Science.gov

Sample records for infectious respiratory diseases

  1. Dynamics of infectious disease transmission by inhalable respiratory droplets

    PubMed Central

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I.; Drossinos, Yannis

    2010-01-01

    Transmission of respiratory infectious diseases in humans, for instance influenza, occurs by several modes. Respiratory droplets provide a vector of transmission of an infectious pathogen that may contribute to different transmission modes. An epidemiological model incorporating the dynamics of inhalable respiratory droplets is developed to assess their relevance in the infectious process. Inhalable respiratory droplets are divided into respirable droplets, with droplet diameter less than 10 µm, and inspirable droplets, with diameter in the range 10–100 µm: both droplet classes may be inhaled or settle. Droplet dynamics is determined by their physical properties (size), whereas population dynamics is determined by, among other parameters, the pathogen infectivity and the host contact rates. Three model influenza epidemic scenarios, mediated by different airborne or settled droplet classes, are analysed. The scenarios are distinguished by the characteristic times associated with breathing at contact and with hand-to-face contact. The scenarios suggest that airborne transmission, mediated by respirable droplets, provides the dominant transmission mode in middle and long-term epidemics, whereas inspirable droplets, be they airborne or settled, characterize short-term epidemics with high attack rates. The model neglects close-contact transmission by droplet sprays (direct projection onto facial mucous membranes), retaining close-contact transmission by inspirable droplets. PMID:20164087

  2. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  3. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  4. Strengthening epidemiologic investigation of infectious diseases in Korea: lessons from the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhwan; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection in Korea resulted in large socioeconomic losses. This provoked the Korean government and the general public to recognize the importance of having a well-established system against infectious diseases. Although epidemiologic investigation is one of the most important aspects of prevention, it has been pointed out that much needs to be improved in Korea. We review here the current status of the Korean epidemiologic service and suggest possible supplementation measures. We examine the current national preventive infrastructure, including human resources such as Epidemic Intelligence Service officers, its governmental management, and related policies. In addition, we describe the practical application of these resources to the recent MERS outbreak and the progress in preventive measures. The spread of MERS demonstrated that the general readiness for emerging infectious diseases in Korea is considerably low. We believe that it is essential to increase society’s investment in disease prevention. Fostering public health personnel, legislating management policies, and establishing research centers for emerging infectious diseases are potential solutions. Evaluating international preventive systems, developing cooperative measures, and initiating improvements are necessary. We evaluated the Korean epidemiologic investigation system and the public preventive measures against infectious diseases in light of the recent MERS outbreak. We suggest that governmental authorities in Korea enforce preventive policies, foster the development of highly qualified personnel, and increase investment in the public health domain of infectious disease prevention. PMID:26493654

  5. Measuring Health Literacy Regarding Infectious Respiratory Diseases: A New Skills-Based Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xinying; Chen, Juan; Shi, Yuhui; Zeng, Qingqi; Wei, Nanfang; Xie, Ruiqian; Chang, Chun; Du, Weijing

    2013-01-01

    Background There is no special instrument to measure skills-based health literacy where it concerns infectious respiratory diseases. This study aimed to explore and evaluate a new skills-based instrument on health literacy regarding respiratory infectious diseases. Methods This instrument was designed to measure not only an individual’s reading and numeracy ability, but also their oral communication ability and their ability to use the internet to seek information. Sixteen stimuli materials were selected to enable measurement of the skills, which were sourced from the WHO, China CDC, and Chinese Center of Health Education. The information involved the distribution of epidemics, immunization programs, early symptoms, means of disease prevention, individual’s preventative behavior, use of medications and thermometers, treatment plans and the location of hospitals. Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed to collect participants. Psychometric properties were used to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results The overall degree of difficulty and discrimination of the instrument were 0.693 and 0.482 respectively. The instrument demonstrated good internal consistency reliability with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.864. As for validity, six factors were extracted from 30 items, which together explained 47.3% of the instrument’s variance. And based on confirmatory factor analysis, the items were grouped into five subscales representing prose, document, quantitative, oral and internet based information seeking skills (χ2 = 9.200, P>0.05, GFI = 0.998, TLI = 0.988, AGFI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.028). Conclusion The new instrument has good reliability and validity, and it could be used to assess the health literacy regarding respiratory infectious disease status of different groups. PMID:23724029

  6. Role of Iranian Traditional Medicine in the Prevention of Respiratory Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Soroushzadeh, Sayed Mohammad Ali; Khiveh, Ali; Gerayelimalek, Valiollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to define appropriate plans for respiratory infectious diseases, in accordance with Iranian traditional medicine, one should cover the topic of “havae vabai”. “Havae vabai” is related to the epidemics of respiratory infectious diseases. Methods: This study is a review of the role of Iranian traditional medicine in the prevention of respiratory infectious diseases .Resources of traditional medicine with the keyword “havae vabai” were reviewed in Noor digital library. Results: The perspective of traditional medicine for the prevention of disease in “havae vabai” is based on self-recuperation and air modification. Items that are mentioned are; refine the surrounding air, move to a proper space, live in a house with no source of water like fountains and limited flow of air, air-drying, use air freshener, smell fruit sticks, use in-house plants, and place a cloth soaked with vinegar in front of the nose. For self-recuperation, reducing body moisture with proper foods and drugs or with vomiting, diarrhea, phlebotomy, wet-cupping, reduction in food and drink intake, avoiding sexual intercourse, bathing, heavy exercise, inactivity, overeating, hunger, thirst, milk, sweets, fish, fatty foods, fruits especially juicy fruits are recommended. The food that tends to have a sour taste, eating meat cooked with sour taste like vinegar is suggested. Conclusion: The use of the solutions offered in traditional medicine to control air is helpful as it can reduce epidemics, such as influenza; that yearly kills many patients with a heavy financial burden. PMID:27516687

  7. Molecular surveillance of traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Larocca, Vittorio; Losurdo, Michele; Lanave, Gianvito; Lucente, Maria Stella; Corrente, Marialaura; Catella, Cristiana; Bo, Stefano; Elia, Gabriella; Torre, Giorgio; Grandolfo, Erika; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2016-08-30

    A molecular survey for traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) was conducted in Italy between 2011 and 2013 on a total of 138 dogs, including 78 early acute clinically ill CIRD animals, 22 non-clinical but exposed to clinically ill CIRD dogs and 38 CIRD convalescent dogs. The results showed that canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) was the most commonly detected CIRD pathogen, followed by canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis and canine pneumovirus (CnPnV). Some classical CIRD agents, such as canine adenoviruses, canine distemper virus and canid herpesvirus 1, were not detected at all, as were not other emerging respiratory viruses (canine influenza virus, canine hepacivirus) and bacteria (Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus). Most severe forms of respiratory disease were observed in the presence of CPIV, CRCoV and M. cynos alone or in combination with other pathogens, whereas single CnPnV or M. canis infections were detected in dogs with no or very mild respiratory signs. Interestingly, only the association of M. cynos (alone or in combination with either CRCoV or M. canis) with severe clinical forms was statistically significant. The study, while confirming CPIV as the main responsible for CIRD occurrence, highlights the increasing role of recently discovered viruses, such as CRCoV and CnPnV, for which effective vaccines are not available in the market. PMID:27527760

  8. Insights into the transmission of respiratory infectious diseases through empirical human contact networks

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chunlin; Liu, Xingwu; Sun, Shiwei; Li, Shuai Cheng; Deng, Minghua; He, Guangxue; Zhang, Haicang; Wang, Chao; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Yanlin; Bu, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present representative human contact networks among Chinese college students. Unlike schools in the US, human contacts within Chinese colleges are extremely clustered, partly due to the highly organized lifestyle of Chinese college students. Simulations of influenza spreading across real contact networks are in good accordance with real influenza records; however, epidemic simulations across idealized scale-free or small-world networks show considerable overestimation of disease prevalence, thus challenging the widely-applied idealized human contact models in epidemiology. Furthermore, the special contact pattern within Chinese colleges results in disease spreading patterns distinct from those of the US schools. Remarkably, class cancelation, though simple, shows a mitigating power equal to quarantine/vaccination applied on ~25% of college students, which quantitatively explains its success in Chinese colleges during the SARS period. Our findings greatly facilitate reliable prediction of epidemic prevalence, and thus should help establishing effective strategies for respiratory infectious diseases control. PMID:27526868

  9. Insights into the transmission of respiratory infectious diseases through empirical human contact networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunlin; Liu, Xingwu; Sun, Shiwei; Li, Shuai Cheng; Deng, Minghua; He, Guangxue; Zhang, Haicang; Wang, Chao; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Yanlin; Bu, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present representative human contact networks among Chinese college students. Unlike schools in the US, human contacts within Chinese colleges are extremely clustered, partly due to the highly organized lifestyle of Chinese college students. Simulations of influenza spreading across real contact networks are in good accordance with real influenza records; however, epidemic simulations across idealized scale-free or small-world networks show considerable overestimation of disease prevalence, thus challenging the widely-applied idealized human contact models in epidemiology. Furthermore, the special contact pattern within Chinese colleges results in disease spreading patterns distinct from those of the US schools. Remarkably, class cancelation, though simple, shows a mitigating power equal to quarantine/vaccination applied on ~25% of college students, which quantitatively explains its success in Chinese colleges during the SARS period. Our findings greatly facilitate reliable prediction of epidemic prevalence, and thus should help establishing effective strategies for respiratory infectious diseases control. PMID:27526868

  10. Intranasal DNA Vaccine for Protection against Respiratory Infectious Diseases: The Delivery Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yingying; Yuen, Pak-Wai; Lam, Jenny Ka-Wing

    2014-01-01

    Intranasal delivery of DNA vaccines has become a popular research area recently. It offers some distinguished advantages over parenteral and other routes of vaccine administration. Nasal mucosa as site of vaccine administration can stimulate respiratory mucosal immunity by interacting with the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT). Different kinds of DNA vaccines are investigated to provide protection against respiratory infectious diseases including tuberculosis, coronavirus, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) etc. DNA vaccines have several attractive development potential, such as producing cross-protection towards different virus subtypes, enabling the possibility of mass manufacture in a relatively short time and a better safety profile. The biggest obstacle to DNA vaccines is low immunogenicity. One of the approaches to enhance the efficacy of DNA vaccine is to improve DNA delivery efficiency. This review provides insight on the development of intranasal DNA vaccine for respiratory infections, with special attention paid to the strategies to improve the delivery of DNA vaccines using non-viral delivery agents. PMID:25014738

  11. A Holistic Approach to Climate and Health Research: Respiratory and Infectious Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrar, G.; Alonoso, W.; McCormick, B.; Schuck-Paim, C.; Miller, M.

    2014-12-01

    The link between climate variability and change, especially extreme conditions, is well documented in both environmental and health literature. The focus of research in the recent past, and current studies, is to understand causal relationships between the disease agents and environmental conditions, based on post-hoc analysis of observed cases to develop predictive models for advance warning of public by health authorities. A combination of the isolated examination of individual diseases and routes of infection (e.g. respiratory system, skin, digestive tract, etc.) and reliance mostly on correlative evidence from past occurrences have restricted public health progress (e.g. compared to experimental evidence of the quantitative balance of different transmission routes) and the utility of knowledge gained from such studies (e.g. reliably predicting seasonal outbreaks is no longer an advance). We propose a shift from focusing on the prediction of individual disease pattern(s) to a more holistic identification and mitigation of broader vulnerabilities within the provision of public health. Such an approach has the potential to account for and reveal health vulnerabilities common to a broader range of health stresses, thus facilitating a more holistic response to health challenges. The human health fragilities associated with respiratory diseases caused by a combination of natural (i.e dust, pollen, etc.) and industrial particulates (i.e. soot, aerosols, etc.) and other infectious airborne agents, for example, and their adverse impact on human health such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, etc. is an ideal candidate for such a holistic approach to environment and health research.

  12. Micromachined polymerase chain reaction system for multiple DNA amplification of upper respiratory tract infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chia-Sheng; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Chang, Chih-Ching; Hsieh, Tsung-Min; Huang, Fu-Chun; Luo, Ching-Hsing

    2005-01-15

    This paper presents a micro polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip for the DNA-based diagnosis of microorganism genes and the detection of their corresponding antibiotic-resistant genes. The micro PCR chip comprises cheap biocompatible soda-lime glass substrates with integrated thin-film platinum resistors as heating/sensing elements, and is fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) techniques in a reliable batch-fabrication process. The heating and temperature sensing elements are made of the same material and are located inside the reaction chamber in order to ensure a uniform temperature distribution. This study performs the detection of several genes associated with upper respiratory tract infection microorganisms, i.e. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemopilus influenze, Staphylococcu aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Neisseria meningitides, together with their corresponding antibiotic-resistant genes. The lower thermal inertia of the proposed micro PCR chip relative to conventional bench-top PCR systems enables a more rapid detection operation with reduced sample and reagent consumption. The experimental data reveal that the high heating and cooling rates of the system (20 and 10 degrees C/s, respectively) permit successful DNA amplification within 15 min. The micro PCR chip is also capable of performing multiple DNA amplification, i.e. the simultaneous duplication of multiple genes under different conditions in separate reaction wells. Compared with the large-scale PCR system, it is greatly advantageous for fast diagnosis of multiple infectious diseases. Multiplex PCR amplification of two DNA segments in the same well is also feasible using the proposed micro device. The developed micro PCR chip provides a crucial tool for genetic analysis, molecular biology, infectious disease detection, and many other biomedical applications. PMID:15590288

  13. Infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Carrie A; Donohue, Brian; Kluetz, Joshua

    2011-07-01

    Athletes are susceptible to the same infections as the general population. However, special considerations often need to be taken into account when dealing with an athlete who has contracted an infectious disease. Health care providers need to consider how even common illnesses can affect an athlete's performance, the communicability of the illness to team members, and precautions/contraindications related to athletic participation. Recent advances in the prevention, diagnosis, and/or management of frequently encountered illnesses, as well as certain conditions that warrant special attention in the athletic setting, are discussed in detail. PMID:21658549

  14. Factors associated with development of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC) in dogs in 5 Canadian small animal clinics

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Daniel J.; Lelewski, Roxana; Weese, J. Scott; Mcgill-Worsley, Jamie; Shankel, Catharine; Mendonca, Sonia; Sager, Tara; Smith, Michael; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the association between presence of respiratory pathogens and development of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC) in dogs in 5 Canadian small animal clinics. In total, 86 dogs were tested using a commercial PCR respiratory panel; 64 dogs were considered as cases and 22 were control dogs matched by veterinary clinic. No control animals (0/22) were positive for canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), whereas 27/64 (42%) CIRDC cases were positive. Furthermore, 81% of case dogs tested positive for Mycoplasma cynos, compared with 73% of control dogs. Canine respiratory corona virus (CRCoV) was detected in no control dogs compared with 9.4% of clinical dogs. No animals were positive for any influenza virus type A present in the diagnostic panel. Presence of CPIV was associated (P < 0.01) with the occurrence of CIRDC after adjustment for demographic factors and presence of CRCoV (P = 0.09). PMID:26740697

  15. Factors associated with development of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC) in dogs in 5 Canadian small animal clinics.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Daniel J; Lelewski, Roxana; Weese, J Scott; Mcgill-Worsley, Jamie; Shankel, Catharine; Mendonca, Sonia; Sager, Tara; Smith, Michael; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the association between presence of respiratory pathogens and development of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC) in dogs in 5 Canadian small animal clinics. In total, 86 dogs were tested using a commercial PCR respiratory panel; 64 dogs were considered as cases and 22 were control dogs matched by veterinary clinic. No control animals (0/22) were positive for canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), whereas 27/64 (42%) CIRDC cases were positive. Furthermore, 81% of case dogs tested positive for Mycoplasma cynos, compared with 73% of control dogs. Canine respiratory corona virus (CRCoV) was detected in no control dogs compared with 9.4% of clinical dogs. No animals were positive for any influenza virus type A present in the diagnostic panel. Presence of CPIV was associated (P < 0.01) with the occurrence of CIRDC after adjustment for demographic factors and presence of CRCoV (P = 0.09). PMID:26740697

  16. A review of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, shipping fever pneumonia and viral-bacterial synergism in respiratory disease of cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Yates, W D

    1982-01-01

    Unanswered questions on the etiology and prevention of shipping fever pneumonia have allowed this disease to remain one of the most costly to the North American cattle industry. Research in this area has indirected that while Pasteurella haemolytica and, to a lesser extent, P. multocida are involved in most cases, they seem to require additional factors to help initiate the disease process. Bovine herpes virus 1 has been shown experimentally to be one such factor. This review examines in some detail the topics of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, shipping fever, and viral-bacterial interactions in the production of respiratory disease in various species. It deals with history, definitions, etiologies, clinical signs and lesions, and considers exposure levels, transmission and various pathogenetic mechanisms that are postulated or known to occur. PMID:6290011

  17. Etiologic and immunologic characteristics of thoroughbred horses with bacterial infectious upper respiratory disease at the Seoul Race Park.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seung-Ho; Koo, Hye Cheong; Park, Young Kyung; Kim, Jun Man; Jung, Woo Kyung; Davis, William C; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2009-09-01

    Equine respiratory disease is a common cause of poor performance and training interruptions. The higher incidence rate of infectious upper respiratory disease (IURD) in thoroughbred racehorses at the Seoul Race Park coincided with the frequent stabling season, shorter stabling periods, and younger ages in this study. Incidence rates were also correlated with significantly lower proportions of cells expressing MHC class II-, CD2 antigen-, CD4+- or CD8+-T lymphocyte-, and B lymphocyte in IURD patients compared with healthy control groups in the summer and fall and in 2-and-3-year-old groups. The data suggested that movement and new environments may have resulted in immunosuppression and inappropriate responses to respiratory pathogens in IURD patients. The IURD incidence decreased with age, perhaps by the acquisition of immunity, and study results suggested that immunologic protection was associated with IURD, particularly in young thoroughbred racehorses. Streptococci isolates were identified in 11 of 72 IURD horses, and 3 of these isolates were identified as Streptococcus. equi subsp. equi. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from 2 of 23 IURD horses in the spring (8.7%), 5 of 23 in the summer (21.7%), and 1 of 6 in winter (16.7%). S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus (5%) was also identified in 3 of 61 isolates from clinically normal horses. Racetracks should implement anti-IURD protective measures by assessing the capacity of equine immunologic protection at the Park and by limiting the introduction of specific respiratory pathogens (such as S. equi subsp. equi) by preventing the access of infected horses with a respiratory pathogen-free certification system prior to Park entry. PMID:19809264

  18. The role of host genetic factors in respiratory tract infectious diseases: systematic review, meta-analyses and field synopsis

    PubMed Central

    Patarčić, Inga; Gelemanović, Andrea; Kirin, Mirna; Kolčić, Ivana; Theodoratou, Evropi; Baillie, Kenneth J.; de Jong, Menno D.; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Polašek, Ozren

    2015-01-01

    Host genetic factors have frequently been implicated in respiratory infectious diseases, often with inconsistent results in replication studies. We identified 386 studies from the total of 24,823 studies identified in a systematic search of four bibliographic databases. We performed meta-analyses of studies on tuberculosis, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, SARS-Coronavirus and pneumonia. One single-nucleotide polymorphism from IL4 gene was significant for pooled respiratory infections (rs2070874; 1.66 [1.29–2.14]). We also detected an association of TLR2 gene with tuberculosis (rs5743708; 3.19 [2.03–5.02]). Subset analyses identified CCL2 as an additional risk factor for tuberculosis (rs1024611; OR = 0.79 [0.72–0.88]). The IL4-TLR2-CCL2 axis could be a highly interesting target for translation towards clinical use. However, this conclusion is based on low credibility of evidence - almost 95% of all identified studies had strong risk of bias or confounding. Future studies must build upon larger-scale collaborations, but also strictly adhere to the highest evidence-based principles in study design, in order to reduce research waste and provide clinically translatable evidence. PMID:26524966

  19. Interventions to Mitigate Emergency Department and Hospital Crowding During an Infectious Respiratory Disease Outbreak: Results from an Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Morton, Melinda; Beard, Raphaelle; Pines, Jesse M.; Bayram, Jamil D.; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Kelen, Gabor; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Jeng, Kevin; Cole, Gai; Rothman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify and prioritize potential Emergency Department (ED) and hospital-based interventions which could mitigate the impact of crowding during patient surge from a widespread infectious respiratory disease outbreak and determine potential data sources that may be useful for triggering decisions to implement these high priority interventions. Design: Expert panel utilizing Nominal Group Technique to identify and prioritize interventions, and in addition, determine appropriate “triggers” for implementation of the high priority interventions in the context of four different infectious respiratory disease scenarios that vary by patient volumes (high versus low) and illness severity (high versus low). Setting: One day in-person conference held November, 2011. Participants: Regional and national experts representing the fields of public health, disease surveillance, clinical medicine, ED operations, and hospital operations. Main Outcome Measure: Prioritized list of potential interventions to reduce ED and hospital crowding, respectively. In addition, we created a prioritized list of potential data sources which could be useful to trigger interventions. Results: High priority interventions to mitigate ED surge included standardizing admission and discharge criteria and instituting infection control measures. To mitigate hospital crowding, panelists prioritized mandatory vaccination and an algorithm for antiviral use. Data sources identified for triggering implementation of these interventions were most commonly ED and hospital utilization metrics. Conclusions: We developed a prioritized list of potentially useful interventions to mitigate ED and hospital crowding in various outbreak scenarios. The data sources identified to “trigger” the implementation of these high priority interventions consist mainly of sources available at the local, institutional level. PMID:23856917

  20. Progress in pediatrics in 2013: choices in allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Dascola, Carlotta Povesi; Mirra, Virginia; Sperli, Francesco; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This review will provide new information related to pathophysiology and management of specific diseases that have been addressed by selected articles published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2013, focusing on allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses in children. Recommendations for interpretation of skin prick test to foods in atopic eczema, management of allergic conjunctivitis, hypertension and breastfeeding in women treated with antiepileptic drugs and healthy breakfast have been reported. Epidemiological studies have given emphasis to high incidence of autoimmune disorders in patients with Turner syndrome, increasing prevalence of celiac disease, frequency of hypertension in adolescents, incidence and risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity. Advances in prevention include elucidation of the role of probiotics in reducing occurrence of allergies and feeding intolerance, and events of foetal life that influence later onset of diseases. Mechanistic studies suggested a role for vitamin D deficiency in asthma and type 1 diabetes and for reactivation of Varicella-Zoster virus in aseptic meningitis. Regarding diagnosis, a new mean for the diagnosis of hyperbilirubinaemia in newborns, a score for recognition of impaired nutritional status and growth and criteria for early Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome have been suggested. New therapeutic approaches consist of use of etanercept for reducing insulin dose in type 1 diabetes, probiotics in atopic eczema, and melatonin in viral infections. PMID:25015124

  1. Progress in Pediatrics in 2012: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we summarize the progresses in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses that have been published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2012. The induction of Treg activity by probiotics might be effective for promoting tolerance towards food allergens. Nasal cytology is useful in patients with rhinitis for diagnosing chronic non-allergic non-infectious diseases. Atopic eczema is associated both with an aberrant skin matrix and impaired systemic immune response. Therefore, isolated topical treatment may have suboptimal effect. Diagnostic work-up of exercise-induced anaphylaxis, including exercise challenge test, is necessary to reach a diagnosis. Studies may support a role for nutrition on prevention of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Clinicians need to early identify adolescent menstrual abnormalities to minimize sequelae, and to promote health information. In Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B investigations include acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa followed by the molecular analysis of RET mutation. Low adherence to gluten-free diet and osteopenia are common problems in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 and celiac disease. In infantile colic, laboratory tests are usually unnecessary and the treatment is based on reassurance. Prevalence of obesity and stunting is elucidated by several studies. Evidences are growing that dietetic measures are needed to prevent obesity in children with acute leukemia. Treatment studies for infectious diseases show promise for probiotics along with standard triple therapy in children with Helicobacter pilori infection, while zinc has no effect on pneumonia. Educational programs about the proper management of the febrile child are warranted. A new hour-specific total serum bilirubin nomogram has been shown to be able to predict newborns without hyperbilirubinemia after 48 to 72 hours of life. Newborns with

  2. [Infectious diseases (beside AIDS)].

    PubMed

    Bellini, C; Senn, L; Zanetti, G

    2008-01-01

    A simplified version of the US guidelines for prophylaxis of infectious endocarditis was published in 2007. Changes are expected in Switzerland as well. Posaconsole is a new antifungal agent available mostly for prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections warrants screening in young adults and after one episode. A meta-analysis clarified the impact of antibiotic therapy in patients with Campylobacter spp. infection. In the field of emerging diseases, we discuss Norovirus epidemics, community-acquired bacteria producing extended-spectrum betalactamases, extensively resistant tuberculosis, and new respiratory viruses. Finally, we address a basic research topic that may change practice in the future: the relationship between individual susceptibility to infection and innate immunity. PMID:18251213

  3. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Overview of Infectious Diseases Page Content Article Body I nfectious diseases are ... worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy ...

  4. [Clinical and therapeutic management of respiratory tract infections. Consensus document of the Andalusian Infectious Diseases Society and the Andalusian Family and Community Medicine Society].

    PubMed

    Cordero Matía, Elisa; de Dios Alcántara Bellón, Juan; Caballero Granado, Javier; de la Torre Lima, Javier; Girón González, José Antonio; Lama Herrera, Carmen; Morán Rodríguez, Ana; Zapata López, Angel

    2007-04-01

    Respiratory tract infections are frequent and they are one of the commonest causes of antibiotic prescription. However, there are few clinical guidelines that consider this group of infections. This document has been written by the Andalusian Infectious Diseases Society and the Andalusian Family and Community Medicine Society. The primary objective has been to define the recommendations for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of respiratory tract infections apart from pneumonia. The clinical syndromes evaluated have been: a) pharyngitis; b) sinusitis; c) acute otitis media and otitis externa; d) acute bronchitis, laryngitis, epiglottitis; e) acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis; and f) respiratory infectious in patients with bronchiectasis. This document has focused on immunocompetent patients. PMID:17386221

  5. [Infectious diseases research].

    PubMed

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467

  6. 78 FR 69683 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and...- based efforts to prevent infectious diseases, and 3) immunization changes at the state level....

  7. [Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibacterial agents (2011)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro

    2015-04-01

    From October 2011 to September 2012, we collected the specimen from 316 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 16 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. All of 357 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 51, Streptococcus pneumoniae 73, Haemophilus influenzae 88, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 34, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 9, Klebsiella pneumoniae 21, and Moraxella catarrhalis 33. Of 51 S. aureus strains, those with 2 μg/mL or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 μg/mL or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 31 (60.8%) and 20 (39.2%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all strains at 0.063 μg/mL or less. Against MRSA, vancomycin showed the potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 1 μg/mL. Linezolid also showed the great activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 μg/mL. Carbapenems and penems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.125 μg/mL. Imipenem and faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.5 and 1 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: > 128 μg/mL) for erythromycin (53.4%) and clindamycin (3 5.6%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 μg/mL or less. Ciprofloxacin showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 μg/mL or less. Against the non-mucoid type of P. aeruginosa, tobramycin had the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 2

  8. [Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibacterial agents (2009)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Kumagai, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    From October 2009 to September 2010, we collected the specimen from 432 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 16 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. All of 479 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 90, Streptococcus pneumoniae 74, Haemophilus influenzae 82, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 60, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 31, Klebsiella pneumoniae 41, and Moraxella catarrhalis 34. Of 90 S. aureus strains, those with 2 μg/mL or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 μg/mL or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 43 (47.8%) and 47 (52.2%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all strains at 0.063 μg/mL or less. Against MRSA, vancomycin and arbekacin showed the potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 and 4 μg/mL, respectively. Linezolid also showed the great activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 μg/mL. Carbapenems and penems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.125 μg/mL. Imipenem and faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.25 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: > 128 μg/mL) for erythromycin (51.4%) and clindamycin (35.1%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 μg/mL or less. Meropenem showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and its MIC90 was 1 μg/mL. Against the non-mucoid type of P. aeruginosa, tobramycin had the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 2

  9. [Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibacterial agents (2010)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro

    2015-04-01

    From October 2010 to September 2011, we collected the specimen from 361 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 16 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. All of 399 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 70, Streptococcus pneumoniae 65, Haemophilus influenzae 72, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 47, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 14, Klebsiella pneumoniae 30, and Moraxella catarrhalis 39. Of 70 S. aureus strains, those with 2 μg/mL or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 μg/mL or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 45 (64.3%) and 25 (35.7%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all strains at 0.063 μg/mL or less. Against MRSA, vancomycin and arbekacin showed the potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 μg/mL. Linezolid also showed the great activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 μg/mL. Carbapenems and penems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.125 μg/mL. Imipenem and faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.5 and 1 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: > 128 μg/mL) for erythromycin (44.6%) and clindamycin (24.6%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 μg/mL or less. Meropenem showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and its MIC90 was 0.5 μg/mL. Against the non-mucoid type of P. aeruginosa, tobramycin had the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 2 μg/mL. Against K

  10. [Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibiotics (2006)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Takeda, Hideki; Kawai, Shin; Suwabe, Akira; Watanabe, Suguru; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Ashino, Yugo; Shimada, Kaoru; Aoki, Nobuki; Sato, Tetsuo; Honma, Yasuo; Mori, Takeshi; Kudo, Kouichiro; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kondo, Shigemi; Tanaka, Tsukasa; Kido, Kenji; Yoshimura, Kunihiko; Oguri, Toyoko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nakamori, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Kohei; Sumitomo, Midori; Endo, Shigeatsu; Nakadate, Toshihide; Oka, Mikio; Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Saita, Naoki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kondou, Akira; Matsuda, Junichi; Nakano, Michiko; Kohno, Shigeru; Oikawa, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    From October 2006 to September 2007, we collected the specimen from 356 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 14 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. Of 414 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, 407 strains were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 64, Streptococcus pneumoniae 96, Haemophilus influenzae 87, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 52, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 11, Klebsiella pneumoniae 20, and Moraxella catarrhalis 44. Of 64 S. aureus strains, those with 2 microg/ml or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 microg/ml or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 27 (42.2%) and 37 (57.8%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all strains at 0.063 microg/ml or less. Against MRSA, vancomycin and linezolid showed the most potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 1 microg/ml. Carbapenems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and in particular, panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.063 microg/ml or less. Imipenem and faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: over 128 microg/ml) for erythromycin (45.8%) and clindamycin (20.8%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 microg/ml or less. Meropenem showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and its MIC90 was 0.5 microg/ml. Against P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid), tobramycin had the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 2 microg/ml. Against K. pneumoniae, cefozopran was the most potent activity

  11. [Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibacterial agents (2008)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro

    2015-02-01

    From October 2008 to September 2009, we collected the specimen from 374 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 15 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. Of 423 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, 421 strains were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 78, Streptococcus pneumoniae 78, Haemophilus influenzae 89, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 61, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 19, Klebsiella pneumoniae 28, and Moraxella catarrhalis 32. Of 78 S. aureus strains, those with 2 μg/mL or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 μg/mL or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 34 (43.6%) and 44 (56.4%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all strains at 0.063 μg/mL or less. Against MRSA vancomycin and arbekacin showed the potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 1 and 2 μg/mL, respectively. Linezolid also showed the great activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 1 μg/mL. Carbapenems and penems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.125 μg/mL. Imipenem and faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.25 and 1 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: > 128 μg/mL) for erythromycin (43.6%) and clindamycin (19.2%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 μg/mL or less. Tobramycin showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and its MIC90 was 2 μg/mL. Against the non-mucoid type of P. aeruginosa, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin had the most potent activity

  12. [Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibacterial agents (2007)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro

    2015-02-01

    From October 2007 to September 2008, we collected the specimen from 362 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 14 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. Of 413 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, 412 strains were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 65, Streptococcus pneumoniae 90, Haemophilus influenzae 88, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 53, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 13, Klebsiella pneumoniae 19, and Moraxella catarrhalis 41. Of 65 S. aureus strains, those with 2 μg/mL or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 μg/mL or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 38 (58.5%) and 27 (41.5%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all strains at 0.063 μg/mL or less. Against MRSA, vancomycin and arbekacin showed the most potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 μg/mL. Linezolid also showed the same activity as them. Carbapenems and penems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and in particular, panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.063 μg/mL or less. Imipenem and faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.25 and 1 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: over 128 μg/mL) for erythromycin (38.2%) and clindamycin (18.0%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 μg/mL or less. Meropenem showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and its MIC90 was 0.5 μg/mL. Against P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid), tobramycin had the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 2 μg/mL. Against K. pneumoniae, cefozopran had

  13. [Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibiotics (2005)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Takeda, Hideki; Kawai, Shin; Watanabe, Suguru; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Shimada, Kaoru; Nakano, Kunio; Yokouchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Takeshi; Igari, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Kudo, Kolichiro; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Tsukasa; Yoshimura, Kunihiko; Kawabata, Masaaki; Nakamori, Yoshitaka; Sumitomo, Midori; Inoue, Hiroshi; Nakadate, Toshihide; Suwabe, Akira; Ashino, Yugo; Aoki, Nobuki; Honma, Yasuo; Suzuki, Yasutoshi; Karasawa, Yasuo; Oka, Mikio; Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Shigeru; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kondou, Akira; Matsuda, Junichi; Nakano, Michiko; Oikawa, Satoru

    2008-08-01

    From October 2005 to September 2006, we collected the specimen from 366 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 12 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. Of 411 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, 406 strains were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 70, Streptococcus pneumoniae 85, Haemophilus influenzae 78, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 46, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 14, Klebsiella pneumoniae 21, and Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis 40. Of 70 S. aureus strains, those with 2 microg/ml or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 microg/ml or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 38 (54.3%) and 32 (45.7%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of 37 strains (97.4%) at 0.063 microg/ml or less. Against MRSA, arbekacin and vancomycin showed the most potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 1 microg/ml. Carbapenems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and in particular, panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.063 microg/ml or less. Faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.25 microg/ml. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: over 128 microg/ml) for erythromycin (38.1%) and clindamycin (22.6%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 microg/ml or less. Meropenem showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and its MIC90 was 0.5 microg/ml. Against P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid), arbekacin had the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 8 microg/ml. Against K. pneumoniae, cefozopran was the most potent activity and

  14. Fight against infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Soda, K; Kamakura, M; Kitamura, K

    1996-08-01

    During early Meiji era in Japan, there were frequent epidemics of fatal acute communicable diseases such as cholera, dysentery and smallpox, and preventive measures and preparations for acute infectious diseases were urgently needed. Together with improvement of scientific preparations, the Communicable Disease Prevention Law was promulgated in 1897. Then gradually until 1940's, the focus of preventive measures have been shifted from acute infectious diseases to chronic ones, particularly tuberculosis. After the World War II, except the short period of social confusion, major legally-defined communicable diseases had been decreasing rapidly mainly due to the use of antibiotics and improvement of environmental sanitation. At the same time, the introduction of preventive vaccination marked a new era for the prevention of infectious diseases and was largely responsible for the remarkable decrease of infant mortality in Japan. Recently the concept of defense by vaccination against infectious diseases has evolved from group-oriented to individual-oriented, so that the Preventive Vaccination Law was drastically revised in 1994. Currently, effective counter-measures against newly emerged infectious diseases, as viral hepatitis, institution-acquired infection, viral hemorrhagic fever etc., have been implemented. For the future, improvement of infections disease surveillance, vaccine development and expansion of vaccination coverage along with monitoring side-effects, preventive health education on AIDS/STDs, addressing the special needs of foreigners living in Japan and international collaboration for disease control abroad are all vital to the success of protection of the public's health from infectious diseases in Japan. PMID:8800275

  15. FastStats: Infectious Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Infectious Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Health, United States trend tables with data on infectious disease Seroprevalence of six infectious diseases among adults in ...

  16. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude

  17. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... MIDAS models require a breadth of knowledge, the network draws together an interdisciplinary team of researchers with expertise in epidemiology, infectious diseases, computational biology, statistics, social sciences, physics, computer sciences and informatics. In 2006, MIDAS modelers simulated ...

  18. Infectious diseases epidemic threats and mass gatherings: refocusing global attention on the continuing spread of the Middle East Respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Cotten, Matthew; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-01-01

    Media and World Health Organization (WHO) attention on Zika virus transmission at the 2016 Rio Olympic Games and the 2015 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa diverted the attention of global public health authorities from other lethal infectious diseases with epidemic potential. Mass gatherings such as the annual Hajj pilgrimage hosted by Kingdom of Saudi Arabia attract huge crowds from all continents, creating high-risk conditions for the rapid global spread of infectious diseases. The highly lethal Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) remains in the WHO list of top emerging diseases likely to cause major epidemics. The 2015 MERS-CoV outbreak in South Korea, in which 184 MERS cases including 33 deaths occurred in 2 months, that was imported from the Middle East by a South Korean businessman was a wake-up call for the global community to refocus attention on MERS-CoV and other emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases with epidemic potential. The international donor community and Middle Eastern countries should make available resources for, and make a serious commitment to, taking forward a "One Health" global network for proactive surveillance, rapid detection, and prevention of MERS-CoV and other epidemic infectious diseases threats. PMID:27604081

  19. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  20. Controlling Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

  1. Advances in pediatrics in 2014: current practices and challenges in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Cesari, Silvia; Sciorio, Elisa; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in the conduct of pediatric practice have been reported in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2014. This review highlights developments in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses. Investigations endorse a need to better educate guardians and improve nutritional management in food allergy. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates and of bronchiolitis have been improved by position statements of scientific societies. Novel treatments for infant colic and inflammatory bowel diseases have emerged. Studies suggest the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia. Progress in infectious diseases should include the universal varicella vaccination of children. Recommendations on asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome have been highlighted in neonatology. Studies have evidenced that malnutrition remains a common underestimated problem in developing countries, while exposure to cancer risk factors in children is not negligible in Western countries. Advances in our understanding of less common diseases such as cystic fibrosis, plastic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis facilitate diagnosis and management. Researches have led to new therapeutic approaches in patent ductus arteriosus and pediatric malignancies. PMID:26518317

  2. Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases NIAID conducts and supports basic research to better ... diagnose, treat, and prevent a wide range of infectious diseases, whether those diseases emerge naturally or are deliberately ...

  3. Eosinophilia in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Elise M.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    In determining the etiology of eosinophilia, it is necessary to consider the type of patient, including previous travel and exposure history, comorbidities, and symptoms. In this review, we discuss the approach to the patient with eosinophilia from an infectious diseases perspective based on symptom complexes. PMID:26209897

  4. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J.

    2014-02-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

  5. [Notable imported infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Kenji

    2011-03-01

    Japanese doctors are somewhat unfamiliar with imported infectious diseases, however, the following imported infectious diseases are notable: cholera, which is currently endemic in Haiti and which there is a possibility of it being imported to Japan from endemic areas; typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, whose causative organisms showing low sensitivity to fluoroquinolones have become predominant; rabies, which exhibits a high mortality; avian influenza H5N1, which has the possibility of changing into a new type of human influenza; chikungunya fever, in which the number of Japanese patients is increasing; and cyclosporiasis, which led to a number of food poisonings in the USA and Canada, and as a growing number of Japanese travel abroad, the number of infected Japanese patients returning from endemic areas will increase. It is thus important to identify the presence of these diseases on diagnosis. PMID:21560415

  6. Immunoserology of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    James, K

    1990-01-01

    The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated. PMID:2187592

  7. Bedbugs and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance. PMID:21288844

  8. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  9. Respiratory disease and cardiovascular morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Koskela, R; Mutanen, P; Sorsa, J; Klockars, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Work related dust exposure is a risk factor for acute and chronic respiratory irritation and inflammation. Exposure to dust and cigarette smoke predisposes to exogenous viral and bacterial infections of the respiratory tract. Respiratory infection can also act as a risk factor in the development of atherosclerotic and coronary artery disease. Aims: To investigate the association of dust exposure and respiratory diseases with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Methods: The study comprised 6022 dust exposed (granite, foundry, cotton mill, iron foundry, metal product, and electrical) workers hired in 1940–76 and followed until the end of 1992. National mortality and morbidity registers and questionnaires were used. The statistical methods were person-year analysis and Cox regression. Results: Co-morbidity from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases ranged from 17% to 35%. In at least 60% of the co-morbidity cases a respiratory disease preceded a cardiovascular disease. Chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, and upper respiratory track infections predicted IHD in granite workers (rate ratio (RR) = 1.9; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.72), foundry workers (2.1; 1.48 to 2.93), and iron foundry workers (1.7; 1.16 to 2.35). Dust exposure was not a significant predictor of IHD or other CVD in any group. Dust exposure was related to respiratory morbidity. Thus, some respiratory diseases appeared to act as intermediate variables in the association of dust exposure with IHD. Conclusion: Dust exposure had only a small direct effect on IHD and other CVD. IHD morbidity was associated with preceding respiratory morbidity. A chronic infectious respiratory tract disease appeared to play an independent role in the development of IHD. PMID:16109822

  10. Radioimmunotherapy of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The need for novel approaches to treat infectious diseases is obvious and urgent. This situation has renewed interest in using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapy of infectious diseases. During the last 5 years radioimmunotherapy (RIT), a modality developed for cancer treatment, has been successfully adapted for the treatment of experimental fungal (C. neoformans and H. capsulatum), bacterial (S. pneumoniae and B. anthracis) and viral (HIV-1) infections. RIT produced none or only transient hematological toxicity in experimental animals. Investigation of radiobiological mechanisms of RIT of infections showed that microbial cells are killed by both "direct hit" and "cross-fire" radiation. MAbs radiolabeled with either alpha- or beta-emitters stimulated apoptosis-like cell death, while only mAbs radiolabeled with alpha-emitter 213Bi also decreased the metabolic activity of microbial cells. The success of this approach in laboratory studies combined with earlier nuclear medicine experience on pre-clinical and clinical studies utilizing radiolabeled organism-specific antibodies for imaging of infections provides encouragement for feasibility of therapeutically targeting microbes with labeled antibodies. We envision that first the organism-specific mAbs will be radiolabeled with imaging radionuclides such as 99mTc or 111In to localize the sites of infection with SPECT followed by RIT with 188Re- or 90Y-labeled mAb, respectively. Also, immunoPET might be utilized for imaging of infection before treatment if such positron-emitting radionuclides as 86Y (matching pair for 90Y) or 124I (matching pair for 131I) are available. It might be possible to create a so-called “pan-antibody” which would recognize an antigen shared by a particular class of human pathogens such as fungi, for example. The availability of such antibodies would eliminate the necessity of having antibodies specific for each particular microorganism and would enormously enhance the development of RIT

  11. Wetlands and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, R H

    2001-01-01

    There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed. PMID:11426273

  12. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  13. BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

  14. Global mapping of infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I.; Battle, Katherine E.; Pigott, David M.; Smith, David L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S.; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Gething, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer ‘cognitive surplus’ through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

  15. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  16. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  17. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

  18. Infectious diseases and impaired consciousness.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael R; Roos, Karen L

    2011-11-01

    Any of a number of neuroinfectious diseases can cause a disorder of consciousness. The priority in the care of the patient is to identify an infectious disease that is treatable. This article examines disorders of consciousness that may be caused by a septic encephalopathy, bacterial meningoencephalitis, viral encephalitis, tick-borne bacterial disease, fungal meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, a focal infectious mass lesion, such as a brain abscess, or an autoimmune-mediated disorder as a complication of infection. PMID:22032667

  19. 76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ...OSHA invites interested parties to participate in informal stakeholder meetings concerning occupational exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information gathered at these meetings to explore the possible development of a proposed rule to protect workers from occupational exposure to infectious agents in settings, either where workers provide direct patient care or where......

  20. [Activity of tigecycline against pathogen bacteria isolated in respiratory infectious disease in Europe. TEST study 2004-2007].

    PubMed

    Rio, Y; Okamba, P; Staal, A; Didion, J; Jurin, F

    2009-02-01

    Tigecycline (TGC), a semisynthetic glycylcycline, has a documented activity on Gram+ and Gram- pathogens including oxacillin-resistant (MRSA) and an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) is an international surveillance study designed to assess the in vitro activity of TGC and 11 comparators against a range of important clinical pathogens from both the community and the hospital. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy of TGC, using this database, against pathogens implicated in community or hospital pneumonia and sinusitis. A total of 4163 isolates were consecutively collected in 21 European countries during three years (2004-2007). In all center, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determinated with the same Microscan panel (Dade-Behring). Tigecycline exhibited a good activity against respiratory pathogens, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hundred percent of cocci Gram+ (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus sp.) and 100% of Haemophilus sp. are inhibited with 0.5 mg/L, without effect of an associated beta-lactam resistance mechanism. TGC is active in vitro on 89% of Enterobacteriaceae, with MIC 90 less or equal to 2mg/L. Eighty-nine percent of Enterobacter sp. and 77% of Serratia sp. are susceptible with range of MIC 90 from 2 to 4 mg/L. These interesting results obtained in vitro are to be strengthened by clinical studies. PMID:18829182

  1. Infectious Diseases at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Basnyat, Buddha; Starling, Jennifer M

    2015-08-01

    Travel to elevations above 2,500 m is an increasingly common activity undertaken by a diverse population of individuals. These may be trekkers, climbers, miners in high-altitude sites in South America, and more recently, soldiers deployed for high-altitude duty in remote areas of the world. What is also being increasingly recognized is the plight of the millions of pilgrims, many with comorbidities, who annually ascend to high-altitude sacred areas. There are also 400 million people who reside permanently in high mountain ranges, which cover one-fifth of the Earth's surface. Many of these high-altitude areas are in developing countries, for example, the Himalayan range in South Asia. Although high-altitude areas may not harbor any specific infectious disease agents, it is important to know about the pathogens encountered in the mountains to be better able to help both the ill sojourner and the native high-altitude dweller. Often the same pathogens prevalent in the surrounding lowlands are found at high altitude, but various factors such as immunomodulation, hypoxia, poor physiological adaptation, and harsh environmental stressors at high altitude may enhance susceptibility to these pathogens. Against this background, various gastrointestinal, respiratory, dermatological, neurological, and other infections encountered at high altitude are discussed. PMID:26350326

  2. Recombinant bivalent vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis and Newcastle disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The current commercial ILT vaccines are either not safe or less effective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more...

  3. Infectious disease, endangerment, and extinction.

    PubMed

    Macphee, Ross D E; Greenwood, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

  4. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    PubMed Central

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

  5. Human migration and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Soto, S M

    2009-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are defined as diseases that have appeared recently or that have recently increased in their frequency, geographical distribution or both. Commercial globalisation, population movements and environmental changes are the main factors favouring the international spread of microorganisms. Transport and communication development constitutes also a remarkable factor in the worldwide dispersion of microorganisms. The mass movement of large numbers of people creates new opportunities for the spread and establishment of common or novel infectious diseases. A surveillance system to detect emergent and re-emergent infections, a rapid responsiveness of healthcare systems and laboratories, vector control, and the provision of healthcare education programmes to inform the population of how to avoid infections are needed in order to stop the spread of infectious diseases. PMID:19220349

  6. Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Warren B.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

  7. Epidemics of infectious diseases in newborn nurseries.

    PubMed

    Smith, D H

    1979-06-01

    The newborn nursery is a frequent site of epidemics of infectious disease. The unique susceptibility of neonates to colonization, their intimate exposure to hospital personnel, and their frquent contact with possibly contaminated inanimate objects are major factors contributing to the risk of nursery epidemics. Most of the epidemics described have been caused by bacteria; the role of viruses in nosocomial infections is not well defined but is undoubtedly greater than presently appreciated. All bacteria implicated in nursery epidemics have the capacity to survive or even multiply in the environment or on human skin or to cause gastrointestinal disease. Analysis of the etiologic bacteria, the epidemiology of outbreaks studied, and extensive clinical research indicate that bacterial transmission in this setting occurs primarily by manual contact and very infrequently by the respiratory route. The cornerstone of a program to prevent infectious diseases in the nursery consists of active, disease-oriented surveillance by specially trained personnel; microbiologic surveillance is important only when specifically indicated. Practical technical considerations for prevention of infectious diseases in nurseries are available. Programs to eradicate an ongoing epidemic must be individualized. PMID:380862

  8. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  9. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    ScienceCinema

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2014-06-25

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  10. Facts about Infectious Diseases (ID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and influenza. Travelers to foreign countries may require vaccinations against yellow fever, cholera, typhoid fever or hepatitis ... 1300 Wilson Boulevard Suite 300 Arlington, VA 22209 | Phone: (703) 299-0200 | Fax: (703) 299-0204 For ... | HIVMA | Contact Us © Copyright IDSA 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America Full Site Mobile Site

  11. Emerging infectious plant diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Healthy plants are essential to the survival of humans and animals on earth. Despite the value of plants, however, threats to plant health are generally considered secondary in importance to those of humans and animals. Although the most extensively studied pathogens are those causing disease on s...

  12. Respiratory Diseases of Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...

  13. [Infectious agents and autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Riebeling-Navarro, C; Madrid-Marina, V; Camarena-Medellín, B E; Peralta-Zaragoza, O; Barrera, R

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the molecular aspects of the relationships between infectious agents and autoimmune diseases, the mechanisms of immune response to infectious agents, and the more recent hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases are discussed. The antigens are processed and selected by their immunogenicity, and presented by HLA molecules to the T cell receptor. These events initiate the immune response with the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Although there are several hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases and too many findings against and in favor of them, there is still no conclusive data. All these hypothesis and findings are discussed in the context of the more recent advances. PMID:1615352

  14. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Research Introduction and Goals Despite remarkable advances ... medical research and treatments during the 20th century, infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of death worldwide. ...

  15. Association between Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Type of Infectious Respiratory Disease and All-Cause In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with HIV/AIDS: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Villafuerte-García, Adriana; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Delgado-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; Mongua-Rodríguez, Norma; Montero-Campos, Rogelio; Melchor-Romero, Ada; García-García, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory manifestations of HIV disease differ globally due to differences in current availability of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) programs and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Objective To describe the association between HAART and discharge diagnosis and all-cause in-hospital mortality among hospitalized patients with infectious respiratory disease and HIV/AIDS. Material and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients hospitalized at a specialty hospital for respiratory diseases in Mexico City between January 1st, 2010 and December 31st, 2011. We included patients whose discharge diagnosis included HIV or AIDS and at least one infectious respiratory diagnosis. The information source was the clinical chart. We analyzed the association between HAART for 180 days or more and type of respiratory disease using polytomous logistic regression and all-cause hospital mortality by multiple logistic regressions. Results We studied 308 patients, of whom 206 (66.9%) had been diagnosed with HIV infection before admission to the hospital. The CD4+ lymphocyte median count was 68 cells/mm3 [interquartile range (IQR): 30–150]. Seventy-five (24.4%) cases had received HAART for more than 180 days. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) (n = 142), tuberculosis (n = 63), and bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (n = 60) were the most frequent discharge diagnoses. Receiving HAART for more than 180 days was associated with a lower probability of PJP [Adjusted odd ratio (aOR): 0.245, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.08–0.8, p = 0.02], adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical covariates. HAART was independently associated with reduced odds (aOR 0.214, 95% CI 0.06–0.75) of all-cause in-hospital mortality, adjusting for HIV diagnosis previous to hospitalization, age, access to social security, low socioeconomic level, CD4 cell count, viral load, and discharge diagnoses. Conclusions HAART for 180 days or more was associated

  16. History and Practice: Antibodies in Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hey, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Antibodies and passive antibody therapy in the treatment of infectious diseases is the story of a treatment concept which dates back more than 120 years, to the 1890s, when the use of serum from immunized animals provided the first effective treatment options against infections with Clostridium tetani and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. However, after the discovery of penicillin by Fleming in 1928, and the subsequent introduction of the much cheaper and safer antibiotics in the 1930s, serum therapy was largely abandoned. However, the broad and general use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine has resulted in the development of multi-resistant strains of bacteria with limited to no response to existing treatments and the need for alternative treatment options. The combined specificity and flexibility of antibody-based treatments makes them very valuable tools for designing specific antibody treatments to infectious agents. These attributes have already caused a revolution in new antibody-based treatments in oncology and inflammatory diseases, with many approved products. However, only one monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, for the prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus, is approved for infectious diseases. The high cost of monoclonal antibody therapies, the need for parallel development of diagnostics, and the relatively small markets are major barriers for their development in the presence of cheap antibiotics. It is time to take a new and revised look into the future to find appropriate niches in infectious diseases where new antibody-based treatments or combinations with existing antibiotics, could prove their value and serve as stepping stones for broader acceptance of the potential for and value of these treatments. PMID:26104697

  17. Chemoprophylaxis of Tropical Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    McBride, William J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Travelers to tropical countries are at risk for a variety of infectious diseases. In some cases effective vaccinations are available, but for other infections chemoprophylaxis can be offered. Malaria prevention has become increasingly complex as Plasmodium species become resistant to available drugs. In certain high risk settings, antibiotics can be used to prevent leptospirosis, scrub typhus and other infections. Post-exposure prophylaxis is appropriate for selected virulent infections. In this article the evidence for chemoprophylaxis will be reviewed.

  18. Infectious diseases of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Gillam, G L

    1978-11-01

    Despite the advent of antibiotics, infectious diseases remain a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the neonatal period. Infection is the third commonest cause of perinatal mortality after hypoxia and malformations. Neonatal mortality rates from infection are of the order of 1:1000 live births. Although infections are theoretically preventable, there has been no significant change in incidence over the last 30 years. PMID:743019

  19. Emerging infectious diseases in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Ebright, John R; Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

    2003-12-01

    Since 1990, Mongolia's health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcosis, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

  20. [Alzheimer's disease: the infectious hypothesis].

    PubMed

    Roubaud Baudron, Claire; Varon, Christine; Mégraud, Francis; Salles, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Several hypotheses are proposed for understanding the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological mechanisms, mainly the amyloid theory, but the process inducing Aß peptide deposit, tau protein degeneration, and ultimately neuronal loss, is still to be elucidated. Alteration of the blood-brain barrier and activation of neuroinflammation seem to play an important role in AD neurodegeneration, especially in the decrease of Aß peptide clearance, therefore suggesting a role of infectious agents. Epidemiological and experimental studies on cellular or murine models related to herpes simplex virus (HSV), spirochetes, Chlamydia pneumoniae or Borrelia, and systemic inflammation are reviewed. Aß peptide or tau protein could also behave like a prion protein. Infectious agents could thus have an impact on AD by direct interaction with neurotropism or systemic inflammation. Although the results of these studies are not conclusive, they may contribute to the understanding of AD pathology. PMID:26707559

  1. Post-infectious disease syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bannister, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    Many post-infectious syndromes have been recognized in the last 50 years, some following viral infections and others closely related to bacterial disease. The occurrence of prolonged fatigue following an apparent viral illness of varying severity is also well documented. The lack of a recognizable precipitating cause and the tendency for epidemic fatigue to occur among hospital staff led many to believe that the illness may be psychogenic in origin. However, there is serological evidence that some cases may follow enterovirus infections or occasionally delayed convalescence from infectious mononucleosis. Much interesting work is currently in progress relating fatigue to persisting immunological abnormalities, and the development of molecular immunology makes this a most exciting field of research. This paper reviews the evidence for and against a definitive post-viral fatigue syndrome and examines the results of research carried out in the last 50 years. PMID:3074289

  2. Host Genomics in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms by which genetic variants predispose to complications of infectious diseases can lead to important benefits including the development of biomarkers to prioritize vaccination or prophylactic therapy. Family studies, candidate genes in animal models, and the absence of well-defined risks where the complications are rare all can point to genetic predisposition. The most common approach to assessing genetic risk is to conduct an association study, which is a case control study using either a candidate gene approach or a genome wide approach. Although candidate gene variants may focus on potentially causal variants, because other variants across the genome are not tested these studies frequently cannot be replicated. Genome wide association studies need a sizable sample and usually do not identify causal variants but variants which may be in linkage disequilibrium to the actual causal variant. There are many pitfalls that can lead to bias in such studies, including misclassification of cases and controls, use of improper phenotypes, and genotyping errors. These studies have been limited to common genes and rare variants may not be detected. As the use of next generation sequencing becomes more common, it can be anticipated that more variants will be confirmed. The purpose of this review article is to address the issue of genomics in infectious diseases with an emphasis on the host. Although there are a plentitude of studies that focus on the molecular characteristics of pathogens, there are far fewer studies that address the role of human genetics in the predisposition to infection or more commonly its complications. This paper will review both the approaches used to study host genetics in humans and the pitfalls associated with some of these methods. The focus will be on human disease and therefore discussion of the use of animal models will be limited to those where there are genes that have been replicated in humans. The paper will focus on

  3. Respiratory System Disease.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Danielle M; Singh, Shipra

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory system involvement in cystic fibrosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene throughout the sinopulmonary tract result in recurrent infections with a variety of organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Lung disease occurs earlier in life than once thought and ideal methods of monitoring lung function, decline, or improvement with therapy are debated. Treatment of sinopulmonary disease may include physiotherapy, mucus-modifying and antiinflammatory agents, antimicrobials, and surgery. In the new era of personalized medicine, CFTR correctors and potentiators may change the course of disease. PMID:27469180

  4. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Aisling A.; Redwood, Alec J.; Jarvis, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens. PMID:26524478

  5. INFECTIOUS AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR TEACHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABRAMS, IRVING; HAWKINS, BARBARA A.

    DESCRIPTIONS OF TWENTY-FIVE INFECTIOUS AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES INCLUDE CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, EFFECTS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES. IT HAS BEEN DISCOVERED THAT RESPIRATORY AILMENTS OF A COMMUNICABLE NATURE ARE THE MOST COMMON CAUSE OF ABSENTEEISM AMONG STUDENTS. INFORMATION IS INTENDED FOR THE USE OF TEACHERS OF HEALTH EDUCATION OR OTHER…

  6. [Update in Infectious Diseases 2015].

    PubMed

    Candel, Francisco Javier; López González, Laura; García-García, Ana Belén; Chiarella, Flavia; Picazo, Juan José

    2015-09-01

    Infectious disease remains current worldwide. During the second half of 2014 an outbreak of ebolavirus hit West Africa with implications in the rest of the world. In fact, Spain declared the first imported case of this infection. Multiresistant enterobacteria outbreaks are emerging all around the world in a moment on which WHO draws attention to the limited resources, coining the term "post antibiotic era". On the other hand, 2014 went down in history as one in which hepatitis C is cured. Are also current HIV epidemiological control or strategies for antiviral and antifungal prophylaxis in immunocompromised hosts. PMID:26365724

  7. Diseases of the respiratory tract of chelonians.

    PubMed

    Origgi, F C; Jacobson, E R

    2000-05-01

    Diseases of the respiratory tract commonly occur in captive chelonians, and several diseases also have occurred in wild chelonians. Infectious causes include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Herpesviruses have surfaced as important pathogens of the oral cavity and respiratory tract in Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanii), spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca), and other tortoises in Europe and the United States. Herpesvirus-associated respiratory diseases also have been reported in the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, in mariculture in the Cayman Islands. Of diseases caused by bacteria, an upper respiratory tract disease caused by Mycoplasma sp has been reported in free-hanging and captive gopher tortoises in the southeastern United States and in desert tortoises in the Mojave Desert of the southwestern United States. Mycotic pulmonary disease is commonly reported in captive chelonians, especially in those maintained at suboptimal temperatures. An intranuclear coccidia has been seen in several species of captive tortoises in the United States, and, in one case, a severe proliferative pneumonia was associated with organisms in the lung. The most common noninfectious cause of respiratory disease in chelonians results from trauma to the carapace. Although pulmonary fibromas commonly occur in green turtles with fibropapillomatosis, for the most part, tumors of the respiratory tract are uncommon in chelonians. PMID:11228895

  8. Interleukin-12 in infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Bistoni, F

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that is crucially involved in a wide range of infectious diseases. In several experimental models of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infection, endogenous IL-12 is required for early control of infection and for generation and perhaps maintenance of acquired protective immunity, directed by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and mediated by phagocytes. Although the relative roles of IL-12 and gamma interferon in Th1-cell priming may be to a significant extent pathogen dependent, common to most infections is that IL-12 regulates the magnitude of the gamma interferon response at the initiation of infection, thus potentiating natural resistance, favoring Th1-cell development; and inhibiting Th2 responses. Treatment of animals with IL-12, either alone or as a vaccine adjuvant, has been shown to prevent disease by many of the same infectious agents, by stimulating innate resistance or promoting specific reactivity. Although IL-12 may enhance protective memory responses in vaccination or in combination with antimicrobial chemotherapy, it is yet unclear whether exogenous IL-12 can alter established responses in humans. Continued investigation into the possible application of IL-12 therapy to human infections is warranted by the role of the cytokine in inflammation, immunopathology, and autoimmunity. PMID:9336665

  9. [Asbestos and respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Scherpereel, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Previous occupational asbestos exposure (more rarely environmental or domestic exposure) may induce various pleural and/or pulmonary, benign or malignant diseases, sometimes with a very long latency for malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos has been widely extracted and used in Western countries and in emerging or developing countries, resulting in a peak of MM incidence in France around 2020 and likely in a world pandemic of asbestos-induced diseases. These patients have mostly benign respiratory diseases (pleural plugs) but may also be diagnosed with lung cancer or malignant pleural mesothelioma, and have a global poor outcome. New therapeutic tools (targeted therapies, immunotherapy…) with first promising results are developed. However, it is crucial to obtain a full ban of asbestos use worldwide, and to do a regular follow-up of asbestos-exposed subjects, mostly if they are already diagnosed with benign respiratory diseases. Finally, new cancers (larynx and ovary) were recently added to the list of asbestos-induced tumors. PMID:26822071

  10. Infectious and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Tohidi, Mohammad; Sabouri, Amin; Ramezani-Binabaj, Mahdi; Sadeghi-Ghahrodi, Mohsen; Einollahi, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atherosclerotic event is one of the most causes of death in the world. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one manifestation of atherosclerosis. It is well-known that several risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension (HTN), have effects on it. It is proposed that infection can lead to atherosclerosis or even make its process faster. Here, we discuss about the effect of some of infectious agents on the atherosclerosis and CAD. METHODS In this study, first we did a comprehensive search in PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct using some related keywords such as atherosclerosis, CAD, myocardial infarction (MI), infection, and name of viruses and bacteria. After finding the related papers, we reviewed the correlation between some microbial agents and risk of CAD. RESULTS Literature has reported several infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, and parasites) that can be associated with risk of CAD. This association for some of them like Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), Chlamydia pneumonia (C. pneumoniae), and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a very strong. On the other hand, there are some other agents like influenza that still need to be more investigated through original studies. Furthermore, different mechanisms (general and special) have been reported for the association of each agent with CAD. CONCLUSION Based on the studies in databases and our literature review, it is so clear that some microbes and infectious agents can be involved in the process of atherosclerosis. Therefore, controlling each type of infections especially among people with a traditional risk factor for atherosclerosis should be taken into account for reducing the risk of CAD and atherosclerosis. PMID:27114736

  11. [Infectious diseases and population assistance: general issues].

    PubMed

    Russo, G; Riccardo, F; Scaroni, E; Nardi, L; De Rosa, A G; Pacini, A; Pacifici, L E

    2007-01-01

    Actually the infectious diseases are a predominant cause of morbidity and mortality in limited resource countries and, of course, not unimportant in industrialized countries where the social phenomena of immigration and increased internal and international mobility of people may facilitate the reemergence of infectious diseases considered overcome. It is becoming more and more important to consider the actual role of assistance of people for infectious diseases: a careful consideration needing of concretes example for becoming medical practices and social languages appropriates to the local context and useful for promoting more efficacious cares and prevention of infectious diseases. PMID:17598991

  12. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data. PMID:22149618

  13. [Frequent infectious diseases in migrants].

    PubMed

    Stich, A

    2016-05-01

    The current influx of refugees and the high rate of immigration increase the rate and impact of infectious diseases in Europe. Infections can be detected at the initial examination of arriving refugees as a result of systematic screening or within the framework of general medical care. Diagnosis and treatment require special expertise and in some cases special precautions. The spectrum of infections is determined by the country of origin of migrants and the conditions experienced on fleeing to Germany. In this article the diagnostics and treatment of the most important infections are presented. As far as infections are concerned refugees and migrants do not represent a threat to the general population but instead have to be perceived as a highly vulnerable group. PMID:27142435

  14. Ocular manifestations of infectious skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Przytocka, Anna; Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Ocular complications of infectious skin diseases are a common occurrence. Managing the inflamed or infected eye in the emergency setting presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the emergency physician. Infectious agents may affect any part of the eye. Ocular findings may be the first sign of many infectious diseases, such as, for example, gonorrhea or chlamydia infection. Understanding the various forms of ocular involvement in these conditions is important, because untreated ophthalmic involvement can lead to severe vision loss. This review focuses on the significant ocular manifestations of the most common infectious diseases, including bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections, that both ophthalmologists and dermatologists may encounter. PMID:26903179

  15. Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Amber M; Kevlahan, Nicholas K-R; Earn, David J D

    2012-09-01

    Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that each disease is characterized by a unique multifractal signature, which distinguishes that particular disease from the others. The wavelet scaling functions confirm that the time series of measles, rubella and whooping cough are clearly multifractal, while chicken pox has a more monofractal structure in time. The stochastic SEIR epidemic model is unable to reproduce the qualitative singularity structure of the reported incidence data: it is too smooth and does not appear to have a multifractal singularity structure. The precise reasons for the failure of the SEIR epidemic model to reproduce the correct multiscale structure of the reported incidence data remain unclear. PMID:22442094

  16. Addressing the challenges of emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Pinner, R W

    1996-01-01

    Through the recent examples of diphtheria in the former Soviet Union, plague in India, and trends in pneumonia mortality in the United States, the author, in this article, illustrates issues in emerging infectious diseases. The Centers for Disease Control's plan, Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats: A Prevention Strategy for the United States, is summarized. Initial efforts to implement this plan are described, with particular focus on the development of Emerging Infections Programs, which are conducting epidemiologic and laboratory projects on several infectious diseases, including invasive bacterial diseases, unexplained deaths, foodborne diseases, and ehrlichiosis in four population-based sites in the United States. PMID:8571983

  17. Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases…

  18. An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

  19. Global capacity for emerging infectious disease detection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily H; Brewer, Timothy F; Madoff, Lawrence C; Pollack, Marjorie P; Sonricker, Amy L; Keller, Mikaela; Freifeld, Clark C; Blench, Michael; Mawudeku, Abla; Brownstein, John S

    2010-12-14

    The increasing number of emerging infectious disease events that have spread internationally, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1, highlight the need for improvements in global outbreak surveillance. It is expected that the proliferation of Internet-based reports has resulted in greater communication and improved surveillance and reporting frameworks, especially with the revision of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), which went into force in 2007. However, there has been no global quantitative assessment of whether and how outbreak detection and communication processes have actually changed over time. In this study, we analyzed the entire WHO public record of Disease Outbreak News reports from 1996 to 2009 to characterize spatial-temporal trends in the timeliness of outbreak discovery and public communication about the outbreak relative to the estimated outbreak start date. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses show that overall, the timeliness of outbreak discovery improved by 7.3% [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.073, 95% CI (1.038; 1.110)] per year, and public communication improved by 6.2% [HR = 1.062, 95% CI (1.028; 1.096)] per year. However, the degree of improvement varied by geographic region; the only WHO region with statistically significant (α = 0.05) improvement in outbreak discovery was the Western Pacific region [HR = 1.102 per year, 95% CI (1.008; 1.205)], whereas the Eastern Mediterranean [HR = 1.201 per year, 95% CI (1.066; 1.353)] and Western Pacific regions [HR = 1.119 per year, 95% CI (1.025; 1.221)] showed improvement in public communication. These findings provide quantitative historical assessment of timeliness in infectious disease detection and public reporting of outbreaks. PMID:21115835

  20. Imported infectious diseases and surveillance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Yoshida, Makiko; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Tada, Yuki; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2008-11-01

    Surveillance of imported infectious diseases is important because of the need for early detection of outbreaks of international concern as well as information of risk to the travelers. This paper attempts to review how the Japanese surveillance system deals with imported infectious diseases and reviews the trend of these diseases. The cases of acquired infection overseas were extracted from the surveillance data in 1999-2008. The incidence and rate of imported cases of a series of infectious diseases with more than one imported case were observed by the year of diagnosis and place of acquired infection. During the period 10,030 cases that could be considered to be imported infectious diseases were identified. Shigellosis ranked as the most common imported disease, followed by amebiasis, malaria, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, typhoid fever, dengue fever, hepatitis A, giardiasis, cholera, and paratyphoid fever. The annual trends of these diseases always fluctuated but not every change was investigated. The study reveals that the situation of imported infectious diseases can be identified in the current Japanese surveillance system with epidemiologic features of both temporal and geographic distribution of cases of imported infectious diseases. However, further timely investigation for unusual increase in infectious diseases is needed. PMID:18984479

  1. Eradication of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.

  2. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines.

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. PMID:10603206

  3. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kate E; Patel, Nikkita G; Levy, Marc A; Storeygard, Adam; Balk, Deborah; Gittleman, John L; Daszak, Peter

    2008-02-21

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID 'events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940 and 2004, and demonstrate non-random global patterns. EID events have risen significantly over time after controlling for reporting bias, with their peak incidence (in the 1980s) concomitant with the HIV pandemic. EID events are dominated by zoonoses (60.3% of EIDs): the majority of these (71.8%) originate in wildlife (for example, severe acute respiratory virus, Ebola virus), and are increasing significantly over time. We find that 54.3% of EID events are caused by bacteria or rickettsia, reflecting a large number of drug-resistant microbes in our database. Our results confirm that EID origins are significantly correlated with socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, and provide a basis for identifying regions where new EIDs are most likely to originate (emerging disease 'hotspots'). They also reveal a substantial risk of wildlife zoonotic and vector-borne EIDs originating at lower latitudes where reporting effort is low. We conclude that global resources to counter disease emergence are poorly allocated, with the majority of the scientific and surveillance effort focused on countries from where the next important EID is least likely to originate. PMID:18288193

  4. 75 FR 24835 - Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... notice ``Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis; Proposed Rule'' (62 FR 54160-54308; October 17, 1997... seconds) and form what are called droplet nuclei (residue from evaporated droplets). These small particles.... Airborne transmission occurs when infectious droplet nuclei or particles containing infectious agents...

  5. Emerging infectious diseases: vulnerabilities, contributing factors and approaches.

    PubMed

    Lashley, Felissa R

    2004-04-01

    We live in an ever more connected global village linked through international travel, politics, economics, culture and human-human and human-animal interactions. The realization that the concept of globalization includes global exposure to disease-causing agents that were formerly confined to small, remote areas and that infectious disease outbreaks can have political, economic and social roots and effects is becoming more apparent. Novel infectious disease microbes continue to be discovered because they are new or newly recognized, have expanded their geographic range, have been shown to cause a new disease spectrum, have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans, have become resistant to antimicrobial agents, have increased in incidence or have become more virulent. These emerging infectious disease microbes may have the potential for use as agents of bioterrorism. Factors involved in the emergence of infectious diseases are complex and interrelated and involve all classifications of organisms transmitted in a variety of ways. In 2003, outbreaks of interest included severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkeypox and avian influenza. Information from the human genome project applied to microbial organisms and their hosts will provide new opportunities for detection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control and prognosis. New technology related not only to genetics but also to satellite and monitoring systems will play a role in weather, climate and the approach to environmental manipulations that influence factors contributing to infectious disease emergence and control. Approaches to combating emerging infectious diseases include many disciplines, such as animal studies, epidemiology, immunology, ecology, environmental studies, microbiology, pharmacology, other sciences, health, medicine, public health, nursing, cultural, political and social studies, all of which must work together. Appropriate financial support of the public health infrastructure

  6. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world’s population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China’s current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country’s capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future. PMID:26371017

  7. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-09-01

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world's population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China's current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country's capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future. PMID:26371017

  8. [Pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in chronic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Casas Maldonado, F; Alfageme Michavila, I; Barchilón Cohen, V S; Peis Redondo, J I; Vargas Ortega, D A

    2014-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease which has an incidence of 3-8 cases/1,000 inhabitants, and increases with age and comorbidities. The pneumococcus is the organism most frequently involved in community-acquired pneumonia in the adult (30-35%). Around 40% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia require hospital admission, and around 10% need to be admitted to an intensive care unit. The most serious forms of pneumococcal infection include invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which covers cases of bacteremia (associated or not to pneumonia), meningitis, pleuritis, arthritis, primary peritonitis and pericarditis. Currently, the biggest problem with the pneumococcus is the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents, and its high morbimortality, despite the use of appropriate antibiotics and proper medical treatment. Certain underlying medical conditions increase the risk of IPD and its complications, especially, from the respiratory diseases point of view, smoking and chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumococcal disease, according to the WHO, is the first preventable cause of death worldwide in children and adults. Among the strategies to prevent IPD is vaccination. WHO considers that its universal introduction and implementation against pneumococcus is essential and a priority in all countries. There are currently 2 pneumococcal vaccines for adults: the 23 serotypes polysaccharide and conjugate 13 serotypes. The scientific societies represented here have worked to develop some recommendations, based on the current scientific evidence, regarding the pneumococcal vaccination in the immunocompetent adult with chronic respiratory disease and smokers at risk of suffering from IPD. PMID:25107494

  9. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

  10. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the surveillance committee of Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2010: General view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kadota, Junichi; Aoki, Nobuki; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Masaki; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Oguri, Toyoko; Sato, Junko; Ogasawara, Kazuhiko; Wakamura, Tomotaro; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Watanabe, Akira; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Watari, Tomohisa; Toyoshima, Eri; Takeuchi, Kenichi; Shiokoshi, Mayumi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Miki, Makoto; Kumagai, Toshio; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Nishiya, Hajime; Kawakami, Sayoko; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Takasaki, Jin; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Konosaki, Hisami; Aoki, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Shoji, Michi; Goto, Hajime; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Niki, Yoshihito; Yoshida, Koichiro; Kawana, Akihiko; Saionji, Katsu; Fujikura, Yuji; Miyazawa, Naoki; Kudo, Makoto; Sato, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Yoshida, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Tsukada, Hiroki; Imai, Yumiko; Tsukada, Ayami; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Honma, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Toshinobu; Ban, Nobuyoshi; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Sawamura, Haruki; Miyara, Takayuki; Toda, Hirofumi; Sato, Kaori; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Mitsuno, Noriko; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Sano, Reiko; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Asari, Seishi; Nishi, Isao; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Koguchi, Yutaka; Kusano, Nobuchika; Mihara, Eiichirou; Kuwabara, Masao; Watanabe, Yaeko; Kawasaki, Yuji; Takeda, Kenichi; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Masui, Kayoko; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Aoki, Yosuke; Fukuoka, Mami; Magarifuchi, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Suga, Moritaka; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Honda, Junichi; Fujita, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from patients in Japan, was conducted by Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases and Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2010. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period from January and April 2010 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institutes using maximum 45 antibacterial agents. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 954 strains (206 Staphylococcus aureus, 189 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4 Streptococcus pyogenes, 182 Haemophilus influenzae, 74 Moraxella catarrhalis, 139 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 160 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Ratio of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was as high as 50.5%, and those of penicillin-intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae were 1.1% and 0.0%, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 17.6% of them were found to be β-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant, 33.5% to be β-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant and 11.0% to be β-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant strains. Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa with metallo β-lactamase were 2.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Continuous national surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial in order to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis. PMID:25817352

  11. [Changes in the dynamics of viral infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Moennig, V

    1992-07-01

    Modern methods of molecular biology are suitable to analyse evolutionary processes in the area of infectious diseases. Visible expression of this evolution is the emergence of "new" infectious agents, e.g., canine parvovirus, the agent of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and phocine distemper virus. In addition a gradual change of disease syndromes may be observed, e.g., classical and African swine fever and myxoma. These processes are based on genomic changes of the respective infectious agents, i.e., point mutations and recombinations. Especially RNA viruses are prone to genomic change, and the plasticity of their genomes enables them to adapt to varying selective pressures. Human activities in agriculture, global commerce and tourism may enhance and precipitate microbial evolution. PMID:1516549

  12. Computer-Assisted Detection of Infectious Lung Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Ulas; Bray, Mike; Caban, Jesus; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although radiology serves as a primary diagnostic method for assessing respiratory tract infections, visual analysis of chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans is restricted by low specificity for causal infectious organisms and a limited capacity to assess severity and predict patient outcomes. These limitations suggest that computer-assisted detection (CAD) could make a valuable contribution to the management of respiratory tract infections by assisting in the early recognition of pulmonary parenchymal lesions, providing quantitative measures of disease severity and assessing the response to therapy. In this paper, we review the most common radiographic and CT features of respiratory tract infections, discuss the challenges of defining and measuring these disorders with CAD, and propose some strategies to address these challenges. PMID:21723090

  13. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kris A.; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R.; Daszak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non–vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and “Wallacean” zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set. PMID:26417098

  14. Advances in microfluidics in combating infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Tay, Andy; Pavesi, Andrea; Yazdi, Saeed Rismani; Lim, Chwee Teck; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    One of the important pursuits in science and engineering research today is to develop low-cost and user-friendly technologies to improve the health of people. Over the past decade, research efforts in microfluidics have been made to develop methods that can facilitate low-cost diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially in resource-poor settings. Here, we provide an overview of the recent advances in microfluidic devices for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics for infectious diseases and emphasis is placed on malaria, sepsis and AIDS/HIV. Other infectious diseases such as SARS, tuberculosis, and dengue are also briefly discussed. These infectious diseases are chosen as they contribute the most to disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The current state of research in this area is evaluated and projection toward future applications and accompanying challenges are also discussed. PMID:26854743

  15. Coping with Stress during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    · Coping With Stress During Infectious Disease Outbreaks What You Should Know When you hear, read, or watch news about an outbreak ... you may feel anxious and show signs of stress. These signs of stress are normal, and may ...

  16. Infectious Diseases and Immunizations. Matrix No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sever, John L.

    This paper summarizes the major advances achieved by research in the fields of infectious diseases and immunizations during the 1970s, and delineates directions for future research in these fields. (Author/MP)

  17. Advances in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rahal, Anu; Malik, Yash; Dhama, Kuldeep; Pal, Amar; Prasad, Minakshi

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses. PMID:25028620

  18. Paediatric infectious diseases: the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Starr, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Many advances and challenges have occurred in the field of paediatric infectious diseases during the past 50 years. It is impossible to cover all of these in a short review, but a few highlights and lowlights will be covered. These include virtual disappearance of some infectious diseases, emergence of new ones, infections in the immunocompromised, antimicrobial resistance, development of new and improved antimicrobials, improved diagnostic tests and the Human Microbiome Project. PMID:25557805

  19. Cocirculation of infectious diseases on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joel C.

    2013-06-01

    We consider multiple diseases spreading in a static configuration model network. We make standard assumptions that infection transmits from neighbor to neighbor at a disease-specific rate and infected individuals recover at a disease-specific rate. Infection by one disease confers immediate and permanent immunity to infection by any disease. Under these assumptions, we find a simple, low-dimensional ordinary differential equations model which captures the global dynamics of the infection. The dynamics depend strongly on initial conditions. Although we motivate this Rapid Communication with infectious disease, the model may be adapted to the spread of other infectious agents such as competing political beliefs, or adoption of new technologies if these are influenced by contacts. As an example, we demonstrate how to model an infectious disease which can be prevented by a behavior change.

  20. [Impacts of climate change on infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Kołodyński, Jan; Malinowska, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Climate warming may have significant impacts on human health, including changes in the distribution and seasonality of vector-borne diseases. We discuss the consequences of climate change on infectious diseases. Effects of transmission of the imported tropical diseases in Europe are discussed. PMID:16883701

  1. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    PubMed

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions. PMID:21269678

  2. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-01-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia–lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  3. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-12-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  4. Health systems perspectives - infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization's charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty - its social, political and economic dimensions - remain in the reader's mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor populations world-wide. Applying a health systems framework to a discussion on infectious diseases of poverty emerges from the papers in this journal's first edition. Many of the articles discuss treatments, indicating the importance of pharmaceuticals for neglected diseases. Delivery strategies to reach impoverished populations also figure within this first round of papers. Innovative programs that provide diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases to hard-to-reach rural and urban communities are needed clearly needed, and some good examples are discussed here. Future editions will explore other health system components, broadening the evidence base to increase understanding of effective and sustainable interventions to reduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor. The editors are to be congratulated on the release of this inaugural issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty. We look forward to reading subsequent editions. PMID:23848993

  5. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS Influenza Malaria Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Tuberculosis Zika Virus Find a Funding Opportunity Opportunities & Announcements Types of ... immunologic, and allergic diseases Ebola Virus Particles Middle Zika Virus Learn more about NIAID research to combat the ...

  6. Macrophage Heterogeneity in Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Boorsma, Carian E.; Draijer, Christina; Melgert, Barbro N.

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are among the most abundant cells in the respiratory tract, and they can have strikingly different phenotypes within this environment. Our knowledge of the different phenotypes and their functions in the lung is sketchy at best, but they appear to be linked to the protection of gas exchange against microbial threats and excessive tissue responses. Phenotypical changes of macrophages within the lung are found in many respiratory diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary fibrosis. This paper will give an overview of what macrophage phenotypes have been described, what their known functions are, what is known about their presence in the different obstructive and restrictive respiratory diseases (asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis), and how they are thought to contribute to the etiology and resolution of these diseases. PMID:23533311

  7. 78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee (MID-B...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  8. Radiolabeled antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Novel approaches to treatment of infectious diseases are urgently needed. This need has resulted in renewing the interest in antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a cancer treatment modality, which utilizes radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During the last decade we have translated RIT into the field of experimental fungal, bacterial and HIV infections. In addition, successful proof of principle experiments with radiolabeled pan-antibodies that bind to antigens shared by major pathogenic fungi were performed in vitro. The armamentarium of pan-antibodies would result in reducing the dependence on microorganism-specific antibodies and thus would speed up the development of RIT of infections. We believe that the time is ripe for deploying RIT into the clinic to combat infectious diseases. PMID:25599011

  9. Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

  10. Infectious diseases and securitization: WHO's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiyong; Karackattu, Joe Thomas

    2011-06-01

    The threat posed by infectious diseases has been increasingly framed as a security issue. The UN Security Council's Resolution 1308, which designated HIV/AIDS as a threat to international security, evidenced the securitization process. Using securitization theory as a theoretical tool, this article explores the securitization of infectious diseases in the World Health Organization (WHO). While WHO has tended to securitize infectious diseases since 2000, it has encountered a dilemma in the process because of the inherent asymmetry of interest between developed and developing countries. The act of securitization in WHO currently remains mostly a rhetorical device, since WHO's norms emblematic of securitization have not been backed by operational measures for verification or enforcement due to these asymmetric interests. PMID:21612367

  11. Respiratory disease surveillance in Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Agocs, M.M.; Rudnai, P.; Etzel, R.A. )

    1992-08-28

    In October 1989, the Hungarian National Institute of Hygiene initiated the Children's Acute Respiratory Morbidity (CHARM) Surveillance System to assess the association between nine reportable respiratory diseases and air pollution. The weekly number of physician-diagnosed, reportable respiratory diseases among four age groups of children (less than 1, 1-2, 3-5, and 6-14 years) was tabulated for Sopron, a city with 60,000 residents. We calculated the proportion of diseases occurring during weeks with low, moderate, and high sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. The weekly averages of the 24-hour median SO2 concentrations were divided into thirds at less than or equal to 17.6, greater than 17.6 to less than or equal to 26.3, and greater than 26.3 micrograms/m3 (range: 0.9-79.6 micrograms/m3), and the NO2 concentrations at less than or equal to 29.8, greater than 29.8 to less than or equal to 44.1, and greater than 44.1 micrograms/m3 (range: 4.2-90.1 micrograms/m3). During 1990, 11,474 respiratory disease cases occurred among the 4,020 children less than 15 years of age living in Sopron and monitored by the CHARM system. The two most frequently reported disease categories were rhinitis/tonsillitis/pharyngitis (71.5%) and acute bronchitis (8.5%). Sixty-seven percent of pneumonia cases occurred when SO2 concentrations were highest. We found no association between levels of NO2 and respiratory diseases. The CHARM Surveillance System may characterize more fully which groups of children develop particular respiratory diseases following exposure to air pollution.

  12. [Corticosteroids in the treatment of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Kronig, I; Schibler, M; Rougemont, M; Emonet, S

    2013-04-24

    The addition of a corticosteroid has become a common practice for the treatment of some infectious diseases, such as meningitis, septic shock, moderate to severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The belief that steroids may have a beneficial effect in the early stage of pro-inflammatory infections explains the renewed interest for these treatments. This review of recent literature helps determine the use of steroids in the treatment of infectious diseases as formal guidance, questionable or rather contraindicated. When there is a clear scientific indication for the use of corticosteroids regardless of the current infection, the latter is never a formal contraindication. PMID:23697079

  13. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and ‘pestilence’ associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  14. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  15. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    PubMed

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained. PMID:24890888

  16. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1954-01-01

    A variety of bacteria has been found responsible for outbreaks of disease in salmon in sea water. The most important of these is a species of Vibrio. Tuberculosis has been found in adult chinook salmon and the evidence indicates that the disease was contracted at sea.

  17. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  18. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). The dedicated members of the USAMRIID staff ... military personnel and civilians from the threat of infectious diseases. We participate in support of emerging disease investigations, ...

  19. Progress and Challenges in Infectious Disease Cartography.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Moritz U G; Hay, Simon I; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Wint, G R William; Golding, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Quantitatively mapping the spatial distributions of infectious diseases is key to both investigating their epidemiology and identifying populations at risk of infection. Important advances in data quality and methodologies have allowed for better investigation of disease risk and its association with environmental factors. However, incorporating dynamic human behavioural processes in disease mapping remains challenging. For example, connectivity among human populations, a key driver of pathogen dispersal, has increased sharply over the past century, along with the availability of data derived from mobile phones and other dynamic data sources. Future work must be targeted towards the rapid updating and dissemination of appropriately designed disease maps to guide the public health community in reducing the global burden of infectious disease. PMID:26604163

  20. Globalization, international law, and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    The global nature of the threat posed by new and reemerging infectious diseases will require international cooperation in identifying, controlling, and preventing these diseases. Because of this need for international cooperation, international law will certainly play a role in the global strategy for the control of emerging diseases. Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization has already proposed revising the International Health Regulations. This article examines some basic problems that the global campaign against emerging infectious diseases might face in applying international law to facilitate international cooperation. The international legal component of the global control strategy for these diseases needs careful attention because of problems inherent in international law, especially as it applies to emerging infections issues. PMID:8903206

  1. Non-infectious Pulmonary Diseases and HIV.

    PubMed

    Triplette, M; Crothers, K; Attia, E F

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary complications remain among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality for individuals with HIV despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and improvement in its efficacy and availability. The prevalence of non-infectious pulmonary diseases is rising in this population, reflecting both an increase in smoking and the independent risk associated with HIV. The unique mechanisms of pulmonary disease in these patients remain poorly understood, and direct effects of HIV, genetic predisposition, inflammatory pathways, and co-infections have all been implicated. Lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary hypertension are the most prevalent non-infectious pulmonary diseases in persons with HIV, and the risk of each of these diseases is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) persons than in the general population. This review discusses the latest advances in the literature on these important complications of HIV infection. PMID:27121734

  2. Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.

    PubMed

    Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

    2014-08-01

    Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when

  3. Genetics of Infectious Disease Resistance in Animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will summarize genomic resources available for studies of genetic control of infectious disease resistance in animals. It will then review data collected in our and collaborators’ labs of genetic control of swine resistance to viral infections, e.g., Porcine reproductive and respir...

  4. [Metagenomic studies and infectious diseases diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, A E; Brusnigina, N F

    2015-01-01

    Principles of mass parallel sequencing, otherwise called next generation sequencing (NGS), appeared at the beginning of 2000s and were realized in dozens of NGS platforms. High performance and sequencing speed of NGS platforms opened wide horizons for scientists in the field of genomic studies, including metagenomic, first of all related to studies of structure of various microbiocenoses. Dozens of studies dedicated to studies of microbiome and virome of various biotopes of humans in normal state and pathology by using NGS platforms have appeared, forming novel conceptions on pathogenesis and epidemiology ofvarious infectious diseases. Significant cost reduction of the analysis facilitates expansion of sphere of application for NGS technologies not only in the field of fundamental, but also applied microbiologic studies, including etiologic diagnostics of infectious diseases. Due to the increase of the number of cases of infectious diseases, that do not have a typical clinical presentation, use of metagenomic approach is of particular importance, allowing to carry out detection of a wide spectrum of causative agents of bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. Technologic features of mass parallel sequencing platform, main methods of metagenomic studies and bioinformatics approaches, used for the analysis of data obtained, are presented in the review. Studies on healthy human microbiome and in pathology are described; possibilities and perspectives of metagenomic approach application in diagnos- tics and system of epidemiologic control of infectious diseases are examined. PMID:26016350

  5. Prevention of infectious diseases in aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahne, W.; Winton, J.R.; Kimura, T.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the most important limitations to the successful propagation of aquatic animals. Most of the losses caused by pathogens in aquaculture could be prevented by health inspection, adequate environment and sound management practices. Effective control measures, mainly based upon 1) avoidance of pathogens 2) modification of the environment 3) improvement of host resistance 4) vaccination and 5) chemoprophylaxis are described.

  6. Rapid analysis of pharmacology for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Andrew L; Bickerton, G Richard; Carruthers, Ian M; Boyer, Stephen K; Rubin, Harvey; Overington, John P

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic, epidemic and endemic infectious diseases are united by a common problem: how do we rapidly and cost-effectively identify potential pharmacological interventions to treat infections? Given the large number of emerging and neglected infectious diseases and the fact that they disproportionately afflict the poorest members of the global society, new ways of thinking are required to developed high productivity discovery systems that can be applied to a larger number of pathogens. The growing availability of parasite genome data provides the basis for developing methods to prioritize, a priori, the potential drug target and pharmacological landscape of an infectious disease. Thus the overall objective of infectious disease informatics is to enable the rapid generation of plausible, novel medical hypotheses of testable pharmacological experiments, by uncovering undiscovered relationships in the wealth of biomedical literature and databases that were collected for other purposes. In particular our goal is to identify potential drug targets present in a pathogen genome and prioritize which pharmacological experiments are most likely to discover drug-like lead compounds rapidly against a pathogen (i.e. which specific compounds and drug targets should be screened, in which assays and where they can be sourced). An integral part of the challenge is the development and integration of methods to predict druggability, essentiality, synthetic lethality and polypharmacology in pathogen genomes, while simultaneously integrating the inevitable issues of chemical tractability and the potential for acquired drug resistance from the start. PMID:21401504

  7. Travel and pregnancy: an infectious diseases perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kanhutu, Kudzai; Torda, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women are choosing to travel during pregnancy. In the presence of an altered immune state, exposure to certain microbes can be particularly harmful. We have undertaken a review of the literature in order to provide strategies to minimize the infectious disease risks of pregnant travel. Included is a discussion of common immunizing agents and their safety in pregnancy.

  8. Bacterial clinical infectious diseases ontology (BCIDO) dataset.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Claire L; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the Bacterial Infectious Diseases Ontology (BCIDO) dataset related to research published in http:dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jbi.2015.07.014 [1], and contains the Protégé OWL files required to run BCIDO in the Protégé environment. BCIDO contains 1719 classes and 39 object properties. PMID:27508237

  9. Legal Issues in Quarantine and Isolation for Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in South Korea in 2015 has drawn public attention regarding the legal regulation of infectious disease control in Korea. This paper discusses the interpretive and legislative concerns regarding the Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Act, its ordinance and enforcement regulations, as well as public statements from the relevant administrative agency. Future improvements are also proposed. PMID:26841880

  10. [Current topics on infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Miyara, Takayuki

    2013-02-01

    In April 2012, the Japanese Health authority recommended the establishment of an inter-hospital connection and cooperation system for infection control in each local area. This system is aimed at improving the risk of hospital-related infection in each local area units. An important role of the system is monitoring the trend of drug-resistant bacteria and detecting outbreaks; therefore, development of a bacterial laboratory system is a major subject for participating hospitals. Increasingly drug-resistant bacteria, such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria, MRSA, especially relatively high MIC strains against vancomycin (2 microg/ml), multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa are serious issues for public health. The isolating ratio of these drug-resistant bacteria is different among hospitals even in the same local area. This is the point of organizing an inter-hospital infection control system. Last year, The Japanese Society for Respiratology developed management guidelines for Nursing Home and Health Care facility-associated pneumonia(NHCAP). This Japanese guideline and USA guidelines for similar situations state almost the same position. Namely, such pneumonia patients should be treated empirically with combination antibiotics covering drug-resistant bacteria, especially for MRSA and P. aeruginosa; however, in spite of this strengthened antibiotic coverage policy, one multicenter cohort study showed that guideline-based strengthened therapy increased the mortality of patients. The author drew the conclusion that too strong combination antibiotic therapy may be harmful to elderly patients. From these results, it should be considered that the causative agents of pneumonia cannot be determined from respiratory specimens so exactly, because the specimens include merely colonized bacteria and also anaerobic causative agents. PMID:23672088

  11. An overview of infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Hebata Allah; Bailey, Michael; Kaiser, Pete

    2012-11-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a viral immunosuppressive disease of chickens attacking mainly an important lymphoid organ in birds [the bursa of Fabricius (BF)]. The emergence of new variant strains of the causative agent [infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)] has made it more urgent to develop new vaccination strategies against IBD. One of these strategies is the use of recombinant vaccines (DNA and viral-vectored vaccines). Several studies have investigated the host immune response towards IBDV. This review will present a detailed background on the disease and its causative agent, accompanied by a summary of the most recent findings regarding the host immune response to IBDV infection and the use of recombinant vaccines against IBD. PMID:22707044

  12. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

  13. Surveillance programme for important equine infectious respiratory pathogens in the USA.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Kass, P H; Mapes, S; Johnson, C; Barnett, D C; Vaala, W; Gutierrez, C; McDaniel, R; Whitehead, B; Manning, J

    2011-07-01

    The prevalence and epidemiology of important viral (equine influenza virus [EIV], equine herpesvirus type 1 [EHV-1] and EHV-4) and bacterial (Streptococcus equi subspecies equi) respiratory pathogens shed by horses presented to equine veterinarians with upper respiratory tract signs and/or acute febrile neurological disease were studied. Veterinarians from throughout the USA were enrolled in a surveillance programme and were asked to collect blood and nasal secretions from equine cases with acute infectious upper respiratory tract disease and/or acute onset of neurological disease. A questionnaire was used to collect information pertaining to each case and its clinical signs. Samples were tested by real-time PCR for the presence of EHV-1, EHV-4, EIV and S equi subspecies equi. A total of 761 horses, mules and donkeys were enrolled in the surveillance programme over a 24-month study period. In total, 201 (26.4 per cent) index cases tested PCR-positive for one or more of the four pathogens. The highest detection rate was for EHV-4 (82 cases), followed by EIV (60 cases), S equi subspecies equi (49 cases) and EHV-1 (23 cases). There were 15 horses with double infections and one horse with a triple infection. The detection rate by PCR for the different pathogens varied with season and with the age, breed, sex and use of the animal. PMID:21676986

  14. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

  15. Infectious Disease Stigmas: Maladaptive in Modern Society.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel A; Hughes, David

    2014-04-01

    At multiple times in human history people have asked if there are good stigmas. Is there some useful function stigmas serve in the context of our evolutionary history; is stigma adaptive? This essay discusses stigmas as a group-selection strategy and the human context in which stigmas likely appeared. The next section explores how human patterns have changed in modern society and the consequences for infectious disease (ID) stigmas in the modern age. The concluding section suggests that while social-living species may be particularly apt to create and communicate ID stigmas and enact ID-related stigmatization, such stigma-related processes no longer function to protect human communities. Stigmas do not increase the ability of modern societies to survive infectious diseases, but in fact may be important drivers of problematic disease dynamics and act as catalysts for failures in protecting public health. PMID:25477728

  16. Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2010-04-01

    The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

  17. Bovine respiratory disease research (1983-2009).

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) research has provided significant understanding of the disease over the past 26 years. Modern research tools that have been used include monoclonal antibodies, genomics, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry (IHC), DNA vaccines and viral vectors coding for immunogens. Emerging/reemerging viruses and new antigenic strains of viruses and bacteria have been identified. Methods of detection and the role for cattle persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were identified; viral subunits, cellular components and bacterial products have been characterized. Product advances have included vaccines for bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida; the addition of BVDV2 to the existing vaccines and new antibiotics. The role of Mycoplasma spp., particularly Mycoplasma bovis in BRD, has been more extensively studied. Bovine immunology research has provided more specific information on immune responses, T cell subsets and cytokines. The molecular and genetic basis for viral-bacterial synergy in BRD has been described. Attempts have been made to document how prevention of BRD by proper vaccination and management prior to exposure to infectious agents can minimize disease and serve as economic incentives for certified health programs. PMID:20003649

  18. 77 FR 298 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  19. 76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  20. What Is New in Infectious Diseases?

    PubMed

    Cook, Paul P

    2016-01-01

    The practice of infectious diseases is an ever-changing discipline. Diseases such as syphilis and tuberculosis have been with mankind for millennia, whereas conditions such as AIDS and Zika virus are relatively new maladies. A working knowledge of clinical presentations associated with Zika virus infection, syphilis, and common parasitic infections will help the primary care provider determine whom to treat and whom to refer to a specialist. Increasing the use of vaccination for influenza and pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection should reduce the burden of these common diseases. PMID:27621340

  1. Social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P.

    1996-01-01

    Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models--which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation--are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives. PMID:8969243

  2. Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

    PubMed

    Ayres, J G; Forsberg, B; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dey, R; Ebi, K L; Helms, P J; Medina-Ramón, M; Windt, M; Forastiere, F

    2009-08-01

    Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following a 2-day workshop held in Leuven (Belgium) in March 2008. Key areas of concern for the respiratory community arising from climate change are discussed and recommendations made to address gaps in knowledge. The most important recommendation was the development of more accurate predictive models for predicting the impact of climate change on respiratory health. Respiratory healthcare workers also have an advocatory role in persuading governments and the European Union to maintain awareness and appropriate actions with respect to climate change, and these areas are also discussed in the position statement. PMID:19251790

  3. [Infectious diseases in the genomic era].

    PubMed

    Moreno Switt, Andrea I; Toledo, Viviana

    2015-10-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have arrived, changing research and infectious disease research into a new era, the "genomic era". Currently, the developed world is introducing NGS in a number of applications, including clinical diagnostics, epidemiology, and microbiology. In developing countries NGS is being progressively introduced. Technologies currently available allow to sequence the whole genome of bacterial and viral strains for an approximate cost of $100 USD, which is highly cost savings compared to old-technologies for genome sequencing. Here we review recent publication of whole genome sequencing used for, (i) tracking of foodborne outbreaks, with emphasis in Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, (ii) building genomic databases for Governments, (iii) investigating nosocomial infections, and (iv) clinical diagnosis. The genomic era is here to stay and researchers should use these "massive databases" generated by this technology to decrease infectious diseases and thus improve health of humans and animals. PMID:26633116

  4. Infectious Diseases Physician Compensation: An Improved Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Jethro Trees; Lynch, John B.; MacIntyre, Ann T.; Trotman, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Negotiating physician compensation can be complicated because many factors now influence the ways in which physicians can be compensated. Infectious diseases (ID) specialists typically provide a wide array of services, ranging from patient care to administrative leadership. Compensation surveys from national organizations have produced results based on small samples and often are not congruent with ID physicians’ perceptions. In July of 2015, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) conducted a compensation survey to assess current compensation earned by the diverse ID specialists within its membership. Members of IDSA's Clinical Affairs Committee report the results from the 2015 IDSA Physician Compensation survey, with a particular focus on the findings from respondents who indicate “patient care” as their primary responsibility and present a discussion that compares and contrasts results against other survey data. PMID:27419159

  5. Dairy calf housing systems across Europe and risk for calf infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Marcé, C; Guatteo, R; Bareille, N; Fourichon, C

    2010-09-01

    Enteric and respiratory diseases are the most frequent health disorders of calves. They are associated with mortality or lower growth rate and induce treatment costs. Enteric and respiratory pathogens can be transmitted via contacts between calves, which depend on calf housing systems and management. This study aimed at describing the main calf housing systems across Europe and at assessing the consequences of such housing facilities in terms of risk for calf infectious diseases. This was done through the use of a questionnaire distributed to experts in epidemiology and cattle farming systems in each European country. A literature review was performed on the risk factors associated with calf infectious diseases transmission and targeted in the questionnaire. Answers from 14 countries were obtained. A wide range of housing systems were described. However, four main systems could be identified and ranked in ascending order of risk for neonatal diarrhoea and respiratory infectious diseases: individual pen until weaning, individual pen for 4 weeks, individual pen for 2 weeks, and collective pen from the separation of the calf with its dam. Although the housing systems are known to play a role in disease transmission, they are currently not fully described in literature concerning risk factors for calf infectious diseases. In a given farm, the risk assessment for calf infectious diseases should consider classical risk factors such as hygiene, feeding practices and air conditioning, on top of a precise description of the housing system. PMID:22444707

  6. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

  7. Imaging of Small-Animal Models of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jelicks, Linda A.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Machado, Fabiana S.; Weiss, Louis M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Desruisseaux, Mahalia S.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide. Noninvasive small-animal imaging has become an important research tool for preclinical studies of infectious diseases. Imaging studies permit enhanced information through longitudinal studies of the same animal during the infection. Herein, we briefly review recent studies of animal models of infectious disease that have used imaging modalities. PMID:23201133

  8. The Challenge of Infectious Diseases to the Biomedical Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foladori, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The resurgence of infectious diseases and the emergence of infectious diseases raise questions on how to cope with the situation. The germ or clinical approach is the hegemonic biomedical paradigm. In this article, the author argues that the spread of infectious diseases has posted a challenge to the biomedical paradigm and shows how lock-in…

  9. Infectious Disease Practice Gaps in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Shelby; Quest, Tyler L; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2016-07-01

    The article highlights different educational and practice gaps in infectious diseases as they pertain to dermatology. These gaps include the use of antibiotics in relation to atopic dermatitis and acne vulgaris, treatment of skin and soft tissue infection, and diagnosis and treatment of onychomycosis. In addition, practice gaps related to use of imiquimod for molluscum contagiosum, risk of infections related to immunosuppressive medications and rates of vaccination, and the use of bedside diagnostics for diagnosing common infections were discussed. PMID:27363885

  10. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, Kate T.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

  11. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms. PMID:26819502

  12. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms. PMID:26819502

  13. Sex Differences in Pediatric Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The impact of sex hormones on the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 cytokine balance has been proposed to explain the higher severity of most infectious diseases in males. In the minority where greater morbidity and mortality is observed in females, this is hypothesized to arise because of greater immunopathology and/or autoimmunity. However, a number of unexplained exceptions to this rule are described. Studies that have actually measured the sex differences in children in the immune responses to infectious diseases and that would further test these hypotheses, are relatively scarce. PMID:24966192

  14. [Non-infectious systemic diseases and uveitis].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Valle, D; Méndez, R; Arriola, P; Cuiña, R; Ariño, M

    2008-01-01

    Uveitis can be defined as any inflammation affecting the uveal tract, although in clinical practice this term includes any intraocular inflammatory event. The etiology of this inflammation can be related to an endogenous mechanism in the clinical course of a systemic disease (sarcoidosis, Behçet's disease, multiple sclerosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, etc.), or an isolated ocular entity. Sometimes, ocular inflammation is the initial manifestation of an undiagnosed systemic disease. On the other hand, ocular involvement could be the main cause of morbidity of the disease, and early diagnosis and treatment is an important issue in order to avoid irreversible ocular damage. In this article, the authors review some relevant clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic topics related to the most common non-infectious systemic diseases associated with uveitis. PMID:19169298

  15. Evaluation of Border Entry Screening for Infectious Diseases in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Antão, Catarina; Hall, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic of 2003 and the influenza pandemic of 2009, many countries instituted border measures as a means of stopping or slowing the spread of disease. The measures, usually consisting of a combination of border entry/exit screening, quarantine, isolation, and communications, were resource intensive, and modeling and observational studies indicate that border screening is not effective at detecting infectious persons. Moreover, border screening has high opportunity costs, financially and in terms of the use of scarce public health staff resources during a time of high need. We discuss the border-screening experiences with SARS and influenza and propose an approach to decision-making for future pandemics. We conclude that outbreak-associated communications for travelers at border entry points, together with effective communication with clinicians and more effective disease control measures in the community, may be a more effective approach to the international control of communicable diseases. PMID:25625224

  16. Small animal disease surveillance: respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M; Jones, Philip H; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J M; Radford, Alan D

    2016-04-01

    Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7 per cent, 2.3 per cent and 2.5 per cent of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively, between January 2014 and December 2015. Coughing was the most frequent respiratory sign reported in dogs (71.1 per cent of consultations); in cats it was sneezing (42.6 per cent). Mean percentage of samples testing positive for feline calicivirus (FCV) was 30.1 per cent in 2014 and 27.9 per cent in 2015. January was the month with the highest percentage of FCV-positive samples in both 2014 and 2015. PMID:27056810

  17. Nosocomial infection control in healthcare settings: Protection against emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chuanxi; Wang, Shengyong

    2016-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea in 2015 may be attributable to poor nosocomial infection control procedures implemented. Strict infection control measures were taken in the hospital where an imported case with MERS was treated in southern China and 53 health care workers were confirmed to be MERS-CoV negative. Infection control in healthcare settings, in which patients with emerging infectious diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus disease, and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are diagnosed and treated, are often imperfect. When it comes to emerging or unknown infectious diseases, before the imported case was finally identified or community transmission was reported, cases have often occurred in clusters in healthcare settings. Nosocomial infection control measures should be further strengthened among the workers and inpatients in designated healthcare settings that accommodate suspected cases suffering from emerging or unknown infectious diseases. PMID:27068809

  18. Controlling emerging infectious diseases in salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, J M; Osmundsen, T; Aunsmo, A; Mardones, F O; Rich, K M

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors review the impacts of diseases facing salmon aquaculture, drawing lessons from terrestrial animal diseases. They discuss the implementation of current control strategies, taking into account transmission patterns (vertical versus horizontal), disease reservoirs, and interactions with wild fish. In addition, the decision-making context of aquatic disease control and the institutional organisation of control strategies are considered, with particular emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of regulatory authorities and the private sector. Case studies on the emergence and control of infectious salmon anaemia worldwide and pancreas disease in Norway are used to examine some of the controversies that may influence decision making and provide lessons for the future. PMID:27044162

  19. Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France.

    PubMed

    Dufour, B; La Vieille, S

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological surveillance, namely the continuous monitoring of diseases and health determinants in a population, has developed over the past fifteen years, in the sphere of human health as well as in animal health. All epidemiological surveillance networks include the following four stages: data collection, data transmission, data processing and dissemination of information. However, despite this basic similarity, the very many networks existing in France are extremely varied in nature. At the national level, the bodies involved in epidemiological surveillance for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments and, to a lesser degree, the Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer. In the field, the networks rely on the Direction des services vétérinaires, veterinary practitioners, laboratories in each département, and livestock producers' groups (especially animal health protection groups). Some twenty French networks currently in operation are presented in this article according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases, epidemiological surveillance is carried out almost entirely by the Direction générale de la santé and the Directions départementales d'action sanitaire et sociale, the Institut de veille sanitaire and the various Centres nationaux de référence (CNRs). Most human infectious diseases are monitored by one or more of the following broad categories of networks: reporting of notifiable diseases, the CNRs, the network of sentinel doctors, the network of hospital laboratories and departments, and medical causes of death. An example where surveillance is covered by several networks is also presented, namely surveillance for salmonellosis and Salmonella. Lastly, methods for evaluating networks are discussed. PMID:10779198

  20. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Shope, R

    1991-01-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholerae is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help us to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. PMID:1820262

  1. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shope, R

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholerae is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help us to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. PMID:1820262

  2. Global climate change and infectious diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Shope, R. )

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil and the recent increases in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. We then outline potential approaches for future studies of disease movement, focussing on vector invasion and vector-borne disease importation. Such approaches allow us to explore the potential implications of international air travel, shipping routes and other methods of transport on global pathogen and vector traffic. PMID:16647974

  4. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  5. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed. PMID:22742653

  6. Public health surveillance and infectious disease detection.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S

    2012-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and pandemic influenza, and the anthrax attacks of 2001, have demonstrated that we remain vulnerable to health threats caused by infectious diseases. The importance of strengthening global public health surveillance to provide early warning has been the primary recommendation of expert groups for at least the past 2 decades. However, despite improvements in the past decade, public health surveillance capabilities remain limited and fragmented, with uneven global coverage. Recent initiatives provide hope of addressing this issue, and new technological and conceptual advances could, for the first time, place capability for global surveillance within reach. Such advances include the revised International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and the use of new data sources and methods to improve global coverage, sensitivity, and timeliness, which show promise for providing capabilities to extend and complement the existing infrastructure. One example is syndromic surveillance, using nontraditional and often automated data sources. Over the past 20 years, other initiatives, including ProMED-mail, GPHIN, and HealthMap, have demonstrated new mechanisms for acquiring surveillance data. In 2009 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program, which includes the PREDICT project, to build global capacity for surveillance of novel infections that have pandemic potential (originating in wildlife and at the animal-human interface) and to develop a framework for risk assessment. Improved understanding of factors driving infectious disease emergence and new technological capabilities in modeling, diagnostics and pathogen identification, and communications, such as using the increasing global coverage of cellphones for public health surveillance, can further enhance global surveillance. PMID:22455675

  7. Yogurt, immune function and infectious disease: can yogurt be used to protect the elderly against infections?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic low-grade inflammation and immunosenescence occurs with aging, predisposing the elderly to myriad risk factors for infectious and chronic disease. Respiratory infections such as influenza and pneumonia are a leading cause of mortality in the elderly, and therefore of significant public hea...

  8. Dodging a Bullet: WHO, SARS, and the Successful Management of Infectious Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, Evan S.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the policy decisions made by the World Health Organization (WHO) in working to fight the spread of the first truly global infectious disease, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), of the 21st century. In particular, the author pays attention to the WHO's Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network…

  9. Measuring Spatial Dependence for Infectious Disease Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, M. Kate; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Global spatial clustering is the tendency of points, here cases of infectious disease, to occur closer together than expected by chance. The extent of global clustering can provide a window into the spatial scale of disease transmission, thereby providing insights into the mechanism of spread, and informing optimal surveillance and control. Here the authors present an interpretable measure of spatial clustering, τ, which can be understood as a measure of relative risk. When biological or temporal information can be used to identify sets of potentially linked and likely unlinked cases, this measure can be estimated without knowledge of the underlying population distribution. The greater our ability to distinguish closely related (i.e., separated by few generations of transmission) from more distantly related cases, the more closely τ will track the true scale of transmission. The authors illustrate this approach using examples from the analyses of HIV, dengue and measles, and provide an R package implementing the methods described. The statistic presented, and measures of global clustering in general, can be powerful tools for analysis of spatially resolved data on infectious diseases. PMID:27196422

  10. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Fenton, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases often emerge from interactions among multiple species and across nested levels of biological organization. Threats as diverse as Ebola virus, human malaria, and bat white-nose syndrome illustrate the need for a mechanistic understanding of the ecological interactions underlying emerging infections. We describe how recent advances in community ecology can be adopted to address contemporary challenges in disease research. These analytical tools can identify the factors governing complex assemblages of multiple hosts, parasites, and vectors, and reveal how processes link across scales from individual hosts to regions. They can also determine the drivers of heterogeneities among individuals, species, and regions to aid targeting of control strategies. We provide examples where these principles have enhanced disease management and illustrate how they can be further extended. PMID:26339035

  11. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; de Roode, Jacobus C; Fenton, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Infectious diseases often emerge from interactions among multiple species and across nested levels of biological organization. Threats as diverse as Ebola virus, human malaria, and bat white-nose syndrome illustrate the need for a mechanistic understanding of the ecological interactions underlying emerging infections. We describe how recent advances in community ecology can be adopted to address contemporary challenges in disease research. These analytical tools can identify the factors governing complex assemblages of multiple hosts, parasites, and vectors, and reveal how processes link across scales from individual hosts to regions. They can also determine the drivers of heterogeneities among individuals, species, and regions to aid targeting of control strategies. We provide examples where these principles have enhanced disease management and illustrate how they can be further extended. PMID:26339035

  12. Turkey industry strategies for control of respiratory and enteric diseases.

    PubMed

    Poss, P E

    1998-08-01

    Current strategies to control respiratory and enteric diseases of turkeys involve sanitation and biosecurity practices to prevent the introduction of infectious agents. In addition, proper husbandry and management practice reduce stress and help maintain a competent immune system. Industry-wide monitoring programs are used in conjunction with isolation, depopulation, and orderly marketing to eliminate pathogens that cause serious economic loss. Vaccines are available and utilized against some pathogens. Effective drug treatment is available and used for some diseases but is most commonly used to control secondary disease losses when treatment is not available for the primary disease. PMID:9706086

  13. Cardiovascular complications of respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Chowdhuri, Susmita; Crook, Errol D; Taylor, Herman A; Badr, M Safwan

    2007-11-01

    A major burden of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory diseases can be directly related to the cardiovascular (CV) complications of these disorders. Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies link reduced lung function and cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. Hypoxia-induced increased sympathetic activity, blood viscosity, or inflammation, among other factors, may mediate the underlying pathogenesis. In addition, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been implicated by association in multiple CV diseases including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. However, the exact contribution of SDB, including obstructive and central sleep apneas, to the development of cardiovascular diseases is not fully understood. In this context, the contribution of the new large, prospective, Jackson Heart Study could be significant in that it is designed to answer several of these questions, specifically in the African American population. This review examines the current evidence that links both reduced lung function and SDB to CV diseases. PMID:18004091

  14. Emerging infectious diseases and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, S M; Kozarsky, P

    1998-03-01

    International movement of individuals, populations, and products is one of the major factors associated with the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases as the pace of global travel and commerce increases rapidly. Travel can be associated with disease emergence because (1) the disease arises in an area of heavy tourism, (2) tourists may be at heightened risk because of their activities, or (3) because they can act as vectors to transport the agent to new areas. Examples of recently recognized diseases with relationship to travel include HIV, Legionnaire's disease, cyclosporiasis, Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal, hantavirus, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. Reemerging diseases include dengue fever, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, leptospirosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. In addition, tuberculosis, drug-resistant shigellosis, and cholera have been major concerns in refugee and migrant populations. Because of the unique role of travel in emerging infections, efforts are underway to address this factor by agencies such as the CDC, WHO, the International Society of Travel Medicine, and the travel industry. PMID:9494841

  15. Hajj: infectious disease surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Assiri, Abdullah; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Al Harby, Khalid D; Alyemni, Mohamed; Dhafar, Khalid; Gautret, Philippe; Barbeschi, Maurizio; McCloskey, Brian; Heymann, David; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    2014-06-14

    Religious festivals attract a large number of pilgrims from worldwide and are a potential risk for the transmission of infectious diseases between pilgrims, and to the indigenous population. The gathering of a large number of pilgrims could compromise the health system of the host country. The threat to global health security posed by infectious diseases with epidemic potential shows the importance of advanced planning of public health surveillance and response at these religious events. Saudi Arabia has extensive experience of providing health care at mass gatherings acquired through decades of managing millions of pilgrims at the Hajj. In this report, we describe the extensive public health planning, surveillance systems used to monitor public health risks, and health services provided and accessed during Hajj 2012 and Hajj 2013 that together attracted more than 5 million pilgrims from 184 countries. We also describe the recent establishment of the Global Center for Mass Gathering Medicine, a Saudi Government partnership with the WHO Collaborating Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Gulf Co-operation Council states, UK universities, and public health institutions globally. PMID:24857703

  16. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2014-01-01

    In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions. PMID:25514524

  17. Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Siettos, Constantinos I.; Russo, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host–pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

  18. The Syrian conflict and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Ozaras, Resat; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Tabak, Fehmi; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Yemisen, Mucahit; Sencan, Irfan; Ozturk, Recep

    2016-06-01

    The conflict in Syria is a big humanitarian emergency. More than 200,000 Syrians have been killed, with more than half of the population either having been displaced or having immigrated. Healthcare has been interrupted due to the destruction of facilities, a lack of medical staff, and a critical shortage of life-saving medications. It produced suitable conditions leading to the re-emergence of tuberculosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, polio, and measles. Lebanon and Jordan reported increased rates of tuberculosis among Syrian refugees. Cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks were noted not only in Syria but also in Turkey, Jordan, and Lebanon. After a polio-free 15 years, Syria reported a polio outbreak. Ongoing measles outbreaks in the region was accelerated by the conflict. Iraq declared a cholera outbreak among the Syrian refugees. The healthcare facilities of the countries hosting immigrants, mainly Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt, are overburdened. The majority of the immigrants live in crowded and unsanitary conditions. Infectious diseases are big challenges for Syria and for the countries hosting immigrants. More structured support from international organizations is needed for the prevention, control, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:27063349

  19. Rapid infectious diseases diagnostics using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The “Smartphone” is an almost universal possession in high-income populations, and is rapidly becoming so in lower-income regions, particularly among urban populations, and serves social networking and a quest for information and knowledge. The field of infectious disease diagnostics is at a potential watershed moment, with the essential building blocks for the development of diagnostic assays being ever more available and affordable, which is leading to creative innovative approaches to developing much-needed accurate and simple point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools for high disease burden, low-income settings. We review the importance and implications of a paper published in Science Translational Medicine on the development of a smartphone-powered and -controlled multiplex immunological assay that tests for HIV and syphilis simultaneously. This is reviewed in the context of other prototype smartphone-enabled/assisted diagnostic devices, and how such developments might shape the future of the POC diagnostics field. PMID:26488011

  20. Continuity planning for workplace infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nancy; Miller, Pamela Blair; Engle, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, business continuity plans prepare for worst-case scenarios; people plan for the exception rather than the common. Plans focus on infrastructure damage and recovery wrought by such disasters as hurricanes, terrorist events or tornadoes. Yet, another very real threat looms present every day, every season and can strike without warning, wreaking havoc on the major asset -- human capital. Each year, millions of dollars are lost in productivity, healthcare costs, absenteeism and services due to infectious, communicable diseases. Sound preventive risk management and recovery strategies can avert this annual decimation of staff and ensure continuous business operation. This paper will present a strong economic justification for the recognition, prevention and mitigation of communicable diseases as a routine part of continuity planning for every business. Recommendations will also be provided for environmental/engineering controls as well as personnel policies that address employee and customer protection, supply chain contacts and potential legal issues. PMID:27318291

  1. Predicting global variation in infectious disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Per M.; De Fine Licht, Henrik H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Understanding the underlying causes for the variation in case-fatality-ratios (CFR) is important for assessing the mechanism governing global disparity in the burden of infectious diseases. Variation in CFR is likely to be driven by factors such as population genetics, demography, transmission patterns and general health status. We present data here that support the hypothsis that changes in CFRs for specific diseases may be the result of serial passage through different hosts. For example passage through adults may lead to lower CFR, whereas passage through children may have the opposite effect. Accordingly changes in CFR may occur in parallel with demographic transitions. Methodology: We explored the predictability of CFR using data obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) disease databases for four human diseases: mumps, malaria, tuberculosis and leptospirosis and assessed these for association with a range of population characteristics, such as crude birth and death rates, median age of the population, mean body mass index, proportion living in urban areas and tuberculosis vaccine coverage. We then tested this predictive model on Danish historical demographic and population data. Results: Birth rates were the best predictor for mumps and malaria CFR. For tuberculosis CFR death rates were the best predictor and for leptospirosis population density was a significant predictor. Conclusions and implications: CFR predictors differed among diseases according to their biology. We suggest that the overall result reflects an interaction between the forces driving demographic change and the virulence of human-to-human transmitted diseases. PMID:26884415

  2. [Acute respiratory failure in neuromuscular disease].

    PubMed

    Damak, H; Décosterd, D

    2015-09-30

    Neuromuscular diseases can affect all respiratory muscles, leading to acute respiratory failure, which is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in those patients. Two situations must be distinguished. 1) Acute respiratory failure as part of a neuromuscular disorder of acute onset and possibly reversible (Guillain-Barre syndrome, myasthenic crisis...). 2) Acute respiratory failure occurring in a patient with an already advanced neuromuscular disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy...). This article describes the neuromuscular acute respiratory failure in these different aspects, discusses its initial management in the emergency department and identifies the parameters that have to be monitored. PMID:26619704

  3. The role of infectious diseases in the catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Carrasco, M; Mendoza-Pinto, C; Macias-Diaz, S; Vazquez de Lara, F; Etchegaray-Morales, I; Galvez-Romero, J L; Mendez-Martinez, S; Cervera, R

    2015-11-01

    Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS), also called "Asherson syndrome", is a variant of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) that occurs in less than 1% of APS cases. The etiology of CAPS is uncertain; however, several triggering factors have been recognized. The most common of these are infectious diseases, particularly those of the respiratory tract. CAPS pathogenesis is incompletely understood, but several theories have been proposed, such as the molecular mimicry theory, which describes the production of anti-β2-glycoprotein I (GP1) antibody in response to infection. The process is complex and involves the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), which triggers a cytokine storm, followed by endothelial alterations that induce a procoagulant state. PMID:26209907

  4. [Phytotherapy of respiratory tract diseases].

    PubMed

    Bylka, Wiesława; Witkowska-Banaszczak, Ewa; Studzińska-Sroka, Elzbieta; Matławska, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been used in cough due to their antitussive and expectorant activity. Antitussives act either centrally on the cough center of the brain or peripherally on the cough receptors in the respiratory passages. The antitussive effect of many herbs results from the content of mucilage, which exerts protective and demulcent activity. The activity of expectorant herbs results primarily from their influence on the gastric mucose (saponins and ipec alkaloids). This proves reflex stimulation which leads to an increase in the secretion of bronchial glands. Volatile-oil type expectorant herbs exert a direct stimulatory effect on the bronchial glands by means of local irritation with antibacterial activity. In colds and flu, herbs containing volatile oil can be used; also, volatile oils are ingredients of syrups and liquids as well as external phytomedicines in the form of liniments, ointments, and inhalations. The paper shows the herbs and phytomedicines present on the Polish market used for the treatment of respiratory tract diseases. PMID:23289257

  5. Management strategies for infectious diseases in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Guerina, N G

    1994-08-01

    This review presented the clinical manifestations, diagnostic and therapeutic options, and preventive strategies for several congenital infections. The infections discussed show the spectrum of modes of vertical transmission and severity of fetal disease encountered, in addition to the successes and limitations of the current medical interventions. Further improvements in diagnostic techniques and therapies for managing the infected fetus are likely to occur during the next decade. Similarly, the widespread adaptation of new and sensitive diagnostic assays, such as the polymerase chain reaction, is likely to further improve our ability to identify infectious agents as the primary cause of certain abnormal fetal conditions. Where specific diagnostic tests and therapies have proven successful in preventing or treating fetal infections, universal screening programs should be given serious consideration. Of paramount importance, however, is the active research on the development of preventive interventions designed to prevent maternal infections and vertical transmission. Although specific immunotherapies, vaccines, and drug therapies hold great promise for controlling the spread of some infections, it cannot be overemphasized that some serious infectious complications of pregnancy may be avoided by simple preconception or early antenatal maternal counseling. PMID:7985043

  6. Perspectives and research challenges in veterinary infectious diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Veterinary Infectious Disease specialty section seeks to become an outlet for veterinary research into infectious diseases through the study of the pathogen or its host or the host's environment or by addressing combinations of these aspects of the disease system. We vision research in this are...

  7. Behavioural phenotypes predict disease susceptibility and infectiousness.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Alessandra; Kirschman, Lucas; Warne, Robin W

    2016-08-01

    Behavioural phenotypes may provide a means for identifying individuals that disproportionally contribute to disease spread and epizootic outbreaks. For example, bolder phenotypes may experience greater exposure and susceptibility to pathogenic infection because of distinct interactions with conspecifics and their environment. We tested the value of behavioural phenotypes in larval amphibians for predicting ranavirus transmission in experimental trials. We found that behavioural phenotypes characterized by latency-to-food and swimming profiles were predictive of disease susceptibility and infectiousness defined as the capacity of an infected host to transmit an infection by contacts. While viral shedding rates were positively associated with transmission, we also found an inverse relationship between contacts and infections. Together these results suggest intrinsic traits that influence behaviour and the quantity of pathogens shed during conspecific interactions may be an important contributor to ranavirus transmission. These results suggest that behavioural phenotypes provide a means to identify individuals more likely to spread disease and thus give insights into disease outbreaks that threaten wildlife and humans. PMID:27555652

  8. Role of Glycosaminoglycans in Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jinno, Akiko; Park, Pyong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been shown to bind to a wide variety of microbial pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi in vitro. GAGs are thought to promote pathogenesis by facilitating pathogen attachment, invasion, or evasion of host defense mechanisms. However, the role of GAGs in infectious disease has not been extensively studied in vivo and therefore their pathophysiological significance and functions are largely unknown. Here we describe methods to directly investigate the role of GAGs in infections in vivo using mouse models of bacterial lung and corneal infection. The overall experimental strategy is to establish the importance and specificity of GAGs, define the essential structural features of GAGs, and identify a biological activity of GAGs that promotes pathogenesis. PMID:25325982

  9. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  10. Integrated Amplification Microarrays for Infectious Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Bryant, Lexi; Griesemer, Sara B.; Gu, Rui; Knickerbocker, Christopher; Kukhtin, Alexander; Parker, Jennifer; Zimmerman, Cynthia; George, Kirsten St.; Cooney, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    This overview describes microarray-based tests that combine solution-phase amplification chemistry and microarray hybridization within a single microfluidic chamber. The integrated biochemical approach improves microarray workflow for diagnostic applications by reducing the number of steps and minimizing the potential for sample or amplicon cross-contamination. Examples described herein illustrate a basic, integrated approach for DNA and RNA genomes, and a simple consumable architecture for incorporating wash steps while retaining an entirely closed system. It is anticipated that integrated microarray biochemistry will provide an opportunity to significantly reduce the complexity and cost of microarray consumables, equipment, and workflow, which in turn will enable a broader spectrum of users to exploit the intrinsic multiplexing power of microarrays for infectious disease diagnostics.

  11. Prevalence of infectious pathogens in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Knösel, Thomas; Schewe, Christiane; Petersen, Nanni; Dietel, Manfred; Petersen, Iver

    2009-01-01

    The importance of infectious pathogens in Crohn's disease (CD) is still under debate. Therefore, we examined a panel of potential viral and bacterial pathogens in a large series of CD patients and controls. Archival tissue from 76 patients, 56 with CD and 20 control patients, with normal colon mucosa (n=10) and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced colitis (n=10) were examined using PCR-based detection methods for human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1, 2 (HSV1,2), adenovirus (AD), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human herpes virus 6 (HHV6), human herpes virus 8 (HHV8), Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Mtbc), atypical mycobacteria (nM/MG1), including Mycobacterium avium (subspecies paratuberculosis, MAP), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Sm), and Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). In CD patients, positive PCR results were achieved in 19 cases (34%). Sm was most frequent in 10 of 56 cases (17.9%) followed by EBV (6/56, 10.7%), nM/MG1 (4/56, 7.1%), including MAP, HHV6, and CMV (2/56, 3.6%), and finally Mtbc and AD (1/56, 1.8%). The control patients showed positive PCR results in 12 patients (12/20, 60%), nine of them with only weak signals, suggesting a persistent infection. In addition, we compared typical pathomorphological features of CD patients with the PCR results and found a significant correlation between EBV infection and mural abscesses (P=0.014). Our data demonstrate that several potential pathogens can be detected in a sizeable fraction of specimens from patients with CD, but also in control patients, suggesting that the analyzed infectious pathogens may be associated with the disease, but do not represent an obligatory cause. PMID:19186006

  12. Route prediction model of infectious diseases for 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Lee, Taikjin

    2014-03-01

    There are many types of respiratory infectious diseases caused by germs, virus, mycetes and parasites. Researchers recently have tried to develop mathematical models to predict the epidemic of infectious diseases. However, with the development of ground transportation system in modern society, the spread of infectious diseases became faster and more complicated in terms of the speed and the pathways. The route of infectious diseases during Vancouver Olympics was predicted based on the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. In this model only the air traffic as an essential factor for the intercity migration of infectious diseases was involved. Here, we propose a multi-city transmission model to predict the infection route during 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea based on the pre-existing SIR model. Various types of transportation system such as a train, a car, a bus, and an airplane for the interpersonal contact in both inter- and intra-city are considered. Simulation is performed with assumptions and scenarios based on realistic factors including demographic, transportation and diseases data in Korea. Finally, we analyze an economic profit and loss caused by the variation of the number of tourists during the Olympics.

  13. Core bead chromatography for preparation of highly pure, infectious respiratory syncytial virus in the negative purification mode.

    PubMed

    Mundle, Sophia T; Kishko, Michael; Groppo, Rachel; DiNapoli, Joshua; Hamberger, John; McNeil, Bryan; Kleanthous, Harry; Parrington, Mark; Zhang, Linong; Anderson, Stephen F

    2016-07-12

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important human pathogen, and is the most frequent viral cause of severe respiratory disease in infants. In addition, it is increasingly being recognized as an important cause of respiratory disease in the elderly and immunocompromised. Although a passive prophylactic treatment does exist for high-risk neonates and children, the overall disease burden warrants the development of a safe and effective prophylactic vaccine for use in otherwise healthy newborns and children. RSV is known to be an extremely labile virus, prone to aggregation and loss of infectious titer during virus handling and preparation procedures. To date infective RSV virions have been prepared by methods which are not readily scalable, such as density gradient ultracentrifugation. In this study we describe a scalable, chromatography-based purification procedure for preparation of highly pure, infectious RSV. The purification scheme is based on core bead technology and hollow fiber tangential flow filtration (TFF) and results in a ∼60% recovery of infectious virus titer. This method can be used to prepare highly purified wild type or live-attenuated vaccine strain viruses with titers as high as 1×10(8) plaque forming units per mL. A live-attenuated RSV vaccine prepared by this method was found to be immunogenic and protective in vivo, and its purity was 50-200-fold greater with respect to host cell dsDNA and Vero host cell proteins, than the raw feed stream. The results presented here can be considered a starting point for downstream process development of a live-attenuated vaccine approach for prevention of disease by RSV. PMID:27238375

  14. Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Oaten, Megan J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another—the focus of this theme issue—has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick—stigmatization—and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process—moralization—can be co-opted to promote human health. PMID:22042913

  15. The effect of global warming on infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-12-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted. PMID:24159433

  16. [Historical notes on Infectious Diseases Hospital Francisco Javier Muñiz in Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Laval, Enrique

    2012-08-01

    The Infectious Diseases Hospital Francisco Javier Muñiz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, is the oldest in Latin America. It is over 100 years old and has a history worthy of pride. It became known as "Hospital of the pests" and was preceded by the old House of Insulation, which served as a quarantine station during epidemics of cholera, yellow fever and smallpox. The new House of Insulation, built in the neighborhood of Parque Patricios ("Barracks Hospital"), was renamed in 1904 in memory of Francisco Javier Muñiz, a former military doctor, naturalist and paleontologist. Its technical name is "Porteño Care Centre and National Reference Regional Infectious-Contagious Disease". It receives numerous national and foreign undergraduate and postgraduate students in its Departments of Infectious Diseases and Respiratory Diseases. PMID:23096553

  17. How infectious disease outbreaks affect community-based primary care physicians

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkimainen, R. Liisa; Bondy, Susan J.; Parkovnick, Meredith; Barnsley, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare how the infectious disease outbreaks H1N1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) affected community-based GPs and FPs. Design A mailed survey sent after the H1N1 outbreak compared with the results of similar survey completed after the SARS outbreak. Setting Greater Toronto area in Ontario. Participants A total of 183 randomly selected GPs and FPs who provided office-based care. Main outcome measures The perceptions of GPs and FPs on how serious infectious disease outbreaks affected their clinical work and personal lives; their preparedness for a serious infectious disease outbreak; and the types of information they want to receive and the sources they wanted to receive information from during a serious infectious disease outbreak. The responses from this survey were compared with the responses of GPs and FPs in the greater Toronto area who completed a similar survey in 2003 after the SARS outbreak. Results After the H1N1 outbreak, GPs and FPs still had substantial concerns about the effects of serious infectious disease outbreaks on the health of their family members. Physicians made changes to various office practices in order to manage and deal with patients with serious infectious diseases. They expressed concerns about the effects of an infectious disease on the provision of health care services. Also, physicians wanted to quickly receive accurate information from the provincial government and their medical associations. Conclusion Serious community-based infectious diseases are a personal concern for GPs and FPs, and have considerable effects on their clinical practice. Further work examining the timely flow of relevant information through different health care sectors and government agencies still needs to be undertaken. PMID:25316747

  18. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  19. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration – will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts – including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities. PMID:26151221

  20. Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Spain, 1980–2011

    PubMed Central

    Llácer, Alicia; Palmera-Suárez, Rocio; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Savulescu, Camelia; González-Yuste, Paloma; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Using mortality data from National Institute of Statistics in Spain, we analyzed trends of infectious disease mortality rates in Spain during 1980–2011 to provide information on surveillance and control of infectious diseases. During the study period, 628,673 infectious disease–related deaths occurred, the annual change in the mortality rate was −1.6%, and the average infectious disease mortality rate was 48.5 deaths/100,000 population. Although the beginning of HIV/AIDS epidemic led to an increased mortality rate, a decreased rate was observed by the end of the twentieth century. By codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, the most frequent underlying cause of death was pneumonia. Emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases continue to be public health problems despite reduced mortality rates produced by various interventions. Therefore, surveillance and control systems should be reinforced with a goal of providing reliable data for useful decision making. PMID:24750997

  1. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoproteins gB and gD protect chickens against ILTV and NDV challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is mainly controlled through biosecurity and vaccination with live-attenuated strains of the virus and vectored vaccines based on turkey he...

  2. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Glasziou, P P; Mackerras, D E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity and mortality from infectious disease. DESIGN--A meta-analysis aimed at identifying and combining mortality and morbidity data from all randomised controlled trials of vitamin A. RESULTS--Of 20 controlled trials identified, 12 trials were randomised trials and provided "intention to treat" data: six community trials in developing countries, three in children admitted to hospital with measles, and three in very low birth weight infants. Combined results for community studies suggest a reduction of 30% (95% confidence interval 21% to 38%; two tailed p < 0.0000001) in all cause mortality. Analysis of cause specific mortality showed a reduction in deaths from diarrhoeal disease (in community studies) by 39% (24% to 50%; two tailed p < 0.00001); from respiratory disease (in measles studies) by 70% (15% to 90%; two tailed p = 0.02); and from other causes of death (in community studies) by 34% (15% to 48%; two tailed p = 0.001). Reductions in morbidity were consistent with the findings for mortality, but fewer data were available. CONCLUSIONS--Adequate supply of vitamin A, either through supplementation or adequate diet, has a major role in preventing morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. In developed countries vitamin A may also have a role in those with life threatening infections such as measles and those who may have a relative deficiency, such as premature infants. PMID:8461682

  3. Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. PMID:23365758

  4. Cardiac and Respiratory Disease in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Marr, Celia M

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory and cardiac diseases are common in older horses. Advancing age is a specific risk factor for cardiac murmurs and these are more likely in males and small horses. Airway inflammation is the most common respiratory diagnosis. Recurrent airway obstruction can lead to irreversible structural change and bronchiectasis; with chronic hypoxia, right heart dysfunction and failure can develop. Valvular heart disease most often affects the aortic and/or the mitral valve. Management of comorbidity is an essential element of the therapeutic approach to cardiac and respiratory disease in older equids. PMID:27329492

  5. A review of infectious gill disease in marine salmonid fish.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, S O; Rodger, H D

    2011-06-01

    Infectious gill diseases of marine salmonid fish present a significant challenge in salmon-farming regions. Infectious syndromes or disease conditions affecting marine-farmed salmonids include amoebic gill disease (AGD), proliferative gill inflammation (PGI) and tenacibaculosis. Pathogens involved include parasites, such as Neoparamoeba perurans, bacteria, such as Piscichlamydia salmonis and Tenacibaculum maritimum, and viruses, such as the Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV). The present level of understanding of these is reviewed with regard to risk factors, potential impacting factors, methods of best practice to mitigate infectious gill disease, as well as knowledge gaps and avenues for future research. PMID:21401646

  6. Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues. PMID:21437001

  7. Current applications of nanoparticles in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Zazo, Hinojal; Colino, Clara I; Lanao, José M

    2016-02-28

    For decades infections have been treated easily with drugs. However, in the 21st century, they may become lethal again owing to the development of antimicrobial resistance. Pathogens can become resistant by means of different mechanisms, such as increasing the time they spend in the intracellular environment, where drugs are unable to reach therapeutic levels. Moreover, drugs are also subject to certain problems that decrease their efficacy. This requires the use of high doses, and frequent administrations must be implemented, causing adverse side effects or toxicity. The use of nanoparticle systems can help to overcome such problems and increase drug efficacy. Accordingly, there is considerable current interest in their use as antimicrobial agents against different pathogens like bacteria, virus, fungi or parasites, multidrug-resistant strains and biofilms; as targeting vectors towards specific tissues; as vaccines and as theranostic systems. This review begins with an overview of the different types and characteristics of nanoparticles used to deliver drugs to the target, followed by a review of current research and clinical trials addressing the use of nanoparticles within the field of infectious diseases. PMID:26772877

  8. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen

  9. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  10. A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  11. [Revealing of tuberculosis in an infectious diseases hospital of a megalopolis].

    PubMed

    Malashenkov, E A; Ivanovskiĭ, V B

    2007-01-01

    The advisory work of the phthisiatrician in an infectious diseases hospital was analyzed; the analysis revealed that in 2005 tuberculose changes of various degrees of activity had been revealed in 42.5% of examined patients, and 32.1% of them were subjects in whom tuberculosis of diferent localizations had been revealed for the first time. In 43.2% of the latter subjects, the reasons for hospitalization were "clinical masks" of tuberculose process (influenza, acute respiratory viral disease), while 48.6% were hospitalized for gastrointestinal infections and viral hepatitis. In 20.7% of cases tuberculosis was combined with HIV infection. In the infectious diseases hospital, 16.2% of patients with active tuberculosis died. Among the patients treated in the infectious diseases hospital during one year, the proportion of patients with active tuberculosis was 1.44%, the proportion of those in whom the process was revealed for the first time, was 0.75%. In Botkin infectious diseases hospital, there were approximately 6% of patients in whom tuberculose process was revealed for the first time in Saint Petersburg. The peculiarities of this group of patients in an infectious diseases hospital require not only tuberculose alertness, but also reinforcement of phthisiatric, radiological, and laboratory services. PMID:17926491

  12. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition. Results Gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases accounted for 33% of illnesses, followed by febrile systemic illnesses (20%), dermatological conditions (12%) and respiratory illnesses (8%). There were 3 deaths recorded; a sepsis caused by Escherichia coli pyelonephritis, a dengue shock syndrome and a Plasmodium falciparum malaria. GI conditions included bacterial acute diarrhea (6.9%), as well as giardiasis and amebasis (2.3%). Among febrile systemic illnesses with identified pathogens, malaria (5.4%) accounted for most cases followed by dengue (1.9%) and others including chikungunya, rickettsial diseases, leptospirosis, brucellosis, Epstein Barr virus infections, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and viral hepatitis. Dermatological conditions were dominated by bacterial infections, arthropod bites, cutaneous larva migrans and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and also leishmaniasis, myasis, tungiasis and one case of leprosy. Respiratory illness included 112 cases of tuberculosis including cases of multi-drug resistant or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, 104 cases of influenza like illness, and 5 cases of Legionnaires disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) accounted for 0.6% of total diagnoses and included HIV infection and syphilis. A total of 165 cases of potentially vaccine preventable diseases were reported. Purpose of travel and destination specific risk factors was identified for several diagnoses such as Chagas

  13. Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Infectious Diseases Veterans who were deployed to Southwest Asia (including Iraq) or Afghanistan may experience symptoms of infectious diseases while on active duty, or they may later ...

  14. 78 FR 63999 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Mechanisms of Cellular Immunity in the...

  15. 76 FR 11799 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Host-Pathogen...

  16. 78 FR 3009 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator...

  17. 77 FR 14816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated...

  18. 77 FR 6810 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  19. 78 FR 18355 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  20. 76 FR 13195 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  1. 78 FR 34110 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  2. 78 FR 26644 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units...

  3. 78 FR 76847 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Limited Competition--Multicenter AIDS Cohort...

  4. 78 FR 9404 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  5. 75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

  6. 77 FR 16247 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and... of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Building 31,...

  7. 77 FR 21789 - National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  8. 76 FR 6626 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

  9. 75 FR 22817 - Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation... Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation Safety'' (EID public... of risk from, and prioritization of response to, emerging infectious diseases relevant to...

  10. 77 FR 2736 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...