At pH 3.0 maximum adsorption (82.8%) of poliovirus type 1 from artificially contaminated clarified sewage was observed without addition of AlCl3. However, at pH 5.0 maximum virus adsorption of 98.7% was achieved after addition of aluminium chloride. An average recovery of 86.9% of adsorbed viruses at pH 5.0 was achieved from coal bed with 3% flocculating beef extract at pH 9.5. This method for concentration of enteroviruses incorporating use of coal was compared with that of Millipore membrane filter method applied to raw sewage and clarified sewage. The results obtained from the methodology using coal as adsorbent was subjected to Student's "t" test and it was observed that its efficiency is confirmed for recovery of enteroviruses from raw and nonclarified sewage. These results are also comparable with that obtained with MF method. The results presented in this paper are indicative of the potential of this method for both treated and raw sewage. PMID:12188128

  4. Construction and characterization of HIV type 1 CRF07_BC infectious molecular clone from men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan-Ling; Bai, Wen-Wei; Qu, Fan-Wei; Ma, Hua; Jiang, Run-Sheng; Shen, Bao-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biological characterization of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) CRF07_BC infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). From November 2011 to November 2013, a total of 66 blood samples were collected from MSM with acute HIV-1 infection with CRF07_BC subgroup strains. Deletion in the gag p6 region was detected by sequence alignment and comparative analysis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HNXX1301-1307 samples were separated by density gradient centrifugation. Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was used to amplify the viral DNA. The near full-length HIV-1 DNA products were ligated to the long terminal repeat (LTR) vector plasmid (07BCLTR) to construct a full-length HIV clone. The molecular clone was transfected into HEK-293T cells, TZM-b1 cells and patients' PBMCs. The pregenome of an infectious molecular clone of HIV-1 (pNL4-3) was amplified, and a subclone with CRF07_BC was developed to construct the full-length chimeric molecular clone pNL4-3/07BCLTR. Detection of p24 antigen and luciferase activity was used to measure the in vitro infectivity of pNL4-3/07BCLTR. Among the 66 MSM patients infected with CRF07_BC strains, deletion mutations of the Gag P6 proteins were found in 7 of 18CRF07_BC strains; deletion mutations of 2-13 amino acids in different regions were discovered in 6 strains; and the remaining 42 strains did not show deletions. Seven strains with amino acids deficiency in the P6 protein accounted for 27% of all strains and 75% of all deletion genotype strains. A total of 186 full-length molecular clones of CRF07_BC were constructed. There were 5, 9, 10 and 11 clones of HNXX1302, HNXX1304, HNXX1305 and HNXX1306 that resulted in p24-positive supernatant when transfected into HEK-293T cells. Full-length clones of HNXX1302, HNXX1304, HNXX1305 and HNXX1306 showed slight infection in the transfected TZM-b1 cells, as judged by the fluorescence values of TZM-b1 cells 48h post-transfection. However, we were unable to transfect the patients' PMBCs with the above four clones. The phylogenetic tree of the C2V3 segment of the Env gene showed that a significant gene cluster was formed by all of the chimeric full-length HNXX1306 clones, and the bootstrap value for this cluster was 97.5%. Patients' PBMCs could be infected by 1306N6, 1306N13 and 1306N22 chimeric full-length clones. The CRF07_BC subtype (6889-7407 nucleotide residues of HXB2) is one of the most prevalent epidemic HIV-1 virus strains among the MSM population. The full-length chimeric molecular clone pNL4-3/07BCLTR may significantly improve the in vitro infectivity of the CRF07_BC strain. PMID:26751801

  5. Inactivation of an enterovirus by airborne disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The activity of airborne disinfectants on bacteria, fungi and spores has been reported. However, the issue of the virucidal effect of disinfectants spread by fogging has not been studied thoroughly. Methods A procedure has been developed to determine the virucidal activity of peracetic acid-based airborne disinfectants on a resistant non-enveloped virus poliovirus type 1. This virus was laid on a stainless carrier. The products were spread into the room by hot fogging at 55°C for 30 minutes at a concentration of 7.5 mL.m-3. Poliovirus inoculum, supplemented with 5%, heat inactivated non fat dry organic milk, were applied into the middle of the stainless steel disc and were dried under the air flow of a class II biological safety cabinet at room temperature. The Viral preparations were recovered by using flocked swabs and were titered on Vero cells using the classical Spearman-Kärber CPE reading method, the results were expressed as TCID50.ml-1. Results The infectious titer of dried poliovirus inocula was kept at 105 TCID50.mL-1 up to 150 minutes at room temperature. Dried inocula exposed to airborne peracetic acid containing disinfectants were recovered at 60 and 120 minutes post-exposition and suspended in culture medium again. The cytotoxicity of disinfectant containing medium was eliminated through gel filtration columns. A 4 log reduction of infectious titer of dried poliovirus inocula exposed to peracetic-based airborne disinfectant was obtained. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the virucidal activity of airborne disinfectants can be tested on dried poliovirus. PMID:23587047

  6. Eosinophilia in Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Elise M; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-08-01

    In determining the etiology of eosinophilia, it is necessary to consider the type of patient, including previous travel and exposure history, comorbidities, and symptoms. In this review, we discuss the approach to the patient with eosinophilia from an infectious diseases perspective based on symptom complexes. PMID:26209897

  7. Infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Cozad, J

    1996-03-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is an acute, self-limiting, nonneoplastic lymphoreticular proliferative disorder characterized by peripheral lymphocytosis and circulating atypical lymphocytes. Epstein-Barr virus is the causative agent in 90% of cases. Highest incidence is in the 15- to 25-year-old age-group, with 1% to 3% of all college students in the United States affected each year. Clinical manifestations vary according to age at presentation. Incubation period is 4 to 7 weeks. Diagnosis is primarily made with the monospot test but may include throat culture and complete blood count with differential. Cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus are among the many other conditions that may present initially as infectious mononucleosis. Treatment is supportive with prevention of complications as the goal; good personal hygiene and avoidance of contact sports should be stressed. PMID:8710247

  8. [Infectious enteritis].

    PubMed

    Epple, H-J; Zeitz, M

    2011-09-01

    Infectious diarrhea belongs to the most frequent infections worldwide and can be elicited by a wide array of microbial pathogens. In developed countries transmission occurs much more frequently from contaminated food as compared to direct person-to-person contact, except for enteric viruses which can also be transmitted by aerosol formation after vomiting. In Germany, more than 90% of cases are caused by the four pathogens Norovirus, Rotavirus, Campylobacter and Salmonella. Therapy of infectious diarrhea is mainly supportive. In cases with a severe or prolonged course, signs of inflammation, bloody stool, immunosuppression, comorbidity and in suspected outbreaks, fecal microbial analysis should be performed and a specific therapy should be considered if indicated. PMID:21847579

  9. Infectious mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Balfour, Henry H; Dunmire, Samantha K; Hogquist, Kristin A

    2015-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by pharyngitis, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever, which results most often from a primary EpsteinBarr virus (EBV) infection. EBV, a lymphocrytovirus and a member of the ?-herpesvirus family, infects at least 90% of the population worldwide, the majority of whom have no recognizable illness. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among adolescents, but how preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. During the incubation period of approximately 6 weeks, viral replication first occurs in the oropharynx followed by viremia as early as 2 weeks before onset of illness. The acute illness is marked by high viral loads in both the oral cavity and blood accompanied by the production of immunoglobulin M antibodies against EBV viral capsid antigen and an extraordinary expansion of CD8+ T lymphocytes directed against EBV-infected B cells. During convalescence, CD8+ T cells return to normal levels and antibodies develop against EBV nuclear antigen-1. A typical clinical picture in an adolescent or young adult with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients especially young children. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, long-term consequences are linked to infectious mononucleosis, especially Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple sclerosis. There is no licensed vaccine for prevention and no specific approved treatment. Future research goals are development of an EBV vaccine, understanding the risk factors for severity of the acute illness and likelihood of developing cancer or autoimmune diseases, and discovering anti-EBV drugs to treat infectious mononucleosis and other EBV-spurred diseases. PMID:25774295

  10. Infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Balfour, Henry H; Dunmire, Samantha K; Hogquist, Kristin A

    2015-02-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by pharyngitis, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever, which results most often from a primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV, a lymphocrytovirus and a member of the ?-herpesvirus family, infects at least 90% of the population worldwide, the majority of whom have no recognizable illness. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among adolescents, but how preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. During the incubation period of approximately 6 weeks, viral replication first occurs in the oropharynx followed by viremia as early as 2 weeks before onset of illness. The acute illness is marked by high viral loads in both the oral cavity and blood accompanied by the production of immunoglobulin M antibodies against EBV viral capsid antigen and an extraordinary expansion of CD8(+) T lymphocytes directed against EBV-infected B cells. During convalescence, CD8(+) T cells return to normal levels and antibodies develop against EBV nuclear antigen-1. A typical clinical picture in an adolescent or young adult with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients especially young children. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, long-term consequences are linked to infectious mononucleosis, especially Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple sclerosis. There is no licensed vaccine for prevention and no specific approved treatment. Future research goals are development of an EBV vaccine, understanding the risk factors for severity of the acute illness and likelihood of developing cancer or autoimmune diseases, and discovering anti-EBV drugs to treat infectious mononucleosis and other EBV-spurred diseases. PMID:25774295

  11. Infectious diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Diarrhea caused by enteric infections is a major factor in morbidity and mortality worldwide. An estimated 2–4 billion episodes of infectious diarrhea occur each year and are especially prevalent in infants. This review highlights the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying diarrhea associated with the three classes of infectious agents, i.e., bacteria, viruses and parasites. Several bacterial pathogens have been chosen as model organisms, including Vibrio cholerae as a classical example of secretory diarrhea, Clostridium difficile and Shigella species as agents of inflammatory diarrhea and selected strains of pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) to discuss the recent advances in alteration of epithelial ion absorption. Many of the recent studies addressing epithelial ion transport and barrier function have been carried out using viruses and parasites. Here, we focus on the rapidly developing field of viral diarrhea including rotavirus, norovirus and astrovirus infections. Finally we discuss Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica as examples of parasitic diarrhea. Parasites have a greater complexity than the other pathogens and are capable of creating molecules similar to those produced by the host, such as serotonin and PGE2. The underlying mechanisms of infectious diarrhea discussed include alterations in ion transport and tight junctions as well as the virulence factors, which alter these processes either through direct effects or indirectly through inflammation and neurotransmitters. PMID:21327112

  12. Clinical severity of pediatric respiratory illness with enterovirus D68 compared with rhinovirus or other enterovirus genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Dominik; Alawfi, Abdulsalam; Pernica, Jeffrey M.; Rutherford, Candy; Luinstra, Kathy; Smieja, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Background: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) resulted in a reported increase in the number of children needing hospital or critical care admission because of respiratory insufficiency during 2014. It remains unclear, however, whether EV-D68 infections were more severe than rhinovirus or nonEV-D68 enterovirus infections. Methods: We evaluated consecutive children presenting to a pediatric hospital between Aug. 1 and Oct. 31, 2014, with positive nasopharyngeal swabs for rhinovirus or enterovirus that were sent automatically for EV-D68 testing. We compared characteristics and outcomes of patients with EV-D68 with those with rhinovirus or nonEV-D68 enterovirus in a matched cohort study. Results: A total of 93/297 (31.3%) of rhinovirus or enterovirus samples tested positive for EV-D68, and it was possible to compare 87 matched pairs. Children with EV-D68 infection were more likely to have difficulty breathing (odds ratio [OR] 3.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.476.14). There was no significant difference in admission to the critical care unit or death among children with EV-D68 infection compared with those with other rhinovirus or enterovirus infections (adjusted OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.613.52). Children with EV-D68 infection were more often admitted to hospital, but not significantly so (adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 0.965.46). Interpretation: Enterovirus D68 seems to be a more virulent pulmonary pathogen than rhinovirus or nonEV-D68 enterovirus, but we did not find a significant difference in death or need for critical care. PMID:26464137

  13. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein M Facilitates Enterovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jagdeo, Julienne M.; Dufour, Antoine; Fung, Gabriel; Luo, Honglin; Kleifeld, Oded; Overall, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Picornavirus infection involves a dynamic interplay of host and viral protein interactions that modulates cellular processes to facilitate virus infection and evade host antiviral defenses. Here, using a proteomics-based approach known as TAILS to identify protease-generated neo-N-terminal peptides, we identify a novel target of the poliovirus 3C proteinase, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (hnRNP M), a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling RNA-binding protein that is primarily known for its role in pre-mRNA splicing. hnRNP M is cleaved in vitro by poliovirus and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) 3C proteinases and is targeted in poliovirus- and CVB3-infected HeLa cells and in the hearts of CVB3-infected mice. hnRNP M relocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during poliovirus infection. Finally, depletion of hnRNP M using small interfering RNA knockdown approaches decreases poliovirus and CVB3 infections in HeLa cells and does not affect poliovirus internal ribosome entry site translation and viral RNA stability. We propose that cleavage of and subverting the function of hnRNP M is a general strategy utilized by picornaviruses to facilitate viral infection. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses, a member of the picornavirus family, are RNA viruses that cause a range of diseases, including respiratory ailments, dilated cardiomyopathy, and paralysis. Although enteroviruses have been studied for several decades, the molecular basis of infection and the pathogenic mechanisms leading to disease are still poorly understood. Here, we identify hnRNP M as a novel target of a viral proteinase. We demonstrate that the virus subverts the function of hnRNP M and redirects it to a step in the viral life cycle. We propose that cleavage of hnRNP M is a general strategy that picornaviruses use to facilitate infection. PMID:25926642

  14. Detection, quantitation and identification of enteroviruses from surface waters and sponge tissue from the Florida Keys using real-time RT-PCR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donaldson, K.A.; Griffin, Dale W.; Paul, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    A method was developed for the quantitative detection of pathogenic human enteroviruses from surface waters in the Florida Keys using Taqman (R) one-step Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with the Model 7700 ABI Prism (R) Sequence Detection System. Viruses were directly extracted from unconcentrated grab samples of seawater, from seawater concentrated by vortex flow filtration using a 100kD filter and from sponge tissue. Total RNA was extracted from the samples, purified and concentrated using spin-column chromatography. A 192-196 base pair portion of the 5??? untranscribed region was amplified from these extracts. Enterovirus concentrations were estimated using real-time RT-PCR technology. Nine of 15 sample sites or 60% were positive for the presence of pathogenic human enteroviruses. Considering only near-shore sites, 69% were positive with viral concentrations ranging from 9.3viruses/ml to 83viruses/g of sponge tissue (uncorrected for extraction efficiency). Certain amplicons were selected for cloning and sequencing for identification. Three strains of waterborne enteroviruses were identified as Coxsackievirus A9, Coxsackievirus A16, and Poliovirus Sabin type 1. Time and cost efficiency of this one-step real-time RT-PCR methodology makes this an ideal technique to detect, quantitate and identify pathogenic enteroviruses in recreational waters. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Rapid detection of enteroviruses in small volumes of natural waters by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Jed A; Liang, Xiaolin; Noble, Rachel T

    2005-08-01

    Despite viral contamination of recreational waters, only bacterial, not viral, indicators are monitored routinely, due to a lack of rapid and cost-effective assays. We used negatively charged filters to capture enteroviruses from seawater and freshwater. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Poliovirus (6.6 to 330,000 virus particles/ml) was added to samples from watersheds in Los Angeles, California, and analysis showed that with 50-ml samples, a cellulose acetate/nitrate (HA) filter yielded final recovery of 51% (r2= 0.99) in fresh water and 23% (r2= 0.90) in seawater. However, for additions of low levels of virus (more likely to represent field samples; <10(4) enterovirus particles/ml), the recovery was lower and more variable, with HA being best in freshwater (17%, r2= 0.97) and the type GF/F glass filter having higher average recovery in seawater (GF/F, 17%; r2= 0.93; HA 12%, r2= 0.87). The optimized method was used with 1-liter field samples from two very different freshwater "creeks" that drain into Santa Monica Bay, California: Topanga Creek (TC), a relatively pristine mountain creek, and Ballona Creek (BC), a concrete-lined urban storm drain. One TC site out of 10 and 2 BC sites out of 7 tested significantly positive for enteroviruses, with higher enterovirus concentrations in BC than in TC (ca. 10 to 25 versus 1 equivalent enterovirus particle/ml). The presented filtration-qRT-PCR approach is fast (<8 h from sampling to results), sensitive, and cost efficient and is promising for monitoring viral contamination in environmental water samples. PMID:16085845

  16. Passive Immunity in Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Margaret A.; Stiehm, E. Richard

    2000-01-01

    Antibodies have been used for over a century in the prevention and treatment of infectious disease. They are used most commonly for the prevention of measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, varicella, rabies, and vaccinia. Although their use in the treatment of bacterial infection has largely been supplanted by antibiotics, antibodies remain a critical component of the treatment of diptheria, tetanus, and botulism. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin can be used to treat certain viral infections in immunocompromised patients (e.g., cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, and enterovirus infections). Antibodies may also be of value in toxic shock syndrome, Ebola virus, and refractory staphylococcal infections. Palivizumab, the first monoclonal antibody licensed (in 1998) for an infectious disease, can prevent respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants. The development and use of additional monoclonal antibodies to key epitopes of microbial pathogens may further define protective humoral responses and lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:11023960

  17. SUPPRESSION OF VIRAL REPLICATION BY GUANIDINE: A COMPARISON OF HUMAN ADENOVIRUSES AND ENTEROVIRUSES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison was made of the relative sensitivities of laboratory strain human adenoviruses and enteroviruses, and recently isolated human enteroviruses, to the presence of guanidine hydrochloride in cell culture media. The concentration of guanidine hydrochloride used was 100 mi...

  18. Development of a stable Gaussia luciferase enterovirus 71 reporter virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin-Lin; Shan, Chao; Deng, Cheng-Lin; Li, Xiao-Dan; Shang, Bao-Di; Ye, Han-Qing; Liu, Si-Qing; Yuan, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Qing-Yin; Shi, Pei-Yong; Zhang, Bo

    2015-07-01

    We report a stable Gaussia luciferase enterovirus 71 (Gluc-EV71) reporter virus to facilitate drug discovery. The Gluc-EV71 reporter virus was generated by engineering the Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) gene between the 5' untranslated region and VP4 gene of the EV71 genome. We could recover Gluc-EV71 after transfection of Vero cells with the cDNA clone-derived RNA. The reporter virus efficiently infects and replicates in various cell types (Vero, human rhabdomyosarcoma, and HeLa cells), producing robust luciferase activity. The Gluc-EV71 virus replicates slower than the wild-type virus in cell culture. The reporter virus is stable in maintaining the Gluc gene after five rounds of continuous passaging in Vero cells. Using known EV71 inhibitors, we demonstrate that the reporter virus can be used for antiviral testing. However, the Gluc-EV71 infection assay cannot be adapted to a homogenous format for high throughput screen, mainly due to the secreted nature of the Gluc protein and the short half-life of the Gluc luminescence signal. The Gluc-EV71 and its infection assay could be useful for antiviral drug discovery as well as for studying EV71 replication and pathogenesis. PMID:25843263

  19. Recovery of indigenous enteroviruses from raw and digested sewage sludges.

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, M R; Bates, J; Butler, M

    1981-01-01

    We examined different types of raw sewage sludge treatment, including consolidation, anaerobic mesophilic digestion with subsequent consolidation, and aerobic-thermophilic digestion. Of these, the most efficient reduction in infectious virus titer was achieved by mesophilic digestion with subsequent consolidation, although a pilot-scale aerobic-thermophilic digester was extremely time effective, producing sludges with similarly low virus titers in a small fraction of the time. Although none of the treatments examined consistently produced a sludge with undetectable virus levels, mesophilic digestion alone was found to be particularly unreliable in reducing the levels of infectious virus present in the raw sludge. PMID:6274258

  20. Infectious Mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Dunmire, Samantha K.; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Balfour, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by sore throat, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever most often seen in adolescents and young adults and lasting several weeks. It can be caused by a number of pathogens, but this chapter only discusses infectious mononucleosis due to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV is a ?-herpesvirus that infects at least 90% of the population worldwide. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among teenagers and young adults. How preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. A typical clinical picture with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, there can also be long-term consequences as the result of acquisition of the virus. Several EBV related illnesses occur including certain cancers and autoimmune diseases, as well as complications of primary immunodeficiency in persons with the certain genetic mutations. A major obstacle to understanding these sequelae has been the lack of an efficient animal model for EBV infection, although progress in primate and mouse models has recently been made. Key future challenges are to develop protective vaccines and effective treatment regimens. PMID:26424648

  1. Enterovirus and Human Parechovirus Surveillance - United States, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Glen R; Watson, John T; Pham, Huong; Nix, W Allan; Oberste, M Steven; Gerber, Susan I

    2015-09-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) and human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are small, non-enveloped RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which are known or suspected to cause a spectrum of clinical manifestations in humans. Although most infected persons are asymptomatic, mild presentations can include respiratory infections, herpangina, and hand, foot, and mouth disease. Among the more severe syndromes associated with EV and HPeV infection are acute flaccid paralysis, meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and sepsis. Neonates and infants are at higher risk for infection and for severe clinical outcomes than older children or adults (1–3). As of August 2015, a total of 16 HPeV types and 118 EV types (within four EV species known to infect humans: A, B, C, and D) had been identified, and the spectrum of illness caused differed among virus types (4). To describe trends in EV and HPeV circulating in the United States during 2009–2013, CDC summarized detections reported through two surveillance systems. The most commonly reported types of EV and HPeV during this period were coxsackievirus (CV) A6 and HPeV3. The large number of CVA6 detections likely reflected an increase in testing in response to an outbreak of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease in late 2011 and 2012 (5). Most HPeV3 detections originated from a single hospital that routinely tested for HPeV (6). Clinicians and public health practitioners should consider the EV and HPeV types recently circulating in the United States to inform diagnostic and surveillance activities. When EV and HPeV typing is performed, clinical and public health laboratories should routinely report their results to improve the reliability and generalizability of surveillance data. PMID:26334674

  2. Distinguishing features of an infectious molecular clone of the highly divergent and noncytopathic human immunodeficiency virus type 2 UC1 strain.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, S W; Quiroga, M; Werner, A; Dina, D; Levy, J A

    1993-01-01

    A full-length infectious molecular clone was derived from the noncytopathic human immunodeficiency virus type 2 UC1 strain (HIV-2UC1) that was originally recoverd from an individual from the Ivory Coast. Like the parental isolate, the molecularly cloned virus (HIV-2UC1mc or UC1 mc) demonstrates a reduced ability to induce syncytium formation, to kill cells, and to down-modulate the cell surface CD4 receptor in infected cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequence of UC1mc revealed that it is the first full-length infectious molecular clone in the second HIV-2 subgroup previously identified by partial sequence analysis of the HIV-2D205 and HIV-2GH-2 strains. These highly divergent HIV-2 strains appear to be genetically equidistant from other HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac/sm strains. UC1mc is unlike any other HIV-2 or SIVmac/sm strain in that it lacks a cysteine residue at the proposed signal peptide cleavage site in Env. However, site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicate that this missing cysteine is not alone important in the noncytopathic phenotype of UC1mc. Like other HIV-2 and SIV strains, the UC1mc Env transmembrane protein (gp43) is mutated to a truncated form (gp34) after passage in certain T-cell lines. The UC1 molecular clone should be helpful in determining the genetic sequences associated with HIV-2 cytopathicity. Images PMID:8419635

  3. Environmental Surveillance of Non-polio Enteroviruses in Poland, 2011.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Magdalena; Ciąćka, Agnieszka; Witek, Agnieszka; Kuryk, Łukasz; Żuk-Wasek, Anna

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to apply environmental surveillance to evaluate circulation of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in sewage in Poland. Samples of raw sewage were collected in 14 sewage disposal systems from January to December, 2011. Sewage samples were concentrated prior to analysis by RT-PCR and isolation in cells (RD, L20B and Caco-2). Out of the 165 analysed samples, 127 (77%) were positive for enteroviruses using RT-PCR and 109 (66%) were positive for enteroviruses using cell culture methods and the highest detection rate was observed in the summer and autumn. In total, 141 enteroviruses were identified using neutralization test (107 NPEVs and 34 polioviruses). Accounting for 52% of all the detected NPEVs, E11 and E3 were the predominant serotypes identified in raw sewage. Retrospectively, E11 was the known aetiology for the past aseptic meningitis outbreaks in Poland, as E3 being rarely associated with any outbreak prior to 2013. In conclusion, the environmental surveillance provides data which may help in understanding the epidemiology of enteroviruses in humans. PMID:25862480

  4. MicroRNA and Pathogenesis of Enterovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Bing-Ching; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Sung-Liang

    2016-01-01

    There are no currently available specific antiviral therapies for non-polio Enterovirus infections. Although several vaccines have entered clinical trials, the efficacy requires further evaluation, particularly for cross-strain protective activity. Curing patients with viral infections is a public health problem due to antigen alterations and drug resistance caused by the high genomic mutation rate. To conquer these limits in the development of anti-Enterovirus treatments, a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between Enterovirus and host cells is urgently needed. MicroRNA (miRNA) constitutes the biggest family of gene regulators in mammalian cells and regulates almost a half of all human genes. The roles of miRNAs in Enterovirus pathogenesis have recently begun to be noted. In this review, we shed light on recent advances in the understanding of Enterovirus infection-modulated miRNAs. The impacts of altered host miRNAs on cellular processes, including immune escape, apoptosis, signal transduction, shutdown of host protein synthesis and viral replication, are discussed. Finally, miRNA-based medication provides a promising strategy for the development of antiviral therapy. PMID:26751468

  5. Coliphages as ecological indicators of enteroviruses in various water systems*

    PubMed Central

    imkov, A.; ?ervenka, J.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence of coliphages and enteroviruses in a variety of water systems in Czechoslovakia was monitored for two years. Two host strains of Escherichia coli bacteria were used to test 1161 water samples for the presence of bacteriophages. These strains were polyvalent hosts for a broad spectrum of morphologically distinct coliphages, and their use thus gave quantitative data on the degree of viral pollution in any given water sample. Ninety-two water samples were tested in parallel for the presence of enteroviruses, by using a flocculation method to concentrate the viruses followed by isolation in cultures of a buffalo green monkey (BGM) kidney continuous cell line. The enterovirus and coliphage recovery rates showed similar differences when waters with different levels of pollution were compared. Seasonal fluctuations of both the coliphage and enterovirus (mostly poliovirus) levels in river water were demonstrated by statistical analysis of the data collected. The levels increased in the winter and sharply declined in the summer months as the river water temperature increased. Chemical pollution did not seem to influence the survival of either the coliphages or the enteroviruses in the observed rivers. PMID:6274536

  6. Synergistic antiviral activity of gemcitabine and ribavirin against enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyunju; Kim, Chonsaeng; Kim, Dong-Eun; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Miri; Choi, Kwangman; Kang, Mingu; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Hae Soo; Shin, Jin Soo; Kim, Janghwan; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Su Ui; Lee, Chong-Kyo; Kim, Meehyein; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Cho, Sungchan

    2015-12-01

    Enteroviruses are major causative agents of various human diseases, and some of them are currently considered to be an enormous threat to public health. However, no effective therapy is currently available for the treatment of these infections. We identified gemcitabine, a nucleoside-analog drug used for cancer treatment, from a screen of bioactive chemicals as a novel inhibitor of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and enterovirus 71 (EV71). Gemcitabine potently inhibited the proliferation of CVB3 and EV71, as well as the replication of CVB3 and EV71 replicons, in cells with a low micromolar IC50 (1-5?M). Its strong inhibitory effect was also observed in cells infected with human rhinoviruses, demonstrating broad-spectrum antiviral effects on enteroviruses. Mechanistically, an extensive analysis excluded the involvement of 2C, 3A, IRES-dependent translation, and also that of polyprotein processing in the antiviral effects of gemcitabine. Importantly, gemcitabine in combination with ribavirin, an antiviral drug currently being used against a few RNA viruses, exhibited a synergistic antiviral effect on the replication of CVB3 and EV71 replicons. Consequently, our results clearly demonstrate a new indication for gemcitabine as an effective broad-spectrum inhibitor of enteroviruses and strongly suggest a new therapeutic strategy using gemcitabine alone or in combination with ribavirin for the treatment of various diseases associated with enterovirus infection. PMID:26526589

  7. MicroRNA and Pathogenesis of Enterovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Ho, Bing-Ching; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Sung-Liang

    2016-01-01

    There are no currently available specific antiviral therapies for non-polio Enterovirus infections. Although several vaccines have entered clinical trials, the efficacy requires further evaluation, particularly for cross-strain protective activity. Curing patients with viral infections is a public health problem due to antigen alterations and drug resistance caused by the high genomic mutation rate. To conquer these limits in the development of anti-Enterovirus treatments, a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between Enterovirus and host cells is urgently needed. MicroRNA (miRNA) constitutes the biggest family of gene regulators in mammalian cells and regulates almost a half of all human genes. The roles of miRNAs in Enterovirus pathogenesis have recently begun to be noted. In this review, we shed light on recent advances in the understanding of Enterovirus infection-modulated miRNAs. The impacts of altered host miRNAs on cellular processes, including immune escape, apoptosis, signal transduction, shutdown of host protein synthesis and viral replication, are discussed. Finally, miRNA-based medication provides a promising strategy for the development of antiviral therapy. PMID:26751468

  8. Tissue tropism, pathology and pathogenesis of enterovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; Bhatnagar, Julu; Zaki, Sherif R

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses are very common and cause infections with a diverse array of clinical features. Enteroviruses are most frequently considered by practising pathologists in cases of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis and disseminated infections in neonates and infants. Congenital infections have been reported and transplacental transmission is thought to occur. Although skin biopsies during hand, foot and mouth disease are infrequently obtained, characteristic dermatopathological findings can be seen. Enteroviruses have been implicated in lower respiratory tract infections. This review highlights histopathological features of enterovirus infection and discusses diagnostic modalities for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and their associated pitfalls. Immunohistochemistry can detect enterovirus antigen within cells of affected tissues; however, assays can be non-specific and detect other viruses. Molecular methods are increasingly relied upon but, due to the high frequency of asymptomatic enteroviral infections, clinical-pathological correlation is needed to determine significance. Of note, diagnostic assays on central nervous system or cardiac tissues from immunocompetent patients with prolonged disease courses are most often negative. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular studies performed on clinical specimens also provide insight into enteroviral tissue tropism and pathogenesis. PMID:25211036

  9. Enterovirus-Infected ?-Cells Induce Distinct Response Patterns in BDCA1+ and BDCA3+ Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Barbara M.; Gielen, Paul R.; Kers-Rebel, Esther D.; Schreibelt, Gerty; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Adema, Gosse J.

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses often cause mild disease, yet are also linked to development of autoimmune diabetes. Dendritic cells (DCs) shape both innate and adaptive immune responses, including anti-viral responses. How different human DC subsets shape anti-viral responses, whether they have complementary or overlapping functions and how this relates to autoimmune responses is largely unknown. We used enterovirus-infected ?-cells and freshly isolated human myeloid DC (mDC) subsets as a model for autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Our data show that both the BDCA1+ and BDCA3+ mDC subsets engulf mock- as well as virus-infected ?-cells, albeit BDCA1+ mDCs are more efficient. Uptake of enterovirus-infected, but not mock-infected cells, activated both DC subsets as indicated by the induction of co-stimulatory molecules and secretion of type I and type III interferons. Both subsets produced similar amounts of interferon-?, yet the BDCA3+ DC were superior in IFN-? production. The BDCA1+ mDCs more strongly upregulated PD-L1, and were superior in IL-12 and IL-10 production as compared to the BDCA3+ DC. Despite lack of IL-12 production by the BDCA3+ DC, both BDCA1+ and BDCA3+ DCs activated T cells in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction towards a Th1-type reactivity while suppressing Th2-associated cytokines. PMID:25806537

  10. The enteroviruses: problems in need of treatments.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Specific antiviral therapy is currently not available for enterovirus (EV) infections. Poliomyelitis, EV 71 neurologic disease, and neonatal EV disease are three manifestations of EV infections that exemplify the importance of developing antivirals for EV infections. Despite tremendous strides in the effort to eradicate polio through vaccination, challenges remain, including the potential for transmission of neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses which have genetically reverted from live-attenuated, oral poliovirus vaccine virus. EV 71 emerged in the late 1990 s in eastern Asia as a neurovirulent virus that causes large outbreaks of hand-foot-mouth disease, herpangina, and fever, and, in some children, meningitis, acute flaccid paralysis, and brainstem encephalitis complicated by pulmonary edema and cardiopulmonary collapse. EV infections in neonates can cause severe disease characterized by meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, pneumonitis, and/or hepatitis and coagulopathy. Prototypic agents for specific therapy of EV infections that act upon numerous potential viral targets exist. Three candidate compounds are currently in development: pleconaril (active against many EVs), V-073 (anti-poliovirus), and BTA-798 (active against many rhinoviruses and EVs). The three conditions described illustrate why development of antiviral medications for EV infections is a medically important need. PMID:24119825

  11. Overall codon usage pattern of enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Ma, M R; Hui, L; Wang, M L; Tang, Y; Chang, Y W; Jia, Q H; Wang, X H; Yan, W; Ha, X Q

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a systemic illness in children and is usually caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71). To provide new insights into the genetic features of EV71 and the relationship between the overall codon usage pattern of this virus and that of humans, values for relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), effective number of codons (ENC), codon adaptation index (CAI), and nucleotide composition were calculated and analyzed. The relationship between ENC values and (G+C)?% suggests that, although nucleotide composition plays an important role in shaping the overall codon usage pattern of this virus, other factors also affect this pattern. In addition, the negative correlation between the CAI value and (G+C)?% suggests that the secondary structure of the EV71 coding sequence caused by its nucleotide composition can affect gene expression. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between ENC and CAI, suggesting that gene expression does not play a role in shaping the overall codon usage pattern of EV71. The overall codon usage pattern of the EV71 virus is only partly similar to the general codon pattern of human, suggesting that, although EV71 has co-evolved with humans for extended periods, mutation pressure played an important role in shaping the virus's overall codon usage pattern. These results revealed that the EV71 virus has developed a subtle strategy during evolution for adapting to environmental changes in its host cells solely by means of mutation pressure. PMID:24535860

  12. Replication and Inhibitors of Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Lonneke; Wolthers, Katja C.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Enterovirus (EV) and Parechovirus genera of the picornavirus family include many important human pathogens, including poliovirus, rhinovirus, EV-A71, EV-D68, and human parechoviruses (HPeV). They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from a simple common cold to life-threatening diseases such as encephalitis and myocarditis. At the moment, no antiviral therapy is available against these viruses and it is not feasible to develop vaccines against all EVs and HPeVs due to the great number of serotypes. Therefore, a lot of effort is being invested in the development of antiviral drugs. Both viral proteins and host proteins essential for virus replication can be used as targets for virus inhibitors. As such, a good understanding of the complex process of virus replication is pivotal in the design of antiviral strategies goes hand in hand with a good understanding of the complex process of virus replication. In this review, we will give an overview of the current state of knowledge of EV and HPeV replication and how this can be inhibited by small-molecule inhibitors. PMID:26266417

  13. Vasculitis and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Satta, R; Biondi, G

    2015-04-01

    Vasculitis usually presents without a well-known underline cause (idiopathic vasculitis), nevertheless, it is sometimes possible to find out one or more causative agents (secondary vasculitis). Nowadays, thanks to the increasing amount of precise diagnostic tools, a piece of idiopathic vasculitis is reclassified as associated with probable etiology, which can be set off by several factors, such as infections. Infections are considered to be the most common cause of secondary vasculitis. Virtually, every infectious agent can trigger a vasculitis by different mechanisms which can be divided in two main categories: direct and indirect. In the former, infectious agents destroy directly the vascular wall leading, eventually, to a subsequent inflammatory response. In the latter, indirect form, they stimulate an immune response against blood vessels. Different infectious agents are able to directly damage the vascular wall. Among these, it is possible to recognize Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Salmonella spp, Treponema spp, Rickettsia spp, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2, and many others which have a peculiar tropism for endothelial cells. Conversely, another group of microbial agents, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Hepatits B Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and others, trigger vasculitis in the indirect way. This is due to the fact that they can share epitopes with the host or modify self-antigens, thus leading to a cross-self reaction of the immune system. These mechanism, in turn, leads to immunological responses classified as type I-IV by Gell-Coombs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to strictly separate the direct and indirect forms, because most infectious agents can cause vasculitis in both ways (mixed forms). This paper will analyze the link between infectious agents and vasculitis, focusing on direct and indirect secondary vasculitis, and on a group of probable infection-related idiopathic vasculitis, and finally on a group of idiopathic vasculitis with microbiological triggers. Furthermore, a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to vasculitis when an underline infection has been suspected is suggested. PMID:25876145

  14. Combined cytotoxic activity of an infectious, but non-replicative herpes simplex virus type 1 and plasmacytoid dendritic cells against tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Thomann, Sabrina; Boscheinen, Jan B; Vogel, Karin; Knipe, David M; DeLuca, Neal; Gross, Stefanie; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice; Schuster, Philipp; Schmidt, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumour of the skin with increasing incidence, frequent metastasis and poor prognosis. At the same time, it is an immunogenic type of cancer with spontaneous regressions. Most recently, the tumoricidal effect of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and their capacity to overcome the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment are being investigated. In this respect, we studied the effect of the infectious, but replication-deficient, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) d106S vaccine strain, which lacks essential immediate early genes, in pDC co-cultures with 11 melanoma cell lines. We observed a strong cytotoxic activity, inducing apoptotic and necrotic cell death in most melanoma cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of HSV-1 d106S plus pDC was comparable to the levels of cytotoxicity induced by natural killer cells, but required only a fraction of cells with effector:target ratios of 1:20 (P<005). The suppressive activity of cell-free supernatants derived from virus-stimulated pDC was significantly neutralized using antibodies against the interferon-? receptor (P<005). In addition to type I interferons, TRAIL and granzyme B contributed to the inhibitory effect of HSV-1 d106S plus pDC to a minor extent. UV-irradiated viral stocks were significantly less active than infectious particles, both in the absence and presence of pDC (P<005), indicating that residual activity of HSV-1 d106S is a major component and sensitizes the tumour cells to interferon-producing pDC. Three leukaemic cell lines were also susceptible to this treatment, suggesting a general anti-tumour effect. In conclusion, the potential of HSV-1 d106S for therapeutic vaccination should be further evaluated in patients suffering from different malignancies. PMID:26194553

  15. Detection and identification of enteroviruses from various drinking water sources in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chen, Chien-Hsien; Wan, Min-Tao; Chang, Po-Jen; Fan, Cheng-Wei

    2009-02-01

    SummaryTwenty-three water samples, including seventeen from surface water reservoirs, three from the raw water of groundwater treatment plants, and three from small water systems, were collected in Taiwan and investigated for the presence of, as well as the species of enteroviruses. RT-PCR was used for the detection of enteroviruses. Results revealed that 23.5% of raw water samples from reservoirs were positive for enteroviruses. In addition, one of the three groundwater samples and two of the three small system water samples were positive for enteroviruses. Water samples that were positive for enteroviruses subsequently were evaluated by real-time PCR. The results indicated that enterovirus concentration in groundwater was lower than that in samples obtained from surface water sources. Enteroviruses were identified by nucleic acid sequencing in the 5'-untranslated regions. Three clusters of enteroviruses were identified as coxsackievirus A2, coxsackievirus A6, and enterovirus 71. The presence of enteroviruses indicates the possibility of waterborne transmission of enteroviruses in Taiwan, if water is not adequately treated.

  16. Restricted growth of U-type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout cells may be linked to casein kinase II activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, J.-W.; Moon, C.H.; Harmache, A.; Wargo, A.R.; Purcell, M.K.; Bremont, M.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that a representative M genogroup type strain of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from rainbow trout grows well in rainbow trout-derived RTG-2 cells, but a U genogroup type strain from sockeye salmon has restricted growth, associated with reduced genome replication and mRNA transcription. Here, we analysed further the mechanisms for this growth restriction of U-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells, using strategies that assessed differences in viral genes, host immune regulation and phosphorylation. To determine whether the viral glycoprotein (G) or non-virion (NV) protein was responsible for the growth restriction, four recombinant IHNV viruses were generated in which the G gene of an infectious IHNV clone was replaced by the G gene of U- or M-type IHNV and the NV gene was replaced by NV of U- or M-type IHNV. There was no significant difference in the growth of these recombinants in RTG-2 cells, indicating that G and NV proteins are not major factors responsible for the differential growth of the U- and M-type strains. Poly I:C pretreatment of RTG-2 cells suppressed the growth of both U- and M-type IHNV, although the M virus continued to replicate at a reduced level. Both viruses induced type 1 interferon (IFN1) and the IFN1 stimulated gene Mx1, but the expression levels in M-infected cells were significantly higher than in U-infected cells and an inhibitor of the IFN1-inducible protein kinase PKR, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), did not affect the growth of U- or M-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells. These data did not indicate a role for the IFN1 system in the restricted growth of U-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells. Prediction of kinase-specific phosphorylation sites in the viral phosphoprotein (P) using the NetPhosK program revealed differences between U- and M-type P genes at five phosphorylation sites. Pretreatment of RTG-2 cells with a PKC inhibitor or a p38MAPK inhibitor did not affect the growth of the U- and M-type viruses. However, 100 μm of the casein kinase II (CKII) inhibitor, 5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB), reduced the titre of the U type 8.3-fold at 24 h post-infection. In contrast, 100 μm of the CKII inhibitor reduced the titre of the M type only 1.3-fold at 48 h post-infection. Our data suggest that the different growth of U- and M-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells may be linked to a differential requirement for cellular protein kinases such as CKII for their growth.

  17. [Infectious mononucleosis].

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, A

    2001-10-01

    Infectious mononucleosis(IM) is a primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)infection. Since heterophil antibody negative IM is common in Japan, EBV antibody(presence of VCA-IgM or anti-EA, high titers of VCA-IgG in the absence of anti-EBNA) is useful for serologic diagnosis of IM. Although EBV causes the continuous growth of lymphoid cell lines in vitro and causes malignant diseases such as Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal cancer and malignant lymphomas in immunocompromised patients, IM is usually self-limiting, and after primary infection EBV persists in B cells throughout life without producing symptoms. In the present study, we studied CD8+ lymphocytes of patients with IM and demonstrate an increase in lymphocytes expressing HLA-DR and CD45RO, increase of intracellular pH, elevated plasma levels of sCD8, indicating activation of the subset. We also demonstrate activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes and gamma delta T lymphocytes. Activation of these immune systems in response to EBV is supposed to play an important role in assuring the benign course of IM. PMID:11769479

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Rhinoviruses and Enteroviruses Highlights Their Diversity in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Kaiser, Laurent; Petty, Tom J; Kilowoko, Mary; Kyungu, Esther; Hongoa, Philipina; Vieille, Gal; Turin, Lara; Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valrie; Tapparel, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and enteroviruses (HEVs) belong to the Enterovirus genus and are the most frequent cause of infection worldwide, but data on their molecular epidemiology in Africa are scarce. To understand HRV and HEV molecular epidemiology in this setting, we enrolled febrile pediatric patients participating in a large prospective cohort assessing the causes of fever in Tanzanian children. Naso/oropharyngeal swabs were systematically collected and tested by real-time RT-PCR for HRV and HEV. Viruses from positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were then applied to highlight the HRV and HEV types as well as recombinant or divergent strains. Thirty-eight percent (378/1005) of the enrolled children harboured an HRV or HEV infection. Although some types were predominant, many distinct types were co-circulating, including a vaccinal poliovirus, HEV-A71 and HEV-D68. Three HRV-A recombinants were identified: HRV-A36/HRV-A67, HRV-A12/HRV-A67 and HRV-A96/HRV-A61. Four divergent HRV strains were also identified: one HRV-B strain and three HRV-C strains. This is the first prospective study focused on HRV and HEV molecular epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa. This systematic and thorough large screening with careful clinical data management confirms the wide genomic diversity of these viruses, brings new insights about their evolution and provides data about associated symptoms. PMID:26670243

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Rhinoviruses and Enteroviruses Highlights Their Diversity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    L’Huillier, Arnaud G.; Kaiser, Laurent; Petty, Tom J.; Kilowoko, Mary; Kyungu, Esther; Hongoa, Philipina; Vieille, Gaël; Turin, Lara; Genton, Blaise; D’Acremont, Valérie; Tapparel, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and enteroviruses (HEVs) belong to the Enterovirus genus and are the most frequent cause of infection worldwide, but data on their molecular epidemiology in Africa are scarce. To understand HRV and HEV molecular epidemiology in this setting, we enrolled febrile pediatric patients participating in a large prospective cohort assessing the causes of fever in Tanzanian children. Naso/oropharyngeal swabs were systematically collected and tested by real-time RT-PCR for HRV and HEV. Viruses from positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were then applied to highlight the HRV and HEV types as well as recombinant or divergent strains. Thirty-eight percent (378/1005) of the enrolled children harboured an HRV or HEV infection. Although some types were predominant, many distinct types were co-circulating, including a vaccinal poliovirus, HEV-A71 and HEV-D68. Three HRV-A recombinants were identified: HRV-A36/HRV-A67, HRV-A12/HRV-A67 and HRV-A96/HRV-A61. Four divergent HRV strains were also identified: one HRV-B strain and three HRV-C strains. This is the first prospective study focused on HRV and HEV molecular epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa. This systematic and thorough large screening with careful clinical data management confirms the wide genomic diversity of these viruses, brings new insights about their evolution and provides data about associated symptoms. PMID:26670243

  20. Monitoring Antigenic Variations of Enterovirus 71: Implications for Virus Surveillance and Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Min-Yuan; Chung, Wan-Yu; Chiang, Pai-Shan; Chien, Yeh-Sheng; Ho, Mei-Shang; Lee, Min-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes life-threatening epidemics in Asia and can be phylogenetically classified into three major genogroups (A?C) including 11 genotypes (A, B1?B5, and C1?C5). Recently, EV71 epidemics occurred cyclically in Taiwan with different genotypes. In recent years, human studies using post-infection sera obtained from children have detected antigenic variations among different EV71 strains. Therefore, surveillance of enterovirus 71 should include phylogenetic and antigenic analysis. Due to limitation of sera available from children with EV71 primary infection, suitable animal models should be developed to generate a panel of antisera for monitoring EV71 antigenic variations. Twelve reference strains representing the 11 EV71 genotypes were grown in rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Infectious EV71 particles were purified and collected to immunize rabbits. The rabbit antisera were then employed to measure neutralizing antibody titers against the 12 reference strains and 5 recent strains. Rabbits immunized with genogroup B and C viruses consistently have a lower neutralizing antibody titers against genogroup A (?8-fold difference) and antigenic variations between genogroup B and C viruses can be detected but did not have a clear pattern, which are consistent with previous human studies. Comparison between human and rabbit neutralizing antibody profiles, the results showed that ?8-fold difference in rabbit cross-reactive antibody ratios could be used to screen EV71 isolates for identifying potential antigenic variants. In conclusion, a rabbit model was developed to monitor antigenic variations of EV71, which are critical to select vaccine strains and predict epidemics. PMID:25058733

  1. Non-Infectious Meningitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Non-Infectious Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Causes Transmission Signs & Symptoms Causes Non??infectious meningitis causes ...

  2. Respiratory infectious phenotypes in acute exacerbation of COPD: an aid to length of stay and COPD Assessment Test

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meng-Yuan; Qiao, Jin-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Hong; Fei, Guang-He

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the respiratory infectious phenotypes and their impact on length of stay (LOS) and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) Scale in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Patients and methods We categorized 81 eligible patients into bacterial infection, viral infection, coinfection, and non-infectious groups. The respiratory virus examination was determined by a liquid bead array xTAG Respiratory Virus Panel in pharyngeal swabs, while bacterial infection was studied by conventional sputum culture. LOS and CAT as well as demographic information were recorded. Results Viruses were detected in 38 subjects, bacteria in 17, and of these, seven had both. Influenza virus was the most frequently isolated virus, followed by enterovirus/rhinovirus, coronavirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, 3, and 4, and respiratory syncytial virus. Bacteriologic analyses of sputum showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacteria, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The longest LOS and the highest CAT score were detected in coinfection group. CAT score was positively correlated with LOS. Conclusion Respiratory infection is a common causative agent of exacerbations in COPD. Respiratory coinfection is likely to be a determinant of more severe acute exacerbations with longer LOS. CAT score may be a predictor of longer LOS in AECOPD. PMID:26527871

  3. Antibodies of symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals are directed to the V3 domain of noninfectious and not of infectious virions present in autologous serum.

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, M; Petersen, H; Wachsmuth, C; Mller, H; Hufert, F T; Schmitz, H

    1994-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the antibody specificity for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) V3 domains of infectious and noninfectious virions present in the serum of AIDS patients. To accomplish this, HIV-1 was isolated in the presence of autologous antibodies from the serum samples of six AIDS patients in HIV-1-negative donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells by short-term cultivation. The isolated virus, defined as the infectious cell-free virus (iCFV), was characterized by sequence analysis of the proviral DNA coding for the third hypervariable (V3) region of the external glycoprotein gp120. This was carried out by amplifying and cloning the V3 region. In all six cases studied, 20 randomly selected V3 clones derived from the proviral DNA of the iCFV, 20 clones from patient cell-free virus, and 20 clones from cell-integrated virus were sequenced to study the distribution and frequency of the intrapatient virus population. The number of major virus variants in the six patients ranged from three to nine. The various V3 sequences found in the AIDS patients showed the typical amino acid pattern of the syncytium-inducing and non-syncytium-inducing viral phenotypes characteristic for the late stage of infection. However, only one patient-specific iCFV variant was detected within the 20 V3 clones analyzed per virus isolation. For the six patients a total of 34 V3-loop variants, either iCFV or non-iCFV, was observed. All 34 V3-loop sequences were expressed as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins (V3-GST). The autologous antibody response to the V3-GST fusion proteins was studied by Western immunoblot analysis. A strong antibody response to almost all non-iCFV V3-GST proteins was found in the sera of the six patients. In contrast, the autologous antibody response to the six iCFV V3 loops was undetectable (in four patients) or very faint (in two patients) compared with that to the non-iCFV V3 loops. Five of the six iCFV loops showed positively charged amino acids at positions strongly associated with the syncytium-inducing phenotype. These findings suggest that our in vitro isolation system selects for virions which are not recognized by V3-specific antibodies and are infectious both in vitro and in vivo. Images PMID:8189527

  4. [INFECTIOUS SYMBIOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Bukharin, O V

    2015-01-01

    In the article new line of research--infectious symbiology that studies interaction of microsymbionts with the host in case of infection under the conditions of their biocommunicative interrelations is discussed. The presence of interrelation of intestinal microbiota with human homeostasis disorders postulates thesis that: human organism is superorganism including a lot of prokaryote species where microbiota normoflora representatives are the main complex of extra-corporeal physiological system acting as organism homeostasis regulator. When studying intermicrobial relations under microsymbiocenosis its system-forming factor has been identified that includes basic general functions of microorganisms--reproductive (growth/reproduction) and adaptive (biofilm formation and antilysozyme test). It has been shown that microbial interaction in dominant-associant vector providing microsymbiocenosis functioning is implemented via opposite (amplification/suppression) effect of reproductive and adaptive functions of microsymbionts of dominant-associant pair contributing self-non-self discrimination. Intermicrobial discrimination of self-non-self microsymbionts goes before signaling of adaptive immunity of the host promoting microbe elimination or persistence in the body depending on the result of identification. It has been noted that microbial factor fulfilling the role of organism homeostasis regulator performs synergistic functioning of dominant microflora with the host. When penetrating foreign associants (pathogens) into the organism host defense is implemented by means of induction of its adaptive immunity via cytokine reticulum. Key players of human intestinal microbiota are Bifidobacteria which along with induction of adaptive immunity and balance changes of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines of the host directly regulate microsymbiocenosis including system of hormones and neurotransmitters. PMID:26470410

  5. Nuclear transport of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, visna virus, and equine infectious anemia virus Rev proteins: identification of a family of transferable nuclear export signals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, B E; Meinkoth, J L; Malim, M H

    1996-04-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev trans activator binds directly to unspliced viral mRNA in the nucleus and activates its transport to the cytoplasm. In additon to the sequences that confer RNA binding and nuclear localization, Rev has a carboxy-terminal region, the activation domain, whose integrity is essential for biological activity. Because it has been established that Rev constitutively exits and reenters the nucleus and that the activation domain is required for nuclear exit, it has been proposed that Rev's activation domain is a nuclear export signal (NES). Here, we used microinjection-based assays to demonstrate that the activation domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev imparts rapid nuclear export after its transfer to heterologous substrates. NES- mediated export is specific, as it is sensitive both to inactivation by missense mutation and to selective inhibition by an excess of the wild-type, but not mutant, activation domain peptide. Examination of the Rev trans activators of two nonprimate lentiviruses, visna virus and equine infectious anemia virus, revealed that their activation domains are also potent NESs. Taken together, these data demonstrate that nuclear export can be determined by positively acting peptide motifs, namely, NESs, and suggest that Rev proteins activate viral RNA transport by providing export ribonucleoproteins with specific information that targets them to the cytoplasm. PMID:8642662

  6. An outbreak of feline infectious peritonitis in a Taiwanese shelter: epidemiologic and molecular evidence for horizontal transmission of a novel type II feline coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Ting; Su, Bi-Ling; Hsieh, Li-En; Chueh, Ling-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection. FCoV can be divided into serotypes I and II. The virus that causes FIP (FIPV) is believed to occur sporadically and spread infrequently from cat to cat. Recently, an FIP outbreak from an animal shelter was confirmed in Taiwan. FCoV from all the cats in this shelter were analyzed to determine the epidemiology of this outbreak. Thirteen of 46 (28.2%) cats with typical signs of FIP were identified. Among them, seven cats were confirmed by necropsy and/or histopathological examinations. Despite the fact that more than one FCoV was identified in this multi-cat environment, the eight FIP cats were invariably found to be infected with a type II FCoV. Sequence analysis revealed that the type II FIPV detected from fecal samples, body effusions and granulomatous tissue homogenates from the cats that succumbed to FIP all harbored an identical recombination site in their S gene. Two of the cats that succumbed to FIP were found to harbor an identical nonsense mutation in the 3c gene. Fecal shedding of this type II virus in the effusive form of FIP can be detected up to six days before death. Taken together, our data demonstrate that horizontal transmission of FIPV is possible and that FIP cats can pose a potential risk to other cats living in the same environment. PMID:23865689

  7. Immunoreactivity and morphological changes of bursal follicles in chickens infected with vaccine or wild-type strains of the infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Naoyuki; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Hikichi, Nanase; Ochiai, Mariko; Hosoda, Yuko; Ishikawa, Yoko; Shimazaki, Yoko; Oishi, Koji

    2015-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is characterized by immunosuppression due to the depletion of lymphocytes in the atrophied bursa of Fabricius (BF). We have sometimes encountered contradictory findings: chickens infected with the vaccine IBD virus (IBDV) strain have sometimes exhibited a highly atrophied BF, but not immunosuppression. In this study, chickens administered vaccine or wild-type strains of IBDV were later vaccinated with the B1 strain of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Bursal changes were examined histologically with a focus on the bursal follicle. The immunoreactivity to NDV was also evaluated with the hemagglutination inhibition test. In gross examination, we observed a few chickens with a severely atrophied BF in vaccine strain-administered groups (vaccine groups), and the level of severity was the same as that in the wild-type strain-administered group (wild-type group). However, these chickens retained humoral antibody responses to NDV and were revealed to possess a higher number of bursal follicles than those of the wild-type group. These results indicated that macroscopic evaluation dose not accurately reflect the immunoreactivity and degree of bursal damage in IBDV-administered chickens. We also found non-immunosuppressed chickens in the wild-type group. These non-immunosuppressed chickens retained a significantly higher number of normal follicles and total follicles according to our statistical analysis. Furthermore, a high correlation coefficient between the NDV-HI titer and the number of normal follicles was found in the wild-type group. These results implied that the retained number of normal follicles is important for the immunoreactivity of chickens infected with IBDV. PMID:25866403

  8. Correlation between nutritional, hematological and infectious characteristics and classification of the type of epidermolysis bullosa of patients assisted at the Dermatology Clinic of the Hospital Universitrio de Braslia.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mrcia Carolline Dos Santos; Paula, Carmen Dea Ribeiro de; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa comprises a group of phenotypically different genodermatosis, hereditary or acquired, characterized by skin fragility and subsequent formation of blisters in response to mechanical trauma, and which may also affect mucous membranes. This study aimed to analyze the relation between the nutritional, hematologic, infectious characteristics and the type of epidermolysis bullosa, through a descriptive case study based on data from medical records of 10 patients with epidermolysis bullosa assisted regularly at the Dermatology Clinic of the Hospital Universitrio de Braslia. The old classification of the type of epidermolysis bullosa, weight and height, blood count, white blood cell count, platelet count and description of the type and frequency of secondary infections during the service were considered. We verified a predominance of iron deficiency anemia, chronic leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, chronic malnutrition, low height for age and thinness, and people with epidermolysis bullosa simplex exhibited appropriate relation between height/age and BMI/age. The non-specific skin infection was the most prevalent in both sexes. The severity of the type of epidermolysis bullosa and frequency of secondary infections did not form a directly proportional relation. The absence of direct proportion in all cases between the type of epidermolysis bullosa and the analysis parameters suggest a possible significant interference from other aspects such as the extent of the affected skin area, extracutaneous type of engagement and specific genetic mutation. The inclusion of these factors in the new classification proposed by Fine et al can contribute significantly to a better correlation of clinical parameters and appropriate preventive and therapeutic approaches. PMID:26734883

  9. Immunoreactivity and morphological changes of bursal follicles in chickens infected with vaccine or wild-type strains of the infectious bursal disease virus

    PubMed Central

    AIHARA, Naoyuki; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; HIKICHI, Nanase; OCHIAI, Mariko; HOSODA, Yuko; ISHIKAWA, Yoko; SHIMAZAKI, Yoko; OISHI, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is characterized by immunosuppression due to the depletion of lymphocytes in the atrophied bursa of Fabricius (BF). We have sometimes encountered contradictory findings: chickens infected with the vaccine IBD virus (IBDV) strain have sometimes exhibited a highly atrophied BF, but not immunosuppression. In this study, chickens administered vaccine or wild-type strains of IBDV were later vaccinated with the B1 strain of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Bursal changes were examined histologically with a focus on the bursal follicle. The immunoreactivity to NDV was also evaluated with the hemagglutination inhibition test. In gross examination, we observed a few chickens with a severely atrophied BF in vaccine strain-administered groups (vaccine groups), and the level of severity was the same as that in the wild-type strain-administered group (wild-type group). However, these chickens retained humoral antibody responses to NDV and were revealed to possess a higher number of bursal follicles than those of the wild-type group. These results indicated that macroscopic evaluation dose not accurately reflect the immunoreactivity and degree of bursal damage in IBDV-administered chickens. We also found non-immunosuppressed chickens in the wild-type group. These non-immunosuppressed chickens retained a significantly higher number of normal follicles and total follicles according to our statistical analysis. Furthermore, a high correlation coefficient between the NDV-HI titer and the number of normal follicles was found in the wild-type group. These results implied that the retained number of normal follicles is important for the immunoreactivity of chickens infected with IBDV. PMID:25866403

  10. Correlation between nutritional, hematological and infectious characteristics and classification of the type of epidermolysis bullosa of patients assisted at the Dermatology Clinic of the Hospital Universitrio de Braslia*

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Mrcia Carolline dos Santos; de Paula, Carmen Dea Ribeiro; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa comprises a group of phenotypically different genodermatosis, hereditary or acquired, characterized by skin fragility and subsequent formation of blisters in response to mechanical trauma, and which may also affect mucous membranes. This study aimed to analyze the relation between the nutritional, hematologic, infectious characteristics and the type of epidermolysis bullosa, through a descriptive case study based on data from medical records of 10 patients with epidermolysis bullosa assisted regularly at the Dermatology Clinic of the Hospital Universitrio de Braslia. The old classification of the type of epidermolysis bullosa, weight and height, blood count, white blood cell count, platelet count and description of the type and frequency of secondary infections during the service were considered. We verified a predominance of iron deficiency anemia, chronic leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, chronic malnutrition, low height for age and thinness, and people with epidermolysis bullosa simplex exhibited appropriate relation between height/age and BMI/age. The non-specific skin infection was the most prevalent in both sexes. The severity of the type of epidermolysis bullosa and frequency of secondary infections did not form a directly proportional relation. The absence of direct proportion in all cases between the type of epidermolysis bullosa and the analysis parameters suggest a possible significant interference from other aspects such as the extent of the affected skin area, extracutaneous type of engagement and specific genetic mutation. The inclusion of these factors in the new classification proposed by Fine et al can contribute significantly to a better correlation of clinical parameters and appropriate preventive and therapeutic approaches.

  11. Infectious uveitis in Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Engelhard, Stephanie B; Haddad, Zeina; Bajwa, Asima; Patrie, James; Xin, Wenjun; Reddy, Ashvini K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the causes, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center. Methods Retrospective, observational study of infectious uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014. Results Seventy-seven of 491 patients (15.7%) were diagnosed with infectious uveitis (mean age 58 years, 71.4% female, 76.6% Caucasian). The mean follow-up was 5 years. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic classification (39 patients, 50.6%) followed by panuveitis (20 patients, 26.0%) and posterior uveitis (18 patients, 23.4%). The most common infectious etiology was herpetic anterior uveitis (37 patients, 48.1%) followed by toxoplasma uveitis (14 patients, 18.2%). The most prevalent viral pathogen was varicella-zoster virus (21 patients, 27.3%) followed by herpes simplex virus (20 patients, 26.0%). Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) was diagnosed in 14 patients (18.2%). Aqueous humor yielded an etiologic diagnosis in seven (50%) of ARN patients, four of whom tested positive for cytomegalovirus and three for varicella-zoster virus. On presentation, 43 patients (55.8%) had a visual acuity (VA) better than 20/40 and 17 (22.1%) had a VA worse than 20/200. VA at the final follow-up was better than 20/40 in 39 patients (50.6%) and worse than 20/200 in 22 patients (28.6%). In all, 16 (20.8%) and 10 (13.0%) patients required cataract and vitrectomy surgery, respectively. A total of 14 patients (18.2%) were on glaucoma topical treatment and four (5.2%) required glaucoma surgery. Conclusion The most common type of infectious uveitis seen over the study period was herpetic anterior uveitis secondary to varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, found to be most prevalent in patients over 60 years of age. This finding is comparable to other American epidemiologic studies. Ocular toxoplasmosis and ARN were also common causes of infectious uveitis. In all, 50.6% of patients had a VA better than 20/40 at the final follow-up visit, indicating the importance of prompt referral and appropriate treatment. PMID:26355608

  12. Characterization of a novel porcine enterovirus in domestic pig in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Boros, Ákos; Pankovics, Péter; Reuter, Gábor

    2011-07-01

    Porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) of genus Enterovirus are small, non-enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive sense genomic RNA, belonging to the family Picornaviridae. The discovery of two distinct serotypes (PEV9 and 10) was first reported in 1979. Despite the sporadic detection and partial genome sequences of these viruses our knowledge about the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of PEV types in domestic pigs is very deficient. In this study, we identified a novel PEV from fecal samples of clinically healthy pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) in Hungary by RT-PCR using human enterovirus generic primer pairs for 5'UTR region, with subsequent partial VP1 and complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Among 45 fecal and blood sample pairs collected at the same farm from domestic pigs divided into three age groups (10 days, 4 weeks, and 3 months of age, N = 15 each group) six (40%) of the 15 fecal samples of 10-day-old pigs were enterovirus-positive. PEV was not detected in serum samples. Sequence- and phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome of swine/K23/2008/HUN (HQ702854) show relationship to PEV strains but it is separated from the PEV9 and 10, especially in structural regions. Swine/K23/2008/HUN has average of 77 and 75% amino acid identity in the P1 region, and only 61% in VP1 region to PEV9 and 10, respectively. The partial VP1 sequences of the Hungarian PEV strains show 99% nucleotide identity compared to each other. PEVs could be capable of at least local endemic spread among newborn piglets and cause no clinical symptoms or viraemia. Sequence data indicates that the Hungarian PEV strain belongs to a novel PEV. To clarify the taxonomic confusion related to PEV--as a consequence of recent extensive taxonomic changes among porcine enteric picornaviruses--we propose that PEV9 and PEV10 should be reclassified as PEV1 and PEV2. In this classification swine/K23/2008/HUN represents PEV3. PMID:21504800

  13. Comparison of Automated and Manual Nucleic Acid Extraction Methods for Detection of Enterovirus RNA

    PubMed Central

    Knepp, Julia H.; Geahr, Melissa A.; Forman, Michael S.; Valsamakis, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Automated nucleic acid extraction is an attractive alternative to labor-intensive manual methods. We compared two automated methods, the BioRobot M48 instrument (Qiagen, Inc.) and MagNA Pure (Roche Applied Sciences) methods, to two manual methods, the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit (Qiagen) and TRIzol (Invitrogen), for the extraction of enterovirus RNA. Analytical sensitivity was assessed by dilution analysis of poliovirus type 2 Sabin in cerebrospinal fluid. The sensitivity of PCR was equivalent after RNA extraction with QIAamp, BioRobot M48, and MagNA Pure. All 18 replicates of 100 PFU/ml were detected after extraction by the four methods. Fewer replicates of each successive dilution were detected after extraction by each method. At 10?1 PFU/ml, 17 of 18 replicates were positive by QIAamp, 15 of 18 replicates were positive by BioRobot M48, and 12 of 18 replicates were positive by MagNA Pure; at 10?2 PFU/ml, 4 of 17 replicates were positive by QIAamp, 2 of 18 replicates were positive by BioRobot M48, and 0 of 18 replicates were positive by MagNA Pure. At 10?3 PFU/ml, no replicates were detected. Evaluation of TRIzol was discontinued after nine replicates due to a trend of lower sensitivity (at 10?3 PFU/ml eight of nine replicates were positive at 100 PFU/ml, four of nine replicates were positive at 10?1 PFU/ml, and zero of nine replicates were positive at 10?2 PFU/ml). Concordant results were obtained in 24 of 28 clinical specimens after extraction by all methods. No evidence of contamination was observed after extraction by automated instruments. The data indicate that the sensitivity of enterovirus PCR is largely similar after extraction by QIAamp, BioRobot M48, and MagNA Pure; a trend of decreased sensitivity was observed after TRIzol extraction. However, the results of enterovirus PCR were largely concordant in patient samples, indicating that the four extraction methods are suitable for detection of enteroviruses in clinical specimens. PMID:12904351

  14. Comparison of automated and manual nucleic acid extraction methods for detection of enterovirus RNA.

    PubMed

    Knepp, Julia H; Geahr, Melissa A; Forman, Michael S; Valsamakis, Alexandra

    2003-08-01

    Automated nucleic acid extraction is an attractive alternative to labor-intensive manual methods. We compared two automated methods, the BioRobot M48 instrument (Qiagen, Inc.) and MagNA Pure (Roche Applied Sciences) methods, to two manual methods, the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit (Qiagen) and TRIzol (Invitrogen), for the extraction of enterovirus RNA. Analytical sensitivity was assessed by dilution analysis of poliovirus type 2 Sabin in cerebrospinal fluid. The sensitivity of PCR was equivalent after RNA extraction with QIAamp, BioRobot M48, and MagNA Pure. All 18 replicates of 100 PFU/ml were detected after extraction by the four methods. Fewer replicates of each successive dilution were detected after extraction by each method. At 10(-1) PFU/ml, 17 of 18 replicates were positive by QIAamp, 15 of 18 replicates were positive by BioRobot M48, and 12 of 18 replicates were positive by MagNA Pure; at 10(-2) PFU/ml, 4 of 17 replicates were positive by QIAamp, 2 of 18 replicates were positive by BioRobot M48, and 0 of 18 replicates were positive by MagNA Pure. At 10(-3) PFU/ml, no replicates were detected. Evaluation of TRIzol was discontinued after nine replicates due to a trend of lower sensitivity (at 10(-3) PFU/ml eight of nine replicates were positive at 100 PFU/ml, four of nine replicates were positive at 10(-1) PFU/ml, and zero of nine replicates were positive at 10(-2) PFU/ml). Concordant results were obtained in 24 of 28 clinical specimens after extraction by all methods. No evidence of contamination was observed after extraction by automated instruments. The data indicate that the sensitivity of enterovirus PCR is largely similar after extraction by QIAamp, BioRobot M48, and MagNA Pure; a trend of decreased sensitivity was observed after TRIzol extraction. However, the results of enterovirus PCR were largely concordant in patient samples, indicating that the four extraction methods are suitable for detection of enteroviruses in clinical specimens. PMID:12904351

  15. First Detection of an Enterovirus C99 in a Captive Chimpanzee with Acute Flaccid Paralysis, from the Tchimpounga Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Center, Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mombo, Illich Manfred; Berthet, Nicolas; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Bleicker, Tobias; Brünink, Sebastian; Léger, Lucas; Atencia, Rebeca; Cox, Debby; Bouchier, Christiane; Durand, Patrick; Arnathau, Céline; Brazier, Lionel; Fair, Joseph N.; Schneider, Bradley S.; Drexler, Jan Felix; Prugnolle, Franck; Drosten, Christian; Renaud, François; Leroy, Eric M.; Rougeron, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses, members of the Picornaviridae family, are ubiquitous viruses responsible for mild to severe infections in human populations around the world. In 2010 Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo recorded an outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in the humans, caused by wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1). One month later, in the Tchimpounga sanctuary near Pointe-Noire, a chimpanzee developed signs similar to AFP, with paralysis of the lower limbs. In the present work, we sought to identify the pathogen, including viral and bacterial agents, responsible for this illness. In order to identify the causative agent, we evaluated a fecal specimen by PCR and sequencing. A Human enterovirus C, specifically of the EV-C99 type was potentially responsible for the illness in this chimpanzee. To rule out other possible causative agents, we also investigated the bacteriome and the virome using next generation sequencing. The majority of bacterial reads obtained belonged to commensal bacteria (95%), and the mammalian virus reads matched mainly with viruses of the Picornaviridae family (99%), in which enteroviruses were the most abundant (99.6%). This study thus reports the first identification of a chimpanzee presenting AFP most likely caused by an enterovirus and demonstrates once again the cross-species transmission of a human pathogen to an ape. PMID:26301510

  16. Modified membrane-filter procedure for concentration of enteroviruses from tap water.

    PubMed Central

    Shields, P A; Berenfeld, S A; Farrah, S R

    1985-01-01

    Enteroviruses added to 114 liters of dechlorinated tap water were recovered in a 16-ml sample by a two-stage concentration procedure in which different types of membrane filters were used in each concentration stage. Viruses in tap water at pH 3.5 were first adsorbed to 10-in. (ca. 25.4-cm) epoxy-fiber glass filters (Filterite). Viruses adsorbed to these filters were eluted with a solution of 0.2 M sodium trichloroacetate buffered at pH 9 with 0.2 M lysine. Viruses in this solution were adsorbed to 47-mm asbestos filters (Seitz) without pH adjustment or other modification of the solution. Viruses were recovered from the Seitz filters with 16 ml of either Casitone or fetal calf serum at pH 9. With these procedures ca. 45% of several types of enteroviruses added to 114 liters of tap water could be recovered in the final 16-ml sample. PMID:2984992

  17. Seroepidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 Infection among Children, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Paul F.; Andronico, Alessio; Tarantola, Arnaud; Salje, Henrik; Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Ly, Sovann; Dussart, Philippe; Cauchemez, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 is reported to have emerged in Cambodia in 2012; at least 54 children with severe encephalitis died during that outbreak. We used serum samples collected during 2000–2011 to show that the virus had been widespread in the country for at least a decade before the 2012 outbreak. PMID:26690000

  18. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section 866.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section 866.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section 866.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section 866.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225...

  2. ENTEROVIRUSES IN SLUDGE: MULTIYEAR EXPERIENCE WITH FOUR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors describe their experience with the isolation of viruses from four treatment plants located in different geographic areas. Over a period of 3 years, 297 enteroviruses were isolated from 307 sludge samples. The highest frequency of viral isolation (92%), including multi...

  3. Seroepidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 Infection among Children, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Paul F; Andronico, Alessio; Tarantola, Arnaud; Salje, Henrik; Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Ly, Sovann; Dussart, Philippe; Cauchemez, Simon; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 is reported to have emerged in Cambodia in 2012; at least 54 children with severe encephalitis died during that outbreak. We used serum samples collected during 2000-2011 to show that the virus had been widespread in the country for at least a decade before the 2012 outbreak. PMID:26690000

  4. Enterovirus 71 Infection with Central Nervous System Involvement, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kang, Byunghak; Hong, Jiyoung; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Ahyoun; Kim, Jonghyun

    2010-01-01

    We assessed neurologic sequelae associated with an enterovirus 71 (EV71) outbreak in South Korea during 2009. Four of 94 patients had high signal intensities at brainstem or cerebellum on magnetic resonance imaging. Two patients died of cardiopulmonary collapse; 2 had severe neurologic sequelae. Severity and case-fatality rates may differ by EV71 genotype or subgenotype. PMID:21029539

  5. Re-analysis of metagenomic sequences from acute flaccid myelitis patients reveals alternatives to enterovirus D68 infection

    PubMed Central

    Breitwieser, Florian P.; Pardo, Carlos A.; Salzberg, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic sequence data can be used to detect the presence of infectious viruses and bacteria, but normal microbial flora make this process challenging. We re-analyzed metagenomic RNA sequence data collected during a recent outbreak of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), caused in some cases by infection with enterovirus D68. We found that among the patients whose symptoms were previously attributed to enterovirus D68, one patient had clear evidence of infection with Haemophilus influenzae, and a second patient had a severe Staphylococcus aureus infection caused by a methicillin-resistant strain. Neither of these bacteria were identified in the original study. These observations may have relevance in cases that present with flaccid paralysis because bacterial infections, co-infections or post-infection immune responses may trigger pathogenic processes that may present as poliomyelitis-like syndromes and may mimic AFM. A separate finding was that large numbers of human sequences were present in each of the publicly released samples, although the original study reported that human sequences had been removed before deposition. PMID:26309730

  6. Membrane adsorption with direct cell culture combined with reverse transcription-PCR as a fast method for identifying enteroviruses from sewage.

    PubMed

    Papaventsis, D; Siafakas, N; Markoulatos, P; Papageorgiou, G T; Kourtis, C; Chatzichristou, E; Economou, C; Levidiotou, S

    2005-01-01

    We present a new approach for the detection and identification of enteroviruses concentrated and isolated from sewage. Samples were collected from two study sites located at Nicosia and Limassol sewage treatment plants in Cyprus. Viruses were adsorbed to cellulose nitrate membrane filters, cultured directly from the membrane filters by using the VIRADEN method, and identified by reverse transcription-PCR, followed by 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the VP1 protein coding region. Initial subgrouping based on the HpaII restriction profile showed that all of the isolates except one belonged to the same genetic subcluster. Partial VP1 sequencing revealed that most isolates belonged to serotypes coxsackie B4 (42.5%) and coxsackie Alpha9 (30%), whereas coxsackie B2 (17.5%) and coxsackie B1 (3%) isolates were less frequently observed. One poliovirus type 2 isolate (2.5%) of vaccine origin was also found. The HpaII digests predicted the genetic subcluster for all isolates. They also accurately differentiated the isolates as nonpolio or polio isolates. This approach seems to be very promising for environmental surveillance of enterovirus circulation and epidemiology, with all of the significant effects that this entails for public health. Partial VP1 sequencing is efficient for molecular serotyping of enteroviruses, while 5'-UTR RFLP analysis with HpaII can also be considered an asset for the initial subclassification of enterovirus isolates. PMID:15640172

  7. Antiviral Activity of Salmonid Gamma Interferon against Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus and Salmonid Alphavirus and Its Dependency on Type I Interferon?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baojian; Skjveland, Ingrid; Svingerud, Tina; Zou, Jun; Jrgensen, Jorunn; Robertsen, Brre

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiviral activity and gene induction properties of interferon gamma (IFN-?) compared to type I IFN (IFNa1) in Atlantic salmon. IFN-? protected salmon cells against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV)-induced cytopathic effect (CPE), reduced virus titers, and inhibited the synthesis of the viral structural protein VP3. Moreover, IFN-? showed potent antiviral activity against salmonid alphavirus 3 (SAV3) measured as a reduction in virus nsP1 transcripts. IFN-? (a type II IFN) had less specific antiviral activity against IPNV than IFNa1, showing a half-maximal effective concentration of 1.6 ng/ml versus 31 pg/ml determined in the CPE reduction assay. Compared to IFNa1, IFN-? was a more effective inducer of the antiviral protein GBP, several interferon regulatory transcription factors (IRFs), and the chemokine IP-10. The antiviral activity of IFN-? may also in part be ascribed to upregulation of Mx, ISG15, and viperin. These are typical type I IFN-induced genes in mammals and were also more strongly induced by IFNa1 than by IFN-? in salmon cells. Fish and mammalian IFN-? thus show strikingly similar gene induction properties. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of IFN-? against IPNV and SAV3 and its ability to induce Mx and ISG15 markedly decreased in the presence of neutralizing antiserum against IFNa1. In contrast, antiIFNa1 had no effect on the induction of IRF-1 and IP-10 by IFN-?. This suggests that the antiviral activity of IFN-? is partially dependent on IFNa induction. However, because antiIFNa1 could not abolish the IFN-?-mediated induction of Mx and ISG15 completely, IFN-? may possibly also induce such genes directly. PMID:21697489

  8. Evaluation of a Viral Microarray Based on Simultaneous Extraction and Amplification of Viral Nucleotide Acid for Detecting Human Herpesviruses and Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunxiu; Yang, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Yan; Dong, Rui; Zhou, Jiajing; Gai, Zhongtao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a viral microarray based assay was developed to detect the human herpesviruses and enteroviruses associated with central nervous system infections, including herpes simplex virus type 1, type 2 (HSV1 and HSV2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16) and B 5(CB5). The DNA polymerase gene of human herpesviruses and 5-untranslated region of enteroviruses were selected as the targets to design primers and probes. Human herpesviruses DNA and enteroviruses RNA were extracted simultaneously by using a guanidinium thiocyanate acid buffer, and were subsequently amplified through a biotinylated asymmetry multiplex RT-PCR with the specific primer of enteroviruses. In total, 90 blood samples and 49 cerebrospinal fluids samples with suspected systemic or neurological virus infections were investigated. Out of 139 samples, 66 were identified as positive. The specificities of this multiplex RT-PCR microarray assay were over 96% but the sensitivities were various from 100% for HSV1, HSV2, EV71 and CB5, 95.83% for CMV, 80% for EBV to 71.43% for CA16 in comparison with reference standards of TaqMan qPCR/qRT-PCR. The high Kappa values (>0.90) from HSV1, HSV2, CMV, EV71 and CB5 were obtained, indicating almost perfect agreement in term of the 5 viruses detection. But lower Kappa values for EBV (0.63) and CA16 (0.74) displayed a moderate to substantial agreement. This study provides an innovation of simultaneous extraction, amplification, hybridization and detection of DNA viruses and RNA viruses with simplicity and specificity, and demonstrates a potential clinical utility for a variety of viruses detection. PMID:25774509

  9. Defining the Enterovirus Diversity Landscape of a Fecal Sample: A Methodological Challenge?

    PubMed

    Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses are a group of over 250 naked icosahedral virus serotypes that have been associated with clinical conditions that range from intrauterine enterovirus transmission withfataloutcome through encephalitis and meningitis, to paralysis. Classically, enterovirus detection was done by assaying for the development of the classic enterovirus-specific cytopathic effect in cell culture. Subsequently, the isolates were historically identified by a neutralization assay. More recently, identification has been done by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, in recent times, there is a move towards direct detection and identification of enteroviruses from clinical samples using the cell culture-independent RT semi-nested PCR (RT-snPCR) assay. This RT-snPCR procedure amplifies the VP1 gene, which is then sequenced and used for identification. However, while cell culture-based strategies tend to show a preponderance of certain enterovirus species depending on the cell lines included in the isolation protocol, the RT-snPCR strategies tilt in a different direction. Consequently, it is becoming apparent that the diversity observed in certain enterovirus species, e.g., enterovirus species B(EV-B), might not be because they are the most evolutionarily successful. Rather, it might stem from cell line-specific bias accumulated over several years of use of the cell culture-dependent isolation protocols. Furthermore, it might also be a reflection of the impact of the relative genome concentration on the result of pan-enterovirus VP1 RT-snPCR screens used during the identification of cell culture isolates. This review highlights the impact of these two processes on the current diversity landscape of enteroviruses and the need to re-assess enterovirus detection and identification algorithms in a bid to better balance our understanding of the enterovirus diversity landscape. PMID:26771630

  10. Sequencing of Porcine Enterovirus Groups II and III Reveals Unique Features of Both Virus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Krumbholz, Andi; Dauber, Malte; Henke, Andreas; Birch-Hirschfeld, Eckhard; Knowles, Nick J.; Stelzner, Axel; Zell, Roland

    2002-01-01

    The molecular classification of the porcine enterovirus (PEV) groups II and III was investigated. The sequence of the almost complete PEV-8 (group II) genome reveals that this virus has unique L and 2A gene regions. A reclassification of this group into a new picornavirus genus is suggested. PEV group III viruses are typical enteroviruses. They differ from other enteroviruses by a prolonged stem-loop D of the 5′-cloverleaf structure. PMID:11992011

  11. Genomic analysis of two novel human enterovirus C genotypes found in respiratory samples from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hirschberg, David L.; Sameroff, Stephen; Haq, Saddef; Luna, Giannina; Bennett, Andrew J.; Silva, Maria; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew; Bausch, Daniel G.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of two enteroviruses detected in nasopharyngeal samples obtained from subjects with respiratory disease in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both viruses belong to a clade within the species Human enterovirus C, which includes the recently characterized human enteroviruses 109 and 104. Members of this clade have undergone significant genomic rearrangement, as indicated by deletions in the hypervariable region of the 5? UTR and the VP1 protein, as well as recombination within the non-structural genes. Our findings and review of published sequences suggests that several novel human enterovirus C serotypes are currently circulating worldwide. PMID:23034595

  12. Differential permissivity of human cerebrovascular endothelial cells to enterovirus infection and specificities of serotype EV-A71 in crossing an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Volle, Romain; Archimbaud, Christine; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette; Mirand, Audrey; Pereira, Bruno; Henquell, Cécile; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-07-01

    Human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 cell line) form a steady polarized barrier when cultured in vitro on a permeable membrane. Their susceptibility to enterovirus (EV) strains was analysed to investigate how these viruses may cross the blood-brain barrier. A sample of 88 virus strains was selected on phylogenetic features amongst 43 epidemiologically relevant types of the four EV species A-D. The EV-A71 genome was replicated at substantial rates, whilst the infectious virus was released at extremely low but sustained rates at both barrier sides for at least 4 days. EV-A71 antigens were detected in a limited number of cells. The properties of the endothelial barrier (structure and permeability) remained intact throughout infection. The chronic EV-A71 infection was in sharp contrast to the productive infection of cytolytic EVs (e.g. echoviruses E-6 and E-30). The hCMEC/D3 barriers infected with the latter EVs exhibited elevated proportions of apoptotic and necrotic cells, which resulted in major injuries to the endothelial barriers with a dramatic increase of paracellular permeability and virus crossing to the abluminal side. The following intracellular rearrangements were also seen: early destruction of the actin cytoskeleton, remodelling of intracellular membranes and reorganization of the mitochondrion network in a small cluster near the perinuclear space. PMID:25711966

  13. Infectious mononucleosis #3 (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Infectious mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. It is a viral infection causing high temperature, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Infectious mononucleosis can be contagious if the infected person comes ...

  14. About Infectious Mononucleosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Epstein-Barr Virus and Infectious Mononucleosis Note: Javascript is disabled ... About CDC.gov . EBV and Mono Home About Epstein-Barr Virus About Infectious Mononucleosis For Healthcare Providers Laboratory ...

  15. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  16. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  17. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU OF... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  18. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  19. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  20. Enterovirus 71 transmission by exosomes establishes a productive infection in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lingxiang; Wu, Jing; Shen, Li; Yang, Jing; Chen, Jianguo; Xu, Huaxi

    2016-04-01

    Exosomes are small secreted cellular vesicles for intercellular communications which contain proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs). Recent studies have shown that exosomes play an important role in the transmission of infectious agents including hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and so on. However, the role of exosomes in the transfer of enterovirus 71 (EV71) between host cells remains unknown. In this study, we show that the exosomes derived from EV71-infected rhabdomyosarcoma cells contain EV71 RNA and capsid protein VP1, determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (QRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. The shedding of exosomes containing virus can establish a productive infection in human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH). A comparative analysis of neutralization by EV71-specific immunoglobulins showed different levels of neutralization of exosomes-mediated infection compared with free virus. In conclusion, exosomes from EV71-infected cells may play an important role in virus dissemination and are partially resisted to antibody neutralization. Our results suggest that there is an exosomal route of EV71 transmission infection. PMID:26837894

  1. Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill blocks enterovirus 71 infection by hijacking MEK1-ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyang; Wang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoqing; Wang, Wei; Jin, Yu

    2015-07-01

    The aerial parts of Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill are a Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of edema and inflammatory diseases. However, the effect of this medicine on enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has not been explored. Previous studies showed that MEK1-ERK signal pathway was required for efficient replication of EV71 infection and inhibition of this signal pathway has been shown to suppress virus infection. Here we show that the water extract of S. chinensis (Lour.) Baill (SCB) significantly blocks EV71 infection by inhibiting the activation of MEK1-ERK signal pathway with an IC50 of 8.9μg/mL. SCB at 30 and 60 μg/mL blocked EV71-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and production of infectious virion by 1.9 and 5.1 logs, respectively. Virucidal assay suggested that SCB had no virucidal activity against EV71 and probably exerted its effect by targeting multiple steps in EV71 infection. Knockdown of MEK1 but not MEK2 blocked EV71 replication. And SCB treatment inhibited the activation of MEK1-ERK signal during EV71 infection. Furthermore, we found that rutin at 200 μM, one of the major components of SCB, significantly suppressed EV71 induced CPE and inhibited viral replication in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, SCB inhibited EV71 infection by hijacking MEK1-ERK signal pathway and rutin was the responsible antiviral component of SCB. PMID:25912818

  2. Rapid and highly sensitive detection of Enterovirus 71 by using nanogold-enhanced electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Lu, Yu-Ning; Wang, Fang-Yu; Tsai, Li-Yun; Shieh, Juo-Yu; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Juan, Chien-Chang; Tu, Lung-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2013-07-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is an emerging infectious disease causing neurological complications and/or death within two to three days after the development of fever and rash. A low viral titre in clinical specimens makes the detection of EV71 difficult. Conventional approaches for detecting EV71 are time consuming, poorly sensitive, or complicated, and cannot be used effectively for clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, EV71 and Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) may cross react in conventional assays. Therefore, a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and user-friendly test is needed. We developed an EV71-specific nanogold-modified working electrode for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the detection of EV71. Our results show that EV71 can be distinguished from CA16, Herpes simplex virus, and lysozyme, with the modified nanogold electrode being able to detect EV71 in concentrations as low as 1 copy number/50 ?l reaction volume, and the duration between sample preparation and detection being 11 min. This detection platform may have the potential for use in point-of-care diagnostics.

  3. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of three virulent strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis is a very serious and widespread respiratory disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus type 1, commonly named infectious laryngotracheitis virus. For protection from infectious laryngotracheitis, chickens have traditionally been vaccinated with live-attenuated str...

  4. Australian National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason A; Hobday, Linda K; Ibrahim, Aishah; Aitkin, Thomas; Thorley, Bruce R

    2015-06-01

    Australia conducts surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years of age as the main method to monitor its polio-free status in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System and faecal specimens are referred for virological investigation to the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory. In 2013, no cases of poliomyelitis were reported from clinical surveillance and Australia reported 1.4 non-polio AFP cases per 100,000 children, meeting the WHO performance criterion for a sensitive surveillance system. Non-polio enteroviruses can also be associated with AFP and enterovirus A71 was identified from nine of the 61 cases classified as non-polio AFP in 2013, which was part of a larger outbreak associated with this virus. A Sabin poliovirus was detected in an infant recently returned from Pakistan and who had been vaccinated while abroad. Globally, 416 cases of polio were reported in 2013, with the 3 endemic countries: Afghanistan; Nigeria; and Pakistan, accounting for 38% of the cases. To safeguard the progress made towards polio eradication, in May 2014, WHO recommended travellers from the 10 countries that are currently reporting wild poliovirus transmission have documented evidence of recent polio vaccination before departure. PMID:26234257

  5. Sequelae of central-nervous-system enterovirus infections.

    PubMed

    Sells, C J; Carpenter, R L; Ray, C G

    1975-07-01

    The long-term effects of central-nervous-system enterovirus infections were examined in a controlled follow-up study of 19 children 2 1/2 to eight years of age who had been hospitalized with documented enterovirus infection 17 to 67 months before evaluation. Assessment included medical history, physical and neurologic examination, psychologic testing, and speech and hearing evaluation. Three children (16 per cent) had definite neurologic impairment, five (26 per cent) had possible impairment, and 11 (58 per cent) were free of detectable abnormalities. Children whose illness occurred during the first year of life, when compared to controls, were found to have significantly smaller mean head circumference (50.6 vs. 51.6 cm, P less than 0.033), significantly lower mean I.Q. (97 vs 115, P less than 0.007), and depressed languange and speech skills. Children whose illness occurred after the first year of life were not different from their controls. Children whith central-nervous-system enterovirus infection may have neurologic impairment when infection occurs in the first year of life. PMID:1168853

  6. IDBD: Infectious Disease Biomarker Database

    PubMed Central

    Yang, In Seok; Ryu, Chunsun; Cho, Ki Joon; Kim, Jin Kwang; Ong, Swee Hoe; Mitchell, Wayne P.; Kim, Bong Su; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecularly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious diseases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database (IDBD) is one of the first efforts to build an easily accessible and comprehensive literature-derived database covering known infectious disease biomarkers. IDBD is a community annotation database, utilizing collaborative Web 2.0 features, providing a convenient user interface to input and revise data online. It allows users to link infectious diseases or pathogens to protein, gene or carbohydrate biomarkers through the use of search tools. It supports various types of data searches and application tools to analyze sequence and structure features of potential and validated biomarkers. Currently, IDBD integrates 611 biomarkers for 66 infectious diseases and 70 pathogens. It is publicly accessible at http://biomarker.cdc.go.kr and http://biomarker.korea.ac.kr. PMID:17982173

  7. Partial sequencing of the VP2 capsid gene for direct enterovirus genotyping in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, W; Boukhadra, N; Nasri-Zoghlami, D; Berthelot, P; Omar, S; Bourlet, T; Pozzetto, B; Pillet, S

    2014-09-01

    Typing of human enterovirus (EV) remains a major goal for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes. Whereas sequencing of the VP1 coding region is the reference standard for EV typing, a method relying on sequencing of the VP2 coding region has been proposed as an alternative; however, this has been validated only on cell culture supernatants. To avoid the selection of cultivable strains and to quicken the identification step, a new semi-nested PCR method targeting the VP2 region was developed by use of the CODEHOP strategy. After validation of the method on reference and clinical strains, a total of 352 clinical specimens found to be positive for EV RNA (138 with the GeneXpert EV kit and 214 with the Enterovirus R-gene kit) during a 3-year period (2010-2012) were analysed prospectively for VP2 genotyping. Overall, 204 (58%) specimens were typeable. A higher proportion of throat swab/stool specimens than of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens was found to be typeable (94 of 142 (66.2%) vs. 83 of 169 (49.1%), respectively, p <0.01 by the chi-square test). Moreover, the median Ct value obtained was lower for typeable specimens than for untypeable specimens (32.20 vs. 33.01, p <0.05, and 25.96 vs. 31.74, p <0.001, for the GeneXpert and R-gene tests, respectively, by the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test). These results suggest that, in cases of EV meningitis, a peripheral specimen (i.e. throat swab or stool) that is susceptible to exhibiting a higher viral load should be used in preference to CSF for identifying the causative EV genotype by use of the VP2 typing method without cell culture isolation. PMID:24372815

  8. Type I Diabetes Mellitus: Genetic Factors and Presumptive Enteroviral Etiology or Protection

    PubMed Central

    Precechtelova, Jana; Borsanyiova, Maria; Sarmirova, Sona

    2014-01-01

    We review type 1 diabetes and host genetic components, as well as epigenetics and viruses associated with type 1 diabetes, with added emphasis on the enteroviruses, which are often associated with triggering the disease. Genus Enterovirus is classified into twelve species of which seven (Enterovirus A, Enterovirus B, Enterovirus C, and Enterovirus D and Rhinovirus A, Rhinovirus B, and Rhinovirus C) are human pathogens. These viruses are transmitted mainly by the fecal-oral route; they may also spread via the nasopharyngeal route. Enterovirus infections are highly prevalent, but these infections are usually subclinical or cause a mild flu-like illness. However, infections caused by enteroviruses can sometimes be serious, with manifestations of meningoencephalitis, paralysis, myocarditis, and in neonates a fulminant sepsis-like syndrome. These viruses are often implicated in chronic (inflammatory) diseases as chronic myocarditis, chronic pancreatitis, and type 1 diabetes. In this review we discuss the currently suggested mechanisms involved in the viral induction of type 1 diabetes. We recapitulate current basic knowledge and definitions. PMID:25574400

  9. Sequential Asymptomatic Enterovirus Infections in a Patient with Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mellouli, Fethi; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Touzi, Henda; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha; Bejaoui, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Patients with primary immunodeficiencies are usually susceptible to enterovirus infections and have higher risks to develop severe clinical forms. We report a unique description of a boy with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) deficiency infected by 9 different enterovirus serotypes during a 2-year period, with very mild clinical symptoms, probably due to the immunoglobulin therapy he was receiving. PMID:25031436

  10. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ANIMAL ENTEROVIRUSES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR USE AS MARKERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FECAL CONTAMINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteroviruses are the most common viruses, infecting a wide variety of mammals. It is generally accepted that only a small number of entero viruses are known. Every year several new isolates are identified and named. Human enteroviruses have been found as environmental contaminants, and contaminatio...

  11. [Traps in infectious serology].

    PubMed

    Lienhard, Reto

    2011-10-12

    The role of serology in infectious disease diagnosis is highlighted by HIV and viral hepatitis diagnosis developed since the 80's. However, long before these recent developments serum reactivity played its role in diagnosing, active or previous severe bacterial infection in diseases such as typhoid fever (Widal), brucellosis (Wright test), syphilis (VDRL, Wassermann test), typhus (Weil-Felix test) etc. From early infection to immunity, serology analyzes the patient's immunological memory enabling the fight against infections. The resulting information depends on the type of pathogen, the site of infection, the host and the stage of disease. Together with the direct tests for the detection of pathogens, serological tests form the basis of microbiological diagnosis. To better understand the utility of serology, we will provide an overview and show its pitfalls. PMID:22097446

  12. Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3); Construction and rescue of an infectious, recombinant virus expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to rescue an infectious, recombinant, RNA virus from a cDNA clone, has led to new opportunities for measuring viral replication from a viral expressed reporter gene. In this protocol, the process of inserting enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene into the human parainfluenza vi...

  13. Characterization of Enterovirus Isolates from Patients with Heart Muscle Disease in a Selenium-Deficient Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Tianqing; Li, Yanwen; Yang, Yingzhen; Niu, Cunlong; Morgan-Capner, Peter; Archard, Leonard C.; Zhang, Hongyi

    2000-01-01

    An association of enterovirus infection with endemic cardiomyopathy (Keshan disease [KD]) and outbreaks of myocarditis in selenium-deficient rural areas of southwestern China has been established. Enteroviruses have been isolated from patients with KD or during outbreaks of myocarditis in last two decades. Six of these isolates grew readily in cell lines (Vero or HEp-2) and were investigated by a novel molecular typing method apart from serotyping and pathogenicity. A neutralization assay identified two isolates from KD as coxsackievirus serotype B2 (CVB2) and two isolates from myocarditis as coxsackievirus serotype B6 (CVB6) but failed to type the remaining two isolates, also from myocarditis. Direct nucleotide sequencing of reverse transcription-PCR products amplified from the 5? nontranslated region (5?NTR) of these viruses confirmed that they belong to a phylogenetic cluster consisting of coxsackie B-like viruses, including some echovirus serotypes. Sequence analysis of the coding region for viral capsid protein VP1 showed that two isolates serotyped as CVB2 have the highest amino acid sequence homology with CVB2 and that the remaining four isolates, two CVB6 and the two unknown serotypes, are most closely related to the sequence of CVB6. Sequences among these isolates varied from 82.3 to 99% in the 5?NTR and from 69 to 99% in VP1, indicating no cross contamination. The pathogenicity of these viruses in adult and suckling mice was assessed. None caused pathologic changes in the hearts of adult MF-1 or SWR mice, although pancreatitis was evident. However, the four CVB6-like viruses caused death in suckling mice, similar to a virulent coxsackievirus group B3 laboratory strain. In conclusion, the sequence data confirm that coxsackievirus group B serotypes are predominant in the region in which KD is endemic and may be the etiological agents in outbreaks of myocarditis. VP1 genotyping of enteroviruses is accurate and reliable. Animal experiments indicate that isolates may differ in pathogenicity. PMID:11015360

  14. Infectious diseases following disasters.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Srinivas; Christian, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    Infectious diseases following natural disasters tend to occur as a result of the prolonged secondary effects of the disaster, mostly when there is an interruption of public health measures resulting from destruction of the local infrastructure. This article will review the infectious risks that occur as a result of natural disasters, with a focus on the mechanism of disease spread, infectious diseases after specific disasters, and various evidence-based interventions. PMID:21149220

  15. Development and Evaluation of EPA Method 1615 for Detection of Enterovirus and Norovirus in Water

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Nichole E.; Griffin, Shannon M.; McMinn, Brian R.; Rhodes, Eric R.; Varughese, Eunice A.; Grimm, Ann C.; Parshionikar, Sandhya U.; Wymer, Larry; Fout, G. Shay

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. EPA developed a sample concentration and preparation assay in conjunction with the total culturable virus assay for concentrating and measuring culturable viruses in source and drinking waters as part of the Information Collection Rule (ICR) promulgated in 1996. In an effort to improve upon this method, the U.S. EPA recently developed Method 1615: Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Method 1615 uses a culturable virus assay with reduced equipment and labor costs compared to the costs associated with the ICR virus method and introduces a new molecular assay for the detection of enteroviruses and noroviruses by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. In this study, we describe the optimization of several new components of the molecular assay and examine virus recovery from ground, reagent-grade, and surface water samples seeded with poliovirus type 3 and murine norovirus. For the culturable virus and molecular assays, mean poliovirus recovery using the complete method was 58% and 20% in groundwater samples, 122% and 39% using low-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, 42% and 48% using high-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, and 11% and 10% in surface water with high turbidity, respectively. Murine norovirus recovery by the molecular assay was 30% in groundwater samples, less than 8% in both low- and high-titer spikes in reagent-grade water, and 6% in surface water with high turbidity. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of Method 1615 for use with groundwater samples and highlights the need for further research into its effectiveness with surface water. PMID:23087037

  16. Avian infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovi?, J; Sapats, S

    2000-08-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is prevalent in all countries with an intensive poultry industry, with the incidence of infection approaching 100% in most locations. Vaccination is only partially successful due to the continual emergence of antigenic variants. At many sites, multiple antigenic types are simultaneously present, requiring the application of multiple vaccines. Although many countries share some common antigenic types, IBV strains within a geographic region are unique and distinct, examples are Europe, the United States of America and Australia. Measures to restrict the introduction of exotic IBV strains should therefore be considered. Infectious bronchitis has a significant economic impact; in broilers, production losses are due to poor weight gains, condemnation at processing and mortality, whilst in laying birds, losses are due to suboptimal egg production and downgrading of eggs. Chickens and commercially reared pheasants are the only natural hosts for IBV. Other species are not considered as reservoirs of IBV. The majority of IBV strains cause tracheal lesions and respiratory disease with low mortality due to secondary bacterial infections, primarily in broilers. Nephropathogenic strains, in addition to tracheal lesions, also induce prominent kidney lesions with mortality of up to 25% in broilers. Strains of both pathotypes infect adult birds and affect egg production and egg quality to a variable degree. Infected chicks are the major source of virus in the environment. Contaminated equipment and material are a potential source for indirect transmission over large distances. Virus is present in considerable titres in tracheal mucus and in faeces in the acute and recovery phases of disease, respectively. Virus spreads horizontally by aerosol (inhalation) or ingestion of faeces or contaminated feed or water. The virus is highly infectious. Clinical signs will develop in contact chicks within 36 h and in nearby sheds within one to two days. Infection is resolved within fourteen days with a rise in antibody titres. In a small number of chicks, latent infection is established with subsequent erratic shedding of virus for a prolonged period of time via both faeces and aerosol. Movement of live birds should be considered as a potential source for the introduction of IBV. Isolation and identification of IBV is needed for positive diagnosis. The preferred method of isolation is to passage a sample in embryonating specified-pathogen-free chicken eggs. Identification is either by monoclonal antibody based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or polymerase chain reaction. Virus neutralisation test in tracheal organ culture is the best method for antigenic typing. Continual use of live vaccines complicates diagnosis since no simple diagnostic tool can differentiate a field from a vaccine strain. Nucleotide sequencing of the S1 glycoprotein is the only method to discriminate between all IBV strains. Serology is also complicated by continual use of live vaccines. For surveillance purposes, ELISA is the method of choice, regardless of the antigenic type of IBV involved. The assay is used to monitor the response to vaccination, but field challenge can only be detected if flock antibody status is monitored continually. The antigenic type of a challenge strain involved cannot be ascertained by ELISA. PMID:10935276

  17. Crystal Structures of Yeast-Produced Enterovirus 71 and Enterovirus 71/Coxsackievirus A16 Chimeric Virus-Like Particles Provide the Structural Basis for Novel Vaccine Design against Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Ke; He, Ya-Ling; Li, Hao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the two major causative agents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Previously, we demonstrated that a virus-like particle (VLP) for EV71 produced from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a potential vaccine candidate against EV71 infection, and an EV71/CVA16 chimeric VLP can elicit protective immune responses against both virus infections. Here, we presented the crystal structures of both VLPs, showing that both the linear and conformational neutralization epitopes identified in EV71 are mostly preserved on both VLPs. The replacement of only 4 residues in the VP1 GH loop converted strongly negatively charged surface patches formed by portions of the SP70 epitope in EV71 VLP into a relatively neutral surface in the chimeric VLP, which likely accounted for the additional neutralization capability of the chimeric VLP against CVA16 infection. Such local variations in the amino acid sequences and the surface charge potential are also present in different types of polioviruses. In comparison to EV71 VLP, the chimeric VLP exhibits structural changes at the local site of amino acid replacement and the surface loops of all capsid proteins. This is consistent with the observation that the VP1 GH loop located near the pseudo-3-fold junction is involved in extensive interactions with other capsid regions. Furthermore, portions of VP0 and VP1 in EV71 VLP are at least transiently exposed, revealing the structural flexibility of the VLP. Together, our structural analysis provided insights into the structural basis of enterovirus neutralization and novel vaccine design against HFMD and other enterovirus-associated diseases. IMPORTANCE Our previous studies demonstrated that the enterovirus 71 (EV71) virus-like particle (VLP) produced from yeast is a vaccine candidate against EV71 infection and that a chimeric EV71/coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) VLP with the replacement of 4 amino acids in the VP1 GH loop can confer protection against both EV71 and CVA16 infections. This study reported the crystal structures of both the EV71 VLP and the chimeric EV71/CVA16 VLP and revealed that the major neutralization epitopes of EV71 are mostly preserved in both VLPs. In addition, the mutated VP1 GH loop in the chimeric VLP is well exposed on the particle surface and exhibits a surface charge potential different from that contributed by the original VP1 GH loop in EV71 VLP. Together, this study provided insights into the structural basis of enterovirus neutralization and evidence that the yeast-produced VLPs can be developed into novel vaccines against hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and other enterovirus-associated diseases. PMID:25833050

  18. Complete genome analysis of porcine enterovirus B isolated in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Song, DaeSub; Seon, Bo Hyeon; Kim, Hye-Kwon; Park, Seong-Jun; An, Dong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Man; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Park, Bong-Kyun

    2012-09-01

    The complete genome sequence of porcine enterovirus B (PEV-B) from a Korean isolate was analyzed. The genome size was 7,393 bp. Previously, full genome sequences of PEV-B had been reported from the United Kingdom, Hungary, and China. The Korean PEV-B isolate presented polyprotein gene nucleotide sequence similarities of 77.9, 73.7, 78.9, and 80.3%, respectively, to PEV-B UKG/410/73, LP54, PEV15, and Chinese strains (Ch-ah-f1). PMID:22923807

  19. The isolation of enteroviruses from cases of acute conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, P. G.; Scott, R. J. D.

    1973-01-01

    In two epidemics of acute enterovirus conjunctivitis the diagnosis could only be established by the use of human embryonic organ cultures. In one instance cultures of ciliated respiratory epithelium proved sensitive to the virus but similar culture failed to support growth of the virus from the second outbreak which was isolated in organ cultures of conjunctiva. The virus associated with a third outbreak had previously been isolated from the original material by culture in human embryo kidney cells, but it required passage in organ culture for its detection after the specimens had been diluted. PMID:4356574

  20. A recombinant porcine circovirus type 2 expressing the VP1 epitope of the type O foot-and-mouth disease virus is infectious and induce both PCV2 and VP1 epitope antibodies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Zhang, Feiyan; Tang, Qinghai; Wei, Yanwu; Wu, Hongli; Guo, Longjun; Fu, Yujie; Liu, Changming

    2014-11-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the etiological agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, a disease that causes huge economic damage in swine industry. A recombinant PCV2 expressing the neutralizing VP1 epitope (aa 141-160) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was rescued using an infectious cloning technique. The PCV2 antigen and FMDV-VP1 antigenic epitope of the cloned strain recPCV2-CL-VP1 were confirmed by an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The morphological features of the recPCV2-CL-VP1 were not discernibly different from those of its parental strain (PCV2-CL). However, the recombinant virus could be differentiated from its parental virus by PCR and capture ELISA. The recPCV2-CL-VP1 was demonstrated to replicate stably in PK-15 cells through ten passages. An infection experiment using BALB/c mice showed that both recPCV2-CL-VP1 and PCV2-CL could replicate in the mice, cause various pathological changes, and induce a high level of anti-Cap antibodies. The recombinant virus emulsified with Freund's adjuvant was used to immunize BALB/c mice and induced antibodies against the FMDV-VP1 epitope. Hence, the recombinant PCV2 strain, which expressed the neutralizing FMDV-VP1 epitope, provides a valuable platform to develop novel genetic vaccines. PMID:25117547

  1. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  2. Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against coxsackievirus B3, enterovirus 71, and human rhinovirus 3

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Hwa-Jung; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Choi, Kwangman; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Lee, Yong-Pyo; Cho, Sungchan; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Background Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)] against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 3 (HRV3). Methods Assays of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B method using the cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Results The antiviral assays demonstrated that, of the seven ginsenosides, the PT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, and Rg2) possess significant antiviral activities against CVB3 and HRV3 at a concentration of 100 ?g/mL. Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 ?g/mL. The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells. Notably, the antiviral efficacies of PT-type ginsenosides were comparable to those of ribavirin, a commonly used antiviral drug. Conclusion Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection. PMID:25378991

  3. High frequency of enterovirus D68 in children hospitalised with respiratory illness in Norway, autumn 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bragstad, Karoline; Jakobsen, Kirsti; Rojahn, Astrid E; Skram, Marius K; Vainio, Kirsti; Holberg-Petersen, Mona; Hungnes, Olav; Dudman, Susanne G; Kran, Anne-Marte B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives An unexpectedly high proportion of children were admitted for severe respiratory infections at the Oslo University Hospital, Ullevl, Norway, during September and October, 2014. In light of the ongoing outbreak of enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68) in North America a real-time RT-PCR for screening of enterovirus and enterovirus D68 was established. Design We developed a duplex real-time RT-PCR for rapid screening of enterovirus D68. The method target the 5? non-translated region (NTR) of the HEV genome at a location generally used for enterovirus detection. Sample Nasopharyngeal samples (n=354), from children <15years of age, received for respiratory virus analysis in OUH during September 1st and October 31nd, 2014, were tested for enterovirus and screened for enterovirus D68. Main outcome measures and results The duplex real-time RT-PCR method was an efficient tool for rapid screening for EV-D68 in respiratory specimens. Enterovirus was detected in 66 (22%) of 303 pediatric nasopharyngeal samples collected from children hospitalised with acute respiratory infection within the two-month period. Out of these, 33 (50%) were EV-D68. EV-D68 was associated with acute flaccid paralysis in one child. Conclusions An unexpectedly high proportion of children admitted for severe respiratory infections at the Oslo University Hospital, Ullevl, Norway, were diagnosed with EV- D68 during September 1st and October 31nd, 2014. These results emphasise that greater vigilance is required throughout Europe as enteroviruses are cause of severe respiratory disease. PMID:25534826

  4. The microbiology of human hygiene and its impact on type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nora M; Coppieters, Ken; von Herrath, Matthias; Tracy, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D), as with several other autoimmune diseases and conditions, began to notably rise in the latter half of the last century. Most cases of T1D are not solely attributable to genetics and therefore, environmental influences are proposed to account for the difference. Humans live today in general under much more hygienic conditions than their ancestors. Although human enteroviruses (HEV) have been strongly implicated as causative environmental agents of T1D, recent work has shown that the bacterial genera in the gut of diabetics compared with non-diabetics, can vary significantly. Here, we consider these data in light of our non-hygienic human past in order to discuss a possible relationship between the resident bacterial biome and acute infectious events by HEV, suggesting how this may have influenced T1D incidences in the past and the risk for developing T1D today. PMID:22996796

  5. [Diagnosis of infectious lymphadenitis].

    PubMed

    Melenotte, C; Edouard, S; Lepidi, H; Raoult, D

    2015-10-01

    Adenitis is a common disorder requesting numerous medical specialties. Etiologies are dominated by viral and bacterial infections, and more rarely parasitic, or by neoplastic and inflammatory diseases. Nevertheless, etiology remains often unknown and invasive tests may be required. On nodal tissue sample, histological examination, culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are realized. PCR has revolutionized the diagnostic approach and consequently, knowledge of infectious lymphadenopathy. Previously, staphylococcus, streptococcus and mycobacterium were the main infectious agents identified in lymph nodes. Since its use, new emergent microorganisms responsible of lymphadenitis have been identified. Bartonella henselae, responsible of cat scratch disease, is to date the infectious agent most often encountered in adenitis. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominisuis has been recently described as responsible of children lymphadenitis. PCR has become an essential tool in the diagnostic process of infectious lymphadenitis. Here, we propose a literature review on infectious adenitis and we emphasize the diagnostic strategy of adenitis. PMID:26021493

  6. High Rates of Infection with Novel Enterovirus Variants in Wild Populations of Mandrills and Other Old World Monkey Species

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dung Van; Harvala, Heli; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Delaporte, Eric; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Peeters, Martine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteroviruses (EVs) are a genetically and antigenically diverse group of viruses infecting humans. A mostly distinct set of EV variants have additionally been documented to infect wild apes and several, primarily captive, Old World monkey (OWM) species. To investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of EVs infecting OWMs in the wild, fecal samples from mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and other species collected in remote regions of southern Cameroon were screened for EV RNA. Remarkably high rates of EV positivity were detected in M. sphinx (100 of 102 screened), Cercocebus torquatus (7/7), and Cercopithecus cephus (2/4), with high viral loads indicative of active infection. Genetic characterization in VP4/VP2 and VP1 regions allowed EV variants to be assigned to simian species H (EV-H) and EV-J (including one or more new types), while seven matched simian EV-B variants, SA5 and EV110 (chimpanzee). Sequences from the remaining 70 formed a new genetic group distinct in VP4/2 and VP1 region from all currently recognized human or simian EV species. Complete genome sequences were obtained from three to determine their species assignment. In common with EV-J and the EV-A A13 isolate, new group sequences were chimeric, being most closely related to EV-A in capsid genes and to EV-B in the nonstructural gene region. Further recombination events created different groupings in 5? and 3? untranslated regions. While clearly a distinct EV group, the hybrid nature of new variants prevented their unambiguous classification as either members of a new species or as divergent members of EV-A using current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) assignment criteria. IMPORTANCE This study is the first large-scale investigation of the frequency of infection and diversity of enteroviruses (EVs) infecting monkeys (primarily mandrills) in the wild. Our findings demonstrate extremely high frequencies of active infection (95%) among mandrills and other Old World monkey species inhabiting remote regions of Cameroon without human contact. EV variants detected were distinct from those infecting human populations, comprising members of enterovirus species B, J, and H and a large novel group of viruses most closely related to species A in the P1 region. The viral sequences obtained contribute substantially to our growing understanding of the genetic diversity of EVs and the existence of interspecies chimerism that characterizes the novel variants in the current study, as well as in previously characterized species A and J viruses infecting monkeys. The latter findings will contribute to future development of consensus criteria for species assignments in enteroviruses and other picornavirus genera. PMID:24623420

  7. General primer-mediated polymerase chain reaction for detection of enteroviruses: application for diagnostic routine and persistent infections.

    PubMed Central

    Zoll, G J; Melchers, W J; Kopecka, H; Jambroes, G; van der Poel, H J; Galama, J M

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for routine diagnostic use and for the detection of persistent enteroviral infections. To this end, general primers were selected in the highly conserved part of the 5'-noncoding region of the enteroviral genome. They were tested on 66 different enterovirus serotypes. A specific fragment was amplified from 60 of 66 serotypes. An amplification product was not observed from coxsackievirus types A11, A17, and A24 and echovirus types 16, 22, and 23. Enteroviral RNA was detected by the PCR in routinely collected throat swabs and stool specimens that were found to be positive for enterovirus by isolation in tissue culture. Enteroviral RNA was detected in one of five myocardial biopsy specimens from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, implicating virus persistence. No amplification product was obtained from eight control samples. Our results demonstrate the significance of the PCR for the detection of enteroviral RNA and, in particular, for the demonstration of persistent enteroviral infections. Images PMID:1370845

  8. Identification of a Series of Compounds with Potent Antiviral Activity for the Treatment of Enterovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Rhinovirus (genus enterovirus) infections are responsible for many of the severe exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Other members of the genus can cause life-threatening acute neurological infections. There is currently no antiviral drug approved for the treatment of such infections. We have identified a series of potent, broad-spectrum antiviral compounds that inhibit the replication of the human rhinovirus, Coxsackie virus, poliovirus, and enterovirus-71. The mechanism of action of the compounds has been established as inhibition of a lipid kinase, PI4KIII?. Inhibition of hepatitis C replication in a replicon assay correlated with enterovirus inhibition. PMID:24900715

  9. Isolation and molecular characterization of bovine enteroviruses in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sobhy, N M; Mor, S K; Mohammed, M E M; Bastawecy, I M; Fakhry, H M; Youssef, C R B; Abouzeid, N Z; Goyal, S M

    2015-12-01

    Enteroviruses belong to the Picornaviridae family and infect a wide range of mammals including cattle. Bovine enterovirus (BEV) has recently been reclassified into E and F serotypes. BEV was first isolated in Egypt in 1966 although it has been known in other countries since the 1950s. In this study, BEV-F2 was isolated from calves with severe diarrhea and the isolated viruses were subjected to molecular characterization. Illumina sequencing of one of the isolates revealed the presence of a complete BEV-F genome sequence. The phylogenetic analysis revealed nucleotide substitutions along the genome in comparison with other known strains of BEV-F (HQ663846, AY508697 and DQ092795). Two primer sets were designed from the 3D and 5'NTR regions and used for the examination of the remaining isolates, which were confirmed to be of the BEV-F2 serotype. The availability of the complete genome sequence of this virus adds to the sequence database of the members of Picornaviridae and should be useful in future molecular studies of BEV. PMID:26586212

  10. Impact of Human Enterovirus 71 Genotypes in Meningoencephalitis in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Pooneh; Roohandeh, Akram; Sohrabi, Amir; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bahram Ali, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the importance of poliovirus has diminished, as a result of its elimination in the majority of countries, non-polioviruses are emerging as causative agents of severe central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Outbreaks of enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated CNS infections have recently been reported in Asia, Australia, and Europe. Objectives: This is the first study on genotyping of EV71 in children with meningoencephalitis to be carried out in Iran, and it was conducted in order to obtain an improved understanding of the disease burden of this virus, particularly with regard to CNS involvement. Patients and Methods: Viral RNA was extracted from 170 cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from children aged under 8 years with a primary diagnosis of aseptic meningitis. Specific EV71 PCR was conducted to identify the genotype of the detected EV71 viruses. Results: Human enteroviruses (HEVs) were detected in 89 patients (52.3%). EV71 infection was detected in 19 (21.3%) of the 89 EV71-positive patients, and the C genotype was identified in 15 isolates. Conclusions: The C genotype should be considered as the prevalent EV71 circulating genotype in Iran, particularly in cases of aseptic meningitis. PMID:26865943

  11. Presence of enteroviruses in recreational water in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Allmann, Erin; Pan, Lei; Li, Lu; Li, Dejia; Wang, Suqing; Lu, Yuanan

    2013-11-01

    Contaminated recreational waters pose a public health concern, as the potential for waterborne diseases exists in water contaminated with human fecal waste. Worldwide, bacterial indicators such as Escherichia coli, enterococci, and total and fecal coliform are used as indicators of water quality. However, enteric viruses also present a public health concern and their presence cannot always be determined based on bacterial indicators. This study explores the use of molecular detection methods of enteric viruses as indicators of fecal contamination. Four viruses, enterovirus, norovirus genogroups I and II, and male-specific FRNA coliphage, were tested in this study. Highly sensitive RT-PCR methods developed at the University of Hawaii at Manoa were utilized to evaluate environmental samples collected from three lakes in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Sixteen of twenty-five sites tested positive for at least one virus. Enterovirus was the most commonly detected virus, followed by norovirus genogroup I. These findings support the use of molecular detection methods to test for enteric virus presence in recreational freshwater sources in China as alternative water quality indicators, and utilize recently developed, highly sensitive methods of detection of these viruses. In addition, these findings suggest that there is substantial fecal contamination of the three lakes tested in this study. PMID:23827950

  12. Therapeutic and prevention strategies against human enterovirus 71 infection

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Chee Choy

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) is the cause of hand, foot and mouth disease and associated neurological complications in children under five years of age. There has been an increase in HEV71 epidemic activity throughout the Asia-Pacific region in the past decade, and it is predicted to replace poliovirus as the extant neurotropic enterovirus of highest global public health significance. To date there is no effective antiviral treatment and no vaccine is available to prevent HEV71 infection. The increase in prevalence, virulence and geographic spread of HEV71 infection over the past decade provides increasing incentive for the development of new therapeutic and prevention strategies against this emerging viral infection. The current review focuses on the potential, advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Since the explosion of outbreaks leading to large epidemics in China, research in natural therapeutic products has identified several groups of compounds with anti-HEV71 activities. Concurrently, the search for effective synthetic antivirals has produced promising results. Other therapeutic strategies including immunotherapy and the use of oligonucleotides have also been explored. A sound prevention strategy is crucial in order to control the spread of HEV71. To this end the ultimate goal is the rapid development, regulatory approval and widespread implementation of a safe and effective vaccine. The various forms of HEV71 vaccine designs are highlighted in this review. Given the rapid progress of research in this area, eradication of the virus is likely to be achieved. PMID:25964873

  13. Chlorine dioxide inactivation of enterovirus 71 in water and its impact on genomic targets.

    PubMed

    Jin, Min; Shan, Jinyang; Chen, Zhaoli; Guo, Xuan; Shen, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Zhigang; Xue, Bin; Wang, Yongguang; Zhu, Dunwan; Wang, Xinwei; Li, Junwen

    2013-05-01

    To control the waterborne transmission of enterovirus 71(EV71), which is associated with hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD), it is essential to know the inactivation effectiveness of disinfectants on EV71 in water. In this article, we present a comparative analysis of the effects on EV71 following exposure to chlorine dioxide (ClO2) under different doses, pH, and temperature conditions. We show that the EV71 exhibited strong resistance to ClO2 (more than the MS2 standard) and that Ct value ranges required for a 4-log reduction of EV71 in buffered, disinfectant demand-free water at pH 7.2 and 20 C by ClO2 were 4.24-6.62 mg/Lmin according to the efficiency factor Hom model. ClO2 inactivation of the virus was temperature- and pH-dependent. The virucidal efficiency was higher at pH 8.2 than at pH 5.6 and pH 7.2 and higher at 36 C than at 4 and 20 C. In addition, we also observed the impact of ClO2 on the entire viral genome using RT-PCR, which indicated that the 5' noncoding region (5'-NCR) within the EV71 genome, specifically the 1-118 nt region, was the most easily damaged by ClO2 and correlated with viral infectivity. Our study has not only provided guidelines for EV71 disinfection strategies of waste and drinking water, but also confirmed the importance of the 5'-NCR for EV71 infectivity and may demonstrate a general inactivation by ClO2 of enteric virus by damaging the 5'-NCR. Furthermore, 5'-NCR can be used as a target region for PCR to investigate infectious virus contamination in environmental water and evaluate the inactivation effects of ClO2. PMID:23560857

  14. Peptidyl aldehyde NK-1.8k suppresses enterovirus 71 and enterovirus 68 infection by targeting protease 3C.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxin; Yang, Ben; Zhai, Yangyang; Yin, Zheng; Sun, Yuna; Rao, Zihe

    2015-05-01

    Enterovirus (EV) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in the Pacific-Asia region. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections, and the fatality rates from EV71 infection are high. Moreover, an outbreak of respiratory illnesses caused by an emerging EV, EV68, recently occurred among over 1,000 young children in the United States and was also associated with neurological infections. Although enterovirus has emerged as a considerable global public health threat, no antiviral drug for clinical use is available. In the present work, we screened our compound library for agents targeting viral protease and identified a peptidyl aldehyde, NK-1.8k, that inhibits the proliferation of different EV71 strains and one EV68 strain and that had a 50% effective concentration of 90 nM. Low cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration, >200 ?M) indicated a high selective index of over 2,000. We further characterized a single amino acid substitution inside protease 3C (3C(pro)), N69S, which conferred EV71 resistance to NK-1.8k, possibly by increasing the flexibility of the substrate binding pocket of 3C(pro). The combination of NK-1.8k and an EV71 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor or entry inhibitor exhibited a strong synergistic anti-EV71 effect. Our findings suggest that NK-1.8k could potentially be developed for anti-EV therapy. PMID:25691647

  15. Recovery of infectious type Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus from suckling mice directly inoculated with an RNA polymerase I/II-driven unidirectional transcription plasmid.

    PubMed

    Lian, Kaiqi; Yang, Fan; Zhu, Zixiang; Cao, Weijun; Jin, Ye; Li, Dan; Zhang, Keshan; Guo, Jianhong; Zheng, Haixue; Liu, Xiangtao

    2015-10-01

    We developed an RNA polymerase (pol) I- and II-driven plasmid-based reverse genetics system to rescue infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from cloned cDNA. In this plasmid-based transfection, the full-length viral cDNA was flanked by hammerhead ribozyme (HamRz) and hepatitis delta ribozyme (HdvRz) sequences, which were arranged downstream of the two promoters (cytomegalovirus (CMV) and pol I promoter) and upstream of the terminators and polyadenylation signal, respectively. The utility of this method was demonstrated by the recovery of FMDV Asia1 HN/CHA/06 in BHK-21 cells transfected with cDNA plasmids. Furthermore, infectious FMDV Asia1 HN/CHA/06 could be rescued from suckling mice directly inoculated with cDNA plasmids. Thus, this reverse genetics system can be applied to fundamental research and vaccine studies, most notably to rescue those viruses for which there is currently an absence of a suitable cell culture system. PMID:26091821

  16. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  17. AN INTEGRATED CELL CULTURE/RT-PCR METHOD FOR DETECTING ENTEROVIRUS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Echovirus and coxsackievirus can cause mild to severe disease following consumption of contaminated drinking water. However, comprehensive occurrence studies of enteroviruses in drinking water matrices are limited, in part because of the lack of available methods that are rapid, ...

  18. Low-level Circulation of Enterovirus D68-Associated Acute Respiratory Infections, Germany, 2014.

    PubMed

    Reiche, Janine; Bttcher, Sindy; Diedrich, Sabine; Buchholz, Udo; Buda, Silke; Haas, Walter; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Wolff, Thorsten

    2015-05-01

    We used physician sentinel surveillance to identify 25 (7.7%) mild to severe infections with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in children and adults among 325 outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Germany during August-October 2014. Results suggested low-level circulation of enterovirus D68 in Germany. Viruses were characterized by sequencing viral protein (VP) 1 and VP4/VP2 genomic regions. PMID:25898320

  19. Fatal, generalized bovine herpesvirus type-1 infection associated with a modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis parainfluenza-3 vaccine administered to neonatal calves.

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, L A; Fenton, R A; Misra, V; Haines, D M

    1994-01-01

    Generalized bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) infection was diagnosed in six Salers calves from the same herd. The calves had received an intramuscular injection of modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis parainfluenza-3 vaccine between birth and three days of age. The purpose of this study was to determine if the outbreak was associated with the vaccine strain of BHV-1. Analysis of epidemiological data and BHV-1 DNA for restriction fragment length polymorphism was undertaken. Multifocal necrosis in multiple organs was observed on pathological examination, and the presence of BHV-1 in tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Forty-three calves (aged birth to thirty days) were vaccinated over an 11-day interval. The 10 deaths recorded for vaccinated calves were clustered over a subsequent 14-day interval. Mortality in calves vaccinated between birth and three days of age was significantly higher than in nonvaccinated calves (chi-square test; p < or = 0.025), and this mortality was characterized by a greater age at death and duration of illness for vaccinated calves (t test; p < or = 0.001). The patterns of the restriction fragments, generated by six restriction endonucleases, of BHV-1 isolated from a necropsied calf and from the vaccine were identical, and different from that of a laboratory strain of BHV-1 (P8-2). These findings support the conclusion that newborn calves were susceptible to an intramuscularly injected vaccine strain of BHV-1, and that administration of an intramuscular modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis parainfluenza-3 vaccine to neonatal calves may not be an innocuous procedure. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:8076277

  20. Enterovirus meningitis in Tunisia (Monastir, Mahdia, 2011-2013): identification of virus variants cocirculating in France.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ines; Volle, Romain; Elargoubi, Aida; Guediche, Mohamed Neji; Chakroun, Mohamed; Sfar, Mohamed Tahar; Pereira, Bruno; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Archimbaud, Christine; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2016-02-01

    Acute enterovirus (EV) meningitis is a frequent cause of hospitalisation, and over 100 EV serotypes may be involved. A total of 215 patients of all ages with meningitis signs were investigated in 2 Tunisian hospitals. Their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analysed retrospectively for EVs with a TaqMan real-time RT-qPCR. The virus strains were typed, and their evolutionary relationships were determined by Bayesian phylogenetic methods. An EV genome was detected in 21/215 patients (9.8%). The CSF viral loads ranged from 3.27 to 5.63 log10 genome copies/mL. The strains were identified in 13/21 patients and assigned to EV-B types. Viruses identified in Tunisian patients were genetically related to variants detected in France. The viral loads were similar in Tunisian and French patients for most EV types. The phylogenetic data and viral loads determined in Tunisian and French patients suggest that close EV variants were involved in aseptic meningitis in the 2 countries over a same period. PMID:26643063

  1. Infectious Causes of Encephalitis and Meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 20032005

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Angela P.; Supawat, Krongkaew; Liamsuwan, Sahas; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Laptikulthum, Somsak; Viriyavejakul, Akravudh; Tantirittisak, Tasanee; Tunlayadechanont, Supoch; Visudtibhan, Anannit; Vasiknanonte, Punnee; Janjindamai, Supachai; Boonluksiri, Pairoj; Rajborirug, Kiatsak; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Khetsuriani, Nino; Dowell, Scott F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is a severe neurologic syndrome. Determining etiology from among ?100 possible agents is difficult. To identify infectious etiologies of encephalitis in Thailand, we conducted surveillance in 7 hospitals during July 2003August 2005 and selected patients with acute onset of brain dysfunction with fever or hypothermia and with abnormalities seen on neuroimages or electroencephalograms or with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were tested for >30 pathogens. Among 149 case-patients, median age was 12 (range 083) years, 84 (56%) were male, and 15 (10%) died. Etiology was confirmed or probable for 54 (36%) and possible or unknown for 95 (64%). Among confirmed or probable etiologies, the leading pathogens were Japanese encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, and Orientia tsutsugamushi. No samples were positive for chikungunya, Nipah, or West Nile viruses; Bartonella henselae; or malaria parasites. Although a broad range of infectious agents was identified, the etiology of most cases remains unknown. PMID:25627940

  2. Infectious causes of encephalitis and meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Sonja J; Campbell, Angela P; Supawat, Krongkaew; Liamsuwan, Sahas; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Laptikulthum, Somsak; Viriyavejakul, Akravudh; Tantirittisak, Tasanee; Tunlayadechanont, Supoch; Visudtibhan, Anannit; Vasiknanonte, Punnee; Janjindamai, Supachai; Boonluksiri, Pairoj; Rajborirug, Kiatsak; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Khetsuriani, Nino; Dowell, Scott F

    2015-02-01

    Acute encephalitis is a severe neurologic syndrome. Determining etiology from among ?100 possible agents is difficult. To identify infectious etiologies of encephalitis in Thailand, we conducted surveillance in 7 hospitals during July 2003-August 2005 and selected patients with acute onset of brain dysfunction with fever or hypothermia and with abnormalities seen on neuroimages or electroencephalograms or with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were tested for >30 pathogens. Among 149 case-patients, median age was 12 (range 0-83) years, 84 (56%) were male, and 15 (10%) died. Etiology was confirmed or probable for 54 (36%) and possible or unknown for 95 (64%). Among confirmed or probable etiologies, the leading pathogens were Japanese encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, and Orientia tsutsugamushi. No samples were positive for chikungunya, Nipah, or West Nile viruses; Bartonella henselae; or malaria parasites. Although a broad range of infectious agents was identified, the etiology of most cases remains unknown. PMID:25627940

  3. Altered antibody profiles against common infectious agents in chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Burbelo, Peter D; Ching, Kathryn H; Morse, Caryn G; Alevizos, Ilias; Bayat, Ahmad; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Ali, Mir A; Kapoor, Amit; Browne, Sarah K; Holland, Steven M; Kovacs, Joseph A; Iadarola, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Despite the important diagnostic value of evaluating antibody responses to individual human pathogens, antibody profiles against multiple infectious agents have not been used to explore health and disease mainly for technical reasons.We hypothesized that the interplay between infection and chronic disease might be revealed by profiling antibodies against multiple agents. Here, the levels of antibodies against a panel of 13 common infectious agents were evaluated with the quantitative Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) in patients from three disease cohorts including those with pathogenic anti-interferon-? autoantibodies (IFN-? AAB), HIV and Sjgren's syndrome (SjS) to determine if their antibody profiles differed from control subjects. The IFN-? AAB patients compared to controls demonstrated statistically higher levels of antibodies against VZV (p=0.0003), EBV (p=0.002), CMV (p=0.003), and C. albicans (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against poliovirus (p=0.04). Comparison of HIV patients with blood donor controls revealed that the patients had higher levels of antibodies against CMV (p=0.0008), HSV-2 (p=0.0008), EBV (p=0.001), and C. albicans (p=0.01), but showed decreased levels of antibodies against coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.0008), poliovirus (p=0.0005), and HHV-6B (p=0.002). Lastly, SjS patients had higher levels of anti-EBV antibodies (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against several enteroviruses including a newly identified picornavirus, HCoSV-A (p=0.004), coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.04), and poliovirus (p=0.02). For the IFN-? AAB and HIV cohorts, principal component analysis revealed unique antibody clusters that showed the potential to discriminate patients from controls. The results suggest that antibody profiles against these and likely other common infectious agents may yield insight into the interplay between exposure to infectious agents, dysbiosis, adaptive immunity and disease activity. PMID:24312567

  4. Virucidal activity of Virkon S on human enterovirus.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y F; Abu Bakar, S

    2005-06-01

    The efficacy of Virkon S, a commercial disinfectant as a virucidal spray against human enterovirus 71 (HEV71), the causative agent of the fatal form of hand, foot and mouth disease was examined. At least one log10 reduction of HEV71 titer was achieved when one spray of Virkon (1% or 2%) with ten minutes of contact time was applied. The infectivity was completely lost when four sprays of 1% or 2% Virkon were applied, suggesting that at least four sprays of 1% Virkon to the surface bound HEV71 was necessary to completely inactivate the virus. These findings suggest that Virkon S at the proper concentration is suitable to be used as an effective and easy to use disinfectant against HEV71. PMID:16114171

  5. The Antiviral Effect of Baicalin on Enterovirus 71 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Tingting; Jin, Yue; Cheng, Jianpin; Wan, Changbiao; Qian, Weihe; Xing, Fei; Shi, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin is a flavonoid compound extracted from Scutellaria roots that has been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. However, the antiviral effect of baicalin on enterovirus 71 (EV71) is still unknown. In this study, we found that baicalin showed inhibitory activity on EV71 infection and was independent of direct virucidal or prophylactic effect and inhibitory viral absorption. The expressions of EV71/3D mRNA and polymerase were significantly blocked by baicalin treatment at early stages of EV71 infection. In addition, baicalin could decrease the expressions of FasL and caspase-3, as well as inhibit the apoptosis of EV71-infected human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. Altogether, these results indicate that baicalin exhibits potent antiviral effect on EV71 infection, probably through inhibiting EV71/3D polymerase expression and Fas/FasL signaling pathways. PMID:26295407

  6. Concentration and purification of enteroviruses by membrane chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, M; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

    1976-01-01

    A simple procedure for the concentration and partial purification of enteroviruses from tissue culture harvests is described. After removal of acid-precipitating components with a cationic detergent, the detergent and most membrane-coating components were removed by treatment with a cationic-exchange resin. The resin effluent was then acidified, and the virus was adsorbed to epoxy-fiberglass membranes. Virus was then eluted with pH 11.5 glycine-NaOH buffer. Since this eluate contains no orgcentrated simply by acidifying the eluate and passing it through a smaller membrane than that used for the first concentration. As high as 500-fold concentrations can be achieved, with a high efficiency of recovery. PMID:10843

  7. A Predicted Secondary Structural Domain within the Internal Ribosome Entry Site of Echovirus 12 Mediates a Cell-Type-Specific Block to Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Bradrick, Shelton S.; Lieben, Elizabeth A.; Carden, Bruce M.; Romero, Jos R.

    2001-01-01

    The enterovirus 5? nontranslated region (NTR) contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), which facilitates translation initiation of the viral open reading frame in a 5? (m7GpppN) cap-independent manner, and cis-acting signals for positive-strand RNA replication. For several enteroviruses, the 5? NTR has been shown to determine the virulence phenotype. We have constructed a chimera consisting of the putative IRES element from the Travis strain of echovirus 12 (ECV12), a wild-type, relatively nonvirulent human enterovirus, exchanged with the homologous region of a full-length infectious clone of coxsackievirus B3 (CBV3). The resulting chimera, known as ECV12(5?NTR)CBV3, replicates similarly to CBV3 in human and simian cell lines yet, unlike CBV3, is completely restricted for growth on two primary murine cell lines at 37C. By utilizing a reverse-genetics approach, the growth restriction phenotype was localized to the predicted stem-loop II within the IRES of ECV12. In addition, a revertant of ECV12(5?NTR)CBV3 was isolated which possessed three transition mutations and had restored capability for replication in the utilized murine cell lines. Assays for cardiovirulence indicated that the ECV12 IRES is responsible for a noncardiovirulent phenotype in a murine model for acute myocarditis. The results indicate that the 5? NTRs of ECV12 and CBV3 exhibit variable intracellular requirements for function and serve as secondary determinants of tissue or species tropism. PMID:11413314

  8. [Infectious diarrhea in the adult].

    PubMed

    Rampal, P; Hébuterne, X; Fosse, T

    1989-12-11

    Infectious diarrhoeas are usually divided into two types; toxinogenic and invasive. Invasive diarrhoeas are copious and responsible for dehydration which is the principal clinical sign; mucosal lesions and bacteraemia are absent. The most typical of toxinogenic diarrhoeas is cholera, but enterotoxicogenic E. coli and Aeromonas infections have similar clinical features. In invasive diarrhoeas the responsible microorganisms penetrate into the epithelial cells of the intestine, producing fever and stools that contain blood and mucus. However, some organisms causing invasive diarrhoeas secrete cytotoxins; they include Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, some strains of E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia spp. When diarrhoea occurs in patients under antibiotics pseudomembranous colitis due to the proliferation of Clostridium difficile must be suspected; the diagnosis is suggested by endoscopy and confirmed by bacteriology. Toxic and infectious diarrhoeas due to food are increasingly frequent; they are usually caused by Salmonella spp., but sometimes by Clostridium perfringens or Staphylococcus aureus. In patients with suspected infectious diarrhoea symptomatic treatment combined or not with intestinal antibacterial agents is immediately initiated in most cases; stool cultures are reserved to severe or protracted diarrhoeas. Specimens must be collected under the best conditions and rapidly sent to the laboratory. PMID:2602888

  9. Mapping Enterovirus A71 Antigenic Determinants from Viral Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng-Wen; Tai, Ching-Hui; Fonville, Judith M.; Lin, Chin-Hui; Wang, Shih-Min; Liu, Ching-Chung; Su, Ih-Jen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) belongs to the Enterovirus A species in the Picornaviridae family. Several vaccines against EV-A71, a disease causing severe neurological complications or even death, are currently under development and being tested in clinical trials, and preventative vaccination programs are expected to start soon. To characterize the potential for antigenic change of EV-A71, we compared the sequences of two antigenically diverse genotype B4 and B5 strains of EV-A71 and identified substitutions at residues 98, 145, and 164 in the VP1 capsid protein as antigenic determinants. To examine the effects of these three substitutions on antigenicity, we constructed a series of recombinant viruses containing different mutation combinations at these three residues with a reverse genetics system and then investigated the molecular basis of antigenic changes with antigenic cartography. We found that a novel EV-A71 mutant, containing lysine, glutamine, and glutamic acid at the respective residues 98, 145, and 164 in the VP1 capsid protein, exhibited neutralization reduction against patients' antisera and substantially increased virus binding ability to human cells. These observations indicated that this low-neutralization-reactive EV-A71 VP1-98K/145Q/164E mutant potentially increases viral binding ability and that surveillance studies should look out for these mutants, which could compromise vaccine efficacy. IMPORTANCE Emerging and reemerging EV-A71 viruses can cause severe neurological etiology, primarily affecting children, especially around Asia-Pacific countries. We identified a set of mutations in EV-A71 that both reduced neutralization activity against humoral immunity in antisera of patients and healthy adults and greatly increased the viral binding ability to cells. These findings provide important insights for EV-A71 antigenic determinants and emphasize the importance of continuous surveillance, especially after EV-A71 vaccination programs begin. PMID:26339057

  10. Human enteroviruses in oysters and their overlying waters.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S M; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

    1979-03-01

    The presence of enteroviruses in oysters and oyster-harvesting waters of the Texas Gulf coast was monitored over a period of 10 months. Viruses were detected in water and oyster samples obtained from areas both open and closed to shellfish harvesting. Viruses were detected periodically in waters that met current bacteriological standards for shellfish harvesting. No significant statistical relationship was demonstrated between virus concentration in oysters and the bacteriological and physiochemical quality of water and shellfish. Viruses in water were, however, moderately correlated with total coliforms in water and oysters and with fecal coliforms in oysters. Total coliforms in water were realted to total coliforms in sediment were related only to total coliforms in sediment. Among the physiochemical characteristics of water, turbidity was related statistically to the organic matter content of water and to fecal coliforms in water. There was a marked effect of rainfall on the bacteriological quality of water. Of a total of 44 water samples, 26 yielded virus in concentrations from 4 to 167 plaque-forming units per 100-gallon (ca. 378.5-liter) sample. Of a total of 40 pools of 10 to 12 oysters each, virus was found in 14 pools at a concentration of 6 to 224 plaque-forming units per 100 g of oyster meat. On five occasions, virus was found in water samples when no virus could be detected in oysters harvested from the same sites. This study indicates that current bacteriological standards for determining the safety of shellfish and shellfish-growing waters do no reflect the occurrence of enteroviruses. PMID:222210

  11. Human enteroviruses in oysters and their overlying waters.

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, S M; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

    1979-01-01

    The presence of enteroviruses in oysters and oyster-harvesting waters of the Texas Gulf coast was monitored over a period of 10 months. Viruses were detected in water and oyster samples obtained from areas both open and closed to shellfish harvesting. Viruses were detected periodically in waters that met current bacteriological standards for shellfish harvesting. No significant statistical relationship was demonstrated between virus concentration in oysters and the bacteriological and physiochemical quality of water and shellfish. Viruses in water were, however, moderately correlated with total coliforms in water and oysters and with fecal coliforms in oysters. Total coliforms in water were realted to total coliforms in sediment were related only to total coliforms in sediment. Among the physiochemical characteristics of water, turbidity was related statistically to the organic matter content of water and to fecal coliforms in water. There was a marked effect of rainfall on the bacteriological quality of water. Of a total of 44 water samples, 26 yielded virus in concentrations from 4 to 167 plaque-forming units per 100-gallon (ca. 378.5-liter) sample. Of a total of 40 pools of 10 to 12 oysters each, virus was found in 14 pools at a concentration of 6 to 224 plaque-forming units per 100 g of oyster meat. On five occasions, virus was found in water samples when no virus could be detected in oysters harvested from the same sites. This study indicates that current bacteriological standards for determining the safety of shellfish and shellfish-growing waters do no reflect the occurrence of enteroviruses. PMID:222210

  12. Infectious diarrhea: an overview.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Brandon; Surawicz, Christina M

    2014-08-01

    Diarrheal disease, which is most often caused by infectious pathogens, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children. This is particularly true in developing countries. Recent outbreaks of infectious diarrhea in developed countries, including the USA, are often attributed to food handling and distribution practices and highlight the need for continued vigilance in this area. Another common cause of infectious diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), has historically been associated with the use of antibiotics and exposure to a health-care setting but is now increasingly common in the community in persons who lack the typical risk factors. Recent scientific advances have also led to new and proposed new therapies for infectious diarrhea, including fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for recurrent C. difficile infection (RCDI), probiotics for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and CDI, and the use of zinc supplementation in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. Other therapies that have been in use for decades, such as the oral rehydration solution (ORS), continue to be the targets of scientific advancement in an effort to improve delivery and efficacy. Finally, post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is an increasingly recognized occurrence. Attempts to understand the mechanism behind this phenomenon are underway and may provide insight into potential treatment options. PMID:25064318

  13. Emergent Infectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Khairallah, Moncef; Jelliti, Bechir; Jenzeri, Salah

    2009-01-01

    Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management. PMID:20404989

  14. Peptidomimetic ethyl propenoate covalent inhibitors of the enterovirus 71 3C protease: a P2-P4 study.

    PubMed

    Ang, Melgious J Y; Lau, Qiu Ying; Ng, Fui Mee; Then, Siew Wen; Poulsen, Anders; Cheong, Yuen Kuen; Ngoh, Zi Xian; Tan, Yong Wah; Peng, Jianhe; Keller, Thomas H; Hill, Jeffrey; Chu, Justin J H; Brian Chia, C S

    2016-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly infectious pathogen primarily responsible for Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, particularly among children. Currently, no approved antiviral drug has been developed against this disease. The EV71 3C protease is deemed an attractive drug target due to its crucial role in viral polyprotein processing. Rupintrivir, a peptide-based inhibitor originally developed to target the human rhinovirus 3C protease, was found to inhibit the EV71 3C protease. In this communication, we report the inhibitory activities of 30 Rupintrivir analogs against the EV71 3C protease. The most potent inhibitor, containing a P2 ring-constrained phenylalanine analog (compound 9), was found to be two-fold more potent than Rupintrivir (IC50 value 3.4 ± 0.4 versus 7.3 ± 0.8 μM). Our findings suggest that employing geometrically constrained residues in peptide-based protease inhibitors can potentially enhance their inhibitory activities. PMID:25792507

  15. Why infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, John G

    2014-09-15

    Infectious diseases is a broad discipline that is almost unique in contemporary medicine with its ability to cure and prevent disease, to identify specific disease causes (microbes), and to deal with diverse, sometimes massive outbreaks. The value of the infectious disease practitioner is now magnified by the crisis of antibiotic resistance, the expanding consequences of international travel, the introduction of completely new pathogen diagnostics, and healthcare reform with emphasis on infection prevention and cost in dollars and lives. Infectious disease careers have great personal rewards to the practitioner based on these observations. It is unfortunate that we have been so effective in our work, but relatively ineffective in convincing the healthcare system of this value. PMID:25151484

  16. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James (York, PA)

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  17. Large-scale screening and characterization of enteroviruses and kobuviruses infecting pigs in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Dung, Nguyen; Anh, Pham Hong; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Hien, Vo Be; Sharp, C; Rabaa, M; Berto, A; Campbell, James; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy; Woolhouse, Mark E; Bryant, Juliet E; Simmonds, Peter

    2016-02-01

    A recent survey of pigs in Dong Thap province, Vietnam identified a high frequency of enterovirus species G (EV-G) infection (144/198; 72.7 %). Amongst these was a plethora of EV-G types (EV-G1, EV-G6 and four new types EV-G8-EV-G11). To better characterize the genetic diversity of EV-G and investigate the possible existence of further circulating types, we performed a larger-scale study on 484 pig and 45 farm-bred boar faecal samples collected in 2012 and 2014, respectively. All samples from the previous and current studies were also screened for kobuviruses. The overall EV infection frequency remained extremely high (395/484; 81.6 %), but with comparable detection rates and viral loads between healthy and diarrhoeic pigs; this contrasted with less frequent detection of EV-G in boars (4/45; 8.9 %). EV was most frequently detected in pigs ≤ 14 weeks old (∼95 %) and declined in older pigs. Infections with EV-G1 and EV-G6 were most frequent, whilst less commonly detected types included EV-G3, EV-G4 and EV-G8-EV-G11, and five new types (EV-G12-EV-G16). In contrast, kobuvirus infection frequency was significantly higher in diarrhoeic pigs (40.9 versus 27.6 %; P = 0.01). Kobuviruses also showed contrasting epizootiologies and age associations; a higher prevalence was found in boars (42 %) compared with domestic pigs (29 %), with the highest infection frequency amongst pigs >52 weeks old. Although genetically diverse, all kobuviruses identified belonged to the species Aichivirus C. In summary, this study confirms infection with EV-G was endemic in Vietnamese domestic pigs and exhibits high genetic diversity and extensive inter-type recombination. PMID:26653281

  18. Non-diarrhoeal increased frequency of bowel movements (IFoBM-ND): enterovirus association with the symptoms in children

    PubMed Central

    Rao, C Durga; Maiya, P P; Babu, M Ananda

    2014-01-01

    Objective Infectious and non-infectious causes are associated with increased frequency of bowel movements (IFoBM). But, a viral aetiology to non-diarrhoeal IFoBM (IFoBM-ND) has not been described. Owing to an accidental infection by an echovirus 19 strain, persistent diarrhoea-associated virus, isolated from a child with persistent diarrhoea, DCR experienced persistent IFoBM-ND with an urgency to pass apparently normal stools more than once each day for about 3 months. A follow-up study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of IFoBM-ND, and association of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with the symptom in infants from birth to 2 years. Design A cohort of 140 newborns was followed for 6 months to 2 years from birth for IFoBM-ND. Stool samples collected every 14 days were examined for NPEVs, rotavirus and other viral/bacterial agents for their possible association with IFoBM-ND and diarrhoea. Results Of 403 NPEV infection episodes among 4545 oral polio vaccine strains-negative stool samples, approximately 29% were associated with IFoBM-ND (15% acute and 14% persistent), including resolution of 74% of constipation episodes, and 18% with diarrhoea, suggesting that about 47% of NPEV infection episodes in children below 2 years of age are associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. About 83% of IFoBM-ND episodes are associated with the NPEV infection and 17% of the episodes are of unknown aetiology. Conclusions NPEV is the single most frequently detected viral agent in children with IFoBM-ND and its association with the symptom is highly significant, warranting detailed investigations on the role of NPEVs in gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:26462266

  19. Oral immunization with recombinant enterovirus 71 VP1 formulated with chitosan protects mice against lethal challenge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the etiologic agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-Pacific region, Many strategies have been applied to develop EV71 vaccines but no vaccines are currently available. Mucosal immunization of the VP1, a major immunogenic capsid protein of EV71, may be an alternative way to prevent EV71 infection. Results In this study, mucosal immunogenicity and protect function of recombinant VP1 protein (rVP1) in formulation with chitosan were tested and assessed in female ICR mouse model. The results showed that the oral immunization with rVP1 induced VP1-specific IgA antibodies in intestine, feces, vagina, and the respiratory tract and serum-specific IgG and neutralization antibodies in vaccinated mice. Splenocytes from rVP1-immunized mice induced high levels of Th1 (cytokine IFN-?), Th2 (cytokine IL-4) and Th3 (cytokine TGF-?) type immune responses after stimulation. Moreover, rVP1-immunized mother mice conferred protection (survival rate up to 30%) on neonatal mice against a lethal challenge of 103 plaque-forming units (PFU) EV71. Conclusions These data indicated that oral immunization with rVP1 in formulation with chitosan was effective in inducing broad-spectrum immune responses and might be a promising subunit vaccine candidate for preventing EV71 infection. PMID:24885121

  20. Controlling Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can

  1. Failure of indicator bacteria to reflect the occurrence of enteroviruses in marine waters.

    PubMed Central

    Gerba, C P; Goyal, S M; LaBelle, R L; Cech, I; Bodgan, G F

    1979-01-01

    The results of several studies conducted along the upper Texas Gulf coast, where a substantial amount of quantitative virological data were collected, are compared to bacteriological indicators and other environmental factors on a statistical basis. Variables common to all these studies were anlayzed by multivariate regression. Although multivariate analysis indicated that the number of viruses detected in water was related to rainfall, salinity, and total coliforms in the water, the amount of variation in the number of viruses accounted for by these factors was not large enough to make them good predictors. Enteroviruses were detected 43 per cent of the time in recreational waters considered acceptable as judged by coliform standards, and 44 per cent of the time when judged by fecal coliform standards. Enteroviruses were detected 35 per cent of the time in waters which met acceptable standards for shellfish-harvesting. Our failure to correlate the occurrence of enteroviruses in marine waters with indicator bacteria, and the frequent occurrence of enteroviruses in water which met current bacteriological standards, indicates that these standards do not reflect the occurrence of enteroviruses, and perhaps other human pathogenic viruses, in marine waters. PMID:228561

  2. Adaptation of Enterovirus 71 to Adult Interferon Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Caine, Elizabeth A.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Santangelo, Joseph D.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2013-01-01

    Non-polio enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71), have caused severe and fatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-Pacific region. The development of a vaccine or antiviral against these pathogens has been hampered by the lack of a reliable small animal model. In this study, a mouse adapted EV71 strain was produced by conducting serial passages through A129 (?/? interferon (IFN) receptor deficient) and AG129 (?/?, ? IFN receptor deficient) mice. A B2 sub genotype of EV71 was inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) into neonatal AG129 mice and brain-harvested virus was subsequently passaged through 12 and 15 day-old A129 mice. When tested in 10 week-old AG129 mice, this adapted strain produced 100% lethality with clinical signs including limb paralysis, eye irritation, loss of balance, and death. This virus caused only 17% mortality in same age A129 mice, confirming that in the absence of a functional IFN response, adult AG129 mice are susceptible to infection by adapted EV71 isolates. Subsequent studies in adult AG129 and young A129 mice with the adapted EV71 virus examined the efficacy of an inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine and determined the role of humoral immunity in protection. Passive transfer of rabbit immune sera raised against the EV71 vaccine provided protection in a dose dependent manner in 15 day-old A129 mice. Intramuscular injections (i.m.) in five week-old AG129 mice with the alum adjuvanted vaccine also provided protection against the mouse adapted homologous strain. No clinical signs of disease or mortality were observed in vaccinated animals, which received a prime-and-boost, whereas 71% of control animals were euthanized after exhibiting systemic clinical signs (P<0.05). The development of this animal model will facilitate studies on EV71 pathogenesis, antiviral testing, the evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates, and has the potential to establish correlates of protection studies. PMID:23527208

  3. The structure-function relationship of the enterovirus 3'-UTR.

    PubMed

    Zoll, Jan; Heus, Hans A; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Melchers, Willem J G

    2009-02-01

    Essential processes in living cells are carried out by large complex assemblies, which typically consist of a large number of proteins and frequently also contain nucleic acids, mostly RNA [Alberts, B., 1998. The cell as a collection of protein machines: preparing the next generation of molecular biologists. Cell 92, 291-294]. These large biomolecular complexes carry out biological processes in highly sophisticated ways: molecules do not move around randomly in the cell and interact by chance, but are guided to these "macromolecular machines", in which the number of possible collisions is restricted to a few possibilities, based, e.g., on the specificity of protein-RNA recognition. While the coding capacity of RNA lies within its sequence, the shape of an RNA molecule determines other functionalities such as stability, intra- and intermolecular interactions, catalytic activity, regulation of cellular processes, etc. [Doudna, J.A., 2000. Structural genomics of RNA. Nat. Struct. Biol. 7, 954-956; Cech, T.R. 2000. Structural biology. The ribosome is a ribozyme. Science 289, 878-879]. RNA structures in macromolecular machines are important features in assembly, target recognition and activity. Viral RNA molecules contain cis- and/or trans-acting control elements that, as exemplified by internal ribosomal entry sites and origins of genome replication, consist of complex multidomain structures [Andino, R., Rieckhof, G.E., Achacoso, P.L., Baltimore D., 1993. Poliovirus RNA synthesis utilizes an RNP complex formed around the 5'-end of viral RNA. EMBO J. 12, 3587-3598; Melchers, W.J.G., Hoenderop, J.G.J., Bruins Slot, H.J., Pleij, C.W.A., Pilipenko, E.V., Agol, V.I., Galama, J.M.D., 1997. Kissing of the two predominant hairpin loops in the coxsackie B virus 3' untranslated region is the essential structural feature of the origin of replication required for negative-strand RNA synthesis. J. Virol. 71, 686-696]. The formation of these structures is involved in the specific recognition of ligands or serves to support the structural integrity of the whole element. The replication of the enterovirus RNA is carried out by a large biomolecular complex formed by cis-acting RNA elements found in the 5'- and 3'-UTR of the virus genome and several cellular and viral proteins. This review will focus on RNA elements in the 3'-UTR of enteroviruses. PMID:18706945

  4. Enterovirus spectrum from the active surveillance of hand foot and mouth disease patients under the clinical trial of inactivated Enterovirus A71 vaccine in Jiangsu, China, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Bian, Lian-Lian; Lu, Wei-Wei; Li, Jing-Xin; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Ye, Qiang; Xu, Miao; Li, Xiu-Ling; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Liang, Zheng-Lun

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological data from active surveillance on human enterovirus, which could cause hand, foot, and mouth disease, were limited. An active surveillance system was used to investigate the enterovirus spectrum and the incidence of different enteroviruses in infants aged 6-35 months in Jiangsu Province from 2012 to 2013. Fifty-nine infants were randomly selected from 522 non-EV-A71/CV-A16 HFMD patients. We collected 173 throat swabs and 174 rectal swabs from these infants. RT-PCR was used to amplify 5'-UTR and VP1 regions of enteroviruses and the serotypes were determined by the sequence comparison using BLAST. Twenty-one non-EV-A71/CA16 enterovirus serotypes were detected in those infants. E16, E18 were firstly reported in HFMD patients. The four top common non-EV-A71/CV-A enteroviruses among infants were CV-B3, CV-A10, CV-A6, and E9 with the HFMD incidence rates at 1.4%, 0.84%, 0.56%, and 0.47%, respectively. Over 20.8% patients were co-infected with multiple enteroviruses. Neither the course of sickness nor clinical symptoms of the co-infected patients was more severe than those infected with single enterovirus. Two patients were infected different enterovirus successively within 2 months. Several new enterovirus serotypes and multiple models of infection associated with HFMD were discovered through the active surveillance system. These data provide a better understanding of the viral etiology of HFMD. J. Med. Virol. 87:2009-2017, 2015. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26010334

  5. Enterovirus C strains circulating in Nigeria and their contribution to the emergence of recombinant circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses.

    PubMed

    Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle; Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas

    2015-03-01

    Between 2005 and 2011, 23 lineages of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) were detected in Nigeria with nonstructural region (NSR) of non-polio enterovirus C (NPEV-C) origin. However, no information exists on NPEV-C strains recombining with oral poliovirus type 2 vaccine strains (OPV2) to make type 2 cVDPVs (cVDPV2s) in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to investigate the probable contribution of NPEV-Cs recently isolated in the region to the emergence of cVDPV2s. Eleven enterovirus C (EV-C) strains (8 NPEV-Cs and 3 PV2s) previously isolated by the authors were analysed in this study. All 11 isolates were assayed for cell-line-dependent growth restriction in four cell lines (LLC-MK2, MCF-7, RD and L20B). Subsequently, the isolates were subjected to RT-PCR specific for VP1 and 3Dpol/3'-UTR of EV-C. All PCR products were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was performed. All eight NPEV-Cs replicated exclusively in the MCF-7 cell line, while the three PV2s replicated in all four cell lines. The eight NPEV-Cs were identified as CVA13 (7 isolates) and CVA20 (1 isolate) by VP1 analysis, while all 11 isolates were confirmed to be EV-Cs by 3Dpol/3'-UTR analysis. In addition, phylogeny violations suggested that some cVDPVs might have recombined with common ancestors of the NPEV-Cs described in this study. This was confirmed by the scatter plot of divergence in VP1 against that of 3Dpol/3'-UTR sequences for pairs of isolates. The results of this study showed that the NSR of unknown origin found in cVDPVs from the region might have come from NPEV-Cs (e.g., CVA13 and CVA20) circulating in Nigeria. PMID:25559670

  6. The compatibility of inactivated-Enterovirus 71 vaccination with Coxsackievirus A16 and Poliovirus immunizations in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Shao, Jie; Ying, Zhifang; Gao, Fan; Yao, Xin; Li, Changgui; Ye, Qiang; Xu, Miao; Li, Rongcheng; Zhu, Fengcai; Liang, Zhenglun

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the key pathogen for Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and can result in severe neurological complications and death among young children. Three inactivated-EV71 vaccines have gone through phase III clinical trials and have demonstrated good safety and efficacy. These vaccines will benefit young children under the threat of severe HFMD. However, the potential immunization-related compatibility for different enterovirus vaccines remains unclear, making it hard to include the EV71 vaccine in Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Here, we measured the neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) against EV71, Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and Poliovirus from infants enrolled in those EV71 vaccine clinical trials. The results indicated that the levels of NTAb GMTs for EV71 increased significantly in all 3 vaccine groups (high, middle and low dosages, respectively) post-vaccination. Seroconversion ratios and Geometric mean fold increase were significantly higher in the vaccine groups (?7/9 and 8.9?228.1) than in the placebo group (?1/10 and 0.8?1.7, P < 0.05). But no similar NTAb response trends were found in CA16 and 3 types of Poliovirus. The decrease of 3 types of Poliovirus NTAb GMTs and an increase of CA16 GMTs post-EV71-vaccination were found in vaccine and placebo groups. Further animal study on CA16 and poliovirus vaccine co-immunization or pre-immunization with EV71 vaccine in mice indicated that there was no NTAb cross-activity between EV71 and CA16/Poliovirus. Our research showed that inactivated-EV71 vaccine has good specific-neutralizing capacity and can be included in EPI. PMID:25715318

  7. The compatibility of inactivated-Enterovirus 71 vaccination with Coxsackievirus A16 and Poliovirus immunizations in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Shao, Jie; Ying, Zhifang; Gao, Fan; Yao, Xin; Li, Changgui; Ye, Qiang; Xu, Miao; Li, Rongcheng; Zhu, Fengcai; Liang, Zhenglun

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the key pathogen for Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and can result in severe neurological complications and death among young children. Three inactivated-EV71 vaccines have gone through phase III clinical trials and have demonstrated good safety and efficacy. These vaccines will benefit young children under the threat of severe HFMD. However, the potential immunization-related compatibility for different enterovirus vaccines remains unclear, making it hard to include the EV71 vaccine in Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Here, we measured the neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) against EV71, Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and Poliovirus from infants enrolled in those EV71 vaccine clinical trials. The results indicated that the levels of NTAb GMTs for EV71 increased significantly in all 3 vaccine groups (high, middle and low dosages, respectively) post-vaccination. Seroconversion ratios and Geometric mean fold increase were significantly higher in the vaccine groups (≥7/9 and 8.9~228.1) than in the placebo group (≤1/10 and 0.8~1.7, P < 0.05). But no similar NTAb response trends were found in CA16 and 3 types of Poliovirus. The decrease of 3 types of Poliovirus NTAb GMTs and an increase of CA16 GMTs post-EV71-vaccination were found in vaccine and placebo groups. Further animal study on CA16 and poliovirus vaccine co-immunization or pre-immunization with EV71 vaccine in mice indicated that there was no NTAb cross-activity between EV71 and CA16/Poliovirus. Our research showed that inactivated-EV71 vaccine has good specific-neutralizing capacity and can be included in EPI. PMID:25715318

  8. Complete nucleotide sequence of infectious Coxsackievirus B3 cDNA: two initial 5' uridine residues are regained during plus-strand RNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Klump, W M; Bergmann, I; Mller, B C; Ameis, D; Kandolf, R

    1990-01-01

    A full-length reverse-transcribed, infectious cDNA copy of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) was used to determine the nucleotide sequence of this cardiotropic enterovirus. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence of the viral precursor polyprotein with the sequences of other group B coxsackieviruses (CVB1 and CVB4) demonstrates a high degree of genetic identity. They share about 80% homology at the nucleotide level and about 90% when the amino acid sequences of the polyproteins are compared. The potential processing sites of the coxsackievirus polyproteins, as deduced from alignment with the poliovirus sequence, are conserved among these enteroviruses with the exception of the cleavage sites between VP1 and 2Apro and between polypeptides 2B and 2C. Comparison of the 5' termini of the enteroviral genomes reveals a high degree of identity, including the initial 5' consensus UUAAAACAGC, suggesting essential functions in virus replication. An important finding concerning the molecular basis of infectivity was that both recombinant CVB3 cDNA and in vitro-synthesized CVB3 RNA transcripts are infectious, although two initial 5' uridine residues found on the authentic CVB3 RNA were missing. Here, we report that cDNA-generated CVB3, as well as CVB3 generated by in vitro-synthesized RNA transcripts, regains the authentic initial 5' uridine residues during replication in transfected cells, indicating that the picornaviral primer molecule VPg-pUpU may be uridylylated in a template-independent fashion. The generation of virus or virus mutants with infectious recombinant CVB3 cDNA and in vitro-synthesized infectious CVB3 transcripts should provide a valuable means for studying the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of this cardiotropic enterovirus. Images PMID:2157045

  9. Immunogenicity and performance of an enterovirus 71 virus-like-particle vaccine in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Lim, Pei-Yin; Hickey, Andrew C; Jamiluddin, Mohamad F; Hamid, Sharifah; Kramer, Joshua; Santos, Rosemary; Bossart, Katharine N; Cardosa, M Jane

    2015-11-01

    A vaccine against human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is urgently needed to combat outbreaks of EV-A71 and in particular, the serious neurological complications that manifest during these outbreaks. In this study, an EV-A71 virus-like-particle (VLP) based on a B5 subgenogroup (EV-A71-B5 VLP) was generated using an insect cell/baculovirus platform. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the purified VLP had a highly native procapsid structure and initial studies in vivo demonstrated that the VLPs were immunogenic in mice. The impact of VLP immunization on infection was examined in non-human primates using a VLP prime-boost strategy prior to EV-A71 challenge. Rhesus macaques were immunized on day 0 and day 21 with VLPs (100 ?g/dose) containing adjuvant or with adjuvant alone (controls), and were challenged with EV-A71 on day 42. Complete blood counts, serum chemistry, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and histopathology results were mostly normal in vaccinated and control animals after virus challenge demonstrating that the fatal EV-A71-B3 clinical isolate used in this study was not highly virulent in rhesus macaques. Viral genome and/or infectious virus were detected in blood, spleen or brain of two of three control animals, but not in any specimens from the vaccinated animals, indicating that VLP immunization prevented systemic spread of EV-A71 in rhesus macaques. High levels of IgM and IgG were detected in VLP-vaccinated animals and these responses were highly specific for EV-A71 particles and capsid proteins. Serum from vaccinated animals also exhibited similar neutralizing activity against different subgenogroups of EV-A71 demonstrating that the VLPs induced cross-neutralizing antibodies. In conclusion, our EV-A71-B5 VLP is safe, highly immunogenic, and prevents systemic EV-A71-B3 infection in nonhuman primates making it a viable attractive vaccine candidate for EV-A71. PMID:26271825

  10. Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, T P; Eterradossi, N; Toquin, D; Meulemans, G

    2000-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) (Gumboro disease) has been described throughout the world, and the socio-economic significance of the disease is considerable world-wide. Various forms of the disease have been described, but typing remains unclear, since antigenic and pathotypic criteria are used indiscriminately, and the true incidence of different types is difficult to determine. Moreover, the infection, when not fatal, leads to a degree of immunosuppression which is often difficult to measure. Finally, the control measures used are subject to variations, and seldom follow a specific or standardised plan. In the context of expanding international trade, the authors provide an overview of existing knowledge on the subject to enhance available information on the epidemiology of IBD, the identification of reliable viral markers for diagnosis, and the implementation of specific control measures to ensure a global and co-ordinated approach to the disease. PMID:10935278

  11. 2014 outbreak of enterovirus D68 in North America.

    PubMed

    Messacar, Kevin; Abzug, Mark J; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2016-05-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging picornavirus which causes severe respiratory disease, predominantly in children. In 2014, the largest and most widespread outbreak of EV-D68 described to date was reported in North America. Hospitals throughout the United States and Canada reported surges in patient volumes and resource utilization from August to October, 2014. In the US a total of 1,153 infections were confirmed in 49 states, although this is an underestimate of the likely millions of cases that occurred but were not tested. EV-D68 was detected in 14 patients who died; the role of the virus in these deaths is unknown. A possible association between EV-D68 and cases of acute flaccid paralysis with spinal cord gray matter lesions, known as acute flaccid myelitis, was observed during the outbreak and is under investigation. The 2014 outbreak of EV-D68 in North America demonstrates the public health importance of this emerging pathogen. J. Med. Virol. 88:739-745, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26489019

  12. Pyrazolopyrimidines: Potent Inhibitors Targeting the Capsid of Rhino- and Enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Vadim A; Braun, Heike; Richter, Martina; Riabova, Olga B; Kirchmair, Johannes; Kazakova, Elena S; Seidel, Nora; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2015-10-01

    There are currently no drugs available for the treatment of enterovirus (EV)-induced acute and chronic diseases such as the common cold, meningitis, encephalitis, pneumonia, and myocarditis with or without consecutive dilated cardiomyopathy. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of pyrazolopyrimidines, a well-tolerated and potent class of novel EV inhibitors. The compounds inhibit the replication of a broad spectrum of EV in vitro with IC50 values between 0.04 and 0.64 μM for viruses resistant to pleconaril, a known capsid-binding inhibitor, without affecting cytochrome P450 enzyme activity. Using virological and genetics methods, the viral capsid was identified as the target of the most promising, orally bioavailable compound 3-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)amino-6-phenylpyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-4-amine (OBR-5-340). Its prophylactic as well as therapeutic application was proved for coxsackievirus B3-induced chronic myocarditis in mice. The favorable pharmacokinetic, toxicological, and pharmacodynamics profile in mice renders OBR-5-340 a highly promising drug candidate, and the regulatory nonclinical program is ongoing. PMID:26260222

  13. Animal models of enterovirus 71 infection: applications and limitations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus that is responsible for several outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region over the past 15 years. Appropriate animal models are needed to understand EV71 neuropathogenesis better and to facilitate the development of effective vaccines and drugs. Non-human primate models have been used to characterize and evaluate the neurovirulence of EV71 after the early outbreaks in late 1990s. However, these models were not suitable for assessing the neurovirulence level of the virus and were associated with ethical and economic difficulties in terms of broad application. Several strategies have been applied to develop mouse models of EV71 infection, including strategies that employ virus adaption and immunodeficient hosts. Although these mouse models do not closely mimic human disease, they have been applied to determine the pathogenesis of and treatment and prevention of the disease. EV71 receptor-transgenic mouse models have recently been developed and have significantly advanced our understanding of the biological features of the virus and the host-parasite interactions. Overall, each of these models has advantages and disadvantages, and these models are differentially suited for studies of EV71 pathogenesis and/or the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this paper, we review the characteristics, applications and limitation of these EV71 animal models, including non-human primate and mouse models. PMID:24742252

  14. Recent developments in antiviral agents against enterovirus 71 infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Recent EV-71 outbreaks in Asia-Pacific were not limited to mild HFMD, but were associated with severe neurological complications such as aseptic meningitis and brainstem encephalitis, which may lead to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The absence of licensed therapeutics for clinical use has intensified research into anti-EV-71 development. This review highlights the potential antiviral agents targeting EV-71 attachment, entry, uncoating, translation, polyprotein processing, virus-induced formation of membranous RNA replication complexes, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The strategies for antiviral development include target-based synthetic compounds, anti-rhinovirus and poliovirus libraries screening, and natural compound libraries screening. Growing knowledge of the EV-71 life cycle will lead to successful development of antivirals. The continued effort to develop antiviral agents for treatment is crucial in the absence of a vaccine. The coupling of antivirals with an effective vaccine will accelerate eradication of the disease. PMID:24521134

  15. Genome analysis of enterovirus 71 strains differing in mouse pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Yue, Yingying; Song, Nannan; Li, Bingqing; Meng, Hong; Yang, Guiwen; Li, Zhihui; An, Liguo; Qin, Lizeng

    2016-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is occasionally associated with severe neurological diseases. The investigation of virulence determinants of EV71 is rudimentary. Therefore, it is important to understand the relationship between EV71 virulence and genomic information. In this study, a series of analyses about full-length genomic sequence were performed on six EV71 strains isolated from HFMD patients with either severe or mild clinical symptoms. A one-day-old BALB/c mouse model was used to study the infection characteristics. Results showed all six strains were of the subgenogroup C4a. Viral full-length genomic sequence analysis showed that a total of 40 nucleotide differences between strains of highly and low virulence were revealed. Among all mutations, three nucleotide mutations were found in the untranslated region. A mutation, nt115, at internal ribozyme entry site (IRES) caused RNA secondary structural change. The other 37 mutations were all located in the open reading frame resulting in 8 amino acid mutations. Importantly, we discovered that a mutation of amino acid (Asn1617 → Asp1617) in the 3C proteinase (3C(pro)) of highly and low pathogenic strains could lead to conformational change at the active center, suggesting that this site may be a virulence determinant of EV71. PMID:26781949

  16. Characterization of a novel porcine enterovirus in wild boars in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Boros, Akos; Nemes, Csaba; Pankovics, Péter; Bíró, Hunor; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2012-05-01

    Porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) are members of the family Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus. Until now, only three different PEV genotypes (PEV-9 and -10, and PEV-3H/PEV-14) have been detected in domestic pigs, and there is no information about the presence of PEVs in wild animals. Here, we identify and characterize the complete genomes of PEV originated from 5 of 10 (50%) of wild boar (Sus scrofa) piglets by RT-PCR and pyrosequencing. Wild boar/WBD/2011/HUN (JN807387) PEV showed only 67% amino acid identity in VP1 compared to the most closely related prototype PEV-3H/PEV-14. Wild boar enterovirus represents a novel PEV genotype, provisionally called PEV-15. PMID:22350652

  17. Association between Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Type of Infectious Respiratory Disease and All-Cause In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with HIV/AIDS: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Villafuerte-García, Adriana; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Delgado-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; Mongua-Rodríguez, Norma; Montero-Campos, Rogelio; Melchor-Romero, Ada; García-García, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory manifestations of HIV disease differ globally due to differences in current availability of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) programs and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Objective To describe the association between HAART and discharge diagnosis and all-cause in-hospital mortality among hospitalized patients with infectious respiratory disease and HIV/AIDS. Material and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients hospitalized at a specialty hospital for respiratory diseases in Mexico City between January 1st, 2010 and December 31st, 2011. We included patients whose discharge diagnosis included HIV or AIDS and at least one infectious respiratory diagnosis. The information source was the clinical chart. We analyzed the association between HAART for 180 days or more and type of respiratory disease using polytomous logistic regression and all-cause hospital mortality by multiple logistic regressions. Results We studied 308 patients, of whom 206 (66.9%) had been diagnosed with HIV infection before admission to the hospital. The CD4+ lymphocyte median count was 68 cells/mm3 [interquartile range (IQR): 30–150]. Seventy-five (24.4%) cases had received HAART for more than 180 days. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) (n = 142), tuberculosis (n = 63), and bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (n = 60) were the most frequent discharge diagnoses. Receiving HAART for more than 180 days was associated with a lower probability of PJP [Adjusted odd ratio (aOR): 0.245, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.08–0.8, p = 0.02], adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical covariates. HAART was independently associated with reduced odds (aOR 0.214, 95% CI 0.06–0.75) of all-cause in-hospital mortality, adjusting for HIV diagnosis previous to hospitalization, age, access to social security, low socioeconomic level, CD4 cell count, viral load, and discharge diagnoses. Conclusions HAART for 180 days or more was associated with 79% decrease in all-cause in-hospital mortality and lower frequency of PJP as discharge diagnosis. The prevalence of poorly controlled HIV was high, regardless of whether HIV was diagnosed before or during admission. HIV diagnosis and treatment resources should be improved, and strengthening of HAART program needs to be promoted. PMID:26379281

  18. Histologic, infectious, and molecular correlates of idiopathic spontaneous abortion and perinatal mortality.

    PubMed

    Nuovo, Gerard J; Cooper, Lynn D; Bartholomew, Deborah

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the placental and neonatal tissues in fatal cases for a wide variety of infectious agents and cytokine expression. Placentas and corresponding neonatal tissues in 21 consecutive cases of idiopathic spontaneous abortion or perinatal death, before or within 2 days of birth, were tested for an infectious agent. The controls included 10 consecutive cases of fetal and placental tissues from therapeutic abortions, 5 placentas from unremarkable childbirths, and 11 placentas from cases of spontaneous abortion or perinatal death of known cause (ruptured uterus, placenta abruption, prolapsed cord). An intrauterine infection was noted in 16 of 21 (76%) of the placentas associated with neonatal mortality; in each case, the same infectious agent was found in the neonatal tissues, primarily the spleen. The most common infectious agent was enterovirus/coxsackie virus (10 cases); the histologic findings in the placenta were nonspecific. There was strong expression of TNF-alpha in the placenta and spleen of each of the cases of intrauterine infection and in none of the 26 controls. It is concluded that in utero infection and the associated cytokine up-regulation are responsible for many cases of unexplained fetal and neonatal loss. PMID:16106196

  19. Critical Roles of Glucocorticoid-Induced Leucine Zipper in Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV)-Induced Suppression of Type I Interferon Expression and Enhancement of IBDV Growth in Host Cells via Interaction with VP4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhonghua; Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Xiang; Li, Xiaoqi; Cao, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive avian disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). Although IBDV-induced immunosuppression has been well established, the underlying exact molecular mechanism for such induction is not very clear. We report here the identification of IBDV VP4 as an interferon suppressor by interaction with the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) in host cells. We found that VP4 suppressed the expression of type I interferon in HEK293T cells after tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) treatment or Sendai virus (SeV) infection and in DF-1 cells after poly(IC) stimulation. In addition, the VP4-induced suppression of type I interferon could be completely abolished by knockdown of GILZ by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Furthermore, knockdown of GILZ significantly inhibited IBDV growth in host cells, and this inhibition could be markedly mitigated by anti-alpha/beta interferon antibodies in the cell cultures (P < 0.001). Thus, VP4-induced suppression of type I interferon is mediated by interaction with GILZ, a protein that appears to inhibit cell responses to viral infection. PMID:23152515

  20. Bedbugs and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance. PMID:21288844

  1. Banting Memorial Lecture 2010^. Type 2 diabetes as an 'infectious' disease: is this the Black Death of the 21st century?

    PubMed

    Matthews, D R; Matthews, P C

    2011-01-01

    We are currently facing a global pandemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. In some settings, the population prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is 50%, and half of those affected will die from diabetes-related complications. Eight centuries ago, an epidemic of bubonic plague swept across Europe, killing at least half of its victims. We here draw comparisons between these two pandemics, proposing close analogies between the 'Black Death' of the 14th century and the modern-day equivalent of Type 2 diabetes. Both diseases can be considered in terms of an aetiological agent, a reservoir, a vector and a predisposing toxic environment; populations can be considered as highly susceptible to the transmissable agents of Type 2 diabetes in the setting of calorie excess, inadequate food labelling, poorly regulated advertising and sedentary lifestyles. As for tackling a pandemic of a contagious microbial pathogen, we believe that breaking the cycle of transmission in the diabetes epidemic must be underpinned by political will and prompt, decisive legislation backed by the medical community. Far from fearing that such measures edge us towards a 'nanny state', we believe individuals should expect a responsible government to safeguard them from the toxic milieu that puts them at risk of obesity and its complications, and that communities and populations have the right to have their health protected. PMID:21166840

  2. Interleukin-12 in infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Bistoni, F

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that is crucially involved in a wide range of infectious diseases. In several experimental models of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infection, endogenous IL-12 is required for early control of infection and for generation and perhaps maintenance of acquired protective immunity, directed by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and mediated by phagocytes. Although the relative roles of IL-12 and gamma interferon in Th1-cell priming may be to a significant extent pathogen dependent, common to most infections is that IL-12 regulates the magnitude of the gamma interferon response at the initiation of infection, thus potentiating natural resistance, favoring Th1-cell development; and inhibiting Th2 responses. Treatment of animals with IL-12, either alone or as a vaccine adjuvant, has been shown to prevent disease by many of the same infectious agents, by stimulating innate resistance or promoting specific reactivity. Although IL-12 may enhance protective memory responses in vaccination or in combination with antimicrobial chemotherapy, it is yet unclear whether exogenous IL-12 can alter established responses in humans. Continued investigation into the possible application of IL-12 therapy to human infections is warranted by the role of the cytokine in inflammation, immunopathology, and autoimmunity. PMID:9336665

  3. Infectious Considerations in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

  4. Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is perceived as a progressive immune-mediated disease, the clinical diagnosis of which is preceded by an asymptomatic preclinical period of highly variable duration. It has long been postulated that the disease process leading to overt T1D is triggered by an infectious agent, the strongest candidate being a diabetogenic enterovirus. The initiation and progression of the disorder likely requires, in addition to genetic T1D susceptibility, a trigger, an exogenous antigen capable of driving the development of this disease. This may be a dietary antigen similar to gluten in celiac disease. Recent data further suggests that the initiation of autoimmunity is preceded by inflammation reflected by a proinflammatory metabolic serum profile. The cause of the inflammation remains open, but given that the intestinal microbiome appears to differ between individuals who progress to clinical T1D and nonprogressors, one may speculate that changes in the gut microflora might contribute to the inflammatory process. PMID:22762021

  5. An Interaction between Glutathione and the Capsid Is Required for the Morphogenesis of C-Cluster Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Liu, Ying; Wang, Chunling; Strauss, Michael; Rehage, Nina; Chen, Ying-Han; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal; Hogle, James; Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen; Paul, Aniko V.; Jiang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular thiol playing an essential role in preserving a reduced cellular environment. Cellular GSH levels can be efficiently reduced by the GSH biosynthesis inhibitor, L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). The aim of our study was to determine the role of GSH in the growth of two C-cluster enteroviruses, poliovirus type 1 (PV1) and coxsackievirus A20 (CAV20). Our results show that the growth of both PV1 and CAV20 is strongly inhibited by BSO and can be partially reversed by the addition of GSH. BSO has no effect on viral protein synthesis or RNA replication but it strikingly reduces the accumulation of 14S pentamers in infected cells. GSH-pull down assays show that GSH directly interacts with capsid precursors and mature virus made in the absence of BSO whereas capsid precursors produced under GSH-depletion do not bind to GSH. In particular, the loss of binding of GSH may debilitate the stability of 14S pentamers, resulting in their failure to assemble into mature virus. Immunofluorescence cell imaging demonstrated that GSH-depletion did not affect the localization of viral capsid proteins to the replication complex. PV1 BSO resistant (BSOr) mutants evolved readily during passaging of the virus in the presence of BSO. Structural analyses revealed that the BSOr mutations, mapping to VP1 and VP3 capsid proteins, are primarily located at protomer/protomer interfaces. BSOr mutations might, in place of GSH, aid the stability of 14S particles that is required for virion maturation. Our observation that BSOr mutants are more heat resistant and need less GSH than wt virus to be protected from heat inactivation suggests that they possess a more stable capsid. We propose that the role of GSH during enterovirus morphogenesis is to stabilize capsid structures by direct interaction with capsid proteins both during and after the formation of mature virus particles. PMID:24722315

  6. Capacity for Infectious HIV-1 Virion Capture Differs by Envelope Antibody Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pinghuang; Williams, LaTonya D.; Shen, Xiaoying; Bonsignori, Mattia; Vandergrift, Nathan A.; Overman, R. Glenn; Moody, M. Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Stieh, Daniel J.; McCotter, Kerrie L.; French, Audrey L.; Hope, Thomas J.; Shattock, Robin; Haynes, Barton F.

    2014-01-01

    Antibody capacity to recognize infectious virus is a prerequisite of many antiviral functions. We determined the infectious virion capture index (IVCI) of different antibody specificities. Whereas broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), except for an MPER bNAb, selectively captured infectious virions, non-bNAbs and mucosal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive IgG captured subsets of both infectious and noninfectious virions. Infectious virion capture was additive with a mixture of antibodies, providing proof of concept for vaccine-induced antibodies that together have improved capacity to recognize infectious virions. PMID:24554654

  7. Enterovirus D68 receptor requirements unveiled by haploid genetics.

    PubMed

    Baggen, Jim; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Staring, Jacqueline; Jae, Lucas T; Liu, Yue; Guo, Hongbo; Slager, Jasper J; de Bruin, Jost W; van Vliet, Arno L W; Blomen, Vincent A; Overduin, Pieter; Sheng, Ju; de Haan Xander, Cornelis A M; de Vries, Erik; Meijer, Adam; Rossmann, Michael G; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2016-02-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging pathogen that can cause severe respiratory disease and is associated with cases of paralysis, especially among children. Heretofore, information on host factor requirements for EV-D68 infection is scarce. Haploid genetic screening is a powerful tool to reveal factors involved in the entry of pathogens. We performed a genome-wide haploid screen with the EV-D68 prototype Fermon strain to obtain a comprehensive overview of cellular factors supporting EV-D68 infection. We identified and confirmed several genes involved in sialic acid (Sia) biosynthesis, transport, and conjugation to be essential for infection. Moreover, by using knockout cell lines and gene reconstitution, we showed that both α2,6- and α2,3-linked Sia can be used as functional cellular EV-D68 receptors. Importantly, the screen did not reveal a specific protein receptor, suggesting that EV-D68 can use multiple redundant sialylated receptors. Upon testing recent clinical strains, we identified strains that showed a similar Sia dependency, whereas others could infect cells lacking surface Sia, indicating they can use an alternative, nonsialylated receptor. Nevertheless, these Sia-independent strains were still able to bind Sia on human erythrocytes, raising the possibility that these viruses can use multiple receptors. Sequence comparison of Sia-dependent and Sia-independent EV-D68 strains showed that many changes occurred near the canyon that might allow alternative receptor binding. Collectively, our findings provide insights into the identity of the EV-D68 receptor and suggest the possible existence of Sia-independent viruses, which are essential for understanding tropism and disease. PMID:26787879

  8. Enterovirus Encephalitis Increases the Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chou, I-Ching; Lin, Che-Chen; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Enterovirus (EV) infection is a major public health issue throughout the world with potential neurological complications. This study evaluated the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and EV encephalitis in children. Data of reimbursement claims from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in a population-based casecontrol design. The study comprised 2646 children with ADHD who were matched according to sex, age, urbanization level of residence, parental occupation, and baseline year, to people without ADHD at a ratio of 1:10. The index date of the ADHD group was the ADHD date of diagnosis. Histories of EV infections before the index dates were collected and recategorized according to the severity of infection. Compared with children without EV infection, the children with mild EV infection had a 1.16-fold increased risk of ADHD (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.071.26), and the children with severe EV infection had a greater risk of ADHD (OR?=?2.82, 95% CI?=?1.057.57). The results also revealed a significant correlation between ADHD and the severity of EV infection (P for trend?=?0.0001). Patients with EV encephalitis have an increased risk of developing ADHD. Although most EV encephalitis in children has a favorable prognosis, it may be associated with significant long-term neurological sequelae, even in children considered fully recovered at discharge. Neuropsychological testing should be recommended for survivors of childhood EV encephalitis. The causative factors between EV encephalitis and the increased risk of ADHD require further investigation. PMID:25906098

  9. Transgenic mouse model for the study of enterovirus 71 neuropathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Ken; Nagata, Noriyo; Sato, Yuko; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Shimanuki, Midori; Shitara, Hiroshi; Taya, Choji; Koike, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) typically causes mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children, but it can also cause severe neurological disease. Recently, epidemic outbreaks of EV71 with significant mortality have been reported in the Asia-Pacific region, and EV71 infection has become a serious public health concern worldwide. However, there is little information available concerning EV71 neuropathogenesis, and no vaccines or anti-EV71 drugs have been developed. Previous studies of this disease have used monkeys and neonatal mice that are susceptible to some EV71 strains as models. The monkey model is problematic for ethical and economical reasons, and mice that are more than a few weeks old lose their susceptibility to EV71. Thus, the development of an appropriate small animal model would greatly contribute to the study of this disease. Mice lack EV71 susceptibility due to the absence of a receptor for this virus. Previously, we identified the human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (hSCARB2) as a cellular receptor for EV71. In the current study, we generated a transgenic (Tg) mouse expressing hSCARB2 with an expression profile similar to that in humans. Tg mice infected with EV71 exhibited ataxia, paralysis, and death. The most severely affected cells were neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebrum. The pathological features in these Tg mice were generally similar to those of EV71 encephalomyelitis in humans and experimentally infected monkeys. These results suggest that this Tg mouse could represent a useful animal model for the study of EV71 infection. PMID:23959904

  10. The Interplays between Autophagy and Apoptosis Induced by Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Ji; Huang, He; Wang, Jianwei; Jin, Qi; Zhao, Zhendong

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the causative agent of human diseases with distinct severity, from mild hand, foot and mouth disease to severe neurological syndromes, such as encephalitis and meningitis. The lack of understanding of viral pathogenesis as well as lack of efficient vaccine and drugs against this virus impedes the control of EV71 infection. EV71 virus induces autophagy and apoptosis; however, the relationship between EV71-induced autophagy and apoptosis as well as the influence of autophagy and apoptosis on virus virulence remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, it was observed that the Anhui strain of EV71 induced autophagy and apoptosis in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD-A) cells. Additionally, by either applying chemical inhibitors or knocking down single essential autophagic or apoptotic genes, inhibition of EV71 induced autophagy inhibited the apoptosis both at the autophagosome formation stage and autophagy execution stage. However, inhibition of autophagy at the stage of autophagosome and lysosome fusion promoted apoptosis. In reverse, the inhibition of EV71-induced apoptosis contributed to the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-I (LC3-I) to LC3-II and degradation of sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/P62). Furthermore, the inhibition of autophagy in the autophagsome formation stage or apoptosis decreased the release of EV71 viral particles. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, the results of this study not only revealed novel aspect of the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in EV71 infection, but also provided a new insight to control EV71 infection. PMID:23437282

  11. What we are watching—five top global infectious disease threats, 2012: a perspective from CDC’s Global Disease Detection Operations Center

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Kira A.; Ijaz, Kashef; Dowell, Scott F.; Chow, Catherine C.; Chitale, Rohit A.; Bresee, Joseph S.; Mintz, Eric; Pallansch, Mark A.; Wassilak, Steven; McCray, Eugene; Arthur, Ray R.

    2013-01-01

    Disease outbreaks of international public health importance continue to occur regularly; detecting and tracking significant new public health threats in countries that cannot or might not report such events to the global health community is a challenge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Global Disease Detection (GDD) Operations Center, established in early 2007, monitors infectious and non-infectious public health events to identify new or unexplained global public health threats and better position CDC to respond, if public health assistance is requested or required. At any one time, the GDD Operations Center actively monitors approximately 30–40 such public health threats; here we provide our perspective on five of the top global infectious disease threats that we were watching in 2012: (1) avian influenza A (H5N1), (2) cholera, (3) wild poliovirus, (4) enterovirus-71, and (5) extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:23827387

  12. Applicability of integrated cell culture quantitative PCR (ICC-qPCR) for the detection of infectious adenovirus type 2 in UV disinfection studies.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hodon; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Fout, G Shay; Schrantz, Karen A; Hayes, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Practical difficulties of the traditional adenovirus infectivity assay such as intensive labor requirements and longer turnaround period limit the direct use of adenovirus as a testing microorganism for systematic, comprehensive disinfection studies. In this study, we attempted to validate the applicability of integrated cell culture quantitative PCR (ICC-qPCR) as an alternative to the traditional cell culture method with human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2) in a low-pressure UV disinfection study and to further optimize the procedures of ICC-qPCR for 24-well plate format. The relatively high stability of the hexon gene of HAdV2 was observed after exposure to UV radiation, resulting in a maximum gene copy reduction of 0.5 log10 at 280 mJ cm(-2). Two-day post-inoculation incubation period and a maximum spiking level of 10(5) MPN mL(-1) were selected as optimum conditions of ICC-qPCR with the tested HAdV2. An approximate 1:1 correlation of virus quantities by the traditional and ICC-qPCR cell culture based methods suggested that ICC-qPCR is a satisfactory alternative for practical application in HAdV2 disinfection studies. ICC-qPCR results, coupled with a first-order kinetic model (i.e., the inactivation rate constant of 0.0232cm(2) mJ(-1)), showed that an UV dose of 172 mJ cm(-2) achieved a 4-log inactivation credit for HAdV2. This estimate is comparable to other studies with HAdV2 and other adenovirus respiratory types. The newly optimized ICC-qPCR shows much promise for further study on its applicability of other slow replicating viruses in disinfection studies. PMID:26030683

  13. An Insight into Recombination with Enterovirus Species C and Nucleotide G-480 Reversion from the Viewpoint of Neurovirulence of Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Shuangli; Nishimura, Yorihiro; Ye, Xufang; Wang, Dongyan; Jorba, Jaume; Zhu, Hui; An, Hongqiu; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Kew, Olen; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    A poliomyelitis outbreak caused by type 1 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) was identified in China in 2004. Six independent cVDPVs (eight isolates) could be grouped into a single cluster with pathways of divergence different from a single cVDPV progenitor, which circulated and evolved into both a highly neurovirulent lineage and a less neurovirulent lineage. They were as neurovirulent as the wild type 1 Mahoney strain, recombination was absent, and their nucleotide 480-G was identical to that of the Sabin strain. The Guizhou/China cVDPV strains shared 4 amino acid replacements in the NAg sites: 3 located at the BC loop, which may underlie the aberrant results of the ELISA intratypic differentiation (ITD) test. The complete ORF tree diverged into two main branches from a common ancestral infection estimated to have occurred in about mid-September 2003, nine months before the appearance of the VDPV case, which indicated recently evolved VDPV. Further, recombination with species C enteroviruses may indicate the presence and density of these enteroviruses in the population and prolonged virus circulation in the community. The aforementioned cVDPVs has important implications in the global initiative to eradicate polio: high quality surveillance permitted earliest detection and response. PMID:26603565

  14. An Insight into Recombination with Enterovirus Species C and Nucleotide G-480 Reversion from the Viewpoint of Neurovirulence of Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Shuangli; Nishimura, Yorihiro; Ye, Xufang; Wang, Dongyan; Jorba, Jaume; Zhu, Hui; An, Hongqiu; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Kew, Olen; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    A poliomyelitis outbreak caused by type 1 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) was identified in China in 2004. Six independent cVDPVs (eight isolates) could be grouped into a single cluster with pathways of divergence different from a single cVDPV progenitor, which circulated and evolved into both a highly neurovirulent lineage and a less neurovirulent lineage. They were as neurovirulent as the wild type 1 Mahoney strain, recombination was absent, and their nucleotide 480-G was identical to that of the Sabin strain. The Guizhou/China cVDPV strains shared 4 amino acid replacements in the NAg sites: 3 located at the BC loop, which may underlie the aberrant results of the ELISA intratypic differentiation (ITD) test. The complete ORF tree diverged into two main branches from a common ancestral infection estimated to have occurred in about mid-September 2003, nine months before the appearance of the VDPV case, which indicated recently evolved VDPV. Further, recombination with species C enteroviruses may indicate the presence and density of these enteroviruses in the population and prolonged virus circulation in the community. The aforementioned cVDPVs has important implications in the global initiative to eradicate polio: high quality surveillance permitted earliest detection and response. PMID:26603565

  15. "Infectious" Transplantation Tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shixin; Cobbold, Stephen P.; Pope, Heather; Elliott, James; Kioussis, Dimitris; Davies, Joanna; Waldmann, Herman

    1993-02-01

    The maintenance of transplantation tolerance induced in adult mice after short-term treatment with nonlytic monoclonal antibodies to CD4 and CD8 was investigated. CD4^+ T cells from tolerant mice disabled naive lymphocytes so that they too could not reject the graft. The naive lymphocytes that had been so disabled also became tolerant and, in turn, developed the capacity to specifically disable other naive lymphocytes. This process of "infectious" tolerance explains why no further immunosuppression was needed to maintain long-term transplantation tolerance.

  16. Infectious Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C from an African Isolate: Rhesus Macaque Model

    PubMed Central

    Ndung'u, Thumbi; Lu, Yichen; Renjifo, Boris; Touzjian, Neal; Kushner, Nicholas; Pena-Cruz, Victor; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Lee, Tun-Hou; Essex, Max

    2001-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C is responsible for more than 56% of all infections in the HIV and AIDS pandemic. It is the predominant subtype in the rapidly expanding epidemic in southern Africa. To develop a relevant model that would facilitate studies of transmission, pathogenesis, and vaccine development for this subtype, we generated SHIVMJ4, a simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) chimera based on HIV-1 subtype C. SHIVMJ4 contains the majority of env, the entire second exon of tat, and a partial sequence of the second exon of rev, all derived from a CCR5-tropic, primary isolate envelope clone from southern Africa. SHIVMJ4 replicated efficiently in human, rhesus, and pig-tailed macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro but not in CEMx174 cells. To assess in vivo infectivity, SHIVMJ4 was intravenously inoculated into four rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). All four animals became infected as determined through virus isolation, PCR analysis, and viral loads of 107 to 108 copies of viral RNA per ml of plasma during the primary infection phase. We have established a CCR5-tropic SHIVMJ4/rhesus macaque model that may be useful in the studies of HIV-1 subtype C immunology and biology and may also facilitate the evaluation of vaccines to control the spread of HIV-1 subtype C in southern Africa and elsewhere. PMID:11689623

  17. Infectious Molecular Clones with the Nonhomologous Dimer Initiation Sequences Found in Different Subtypes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Can Recombine and Initiate a Spreading Infection In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    St. Louis, Daniel C.; Gotte, Deanna; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Ritchey, David W.; Salminen, Mika O.; Carr, Jean K.; McCutchan, Francine E.

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant forms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been shown to be of major importance in the global AIDS pandemic. Viral RNA dimer formation mediated by the dimerization initiation sequence (DIS) is believed to be essential for viral genomic RNA packaging and therefore for RNA recombination. Here, we demonstrate that HIV-1 recombination and replication are not restricted by variant DIS loop sequences. Three DIS loop forms found among HIV-1 isolates, DIS (CG), DIS (TA), and DIS (TG), when introduced into deletion mutants of HIV-1 recombined efficiently, and the progeny virions replicated with comparable kinetics. A fourth DIS loop form, containing an artificial AAAAAA sequence disrupting the putative DIS loop-loop interactions [DIS (A6)], supported efficient recombination with DIS loop variants; however, DIS (A6) progeny virions exhibited a modest replication disadvantage in mixed cultures. Our studies indicate that the nonhomologous DIS sequences found in different HIV-1 subtypes are not a primary obstacle to intersubtype recombination. PMID:9557686

  18. Evaluation of methods using celite to concentrate norovirus, adenovirus and enterovirus from wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. These viruses are shed in the feces of infected individuals and can accumulate in wastewater. Therefore, wastewater is a source of a potentially diverse group of enteric viru...

  19. EFFECT OF PARTICULATES ON DISINFECTION OF ENTEROVIRUSES IN WATER BY CHLORINE DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inactivation kinetics of ClO2 on two enteroviruses, poliovirus 1 (Mahoney) and coxsackie virus A9, and an enteric indicator of fecal pollution, Escherichia coli, were examined in laboratory studies. In addition, the disinfecting ability of ClO2 as affected by particulates (bo...

  20. New Approaches for Enhanced Detection of Enteroviruses from Hawaiian Environmental Waters

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Christina; Tong, Hsin-I; Wang, Zi; Allmann, Erin; Lu, Yuanan

    2012-01-01

    Health risks associated with sewage-contaminated recreational waters are of important public health concern. Reliable water monitoring systems are therefore crucial. Current recreational water quality criteria rely predominantly on the enumeration of bacterial indicators, while potentially dangerous viral pathogens often remain undetected. Human enteric viruses have been proposed as alternative indicators; however, their detection is often hindered by low viral concentrations present in the environment. Reported here are novel and effective laboratory protocols for viral concentration and highly sensitive and optimized RT-PCR for the efficient detection of enteroviruses, an important enteric virus subset, in Hawaiian environmental waters. Eighteen published enterovirus primer pairs were comparatively evaluated for detection sensitivity. The primer set exhibiting the lowest detection limit under optimized conditions, EQ-1/EQ-2, was validated in a field survey of 22 recreational bodies of water located around the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Eleven sites tested positive for enterovirus, indicating fecal contamination at these locations. As an additional means of viral concentration, shellfish were collected from 9 sample sites and subjected to dissection, RNA extraction, and subsequent RT-PCR. Shellfish tissue from 6 of 9 sites tested positive for enterovirus. The techniques implemented here are valuable resources to aid accurate reflection of microbial contamination in Hawaiis environmental waters. PMID:22567083

  1. THERMAL AND WATER SOURCE EFFECTS UPON THE STABILITY OF ENTEROVIRUSES IN SURFACE FRESHWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term survival of three human enterovirus serotypes, coxsackievirus B3, echovirus 7, and poliovirus 1 was examined in samples of surface freshwater collected from five sites of physically different character. hese were an artificial lake created by damming a creek, a smal...

  2. [The likely role of protozoa in the maintenance of the environmental circulation of enteroviruses].

    PubMed

    Skachkov, M V; Al'misheva, A Sh; Plotnikov, A O; Nemtseva, N V

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to define the likely role of protozoa as a possible natural reservoir for enteroviruses and their involvement in enterovirus-induced serous meningitis morbidity. Samples were taken from the running and standing water reservoirs of the Orenburg Region in the summer-autumn period and those of wastewaters were collected at all purification stages. Enteroviral RNA in the protozoan cultured was detected by the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Ural River was found to contain 72 protozoan species; there were 15 and 38 protozoan species in the lakes and wastewaters, respectively. With PCR, enteroviruses were detected in 61.8% of the cultures of protozoa which belonged to 23 species of flagellates, amoebas, and infusoria isolated from the natural water reservoirs exposed to an anthropogenic load, as well as from the wastewaters at all purification stages. The predominant localization of enteroviruses was observed in the dominant taxons of the protozoa Paraphysomonas sp., Spumella sp., Petalomonas poosilla, Amoeba sp. PMID:19799220

  3. Survey of human enterovirus occurrence in fresh and marine surface waters on Long Island.

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, J M; Landry, E F; Thomas, M Z; Vicale, T J; Penello, W F

    1979-01-01

    A variety of surface water systems, including a lake, a creek, and two marine embayments, were analyzed on a monthly basis for indigenous human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. Findings are discussed in terms of the probable pollution sources to each system and their relationship to data from previous studies. PMID:229767

  4. Antigenic Diversity of Enteroviruses Associated with Nonpolio Acute Flaccid Paralysis, India, 20072009

    PubMed Central

    Yergolkar, Prasanna; Shankarappa, K. Subbanna

    2012-01-01

    Because of the broadened acute flacid paralysis (AFP) definition and enhanced surveillance, many nonpolio AFP (NP-AFP) cases have been reported in India since 2005. To determine the spectrum of nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) serotypes associated with NP-AFP from polio-endemic and -free regions, we studied antigenic diversity of AFP-associated NPEVs. Of fecal specimens from 2,786 children with NP-AFP in 1 polio-endemic and 2 polio-free states, 823 (29.5%) were positive for NPEVs in RD cells, of which 532 (64.6%) were positive by viral protein 1 reverse transcription PCR. We identified 66 serotypes among 581 isolates, with enterovirus 71 most frequently (8.43%) detected, followed by enterovirus 13 (7.1%) and coxsackievirus B5 (5.0%). Most strains within a serotype represented new genogropups or subgenogroups. Agents for ?35.0% and 70.0% of culture-positive and -negative cases, respectively, need to be identified. Association of human enterovirus with NP-AFP requires better assessment and understanding of health risks of NPEV infections after polio elimination. PMID:23092622

  5. Attenuation of Human Enterovirus 71 High-Replication-Fidelity Variants in AG129 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a screen for ribavirin resistance, a novel high-fidelity variant of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) with the single amino acid change L123F in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or 3D) was identified. Based on the crystal structure of EV71 RdRp, L123 locates at the entrance of the RNA template binding channel, which might form a fidelity checkpoint. EV71 RdRp-L123F variants generated less progeny in a guanidine resistance assay and virus populations with lower mutation frequencies in cell culture passage due to their higher replication fidelity. However, compared with wild-type viruses, they did not show growth defects. In vivo infections further revealed that high-fidelity mutations L123F and G64R (previously reported) negatively impacted EV71 fitness and greatly reduced viral pathogenicity alone or together in AG129 mice. Interestingly, a variant with double mutations, RG/B4-G64R/L123F (where RG/B4 is an EV71 genotype B4 virus constructed by reverse genetics [RG])showed higher fidelity in vitro and less virulence in vivo than any one of the above two single mutants. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of the double mutant increased more than 500 times compared with the LD50 of wild-type RG/B4 in mice. The results indicated that these high-fidelity variants exhibited an attenuated pathogenic phenotype in vivo and offer promise as a live attenuated EV71 vaccine. IMPORTANCE The error-prone nature of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RNA viruses during replication results in quasispecies and aids survival of virus populations under a wide range of selective pressures. Virus variants with higher replication fidelity exhibit lower genetic diversity and attenuated pathogenicity in vivo. Here, we identified a novel high-fidelity mutation L123F in the RdRp of human enterovirus 71 (EV71). We further elucidated that EV71 variants with the RdRp-L123F mutation and/or the previously identified high-fidelity mutation RdRp-G64R were attenuated in an AG129 mouse model. As EV71 has emerged as a serious worldwide health threat, especially in developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region, we urgently need EV71 vaccines. Learning from the poliovirus vaccination, we prefer live attenuated EV71 vaccines to inactivated EV71 vaccines in order to effectively control EV71 outbreaks at low cost. Our results imply a new means of attenuating EV71 and reducing its mutation rate at the same time. PMID:24623423

  6. Children with islet autoimmunity and enterovirus infection demonstrate a distinct cytokine profile.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wing-Chi G; Al-Shabeeb, Ammira; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Wilkins, Marc R; Catteau, Jacki; Howard, Neville J; Rawlinson, William D; Craig, Maria E

    2012-06-01

    Cytokines are upregulated in prediabetes, but their relationship with Enterovirus (EV) infection and development of islet autoimmunity is unknown. Cytokines (n = 65) were measured using Luminex xMAP technology in a nested case-control study of 67 children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes: 27 with islet autoantibodies (Ab(+)) and 40 age-matched persistently autoantibody negative (Ab(-)) control subjects. Of 74 samples, 37 (50%) were EV-PCR(+) in plasma and/or stool (EV(+)) and the remainder were negative for EV and other viruses (EV(-)). Fifteen cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were elevated (P ? 0.01) in Ab(+) versus Ab(-) children (interleukin [IL]-1?, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12(p70), IL-16, IL-17, IL-20, IL-21, IL-28A, tumor necrosis factor-?, chemokine C-C motif ligand [CCL]13, CCL26, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and thrombopoietin); most have proinflammatory effects. In EV(+) versus EV(-) children, IL-10 was higher (P = 0.005), while IL-21 was lower (P = 0.008). Cytokine levels did not differ between Ab(+)EV(+) and Ab(+)EV(-) children. Heat maps demonstrated clustering of some proinflammatory cytokines in Ab(+) children, suggesting they are coordinately regulated. In conclusion, children with islet autoimmunity demonstrate higher levels of multiple cytokines, consistent with an active inflammatory process in the prediabetic state, which is unrelated to coincident EV infection. Apart from differences in IL-10 and IL-21, EV infection was not associated with a specific cytokine profile. PMID:22474026

  7. Children With Islet Autoimmunity and Enterovirus Infection Demonstrate a Distinct Cytokine Profile

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Wing-Chi G.; Al-Shabeeb, Ammira; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Wilkins, Marc R.; Catteau, Jacki; Howard, Neville J.; Rawlinson, William D.; Craig, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cytokines are upregulated in prediabetes, but their relationship with Enterovirus (EV) infection and development of islet autoimmunity is unknown. Cytokines (n = 65) were measured using Luminex xMAP technology in a nested case-control study of 67 children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes: 27 with islet autoantibodies (Ab+) and 40 age-matched persistently autoantibody negative (Ab?) control subjects. Of 74 samples, 37 (50%) were EV-PCR+ in plasma and/or stool (EV+) and the remainder were negative for EV and other viruses (EV?). Fifteen cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were elevated (P ? 0.01) in Ab+ versus Ab? children (interleukin [IL]-1?, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12(p70), IL-16, IL-17, IL-20, IL-21, IL-28A, tumor necrosis factor-?, chemokine C-C motif ligand [CCL]13, CCL26, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and thrombopoietin); most have proinflammatory effects. In EV+ versus EV? children, IL-10 was higher (P = 0.005), while IL-21 was lower (P = 0.008). Cytokine levels did not differ between Ab+EV+ and Ab+EV? children. Heat maps demonstrated clustering of some proinflammatory cytokines in Ab+ children, suggesting they are coordinately regulated. In conclusion, children with islet autoimmunity demonstrate higher levels of multiple cytokines, consistent with an active inflammatory process in the prediabetic state, which is unrelated to coincident EV infection. Apart from differences in IL-10 and IL-21, EV infection was not associated with a specific cytokine profile. PMID:22474026

  8. Prevalence of human parechovirus and enterovirus in cerebrospinal fluid samples in children in Jinju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Yeom, Jung Sook; Youn, Hee-Shang; Han, Tae-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human parechovirus (HPeV) and enterovirus (EV) are causative agents of a sepsis-like illness in neonates and of infections of the central nervous system in young children. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of HPeV3 and EV infection in young children with a sepsis-like illness or with meningitis in Jinju, Korea. Methods Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from 267 patients (age range, 1 day to 5 years) and assessed for HPeV and EV by performing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Amplification products of the VP3/VP1 region of HPeV and of the VP1 region of EV were sequenced to identify the virus type. Results HPeV and EV were detected in 3.4% and 7.5% of the total CSF samples assessed, respectively. The age distribution of EV-positive patients (median age, 1.4 months) had a significantly broader range than that of HPeV-positive patients (median age, 7.8 months). The peak seasons for HPeV and EV infection were spring and summer, respectively. The clinical symptoms for HPeV and EV infection were similar, and fever was the most common symptom. Pleocytosis was detected in 22.2% of HPeV-positive patients and 35.5% of EV-positive patients. The VP3/VP1 gene sequence of the nine Korean strains clustered most closely with the Japanese strain (AB759202). Conclusion The data indicate that HPeV infection is predominant in young infants (<6 months) and that meningitis without pleocytosis was caused by both HPeV and EV infection in children. PMID:25861333

  9. Annexin II Binds to Capsid Protein VP1 of Enterovirus 71 and Enhances Viral Infectivity ?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Su-Lin; Chou, Ying-Ting; Wu, Cheng-Nan; Ho, Mei-Shang

    2011-01-01

    Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is mostly self-limited but may be complicated with a severe to fatal neurological syndrome in some children. Understanding the molecular basis of virus-host interactions might help clarify the largely unknown neuropathogenic mechanisms of EV71. In this study, we showed that human annexin II (Anx2) protein could bind to the EV71 virion via the capsid protein VP1. Either pretreatment of EV71 with soluble recombinant Anx2 or pretreatment of host cells with an anti-Anx2 antibody could result in reduced viral attachment to the cell surface and a reduction of the subsequent virus yield in vitro. HepG2 cells, which do not express Anx2, remained permissive to EV71 infection, though the virus yield was lower than that for a cognate lineage expressing Anx2. Stable transfection of plasmids expressing Anx2 protein into HepG2 cells (HepG2-Anx2 cells) could enhance EV71 infectivity, with an increased virus yield, especially at a low infective dose, and the enhanced infectivity could be reversed by pretreating HepG2-Anx2 cells with an anti-Anx2 antibody. The Anx2-interacting domain was mapped by yeast two-hybrid analysis to VP1 amino acids 40 to 100, a region different from the known receptor binding domain on the surface of the picornavirus virion. Our data suggest that binding of EV71 to Anx2 on the cell surface can enhance viral entry and infectivity, especially at a low infective dose. PMID:21900167

  10. Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. PMID:23365758

  11. Cloned Genomic DNA of Type 2 Porcine Circovirus Is Infectious When Injected Directly into the Liver and Lymph Nodes of Pigs: Characterization of Clinical Disease, Virus Distribution, and Pathologic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Fenaux, M.; Halbur, P. G.; Haqshenas, G.; Royer, R.; Thomas, P.; Nawagitgul, P.; Gill, M.; Toth, T. E.; Meng, X. J.

    2002-01-01

    Infection of animals with a molecular viral clone is critical to study the genetic determinants of viral replication and virulence in the host. Type 2 porcine circovirus (PCV2) has been incriminated as the cause of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), an emerging disease in pigs. We report here for the first time the construction and use of an infectious molecular DNA clone of PCV2 to characterize the disease and pathologic lesions associated with PCV2 infection by direct in vivo transfection of pigs with the molecular clone. The PCV2 molecular clone was generated by ligating two copies of the complete PCV2 genome in tandem into the pBluescript SK (pSK) vector and was shown to be infectious in vitro when transfected into PK-15 cells. Forty specific-pathogen-free pigs at 4 weeks of age were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 each. Group 1 pigs served as uninoculated controls. Pigs in group 2 were each inoculated intranasally with about 1.9 × 105 50% tissue culture infective doses of a homogeneous PCV2 live virus stock derived from the molecular clone. Pigs in group 3 were each injected intrahepatically with 200 μg of the cloned PCV2 plasmid DNA, and pigs in group 4 were each injected into the superficial iliac lymph nodes with 200 μg of the cloned PCV2 plasmid DNA. Animals injected with the cloned PCV2 plasmid DNA developed infection resembling that induced by intranasal inoculation with PCV2 live virus stock. Seroconversion to PCV2-specific antibody was detected in the majority of pigs from the three inoculated groups at 35 days postinoculation (DPI). Viremia, beginning at 14 DPI and lasting 2 to 4 weeks, was detected in the majority of the pigs from all three inoculated groups. There were no remarkable clinical signs of PMWS in control or any of the inoculated pigs. Gross lesions in pigs of the three inoculated groups were similar and were characterized by systemically enlarged, tan lymph nodes and lungs that failed to collapse. Histopathological lesions and PCV2-specific antigen were detected in numerous tissues and organs, including brain, lung, heart, kidney, tonsil, lymph nodes, spleen, ileum, and liver of infected pigs. This study more definitively characterizes the clinical course and pathologic lesions exclusively attributable to PCV2 infection. The data from this study indicate that the cloned PCV2 genomic DNA may replace infectious virus for future PCV2 pathogenesis and immunization studies. The data also suggest that PCV2, although essential for development of PMWS, may require other factors or agents to induce the full spectrum of clinical signs and lesions associated with advanced cases of PMWS. PMID:11752145

  12. Cell Surface Nucleolin Facilitates Enterovirus 71 Binding and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Su, Pei-Yi; Wang, Ya-Fang; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Lo, Yu-Chih; Wang, Ya-Hui; Wu, Shang-Rung; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Wang, Jen-Ren; Lai, Ming-Der

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because the pathogenesis of enterovirus 71 (EV71) remains mostly ambiguous, identifying the factors that mediate viral binding and entry to host cells is indispensable to ultimately uncover the mechanisms that underlie virus infection and pathogenesis. Despite the identification of several receptors/attachment molecules for EV71, the binding, entry, and infection mechanisms of EV71 remain unclear. Herein, we employed glycoproteomic approaches to identify human nucleolin as a novel binding receptor for EV71. Glycoproteins purified by lectin chromatography from the membrane extraction of human cells were treated with sialidase, followed by immunoprecipitation with EV71 particles. Among the 16 proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis, cell surface nucleolin attracted our attention. We found that EV71 interacted directly with nucleolin via the VP1 capsid protein and that an antinucleolin antibody reduced the binding of EV71 to human cells. In addition, the knockdown of cell surface nucleolin decreased EV71 binding, infection, and production in human cells. Furthermore, the expression of human nucleolin on the cell surface of a mouse cell line increased EV71 binding and conferred EV71 infection and production in the cells. These results strongly indicate that human nucleolin can mediate EV71 binding to and infection of cells. Our findings also demonstrate that the use of glycoproteomic approaches is a reliable methodology to discover novel receptors for pathogens. IMPORTANCE Outbreaks of EV71 have been reported in Asia-Pacific countries and have caused thousands of deaths in young children during the last 2 decades. The discovery of new EV71-interacting molecules to understand the infection mechanism has become an emergent issue. Hence, this study uses glycoproteomic approaches to comprehensively investigate the EV71-interacting glycoproteins. Several EV71-interacting glycoproteins are identified, and the role of cell surface nucleolin in mediating the attachment and entry of EV71 is characterized and validated. Our findings not only indicate a novel target for uncovering the EV71 infection mechanism and anti-EV71 drug discovery but also provide a new strategy for virus receptor identification. PMID:25673703

  13. Method 1615: Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Version 1.1 - Enteroviruses and noroviruses that may be present in environmental or finished drinking waters are concentrated by passage through electropositive filters. Viruses are eluted from the filters with a beef extract reagent and concentrated using organic flocculation....

  14. One-year survey of enteroviruses, adenoviruses, and reoviruses isolated from effluent at an activated-sludge purification plant.

    PubMed Central

    Irving, L G; Smith, F A

    1981-01-01

    Samples of raw sewage, primary effluent, and secondary effluent from a large activated-sludge purification plant near Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) were collected every second week for 1 year. Viruses were detected in all secondary effluent samples and in six of seven samples obtained after final chlorination. Adenoviruses (85% reduction) and reoviruses (28% reduction) were removed less efficiently by this treatment process than were enteroviruses (93% reduction). In addition, 57 of 171 samples of effluent tested were positive for either adenoviruses or reoviruses, or both, when enteroviruses were not isolated. This clearly shows that the use of enteroviruses as sole indicators of viruses in water may miss up to one-third of instances of viral contamination. Enteroviruses and adenoviruses were isolated most frequently in HeLa-R cell cultures, whereas reoviruses were most often isolated in primary monkey kidney cells. PMID:6261687

  15. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Part III. Virus Detection by RT-qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Fout, G. Shay; Cashdollar, Jennifer L.; Griffin, Shannon M.; Brinkman, Nichole E.; Varughese, Eunice A.; Parshionikar, Sandhya U.

    2016-01-01

    EPA Method 1615 measures enteroviruses and noroviruses present in environmental and drinking waters. This method was developed with the goal of having a standardized method for use in multiple analytical laboratories during monitoring period 3 of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule. Herein we present the protocol for extraction of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) from water sample concentrates and for quantitatively measuring enterovirus and norovirus concentrations using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Virus concentrations for the molecular assay are calculated in terms of genomic copies of viral RNA per liter based upon a standard curve. The method uses a number of quality controls to increase data quality and to reduce interlaboratory and intralaboratory variation. The method has been evaluated by examining virus recovery from ground and reagent grade waters seeded with poliovirus type 3 and murine norovirus as a surrogate for human noroviruses. Mean poliovirus recoveries were 20% in groundwaters and 44% in reagent grade water. Mean murine norovirus recoveries with the RT-qPCR assay were 30% in groundwaters and 4% in reagent grade water. PMID:26862985

  16. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Part III. Virus Detection by RT-qPCR.

    PubMed

    Fout, G Shay; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Griffin, Shannon M; Brinkman, Nichole E; Varughese, Eunice A; Parshionikar, Sandhya U

    2016-01-01

    EPA Method 1615 measures enteroviruses and noroviruses present in environmental and drinking waters. This method was developed with the goal of having a standardized method for use in multiple analytical laboratories during monitoring period 3 of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule. Herein we present the protocol for extraction of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) from water sample concentrates and for quantitatively measuring enterovirus and norovirus concentrations using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Virus concentrations for the molecular assay are calculated in terms of genomic copies of viral RNA per liter based upon a standard curve. The method uses a number of quality controls to increase data quality and to reduce interlaboratory and intralaboratory variation. The method has been evaluated by examining virus recovery from ground and reagent grade waters seeded with poliovirus type 3 and murine norovirus as a surrogate for human noroviruses. Mean poliovirus recoveries were 20% in groundwaters and 44% in reagent grade water. Mean murine norovirus recoveries with the RT-qPCR assay were 30% in groundwaters and 4% in reagent grade water. PMID:26862985

  17. Infectious particles, stress, and induced prion amyloids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible encephalopathies (TSEs) are believed by many to arise by spontaneous conversion of host prion protein (PrP) into an infectious amyloid (PrP-res, PrPSc) without nucleic acid. Many TSE agents reside in the environment, with infection controlled by public health measures. These include the disappearance of kuru with the cessation of ritual cannibalism, the dramatic reduction of epidemic bovine encephalopathy (BSE) by removal of contaminated feed, and the lack of endemic scrapie in geographically isolated Australian sheep with susceptible PrP genotypes. While prion protein modeling has engendered an intense focus on common types of protein misfolding and amyloid formation in diverse organisms and diseases, the biological characteristics of infectious TSE agents, and their recognition by the host as foreign entities, raises several fundamental new directions for fruitful investigation such as: (1) unrecognized microbial agents in the environmental metagenome that may cause latent neurodegenerative disease, (2) the evolutionary social and protective functions of different amyloid proteins in diverse organisms from bacteria to mammals, and (3) amyloid formation as a beneficial innate immune response to stress (infectious and non-infectious). This innate process however, once initiated, can become unstoppable in accelerated neuronal aging. PMID:23633671

  18. BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

  19. Global mapping of infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I.; Battle, Katherine E.; Pigott, David M.; Smith, David L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S.; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Gething, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer cognitive surplus through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

  20. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  1. Antimicrobial Human ?-Defensins in the Colon and Their Role in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cobo, Eduardo R.; Chadee, Kris

    2013-01-01

    ?-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human ?-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of ?-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause cell death and chemoattraction of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of ?-defensin is well reported in vitro against several enteric pathogens and in non-infectious processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which alters ?-defensin production. However, the role of ?-defensin in vivo in its interaction with other immune components in host defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites with more complex membranes is still not well known. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding the role of ?-defensin in relevant human infectious and non-infectious diseases of the colonic mucosa. In addition, we summarize the most significant aspects of ?-defensin and its antimicrobial role in a variety of disease processes. PMID:25436887

  2. Genotypes of the Enterovirus Causing Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Shanghai, China, 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Menghua; Su, Liyun; Cao, Lingfeng; Zhong, Huaqing; Dong, Niuniu; Dong, Zuoquan; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic HFMD (hand foot and mouth disease, HFMD) cases and outbreaks caused by etiologic agents other than EV71 and CA16 have increased globally. We conducted this study to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of enteroviruses, especially the non-EV71 and non-CA16 enteroviruses, causing HFMD in Shanghai. Clinical specimens were collected from patients with a diagnosis of HFMD. A partial length of VP1 was amplified with RT-PCR and subjected to direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using MEGA 5.0. The ages of the HFMD cases ranged from 3 to 96 months, and the male/female ratio was 1.41. The median hospital stay was 2.96 days. Up to 18.0% of patients had neurologic system complications such as encephalitis, meningoencephalitis or meningitis. Of the 480 samples, 417 were positive for enterovirus (86.9%) with RT-PCR. A total of 13 enterovirus genotypes were identified. The most frequent genotypes were CA6 (31.9%), EV71 (30.6%), CA16 (8.8%) and CA10 (7.5%). Infections with CA6, EV71, CA16 and CA10 were prevalent throughout the years of study, while the proportion of CA6 notably increased from Sep. 2012 to Dec. 2013. Phylogenetic analyses showed that EV71 strains belonged to the C4a subgenogroup and CA16 was identified as B1b subgenogroup. The CA6 strains were assigned to genogroup F, whereas the CA10 strains were assigned to genogroup D. Patients infected with CA6 were typically younger, had a shorter hospital stay and had a lower incidence of neurologic system complications when compared to patients infected with EV71. Our study demonstrates that the enterovirus genotypes causing HFMD were diversified, and there was an increasing prevalence of the non-EV71 and non-CA16 enteroviruses from 2012 to 2013. CA6 was the most predominant pathogen causing HFMD from Sep. 2012 to Dec. 2013, and it often caused relatively mild HFMD symptoms. Most severe HFMD cases were associated with EV71 infection. PMID:26398767

  3. NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF WARMWATER FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compared with infectious diseases and disorders, few non-infectious diseases and disorders in cultured fish have severe biologic or economic impact. Culture practices, however, often establish environments that promote infectious disease by weakening the immune response or by pro...

  4. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If ... the teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists ...

  5. Tackling feline infectious peritonitis via reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Volker; Thiel, Heinz-Jrgen; Tekes, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is caused by feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) and represents one of the most important lethal infectious diseases of cats. To date, there is no efficacious prevention and treatment, and our limited knowledge on FIP pathogenesis is mainly based on analysis of experiments with field isolates. In a recent study, we reported a promising approach to study FIP pathogenesis using reverse genetics. We generated a set of recombinant FCoVs and investigated their pathogenicity in vivo. The set included the type I FCoV strain Black, a type I FCoV strain Black with restored accessory gene 7b, two chimeric type I/type II FCoVs and the highly pathogenic type II FCoV strain 79-1146. All recombinant FCoVs and the reference strain isolates were found to establish productive infections in cats. While none of the type I FCoVs and chimeric FCoVs induced FIP, the recombinant type II FCoV strain 79-1146 was as pathogenic as the parental isolate. Interestingly, an intact ORF 3c was confirmed to be restored in all viruses (re)isolated from FIP-diseased animals. PMID:25482087

  6. Tackling feline infectious peritonitis via reverse genetics

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Volker; Thiel, Heinz-Jrgen; Tekes, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is caused by feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) and represents one of the most important lethal infectious diseases of cats. To date, there is no efficacious prevention and treatment, and our limited knowledge on FIP pathogenesis is mainly based on analysis of experiments with field isolates. In a recent study, we reported a promising approach to study FIP pathogenesis using reverse genetics. We generated a set of recombinant FCoVs and investigated their pathogenicity in vivo. The set included the type I FCoV strain Black, a type I FCoV strain Black with restored accessory gene 7b, two chimeric type I/type II FCoVs and the highly pathogenic type II FCoV strain 791146. All recombinant FCoVs and the reference strain isolates were found to establish productive infections in cats. While none of the type I FCoVs and chimeric FCoVs induced FIP, the recombinant type II FCoV strain 791146 was as pathogenic as the parental isolate. Interestingly, an intact ORF 3c was confirmed to be restored in all viruses (re)isolated from FIP-diseased animals. PMID:25482087

  7. Hepatitis in fatal infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Markin, R S; Linder, J; Zuerlein, K; Mroczek, E; Grierson, H L; Brichacek, B; Purtilo, D T

    1987-12-01

    A detailed clinicopathologic analysis of 30 patients with sporadic fatal infectious mononucleosis and 31 males with fatal infectious mononucleosis and the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome was performed to determine the extent of hepatic dysfunction in these cases. At death, the median age of patients with sporadic infectious mononucleosis was 10.7 yr vs. 2.4 yr for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. The median survival time was 8 wk for sporadic infectious mononucleosis and only 4 wk for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. The male to female ratio was 3:2 in sporadic infectious mononucleosis; all patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome were males. Fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were prominent findings. Hepatic dysfunction was uniformly present and caused death in 13 of 30 sporadic infectious mononucleosis cases and 18 of 31 X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome cases. Diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis was confirmed by heterophile antibody titers or Monospot, Epstein-Barr virus antibody studies, viral culture, molecular hybridization studies, clinical and histologic findings, and pedigree analysis. PMID:3678738

  8. Differential Regulation of TLR Signaling on the Induction of Antiviral Interferons in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Infected with Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyang; Ji, Lianfu; Yuan, Xinhui; Jin, Yu; Cardona, Carol J.; Xing, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease, which can lead to fatal neurological complications in young children and infants. Few gastrointestinal symptoms are observed clinically, suggesting the presence of a unique immunity to EV71 in the gut. We reported a robust induction of interferons (IFNs) in human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29), which was suppressed in other types such as RD and HeLa cells. The underlying mechanism for the apparent difference remains obscure. In this study we report that in EV71-infected HT-29 cells, TLR/TRIF signaling was essential to IFN induction; viral replication increased and the induction of IFN-α, -β, -ω, -κ, and -ε decreased markedly in TRIF-silenced HT-29 cells. Importantly, TRIF was degraded by viral 3Cpro in RD cells, but resisted cleavage, and IRF3 was activated and translocated into the nucleus in HT-29 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that IFNs were induced differentially in human HT-29 cells through an intact TLR/TRIF signaling, which differs from other cell types and may be implicated in viral pathogenesis in EV71 infection. PMID:27007979

  9. ISA-Lation of Single-Stranded Positive-Sense RNA Viruses from Non-Infectious Clinical/Animal Samples

    PubMed Central

    Aubry, Fabien; Nougairde, Antoine; de Fabritus, Lauriane; Piorkowski, Graldine; Gould, Ernest A.; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of viral pathogens from clinical and/or animal samples has traditionally relied on either cell cultures or laboratory animal model systems. However, virus viability is notoriously susceptible to adverse conditions that may include inappropriate procedures for sample collection, storage temperature, support media and transportation. Using our recently described ISA method, we have developed a novel procedure to isolate infectious single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses from clinical or animal samples. This approach, that we have now called "ISA-lation", exploits the capacity of viral cDNA subgenomic fragments to re-assemble and produce infectious viral RNA in susceptible cells. Here, it was successfully used to rescue enterovirus, Chikungunya and Tick-borne encephalitis viruses from a variety of inactivated animal and human samples. ISA-lation represents an effective option to rescue infectious virus from clinical and/or animal samples that may have deteriorated during the collection and storage period, but also potentially overcomes logistic and administrative difficulties generated when complying with current health and safety and biosecurity guidelines associated with shipment of infectious viral material. PMID:26407018

  10. Innate Immunity Evasion by Enteroviruses: Insights into Virus-Host Interaction.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaobo; Xiao, Xia; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus genus includes multiple important human pathogens, such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus (EV) A71, EV-D68 and rhinovirus. Infection with EVs can cause numerous clinical conditions including poliomyelitis, meningitis and encephalitis, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, acute flaccid paralysis, diarrhea, myocarditis and respiratory illness. EVs, which are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, trigger activation of the host antiviral innate immune responses through pathogen recognition receptors such as retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG-I)-likeand Toll-like receptors. In turn, EVs have developed sophisticated strategies to evade host antiviral responses. In this review, we discuss the interplay between the host innate immune responses and EV infection, with a primary focus on host immune detection and protection against EV infection and viral strategies to evade these antiviral immune responses. PMID:26784219

  11. Pancreatitis in hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Deng, Hui-Ling; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Wei, Jian-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Some viruses, including certain members of the enterovirus genus, have been reported to cause pancreatitis, especially Coxsackie virus. However, no case of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) associated with pancreatitis has been reported so far. We here report a case of EV71-induced hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) presenting with pancreatitis in a 2-year-old girl. This is the first report of a patient with acute pancreatitis in HFMD caused by EV71. We treated the patient conservatively with nasogastric suction, intravenous fluid and antivirals. The patient’s symptoms improved after 8 d, and recovered without complications. We conclude that EV71 can cause acute pancreatitis in HFMD, which should be considered in differential diagnosis, especially in cases of idiopathic pancreatitis. PMID:26877620

  12. [Surveillance of enteroviruses in the waste water of the Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Gershy-Damet, G M; Lanusse, A; Dosso, M

    1987-01-01

    Viral water contamination is on the increase all over the world and one is concerned by the dangers to which it exposes health and preoccupied with the search for effective solutions. This study, which was conducted in a year in Cte-d'Ivoire, enabled us to examine the degree of viral pollution from waste water collected from a lagune. It allowed us to follow the distribution of enteroviruses and their fluctuations during the year. 164 waste water samples were tested and 93 enterovirus strains isolated. 67.89% showed polioviruses and 32.11% coxsackieviruses. Seasonal fluctuations of the virus concentration in the lagune water were shown from statistical analysis of the data collected. Concentration was high during the rainy season and definitely lower during the dry season with the rise in water temperature. PMID:3038356

  13. Pancreatitis in hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Deng, Hui-Ling; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Wei, Jian-Qiang

    2016-02-14

    Some viruses, including certain members of the enterovirus genus, have been reported to cause pancreatitis, especially Coxsackie virus. However, no case of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) associated with pancreatitis has been reported so far. We here report a case of EV71-induced hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) presenting with pancreatitis in a 2-year-old girl. This is the first report of a patient with acute pancreatitis in HFMD caused by EV71. We treated the patient conservatively with nasogastric suction, intravenous fluid and antivirals. The patient's symptoms improved after 8 d, and recovered without complications. We conclude that EV71 can cause acute pancreatitis in HFMD, which should be considered in differential diagnosis, especially in cases of idiopathic pancreatitis. PMID:26877620

  14. Innate Immunity Evasion by Enteroviruses: Insights into Virus-Host Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiaobo; Xiao, Xia; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus genus includes multiple important human pathogens, such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus (EV) A71, EV-D68 and rhinovirus. Infection with EVs can cause numerous clinical conditions including poliomyelitis, meningitis and encephalitis, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, acute flaccid paralysis, diarrhea, myocarditis and respiratory illness. EVs, which are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, trigger activation of the host antiviral innate immune responses through pathogen recognition receptors such as retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG-I)-likeand Toll-like receptors. In turn, EVs have developed sophisticated strategies to evade host antiviral responses. In this review, we discuss the interplay between the host innate immune responses and EV infection, with a primary focus on host immune detection and protection against EV infection and viral strategies to evade these antiviral immune responses. PMID:26784219

  15. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  16. [Experience in the use of chemical compounds for the primary identification and differentiation of enteroviruses].

    PubMed

    Amvros'eva, T V; Votiakov, V I; Andreeva, O T; Kazinets, O N; Bogush, Z F; Sharko, R M; Kvacheva, Z B

    2003-02-01

    Data on the usage of chemical inhibitors nifan and belvtazid, which possess a selective and antienteroviral effect, in the primary identification of enteroviruses and their differentiation into polio- and non-poliomyelytic ones isolated from human clinical materials or the environment by using the cell culture are presented in the article. The method is recommended for the practical use by the virology service in the diagnostics of enteroviral infections and in the identification of cytopathic agents isolated from the enviroment. PMID:12688219

  17. Specific Cell-Surface Alteration by Enteroviruses as Reflected by Viral-Attachment Interference1

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Richard L.

    1966-01-01

    Crowell, Richard L. (Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa.). Specific cell-surface alteration by enteroviruses as reflected by viral-attachment interference. J. Bacteriol. 91:198204. 1966.Exposure of HeLa cells to high levels of coxsackievirus B3 produced cells which were refractory to attachment of coxsackievirus B1, whereas poliovirus T2 attached normally. Under similar conditions, poliovirus T2 was found to interfere with the attachment of poliovirus T1 to HeLa cells without affecting the attachment rate of coxsackievirus B3. The data confirm earlier findings that the receptor sites on HeLa cells, which bind members of group B coxsackieviruses, are distinct from those for polioviruses. Quantitatively, coxsackieviruses B1 and B3 were found to be mutually exclusive in the attachment interference assay to suggest that they compete for the same receptors on the HeLa cell surface. The finding that input multiplicities of B3 virus which exceeded 500 saturated the homologous viral receptors of HeLa cells was unexpected, but was consistent with the results of interference assays. Excessive amounts of input virus did not, however, inhibit eclipse of homologous cell-associated virus. Attachment interference between enteroviruses occurred even though the interfering virus was eclipsed prior to addition of challenge virus. The finding that enterovirus attachment interference was reversible with acid pH suggested that attachment and eclipse of enterovirus does not result in a permanent alteration of the cell membrane and that these events occur at the cell surface. PMID:4285531

  18. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  19. Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. The virus replicates not only in the epithelium of upper and lower respiratory tract tissues, but also in many tissues along the alimentary tract and elsewhere e.g. kidney, oviduct and testes. It can be detected in both respiratory and faecal material. There is increasing evidence that IBV can infect species of bird other than the chicken. Interestingly breeds of chicken vary with respect to the severity of infection with IBV, which may be related to the immune response. Probably the major reason for the high profile of IBV is the existence of a very large number of serotypes. Both live and inactivated IB vaccines are used extensively, the latter requiring priming by the former. Their effectiveness is diminished by poor cross-protection. The nature of the protective immune response to IBV is poorly understood. What is known is that the surface spike protein, indeed the amino-terminal S1 half, is sufficient to induce good protective immunity. There is increasing evidence that only a few amino acid differences amongst S proteins are sufficient to have a detrimental impact on cross-protection. Experimental vector IB vaccines and genetically manipulated IBVs--with heterologous spike protein genes--have produced promising results, including in the context of in ovo vaccination. PMID:17296157

  20. Clinico-radiological spectrum in enterovirus 71 infection involving the central nervous system in children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Yeon; Lee, Yun-Jin; Kim, Tae Hyoung; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Nam, Sang-Ook

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 infection causes hand, foot and mouth disease in children, and can produce diverse neurologic complications. Epidemics occurring in Korea between 2009 and 2012 resulted in the death of some patients. The present study aimed to clarify the correlation between clinical features and MRI findings in patients presenting with acute neurologic manifestations related to enterovirus 71 infection. Based on their clinical features, the patients were classified into four clinical groups: (1) brainstem encephalitis (n=17), characterized by myoclonus, tremor, ataxia, and autonomic dysregulation such as pulmonary hemorrhage; (2) aseptic meningitis (n=2); (3) encephalitis (n=2), characterized by decreased consciousness, seizure, and fever without myoclonus, tremor, ataxia, and autonomic dysregulation; and (4) acute flaccid paralysis (n=1). Thirteen of the 17 patients with brainstem encephalitis showed characteristic lesions in the dorsal brainstem and bilateral cerebellar dentate nuclei on brain MRI, whereas three had no abnormality. One of the two patients with meningitis had a small lesion in the left dorsal pons. Two patients with encephalitis had no apparent MRI abnormality. One patient with acute flaccid paralysis of the right leg had contrast-enhancement of the bilateral ventral nerve roots at the lumbar spine level on MRI. Five of 13 patients with lesions in the bilateral dentate nuclei of the cerebellum exhibited no cerebellar symptoms, while two with no cerebellar lesions developed ataxia. Although most patients presenting with neurologic manifestations of enterovirus 71 infection had characteristic clinical features together with typical MRI findings, the clinical features were not necessarily consistent with MRI findings. PMID:24169271

  1. Development and Evaluation of an Enterovirus D68 Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Todd N.; Wylie, Kristine M.; Buller, Richard S.; Cannella, Maria

    2015-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in clinical specimens. This assay was developed in response to the unprecedented 2014 nationwide EV-D68 outbreak in the United States associated with severe respiratory illness. As part of our evaluation of the outbreak, we sequenced and published the genome sequence of the EV-D68 virus circulating in St. Louis, MO. This sequence, along with other GenBank sequences from past EV-D68 occurrences, was used to computationally select a region of EV-D68 appropriate for targeting in a strain-specific RT-PCR assay. The RT-PCR assay amplifies a segment of the VP1 gene, with an analytic limit of detection of 4 copies per reaction, and it was more sensitive than commercially available assays that detect enteroviruses and rhinoviruses without distinguishing between the two, including three multiplex respiratory panels approved for clinical use by the FDA. The assay did not detect any other enteroviruses or rhinoviruses tested and did detect divergent strains of EV-D68, including the first EV-D68 strain (Fermon) identified in California in 1962. This assay should be useful for identifying and studying current and future outbreaks of EV-D68 viruses. PMID:26063859

  2. Case of a healthy infant born following antenatal enterovirus myocarditis and hydrops.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Aurore; Tassin, Mikael; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Letamendia, Emmanuelle; Stos, Bertrand; Bonnet, Damien; Gajdos, Vincent; Mabille, Mylne; Benachi, Alexandra

    2014-11-01

    Fetal hydrops and myocarditis were diagnosed in a woman at 32 weeks of gestation (WG). Transplacental enterovirus infection was suspected because all other causes of myocarditis and hydrops were excluded, it was during an endemic period, and there was a setting of maternal infection (fever a few days before). We opted for in utero treatment because of the risk of resuscitating a neonate with myocarditis and hydrops. We administered dexamethasone 12mg twice for pulmonary maturation and presumed it would partially improve the myocarditis. Fetal arrhythmia was noted at 35 WG and we decided to deliver the infant as postnatal treatment of the heart disorder would be more effective. RT-PCR (ARGENE()) showed that the neonate's throat and anal tissues and cord blood sampled on the day of birth contained enterovirus ribonucleic acid and coxsackievirus B5, as did the mother's anal sample. Laboratory tests, heart MRI and probably brain MRI indicated neonatal enterovirus infection. Findings were normal at two-year follow-up. PMID:25242311

  3. Potent inhibition of enterovirus D68 and human rhinoviruses by dipeptidyl aldehydes and ?-ketoamides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunjeong; Kankanamalage, Anushka C Galasiti; Damalanka, Vishnu C; Weerawarna, Pathum M; Groutas, William C; Chang, Kyeong-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging pathogen responsible for mild to severe respiratory infections that occur mostly in infants, children and teenagers. EV-D68, one of more than 100 non-polio enteroviruses, is acid-labile and biologically similar to human rhinoviruses (HRV) (originally classified as HRV87). However, there is no approved preventive or therapeutic measure against EV-D68, HRV, or other enteroviruses. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of series of dipeptidyl compounds against EV-D68 and HRV strains, and demonstrated that several peptidyl aldehyde and ?-ketoamide peptidyl compounds are potent inhibitors of EV-D68 and HRV strains with high in-vitro therapeutic indices (>1000). One of the ?-ketoamide compounds is shown to have favorable pharmacokinetics profiles, including a favorable oral bioavailability in rats. Recent successful development of ?-ketoamide protease inhibitors against hepatitis C virus suggests these compounds may have a high potential for further optimization and development against emerging EV-D68, as well as HRV. PMID:26658373

  4. ITRACONAZOLE INHIBITS ENTEROVIRUS REPLICATION BY TARGETING THE OXYSTEROL-BINDING PROTEIN

    PubMed Central

    Strating, Jeroen R.P.M.; van der Linden, Lonneke; Albulescu, Lucian; Bigay, Jolle; Arita, Minetaro; Delang, Leen; Leyssen, Pieter; van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Lanke, Kjerstin H.W.; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Ulferts, Rachel; Drin, Guillaume; Schlinck, Nina; Wubbolts, Richard W.; Sever, Navdar; Head, Sarah A.; Liu, Jun O.; Beachy, Philip A.; De Matteis, Maria A.; Shair, Matthew D.; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Itraconazole (ITZ) is a well-known antifungal agent that also has anti-cancer activity. In this study, we identified ITZ as a broad-spectrum inhibitor of enteroviruses (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus-71, rhinovirus). We demonstrate that ITZ inhibits viral RNA replication by targeting oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related protein 4 (ORP4). Consistently, OSW-1, a specific OSBP/ORP4 antagonist, also inhibits enterovirus replication. Knockdown of OSBP inhibits virus replication whereas overexpression of OSBP or ORP4 counteracts the antiviral effects of ITZ and OSW-1. ITZ binds OSBP and inhibits its function, i.e. shuttling of cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate between membranes, thereby likely perturbing the virus-induced membrane alterations essential for viral replication organelle formation. ITZ also inhibits hepatitis C virus replication, which also relies on OSBP. Together, these data implicate OSBP/ORP4 as novel molecular targets of ITZ and point to an essential role of OSBP/ORP4-mediated lipid exchange in virus replication that can be targeted by antiviral drugs. PMID:25640182

  5. High sensitivity and label-free detection of Enterovirus 71 by nanogold modified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the most fulminant and invasive species of enterovirus, can cause children neurologic complications and death within 2-3 days after fever and rash developed. Besides, EV71 has high sequence similarity with Coxsackie A 16 (CA16) that makes differential diagnosis difficult in clinic and laboratory. Since conventional viral diagnostic method cannot diagnose EV71 quickly and EV71 can transmit at low viral titer, the patients might delay in treatment. A quick, high sensitive, and high specific test for EV71 detection is pivotal. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied for detecting bio-molecules as biosensors recently. In this study, we try to build a detection platform for EV71 detection by nanogold modified EIS probe. The result shows that our probe can detect 3.6 VP1/50 ?l (one EV71 particle has 60 VP1) in 3 minutes. The test can also distinguish EV71 from CA16 and lysozyme. Diagnosis of enterovirus 71 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has the potential to apply in clinic.

  6. Prevalence of rotavirus, norovirus and enterovirus in diarrheal diseases in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Jain, Swapnil; Thakur, Nutan; Grover, Neelam; Vashistt, Jitendraa; Changotra, Harish

    2016-03-01

    Diarrheal diseases are responsible for a significant proportion of mortality and morbidity all around the globe. The contribution of viruses to gastroenteritis incidences in humans is well established. In the present study, we have studied the prevalence of rotavirus, norovirus and enterovirus in Himachal Pradesh, a north Indian state. A total of 287 (111 children and 176 adults) stool samples of gastroenteritis patients were screened for the viruses using RT-PCR method. 34.5% samples were positive for the viral pathogens of gastroenteritis. Rotavirus was the predominant virus detected in the study with 49.5 and 14.8% positivity in children and adults, respectively. Enterovirus was present in 5.6% cases whereas norovirus had least prevalence (1.4%). Co infection (rotavirus and enterovirus) was witnessed at the prevalence rate of 0.6%. Among different age groups, the prevalence of studied viruses was highest in the children belonging to the age groups of <5years. Rotavirus infections were found to be significantly associated with vomiting and trend of higher rates of fever and dehydration was seen in children along with diarrhea. Seasonal distribution shows circulation of diarrheagenic viruses throughout the year. This is the first report of prevalence of various diarrheagenic viruses circulating in this region. The outcome of the study from this cohort provides a baseline data which can be used to design the preventive strategies in the otherwise unexplored state of Himachal Pradesh. PMID:26925447

  7. Enterovirus 71 Proteins 2A and 3D Antagonize the Antiviral Activity of Gamma Interferon via Signaling Attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Chiu; Chen, Su-O; Chang, Shih-Ping; Lee, Yi-Ping; Yu, Chun-Keung; Chen, Chia-Ling; Tseng, Po-Chun; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection causes severe mortality involving multiple possible mechanisms, including cytokine storm, brain stem encephalitis, and fulminant pulmonary edema. Gamma interferon (IFN-?) may confer anti-EV71 activity; however, the claim that disease severity is highly correlated to an increase in IFN-? is controversial and would indicate an immune escape initiated by EV71. This study, investigating the role of IFN-? in EV71 infection using a murine model, showed that IFN-? was elevated. Moreover, IFN-? receptor-deficient mice showed higher mortality rates and more severe disease progression with slower viral clearance than wild-type mice. In vitro results showed that IFN-? pretreatment reduced EV71 yield, whereas EV71 infection caused IFN-? resistance with attenuated IFN-? signaling in IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) gene transactivation. To study the immunoediting ability of EV71 proteins in IFN-? signaling, 11 viral proteins were stably expressed in cells without cytotoxicity; however, viral proteins 2A and 3D blocked IFN-?-induced IRF1 transactivation following a loss of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) nuclear translocation. Viral 3D attenuated IFN-? signaling accompanied by a STAT1 decrease without interfering with IFN-? receptor expression. Restoration of STAT1 or blocking 3D activity was able to rescue IFN-? signaling. Interestingly, viral 2A attenuated IFN-? signaling using another mechanism by reducing the serine phosphorylation of STAT1 following the inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase without affecting STAT1 expression. These results demonstrate the anti-EV71 ability of IFN-? and the immunoediting ability by EV71 2A and 3D, which attenuate IFN-? signaling through different mechanisms. IMPORTANCE Immunosurveillance by gamma interferon (IFN-?) may confer anti-enterovirus 71 (anti-EV71) activity; however, the claim that disease severity is highly correlated to an increase in IFN-? is controversial and would indicate an immune escape initiated by EV71. IFN-? receptor-deficient mice showed higher mortality and more severe disease progression, indicating the anti-EV71 property of IFN-?. However, EV71 infection caused cellular insusceptibility in response to IFN-? stimulation. We used an in vitro system with viral protein expression to explore the novel IFN-? inhibitory properties of the EV71 2A and 3D proteins through the different mechanisms. According to this study, targeting either 2A or 3D pharmacologically and/or genetically may sustain a cellular susceptibility in response to IFN-?, particularly for IFN-?-mediated anti-EV71 activity. PMID:25926657

  8. Persistent Infection of Thymic Epithelial Cells with Coxsackievirus B4 Results in Decreased Expression of Type 2 Insulin-Like Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Jadane, Hela; Caloone, Delphine; Lobert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Sane, Famara; Dardenne, Olivier; Naquet, Philippe; Gharbi, Jawhar; Aouni, Mahjoub; Geenen, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a disturbance of central self-tolerance to islet ? cells may play a role in the enteroviral pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Whether enteroviruses can induce an impaired expression of ?-cell self-antigens in thymic epithelial cells has been investigated in a murine thymic epithelial (MTE) cell line. This cell line was permissive to the diabetogenic group B4 coxsackievirus (CV-B4) strain CV-B4 E2 and spontaneously expressed type 2 insulin-like growth factor (Igf2), the dominant self-antigen of the insulin family. In this model, a persistent replication of CV-B4 E2 was obtained, as attested to by the prolonged detection of intracellular positive- and negative-strand viral RNA by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and capsid protein VP1 by immunofluorescent staining and by the release of infectious particles in culture supernatants. The chronic stage of the infection was characterized by a low proportion of VP1-positive cells (1 to 2%), whereas many cells harbored enteroviral RNA, as displayed by RT-PCR without extraction applied directly to a few cells. Igf2 mRNA and IGF-2 protein were dramatically decreased in CV-B4 E2-infected MTE cell cultures compared with mock-infected cultures, whereas housekeeping and interleukin-6 (Il6) gene expression was maintained and Igf1 mRNA was decreased, but to a lower extent. Inoculation of CV-B3, CV-B4 JVB, or echovirus 1 resulted in a low level of IGF-2 in culture supernatants as well, whereas herpes simplex virus 1 stimulated the production of the protein. Thus, a persistent infection of a thymic epithelial cell line with enteroviruses like CV-B4 E2 can result in a disturbed production of IGF-2, a protein involved in central self-tolerance toward islet ? cells. PMID:22855493

  9. FastStats: Infectious Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mental Health Diabetes Digestive and Liver Digestive Diseases Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis Kidney Disease Oral and Dental Health Respiratory and Allergies Allergies and Hay Fever Asthma Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Infectious/Immune AIDS and HIV ...

  10. Infectious diseases in African children.

    PubMed

    Hori, H; Watanabe, M; Sakurai, M

    1993-12-01

    Present status and problems of infectious diseases in African children are detailed. The Department of Paediatrics, Mie University School of Medicine has 10 years' experience of international medical cooperation with African countries. At present, the department is participating in two projects in Ghana and Zambia. The activities have been carried out in the field of priority infectious diseases in African children. Major infectious diseases in Africa are malaria, diarrhoeal diseases, acute respiratory infections and some specific parasitic diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus infection has also become a threat to the health and survival of children in Africa. To reduce morbidity and mortality due to these diseases, primary health care activity may be an effective and economical measure. Japan is expected to make further technological and economical contributions to the control of the infectious diseases in developing countries. Japanese paediatricians should be aware of the condition of child health in developing countries and consider what can be done to help. PMID:8109240

  11. Pseudothrombocytopenia associated with infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, A T; Chao, T Y; Chen, Y C

    2003-01-01

    A 22-year-old man was hospitalized for assessment of thrombocytopenia and fever. Examination showed that he had infectious mononucleosis and moderately severe thrombocytopenia that was asymptomatic. Examination of blood smears revealed that the thrombocytopenia was caused by the clumping of platelets. We made a diagnosis of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia after excluding other infectious mononucleosis-related mechanisms of thrombocytopenia. When the patient recovered from infectious mononucleosis 2 months later, his thrombocytopenia improved, and no platelet clumping in peripheral blood smears was noted. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia should always be considered as a possible cause of reported low platelet counts, even in patients with infectious mononucleosis and splenomegaly. PMID:12562287

  12. 75 FR 24835 - Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... notice ``Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis; Proposed Rule'' (62 FR 54160-54308; October 17, 1997... infectious agents may be a significant concern (e.g., drug treatment facilities, home health services,...

  13. Endemic infectious diseases of Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Mark R; Hale, Braden R; Utz, Gregory C; Olson, Patrick E; Earhart, Kenneth C; Thornton, Scott A; Hyams, Kenneth C

    2002-06-15

    The current crisis in Afghanistan has resulted in an influx of Western military personnel, peacekeepers, humanitarian workers, and journalists. At the same time, unprecedented numbers of internally displaced persons and refugees have overwhelmed much of the already fragile infrastructure, setting the stage for outbreaks of infectious diseases among both foreigners and local populations. This review surveys the literature concerning the infectious diseases of Afghanistan and south-central Asia, with particular emphasis on diseases not typically seen in the Western world. PMID:12019465

  14. Respiratory Infections by Enterovirus D68 in Outpatients and Inpatients Spanish Children

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, María Teresa; Pozo, Francisco; García-García, María Luz; Molinero, Mar; Calderón, Ana; Gonzalez-Esguevillas, Mónica; Pérez-Sautu, Unai; Casas, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) and the spectrum of clinical disease in children are not well known in European countries. We have designed a study with the objective of describing the clinical impact of EV-D68 detected in children with respiratory tract infections. Methods: As a part of a prospective study to identify the etiology and clinical characteristics of viral respiratory infections in children in Spain, we performed the analysis of the cases of EV infections in all children hospitalized in a secondary hospital in Madrid, during the epidemic respiratory season 2012–2013. A second group of samples was corresponded to infants of the same area, with ambulatory respiratory infection or asymptomatic. Phylogenetic EV-D68 analysis was made using the viral protein 1 gene (VP1). Clinical data of EV-D68 patients were compared with those infected by rhinovirus in the same period and population. Results: The study population consisted of 720 patients corresponding to 399 episodes of hospitalization for respiratory causes, 44 episodes of ambulatory respiratory infections and 277 children determined as a healthy control group. A total of 22 patients were positive for EVs (3.05%), and 12 of them were specifically typed as EV-D68 (11/443 respiratory infections, 2.5%). The most frequent diagnosis in the 10 hospitalized children with EV-D68 detection was recurrent wheezing. Hypoxia was present in 70% of cases, but admission in the intensive care unit was not required. No neurological signs or symptoms were observed. One patient had an ambulatory mild bronchiolitis and another was asymptomatic. No differences were found with rhinovirus infections except less duration of hypoxia and fever in EV-D68 group. Conclusions: EV-D68 infections were detected in 3.05% of respiratory studied samples (2.5% of admissions). The infection was associated with wheezing episodes with hypoxia. No admissions to intensive care unit or neurological symptoms were found. PMID:26741582

  15. Viroids: molecular infectious agents.

    PubMed

    Smarda, J

    1987-11-01

    In 1971, unique small RNA molecules, the viroids, were found to cause specific infectious diseases of plants. They are the smallest and simplest contagious agents known. Until now, 14 viroids have been described and 12 diseases of potatoes, tomatoes, citruses, chrysanthemums, cucumbers, hops, coconut palms avocado trees and burdock are known to be caused by viroids. The common symptoms of these diseases are: stunting of plants. discoloration of veins, epinasty, curling and distortions of leaves, chlorotic or necrotic spots etc., followed by death of the diseased plants. All viroids are ssRNAs of m.w. ranging from 1.1 x 10(5) to 1.7 x 10(5), corresponding to chains of just 246 to 371 ribonucleotides. For 10 viroids, complete nucleotide sequences are known PSTV, CSV, CEV, TPMV and TASV show 60%-80% homology with each other; in analogy, ASBV, HSV, CPFV. GV and CCCV are closely homologous to each other, too, but just distantly related to the PSTV group. Extensive intramolecular base pairing creates a characteristic secondary structure of the cyclic viroid RNA chain, native viroids appearing as quasi double-stranded, unbranched, very short rod-like structures with short single-stranded loops. (Thus PSTV forms rods about 50 nm long and 2 nm wide.) The stretch of nearly all viroids bears a common central conserved region of 19 bp. The "upper" part of this region is, presumably, the cleavage-ligation site of viroid oligomers during replication. Viroids are located and replicated in nuclei of infected cells, in association with their nucleoli. Their replication is directed by host DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II using cRNA oligomers as templates according to the rolling circle model. Viroid RNA has no mRNA function. The virulence of viroids is coded by their virulence modulating region in the "left hand" part of their molecules: a single nucleotide substitution between nucleotides 43 and 56 within this region alters the virulence. Most probably, viroids have originated by the circularization of spliced-out transcripts of eucaryotic introns. A stable complex may be created between the 5' end of U1 snRNA and nucleotides 257 to 279 of PSTV cRNA strand; thus the pathogenic effects of viroids seem to be a result of their interference with pre-mRNA processing. PMID:2449812

  16. Sex and Reproduction in the Transmission of Infectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Current data permit only speculations regarding sex differences in the prevalence of infectious uveitis between women and men because uveitis case surveys do not uniformly report gender data. Differences in prevalence that are reported in the literature could relate to simple differences in the number of women and men at risk for infection or to biological differences between men and women. Compared to other types of uveitis, infectious uveitis may be directly related to occupational exposures or sexual behaviors, which differ between women and men, and may mask actual biological differences in susceptibility to ocular manifestations of the infection and its prognosis. In infectious uveitis for which there is no element of sexual transmission and data is available, prevalence of ocular disease is roughly equal between women and men. Women also have a unique relationship with infectious uveitis in their role as mothers. Vertical transmission of infections such as herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus can produce severe chorioretinitis in neonates. PMID:25105020

  17. Death waits for no man Does it wait for a virus? How Enteroviruses Induce and Control Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Katharine G; Coyne, Carolyn B

    2014-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common human viral pathogens. They cause a variety of pathologies, including myocarditis and meningoencephalopathies, and have been linked to the onset of type I diabetes. These pathologies result from the death of cells in the myocardium, central nervous system, and pancreas, respectively. Understanding the role of EVs in inducing cell death is crucial to understanding the etiologies of these diverse pathologies. EVs both induce and delay host cell death, and their exquisite control of this balance is crucial for their success as human viral pathogens. Thus, EVs are tightly involved with cell death signaling pathways and interact with host cell signaling at multiple points Here, we review the literature detailing the mechanisms of EV-induced cell death. We discuss the mechanisms by which EVs induce cell death, the signaling pathways involved in these pathways, and the strategies by which EVs antagonize cell death pathways. We also discuss the role of cell death in both the resulting pathology in the host and in the facilitation of viral spread. PMID:25172372

  18. Emerging infectious diseases: a cause for concern.

    PubMed

    Berns, D S; Rager, B

    2000-12-01

    As the twenty-first century begins it becomes increasingly apparent that the twentieth century, which opened with the promise of the eradication of most infectious diseases, closed with the specter of the reemergence of many deadly infectious diseases that have a rapidly increasing incidence and geographic range. Equally if not more alarming is the appearance of new infectious diseases that have become major sources of morbidity and mortality. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, hemolytic uremic syndrome (caused by a strain of Escherichia coli), Rift Valley fever, Dengue hemorrhagic fever, malaria, cryptosporidiosis, and schistosomiasis. The reasons for this situation are easily identified in some cases as associated with treatment modalities (permissive use of antibiotics), the industrial use of antibiotics, demographic changes, societal behavior patterns, changes in ecology, global warming, the inability to deliver minimal health care and the neglect of well-established public health priorities. In addition is the emergence of diseases of another type. We have begun to characterize the potential microbial etiology of what has historically been referred to as chronic diseases. PMID:11344776

  19. Sporadic Isolation of Sabin-Like Polioviruses and High-Level Detection of Non-Polio Enteroviruses during Sewage Surveillance in Seven Italian Cities, after Several Years of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Battistone, A.; Buttinelli, G.; Fiore, S.; Amato, C.; Bonomo, P.; Patti, A. M.; Vulcano, A.; Barbi, M.; Binda, S.; Pellegrinelli, L.; Tanzi, M. L.; Affanni, P.; Castiglia, P.; Germinario, C.; Mercurio, P.; Cicala, A.; Triassi, M.; Pennino, F.

    2014-01-01

    Sewage surveillance in seven Italian cities between 2005 and 2008, after the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccination (IPV) in 2002, showed rare polioviruses, none that were wild-type or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), and many other enteroviruses among 1,392 samples analyzed. Two of five polioviruses (PV) detected were Sabin-like PV2 and three PV3, based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and PCR results. Neurovirulence-related mutations were found in the 5′ noncoding region (5′NCR) of all strains and, for a PV2, also in VP1 region 143 (Ile > Thr). Intertypic recombination in the 3D region was detected in a second PV2 (Sabin 2/Sabin 1) and a PV3 (Sabin 3/Sabin 2). The low mutation rate in VP1 for all PVs suggests limited interhuman virus passages, consistent with efficient polio immunization in Italy. Nonetheless, these findings highlight the risk of wild or Sabin poliovirus reintroduction from abroad. Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) were detected, 448 of which were coxsackievirus B (CVB) and 294 of which were echoviruses (Echo). Fifty-six NPEVs failing serological typing were characterized by sequencing the VP1 region (nucleotides [nt] 2628 to 2976). A total of 448 CVB and 294 Echo strains were identified; among those strains, CVB2, CVB5, and Echo 11 predominated. Environmental CVB5 and CVB2 strains from this study showed high sequence identity with GenBank global strains. The high similarity between environmental NPEVs and clinical strains from the same areas of Italy and the same periods indicates that environmental strains reflect the viruses circulating in the population and highlights the potential risk of inefficient wastewater treatments. This study confirmed that sewage surveillance can be more sensitive than acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in monitoring silent poliovirus circulation in the population as well as the suitability of molecular approaches to enterovirus typing. PMID:24814793

  20. A REAL-TIME RT-PCR REACTION SPECIFIC FOR BOVINE ENTEROVIRUSES PROVIDES A RAPID ASSAY FOR FECAL CONTAMINATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT BY CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of bovine enteroviruses found in a closed herd of cattle and the surrounding environment indicated that bovine enteroviruses (BEV) could serve as useful markers of contamination with cattle waste. BEV was found in feces from 76% of cattle, 38% of white-tail deer in the same area an...

  1. Nutritional modulation of resistance to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Klasing, K C

    1998-08-01

    Dietary characteristics can modulate a bird's susceptibility to infectious challenges and subtle influences due to the level of nutrients or the types of ingredients may at times be of critical importance. This review considers seven mechanisms for nutritional modulation of resistance to infectious disease in poultry. 1) Nutrition may impact the development of the immune system, both in ovo and in the first weeks posthatch. Micronutrient deficiencies that affect developmental events, such as the seeding of lymphoid organs and clonal expansion of lymphocyte clones, can negatively impact the immune system later in life. 2) A substrate role of nutrients is necessary for the immune response so that responding cells can divide and synthesize effector molecules. The quantitative need for nutrients for supporting a normal immune system, as well as the proliferation of leukocytes and the production of antibodies during an infectious challenge, is very small relative to uses for growth or egg production. It is likely that the systemic acute phase response that accompanies most infectious challenges is a more significant consumer of nutrients than the immune system itself. 3) The low concentration of some nutrients (e.g., iron) in body fluids makes them the limiting substrates for the proliferation of invading pathogens and the supply of these nutrients is further limited during the immune response. 4) Some nutrients (e.g., fatty acids and vitamins A, D, and E) have direct regulatory actions on leukocytes by binding to intracellular receptors or by modifying the release of second messengers. 5) The diet may also have indirect regulatory effects that are mediated by the classical endocrine system. 6) Physical and chemical aspects of the diet can modify the populations of microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract, the capacity of pathogens to attach to enterocytes, and the integrity of the intestinal epithelium. PMID:9706075

  2. Emerging infectious disease: global response, global alert.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, H

    1997-01-01

    Despite spectacular progress in the eradication of infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis are making a comeback in many parts of the world. After years of decline, plague, diphtheria, dengue, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, and cholera have reappeared as public health threats. In the last 20 years [before 1997] more than 30 new and highly infectious diseases have been identified, including Ebola-type hemorrhagic fever, HIV/AIDs, and hepatitis C. Antibiotic resistance has also emerged during this period, and fewer new antibiotics are being produced because of high development costs and licensing. Drugs no longer offer protection or cure for many infectious diseases, and consequently more people need hospitalization with higher treatment costs. The causes of the appearance of new diseases and the resurgence of old ones include the rapid increase in international travel, the growth of mega-cities with high population densities, inadequate safe water and sanitation, food-borne diseases by the globalization of trade, and human penetration into remote animal and insect habitats. Meanwhile, resources for public health are being reduced, with the result that either the appearance of new diseases or resistance to drugs go unnoticed. A recent example is the human immunodeficiency virus, which went unrecognized until a large number of people got infected. For this very reason the 1997 World Health Day featured the theme of emerging infectious diseases and global response. Such forums are held to help countries rebuild the foundations of disease surveillance and control, while the public and private sectors may be encouraged to develop better techniques for surveillance to confront a common global threat. PMID:12348002

  3. Antiviral Potential of a Novel Compound CW-33 against Enterovirus A71 via Inhibition of Viral 2A Protease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, An-Cheng; Hour, Mann-Jen; Huang, Su-Hua; Kung, Szu-Hao; Chen, Chao-Hsien; Chen, I-Chieh; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) in the Picornaviridae family causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, severe central nervous system disease, even death. EV-A71 2A protease cleaves Type I interferon (IFN)-?/? receptor 1 (IFNAR1) to block IFN-induced Jak/STAT signaling. This study investigated anti-EV-A7l activity and synergistic mechanism(s) of a novel furoquinoline alkaloid compound CW-33 alone and in combination with IFN-?. Anti-EV-A71 activities of CW-33 alone and in combination with IFN-? were evaluated by inhibitory assays of virus-induced apoptosis, plaque formation, and virus yield. CW-33 showed antiviral activities with an IC50 of near 200 ?M in EV-A71 plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays. While, anti-EV-A71 activities of CW-33 combined with 100 U/mL IFN-? exhibited a synergistic potency with an IC50 of approximate 1 ?M in plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays. Molecular docking revealed CW-33 binding to EV-A71 2A protease active sites, correlating with an inhibitory effect of CW33 on in vitro enzymatic activity of recombinant 2A protease (IC50 = 53.1 ?M). Western blotting demonstrated CW-33 specifically inhibiting 2A protease-mediated cleavage of IFNAR1. CW-33 also recovered Type I IFN-induced Tyk2 and STAT1 phosphorylation as well as 2?,5?-OAS upregulation in EV-A71 infected cells. The results demonstrated CW-33 inhibiting viral 2A protease activity to reduce Type I IFN antagonism of EV-A71. Therefore, CW-33 combined with a low-dose of Type I IFN could be applied in developing alternative approaches to treat EV-A71 infection. PMID:26090728

  4. Antiviral Potential of a Novel Compound CW-33 against Enterovirus A71 via Inhibition of Viral 2A Protease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, An-Cheng; Hour, Mann-Jen; Huang, Su-Hua; Kung, Szu-Hao; Chen, Chao-Hsien; Chen, I-Chieh; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2015-06-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) in the Picornaviridae family causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, severe central nervous system disease, even death. EV-A71 2A protease cleaves Type I interferon (IFN)-?/? receptor 1 (IFNAR1) to block IFN-induced Jak/STAT signaling. This study investigated anti-EV-A7l activity and synergistic mechanism(s) of a novel furoquinoline alkaloid compound CW-33 alone and in combination with IFN-? Anti-EV-A71 activities of CW-33 alone and in combination with IFN-? were evaluated by inhibitory assays of virus-induced apoptosis, plaque formation, and virus yield. CW-33 showed antiviral activities with an IC50 of near 200 M in EV-A71 plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays. While, anti-EV-A71 activities of CW-33 combined with 100 U/mL IFN-? exhibited a synergistic potency with an IC50 of approximate 1 M in plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays. Molecular docking revealed CW-33 binding to EV-A71 2A protease active sites, correlating with an inhibitory effect of CW33 on in vitro enzymatic activity of recombinant 2A protease IC50 = 53.1 M). Western blotting demonstrated CW-33 specifically inhibiting 2A protease-mediated cleavage of IFNAR1. CW-33 also recovered Type I IFN-induced Tyk2 and STAT1 phosphorylation as well as 2\\',5\\'-OAS upregulation in EV-A71 infected cells. The results demonstrated CW-33 inhibiting viral 2A protease activity to reduce Type I IFN antagonism of EV-A71. Therefore, CW-33 combined with a low-dose of Type I IFN could be applied in developing alternative approaches to treat EV-A71 infection. PMID:26090728

  5. Ribavirin-resistant mutants of human enterovirus 71 express a high replication fidelity phenotype during growth in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Sadeghipour, Sara; Bek, Emily J; McMinn, Peter C

    2013-02-01

    It has been shown in animal models that ribavirin-resistant poliovirus with a G64S mutation in its 3D polymerase has high replication fidelity coupled with attenuated virulence. Here, we describe the effects of mutagenesis in the human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) 3D polymerase on ribavirin resistance and replication fidelity. Seven substitutions were introduced at amino acid position 3D-G64 of a HEV71 full-length infectious cDNA clone (26M). Viable clone-derived virus populations were rescued from the G64N, G64R, and G64T mutant cDNA clones. The clone-derived G64R and G64T mutant virus populations were resistant to growth inhibition in the presence of 1,600 ?M ribavirin, whereas the growth of parental 26M and the G64N mutant viruses were inhibited in the presence of 800 ?M ribavirin. Nucleotide sequencing of the 2C and 3D coding regions revealed that the rate of random mutagenesis after 13 passages in the presence of 400 ?M ribavirin was nearly 10 times higher in the 26M genome than in the mutant G64R virus genome. Furthermore, random mutations acquired in the 2C coding regions of 26M and G64N conferred resistance to growth inhibition in the presence of 0.5 mM guanidine, whereas the G64R and G64T mutant virus populations remained susceptible to growth inhibition by 0.5 mM guanidine. Interestingly, a S264L mutation identified in the 3D coding region of 26M after ribavirin selection was also associated with both ribavirin-resistant and high replication fidelity phenotypes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the 3D-G64R, 3D-G64T, and 3D-S264L mutations confer resistance upon HEV71 to the antiviral mutagen ribavirin, coupled with a high replication fidelity phenotype during growth in cell culture. PMID:23175376

  6. Chebulagic Acid, a Hydrolyzable Tannin, Exhibited Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo against Human Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yajun; Xiu, Jinghui; Liu, Jiangning; Zhang, Li; Li, Xiaoying; Xu, Yanfeng; Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in children under six years of age. Presently, no vaccines or antiviral drugs have been clinically available to employ against EV71. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with chebulagic acid reduced the viral cytopathic effect on rhabdomyosarcoma cells with an IC50 of 12.5 ?g/mL. The utilization of the chebulagic acid treatment on mice challenged with a lethal dose of enterovirus 71 was able to efficiently reduce mortality and relieve clinical symptoms through the inhibition of viral replication. Chebulagic acid may represent a potential therapeutic agent to control infections to enterovirus 71. PMID:23644889

  7. Pneumococcal Disease: Types of Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... World Health Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis Types of Infection Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... World Health Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  8. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Carducci, Annalaura; Caponi, Elisa; Ciurli, Adriana; Verani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L) a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated. PMID:26193291

  9. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Carducci, Annalaura; Caponi, Elisa; Ciurli, Adriana; Verani, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L) a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated. PMID:26193291

  10. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    PubMed Central

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

  11. [Loperamide for acute infectious diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Douma, Joeri A J; Smulders, Yvo M

    2015-01-01

    Many physicians are resistant to the idea of prescribing loperamide for acute infectious traveller's diarrhoea and community-acquired diarrhoea because of the fear of possible adverse effects. Large randomized trials with loperamide, either alone or as an adjunct to antibiotic treatment, have in fact revealed positive rather than negative effects. International guidelines now often support the use of loperamide for the treatment of infectious diarrhoea without dysentery. There seems to be no reason to systematically avoid loperamide in patients with dysentery, but caution is advised. Loperamide can be used as monotherapy or as an adjunct to antibiotic treatment in immunocompetent adults with acute infectious traveller's diarrhoea or community-acquired diarrhoea without severe comorbidities. This can reduce both the frequency of diarrhoea and the time until the diarrhoea stops without the risk of severe complications. PMID:26246063

  12. Melioidosis: an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Raja, N S; Ahmed, M Z; Singh, N N

    2005-01-01

    Infectious diseases account for a third of all the deaths in the developing world. Achievements in understanding the basic microbiology, pathogenesis, host defenses and expanded epidemiology of infectious diseases have resulted in better management and reduced mortality. However, an emerging infectious disease, melioidosis, is becoming endemic in the tropical regions of the world and is spreading to non-endemic areas. This article highlights the current understanding of melioidosis including advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Better understanding of melioidosis is essential, as it is life-threatening and if untreated, patients can succumb to it. Our sources include a literature review, information from international consensus meetings on melioidosis and ongoing discussions within the medical and scientific community. PMID:16006713

  13. Human migration and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Soto, S M

    2009-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are defined as diseases that have appeared recently or that have recently increased in their frequency, geographical distribution or both. Commercial globalisation, population movements and environmental changes are the main factors favouring the international spread of microorganisms. Transport and communication development constitutes also a remarkable factor in the worldwide dispersion of microorganisms. The mass movement of large numbers of people creates new opportunities for the spread and establishment of common or novel infectious diseases. A surveillance system to detect emergent and re-emergent infections, a rapid responsiveness of healthcare systems and laboratories, vector control, and the provision of healthcare education programmes to inform the population of how to avoid infections are needed in order to stop the spread of infectious diseases. PMID:19220349

  14. Environmental surveillance of poliovirus and non-polio enterovirus in urban sewage in Dakar, Senegal (2007-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Abdou Kader; Diop, Pape Amadou Mbathio; Diop, Ousmane Madiagne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Global poliomyelitis eradication initiative relies on (i) laboratory based surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) to monitor the circulation of wild poliovirus in a population, and (ii) vaccination to prevent its diffusion. However, as poliovirus can survive in the environment namely in sewage, environmental surveillance (ES) is of growing importance as the eradication target is close. This study aimed to assess polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses circulation in sewage drains covering a significant population of Dakar. Methods From April 2007 to May 2013, 271 specimens of raw sewage were collected using the grab method in 6 neighborhoods of Dakar. Samples were processed to extract and concentrate viruses using polyethylene glycol and Dextran (two-phase separation method). Isolation of enteroviruses was attempted in RD, L20B and Hep2 cell lines. Polioviruses were identified by RT-PCR and Elisa. Non Polio Enteroviruses (NPEVs) were identified by RT-PCR and microneutralisation tests. Results Polioviruses and NPEVs were respectively detected in 34,3% and 42,8% sewage samples. No wild poliovirus neither circulating vaccine-derived Poliovirus (cVDPV) was detected. Neutralization assays have identified 49 non polio enteroviruses that were subsequently classified in 13 serotypes belonging to HEV-A (22, 4%), HEV-B (12, 24%), HEV-C (26, 53%) and HEV-D (6, 12%) species. Conclusion This study is the first documentation of enteroviruses environmental detection in Senegal. It shows the usefulness of environmental surveillance for indirect monitoring of the circulation and distribution of enteroviruses in the community. PMID:25848458

  15. Infectious causes of necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Sarah A.; Wynn, James L.; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency among premature infants. Although a large body of research has focused on understanding its pathogenesis, the exact mechanism has not been elucidated. Of particular interest is the potential causative role of infectious culprits in the development of NEC. A variety of reports describe bacterial, viral, and fungal infections occurring in association with NEC; however, no organism has emerged as being definitively involved in NEC pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the body of research on infectious causes of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:25678001

  16. Regulation of host responses and viral replication by the mitogen-activated protein kinases in intestinal epithelial cells infected with Enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyang; Gao, Luying; Jin, Yu; Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become an important neurotropic enterovirus in children since the eradication of the poliovirus. A cytokine storm with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines is proposed as critical to the pathogenesis of EV71-induced brain stem encephalitis with pulmonary edema, often a fatal complication. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are involved in cellular processes including immune responses and apoptosis. EV71 infection can trigger MAPK activation in human cells, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling is essential for EV71 replication. In this study, we report that in EV71-infected human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29), both ERK1/2 and Jun-N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) were phosphorylated and activated. While MAPK was not involved in the induction of IL-1?, the expressions of IL-6 and IL-8 were positively regulated by both ERK1/2 and JNK1/2, which were also responsible for type I IFN induction. HT-29 cells underwent apoptosis in EV71 infection, but the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 signaling appeared to suppress induction of TNF-? and FasL and inhibit extrinsic apoptosis in infected cells. Activation of NF-?B was also observed in HT-29 cells in EV71 infection, leading to increased viral replication and proinflammatory cytokine induction. However, the activation of NF-?B was inhibited by the inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK1/2, indicating that a cross-talk may exist between MAPK and NF-?B pathways in EV71-infected intestinal epithelial cells. Understanding host responses and their underlying mechanisms may help develop effective therapeutics against EV71 and tools for control of future EV71 outbreaks. PMID:25529441

  17. Comparison of Two Concentration Methods for the Molecular Detection of Enteroviruses in Raw and Treated Sewage.

    PubMed

    Hmaed, F; Jebri, S; Saavedra, M E R; Yahya, M; Amri, I; Lucena, F; Hamdi, M

    2016-01-01

    Human enteric viruses are a major causative agent of emerging waterborne diseases and constitute a serious public health concern. Environmental contamination occurs through discharge of waste materials from infected persons. Methods for viral detection should be developed to detect low infective dose of enteric viruses in environment. In this study, we aimed at comparing two concentration methods for the detection of naturally occurring enteroviruses in raw and treated sewage. In the first method, polyethylene glycol is used to concentrate viral particles from the collected samples. The second method is based on ultracentrifugation of viral particles at high speed (110,000g). Genomes of enteroviruses were quantified by the quantitative real-time PCR method in raw and treated sewage samples. PEG-based method yielded higher genomic copies of enteric viruses (with an average of 5.9 log10 genomic copies/100mL) when applied to raw sewage samples. While the ultracentrifugation assay in the second method decreases genomic copies number (with an average of 5.4 log10 genomic copies/100mL). The recovery differences between the two methods were not significant when applied to clean samples (treated sewage). This could be explained by the presence of inhibitors, which interfere with qRT-PCR, in less quantity comparatively to raw sewage. PEG-based method would be more accurate for samples with high-organic matter load. This report emphasizes the importance of matrices nature on the recovery of enteroviruses from sewage samples. This should be taken into consideration for establishing standardized virological assays to ensure the virological quality control of discharged water in environment. PMID:26362161

  18. A neonatal gnotobiotic pig model of human enterovirus 71 infection and associated immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xingdong; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Bui, Tammy; Liu, Fangning; Kocher, Jacob; Jortner, Bernard S; Vonck, Marlice; Pelzer, Kevin; Deng, Jie; Zhu, Runan; Li, Yuyun; Qian, Yuan; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine development and pathogenesis studies for human enterovirus 71 are limited by a lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report the development of a novel neonatal gnotobiotic pig model using the non-pig-adapted neurovirulent human enterovirus 71 strain BJ110, which has a C4 genotype. Porcine small intestinal epithelial cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neural cells were infected in vitro. Oral and combined oral–nasal infection of 5-day-old neonatal gnotobiotic pigs with 5×108 fluorescence forming units (FFU) resulted in shedding up to 18 days post-infection, with viral titers in rectal swab samples peaking at 2.22×108 viral RNA copies/mL. Viral capsid proteins were detected in enterocytes within the small intestines on post-infection days (PIDs) 7 and 14. Additionally, viral RNA was detected in intestinal and extra-intestinal tissues, including the central nervous system, the lung and cardiac muscle. The infected neonatal gnotobiotic pigs developed fever, forelimb weakness, rapid breathing and some hand, foot and mouth disease symptoms. Flow cytometry analysis revealed increased frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-γ-producing T cells in the brain and the blood on PID 14, but reduced frequencies were observed in the lung. Furthermore, high titers of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies were generated in both orally and combined oral–nasally infected pigs on PIDs 7, 14, 21 and 28. Together, these results demonstrate that neonatal gnotobiotic pigs represent a novel animal model for evaluating vaccines for human enterovirus 71 and for understanding the pathogenesis of this virus and the associated immune responses. PMID:26038741

  19. Phylogenetic evidence for inter-typic recombination in the emergence of human enterovirus 71 subgenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Yoke-Fun, Chan; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2006-01-01

    Background Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is a common causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, the virus has caused several outbreaks with high numbers of deaths and severe neurological complications. Several new EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from these outbreaks. The mechanisms that contributed to the emergence of these subgenotypes are unknown. Results Six EV-71 isolates from an outbreak in Malaysia, in 1997, were sequenced completely. These isolates were identified as EV-71 subgenotypes, B3, B4 and C2. A phylogenetic tree that correlated well with the present enterovirus classification scheme was established using these full genome sequences and all other available full genome sequences of EV-71 and human enterovirus A (HEV-A). Using the 5' UTR, P2 and P3 genomic regions, however, isolates of EV-71 subgenotypes B3 and C4 segregated away from other EV-71 subgenotypes into a cluster together with coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16/G10) and EV-71 subgenotype C2 clustered with CV-A8. Results from the similarity plot analyses supported the clustering of these isolates with other HEV-A. In contrast, at the same genomic regions, a CV-A16 isolate, Tainan5079, clustered with EV-71. This suggests that amongst EV-71 and CV-A16, only the structural genes were conserved. The 3' end of the virus genome varied and consisted of sequences highly similar to various HEV-A viruses. Numerous recombination crossover breakpoints were identified within the non-structural genes of some of these newer EV-71 subgenotypes. Conclusion Phylogenetic evidence obtained from analyses of the full genome sequence supports the possible occurrence of inter-typic recombination involving EV-71 and various HEV-A, including CV-A16, the most common causal agent of HFMD. It is suggested that these recombination events played important roles in the emergence of the various EV-71 subgenotypes. PMID:16939656

  20. Structural Basis for Antiviral Inhibition of the Main Protease, 3C, from Human Enterovirus 93 ?

    PubMed Central

    Costenaro, Lionel; Kaczmarska, Zuzanna; Arnan, Carme; Janowski, Robert; Coutard, Bruno; Sol, Maria; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Norder, Helne; Canard, Bruno; Coll, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family are abundant, with common human pathogens that belong to the rhinovirus (HRV) and enterovirus (EV) species, including diverse echo-, coxsackie- and polioviruses. They cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe diseases with neurological and/or cardiac manifestations. Pandemic outbreaks of EVs may be accompanied by meningitis and/or paralysis and can be fatal. However, no effective prophylaxis or antiviral treatment against most EVs is available. The EV RNA genome directs the synthesis of a single polyprotein that is autocatalytically processed into mature proteins at Gln?Gly cleavage sites by the 3C protease (3Cpro), which has narrow, conserved substrate specificity. These cleavages are essential for virus replication, making 3Cpro an excellent target for antivirus drug development. In this study, we report the first determination of the crystal structure of 3Cpro from an enterovirus B, EV-93, a recently identified pathogen, alone and in complex with the anti-HRV molecules compound 1 (AG7404) and rupintrivir (AG7088) at resolutions of 1.9, 1.3, and 1.5 , respectively. The EV-93 3Cpro adopts a chymotrypsin-like fold with a canonically configured oxyanion hole and a substrate binding pocket similar to that of rhino-, coxsackie- and poliovirus 3C proteases. We show that compound 1 and rupintrivir are both active against EV-93 in infected cells and inhibit the proteolytic activity of EV-93 3Cpro in vitro. These results provide a framework for further structure-guided optimization of the tested compounds to produce antiviral drugs against a broad range of EV species. PMID:21835784

  1. Infectious diarrhoea--an update.

    PubMed

    Ram, S; Khurana, S; Kaushal, V; Khurana, S B

    1997-06-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is one of the most common illness affecting mankind. Recent advancement have led to detailed understanding of causative agents and the pathogenesis of the infections. Fluid and electrolyte replacement remains the most important aspect of treatment. The role of antimicrobial agents is discussed. PMID:9355725

  2. Diagnostic vitrectomy for infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeroudi, Abdallah; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The identification of an infectious or noninfectious uveitis syndrome is important to determine the range of therapeutic and prognostic implications of that disease entity. Diagnostic dilemmas arise with atypical history, atypical clinical presentations, inconclusive diagnostic workup, and persistent or worsened inflammation despite appropriate immunosuppression. More invasive intraocular testing is indicated in these situations particularly in infectious uveitis where a delay in treatment may result in worsening of the patient’s disease and a poor visual outcome. Laboratory analysis of vitreous fluid via diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy is an important technique in the diagnostic armamentarium, but the most important aspects of sample collection include rapid processing, close coordination with an ophthalmic pathology laboratory, and directed testing on this limited collected sample. Culture and staining has utility in bacterial, fungal, and nocardial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has shown promising results for bacterial endophthalmitis and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas PCR testing for viral retinitides and ocular toxoplasmosis has a more established role. Antibody testing is appropriate for toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis, and may be complementary to PCR for viral retinitis. Masquerade syndromes represent neoplastic conditions that clinically appear as infectious or inflammatory conditions and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy and chorioretinal biopsy are thus critical tools for the management of patients in whom an infectious etiology of uveitis is suspected. PMID:24613892

  3. Infectious Risks of Air Travel.

    PubMed

    Mangili, Alexandra; Vindenes, Tine; Gendreau, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Infectious diseases are still among the leading causes of death worldwide due to their persistence, emergence, and reemergence. As the recent Ebola virus disease and MERS-CoV outbreaks demonstrate, the modern epidemics and large-scale infectious outbreaks emerge and spread quickly. Air transportation is a major vehicle for the rapid spread and dissemination of communicable diseases, and there have been a number of reported outbreaks of serious airborne diseases aboard commercial flights including tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome, influenza, smallpox, and measles, to name a few. In 2014 alone, over 3.3 billion passengers (a number equivalent to 42% of the world population) and 50 million metric tons of cargo traveled by air from 41,000 airports and 50,000 routes worldwide, and significant growth is anticipated, with passenger numbers expected to reach 5.9 billion by 2030. Given the increasing numbers of travelers, the risk of infectious disease transmission during air travel is a significant concern, and this chapter focuses on the current knowledge about transmission of infectious diseases in the context of both transmissions within the aircraft passenger cabin and commercial aircraft serving as vehicles of worldwide infection spread. PMID:26542037

  4. Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Warren B.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public

  5. Differential Susceptibility and Response of Primary Human Myeloid BDCA1+ Dendritic Cells to Infection with Different Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Barbara M.; Kers-Rebel, Esther D.; Prosser, Amy C.; Galama, Jochem M. D.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Adema, Gosse J.

    2013-01-01

    Coxsackie B viruses (CVBs) and echoviruses (EVs) form the Human Enterovirus-B (HEV-B) species within the family Picornaviridae. HEV-B infections are widespread and generally cause mild disease; however, severe infections occur and HEV-B are associated with various chronic diseases such as cardiomyopathy and type 1 diabetes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the professional antigen-presenting cells of our immune system and initiate and control immune responses to invading pathogens, yet also maintain tolerance to self-antigens. We previously reported that EVs, but not CVBs, can productively infect in vitro generated monocyte-derived DCs. The interactions between HEV-B and human myeloid DCs (mDCs) freshly isolated from blood, however, remain unknown. Here, we studied the susceptibility and responses of BDCA1+ mDC to HEV-B species and found that these mDC are susceptible to EV, but not CVB infection. Productive EV7 infection resulted in massive, rapid cell death without DC activation. Contrary, EV1 infection, which resulted in lower virus input at the same MOI, resulted in DC activation as observed by production of type I interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), upregulation of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules (CD80, CD86, PDL1) and production of IL-6 and TNF-?, with a relative moderate decrease in cell viability. EV1-induced ISG expression depended on virus replication. CVB infection did not affect DC viability and resulted in poor induction of ISGs and CD80 induction in part of the donors. These data show for the first time the interaction between HEV-B species and BDCA1+ mDCs isolated freshly from blood. Our data indicate that different HEV-B species can influence DC homeostasis in various ways, possibly contributing to HEV-B associated pathology. PMID:23638101

  6. Feline infectious peritonitis: still an enigma?

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Meli, M L

    2014-03-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the most important fatal infectious diseases of cats, the pathogenesis of which has not yet been fully revealed. The present review focuses on the biology of feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection and the pathogenesis and pathological features of FIP. Recent studies have revealed functions of many viral proteins, differing receptor specificity for type I and type II FCoV, and genomic differences between feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs) and FIP viruses (FIPVs). FECV and FIP also exhibit functional differences, since FECVs replicate mainly in intestinal epithelium and are shed in feces, and FIPVs replicate efficiently in monocytes and induce systemic disease. Thus, key events in the pathogenesis of FIP are systemic infection with FIPV, effective and sustainable viral replication in monocytes, and activation of infected monocytes. The host's genetics and immune system also play important roles. It is the activation of monocytes and macrophages that directly leads to the pathologic features of FIP, including vasculitis, body cavity effusions, and fibrinous and granulomatous inflammatory lesions. Advances have been made in the clinical diagnosis of FIP, based on the clinical pathologic findings, serologic testing, and detection of virus using molecular (polymerase chain reaction) or antibody-based methods. Nevertheless, the clinical diagnosis remains challenging in particular in the dry form of FIP, which is partly due to the incomplete understanding of infection biology and pathogenesis in FIP. So, while much progress has been made, many aspects of FIP pathogenesis still remain an enigma. PMID:24569616

  7. Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

    2013-01-01

    The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories. PMID:26038473

  8. Spatiotemporal trends in the discovery of new swine infectious agents.

    PubMed

    Fourni, Guillaume; Kearsley-Fleet, Lianne; Otte, Joachim; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2015-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the spatiotemporal trend and diversity of infectious agents that were newly found in pigs between 1985 and 2010. We identified 173 new variants from 91 species, of which 73 species had not been previously described in pigs. These new species, of which one third was zoonotic, were taxonomically diverse. They were identified throughout the study period, predominantly in the main pork producing countries, with the rate of discovery of new virus variants doubling within the last 10years of the study period. Whilst infectious agent species newly detected in high-income countries were more likely to be associated with higher virulence, zoonotic agents prevailed in low- and middle-income countries. Although this trend is influenced by factors conditioning infectious agent detection - diagnostic methods, surveillance efforts, research interests -, it may suggest that different scales and types of production systems promote emergence of certain types of infectious agents. Considering the rapid transformation of the swine industry, concerted efforts are needed for improving our understanding of the factors influencing the emergence of infectious agents. This information then needs to inform the design of risk-based surveillance systems and strategies directly mitigating the risk associated with these factors. PMID:26412219

  9. Coping with Stress during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    MedlinePLUS

    · Coping With Stress During Infectious Disease Outbreaks What You Should Know When you hear, read, or watch ... samhsa. hhs. gov | http: / / store. samhsa. gov 1 COPING WITH STRESS DURING INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS YOUR BODY: ...

  10. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of three virulent strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a very serious and widespread respiratory disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus type 1, commonly named infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). For protection from ILT, chickens have traditionally been vaccinated with live-attenuated strains that ha...

  11. Quinacrine Impairs Enterovirus 71 RNA Replication by Preventing Binding of Polypyrimidine-Tract Binding Protein with Internal Ribosome Entry Sites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianmin; Du, Jiang; Wu, Zhiqiang; Jin, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, epidemics of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and other enteroviruses have occurred in Asian countries and regions, causing a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are indispensable for the initiation of translation in enteroviruses. Several cellular factors, as well as the ribosome, are recruited to the conserved IRES during this process. Quinacrine intercalates into the RNA architecture and inhibits RNA transcription and protein synthesis, and a recent study showed that quinacrine inhibited encephalomyocarditis virus and poliovirus IRES-mediated translation in vitro without disrupting internal cellular IRES. Here, we report that quinacrine was highly active against EV71, protecting cells from EV71 infection. Replication of viral RNA, expression of viral capsid protein, and production of virus were all strongly inhibited by quinacrine. Interaction of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) with the conserved IRES was prevented by quinacrine. Coxsackieviruses and echovirus were also inhibited by quinacrine in cultured cells. These results indicate that quinacrine may serve as a potential protective agent for use in the treatment of patients with chronic enterovirus infection. PMID:23301007

  12. Acute Neurological Illness in a Kidney Transplant Recipient Following Infection With Enterovirus-D68: An Emerging Infection?

    PubMed

    Wali, R K; Lee, A H; Kam, J C; Jonsson, J; Thatcher, A; Poretz, D; Ambardar, S; Piper, J; Lynch, C; Kulkarni, S; Cochran, J; Djurkovic, S

    2015-12-01

    We report the first case of enterovirus-D68 infection in an adult living-donor kidney transplant recipient who developed rapidly progressive bulbar weakness and acute flaccid limb paralysis following an upper respiratory infection. We present a 45-year-old gentleman who underwent pre-emptive living-donor kidney transplantation for IgA nephropathy. Eight weeks following transplantation, he developed an acute respiratory illness from enterovirus/rhinovirus that was detectable in nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs. Within 24?h of onset of respiratory symptoms, the patient developed binocular diplopia which rapidly progressed to multiple cranial nerve dysfunctions (acute bulbar syndrome) over the next 24?h. Within the next 48?h, asymmetric flaccid paralysis of the left arm and urinary retention developed. While his neurological symptoms were evolving, the Centers for Disease Control reported that the enterovirus strain from the NP swabs was, in fact, Enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68). Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated unique gray matter and anterior horn cell changes in the midbrain and spinal cord, respectively. Constellation of these neurological symptoms and signs was suggestive for postinfectious encephalomyelitis (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis [ADEM]) from EV-D68. Treatment based on the principles of ADEM included intensive physical therapy and other supportive measures, which resulted in a steady albeit slow improvement in his left arm and bulbar weakness, while maintaining stable allograft function. PMID:26228743

  13. Human enteroviruses are not the cause of neurological impairments in children at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Tettey, Prudence; Badoe, Ebenezer; Adiku, Theophilus; Obodai, Eva; Odoom, John Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Convulsions associated with fever and acute onset of unknown aetiology with case fatalities have become a long observed medical condition at the Child Health Department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Children admitted to the department with seizures of undetermined origin and fever has been a source of diagnostic confusion. Studies from the Asia Pacific region suggest a link with non-polio enteroviruses. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between non-polio enterovirus and acute encephalopathy causing neurological morbidity in children. Methods One hundred and fifty cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), throat swab and serum samples were collected from participants at the Child Health Department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital for virus isolation and characterization. Samples were cultured on cells and positive culture assayed by microneutralisation. Direct PCR as well as multiplex PCR were used to detect other viral agents present. Results Enterovirus isolation rate was approximately 0.67%. Intratypic differentiation by molecular characterization identified a poliovirus from vaccine origin. Further screening by real-time RT-PCR identified the virus as normal Sabin and not vaccine-derive poliovirus. No arbovirus was however detected. Conclusion Non-polio enteroviruses and chikugunya virus were found not to be the etiologic agent responsible for the convulsion with neurologic morbidity observed in the Ghanaian children. Investigation for other viral agents is recommended. PMID:25426190

  14. Restoration of shoulder function and elbow flexion by nerve transfer for poliomyelitis-like paralysis caused by enterovirus 71 infection.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, S; Nagano, A; Sano, M; Ogihara, H; Omura, T

    2007-02-01

    We report the case of an eight-month-old girl who presented with a poliomyelitis-like paralysis in her left upper limb caused by enterovirus 71 infection. She recovered useful function after nerve transfers performed six months after the onset of paralysis. Early neurotisation can be used successfully in the treatment of poliomyelitis-like paralysis in children. PMID:17322446

  15. Sialic acid-dependent cell entry of human enterovirus D68

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Yue; Sheng, Ju; Baggen, Jim; Meng, Geng; Xiao, Chuan; Thibaut, Hendrik J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2015-11-13

    Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a causative agent of childhood respiratory diseases and has now emerged as a global public health threat. Nevertheless, knowledge of the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of EV-D68 has been hindered by a lack of studies on the receptor-mediated EV-D68 entry into host cells. Here we demonstrate that cell surface sialic acid is essential for EV-D68 to bind to and infect susceptible cells. Crystal structures of EV-D68 in complex with sialylated glycan receptor analogues show that they bind into the ‘canyon’ on the virus surface. The sialic acid receptor induces a cascade of conformational changes inmore » the virus to eject a fatty-acid-like molecule that regulates the stability of the virus. Furthermore, virus binding to a sialic acid receptor and to immunoglobulin-like receptors used by most other enteroviruses share a conserved mechanism for priming viral uncoating and facilitating cell entry.« less

  16. Determination of enteroviruses, hepatitis A virus, bacteriophages and Escherichia coli in Adriatic Sea mussels.

    PubMed

    Croci, L; De Medici, D; Scalfaro, C; Fiore, A; Divizia, M; Donia, D; Cosentino, A M; Moretti, P; Costantini, G

    2000-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of enteric viruses in mussels and to verify the possibility of using phages as indirect indicators of mussel viral contamination. Mussels (36 samples) collected from three different areas of the Adriatic Sea were analysed to determine the following parameters: Escherichia coli, somatic coliphage (T6 phage), F-Plus (MS2 phage), B40-8 (phage of Bacteroides fragilis), enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus. Most of the results of the bacteriological analysis (most probable number (MPN) ml-1) were in accordance with the bacteriological limits established by European law, with the exception of seven samples. The bacteriophage analyses were always negative for F-Plus and B40-8, with the exception of a few samples, whereas the somatic coliphages were generally between 0 and 20 MPN g-1, with the exception of two samples (110 MPN g-1). The virological analysis showed five samples positive for the presence of enteroviruses and 13 for the presence of hepatitis A virus (in three samples both viruses were present). Most of these samples presented acceptable bacteriological parameters and the bacteriophages were absent or their value was generally very low. The results show that the detection of E. coli and phages does not seem to be a good indicator of viral contamination. PMID:10735998

  17. Sialic acid-dependent cell entry of human enterovirus D68

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Sheng, Ju; Baggen, Jim; Meng, Geng; Xiao, Chuan; Thibaut, Hendrik J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a causative agent of childhood respiratory diseases and has now emerged as a global public health threat. Nevertheless, knowledge of the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of EV-D68 has been hindered by a lack of studies on the receptor-mediated EV-D68 entry into host cells. Here we demonstrate that cell surface sialic acid is essential for EV-D68 to bind to and infect susceptible cells. Crystal structures of EV-D68 in complex with sialylated glycan receptor analogues show that they bind into the ‘canyon' on the virus surface. The sialic acid receptor induces a cascade of conformational changes in the virus to eject a fatty-acid-like molecule that regulates the stability of the virus. Thus, virus binding to a sialic acid receptor and to immunoglobulin-like receptors used by most other enteroviruses share a conserved mechanism for priming viral uncoating and facilitating cell entry. PMID:26563423

  18. Sialic acid-dependent cell entry of human enterovirus D68

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yue; Sheng, Ju; Baggen, Jim; Meng, Geng; Xiao, Chuan; Thibaut, Hendrik J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2015-11-13

    Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a causative agent of childhood respiratory diseases and has now emerged as a global public health threat. Nevertheless, knowledge of the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of EV-D68 has been hindered by a lack of studies on the receptor-mediated EV-D68 entry into host cells. Here we demonstrate that cell surface sialic acid is essential for EV-D68 to bind to and infect susceptible cells. Crystal structures of EV-D68 in complex with sialylated glycan receptor analogues show that they bind into the ‘canyon’ on the virus surface. The sialic acid receptor induces a cascade of conformational changes in the virus to eject a fatty-acid-like molecule that regulates the stability of the virus. Furthermore, virus binding to a sialic acid receptor and to immunoglobulin-like receptors used by most other enteroviruses share a conserved mechanism for priming viral uncoating and facilitating cell entry.

  19. Yakammaoto inhibits enterovirus 71 infection by reducing viral attachment, internalization, replication, and translation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chia-Feng; Wang, Kuo-Chih; Lu, Chi-Yu; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Shieh, Den-En; Yen, Ming-Hong; Chang, Jung-San

    2015-06-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause central nervous system infections with mortality and neurologic sequelae. At present, there is no effective therapeutic modality for EV71 infection. The infection is more common in families with poor socioeconomic status. Therefore, finding a readily available, cost-effective therapeutic modality would be very helpful to these socioeconomically disadvantaged families. Yakammaoto is a cheap and readily available traditional prescription that is proven to have antiviral activity against coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4). CVB4 and EV71 are enteroviruses. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of hot water extract of yakammaoto against EV71. The results of plaque reduction assay and flow cytometry demonstrated that yakammaoto dose dependently inhibited EV71 infection. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR results showed that yakammaoto reduced viral replication. Western blotting analysis showed that yakammaoto can inhibit viral protein production. Thus, our results suggest that yakammaoto should be considered to manage EV71 infection in the future. PMID:26043408

  20. Studies on Inhibition of Proliferation of Enterovirus-71 by Compound YZ-LY-0

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingzhan; Jie, Qing; Shaw, Neil; Li, Lei; Rao, Zihe; Yin, Zheng; Lou, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), which is caused by Enteroviruses, has emerged as a serious illness. It affects mainly children under the age of five and results in high fatality rates. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of HFMD in China and currently there are no effective anti-viral drugs available to treat HFMD. In the present study, we screened compounds for inhibition of proliferation of EV71. Compound YZ-LY-0 stalled the life cycle of EV71. The inhibitor exhibited EC50 value of 0.29 ?m against SK-EV006 strain of EV71. Notably, YZ-LY-0 had low cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 ?M) and a high selectivity index (over 300) in Vero and RD cells. YZ-LY-0 in combination with an EV71 RdRp inhibitor or an entry inhibitor showed an antagonistic effect at very low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations the inhibitors exhibited a synergistic effect in inhibiting viral replication. Preliminary results on investigation of the mechanism of inhibition indicate that YZ-LY-0 does not block the entry of the virus in the host cell, but instead inhibits an early stage of EV71 replication. Our studies provide a potential clinical therapeutic option against EV71 infections and suggest that a combined application of YZ-LY-0 with other inhibitors could be more effective in the treatment of HFMD. PMID:26640412

  1. Characterization of an Enterovirus species E isolated from naturally infected bovine in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haili; Liu, Hongtao; Bao, Jun; Guo, Yongli; Peng, Tongquan; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei; Gao, Mingchun

    2014-10-13

    Bovine enteroviruses, which belong to the Picornaviridae family, can cause clinical symptoms in cattle and are excreted in feces. In this study, a cytolytic virus was isolated from Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from fecal samples of bovine with severe diarrhea and hemorrhagic intestinal mucosa that had been originally diagnosed with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) by a bovine viral diarrhea virus Ag point-of-care test (IDEXX, American). Random priming PCR was used to amplify underlying viral sequences and identify the isolated virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolated virus closely matches the EV-E2 species, which is different from other Chinese strains previously isolated. The newly identified virus was named HLJ-3531/2013. We infected the sulking mice with the isolated virus. Reverse-transcription PCR, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, serum neutralization (SN) test, and virus isolation from various tissues revealed that HLJ-3531/2013 can infect the intestine, liver, and lung of suckling mice. The present work is the first to report the reproduction of clinical symptoms by an isolated virus in an experimental infection model of animals and lays a solid foundation for the development of the pathogenesis of bovine enteroviruses. PMID:25102330

  2. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, M.-C. Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-11-15

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

  3. Infectious mononucleosis: immunoglobulin synthesis by cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Glade, Philip R.; Chessin, Lawrence N.

    1968-01-01

    Immunoglobulin synthesis by 16 long-term suspension cultures of mononuclear cells derived from peripheral blood of nine patients with heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis (IM) has been demonstrated by radioimmunoelectrophoretic techniques. All cell lines synthesized molecules with IgG (?) heavy chain specificity. 14 cell lines produced molecules with IgM (?) heavy chain specificity and 11 cell lines produced molecules with IgA (?) heavy chain specificity. No detectable synthesis of molecules with IgD (?) heavy chain specificity was observed by these cell lines derived from peripheral blood of patients with IM. 13 cell lines produced molecules with type K (?) light chain specificity and 6 cell lines produced molecules with type L (?) light chain specificity. Of interest, 9 of 16 lines produced IgG (?), IgA (?), and IgM (?) heavy chain molecules and 5 of these cell lines produced molecules with type K (?) and type L (?) light chain specificity as well. Further characterization by combined polyacrylamide gel filtration, immunodiffusion, and radioautography indicated the presence of newly synthesized immunoglobulin molecules with both heavy and light polypeptide chains in close association as well as free light polypeptide chain synthesis. Investigation of the localization of immunoglobulin in single cells by immunofluorescent techniques revealed that 5-22% of cells in these lines were strongly reactive with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated rabbit antisera directed against the antigenic determinants of human IgG and cross-reactive with the determinants common to IgA and IgM. No heterophile antibody, heteroagglutinin, or hemolytic antibody could be demonstrated in these cell lines derived from peripheral blood of patients with heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis. Images PMID:4175543

  4. Transgenic and infectious animal models of HIV-associated nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Rosenstiel, Paul; Gharavi, Ali; D'Agati, Vivette; Klotman, Paul

    2009-11-01

    HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a major cause of HIV-related morbidity and mortality. Transgenic and infectious models of HIVAN faithfully recapitulate the human disease and are important tools in advancing our understanding of disease pathogenesis, genetic susceptibility, and therapeutic intervention beyond the inhibition of viral replication. This review discusses the available transgenic murine models and infectious models of HIVAN in mice, rats, nonhuman primates, and felines. Particular emphasis is given to cell type-specific HIV expression as well as partial HIV genome expression used to map HIV-1 Nef and Vpr as pathologic determinants. PMID:19497967

  5. Molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases using cytological specimens.

    PubMed

    Canberk, Sule; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Schmitt, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Pathologists have an important role in the diagnosis of infectious disease (ID). In many cases, a definitive diagnosis can be made using cytopathology alone. However, several ancillary techniques can be used on cytological material to reach a specific diagnosis by identifying the causative agent and consequently defining the management of the patient. This review aims to present the effectiveness of the application of molecular studies on cytological material to diagnose IDs and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various molecular techniques according to the type of cytological specimen and the infectious agents. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:156-164. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26620694

  6. Molecular epidemiology of echoviruses 11 and 30 in Russia: different properties of genotypes within an enterovirus serotype.

    PubMed

    Yarmolskaya, Maria S; Shumilina, Elena Yu; Ivanova, Olga E; Drexler, Jan Felix; Lukashev, Alexander N

    2015-03-01

    Over 100 known enterovirus serotypes differ in their epidemiological and pathogenic properties. Much less is known about variation of these features on a sub-serotype level, such as genotypes. Echovirus 11 (E11) and E30 are amongst the most frequent causative agents of aseptic meningitis. We studied the molecular epidemiology of these pathogens to evaluate potential epidemiological and pathogenic dissimilarities of their genotypes. The complete VP1 genome region was sequenced for 97 E11 and 62 E30 isolates collected in Russia from 2008 to 2012, and they were studied in comparison with all 140 E11 and 432 E30 sequences available in GenBank. A geographic pattern of genotype prevalence was observed for both types. Russian E11 isolates belonged mainly to A genotype, which is common in Asia, and D5, which is predominant in Europe. For E30, genotype III by classification of Ke et al. (2011), also termed genotype a by Bailly et al. (2009), was endemic in Russia from 2003 to 2012, while it was not detected in Europe and North America during this time. The E30 genotypes VI-B, VI-G, and VI-H (e, f and h) were regularly introduced from different countries, became predominant and vanished after no more than 4years. In addition to geographic patterns, E11 genotypes also differed by isolation source. Genotype A2 viruses were significantly more often found in sewage, compared to genotype D5 that was isolated from both sewage and human samples. In addition, there was evidence of a different capacity for international transfers among E11 GtA subclusters. PMID:25562123

  7. Molecular surveillance of non-polio enterovirus infections in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Western India: 2004-2009.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pooja R; Chitambar, Shobha D; Gopalkrishna, V

    2015-01-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Rotavirus (RV) and Norovirus (NoV) are the leading cause of the disease. Despite the use of improved diagnostic methods a significant proportion of gastroenteritis cases remained undiagnosed. Though nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs) have been reported frequently in children with acute gastroenteritis, their etiologic role has not been established. To investigate the epidemiology of NPEVs in gastroenteritis cases which remained negative for leading causative agents, 955 RV and NoV negative stool specimens from children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis were included in the study. A case control study was conducted which includes stool specimens from 450 children with gastroenteritis and 162 asymptomatic control subjects to determine the association of NPEVs with the disease. NPEV detection and typing was carried out by RT-PCR and sequencing. Presence of RV, NoV, Adenovirus, and Astrovirus was confirmed by ELISA or PCR/RT-PCR. Overall 14% NPEV prevalence was noted. The percentage of children with NPEV infection differed significantly between gastroenteritis and non-gastroenteritis patients (13.7% vs. 4.9%). NPEV was more prevalent among patients with gastroenteritis of undetectable etiology as compared to those detected positive for other viruses (17.9% vs. 7%) (P?

  8. Enterovirus-71 Virus-Like Particles Induce the Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through TLR4 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Li; Hu, Yu-Chen; Liang, Cheng-Chao; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Liang, Yu-Chih; Yuan, Hui-Ping; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes seasonal epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has a high mortality rate among young children. We recently demonstrated potent induction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response in monkeys immunized with EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs), with a morphology resembling that of infectious EV71 virions but not containing a viral genome, which could potentially be safe as a vaccine for EV71. To elucidate the mechanisms through which EV71 VLPs induce cell-mediated immunity, we studied the immunomodulatory effects of EV71 VLPs on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), which bind to and incorporate EV71 VLPs. DC treatment with EV71 VLPs enhanced the expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, CD40, CD54, and HLA-DR on the cell surface; increased the production of interleukin (IL)-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs; and suppressed the capacity of DCs for endocytosis. Treatment with EV71 VLPs also enhanced the ability of DCs to stimulate nave T cells and induced secretion of interferon (IFN)-? by T cells and Th1 cell responses. Neutralization with antibodies against Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 suppressed the capacity of EV71 VLPs to induce the production of IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs and inhibited EV71 VLPs binding to DCs. Our study findings clarified the important role for TLR4 signaling in DCs in response to EV71 VLPs and showed that EV71 VLPs induced inhibitor of kappaB alpha (I?B?) degradation and nuclear factor of kappaB (NF-?B) activation. PMID:25360749

  9. A Structural and Functional Comparison Between Infectious and Non-Infectious Autocatalytic Recombinant PrP Conformers

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Geoffrey P.; Wang, Daphne W.; Walsh, Daniel J.; Barone, Justin R.; Miller, Michael B.; Nishina, Koren A.; Li, Sheng; Supattapone, Surachai

    2015-01-01

    Infectious prions contain a self-propagating, misfolded conformer of the prion protein termed PrPSc. A critical prediction of the protein-only hypothesis is that autocatalytic PrPSc molecules should be infectious. However, some autocatalytic recombinant PrPSc molecules have low or undetectable levels of specific infectivity in bioassays, and the essential determinants of recombinant prion infectivity remain obscure. To identify structural and functional features specifically associated with infectivity, we compared the properties of two autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers derived from the same original template, which differ by >105-fold in specific infectivity for wild-type mice. Structurally, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS) studies revealed that solvent accessibility profiles of infectious and non-infectious autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers are remarkably similar throughout their protease-resistant cores, except for two domains encompassing residues 91-115 and 144-163. Raman spectroscopy and immunoprecipitation studies confirm that these domains adopt distinct conformations within infectious versus non-infectious autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers. Functionally, in vitro prion propagation experiments show that the non-infectious conformer is unable to seed mouse PrPC substrates containing a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, including native PrPC. Taken together, these results indicate that having a conformation that can be specifically adopted by post-translationally modified PrPC molecules is an essential determinant of biological infectivity for recombinant prions, and suggest that this ability is associated with discrete features of PrPSc structure. PMID:26125623

  10. [Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans].

    PubMed

    de Blic, J; Deschildre, A; Chinet, T

    2013-02-01

    Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic lesions of small airways following a pulmonary infection and leading to some degree of airway obstruction. It represents a rare cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and is probably underestimated, especially when the lesions affect small areas of the lungs. The clinical features differ between children and adults. In children, adenovirus is the most frequently involved infectious agent, especially the more virulent serotypes 3, 7 and 21. The clinical and radiological signs vary widely and the functional outcome depends on the extent of the lung injury. The diagnosis is based on the medical history, the CT-scan and functional data. The treatment is symptomatic. The most severe forms may result in chronic respiratory insufficiency. In adults, the frequency of obstructive injuries of the small airways in the context of lung infection is unclear. Parenchymal lesions are often present, resulting in BO with organizing pneumonia. These lesions alter the clinical presentation and the radiographic features of the initial infectious disease and often prove difficult to diagnose and manage. Several authors have published clinical cases describing presumed efficacy of systemic corticosteroids but the data are scarce. PMID:23419446

  11. Infectious etiopathogenesis of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Carrire, Jessica; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu

    2014-09-14

    Important advances during the last decade have been made in understanding the complex etiopathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). While many gaps in our knowledge still exist, it has been suggested that the etiology of CD is multifactorial including genetic, environmental and infectious factors. The most widely accepted theory states that CD is caused by an aggressive immune response to infectious agents in genetically predisposed individuals. The rise of genome-wide association studies allowed the identification of loci and genetic variants in several components of host innate and adaptive immune responses to microorganisms in the gut, highlighting an implication of intestinal microbiota in CD etiology. Moreover, numerous independent studies reported a dysbiosis, i.e., a modification of intestinal microbiota composition, with an imbalance between the abundance of beneficial and harmful bacteria. Although microorganisms including viruses, yeasts, fungi and bacteria have been postulated as potential CD pathogens, based on epidemiological, clinicopathological, genetic and experimental evidence, their precise role in this disease is not clearly defined. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the infectious agents associated with an increased risk of developing CD. Therapeutic approaches to modulate the intestinal dysbiosis and to target the putative CD-associated pathogens, as well as their potential mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:25232246

  12. How to understand the efficacy measurements for enterovirus type 71 vaccine?

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Xin; Meng, Fan-Yue; Liang, Zheng-Lun; Mao, Qun-Ying; Zhu, Feng-Cai

    2014-01-01

    The choice of endpoint was most important for an efficacy vaccine trial. The objective of this paper is to gear toward answering questions about the rationality and scientificity of the primary endpoints choosing, case capturing and diagnosis strategy in our recently reported EV71 vaccine efficacy phase 3 trial. In order to obtain both high sensitivity and specificity in the case detecting, EV71-associated disease had been chosen as primary endpoint, a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms was surveyed, both the real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation were combined for the laboratory diagnosis, and serial specimens since disease onset were collected for assays. Though, the EV71 vaccine efficacy was well measured in the phase 3 trial, several potential factors could also have influences on the cases confirming. More evidence of EV71 vaccine efficacy will be demanded in post-marketing studies in the future. PMID:24280898

  13. QUANTIFICATION OF ENTEROVIRUS AND HEPATITIS A VIRUSES IN WELLS AND SPRINGS IN EAST TENNESSEE USING REAL-TIME REVERSE TRANSCIPTION PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project involves development, validation testing and application of a fast, efficient method of quantitatively measuring occurrence and concentration of common human viral pathogens, enterovirus and hepatitis A virus, in ground water samples using real-time reverse transcrip...

  14. Structural basis of infectious and non-infectious amyloids

    PubMed Central

    Baxa, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are elongated protein aggregates well known for their association with many human diseases. However, similar structures have also been found in other organisms and amyloid fibrils can also be formed in vitro by other proteins usually under non-physiological conditions. In all cases, these fibrils assemble in a nucleated polymerization reaction with a pronounced lag phase that can be eliminated by supplying pre-formed fibrils as seeds. Once formed, the fibrils are usually very stable, except for their tendency to break into smaller pieces forming more growing ends in the process. These properties give amyloid fibers a self-replicating character dependent only on a source of soluble protein. For some systems and under certain circumstances this can lead to infectious protein structures, so-called prions, that can be passed from one organism to another as in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and in fungal prion systems. Structural details about these processes have emerged only recently, mostly on account of the inability of traditional high-resolution methods to deal with insoluble, filamentous specimens. In consequence, current models for amyloid fibrils are based on fewer constraints than common atomic-resolution structures. This review gives an overview of the constraints used for the development of amyloid models and the methods used to derive them. The principally possible structures will be introduced by discussing current models of amyloid fibrils from Alzheimer's β-peptide, amylin and several fungal systems. The infectivity of some amyloids under specific conditions might not be due to a principal structural difference between infectious and non-infectious amyloids, but could result from an interplay of the rates for filament nucleation, growth, fragmentation, and clearance. PMID:18537545

  15. Quantitative Genomic and Antigenomic Enterovirus RNA Detection in Explanted Heart Tissue Samples from Patients with End-Stage Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Renois, Fanny; Talmud, Déborah; Nguyen, Yohan; Lesaffre, François; Boulagnon, Camille; Bruneval, Patrick; Fornes, Paul; Andréoletti, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Standardized one-step real-time RT-PCR assay detected enterovirus RNA in cardiac biopsy samples from 4 of 20 patients suffering from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). The median viral load was 287 copies per microgram of total extracted nucleic acids, with positive- to negative-strand RNA ratios ranging from 2 to 20. These results demonstrate enterovirus persistence in the heart of IDCM patients, characterized by low viral loads and low positive- to negative-RNA ratios. PMID:22837323

  16. Full Genome Sequence of a Novel Human Enterovirus C (EV-C118) Isolated from Two Children with Acute Otitis Media and Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Daleno, Cristina; Piralla, Antonio; Scala, Alessia; Baldanti, Fausto; Greenberg, David; Principi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The new enterovirus C strain EV-C118 belongs to the human enterovirus C species of the Picornaviridae family. We report the complete genome sequence of this strain, which was identified in respiratory specimens of two children hospitalized in Israel because of acute otitis media and community-acquired pneumonia who were enrolled in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Pediatric Research Initiative (CAP-PRI) study. PMID:23405305

  17. Evolutionary Outcomes of Human Infectious Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Sebastien; Combadao, Jaime

    2010-09-01

    Recently it has been shown that a simple model was able to reproduce the main "types" of infectious diseases encountered in human populations. This model takes into account key features of the immune system at the within-host level and an implicit description of the contact network of the host population at the between-hosts level. The implicit description of contact network neglects population-level selective pressures such as fluctuations in the number of infected individuals potentially leading to risk of extinction. We present a nested model that allows to keep a within-host level description of immune processes while allowing an explicit description of the ongoing epidemiological dynamics. This model allows us to understand the impact of human population size and contact networks structure in shaping the fitness optima for pathogens life history traits. We mostly focus on variation in duration of infection and antigenic evolution leading to immune escape.

  18. Protection of neonatal mice from lethal enterovirus 71 infection by maternal immunization with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing VP1 of enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Chu, Chishih; He, Chao-Che; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2006-06-01

    This study describes the potential use of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains to express and deliver VP1 of enterovirus 71 (EV71) as a vaccination strategy to prevent EV71 infection in mice. When orally administered to BALB/c mice, both attenuated carrier strains, CNP101 and SL7207, were able to efficiently invade livers and spleens, while only the virulence plasmid-carrying strain SL7207 persisted for more than 30 days in these organs. A recombinant in vivo-regulated promoter expression plasmid expressing VP1 antigen of EV71 was constructed. The expression of the VP1, directed by the pagC promoter, in attenuated Salmonella was confirmed by Western blot hybridization. Both humoral and cellular immune responses were elicited in mice by oral immunization with such Salmonella-based VP1 vaccines. We evaluated the protective efficacy of the vaccines in mice using a maternal immunization protocol. With a lethal challenge, ICR newborn mice born to dams immunized with Salmonella-based VP1 vaccine showed a 50-60% survival; in contrast, none of the mice in the control group survived the challenge. Our data indicated that Salmonella-based VP1 subunit vaccines are a promising vaccine strategy in the prevention of EV71 infection. PMID:16815726

  19. [Update in Infectious Diseases 2015].

    PubMed

    Candel, Francisco Javier; Lpez Gonzlez, Laura; Garca-Garca, Ana Beln; Chiarella, Flavia; Picazo, Juan Jos

    2015-09-01

    Infectious disease remains current worldwide. During the second half of 2014 an outbreak of ebolavirus hit West Africa with implications in the rest of the world. In fact, Spain declared the first imported case of this infection. Multiresistant enterobacteria outbreaks are emerging all around the world in a moment on which WHO draws attention to the limited resources, coining the term "post antibiotic era". On the other hand, 2014 went down in history as one in which hepatitis C is cured. Are also current HIV epidemiological control or strategies for antiviral and antifungal prophylaxis in immunocompromised hosts. PMID:26365724

  20. Emerging infectious diseases in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Ebright, John R; Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

    2003-12-01

    Since 1990, Mongolia's health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcosis, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

  1. Phage Display-Derived Cross-Reactive Neutralizing Antibody against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Chunyun; Xiao, Xiangqian; Pang, Lin; Shen, Sisi; Zhang, Jie; Cen, Shan; Yang, Burton B; Huang, Yuming; Sheng, Wang; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-21

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are members of the Picornaviridae family and are considered the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent decades large HFMD outbreaks caused by EV71 and CVA16 have become significant public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. Vaccines and antiviral drugs are unavailable to prevent EV71 and CVA16 infection. In the current study, a chimeric antibody targeting a highly conserved peptide in the EV71 VP4 protein was isolated by using a phage display technique. The antibody showed cross-neutralizing capability against EV71 and CVA16 in vitro. The results suggest that this phage display-derived antibody will have great potential as a broad neutralizing antibody against EV71 and CVA16 after affinity maturation and humanization. PMID:26073737

  2. Complete genome sequence of a novel porcine enterovirus strain in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Yang, Shixing; Shen, Quan; Ren, Liping; Shan, Tongling; Wei, Jianzhong; Cui, Li; Hua, Xiuguo

    2012-06-01

    The porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) belong to the family Picornaviridae. We report a complete genome sequence of a novel PEV strain that is widely prevalent in pigs at least in central and eastern China. The complete genome consists of 7,390 nucleotides, excluding the 3' poly(A) tail, and has an open reading frame that maps between nucleotide positions 812 and 7318 and encodes a 2,168-amino-acid polyprotein. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 3CD and VP1 regions reveals that this PEV strain belongs to a species of PEV9 but may represent a novel sero-/genotype in CPE group III. We also report the major findings from bootscan analysis based on the whole genomes of PEVs in the present study and those available in GenBank. PMID:22628395

  3. Sequence specificity for uridylylation of the viral peptide linked to the genome (VPg) of enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Schein, Catherine H; Ye, Mengyi; Paul, Aniko V; Oberste, M Steven; Chapman, Nora; van der Heden van Noort, Gerbrand J; Filippov, Dmitri V; Choi, Kyung H

    2015-10-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) uridylylate a peptide, VPg, as the first step in their replication. VPgpUpU, found free in infected cells, serves as the primer for RNA elongation. The abilities of four polymerases (3D(pol)), from EV-species A-C, to uridylylate VPgs that varied by up to 60% of their residues were compared. Each 3D(pol) was able to uridylylate all five VPgs using polyA RNA as template, while showing specificity for its own genome encoded peptide. All 3D(pol) uridylylated a consensus VPg representing the physical chemical properties of 31 different VPgs. Thus the residues required for uridylylation and the enzymatic mechanism must be similar in diverse EV. As VPg-binding sites differ in co-crystal structures, the reaction is probably done by a second 3D(pol) molecule. The conservation of polymerase residues whose mutation reduces uridylylation but not RNA elongation is compared. PMID:26074065

  4. An enterovirus 71 strain causes skeletal muscle damage in infected mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peixin; Gao, Lulu; Huang, Yeen; Chen, Qing; Shen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the target organs for enterovirus 71 (EV71) in infected suckling mice. Methods: 5-day-old BALB/c suckling mice were infected with an EV71 strain. Tissues of the infected mice were processed for histopathological examination, including immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, ultrastructural observation. Results: Some mice developed limb paralysis, trouble walking and loss of balance. Results of the histopathological study showed that a large amount of EV71 existed in the skeletal muscle tissues, accounting for the damage of the skeletal muscles. Conclusion: The EV71 clinical isolate used in this study presented evident myotropism. Skeletal muscles are important target organs for EV71 in the infected suckling mice. To clarify the relationship between EV71 infection and muscle diseases may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of EV71. PMID:26097530

  5. Preclinical Evaluation of the Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Candidate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Hwa, Shi-Hsia; Lee, Yock Ann; Brewoo, Joseph N.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Santangelo, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality from Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and neurological complications, particularly in young children in the Asia-Pacific region. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies currently available for prevention or treatment of HFMD caused by EV71. Therefore, the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies against HFMD is of growing importance. We report the immunogenic and safety profile of inactivated, purified EV71 preparations formulated with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in preclinical studies in mice and rabbits. In mice, the candidate vaccine formulations elicited high neutralizing antibody responses. A toxicology study of the vaccine formulations planned for human use performed in rabbits showed no vaccine-related pathological changes and all animals remained healthy. Based on these preclinical studies, Phase 1 clinical testing of the EV71 inactivated vaccine was initiated. PMID:24244774

  6. Auto-immune encephalitis as differential diagnosis of infectious encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Armangue, Thas; Leypoldt, Frank; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe the main types of autoimmune encephalitis with special emphasis on those associated with antibodies against neuronal cell surface or synaptic proteins, and the differential diagnosis with infectious encephalitis. Recent findings There is a continuous expansion of the number of cell surface or synaptic proteins that are targets of autoimmunity. The most recently identified include the mGluR5, DPPX, and the GABAAR. In these and previously known autoimmune encephalitis (NMDAR, AMPAR, GABABR, LGI1, CASPR2), the prodromal symptoms or types of presentations often suggest a viral encephalitis. We review here clues that help in the differential diagnosis with infectious encephalitis. Moreover, recent investigations indicate that viral encephalitis (e.g., herpes simplex) can trigger synaptic autoimmunity. In all these disorders immunotherapy is usually effective. Summary Autoimmune encephalitis comprises an expanding group of potentially treatable disorders that should be included in the differential diagnosis of any type of encephalitis. PMID:24792345

  7. [Occurrence and isolation of human enteroviruses from the air of waste removal and disposal plants].

    PubMed

    Pfirrmann, A; vanden Bossche, G

    1994-08-01

    Aerosols from waste treatment plants were examined with regard to the presence of airborne viruses. For the purpose of a comparative evaluation, two different collecting devices consisting of an electroprecipitator and a special-impinger apparatus were used for extraction and collection of viruses from air samples. The collected suspensions were concentrated and fractionated by means of hydroextraction in combination with a differential centrifugation procedure. After solubilisation of the sedimented material with the anionic detergent, sodium-dodecylsulfate, and following ultrasonic treatment, viral infectivity could be demonstrated in 12 out of 36 examined specimens, after inoculation on BGM cells. The highest virus isolation rates were obtained with the electroprecipitator. Based on the results of investigations of biological, physicochemical as well as antigenic characteristics, the isolated strains revealed to belong to the family of Picornaviridae. According to the results of additional characterization assays, the isolates were identified as Coxsackie-B and ECHO-viruses. The linkage between the occurrence of these viruses and a possible risk of infection for humans remains to be elucidated by further epidemiological studies. However, the results of the present work indicate that, besides of an increased dust and germ concentration in such facilities, there is substantial evidence of increased viral contamination as well. Enteroviruses are generally considered as indicator viruses revealing the presence of viral contaminants in tap water and sewage. As human enteroviruses can be regularly isolated from such aerosols, the detection of these viruses in air samples may also be an appropriate criterion to estimate the amount to which virus concentrations may build up within waste treatment plants. PMID:7802896

  8. “Eczema Coxsackium” and Unusual Cutaneous Findings in an Enterovirus Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Oza, Vikash; Frieden, Ilona J.; Cordoro, Kelly M.; Yagi, Shigeo; Howard, Renee; Kristal, Leonard; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Schaffer, Julie; Maguiness, Sheilagh; Bayliss, Susan; Lara-Corrales, Irene; Garcia-Romero, Maria Teresa; Kelly, Dan; Salas, Maria; Oberste, M. Steven; Nix, W. Allan; Glaser, Carol; Antaya, Richard

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the atypical cutaneous presentations in the coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6)–associated North American enterovirus outbreak of 2011–2012. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case series of pediatric patients who presented with atypical cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) from July 2011 to June 2012 at 7 academic pediatric dermatology centers. Patients were included if they tested positive for CVA6 or if they met clinical criteria for atypical HFMD (an enanthem or exanthem characteristic of HFMD with unusual morphology or extent of cutaneous findings). We collected demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data including history of skin conditions, morphology and extent of exanthem, systemic symptoms, and diagnostic test results. RESULTS: Eighty patients were included in this study (median age 1.5 years, range 4 months–16 years). Seventeen patients were CVA6-positive, and 63 met clinical inclusion criteria. Ninety-nine percent of patients exhibited a vesiculobullous and erosive eruption; 61% of patients had rash involving >10% body surface area. The exanthem had a perioral, extremity, and truncal distribution in addition to involving classic HFMD areas such as palms, soles, and buttocks. In 55% of patients, the eruption was accentuated in areas of eczematous dermatitis, termed “eczema coxsackium.” Other morphologies included Gianotti-Crosti–like (37%), petechial/purpuric (17%) eruptions, and delayed onychomadesis and palm and sole desquamation. There were no patients with serious systemic complications. CONCLUSIONS: The CVA6-associated enterovirus outbreak was responsible for an exanthem potentially more widespread, severe, and varied than classic HFMD that could be confused with bullous impetigo, eczema herpeticum, vasculitis, and primary immunobullous disease. PMID:23776120

  9. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Enterovirus 71 Strains Isolated from 1970 to 1998

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Betty A.; Oberste, M. Steven; Alexander, James P.; Kennett, Margery L.; Pallansch, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) (genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae), a common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), may also cause severe neurological diseases, such as encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like paralysis. To examine the genetic diversity and rate of evolution of EV71, we have determined and analyzed complete VP1 sequences (891 nucleotides) for 113 EV71 strains isolated in the United States and five other countries from 1970 to 1998. Nucleotide sequence comparisons demonstrated three distinct EV71 genotypes, designated A, B, and C. The genetic variation within genotypes (12% or fewer nucleotide differences) was less than the variation between genotypes (16.5 to 19.7%). Strains of all three genotypes were at least 94% identical to one another in deduced amino acid sequence. The EV71 prototype strain, BrCr-CA-70, isolated in California in 1970, is the sole member of genotype A. Strains isolated in the United States and Australia during the period from 1972 to 1988, a 1994 Colombian isolate, and isolates from a large HFMD outbreak in Malaysia in 1997 are all members of genotype B. Although strains of genotype B continue to circulate in other parts of the world, none have been isolated in the United States since 1988. Genotype C contains strains isolated in 1985 or later in the United States, Canada, Australia, and the Republic of China. The annual rate of evolution within both the B and C genotypes was estimated to be approximately 1.35 10?2 substitutions per nucleotide and is similar to the rate observed for poliovirus. The results indicate that EV71 is a genetically diverse, rapidly evolving virus. Its worldwide circulation and potential to cause severe disease underscore the need for additional surveillance and improved methods to identify EV71 in human disease. PMID:10559310

  10. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis). PMID:26350325

  11. Livestock infectious diseases and zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Tomley, Fiona M.; Shirley, Martin W.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases of livestock are a major threat to global animal health and welfare and their effective control is crucial for agronomic health, for safeguarding and securing national and international food supplies and for alleviating rural poverty in developing countries. Some devastating livestock diseases are endemic in many parts of the world and threats from old and new pathogens continue to emerge, with changes to global climate, agricultural practices and demography presenting conditions that are especially favourable for the spread of arthropod-borne diseases into new geographical areas. Zoonotic infections that are transmissible either directly or indirectly between animals and humans are on the increase and pose significant additional threats to human health and the current pandemic status of new influenza A (H1N1) is a topical example of the challenge presented by zoonotic viruses. In this article, we provide a brief overview of some of the issues relating to infectious diseases of livestock, which will be discussed in more detail in the papers that follow. PMID:19687034

  12. Complete coding regions of the prototypes enterovirus B93 and C95: phylogenetic analyses of the P1 and P3 regions of EV-B and EV-C strains.

    PubMed

    Junttila, N; Lvque, N; Magnius, L O; Kabue, J P; Muyembe-Tamfum, J J; Maslin, J; Lina, B; Norder, H

    2015-03-01

    Complete coding regions were sequenced for two new enterovirus genomes: EV-B93 previously identified by VP1 sequencing, derived from a child with acute flaccid paralysis in the Democratic Republic of Congo; and EV-C95 from a French soldier with acute gastroenteritis in Djibouti. The EV-B93 P1 had more than 30% nucleotide divergence from other EV-B types, with highest similarity to E-15 and EV-B80. The P1 nucleotide sequence of EV-C95 was most similar, 71%, to CV-A21. Complete coding regions for the new enteroviruses were compared with those of 135 EV-B and 176 EV-C strains representing all types available in GenBank. When strains from the same outbreak or strains isolated during the same year in the same geographical region were excluded, 27 of the 58 EV-B, and 16 of the 23 EV-C types were represented by more than one sequence. However, for EV-B the P3 sequences formed three clades mainly according to origin or time of isolation, irrespective of type, while for EV-C the P3 sequences segregated mainly according to disease manifestation, with most strains causing paralysis, including polioviruses, forming one clade, and strains causing respiratory illness forming another. There was no intermixing of types between these two clades, apart from two EV-C96 strains. The EV-B P3 sequences had lower inter-clade and higher intra-clade variability as compared to the EV-C sequences, which may explain why inter-clade recombinations are more frequent in EV-B. Further analysis of more isolates may shed light on the role of recombinations in the evolution of EV-B in geographical context. PMID:25163640

  13. A One-Step, Triplex, Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Simultaneous Detection of Enterovirus 71, Coxsackie A16 and Pan-Enterovirus in a Single Tube

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiang; He, Shuizhen; Zhou, Wenbin; Ge, Shengxiang; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    The recent, ongoing epidemic of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is caused by enterovirus infection, has affected millions of children and resulted in thousands of deaths in China. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackie A16 (CA16) are the two major distinct pathogens for HFMD. However, EV71 is more commonly associated with neurologic complications and even fatalities. Therefore, simultaneously detecting and differentiating EV71 and CA16 specifically from other enteroviruses for diagnosing HFMD is important. Here, we developed a one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of EV71, CA16, and pan-enterovirus (EVs) in a single tube with an internal amplification control. The detection results for the serially diluted viruses indicate that the lower limit of detection for this assay is 0.0010.04 TCID50/ml, 0.02 TCID50/ml, and 0.001 TCID50/ml for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively. After evaluating known HFMD virus stocks of 17 strains of 16 different serotypes, this assay showed a favorable detection spectrum and no obvious cross-reactivity. The results for 141 clinical throat swabs from HFMD-suspected patients demonstrated sensitivities of 98.4%, 98.7%, and 100% for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively, and 100% specificity for each virus. The application of this one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay in clinical units will contribute to HFMD surveillance and help to identify causative pathogen in patients with suspected HFMD. PMID:25029500

  14. Ocular manifestations of infectious skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Przytocka, Anna; Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Ocular complications of infectious skin diseases are a common occurrence. Managing the inflamed or infected eye in the emergency setting presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the emergency physician. Infectious agents may affect any part of the eye. Ocular findings may be the first sign of many infectious diseases, such as, for example, gonorrhea or chlamydia infection. Understanding the various forms of ocular involvement in these conditions is important, because untreated ophthalmic involvement can lead to severe vision loss. This review focuses on the significant ocular manifestations of the most common infectious diseases, including bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections, that both ophthalmologists and dermatologists may encounter. PMID:26903179

  15. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. I. Collection of Virus Samples

    PubMed Central

    Fout, G. Shay; Cashdollar, Jennifer L.; Varughese, Eunice A.; Parshionikar, Sandhya U.; Grimm, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    EPA Method 1615 was developed with a goal of providing a standard method for measuring enteroviruses and noroviruses in environmental and drinking waters. The standardized sampling component of the method concentrates viruses that may be present in water by passage of a minimum specified volume of water through an electropositive cartridge filter. The minimum specified volumes for surface and finished/ground water are 300 L and 1,500 L, respectively. A major method limitation is the tendency for the filters to clog before meeting the sample volume requirement. Studies using two different, but equivalent, cartridge filter options showed that filter clogging was a problem with 10% of the samples with one of the filter types compared to 6% with the other filter type. Clogging tends to increase with turbidity, but cannot be predicted based on turbidity measurements only. From a cost standpoint one of the filter options is preferable over the other, but the water quality and experience with the water system to be sampled should be taken into consideration in making filter selections. PMID:25867928

  16. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of enterovirus and norovirus occurrence in water by culture and RT-qPCR. I. Collection of virus samples.

    PubMed

    Fout, G Shay; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Varughese, Eunice A; Parshionikar, Sandhya U; Grimm, Ann C

    2015-01-01

    EPA Method 1615 was developed with a goal of providing a standard method for measuring enteroviruses and noroviruses in environmental and drinking waters. The standardized sampling component of the method concentrates viruses that may be present in water by passage of a minimum specified volume of water through an electropositive cartridge filter. The minimum specified volumes for surface and finished/ground water are 300 L and 1,500 L, respectively. A major method limitation is the tendency for the filters to clog before meeting the sample volume requirement. Studies using two different, but equivalent, cartridge filter options showed that filter clogging was a problem with 10% of the samples with one of the filter types compared to 6% with the other filter type. Clogging tends to increase with turbidity, but cannot be predicted based on turbidity measurements only. From a cost standpoint one of the filter options is preferable over the other, but the water quality and experience with the water system to be sampled should be taken into consideration in making filter selections. PMID:25867928

  17. Enteroviruses harness the cellular endocytic machinery to remodel the host cell cholesterol landscape for effective viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Ilnytska, Olha; Santiana, Marianita; Hsu, Nai-Yun; Du, Wen-Li; Chen, Ying-Han; Viktorova, Ekaterina G.; Belov, Georgy; Brinker, Anita; Storch, Judith; Moore, Christopher; Dixon, Joseph L.; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol is a critical component of cellular membranes, regulating assembly and function of membrane-based protein/lipid complexes. Many RNA viruses, including enteroviruses, remodel host membranes to generate organelles with unique lipid blueprints on which they assemble replication complexes and synthesize viral RNA. Here we find that clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is harnessed by enteroviruses to traffic cholesterol from the plasma membrane (PM) and extracellular medium to replication organelles where cholesterol then regulates viral polyprotein processing and facilitates genome synthesis. When CME is disrupted, cellular cholesterol pools are instead stored in lipid droplets; cholesterol cannot be trafficked to replication organelles; and replication is inhibited. In contrast, replication is stimulated in cholesterol-elevated cells like those lacking caveolins or those from Niemann-Pick disease patients. Our findings indicate cholesterol as a critical determinant for enteroviral replication and outline roles for the endocytic machinery in both the enteroviral lifecycle and host cell cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:24034614

  18. Continuous myocloni and tonic spasms in a 2-month-old infant with enterovirus 71 brain stem encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Yeon; Yeh, Hye-Ryun

    2015-02-01

    Brain stem encephalitis is a cardinal presentation of central nervous system involvement in enterovirus 71 infection, and manifests as myoclonus, ataxia, tremor, and autonomic dysfunction. A 2-month-old infant with enterovirus 71 brain stem encephalitis demonstrated continuous myocloni and tonic spasms. On admission, the patient's myoclonus, which mainly involved the shoulders and the arms, was considerably worse during wakefulness and occurred once or twice a minute. Several hours after admission, the myoclonic jerks steadily worsened, appeared ceaselessly every 1 to 2?seconds, and were intermixed with tonic spasms of all four extremities accompanied by crying. Video electroencephalography revealed a normal background without epileptiform discharges and no ictal electroencephalographic changes during the myoclonic jerks and tonic spasms. Complete remission was achieved without complications after completion of a 3-day immunoglobulin therapy. This case suggests that the brain stem may be a major origin site for not only myoclonus but also tonic spasm. PMID:25290724

  19. Lyophilized combination pools of enterovirus equine antisera: new LBM pools prepared from reserves of antisera stored frozen for two decades

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Joseph L.; Wimberly, Ira L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and test procedures for a second batch of lyophilized LBM combination antiserum pools, A through H, used for identifying 42 enteroviruses. Each pool is selectively composed of 10 or 11 of 42 individual enterovirus equine sera so that it contains 500 antibody units of each serum component per 0.1 ml. The new pools have been constituted from equine monovalent antisera that were prepared during the period 1962-67 and then evaluated and standardized in a series of collaborative international studies. An essential aspect of preparing the new pools was ensuring that the individual sera had retained high antibody titres through the long period of storage. At the time of retesting, the original stocks of these monovalent sera had been stored frozen at -20C for periods ranging from 16 to 20 years. PMID:2994900

  20. [Infectious diseases--new horizons].

    PubMed

    Spirer, Zvi; Barzilai, Asher

    2012-08-01

    During the last decade we have witnessed important developments in the field of infectious diseases. These developments have in a large part been made possible due to our entry into the genomic period. The main areas of progress include diagnosis, understanding of the pathophysiology, genetics, anti-microbial therapy and the prevention of disease by new vaccines. The diagnosis of infection using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), contributes today to the early identification of a pathogen, long before the culture and serology. In the future, we will be able to utilize molecular methodologies based on the unique response of the host to a specific infection--the genetic signature. This method will enable very early identification of the pathogen, institution of optimal treatment, and will prevent the excessive use of antibiotics. Another area that has developed in recent years is the genetics of infectious diseases. Accumulated data shows that changes in the genome, polymorphism, result in different reactions by people to different infections. As a result of these changes some people are resistant to certain infections whilst others are especially sensitive to other infections. Introduction of this knowledge into clinical practice will enable more rational medical management with an emphasis on personalized medicine. After a long period without the development of new antibiotics, there are now signs of conceptual and practical breakthroughs in the development of antibiotic agents whose activity is based on new principles and directed against sites different from those of existing antibiotics. These advances are predominantly due to progress in the field of genomics. Similarly, in the development of future vaccines, more and more vaccines will be developed using genomic methods, enabling the creation of vaccines against diseases that we have not yet succeeded to eradicate. Genomic methods will enable the design of vaccines tailored to the specific genomic structure of the host--personal vaccines. All these four aspects of progress in the field of infectious diseases are not science fiction, and it can be stated with confidence that the future is already here. PMID:23350296

  1. Specific primer amplification of the VP1 region directed by 5' UTR sequence analysis: enterovirus testing and identification in clinical samples from hand-foot-and-mouth disease patients.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shengxiang; Yan, Qiang; He, Shuizhen; Zhuang, Sijie; Niu, Jianjun; Xia, Ningshao

    2013-11-01

    Many genotypes of the enterovirus (EV) pathogens can cause clinical hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Therefore, rapid identification and monitoring of HFMD pathogens can be difficult, especially from the original clinical specimens. In this study, both universal pan-enterovirus and EV71/CA16 VP1-specific primer sets were designed and used to examine clinical specimens from HFMD patients. Based on the initial sequence analysis of the 5'-untanslated region (5'-UTR) and VP1 amplification products, additional primers for the VP1 region were redesigned for further genotyping of the remaining small portion non-EV71/non-CA16 specimens. With a known panel, it was possible to identify 15 out of 16 members using 5'-UTR sequence typing and VP1 typing, suggesting good detectability and genotyping of this method. One strain that was not typed by 5'-UTR was shown to be a recombinant virus. When this method was applied to examine clinical specimens from 44 suspected HFMD patients, 41 were detected as EV positive. In only one case, the VP1 sequence could not be identified. Four types of EVs, including CA16 (26/41, 63.4%), EV71-C4 (6/41, 14.6%), CA6 (5/41, 12.2%) and CA10 (3/41, 7.3%), were detected. In conclusion, 5' UTR amplification sequencing and subsequent VP1 specific primer amplification ensures a high detection rate and good genotyping accuracy in the examination of clinical samples. This detection strategy can be used for routine evaluation and monitoring of HFMD to follow local trends of EV infection. PMID:23769858

  2. Seven Strains of Enterovirus D68 Detected in the United States during the 2014 Severe Respiratory Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Brown, B. A.; Nix, W. A.; Sheth, M.; Frace, M.

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of severe respiratory disease in the United States were reported to the CDC beginning in August 2014. Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was identified from 83% (30/36) of initial severe cases. Investigations in August and September found severe EV-D68 cases to be widespread across the United States. We report seven EV-D68 genomes from the outbreak. PMID:25414503

  3. A Novel, Broad-Spectrum Inhibitor of Enterovirus Replication That Targets Host Cell Factor Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase III?

    PubMed Central

    van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Leyssen, Pieter; Thibaut, Hendrik J.; de Palma, Armando; van der Linden, Lonneke; Lanke, Kjerstin H. W.; Lacroix, Cline; Verbeken, Erik; Conrath, Katja; MacLeod, Angus M.; Mitchell, Dale R.; Palmer, Nicholas J.; van de Pol, Herv; Andrews, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Despite their high clinical and socioeconomic impacts, there is currently no approved antiviral therapy for the prophylaxis or treatment of enterovirus infections. Here we report on a novel inhibitor of enterovirus replication, compound 1, 2-fluoro-4-(2-methyl-8-(3-(methylsulfonyl)benzylamino)imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3-yl)phenol. This compound exhibited a broad spectrum of antiviral activity, as it inhibited all tested species of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, with 50% effective concentrations ranging between 4 and 71 nM. After a lengthy resistance selection process, coxsackievirus mutants resistant to compound 1 were isolated that carried substitutions in their 3A protein. Remarkably, the same substitutions were recently shown to provide resistance to inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III? (PI4KIII?), a lipid kinase that is essential for enterovirus replication, suggesting that compound 1 may also target this host factor. Accordingly, compound 1 directly inhibited PI4KIII? in an in vitro kinase activity assay. Furthermore, the compound strongly reduced the PI 4-phosphate levels of the Golgi complex in cells. Rescue of coxsackievirus replication in the presence of compound 1 by a mutant PI4KIII? carrying a substitution in its ATP-binding pocket revealed that the compound directly binds the kinase at this site. Finally, we determined that an analogue of compound 1, 3-(3-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methyl-N-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-8-amine, is well tolerated in mice and has a dose-dependent protective activity in a coxsackievirus serotype B4-induced pancreatitis model. PMID:23896472

  4. What we are watching--five top global infectious disease threats, 2012: a perspective from CDC's Global Disease Detection Operations Center.

    PubMed

    Christian, Kira A; Ijaz, Kashef; Dowell, Scott F; Chow, Catherine C; Chitale, Rohit A; Bresee, Joseph S; Mintz, Eric; Pallansch, Mark A; Wassilak, Steven; McCray, Eugene; Arthur, Ray R

    2013-01-01

    Disease outbreaks of international public health importance continue to occur regularly; detecting and tracking significant new public health threats in countries that cannot or might not report such events to the global health community is a challenge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Global Disease Detection (GDD) Operations Center, established in early 2007, monitors infectious and non-infectious public health events to identify new or unexplained global public health threats and better position CDC to respond, if public health assistance is requested or required. At any one time, the GDD Operations Center actively monitors approximately 30-40 such public health threats; here we provide our perspective on five of the top global infectious disease threats that we were watching in 2012: 1 avian influenza A (H5N1), 2 cholera, 3 wild poliovirus, 4 enterovirus-71, and 5 extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis11Current address: Division of Integrated Biosurveillance, Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, US Department of Defense, Silver Spring, MD, USA. PMID:23827387

  5. Thermal inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosting, L.; Gould, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A plaque assay was used to follow the inactivation kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in cell culture media at various temperatures. Inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a visceral organ slurry was compared with that in culture media.

  6. Identification of a novel enterovirus E isolates HY12 from cattle with severe respiratory and enteric diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lisai; Xing, Zeli; Gai, Xiaochun; Li, Sujing; San, Zhihao; Wang, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a virus strain designated as HY12 was isolated from cattle with a disease of high morbidity and mortality in Jilin province. Biological and physiochemical properties showed that HY12 isolates is cytopathic with an extremely high infectivity. HY12 is resistant to treatment of organic solvent and acid, and unstable at 60°C for 1 h. Electron microscopy observation revealed the virus is an approximately 22-28 nm in diameter. The complete genome sequence of HY12 consists of 7416 nucleotides, with a typical picornavirus genome organization including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a large single ORF encoding a polyprotein of 2176 amino acids, and a 3'-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis clustered HY12 isolates to a new serotype/genotype within the clade of enterovirus E (formerly BEV-A). Alignment analysis revealed a unique insertion of 2 amino acid residues (NF) at the C-terminal of VP1 protein between aa 825 and 826, and several rare mutations in VP1 and VP4 of HY12 isolates in relation to known bovine enterovirus (BEV) strains. This is the first report of an enterovirus E in China, which is potentially associated with an outbreak in cattle with severe respiratory and enteric diseases. PMID:24830424

  7. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR INFECTIOUS BOVINE KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an economically important disease in cattle. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in offspring from a Brahman x Hereford sire. The sire was mated to H...

  8. An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its

  9. An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

  10. Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases

  11. [New topics in infectious medicine (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mayr, A

    1976-01-01

    After the eradication and control of the old classical epidemics, the situation in the sector of infectious diseases has changed. These days 3 groups of infectious diseases have gained importance than they had in the past and thus have changed the scene: I. Infectious diseases which earlier were either not known on such a scale or completely unknown Under this group fall mainly the "infectious factor diseases" caused by so-called "opportunistic" germs, mixed infections, old and new zoonoses, iatrogenic infections, "explosion epidemics" and epidemics caused by germ mutations. II. Therapy-resistant infectious diseases Here a distinction is made between infectious diseases caused by chemotherapy-resistant germs and the diseases whose increased rate of incidence is due to the fact that the arthropod vectors became resistant to insecticides. III. Infectious diseases to which the classical Henle-Koch postulates no longer apply These are chronic diseases and persistent infections, immunopathogenic consequences of infections and viral tumours. The diseases are discussed separately with respect to the cause/effect relationship with the emphasis on the following subjects: Opportunistic problem germs, infectious factor diseases with hospitalism, mixed infections, salmonellosis and new viral zoonoses, chronic diseases, "slow viruses", immunopathogenic consequences of infections and viral tumours. PMID:1035016

  12. Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process

    PubMed Central

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:25024856

  13. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.

    PubMed

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:25024856

  14. Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases…

  15. Infectious mononucleosis in Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Ali Blent; Cultu-Kantaro?lu, Oge; Semeer, Glten; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Kara, Ate?; Grgey, Aytemiz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics and prognoses of children diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis (IM). The demographic features, referral complaints, clinical and laboratory findings, follow-up, and prognoses of 44 patients diagnosed with IM between January 2000 and June 2006 at the Infectious Diseases Department of Hacettepe University Ihsan Do?ramaci Children's Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The children suspected of IM based on clinical findings and whose diagnoses were proven by serological tests were enrolled in the study. In addition, the patients were divided into four groups -namely, age 0-4, age 5-8, age 9-12 and age 13-16, and the differences among groups were investigated in terms of their clinical and laboratory findings. The patients were aged between 3 months and 16 years. The median age was 4, and 56.8% of patients were below age 5. The male/female ratio was 1.6. No statistically significant variation was observed in the seasonal distribution of patients (p = 0.131). The most common referral complaints were swollen cervical lymph nodes or swollen neck (68.1%), followed by fever (43.1%) and sore throat (25%). Lymphadenopathy (79.5%), tonsillopharyngitis (72.7%), splenomegaly (34%), and hepatomegaly (25%) were the most common physical examination findings. Leukocyte count was normal in 68.3% of the cases. Leukocytosis was detected in 29.5% of the patients, and leukopenia in 2.2%. Lymphocytosis was detected in 44.7% of patients. Downey cell was detected in the peripheral blood smear of 23.6% of patients, and thrombocytopenia in 11.3%. Elevated alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were detected in 61.9% and 90.4% of patients who were investigated for these parameters, respectively. The clinical, hematological and biochemical findings of patients did not vary significantly among age groups (p > 0.05). Only one complication (hemophagocytic syndrome) was observed in one patient. PMID:20718181

  16. Beyond tumor necrosis factor inhibition: the expanding pipeline of biologic therapies for inflammatory diseases and their associated infectious sequelae.

    PubMed

    Novosad, S A; Winthrop, K L

    2014-06-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases are at higher risk for infectious morbidity and mortality, partially due to the therapies used to treat these conditions. Both prednisone and targeted biologic therapies such as tumor necrosis factor antagonists have been implicated to various degrees, although in some cases firm data are lacking with regard to certain types of infections. To date, there is a paucity of information regarding the infectious risks associated with the newer biologic agents. As new biologic agents become available for use, their potential infectious risks will challenge infectious disease clinicians who must work to prevent, diagnose, and treat infections in this setting. This article reviews our current understanding of infectious risk in the setting of targeted therapies and provides an update of the immune system targets and potential infectious sequelae of both current and emerging biologic therapies. PMID:24585557

  17. A Prospective Korean Multicenter Study for Infectious Complications in Patients Undergoing Prostate Surgery: Risk Factors and Efficacy of Antibiotic Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This multicenter study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and identify the risk factors for infectious complications after prostate surgery in Korean patients. A total of 424 patients who underwent surgery of the prostate were reviewed. All patients underwent urinalysis and urine culture preoperatively and postoperatively. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and risk factors for infectious complications were investigated. Infectious complications were observed in 34.9% of all patients. Factors independently associated with infectious complications were diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.09-3.65, P=0.025) and operation time (adjusted OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13, P=0.004). Clinicians should be aware of the high risk of infectious complications in patients with diabetes and those who undergo a prolonged operation time. Neither the type nor duration of prophylactic antibiotics resulted in differences in infectious complications. Graphical Abstract PMID:25246747

  18. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

  19. Comparative full genome analysis of four infectious laryngotracheitis virus (gallid herpesvirus-1) virulent isolates from the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gallid herpesvirus type 1 (GaHV-1), commonly named infectious laryngotracheitis virus causes the respiratory disease in chickens known as infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Molecular determinants associated with differences in pathogenicity of GaHV-1 strains are not completely understood. Comparis...

  20. Preventing transfer of infectious agents.

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim; Mueller, Nicolas J

    2015-11-01

    Xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues and organs may be associated with the transfer of porcine infectious agents, which may infect the human recipient and in the worst case induce a disease (zoonosis). To prevent this, a broad screening program of the donor animals for putative zoonotic microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and others, using sensitive and specific detection methods has to be performed. As long as it is still unknown, which microorganism represents a real risk for the recipient, experience from allotransplantation should be brought in. Due to the fact that pigs can be screened long before the date of transplantation, xenotransplantation will become eventually safer compared with allotransplantation. Screening and selection of animals free of potential zoonotic microorganisms, Caesarean section, vaccination and/or treatment with chemotherapeutics are the strategies of choice to obtain donor animals not transmitting microorganisms. In the case of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) which are integrated in the genome of all pigs and which cannot be eliminated this way, selection of animals with low virus expression and generation of genetically modified pigs suppressing PERV expressions may be performed. PMID:26316157

  1. Infectious Diseases at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Basnyat, Buddha; Starling, Jennifer M

    2015-08-01

    Travel to elevations above 2,500 m is an increasingly common activity undertaken by a diverse population of individuals. These may be trekkers, climbers, miners in high-altitude sites in South America, and more recently, soldiers deployed for high-altitude duty in remote areas of the world. What is also being increasingly recognized is the plight of the millions of pilgrims, many with comorbidities, who annually ascend to high-altitude sacred areas. There are also 400 million people who reside permanently in high mountain ranges, which cover one-fifth of the Earth's surface. Many of these high-altitude areas are in developing countries, for example, the Himalayan range in South Asia. Although high-altitude areas may not harbor any specific infectious disease agents, it is important to know about the pathogens encountered in the mountains to be better able to help both the ill sojourner and the native high-altitude dweller. Often the same pathogens prevalent in the surrounding lowlands are found at high altitude, but various factors such as immunomodulation, hypoxia, poor physiological adaptation, and harsh environmental stressors at high altitude may enhance susceptibility to these pathogens. Against this background, various gastrointestinal, respiratory, dermatological, neurological, and other infections encountered at high altitude are discussed. PMID:26350326

  2. Common questions about infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Womack, Jason; Jimenez, Marissa

    2015-03-15

    Epstein-Barr is a ubiquitous virus that infects 95% of the world population at some point in life. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are often asymptomatic, some patients present with the clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis (IM). The syndrome most commonly occurs between 15 and 24 years of age. It should be suspected in patients presenting with sore throat, fever, tonsillar enlargement, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, pharyngeal inflammation, and palatal petechiae. A heterophile antibody test is the best initial test for diagnosis of EBV infection, with 71% to 90% accuracy for diagnosing IM. However, the test has a 25% false-negative rate in the first week of illness. IM is unlikely if the lymphocyte count is less than 4,000 mm3. The presence of EBV-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies confirms infection, but the test is more costly and results take longer than the heterophile antibody test. Symptomatic relief is the mainstay of treatment. Glucocorticoids and antivirals do not reduce the length or severity of illness. Splenic rupture is an uncommon complication of IM. Because physical activity within the first three weeks of illness may increase the risk of splenic rupture, athletic participation is not recommended during this time. Children are at the highest risk of airway obstruction, which is the most common cause of hospitalization from IM. Patients with immunosuppression are more likely to have fulminant EBV infection. PMID:25822555

  3. Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Amber M; Kevlahan, Nicholas K-R; Earn, David J D

    2012-09-01

    Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that each disease is characterized by a unique multifractal signature, which distinguishes that particular disease from the others. The wavelet scaling functions confirm that the time series of measles, rubella and whooping cough are clearly multifractal, while chicken pox has a more monofractal structure in time. The stochastic SEIR epidemic model is unable to reproduce the qualitative singularity structure of the reported incidence data: it is too smooth and does not appear to have a multifractal singularity structure. The precise reasons for the failure of the SEIR epidemic model to reproduce the correct multiscale structure of the reported incidence data remain unclear. PMID:22442094

  4. Addressing the challenges of emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Pinner, R W

    1996-01-01

    Through the recent examples of diphtheria in the former Soviet Union, plague in India, and trends in pneumonia mortality in the United States, the author, in this article, illustrates issues in emerging infectious diseases. The Centers for Disease Control's plan, Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats: A Prevention Strategy for the United States, is summarized. Initial efforts to implement this plan are described, with particular focus on the development of Emerging Infections Programs, which are conducting epidemiologic and laboratory projects on several infectious diseases, including invasive bacterial diseases, unexplained deaths, foodborne diseases, and ehrlichiosis in four population-based sites in the United States. PMID:8571983

  5. Early Detection for Cases of Enterovirus- and Influenza-Like Illness through a Newly Established School-Based Syndromic Surveillance System in Taipei, January 2010 ~ August 2011

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Ting Chia; Chan, Ta Chien; Li, Zheng Rong Tiger; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Chu, Yu-Roo; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Yen, Muh-Yong; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    School children may transmit pathogens with cluster cases occurring on campuses and in families. In response to the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, Taipei City Government officials developed a School-based Infectious Disease Syndromic Surveillance System (SID-SSS). Teachers and nurses from preschools to universities in all 12 districts within Taipei are required to daily report cases of symptomatic children or sick leave requests through the SID-SSS. The pre-diagnosis at schools is submitted firstly as common pediatric disease syndrome-groups and re-submitted after confirmation by physicians. We retrieved these data from January 2010 to August 2011 for spatio-temporal analysis and evaluated the temporal trends with cases obtained from both the Emergency Department-based Syndromic Surveillance System (ED-SSS) and the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005). Through the SID-SSS, enterovirus-like illness (EVI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) were the two most reported syndrome groups (77.6% and 15.8% among a total of 19,334 cases, respectively). The pre-diagnosis judgments made by school teachers and nurses showed high consistency with physicians’ clinical diagnoses for EVI (97.8%) and ILI (98.9%). Most importantly, the SID-SSS had better timeliness with earlier peaks of EVI and ILI than those in the ED-SSS. Furthermore, both of the syndrome groups in these two surveillance systems had the best correlation reaching 0.98 and 0.95, respectively (p<0.01). Spatio-temporal analysis observed the patterns of EVI and ILI both diffuse from the northern suburban districts to central Taipei, with ILI spreading faster. This novel system can identify early suspected cases of two important pediatric infections occurring at schools, and clusters from schools/families. It was also cost-effective (95.5% of the operation cost reduced and 59.7% processing time saved). The timely surveillance of mild EVI and ILI cases integrated with spatial analysis may help public health decision-makers with where to target for enhancing surveillance and prevention measures to minimize severe cases. PMID:25875080

  6. Normal modes of prion proteins: from native to infectious particle.

    PubMed

    Samson, Abraham O; Levitt, Michael

    2011-03-29

    Prion proteins (PrP) are the infectious agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (i.e., mad cow disease). To be infectious, prion proteins must undergo a conformational change involving a decrease in ?-helical content along with an increase in ?-strand content. This conformational change was evaluated by means of elastic normal modes. Elastic normal modes show a diminution of two ?-helices by one and two residues, as well as an extension of two ?-strands by three residues each, which could instigate the conformational change. The conformational change occurs in a region that is compatible with immunological studies, and it is observed more frequently in mutant prions that are prone to conversion than in wild-type prions because of differences in their starting structures, which are amplified through normal modes. These findings are valuable for our comprehension of the conversion mechanism associated with the conformational change in prion proteins. PMID:21338080

  7. The long view: 40 years of infectious bronchitis research.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jane K A; Jackwood, M; Jones, R C

    2012-01-01

    The remit of this review is to provide the non-specialist reader of Avian Pathology with an overview of research carried out on infectious bronchitis over the 40 years since the journal was first published. In order to do this, we felt it necessary to summarize the knowledge acquired previously, since the since the disease was first identified in the 1930s. Infectious bronchitis virus is a significant pathogen in the domestic chicken, affecting the respiratory and renal systems as well as the female reproductive tract. The virus exists in the form of many, ever changing, serotypic or genotypic variants, some of which have global distribution whilst others are found only in more local areas. This review mentions the major discoveries concerning both the virus itself and the types of disease it causes and considers recent changes in its pathogenesis. It also discusses the impact of developments in the field of molecular biology and highlights possible areas for future work. PMID:22702451

  8. Evaluation of MK filters for recovery of enteroviruses from tap water.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, J F; Naranjo, J; Gerba, C P

    1994-01-01

    The MK filter is an electropositively charged filter that can be used to concentrate enteroviruses from large volumes (400 to 1,000 liters) of water. This filter is less expensive than the commonly used 1MDS electropositive filter. In this study, we compared the recovery of poliovirus 1 (PV1) and that of coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) from 378 liters of tap water, using both the MK and the 1MDS filters. Viruses were eluted from the filters with 3% beef extract buffered with 0.05 M glycine (pH 9.5) and reconcentrated via organic flocculation. At high virus inputs (approximately 10(6) PFU), the overall recovery (after elution and reconcentration) of PV1 and CB3 from tap water with the MK filter was less than that achieved with the 1MDS filter (P < 0.05). The recoveries of PV1 from tap water with the MK and 1MDS filters were 73.2% +/- 26% (n = 5 trials) and 90.2% +/- 5.9% (n = 5 trials), respectively. The recoveries of CB3 from tap water with the MK and 1MDS filters were 32.8% +/- 34.5% (n = 4 trials) and 95.8% +/- 12.0% (n = 4 trials), respectively. This study indicated that the MK filter consistently provided lower recovery, with wider variability, of PV1 and CB3 from tap water than the 1MDS filter. PMID:8031090

  9. Prevalence of porcine enterovirus 9 in pigs in middle and eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shixing; Wang, Yan; Shen, Quan; Zhang, Wen; Hua, Xiuguo

    2013-01-01

    Little information on the epidemiology and pathogenicity of porcine enterovirus 9 (PEV-9) is available. The present study investigated the prevalence of PEV-9 in pig populations in middle and eastern China using reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. All 14 sampled farms were positive for PEV-9 and the overall prevalence of infection in the studied pigs was 8.3% (37/447). There was a higher frequency of infection in pigs aged 10-15 weeks (12/119, 10.1%) than in pigs aged >20 weeks (5/103, 4.9%). A 313 nucleotide sequence from the 5'-UTR region of 37 Chinese PEV-9 positive samples had 96.1-100% sequence homology. On phylogenetic analysis, sequences clustered into two major groups, from which two representative strains were selected to determine the complete RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequence. Phylogenetic analysis based on the RdRp gene suggested that PEV-9 strains from China formed a new subgroup. Piglets were inoculated orally with the PEV-9 strain identified in this study. Although most experimental pigs showed no clinical signs, almost all carried PEV-9 in one or more tissues after 6 days post-inoculation. The results of tissue histologic examination suggested that PEV9 can cause pathological changes in cerebrum and lung. PMID:23537283

  10. An Enterovirus-Like RNA Construct for Colon Cancer Suicide Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rasekhian, Mahsa; Teimoori-Toolabi, Ladan; Amini, Safieh; Azadmanesh, Kayhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: In gene therapy, the use of RNA molecules as therapeutic agents has shown advantages over plasmid DNA, including higher levels of safety. However, transient nature of RNA has been a major obstacle in application of RNA in gene therapy. Methods: Here, we used the internal ribosomal entry site of encephalomyocarditis virus and the 3 non-translated region of Poliovirus to design an enterovirus-like RNA for the expression of a reporter gene (enhanced green fluorescent protein) and a suicide gene (thymidine kinase of herpes simplex virus). The expression of these genes was evaluated by flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assay in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480). We then armed RNA molecules with a target sequence for hsa-miR-143 to regulate their expression by microRNA (miRNA) mimics. Results: The results showed effective expression of both genes by Entrovirus-like RNA constructs. The data also showed that the restoration of hsa-miR-143 expression in SW480 leads to a significant translation repression of the introduced reporter and suicide genes. Conclusion: Collectively, our data suggest the potential use of Entrovirus-like RNA molecules in suicide gene therapy. Additionally, as a consequence of the possible downregulated miRNA expression in cancerous tissues, a decreased expression of gene therapy constructs armed with target sequences for such miRNA in cancer tissue is expected. PMID:26025964

  11. Immunologic Characterization of Cytokine Responses to Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Infection in Children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Yan; Xu, Mei-Yan; Xu, Hong-Mei; Li, Xiu-Jun; Ding, Shu-Jun; Wang, Xian-Jun; Li, Ting-Yu; Lu, Qing-Bin

    2015-07-01

    Viral encephalitis is a serious complication of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but characteristics of cytokines response in enterovirus 71 (EV-71) and/or coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) associated HFMD with or without viral encephalitis remained unclear.We performed a multigroup retrospective study and compared the serum cytokines concentrations among 16 encephalitis patients infected with EV-71 and CV-A16, 24 encephalitis patients with single EV-71 infection, 34 mild HFMD patients with EV-71 infection, 18 mild HFMD patients with CV-A16 infection, and 39 healthy control subjects.Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-22, and IL-23 were significantly higher in encephalitis patients than in HFMD-alone patients when adjusting for age and sex; IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-4, IL-22, and IL-1? were significantly higher in HFMD-alone patients of EV-71 infection than in CV-A16 infected HFMD patients; cerebrospinal fluid level of IL-6 was lower in the EV-71/CV-A16 associated encephalitis than that in the EV-71 alone associated encephalitis patients.Over or low expression of the cytokines cascade in HFMD patients appears to play an important role in the elicitation of the immune response to EV-71 and CV-A16. These data will be used to define a cytokine profile, which might help to recognize HFMD patients with the high risk of developing encephalitis. PMID:26166120

  12. A Conserved Inhibitory Mechanism of a Lycorine Derivative against Enterovirus and Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Wang, Yaxin; Cao, Lin; Wang, Peng; Qing, Jie; Zheng, Qizhen; Shang, Luqing; Yin, Zheng; Sun, Yuna

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) (Picornaviridae family) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) (Flaviviridae family) are the causative agents of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and hepatitis C, resulting in a severe pandemic involving millions of infections in the Asia-Pacific region and worldwide. The great impact of EV71 and HCV on public health highlights the need to further our understanding of the biology of these two viruses and develop effective therapeutic antivirals. Here, we evaluated a total of 32 lycorine derivatives and demonstrated that 1-acetyllycorine suppressed the proliferation of multiple strains of EV71 in various cells. The results of the drug resistance analysis revealed that 1-acetyllycorine targeted a phenylalanine (F76) in EV71 2A protease (2A(pro)) to stabilize the conformation of a unique zinc finger. Most interestingly, the zinc binding site in EV71 2A(pro) is the exclusive homolog of HCV NS3 among all viruses. Further analysis revealed that 1-acetyllycorine also inhibits HCV with high efficacy, and the mutation on R118 in HCV NS3, which corresponds to F76 in EV71 2A(pro), confers the resistance of HCV to 1-acetyllycorine. These results revealed a conserved mechanism of 1-acetyllycorine against EV71 and HCV through targeting viral proteases. We also documented the significant synergistic anti-EV71 and anti-HCV effects of 1-acetyllycorine with reported inhibitors, supporting potential combination therapy for the treatment of EV71 and HCV infections. PMID:26596952

  13. Distribution and genetic characterization of Enterovirus G and Sapelovirus A in six Spanish swine herds.

    PubMed

    Vilar, M J; Peralta, B; García-Bocanegra, I; Simon-Grifé, M; Bensaid, A; Casal, J; Segalés, J; Pina-Pedrero, S

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of Enterovirus G (EV-G) and Sapelovirus A (PSV-1) was investigated in Spanish swine herds by means of cross-sectional studies. Faecal samples from clinically healthy pigs were collected from six farms, and analysed by RT-PCR. The results indicated a high prevalence of EV-G detected in nearly all the animals older than 3 weeks of age. Otherwise, PSV-1 was only detected in 3-week-old piglets from one of the farms. Genetic analyses performed in the VP1 region of the EV-G indicated circulation of diverse strains in the same farm, related to genotypes G1, G2, G3, G4, G6, G9, G12, G13 and G14. Moreover, co-infection of several PSV-1 variants in the same animal was evident, typical of viral quasispecies. Evolutionary pressure analysis indicated that microevolution of PSV-1 seems to be driven by negative selection. This study gives further insights in the epidemiology of EV-G and PSV-1. PMID:26836019

  14. Massive pulmonary hemorrhage in enterovirus 71-infected hand, foot, and mouth disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Seong; Lee, Young Il; Ahn, Jeong Bae; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Nam Hee; Hwang, Jong Hee; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Chong Guk

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute, mostly self-limiting infection. Patients usually recover without any sequelae. However, a few cases are life threatening, especially those caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71). A 12-month-old boy was admitted to a primary hospital with high fever and vesicular lesions of the mouth, hands, and feet. After 3 days, he experienced 3 seizure episodes and was referred to our hospital. On admission, he was conscious and his chest radiograph was normal. However, 6 hours later, he suddenly lost consciousness and had developed a massive pulmonary hemorrhage that continued until his death. He experienced several more intermittent seizures, and diffuse infiltration of both lung fields was observed on chest radiography. Intravenous immunoglobulin, dexamethasone, cefotaxime, leukocyte-depleted red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, inotropics, vitamin K, and endotracheal epinephrine were administered. The patient died 9 hours after intubation, within 3 days from fever onset. EV71 subgenotype C4a was isolated retrospectively from serum and nasopharyngeal swab by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Here, we report a fatal case of EV71-associated HFMD with sudden-onset massive pulmonary hemorrhage and suspected encephalitis. PMID:25861335

  15. Inhibition of Enterovirus 71 Replication by 7-Hydroxyflavone and Diisopropyl-Flavon7-yl Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiang; Cui, Sheng; Yang, Fan; Jin, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, which has been continuously prevalent in Asia in recent years. In children, severe cases can lead to death, and no prophylactic or therapeutic measures against EV71 infection are available. The 3C proteases of EV71 play an important role in viral replication and are an ideal drug target. In previous work, we resolved the crystal structure for EV71 3Cpro. In this report, we took advantage of the automated docking program AutoDock 4.0 to simulate EV71 3Cpro-ligand conformation. 7-hydroxyflavone (HF) and its phosphate ester(FIP) were predicted to bind with EV71 3Cpro.In an in vitro protease inhibition assay, FIP inhibited EV71 3Cpro protease activity. Both flavones were highly active against EV71, protecting cells from EV71 infection. Replication of viral RNA and formation of EV71 plaque were all strongly inhibited in cells. These results indicated that HF and FIP may serve as potential protective agents in the treatment of patients with chronic EV71 infection. PMID:24664133

  16. Norovirus, hepatitis A virus and enterovirus presence in shellfish from high quality harvesting areas in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Joo R; Vaz, Lisa; Cerqueira, Snia; Castilho, Fernanda; Santos, Ricardo; Monteiro, Slvia; Manso, Carmen F; Romalde, Jesus L; Nascimento, Maria So Jos

    2011-08-01

    This is the first report on the screening of shellfish from Portugal for the presence of human enteropathogenic viruses. Approximately 2000 shellfish (Curbicula fluminea, Ruditapes decussatus, Tellina crassa, Spisula solida, Dosinia exoleta, Ensis spp., Mytilus spp., Ostrea edulis and Cerastoderma edule), organized in 49 batches, were collected between March 2008 and February 2009. They were tested for norovirus (NoV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enterovirus (EV) by RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Bacterial contamination was also evaluated by Escherichia coli counts. Viral contamination was detected throughout the year in all shellfish species and in all collection areas, independently of their harvesting areas classification. Overall, 67% of all analyzed batches were contaminated by at least one of the studied viruses while the simultaneous presence of two and three viruses was detected in 22% and 6% batches, respectively. Of the three viruses, NoV was detected in 37% of the batches, followed by EV in 35%, and HAV in 33%. Nucleotide sequencing of the NoV and HAV RT-PCR products demonstrated that all strains belonged to NoV genotype GII.4 and HAV subgenotype 1B. The presence of NoV and HAV in shellfish from "A class" harvesting areas of Portugal can represent a potential health risk. PMID:21569936

  17. Epidemic Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Human Enterovirus 71, Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Kee Tai; Chong, Chia Yin; Teo, Eng Swee; Lau, Gilbert; Ling, Ai Ee

    2003-01-01

    Singapore experienced a large epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in 2000. After reviewing HFMD notifications from doctors and child-care centers, we found that the incidence of HFMD rose in September and declined at the end of October. During this period, 3,790 cases were reported. We performed enteroviral cultures on 311 and 157 specimens from 175 HFMD patients and 107 non-HFMD patients, respectively; human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) was the most frequently isolated virus from both groups. Most of the HFMD patients were <4 years of age. Three HFMD and two non-HFMD patients died. Specimens from two HFMD and both non-HFMD patients were culture positive for HEV71; a third patient was possibly associated with the virus. Autopsies performed on all three HFMD and one of the non-HFMD case-patients showed encephalitis, interstitial pneumonitis, and myocarditis. A preparedness plan for severe HFMD outbreaks provided for the prompt, coordinated actions needed to control the epidemic. PMID:12533285

  18. Human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses in influenza-like illness in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) belong to the Picornaviridae family with high similarity to human enteroviruses (HEVs). Limited data is available from Latin America regarding the clinical presentation and strains of these viruses in respiratory disease. Methods We collected nasopharyngeal swabs at clinics located in eight Latin American countries from 3,375 subjects aged 25years or younger who presented with influenza-like illness. Results Our subjects had a median age of 3years and a 1.2:1.0 male:female ratio. HRV was identified in 16% and HEV was identified in 3%. HRVs accounted for a higher frequency of isolates in those of younger age, in particular children?