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Sample records for infects immature stages

  1. Immature Stages of the Neotropical Cracker Butterfly, Hamadryas epinome

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Luis Anderson Ribeiro; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Carneiro, Eduardo; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    The external morphology of the immature stages of Hamadryas epinome (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867) (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae : Biblidinae) is described, including drawings, photos and scanning electron micrographs. PMID:23414072

  2. Mallard survival from local to immature stage in southwestern Saskatchewan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Dzubin, A.; Gollop, J.B.; Nichols, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    We used 3,670 reciveries from 32,647 bandings of mallards in southwestern Saskatchewan during 1956-59 to estimate the probability of surviving from the local, flightless stage to the flighted, immature stage. The probability of surviving from the local to the immature stage was 0.84 +/- 0.05 (SE) for males and females. The geographic distribution of direct recoveries was similar for the birds banded as local and immature. Probabilities of surivival for banded mallards can only be estimated from late summer to late summer. The estimate of survival from local to immature stage fills a gap in our knowledge of mallard mortality from female-brood breakup to the time of banding in late summer.

  3. [Immature stages of Caligo illioneus illioneus (Cramer) (Nymphalidae: Morphinae: Brassolini)].

    PubMed

    Specht, Maria J S; Paluch, Márlon

    2009-01-01

    The biology and external morphology of the immature stages of Caligo illioneus illioneus (Cramer) are described from ovipositions collected on leaves of Heliconia velloziana (Heliconiaceae) in the Atlantic Forest in Pernambuco state, Brazil. PMID:20098927

  4. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae): immature stages and biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) are described, keyed and illustrated. The descritpion of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are body size, color, number...

  5. Immature Stages of Development in the Parasitoid Wasp, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata

    PubMed Central

    Paladino, Leonela Zusel Carabajal; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Cladera, Jorge Luis

    2010-01-01

    The morphological changes experienced during the immature stages of the solitary parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) were studied. This natural enemy of several species of tephritid fruit flies is widely used in biological control strategies. Immature stages are poorly understood in endoparasitoids because they exist within the host. In the present work, developmental processes are described for this species, reared in Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae under controlled environmental conditions. At 25° C, 85% RH, and with an 18:6 L:D photoperiod, preimaginal development takes about 16 days. Five preimaginal stages can be described: egg, three larval instars, prepupa, pupa, and pharate adult. Superparasitism was found in 20% of the host pupae, and the number of oviposition scars was positively correlated with the number of parasitoid larvae per host puparium. The results are compared and discussed with previous studies on related species. PMID:20569133

  6. Immature stages of Adelpha malea goyama Schaus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae).

    PubMed

    Freitas, André V L

    2006-01-01

    The immature stages of Adelpha malea goyama Schaus are described from the Estação Ecol6gica do Caiuá, Paraná State, Brazil. The species uses the native liana Arrabidaea mutabilis Bur. & K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae) as larval hostplant in the study site. Isolated eggs are laid on leaf tips, and are similar in shape to those described for other species of Adelpha Hübner. Larvae pass through five stadia during 21 days, and first to third instars construct frass chains. Later instars rest on the upper leaf surface, and their body is covered by rigid branched scoli. The general profile of the pupa is elongated, with short head horns projecting laterally and with segment A2 projecting and curved anteriorly. Comparisons with closely related species of Adelpha are not conclusive, and more species in the genus need to be reared before a clear pattern of the variation in immature morphology becomes evident. PMID:17144133

  7. Redescription of Amblyomma integrum adults and immature stages.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, D A; Bandaranayaka, K O; Apanaskevich, M A; Rajakaruna, R S

    2016-09-01

    Amblyomma integrum Karsch, 1879 (Acari: Ixodidae) is one of four Amblyomma Koch, 1844 species with eyes found in southern India and Sri Lanka. The immature stages of this species were poorly described. Therefore, accurate identification is difficult. Here we re-describe the male, female, nymph and larva of A. integrum and illustrate all the stages in greater detail for the first time. A set of diagnostic morphological characters is defined to distinguish this species from other sympatric species of eyed Amblyomma in any parasitic stage of development. Adults of A. integrum parasitize mostly various larger mammals whereas nymphs and larvae use mostly larger and medium mammals. Amblyomma integrum is recorded from India (Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Orissa and Tamil Nadu States) and throughout Sri Lanka. PMID:27335249

  8. Catalog of known immature stages of Camptosomate leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae and Lamprosomatinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of syntheses of knowledge on immature stages of insects impedes accurate understanding of their diversity, biology and evolution. In Chrysomelidae, this information gap undermines basic explanations of this lineage’s radiation. Literature describing and discussing known immature stages of cas...

  9. Description of the immature stages of Sigara (Aphelosigara) tucma.

    PubMed

    Konopko, S A

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of the last three nymphal instars of the water boatman Sigara (Aphelosigara) tucma Bachmann (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Corixidae) are provided, for the first time, for specimens collected in northern Argentina; the egg is redescribed. Adults and nymphs were collected in the field. The eggs were obtained by dissection from females. The immature stages were fixed for microscopic examination and illustration and were described with an emphasis on morphometry and chaetotaxy of selected structures. The last three nymphal instars of S. tucma can be easily recognized by the body and head lengths and widths; the number of transverse sulcations of the rostrum; the chaetotaxy of trochanters, protibiotarsus, midlegs, metatibia, and metatarsus; and the grade of development of the wing pads. The eggs of the genus Sigara can be distinguished by the size and the chorionic surface. The chaetotaxy of the mesonotum, metafemur, and metatibia distinguish groups of species belonging to the last nymphal instar of the genus Sigara. A key to the last three nymphal instars of the species of Sigara from Argentina is provided. PMID:25480972

  10. Zoonotic potential of infection with Fasciola spp. by consumption of freshly prepared raw liver containing immature flukes.

    PubMed

    Taira, N; Yoshifuji, H; Boray, J C

    1997-07-01

    Mice were successfully infected with metacercariae of the Japanese Fasciola sp., resulting in the recovery of a mean number of 110 live immature flukes per mouse 4-5 days after inoculation. Twenty-four mice were then inoculated orally, each with a mean number of 68 freshly recovered immature flukes. The livers of 7 of the 24 recipient mice showed migratory lesions of capsular and subcapsular granulomatous infiltration and 2 of those mice also had haemorrhagic lesions. The lesions were typical of those caused by active migration of early immature flukes. However, no flukes were found in the livers of the recipient mice at necropsy when the flukes were aged 14 weeks. In another experiment, 10 piglets were given fresh livers of mice harbouring approximately 2000 live immature flukes aged 3-7 days. Two additional piglets were inoculated with 2000 metacercariae of Fasciola. All pigs were killed when the flukes were 14 days old. Granulomatous lesions were present in all pigs, except in those that were given livers containing flukes aged 7 days. The lesions were localized, forming well-defined foci, different from the typical migratory lesions normally observed in mouse or sheep liver at the early stage of fluke migration. From the 10 pigs given livers, 65 live flukes were recovered at necropsy, 0.29% of the estimated number of immature flukes given. From the 2 pigs which received 2000 metacercariae each, a total of 198 flukes were recovered (5%). The results of the experiments suggest that humans consuming raw liver dishes prepared from fresh livers infected with immature Fasciola spp. could become infected with liver fluke. PMID:9279579

  11. Mesocyclops longisetus effects on survivorship of Aedes aegypti immature stages in car tyres.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Saide, P; Ibáñez-Bernal, S; Delfín-González, H; Parra Tabla, V

    1998-10-01

    The effect of the introduction of the entomophagous copepod Mesocyclops longisetus (Acuacultura F.C.B. strain) on the survival of Aedes aegypti immature stages in car tyres was evaluated under semi-natural conditions in the municipality of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Life tables were constructed for the immature stages of the mosquito in the presence and absence of M. longisetus, and the survival data were compared using log-linear models. The data set was adjusted using the GLIM statistical package and the quality of adjustment was evaluated with a chi-squared test. Survivorship curves were constructed for each treatment. In the absence of M. longisetus, the survivorship of Ae. aegypti immature stages averaged 9%. The highest mortality rate was observed during the fourth larval instar (54%) and the resulting survival pattern corresponded to a type II survivorship curve. The mortality rate of Ae. aegypti first-instar larvae (fifty per tyre) increased more than 200-fold in the presence of M. longisetus (twenty per tyre) and the highest mortality was during the first two larval instars, where it reached 98.9%, with a resulting survivorship of 0.2%. Overall mortality was sixfold greater in the presence of the copepod than in its absence. The survival pattern of immature stages of Ae. aegypti in the presence of the copepod corresponded to a type III survivorship curve. As M. longisetus was so effective against Ae. aegypti immature stages in tyres under seminatural conditions, its long-term effectiveness should be evaluated under socially and ecologically realistic field conditions in Mexico. PMID:9824822

  12. Nest Architecture, Colony Productivity, and Duration of Immature Stages in a Social Wasp, Mischocyttarus consimilis

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Thiago S.; Torres, Viviana O.; Fernandes, Wedson D.; Antonialli-Junior, William F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nest architecture, colony productivity, and duration of the immature stages of the social wasp Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikáán (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The study was carried out under field conditions. Nests of M. consimilis consist of a single uncovered comb, which is attached to the substratum by a single petiole. The data for the nest architecture showed a positive and significant correlation between the size of the comb and the diameter of the petiole, and also between the height and diameter of the cells. The nests were constructed on horizontal, vertical, and sloping substrata with no apparent preference for a specific orientation. The colonies produced 72.9 cells and 40.7 adults on average. The mean frequency of productive cells was 33.3%, and 19.4% of the cells were reused. The mean duration of the immature stages combined was 69.7 days and the egg, larval, and pupal stages had mean durations of 14.9, 36.0, and 18.8 days, respectively. The duration of each immature stage was significantly shorter in the warmhumid season, and the larval and pupal stages were shorter during the colony pre-emergence stage. PMID:21271847

  13. Description of the Immature Stages of the Planthopper Lacertinella australis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Batiz, M. F. Rossi; Lenicov, A. M. Marino de Remes

    2014-01-01

    The five immature stages of the planthopper Lacertinella australis (Remes Lenicov and Rossi Batiz) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Saccharosydnini) are described and illustrated. The main characters that allowed us to distinguish the various stages were body size, number of tarsomeres and metatibial spines, and number of teeth on the spur. New biological data based on laboratory rearing and field observations showed that L. australis can carry out its biological cycle successfully on the graminaceous pampas grass (Cortaderia spp. Stapf (Poales: Poaceae)). In addition, the efficient rearing in captivity, the high survivorship registered, and overwintering only on this host plant suggests that L. australis is a potential biocontrol agent of this invasive graminaceous weed. This study provides information about the immature stages, including a key for their identification, based on laboratory reared specimens and field observations. PMID:25199992

  14. Efficacy of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature and immature adult Trichuris vulpis infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Annette; Altreuther, Gertraut; Schroeder, Iris; Charles, Samuel; Cruthers, Larry; Kok, Dawid J; Kraemer, Friederike; Krieger, Klemens J

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports on the efficacy of a novel flavoured tablet formulation of emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature and immature adult whipworms (Trichuris vulpis) at the proposed minimum dose of 1 mg emodepside and 5 mg praziquantel per kg body weight in dogs. Three randomised, blinded and controlled laboratory studies with naturally or experimentally infected dogs were performed. The first study was conducted as a dose determination study in experimentally infected dogs using three different dose levels, i.e., 0.5x, 1x and 2x the minimum therapeutic dose. Two further studies confirmed the efficacy of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets against mature and immature adult T. vulpis at the recommended minimum dose. In all three studies, the efficacy against mature and immature adult T. vulpis was >99%. No side effects of the treatment were observed. It is concluded that the emodepside plus praziquantel tablet is an effective and safe treatment against mature and immature adult stages of T. vulpis in dogs. PMID:19575221

  15. Delay equation models for populations that experience competition at immature life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong

    2015-09-01

    We consider stage-structured population models of intra- and inter-specific competition at immature life stages. A prototype delay model is derived for a single species that experiences larval competition. Its solutions are bounded for any birth function. Other ways of modelling the birth rate can lead to nonlinear integral equations. In some situations the technique of reducing an age-structured model to a system of delay equations applies. In the case of immature competition the delay equations cannot always be written down explicitly because their right hand sides depend on the solutions of the nonlinear ordinary differential equations that arise when one solves the nonlinear age-structured equations that determine the maturation rates in terms of the birth rates. This situation arises in the case of competition between two strains or species. However, in our two-strain competition model, vital properties of those right hand sides can be indirectly inferred using monotone systems theory.

  16. Description of a New Species of Neoadoxoplatys and Immature Stages of Neoadoxoplatys saileri Kormilev (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Associated with Bamboo.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Peredo, L; Ortega-León, G

    2014-06-01

    Neoadoxoplatys thomasi is described as a new species from Mexico and Venezuela. The immature stages of Neoadoxoplatys saileri Kormilev are presented for the first time. Immature stages are described and illustrated, some bamboo species of Guadua are recorded as hosts, distributional records in Mexico are also included; scanning electron micrographs of the eggs of N. saileri are provided. A key to separate the four known species of Neoadoxoplatys is included. PMID:27193619

  17. Tracking through Life Stages: Adult, Immature and Juvenile Autumn Migration in a Long-Lived Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Péron, Clara; Grémillet, David

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal long-distance migration is likely to be experienced in a contrasted manner by juvenile, immature and adult birds, leading to variations in migratory routes, timing and behaviour. We provide the first analysis of late summer movements and autumn migration in these three life stages, which were tracked concurrently using satellite tags, geolocators or GPS recorders in a long-ranging migratory seabird, the Scopoli’s shearwater (formerly named Cory’s shearwater, Calonectrisdiomedea) breeding on two French Mediterranean islands. During the late breeding season, immatures foraged around their colony like breeding adults, but they were the only group showing potential prospecting movements around non-natal colonies. Global migration routes were broadly comparable between the two populations and the three life stages, with all individuals heading towards the Atlantic Ocean through the strait of Gibraltar and travelling along the West African coast, up to 8000 km from their colony. However, detailed comparison of timing, trajectory and oceanographic conditions experienced by the birds revealed remarkable age-related differences. Compared to adults and immatures, juveniles made a longer stop-over in the Balearic Sea (10 days vs 4 days in average), showed lower synchrony in crossing the Gibraltar strait, had more sinuous pathways and covered longer daily distances (240 km.d-1 vs 170 km.d-1). Analysis of oceanographic habitats along migratory routes revealed funnelling selection of habitat towards coastal and more productive waters with increasing age. Younger birds may have reduced navigational ability and learn progressively fine-scale migration routes towards the more profitable travelling and wintering areas. Our study demonstrates the importance of tracking long-lived species through the stages, to better understand migratory behavior and assess differential exposure to at-sea threats. Shared distribution between life stages and populations make Scopoli

  18. Tracking through life stages: adult, immature and juvenile autumn migration in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Péron, Clara; Grémillet, David

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal long-distance migration is likely to be experienced in a contrasted manner by juvenile, immature and adult birds, leading to variations in migratory routes, timing and behaviour. We provide the first analysis of late summer movements and autumn migration in these three life stages, which were tracked concurrently using satellite tags, geolocators or GPS recorders in a long-ranging migratory seabird, the Scopoli's shearwater (formerly named Cory's shearwater, Calonectrisdiomedea) breeding on two French Mediterranean islands. During the late breeding season, immatures foraged around their colony like breeding adults, but they were the only group showing potential prospecting movements around non-natal colonies. Global migration routes were broadly comparable between the two populations and the three life stages, with all individuals heading towards the Atlantic Ocean through the strait of Gibraltar and travelling along the West African coast, up to 8000 km from their colony. However, detailed comparison of timing, trajectory and oceanographic conditions experienced by the birds revealed remarkable age-related differences. Compared to adults and immatures, juveniles made a longer stop-over in the Balearic Sea (10 days vs 4 days in average), showed lower synchrony in crossing the Gibraltar strait, had more sinuous pathways and covered longer daily distances (240 km.d(-1) vs 170 km.d(-1)). Analysis of oceanographic habitats along migratory routes revealed funnelling selection of habitat towards coastal and more productive waters with increasing age. Younger birds may have reduced navigational ability and learn progressively fine-scale migration routes towards the more profitable travelling and wintering areas. Our study demonstrates the importance of tracking long-lived species through the stages, to better understand migratory behavior and assess differential exposure to at-sea threats. Shared distribution between life stages and populations make Scopoli

  19. Impact of the neonicotinoid acetamiprid on immature stages of the predator Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Fogel, Marilina N; Schneider, Marcela Inés; Desneux, Nicolas; González, Belén; Ronco, Alicia E

    2013-08-01

    Eriopis connexa is a native coccinelid predator in the Neotropical Region. In Argentina it is commonly found associated to sucking pests in several crops and among them aphids and whiteflies. These pests are usually controlled with newly developed systemic insecticides, such as the neonicotinoids. However, the compatibility between selective pesticides and natural enemies is required before incorporating them in integrated pest management (IPM) packages. Within this frame, the objective of this study was to evaluate the side effect of various concentrations/doses of one commonly used neonicotinoid in vegetal crops, acetamiprid, on immature stages of E. connexa by dipping or topical exposure for eggs and larvae, respectively. Acetamiprid reduced egg hatching from 34 to 100 %. Moreover, the embryogenesis was disrupted by insecticide at early embryo stage at all tested concentrations. Second larval instar was more susceptible to acetamiprid than the fourth one and this susceptibility was positively related with the tested concentrations. On the other hand, the survival reduction at larval stage reached 100 % from 20 mg a.i./L (10 % of maximum field concentration). Besides, the reproduction of the females developed from topical bioassays on fourth instar larvae was strongly affected, with reduction in fecundity and fertility from 22 to 44 % and from 37 to 45 %, respectively. Overall the results showed a high toxicity of acetamiprid on immature stages of E. connexa, demonstrating that this broadly used insecticide could reduce biocontrol services provided by this predator and could also likely disturb IPM programs. PMID:23793295

  20. Wolbachia Infection and Resource Competition Effects on Immature Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gavotte, Laurent; Mercer, David R.; Vandyke, Rhonda; Mains, James W.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis Hertig and Wolbach (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) are intracellular α-proteobacteria that occur naturally in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) and numerous other invertebrates. These endosymbionts can invade host populations by manipulating host reproduction. Wolbachia infections have been shown to impart both costs and benefits to hosts in terms of development, survival, and fecundity. Here, we monitor intraspecific competition among independent cohorts of infected or uninfected larvae. Levels of competition are manipulated by varying initial larval densities and food levels. Although larval density is observed to have major impacts on immature survivorship, sex ratio of eclosing adults, and developmental rates, the Wolbachia infection status had minimal impact on male immatures and no effect on immature females under these experimental conditions. Female and male immatures were observed to respond differently to competitive pressure, with the functional relationships of females and males consistent with scramble and contest competition, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to the evolution of naturally occurring Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus (i.e., natural population replacement events) and public health strategies that propose the manipulation of Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus populations. PMID:19496412

  1. Ultrastructure of immature stages of the black dump fly: Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Muscidae: Azeliinae).

    PubMed

    Cortinhas, Lucas Barbosa; Mendonça, Paloma Martins; Barbosa, Rodrigo Rocha; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Ophyra aenescens (black dump fly) originally belonged to the New World, however, now it is spread worldwide. This fly is a mechanical vector of some pathogenic microorganisms and eggs of the human botfly (Dermatobia hominis). The adults are associated with decaying matter and the immature stages colonize animal and human corpses. It is considered an important muscid species for forensic entomology. The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of the eggs, the three larval instars and the puparia of O. aenescens using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The spiracular opening of the first instar has an interruption in the middle of its length. Comparing to the other instar, the ventral tubercles are only developed in the first instar. The anterior spiracles have a variation in the numbers of spiracular ramification. The puparia morphology is similar to the third instar larvae, however the cephalic region is retracted and on the third thoracic segment, a respiratory structure is present. In conclusion, the SEM technique used and the results obtained are helpful to describe and differentiate the immature stages of O. aenescens and consequently support forensic and medical entomology. PMID:26943996

  2. Infection of Immature Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) by Membrane Feeding.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jonathan D; Lynn, Geoffrey E; Burkhardt, Nicole Y; Price, Lisa D; Nelson, Curtis M; Kurtti, Timothy J; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2016-03-01

    A reduction in the use of animals in infectious disease research is desirable for animal welfare as well as for simplification and standardization of experiments. An artificial silicone-based membrane-feeding system was adapted for complete engorgement of adult and nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), and for infecting nymphs with pathogenic, tick-borne bacteria. Six wild-type and genetically transformed strains of four species of bacteria were inoculated into sterile bovine blood and fed to ticks. Pathogens were consistently detected in replete nymphs by polymerase chain reaction. Adult ticks that ingested bacteria as nymphs were evaluated for transstadial transmission. Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia muris-like agent showed high rates of transstadial transmission to adult ticks, whereas Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia monacensis demonstrated low rates of transstadial transmission/maintenance. Artificial membrane feeding can be used to routinely maintain nymphal and adult I. scapularis, and infect nymphs with tick-borne pathogens. PMID:26721866

  3. Immature stages of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): developmental parameters and host plants.

    PubMed

    Montezano, Débora Goulart; Specht, Alexandre; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel Ricardo; Roque-Specht, Vânia Ferreira; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to detail the temporal and morphological parameters of the immature stages of southern armyworm Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782) with larvae feed on artificial diet, under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 14-h photophase) and gather information about their larval host plants. The viability of the egg, larval, pupal, and prepupal stages was 97.82, 93.62, 96.42, and 97.03%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larval, pupal, and pre-pupal stages was 4.00, 16.18, 1.58, and 9.17 d, respectively. During the larval stage, 43.44% of females passed through seven instars, observing that the female's development was significant slower than males. The female larvae that developed through six and seven instars exhibited a mean growth rate of 1.52 and 1.44, respectively. Female pupae were significantly larger, exhibiting faster development than males. The rearing method proved to be adequate, providing more detailed observations of the biological cycle, especially at the larval stage, and resulting in an overall survival of almost 85%. Two hundred two plant species belonging to 58 families are listed as natural hosts for S. eridania, mainly including Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Malvaceae. PMID:25525103

  4. Sox10 is required for Schwann cell identity and progression beyond the immature Schwann cell stage.

    PubMed

    Finzsch, Markus; Schreiner, Silke; Kichko, Tatjana; Reeh, Peter; Tamm, Ernst R; Bösl, Michael R; Meijer, Dies; Wegner, Michael

    2010-05-17

    Mutations in the transcription factor SOX10 cause neurocristopathies, including Waardenburg-Hirschsprung syndrome and peripheral neuropathies in humans. This is partly attributed to a requirement for Sox10 in early neural crest for survival, maintenance of pluripotency, and specification to several cell lineages, including peripheral glia. As a consequence, peripheral glia are absent in Sox10-deficient mice. Intriguingly, Sox10 continues to be expressed in these cells after specification. To analyze glial functions after specification, we specifically deleted Sox10 in immature Schwann cells by conditional mutagenesis. Mutant mice died from peripheral neuropathy before the seventh postnatal week. Nerve alterations included a thinned perineurial sheath, increased lipid and collagen deposition, and a dramatically altered cellular composition. Nerve conduction was also grossly aberrant, and neither myelinating nor nonmyelinating Schwann cells formed. Instead, axons of different sizes remained unsorted in large bundles. Schwann cells failed to develop beyond the immature stage and were unable to maintain identity. Thus, our study identifies a novel cause for peripheral neuropathies in patients with SOX10 mutations. PMID:20457761

  5. Micromorphology of immature stages of Sarcophaga (Liopygia) cultellata Pandellé, 1896 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a forensically important fly.

    PubMed

    Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás; Paños, Ángela; García, María-Dolores; Presa, Juan-José; Torres, Belén; Arnaldos, María-Isabel

    2015-02-01

    The Sarcophagidae are one of the most numerous groups of Diptera in the world, consisting of many species of forensic interest, whose immature stages are useful in the estimation of postmortem interval. The immature stages of some species of forensic importance still remain unknown or undescribed, like in the case of Sarcophaga (Liopygia) cultellata Pandellé, 1986, a species restricted to the Iberian Peninsula, south of France and north of Italy, which shares a ecological niche with species of the same subgenus, e.g., Sarcophaga (Liopygia) argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) and Sarcophaga (Liopygia) crassipalpis Macquart, 1839, making it necessary to lay the groundwork for a proper specific differentiation before it can be successfully applied in forensic practice. This study provides the first micromorphological description of all preimaginal stages of S. (L.) cultellata using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the results of which allow the morphology of the main features to be followed during the immature life cycle. We propose a combination of features for distinguishing Liopygia from other sarcophagid subgenera, based on the current level of morphological knowledge of immature stages. S. (L.) cultellata can be differentiated from S. (L.) argyrostoma and S. (L.) crassipalpis in every immature stage by both light microscopy and SEM. The presence of tegumental warts and a fan-shaped anterior spiracle with a single row of 15-18 respiratory papillae allow distinguishing the third instar larvae of S. (L.) cultellata from other Sarcophaga species described hitherto by SEM. Identification keys based on light microscopy observations are provided, covering all the immature stages of Liopygia subgenus occurring in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:25429757

  6. Efficacy of Cyclooctadepsipeptides and Aminophenylamidines against Larval, Immature and Mature Adult Stages of a Parasitologically Characterized Trichurosis Model in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kulke, Daniel; Krücken, Jürgen; Harder, Achim; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Trichuris includes parasites of major relevance in veterinary and human medicine. Despite serious economic losses and enormous impact on public health, treatment options against whipworms are very limited. Additionally, there is an obvious lack of appropriately characterized experimental infection models. Therefore, a detailed parasitological characterization of a Trichuris muris isolate was performed in C57BL/10 mice. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacies of the aminophenylamidines amidantel, deacylated amidantel (dAMD) and tribendimidine as well as the cyclooctadepsipeptides emodepside and in particular PF1022A were analyzed. This was performed using various administration routes and treatment schemes targeting histotropic and further developed larval as well as immature and mature adult stages. Methodology/Principal Findings Duration of prepatent period, time-dependent localization of larvae during period of prepatency as well as the duration of patency of the infection were determined before drugs were tested in the characterized trichurosis model. Amidantel showed no effect against mature adult T. muris. Tribendimidine showed significantly higher potency than dAMD after oral treatments (ED50 values of 6.5 vs. 15.1 mg/kg). However, the opposite was found for intraperitoneal treatments (ED50 values of 15.3 vs. 8.3 mg/kg). When emodepside and PF1022A were compared, the latter was significantly less effective against mature adults following intraperitoneal (ED50 values of 6.1 vs. 55.7 mg/kg) or subcutaneous (ED50 values of 15.2 vs. 225.7 mg/kg) administration. Only minimal differences were observed following oral administration (ED50 values of 2.7 vs. 5.2 mg/kg). Triple and most single oral doses with moderate to high dosages of PF1022A showed complete efficacy against histotropic second stage larvae (3×100 mg/kg or 1×250 mg/kg), further developed larvae (3×10 mg/kg or 1×100 mg/kg) and immature adults (3×10 mg/kg or 1×100 mg

  7. Biology and External Morphology of the Immature Stages of the Butterfly Callicore pygas eucale, with Comments on the Taxonomy of the Genus Callicore (Nymphalidae: Biblidinae)

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The biology and the external morphology of the immature stages of Callicore pygas eucale (Fruhstorfer, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae) are described. Immatures were collected on Allophylus edulis (Radlkofer) (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, and reared in the laboratory. Morphological descriptions and illustrations are given based on observations through electronic, stereoscopic, and optic microscopes, the latter two attached to a camera lucida. Results are compared and discussed with the immature stages of other species of the subtribe Callicorina. Immature stages data provide further evidence that Callicore is paraphyletic and that generic limits within the Callicorina need revision. PMID:25368047

  8. The Immature Stages and Natural History of Veladyris pardalis (Salvin, 1869) in Eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Lthomiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Greeney, Harold F.; Hill, Ryan I.; Rosendo Simbaña, Wilmer; Gentry, Grant

    2009-01-01

    We describe the immature stages and oviposition behavior of Veladyris pardalis (Salvin, 1869) from northeastern Ecuador. An unidentified species of Solanum (Solanaceae) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly on leaves, stems or epiphytes growing on the host. Veladyris pardalis has four larval stadia, and takes 64–70 days to mature from oviposition to adult. PMID:19619012

  9. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in far eastern Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in southern Khabarovskiy Kray (Khabarovsk area) and Primorskiy Kray (Vladivostok area) to investigate the occurrence of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. Survey findings ind...

  10. Description of the egg and immature stages of Martarega lofoides Padilla-Gil, 2010 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Notonectidae).

    PubMed

    Padilla-Gil, Dora N

    2015-01-01

    The egg and five nymphal stages, of the Neotropical species Martarega lofoides are described and illustrated for the first time. The immature stages are very similar, differing mainly in the body length, width of the body, head and pronotum, degree of wing pads development, synthlipsis width, and pattern of setae on the ventral abdomen. Adults and nymphs used in this study were collected from the Caunapi River in the Pacific region of southwestern Colombia. PMID:25781406

  11. Susceptibility of immature stages of Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to selected insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of immatures of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), to 10 insecticides that included chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, endosulfan, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam was evaluated...

  12. Morphology and development rate of the immature stages of Glyphidops (Oncopsia) flavifrons (Bigot, 1886) (Diptera, Neriidae) under natural conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Andrés Felipe Vinasco; Gironza, Nancy Soraya Carrejo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Of the 116 Neriidae species known to date, 113 species have not been studied in their immature stages. Here, we examine the development of the immature stages of Glyphidops (Oncopsia) flavifrons (Bigot, 1886), which has one of the broadest distributions of Neriidae in southern North America, Central America, and South America; offering excellent opportunities for biological studies. A population of this species was monitored over a five month period. The following characteristics were tracked for a population located on the University of Valle campus in Cali, Colombia: oviposition duration, number of eggs per egg mass and lifespan of each immature stage (egg, larva, and puparium) under natural conditions (in situ). The external morphology of the egg, larva, and puparium were described; their stages lasted 58 (± 4) hours, 10 (± 1) days and 13 (± 1) days, respectively. The lapse of time for each larval instar was statistically supported by using Tukey comparisons and cluster analysis of hypopharyngeal sclerite length and mandibular area. In addition, it was also sustained throughout the morphological study of structural changes in mouth hook, and anterior and posterior spiracles. Finally, the presence of the labial and epipharyngeal sclerites are reported as new characters of Nerioidea. Natural history data are provided. PMID:27551201

  13. Morphology and development rate of the immature stages of Glyphidops (Oncopsia) flavifrons (Bigot, 1886) (Diptera, Neriidae) under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, Andrés Felipe Vinasco; Gironza, Nancy Soraya Carrejo

    2016-01-01

    Of the 116 Neriidae species known to date, 113 species have not been studied in their immature stages. Here, we examine the development of the immature stages of Glyphidops (Oncopsia) flavifrons (Bigot, 1886), which has one of the broadest distributions of Neriidae in southern North America, Central America, and South America; offering excellent opportunities for biological studies. A population of this species was monitored over a five month period. The following characteristics were tracked for a population located on the University of Valle campus in Cali, Colombia: oviposition duration, number of eggs per egg mass and lifespan of each immature stage (egg, larva, and puparium) under natural conditions (in situ). The external morphology of the egg, larva, and puparium were described; their stages lasted 58 (± 4) hours, 10 (± 1) days and 13 (± 1) days, respectively. The lapse of time for each larval instar was statistically supported by using Tukey comparisons and cluster analysis of hypopharyngeal sclerite length and mandibular area. In addition, it was also sustained throughout the morphological study of structural changes in mouth hook, and anterior and posterior spiracles. Finally, the presence of the labial and epipharyngeal sclerites are reported as new characters of Nerioidea. Natural history data are provided. PMID:27551201

  14. A new genus and species of demodecid mites from the tongue of a house mouse Mus musculus: description of adult and immature stages with data on parasitism.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, J N; Rolbiecki, L

    2016-06-01

    The study of the parasitofauna of the house mouse Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae) Linnaeus is particularly important owing to its multiple relationships with humans - as a cosmopolitan, synanthropic rodent, bred for pets, food for other animals or laboratory animal. This article proposes and describes a new genus and species of the parasitic mite based on adult and immature stages from the house mouse. Glossicodex musculi gen. n., sp. n. is a medium-sized demodecid mite (adult stages on average 199 µm in length) found in mouse tissue of the tongue. It is characterized by two large, hooked claws on each tarsus of the legs; the legs are relatively massive, consisting of large, non-overlapping segments. The palps consist of three slender, clearly separated, relatively narrow segments, wherein their coxal segments are also quite narrow and spaced. Also, segments of the palps of larva and nymphs are clearly isolated, and on the terminal segment, trident claws that resemble legs' claws can be found. On the ventral side, in immature stages, triangular scuta, topped with sclerotized spur, can be also observed. Glossicodex musculi was noted in 10.8% of mice with a mean infection intensity of 2.2 parasites per host. PMID:26991770

  15. Biology and immature stages of Pherbellia limbata (Diptera: Sciomyzidae), a parasitoid of the terrestrial snail Granaria frumentum.

    PubMed

    Nerudová-Horsáková, Jana; Murphy, William L; Vala, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The very rare Palaearctic Pherbellia limbata (Meigen, 1830) lives in limestone steppes and other xerothermic habitats in central and southern Europe. For the first time, the egg, first-, second- and third-instar larvae and the puparium are described. Scanning electron micrographs of various morphological features of immature stages are provided. Larvae of P. limbata are parasitoids exclusively of the terrestrial snail Granaria frumentum (Draparnaud, 1801). Results of this study are integrated with those of previous studies of the biology, ecology, immature stages, and mollusc-prey habitat of the other 28 (of 96) Pherbellia species for which life cycles have been completely or partially elucidated. Recent published taxonomic approaches to clarifying the phylogeny of the Sciomyzidae are discussed, particularly those involving DNA analyses of Pherbellia species. PMID:27395157

  16. Clarification of Einfeldia Kieffer, 1922 (Diptera: Chironomidae) with E. australiensis (Freeman, 1961), comb. n. based on immature stages.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Peter S; Martin, Jon; Mulder, Monica; Spies, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The immature stages are described for the first time for Chironomus (Xenochironomus) australiensis Freeman (Diptera: Chironomidae) and the adult male is redescribed including from type specimens. The species does not belong to Chironomus Meigen or Xenochironomus Kieffer, but is best placed in a modestly expanded Einfeldia Kieffer. Application of this genus name is clarified, including by a lectotype fixation for its type species, E. pectoralis Kieffer, 1924. Einfeldia australiensis (Freeman) comb. n. provides the first record of the genus from Australia; otherwise the genus is reported confidently only from North America, Central America and western Europe to Japan. The immature stages of E. australiensis occur in relatively shallow mesotrophic to eutrophic dune lakes and maars with circum-neutral pH and high conductivity, from southeastern Queensland to southern Australia. The cytology is described briefly from larval salivary glands. Alternative genus placements for the species are discussed, and problems with Einfeldia and connected systematics in the tribe Chironomini are addressed. PMID:27615899

  17. Modeling the three stages in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A; Middleton, Richard H

    2013-03-01

    A typical HIV infection response consists of three stages: an initial acute infection, a long asymptomatic period and a final increase in viral load with simultaneous collapse in healthy CD4+T cell counts. The majority of existing mathematical models give a good representation of either the first two stages or the last stage of the infection. Using macrophages as a long-term active reservoir, a deterministic model is proposed to explain the three stages of the infection including the progression to AIDS. Simulation results illustrate how chronic infected macrophages can explain the progression to AIDS provoking viral explosion. Further simulation studies suggest that the proposed model retains its key properties even under moderately large parameter variations. This model provides important insights on how macrophages might play a crucial role in the long term behavior of HIV infection. PMID:23238280

  18. Comparative efficacy of triclabendazole, nitroxynil and rafoxanide against immature and mature Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Rapic, D; Dzakula, N; Sakar, D; Richards, R J

    1988-01-16

    In two trials the fasciolicidal activities of triclabendazole, nitroxynil and rafoxanide were assessed in cattle naturally infected with predominantly immature stages of Fasciola hepatica. Tablets containing 900 mg triclabendazole were administered orally at a dose rate of 12 mg/kg bodyweight. Rafoxanide and nitroxynil were used at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg, rafoxanide being given orally and nitroxynil by subcutaneous injection. Based on faecal egg counts nine weeks after treatment the efficacies were calculated to be 100 per cent for triclabendazole and 95.0 per cent for nitroxynil in the first trial and 98.4 per cent for triclabendazole and 52.9 per cent for rafoxanide 15 weeks after treatment in the second trial. In the first trial five animals from each of the three groups were slaughtered and their fluke burdens counted. Compared with the untreated control group the reductions in the fluke burdens were 96.9 per cent in triclabendazole treated cattle and 76.4 per cent in the nitroxynil treated group. PMID:3354156

  19. The immature stages of Micropygomyia (Coquillettimyia) chiapanensis (Dampf) (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Oca-Aguilar, Ana Celia Montes De; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The egg exochorion, larval instars and pupa of the phlebotomine sand fly Micropygomyia (Coquillettimyia) chiapanensis (Dampf) are described and illustrated based on specimens collected in the locality of Farallón, municipality of Actopan, Veracruz, Mexico. Morphology of fourth instar larval mouthparts, particularly the incisor lobe and molar lobe shape of mandible, could be important for species identification of immature Phlebotominae. In this work is compared the pupal chaetotaxy of Mi. chiapanensis with other species previously described. The fourth instar larva of Mi. chiapanensis is compared with other species of this genus, the most important differentiating characters being the size, shape and position of the abdominal dorsal internal seta. PMID:27394791

  20. Comparative Morphological Analysis of the Immature Stages of the Grass Blue Butterflies Zizeeria and Zizina (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Gurung, Raj D; Iwata, Masaki; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Degnan, Bernard; Degnan, Sandie; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-08-01

    The pale grass blue butterfly has been used to assess the biological effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident. Zizeeria and Zizina are two closely related genera of grass blue butterflies that are widely distributed in tropical to temperate Asia, Australia, and Africa, making them suitable environmental indicators for these areas. However, the morphological features of the immature stages have been examined only in fragmentary fashion. Here, we reared Zizeeria maha argia, Zizeeria maha okinawana, Zizeeria karsandra karsandra, Zizina emelina emelina, Zizina otis labradus, and Zizina otis riukuensis using a standard rearing method that was developed for Zizeeria maha, and comparatively identified morphological traits to effectively classify the immature stages of species or subspecies. Morphological information on these and other subspecies including Zizeeria knysna knysna and Zizina otis antanossa from Africa was also collected from literature. The subspecies were all reared successfully. The subspecies all had dorsal nectary and tentacle organs with similar morphology. For the subspecies of Zizeeria maha, only minor morphological differences were noted. Similarly, the subspecies of Zizina otis shared many traits. Most importantly, Zizeeria and Zizina differed in the shape of the sensory hairs that accompany the dorsal nectary organ; Zizeeriahad pointed hairs, and Zizina had blunt or rounded hairs. However, Zizina emelina exhibited several intermediate features between these two genera. Overall, the morphological traits did not completely reflect the conventional systematic relationships. This comparative study describes the efficient rearing of the grass blue butterflies and provides a morphological basis for the use of these species as environmental indicators. PMID:27498798

  1. Larval and female footprints as feeding deterrent cues for immature stages of two congeneric ladybird predators (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, B; Mishra, G; Omkar

    2014-10-01

    In the present study predation parameters, i.e. consumption rate, conversion efficiency and growth rate, and total developmental duration of immature stages of two congeneric ladybirds, Coccinella septempunctata (L.) and Coccinella transversalis F., have been evaluated in presence of conspecific and heterospecific fourth instar larval and adult female tracks. We hypothesized that the semiochemicals within larval/adult female tracks might act as foraging/feeding deterrent pheromones (FDPs) and would reduce the predation parameters; and would prolong total developmental duration of ladybird predators. Results of the study positively affirmed our hypothesis. The deterrence in prey consumption and reduction in conversion efficiency and growth rate was density dependent with species-specific variations. Consumption rate, conversion efficiency, and growth rate of larval instars decreased and the total developmental duration of immature stages increased when exposed to an increasing density of zero, two, three, and four conspecific/heterospecific larval/adult female tracks. Between ladybird species, C. septempunctata had higher consumption rate, growth rate, and total developmental durations, whereas conversion efficiency was higher in C. transversalis. Despite the presence of semiochemical tracks as foraging barriers, early instars showed higher conversion efficiencies and growth rates, whereas fourth instars had highest consumption rate in all experimental treatments. The present study, therefore, suggests that semiochemical tracks significantly reduce the predation potential and prolong developmental duration of conspecifics and heterospecifics. They, thus behave as FDP. PMID:24963549

  2. Immature stages and ecology of two species of the South African genus Stripsipher Gory & Percheron, 1833 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae, Trichiini)

    PubMed Central

    Šípek, Petr; Ricchiardi, Enrico; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Based on the study of newly accessible type material, Stripsipher drakensbergi Ricchiardi, 1998, is demoted to a junior synonym of Stripsipher jansoni Péringuey, 1908. The genus Stripsipher Gory & Percheron, 1833, thus, currently includes 12 species, but for none of these are larval stages and/or pupae currently known. The immature stages of Stripsipher orientalis Ricchiardi, 2008 and Stripsipher jansoni are described here for the first time and updated observations on distribution and ecology of both species are provided. Morphological affinities of Stripsipher with other Trichiini larvae are presented and the main diagnostic differences discussed. The larvae of both species are very similar to those of other representatives of the tribe Trichiini, with key differences found on the epipharynx. Based on the morphology of larvae and adults, it is suggested that Stripsipher is a member of the clade composed of Valgini, Trichiini and Cryptodontini. PMID:22539904

  3. Accumulation of functionally immature myeloid dendritic cells in lymph nodes of rhesus macaques with acute pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Wijewardana, Viskam; Bouwer, Anthea L; Brown, Kevin N; Liu, Xiangdong; Barratt-Boyes, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) are key mediators of innate and adaptive immunity to virus infection, but the impact of HIV infection on the mDC response, particularly early in acute infection, is ill-defined. We studied acute pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques to address this question. The mDC in blood and bone marrow were depleted within 12 days of intravenous infection with SIVmac251, associated with a marked proliferative response. In lymph nodes, mDC were apoptotic, activated and proliferating, despite normal mDC numbers, reflecting a regenerative response that compensated for mDC loss. Blood mDC had increased expression of MHC class II, CCR7 and CD40, whereas in lymph nodes these markers were significantly decreased, indicating that acute infection induced maturation of mDC in blood but resulted in accumulation of immature mDC in lymph nodes. Following SIV infection, lymph node mDC had an increased capacity to secrete tumour necrosis factor-α upon engagement with a Toll-like receptor 7/8 ligand that mimics exposure to viral RNA, and this was inversely correlated with MHC class II and CCR7 expression. Lymph node mDC had an increased ability to capture and cleave soluble antigen, confirming their functionally immature state. These data indicate that acute SIV infection results in increased mDC turnover, leading to accumulation in lymph nodes of immature mDC with an increased responsiveness to virus stimulation. PMID:24684292

  4. Mortality and survival patterns for the immature stages of Psorophora columbiae.

    PubMed

    Andis, M D; Meek, C L

    1985-09-01

    To determine the patterns of Psorophora columbiae survival and mortality, methods were employed that involved the simultaneous use of laboratory-reared cohorts, predator-exclusion cages, and field estimates of larval dynamics. Laboratory studies indicated that the maximum daily survival averaged from 0.92 for day-old larvae to 1.0 for the older age classes with no significant differences (P greater than 0.05) in survival among days. Data from predator-exclusion cages indicated that mortality inflicted by factors other than predation was significantly (P less than 0.05) more intense in the younger age classes and the relatively few individuals that survived to the older age classes had a high expectation of successful emergence. A quantitative estimate of the mortality inflicted on Ps. columbiae larvae by all indigenous natural enemies indicated that mortality rates were higher in the older age classes. This supports the view that the predator complex is a major source of irreplaceable mortality for immature mosquitoes inhabiting Louisiana rice fields. PMID:2906675

  5. SEM studies on immature stages of the drone flies (diptera, syrphidae): Eristalis similis (Fallen, 1817) and Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Hurtado, Pilar; García-Gras, Elena; Rojo, Santos

    2013-08-01

    Adult drone flies (Syrphidae: Eristalis spp.) resemble male honeybees in appearance. Their immature stages are commonly known as rat-tailed maggots due to the presence of a very long anal segment and a telescopic breathing tube. The larvae are associated with decaying organic material in liquid or semi-liquid media, as in the case of other saprophagous eristalines. Biological and morphological data were obtained from both laboratory cultures and sampling in the field. Drone flies are important pollinators for wild flowers and crops. In fact, mass rearing protocols of Eristalis species are being developed to be used as efficient alternative pollinators. However, deeper knowledge of larval morphology and biology is required to improve artificial rearing. The production quality control of artificial rearing must manage the consistency and reliability of the production output avoiding, for example contamination with similar species. This article presents the first description of the larva and puparium of E. similis, including a comparative morphological study of preimaginal stages of the anthropophilic and ubiquitous European hoverfly species E. tenax. Scanning electron microscopy has been used for the first time to describe larvae and puparia of both species. Moreover, the preimaginal morphology of E. similis has been compared with all known descriptions of the genus Eristalis. The main diagnostic characters of the preimaginal stages of E. similis are the morphology of the anterior spiracles (shape of clear area and arrangement of facets) and pupal spiracles (length, shape, and arrangement of tubercles). PMID:23733631

  6. Feeding preferences of the immature stages of three western north American ixodid ticks (Acari) for avian, reptilian, or rodent hosts.

    PubMed

    Slowik, Ted J; Lane, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Larval and nymphal Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, I. (Ixodes) jellisoni Cooley and Kohls, and Dermacentor occidentalis Marx were tested for host preference when simultaneously presented with a deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus Wagner), California kangaroo rat (Dipodomys californicus Merriam), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis Baird and Girard), and California towhee (Pipilo crissalis Vigors) in an experimental apparatus. Differences were observed in the preferences among the three species and between life stages. More larvae of all species approached and contacted hosts than did nymphs. Subadult I. pacificus entered all host-containing chambers in the highest numbers and remained on lizards most often after contact. Subadult I. jellisoni entered and remained in the chambers containing kangaroo rats, while rejecting mice, lizards, and birds as hosts. Subadult D. occidentalis most frequently entered rodent-containing chambers and contacted these hosts. After overnight exposure to all nonavian hosts, only I. pacificus parasitized and fed successfully on all three animals. I. jellisoni fed only on kangaroo rats and D. occidentalis fed only on rodents. Molting success ranged from approximately 66 to 95% among tick species and stages. We concluded that, under laboratory conditions, I. pacificus larvae and nymphs prefer western fence lizards, but also will parasitize rodents. Dermacentor occidentalis immatures use deer mice and kangaroo rats similarly, whereas I. jellisoni subadults exclusively parasitize kangaroo rats. California towhees are considerably less attractive as hosts for these three ticks. These host preferences are consistent with what is known about the natural feeding habits of all three ticks. PMID:19198525

  7. Structure and physicochemical properties of starches from kidney bean seeds at immature, premature and mature stages of development.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hironori; Nozaki, Koichi; Hanashiro, Isao; Yagi, Fumio; Ito, Hiroyuki; Honma, Mamoru; Matsui, Hirokazu; Takeda, Yasuhito

    2003-02-14

    Starches from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Toramame) seeds at the immature, premature, mature stages of development were examined. The starch content increased from 94, 219 to 265 mg per seed. Starches showed the C(a)-crystalline type composed of small (<5 micrometer) and large (10-35 micrometer) granules, with the large granules largely increasing with maturity. The amylose content increased from 21, 26 to 27%, and rapid viscograms and DSC thermograms suggested that the mature-stage starch was gelatinized with ease. The amylose increased in size from DPn 820, 1000 to 1080 and a number of chains per molecule (NC) from 3.3, 4.2 to 4.5. The branched amylose was a minor component (11-18% by mole) with NC 20-22. The amylopectin was similar in CL (23), beta-amylolysis limit (59%), and chain-length distribution, but reduced in size (DPn 17,100-5270) and increased in content of phosphorus (114-174 ppm) with an increase in the amount of phosphorus linked to C-6 of the glucose residue (8-66%). PMID:12559751

  8. The immature stages of the necrophagous fly, Prochyliza nigrimana: comparison with Piophila casei and medicolegal considerations (Diptera: Piophilidae).

    PubMed

    Martín-Vega, Daniel; Baz, Arturo; Díaz-Aranda, Luisa M

    2012-09-01

    Flies of family Piophilidae have been recorded as major pests in the food industry, as agents of human myiasis and typically associated with carcasses in advanced stages of decay, being thus important in forensic entomology. Despite that the cosmopolitan species Piophila casei is the most cited in entomological studies, many other piophilid species develop on both carrion and animal products from the food industry. One of those species is Prochyliza nigrimana, widely distributed throughout the Holarctic and Neotropical regions. In this study, the morphological features of the immature stages of P. nigrimana are described for the first time and compared with those of P. casei. The third-instar larvae and puparium of P. nigrimana are significantly shorter than those of P. casei; the contrary pattern is observed in egg length. The number and arrangement of the lobes of anterior spiracles, which had been used as a distinctive character of P. casei in some keys, are the same in both species. Morphological features of the cephaloskeleton (such as the general shape and the distance between the tips and the base of the mouth hooks/base of the mouth hooks ratio), the arrangement of anal segment in third-instar larvae and the appearance of the ventral creeping welts in the puparium are the main characters allowing for identification of both species. PMID:22576855

  9. A comparison of a new centrifuge sugar flotation technique with the agar method for the extraction of immature Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) life stages from salt marsh soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two sampling techniques, agar extraction (AE) and centrifuge sugar flotation extraction (CSFE) were compared to determine their relative efficacy to recover immature stages of Culicoides spp from salt marsh substrates. Three types of samples (seeded with known numbers of larvae, homogenized field s...

  10. Resistance of neonatal mice to scrapie is associated with inefficient infection of the immature spleen.

    PubMed

    Ierna, Michelle; Farquhar, Christine F; Outram, George W; Bruce, Moira E

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that neonatal mice up to about a week old are less susceptible than adult mice to infection by intraperitoneal inoculation with mouse-passaged scrapie. In peripherally inoculated adult mice, scrapie replicates in lymphoid tissues such as the spleen before invading the central nervous system. Here, we investigated scrapie susceptibility in neonatal mice in more detail, concentrating on spleen involvement. First, we demonstrated that neonatal mice are about 10 times less susceptible than adults to intraperitoneal scrapie inoculation. Then we injected mice intraperitoneally with a scrapie dose that produced disease in all mice inoculated at 10 days or older but in only about a third of neonatally inoculated mice. In this experiment, spleens collected 70 days after scrapie injection of mice 10 days old or older almost all contained pathological prion protein, PrPSc, and those that were bioassayed all contained high infectivity levels. In contrast, at this early stage, only two of six spleens from neonatally inoculated mice had detectable, low infectivity levels; no PrPSc was detected, even in the two spleens. Therefore, neonatal mice have an impaired ability to replicate scrapie in their spleens, suggesting that replication sites are absent or sparse at birth but mature within 10 days. The increase in susceptibility with age correlated with the first immunocytochemical detection of the normal cellular form of prion protein, PrPc, on maturing follicular dendritic cell networks. As lymphoid tissues are more mature at birth in sheep, cattle, and humans than in mice, our results suggest that in utero infection with scrapie-like agents is theoretically possible in these species. PMID:16352571

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of Isaria fumosorosea CCM 8367 and Steinernema feltiae Ustinov against Immature Stages of the Colorado Potato Beetle.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Hany M; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Půža, Vladimír; Zemek, Rostislav

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, has developed resistance to most registered pesticides and has become one of the most difficult insect pests to control. Development of new biopesticides targeting this pest might solve the resistance problem and contribute to sustainable crop production. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea (syn. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) strain CCM 8367 against L. decemlineata when applied alone or combined with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae. The last-instar larvae of the Colorado potato beetle showed the highest susceptibility to I. fumosorosea followed by pre-pupae and pupae. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated to be 1.03×106 blastospores/ml. The strain CCM 8367 was more virulent, causing 92.6% mortality of larvae (LT50 = 5.0 days) compared to the reference strain Apopka 97, which caused 54.5% mortality (LT50 = 7.0 days). The combined application of the fungus with the nematodes increased the mortality up to 98.0%. The best results were obtained when S. feltiae was applied simultaneously with I. fumosorosea (LT50 = 2.0 days); later application negatively affected both the penetration rate and the development of the nematodes. We can conclude that the strain CCM 8367 of I. fumosorosea is a prospective biocontrol agent against immature stages of L. decemlineata. For higher efficacy, application together with an entomopathogenic nematode is recommended. PMID:27015633

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of Isaria fumosorosea CCM 8367 and Steinernema feltiae Ustinov against Immature Stages of the Colorado Potato Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Hany M.; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Půža, Vladimír; Zemek, Rostislav

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, has developed resistance to most registered pesticides and has become one of the most difficult insect pests to control. Development of new biopesticides targeting this pest might solve the resistance problem and contribute to sustainable crop production. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea (syn. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) strain CCM 8367 against L. decemlineata when applied alone or combined with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae. The last-instar larvae of the Colorado potato beetle showed the highest susceptibility to I. fumosorosea followed by pre-pupae and pupae. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated to be 1.03×106 blastospores/ml. The strain CCM 8367 was more virulent, causing 92.6% mortality of larvae (LT50 = 5.0 days) compared to the reference strain Apopka 97, which caused 54.5% mortality (LT50 = 7.0 days). The combined application of the fungus with the nematodes increased the mortality up to 98.0%. The best results were obtained when S. feltiae was applied simultaneously with I. fumosorosea (LT50 = 2.0 days); later application negatively affected both the penetration rate and the development of the nematodes. We can conclude that the strain CCM 8367 of I. fumosorosea is a prospective biocontrol agent against immature stages of L. decemlineata. For higher efficacy, application together with an entomopathogenic nematode is recommended. PMID:27015633

  13. Gr-1dimCD11b+ Immature Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells, but not Neutrophils, are Markers of Lethal Tuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsiganov, Evgeny N.; Verbina, Elena M.; Radaeva, Tatyana V.; Sosunov, Vasily V.; Kosmiadi, George A.; Nikitina, Irina Yu.; Lyadova, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis disease (TB) may progress at different rates and have different outcomes. Neutrophils have been implicated in TB progression; however, data on their role during TB are controversial. Here we show that in mice, TB progression is associated with the accumulation of cells that express neutrophilic markers Gr-1 and Ly-6G, but do not belong to conventional neutrophils. The cells exhibit unsegmented nuclei, have Gr-1dimLy-6GdimCD11b+ phenotype and express F4/80, CD49d, Ly-6C, CD117, CD135 markers characteristic not of neutrophils, but of immature myeloid cells. The cells accumulate in the lungs, bone marrow, spleen and blood at the advanced (pre-lethal) stage of M. tuberculosis infection and represent a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells at different stages of their differentiation. The accumulation of Gr-1dimCD11b+ cells is accompanied by the disappearance of conventional neutrophils (Gr-1hiLy-6Ghi-expressing cells). The Gr-1dimCD11b+ cells suppress T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production in vitro via NO-dependent mechanisms, i.e. they exhibit characteristics of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These results document the generation of MDSCs during TB, suggesting their role in TB pathogenesis, and arguing that neutrophils do not contribute to TB pathology at the advanced disease stage. PMID:24711621

  14. Altered immune response of immature dendritic cells following dengue virus infection in the presence of specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Torres, Silvia; Flipse, Jacky; Upasani, Vinit C; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio; Smit, Jolanda M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) replication is known to prevent maturation of infected dendritic cells (DCs) thereby impeding the development of adequate immunity. During secondary DENV infection, dengue-specific antibodies can suppress DENV replication in immature DCs (immDCs), however how dengue-antibody complexes (DENV-IC) influence the phenotype of DCs remains elusive. Here, we evaluated the maturation state and cytokine profile of immDCs exposed to DENV-ICs. Indeed, DENV infection of immDCs in the absence of antibodies was hallmarked by blunted upregulation of CD83, CD86 and the major histocompatibility complex molecule HLA-DR. In contrast, DENV infection in the presence of neutralizing antibodies triggered full DC maturation and induced a balanced inflammatory cytokine response. Moreover, DENV infection under non-neutralizing conditions prompted upregulation of CD83 and CD86 but not HLA-DR, and triggered production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The effect of DENV-IC was found to be dependent on the engagement of FcγRIIa. Altogether, our data show that the presence of DENV-IC alters the phenotype and cytokine profile of DCs. PMID:27121645

  15. The morphology of the immature stages of two rare Lixus species (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Lixinae) and notes on their biology.

    PubMed

    Trnka, Filip; Stejskal, Robert; Skuhrovec, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The mature larvae and pupae of Lixus (Ortholixus) bituberculatus Smreczyński, 1968 and Lixus (Dilixellus) neglectus Fremuth, 1983 (Curculionidae: Lixinae: Lixini) are described and compared with known larvae of 21 other Lixus and 2 Hypolixus taxa. The mature larva and pupa of Lixus bituberculatus are the first immature stages described representing the subgenus Ortholixus. The larva of Lixus neglectus, in the subgenus Dilixellus, is distinguished from the known larvae of four species in this subgenus by having more pigmented sclerites on the larval body. All descriptions of mature larvae from the tribe Lixini, as do all known species from the tribe Cleonini, fit the diagnosis of the mature larva of the Lixinae subfamily. Furthermore, new biological information of these species in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania is provided. For Lixus bituberculatus, a chicory, Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae), is identified as a host plant, and Lixus neglectus is found on dock Rumex thyrsiflorus Fingerh. (Polygonaceae). Both species are probably monophagous or oligophagous. Adults of Lixus bituberculatus often inhabit host plants growing in active, dry and sunny pastures with sparse patches without vegetation, being mostly active during the night in April/May and then again in September, when the highest activity levels are observed. Adults of Lixus neglectus inhabit dry grasslands on sandy soils with host plants, being active during the day from May to September, with the highest level of activity in May/June and September. The larvae of both species are borers in the stem and root of the host plant, and they pupate in root or root neck. Adults leave the pupation cells at the end of summer and do not hibernate in the host plants. Finally, Romania is a new geographic record for Lixus bituberculatus. PMID:27551208

  16. The morphology of the immature stages of two rare Lixus species (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Lixinae) and notes on their biology

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Filip; Stejskal, Robert; Skuhrovec, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mature larvae and pupae of Lixus (Ortholixus) bituberculatus Smreczyński, 1968 and Lixus (Dilixellus) neglectus Fremuth, 1983 (Curculionidae: Lixinae: Lixini) are described and compared with known larvae of 21 other Lixus and 2 Hypolixus taxa. The mature larva and pupa of Lixus bituberculatus are the first immature stages described representing the subgenus Ortholixus. The larva of Lixus neglectus, in the subgenus Dilixellus, is distinguished from the known larvae of four species in this subgenus by having more pigmented sclerites on the larval body. All descriptions of mature larvae from the tribe Lixini, as do all known species from the tribe Cleonini, fit the diagnosis of the mature larva of the Lixinae subfamily. Furthermore, new biological information of these species in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania is provided. For Lixus bituberculatus, a chicory, Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae), is identified as a host plant, and Lixus neglectus is found on dock Rumex thyrsiflorus Fingerh. (Polygonaceae). Both species are probably monophagous or oligophagous. Adults of Lixus bituberculatus often inhabit host plants growing in active, dry and sunny pastures with sparse patches without vegetation, being mostly active during the night in April/May and then again in September, when the highest activity levels are observed. Adults of Lixus neglectus inhabit dry grasslands on sandy soils with host plants, being active during the day from May to September, with the highest level of activity in May/June and September. The larvae of both species are borers in the stem and root of the host plant, and they pupate in root or root neck. Adults leave the pupation cells at the end of summer and do not hibernate in the host plants. Finally, Romania is a new geographic record for Lixus bituberculatus. PMID:27551208

  17. Evaluation of aqueous and ethanol extract of bioactive medicinal plant, Cassia didymobotrya (Fresenius) Irwin & Barneby against immature stages of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nagappan, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia didymobotrya leaves against immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was tested in wide and narrow range concentration of the plant extract based on WHO standard protocol. The wide range concentration tested in the present study was 10 000, 1 000, 100, 10 and 1 mg/L and narrow range concentration was 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. Results 2nd instar larvae exposed to 100 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract showed 100% mortality. Remaining stages such as 3rd, 4th and pupa, 100% mortality was observed at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration after 24 h exposure period. In aqueous extract all the stages 100% mortality was recorded at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration. In narrow range concentration 2nd instar larvae 100% mortality was observed at 150 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract. The remaining stages 100% mortality was recorded at 250 mg/L. In aqueous extract all the tested immature stages 100% mortality was observed at 250 mg/L concentration after 24 h exposure period. The results clearly indicate that the rate of mortality was based dose of the plant extract and stage of the mosquitoes. Conclusions From this study it is confirmed and concluded that Cassia didymobotrya is having active principle which is responsible for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. The isolation of bioactive molecules and development of simple formulation technique is important for large scale implementation. PMID:23569999

  18. Under Cover of Darkness, Caterpillars Take Flight: The Immature Stages and Feeding Ecology of the Glasswinged Butterfly, Oleria baizana in Eastern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Walla, Thomas R.; Greeney, Harold F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the morphology and behavior of the immature stages of Oleria baizana (Haensch) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from northeastern Ecuador. Brugmansia aurea Lagerh. (Solanales: Solanaceae) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly, off of the host plant in the leaf litter. During the night, larvae climb a food plant seedling and sever a leaf petiole, parachuting with the leaf to the ground where they remain while feeding. Oleria baizana has five larval stadia, and individuals take 77 days to mature from oviposition to adult stage. PMID:23438050

  19. Description of immature stages of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), an ectoparasitoid of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe and illustrate for the first time the egg, larva and pupa of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a parasitoid that attacks Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) pupae in Veracruz, Mexico. Using lab-reared A. ludens (Loew) pupae as hosts, we obtained all immature st...

  20. Description of the immature stages and new host plant records of Deois (Deois) mourei (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), a species newly recorded from Argentina and Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Foieri, Alvaro; Lenicov, Ana M Marino De Remes; Virla, Eduardo G

    2016-01-01

    Deois (Deois) mourei Cavichioli & Sakakibara (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) is recorded for the first time from Argentina and Paraguay. The eggs and immature stages of the species are described and illustrated; the main characters that distinguish instars are body size, color, number of flagellomeres, and number of tibial and metatarsomere spines. A key for identification of nymphs of D. (D.) mourei and a key to differentiate nymphs of the sympatric species D. (D.) mourei and Notozulia entreriana Berg are provided. In addition, a list of host plants of D. (D.) mourei in Argentina is given. PMID:27615941

  1. Descriptions of the immature stages and new host plant records of Notozulia entreriana (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) pests of grasses in subtropical areas of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Foieri, Alvaro; Lenicov, Ana M Marino De Remes; Virla, Eduardo G

    2016-01-01

    Notozulia entreriana (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) is one of the most common spittlebugs inhabiting the subtropical region of the America, inflicting important economic damage to grass crops. The immature stages are described and illustrated; the main characteristics that distinguish instars are the body size, color, number of flagellomeres, and number of tibial and metatarsomere spines. A key for identification of nymphs is provided as a tool to develop field studies.  Nine host plants, all belonging to Poaceae, are recorded as breeding and feeding host plants from different localities in northern Argentina. PMID:27394613

  2. Ultrastructure analysis of the immature stages of Ravinia belforti (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a species of medical-veterinary and forensic importance, by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    da-Silva-Xavier, Alexandre; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria

    2016-07-01

    The postmortem interval is related to the age of immature species of flies found on corpses and can be estimated using data available in the literature on the biology of the species. The flesh fly Ravinia belforti is a carrier of enteric pathogens that can affect human and animal health as well as being of forensic importance. As the morphology of many immature Sarcophagidae is unknown, these immature forms must be collected and characterized after the emergence of the adult male. Here we describe and analyze the morphological characteristics of the larvae stages L1, L2, L3 and the puparium of R. belforti by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ten specimens of each stage were analyzed. Larvae of R. belforti follow the typical muscoid vermiform pattern with 12 segments. The anterior region is pointed, while the posterior region is thicker. The spines of the cephalic collar are flattened and with double, triple or quadruple points, different from the spines along the body that only have a single point. In L2, the anterior spiracle is present with a varying number of papillae (16-22), differing from other species. The posterior spiracles are located within the peritreme. The spiracular cavity is internalized in the posterior region, following the pattern that differs Sarcophagidae from other families. L3 features more visible and developed spines around the cephalic collar, getting thicker and denser near to the first thoracic segment. Puparium is similar to other species of Sarcophagidae. This paper presents important data on this family which has both health and forensic importance. Furthermore, R. belforti shows significant differences from other species of Sarcophagidae. PMID:27072901

  3. Dynamics of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis and other mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to rice cropping in a rice agro-ecosystem in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muturi, Ephantus; Gu, Weidong; Mbogo, Charles; Kabiru, Ephantus; Jacob, Benjamin; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2006-12-01

    We determined changes in species composition and densities of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in relation to rice growth cycle in order to generate data for developing larval control strategies in rice ecosystems. Experimental rice paddies (6.3m x 3.15m) exposed to natural colonization of mosquitoes were sampled weekly for two rice growing cycles between February 2004 and March 2005. Overall, 21,325 Anopheles larvae were collected, of which 91.9% were 1st and 2nd instars and 8.1% were 3rd and 4th instars. An. arabiensis was the predominant species (84.1%) with other species, An. pharoensis (13.5%), An. funestus (2.1%), An. coustani (0.3%), and An. maculipalpis (0.1%) accounting for only a small proportion of the anophelines collected. Culex quinquefasciatus (65.7%) was the predominant species among the non-anopheline species. Others species collected included: C. annulioris (9.9%), C. poicilipes (7.3%), C. tigripes (7.2%), C. duttoni (0.6%), Aedes aegypti (5.3%), Ae. cumminsii (3.5%), and Ae. vittatus (0.7%). The densities of the major anopheline species were closely related to rice stage and condition of the rice field. An. arabiensis, the predominant species, was most abundant over a three-week period after transplanting. Low densities of larvae were collected during the late vegetative, reproductive, and ripening phases of rice. An increase in larval density ten days post-transplanting was found to correlate with the application of fertilizer (sulphate of ammonia). Culicine and aedine species densities were significantly higher during the post-harvesting period. Our results suggest that the transplanting stage is favorable for the growth of immature stages of An. arabiensis and provides a narrow window for targeted larval intervention in rice. PMID:17249341

  4. The shield-backed bug, Pachycoris stallii: Description of immature stages, effect of maternal care on nymphs, and notes on life history

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Livy; Coscarón, Maria C; Dellapé, Pablo M; Roane, Timberley M

    2005-01-01

    The life history of the shield-backed bug, Pachycoris stallii Uhler (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae), immatures was studied on its host plant, Croton californicus Muell.-Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Immature stages are described and illustrated. Pachycoris stallii is bi- or multivoltine and occurs in xeric areas with sandy soil where it is rarely encountered away from C. californicus. Nymphs and adults feed on seeds within C. californicus fruit. Bugs oviposit on the underside of leaves, and females guard their eggs and first-instar nymphs from natural enemies. Embryonic orientation of prolarvae is nonrandom; each embryo is oriented with its venter directed toward the ground. This orientation may facilitate aggregation of first instars. The longitudinal axes of eggs are always oriented upward at about a 16° angle of deviation from a line perpendicular to the leaf surface. This is the first recorded observation of this phenomenon in Pentatomoidea. Experimental removal of females guarding first instars results in 100% loss of nymphs, and this is attributed to disruption of the aggregative behavior of nymphs. Maternal guarding appears to be a net benefit to P. stallii, despite possible costs to the brooding female. PMID:17119611

  5. Hd86 mRNA expression profile in Hyalomma scupense life stages, could it contribute to explain anti-tick vaccine effect discrepancy between adult and immature instars?

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mourad; Galaï, Yousr; Ben Ahmed, Melika; Gharbi, Mohamed; de la Fuente, José; Jedidi, Mohamed; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-11-15

    Bm86 midgut protein has been used in order to control ticks of the Hyalomma genus. Previous studies demonstrated the inefficacity of this antigen in the control of Hyalomma scupense, whereas recombinant Hd86 antigen, the Bm86 ortholog in H. scupense produced in Pichia pastoris, was protective against larval H. scupense tick stage infestations but ineffective in the control of the adult stage. One possible explanation for this result is the variation in Hd86 expression levels between these two developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, Hd86 mRNA levels were characterized in H. scupense developmental stages. The expression profile of Hd86 demonstrated a significant variation between tick life stages and showed a significant reduction in the number of transcripts during feeding and, particularly after molting to adults. The most interesting result was noted after molting of engorged nymphs in unfed adults where the expression levels decreased significantly by 12.78 (10.77-17.39) (p<0.001) and 9.25 (5.77-15.72)-fold (p<0.001) in unfed males and unfed females, respectively. Comparing unfed nymphs to unfed adult ticks, the Hd86 expression levels decreased by 13.82 (5.39-24.45) (p=0.035) and 9.93 (2.87-22.08)-fold (p=0.038) in males and females respectively. Lower Hd86 mRNA levels in adult ticks should result in lower protein levels and thus less antibody-antigen interactions necessary for vaccine efficacy in ticks fed on vaccinated animals. Thus, the observed differences in Hd86 expression profile between immature and adult stages might explain, in part, the discrepancy of the Hd86 vaccine efficacy against these two life stages of H. scupense. PMID:24029714

  6. Extraction, quantification, and antioxidant activities of phenolics from pericarp and seeds of bitter melons (Momordica charantia) harvested at three maturity stages (immature, mature, and ripe).

    PubMed

    Horax, Ronny; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Chen, Pengyin

    2010-04-14

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is an exotic vegetable used for consumption and medicinal purposes mainly throughout Asia. Phenolics were extracted from pericarp (fleshy portion) and seeds of bitter melons harvested at three maturation stages (immature, mature, and ripe) using ethanol and water solvent systems. Total phenolic assessment demonstrated 80% of ethanol to be the optimal solvent level to extract phenolics either from pericarp or seed. Main phenolic constituents in the extracts were catechin, gallic acid, gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, and epicatechin. Free radical scavenging assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) demonstrated the bitter melon extracts as slow rate free radical scavenging agents. There were low correlations between the total phenolic contents and antiradical power values of the extracts, suggesting a possible interaction among the phenolic constituents occurred. Bitter melon phenolic extracts contain natural antioxidant substances, and could be used as antioxidant agents in suitable food products. PMID:20225855

  7. Hump-Shaped Density-Dependent Regulation of Mosquito Oviposition Site-Selection by Conspecific Immature Stages: Theory, Field Test with Aedes albopictus, and a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wasserberg, Gideon; Bailes, Nicholas; Davis, Christopher; Yeoman, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Oviposition site selection by gravid females is an important determinant of the distribution, abundance, and dynamics of dipteran hematophagous insects. The presence of conspecific immature stages in a potential oviposition site could, on the one hand, indicate the suitability of that site but on the other hand could indicate the potential for intraspecific competition. In this paper, we present a graphic model suggesting that the trade-off between these two opposing forces could result in a hump-shaped density-dependent relationship between oviposition rate and conspecific immature stage density (hereafter, the “Hump-shaped regulation model”) with positive effects of aggregation prevailing at low densities and negative effect of intraspecific competition prevailing at higher densities. We field-tested the predictions of this model at both the egg- and the larval levels with Aedes albopictus and evaluated if and how these relationships are affected by resource enrichment. We found support for the hump-shaped regulation model at both the larval and the egg levels. Using oviposition cups containing varying numbers of conspecific larvae, we showed that the oviposition activity of Ae. albopictus first increases and then decreases with larvae number. Medium enrichment resulted in higher hatching rate, and demonstrated linear relations for the no-enrichment treatment where larvae density range was low and hump-shaped relationship for the enriched medium that had a wider larvae density range. Using pairs of oviposition cups, we showed that at low egg densities mosquitoes laid more eggs on substrates containing pre-existing eggs. However, at higher egg densities, mosquitoes laid more eggs on a virgin substrate. Based on our results and on a meta-analysis, we suggest that due to study design or methodological shortcomings the hump-shaped regulation model is often left undetected and that it is likely to be more common than currently thought. PMID:24681526

  8. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against adult and immature stages of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) on cats.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christine; Tielemans, Eric; Prullage, Joseph B; Chester, S Theodore; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen; Fourie, Josephus J; Young, David R; Everett, William R; Rosentel, Joseph K

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v) and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v) (BROADLINE(®)) was tested against adult and immature stages of Ctenocephalides felis fleas in six studies. For that purpose, fleas from different colonies from North America, Germany and South Africa were used to induce infestations in cats under laboratory conditions. In each study, between 12 and 16 cats were allocated randomly to 2 groups. Cats in Group 1 were not treated and served as controls. Cats in Group 2 were treated once on Day 0 with BROADLINE(®) at the minimum recommended dosage of 0.12 mg/kg body weight. In 4 studies, all animals were infested experimentally with unfed C. felis (100 ± 5) on Days 2 (or 1), 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Live fleas were counted 24h post-treatment or infestation. In 2 additional studies, animals were infested at the same frequency with gravid C. felis fleas (100 ± 5) that were fed previously on an untreated host. Forty-eight hours post-infestation, flea eggs were collected, counted and incubated for the evaluation of the reduction of emergence of adults. The combined curative efficacy against adult fleas at 24h after treatment was 94.3% and the combined preventive efficacy values remained greater than 95.9% at 24h after 5 subsequent weekly infestations. In addition, the product reduced dramatically the emergence of new adult fleas for at least 5 weeks (>98.1% for one month and 93.2% at 5 weeks after infestation), demonstrating its efficiency in preventing environmental contamination by immature stages. PMID:24703078

  9. Bioluminescence Imaging to Detect Late Stage Infection of African Trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Burrell-Saward, Hollie; Ward, Theresa H

    2016-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a multi-stage disease that manifests in two stages; an early blood stage and a late stage when the parasite invades the central nervous system (CNS). In vivo study of the late stage has been limited as traditional methodologies require the removal of the brain to determine the presence of the parasites. Bioluminescence imaging is a non-invasive, highly sensitive form of optical imaging that enables the visualization of a luciferase-transfected pathogen in real-time. By using a transfected trypanosome strain that has the ability to produce late stage disease in mice we are able to study the kinetics of a CNS infection in a single animal throughout the course of infection, as well as observe the movement and dissemination of a systemic infection. Here we describe a robust protocol to study CNS infections using a bioluminescence model of African trypanosomiasis, providing real time non-invasive observations which can be further analyzed with optional downstream approaches. PMID:27284970

  10. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Lame, Younoussa; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Pierre, Danga Yinyang Simon; Elijah, Ajaegbu Eze; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions. Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis. Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability) and chloroform (03.67% hatchability) fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm) and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm) fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with N-hexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm), chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm) fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively. Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control. PMID:26623434

  11. Two-Stage Procedure for Infected Aortic Graft Pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    von Aspern, Konstantin; Etz, Christian D.; Mohr, Friedrich W.; Battellini, Roberto R.

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic graft infections with mediastinitis following aortic surgery are rare, yet represent grave complications yielding high morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a 57-year-old female patient with past history of emergent surgery for iatrogenic Type A dissection treated by supracoronary ascending aortic replacement. Four months after the initial surgery, a sternal fistula had formed and due to severe bleeding emergent reoperation was required. Imaging and pathology on admission revealed an infected pseudoaneurysm at the distal aortic prosthesis and mediastinitis with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Rescue surgery was performed by means of a two-stage approach, with extensive debridement, graft replacement and continuous antiseptic lavage in a first step and an omental wrapping of the new prosthesis in a second stage 24 hours later. During 10 years of follow-up, no recurrent infection occurred. The operative approach and general considerations for management of infected pseudoaneurysms are discussed. PMID:27069945

  12. In a model of immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH)/MYC translocation, the Igh 3' regulatory region induces MYC expression at the immature stage of B cell development.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yi; Park, Sung Sup; Janz, Siegfried; Eckhardt, Laurel A

    2007-10-01

    Reciprocal translocations involving the immunoglobulin loci and the cellular oncogene MYC are hallmark mutations of the human postgerminal center B cell neoplasm, Burkitt's lymphoma. They are occasionally found in other B cell lymphomas, as well. Translocations involving the heavy chain locus (IGH) place the MYC gene either in cis with both the intronic enhancer Emu and the IGH 3' regulatory region (3'RR) or in cis with only the 3'RR. The result is deregulated MYC expression. Recent studies have led to some controversy as to when, during B lymphocyte development, IGH/MYC chromosome translocations take place. A related issue, relevant not only to lymphoma development but also to normal controls on IGH gene expression, is the stage, during B lymphocyte development, at which the 3'RR is capable of activating MYC expression. We have developed mice transgenic for a human MYC (hMYC) gene under control of the four core enhancers from the mouse Igh 3'RR. Unlike other transgenic mouse models where premature and inappropriate MYC expression disrupts normal B cell development, the hMYC transgene in these studies carries a mutation that prohibits MYC protein synthesis. As a result, hMYC expression can be analyzed in all of the normal B cell compartments. Our data show that hMYC is expressed almost exclusively in B-lineage cells and is induced to high levels as soon as bone marrow cells reach the immature B cell stage. PMID:17639584

  13. Nuttalliella namaqua (Ixodoidea: Nuttalliellidae): first description of the male, immature stages and re-description of the female.

    PubMed

    Latif, Abdalla A; Putterill, John F; de Klerk, Daniel G; Pienaar, Ronel; Mans, Ben J

    2012-01-01

    Nuttalliella namaqua is the only species of the enigmatic third tick family. Females possess features of hard and soft ticks and have been designated as the "missing link" between the main tick families. Its position at the base of the tick tree suggests that some of the features unique to hard and soft ticks were present in the ancestral tick lineage. Larvae, nymphae and males have not been described to date and questions regarding their biological affinities to the main tick families remain unclear. The current study addressed these questions via the description of larvae, nymphae and males and resolved issues pertaining to female morphology. Field collected as well as laboratory-engorged females laid eggs and viable larvae subsequently hatched. The larvae possess morphological structures not present in subsequent stages: namely, a sclerotized scutum, pores on the dorsal surface of legs and a dentate anal plate. The last two characters are not present in ixodids and argasids. N. namaqua larvae and nymphae show a similar morphology to females: a unique hypostomal structure i.e., bluntly rounded apically in nymphae and females and ball-like in the larvae. A re-description of some structures in female N. namaqua has resolved differences in the original descriptions, namely that N. namaqua have 4 palpal segments as found in ixodids and argasids and posthypostomal setae. The male was discovered for the first time and described. Characteristic male features include: a pseudoscutum over most of the dorsum, an outgrowth on the chelicerae forming a unique rod-like structure similar to a spematodactyl in mites and medial extension of palpal segment 2 forming a large ventral crib for segment 4. All life stages possess some features found in hard and soft ticks and its status as the "missing link" between the tick families remains. PMID:22844508

  14. Rickettsia helvetica and R. monacensis infections in immature Ixodes ricinus ticks derived from sylvatic passerine birds in west-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Biernat, Beata; Stańczak, Joanna; Michalik, Jerzy; Sikora, Bożena; Cieniuch, Stella

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the importance of forest passerine birds in spreading ixodid ticks infected with rickettsiae of spotted fever group (SFG) in sylvatic habitats in western Poland. In total, 834 immature Ixodes ricinus ticks were found on 64 birds of 11 species which were captured during the tick-questing season between May and September of 2006. Ground-foraging passerines hosted most of the ticks compared with arboreal species, and therefore, only the former group was included into a detailed analysis. Significant predominance of larvae over nymphs was observed (581 vs. 253, respectively). Blackbirds and song thrushes hosted 82 % (n = 681) of the ticks collected from all infested passerines. The overall prevalence range of SF rickettsiae (including Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis) in bird-derived ticks was 10.5-26.9 %, exceeding that in questing ticks, and in ticks feeding on rodents and deer reported earlier from the same study area. This high prevalence of infection in immature I. ricinus ticks feeding on passerine birds strongly implies that they are involved in the enzootic maintenance of spotted fever group rickettsiae in the tick vector populations occurring in sylvatic habitats. PMID:27164834

  15. Revision of the afrotropical species of Zaprionus (Diptera, Drosophilidae), with descriptions of two new species and notes on internal reproductive structures and immature stages

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Amir; David, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new classification of the subgenus Zaprionus is proposed in light of recent phylogenetic findings. The boundaries of the armatus and inermis species groups are redefined. The vittiger subgroup is upgraded to the level of a species group. The tuberculatus subgroup is transferred from the armatus to the inermis group. A new monotypic group, neglectus, is erected. Full morphological descriptions of four species belonging to the vittiger group are given: Zaprionus lachaisei sp. n. from Tanzania and Zaprionus santomensis sp. n. from São Tomé and Principé, and two cryptic species of the indianus complex, Zaprionus africanus Yassin & David and Zaprionus gabonicus Yassin & David. Three nominal species are synonymised: Zaprionus beninensis Chassagnard & Tsacas, syn. n. with Zaprionus koroleu Burla, Zaprionus simplex Chassagnard & McEvey, syn. n. with Zaprionus neglectus Collart, and Zaprionus megalorchis Chassagnard & Tsacas, syn. n. with Zaprionus ornatus Séguy. Half of the 46 species of the subgenus are available as laboratory strains and this has allowed full descriptions of the internal structure of their reproductive systems and their immature stages. PMID:21594121

  16. Immature Dengue Virus Is Infectious in Human Immature Dendritic Cells via Interaction with the Receptor Molecule DC-SIGN

    PubMed Central

    Torres Pedraza, Silvia; Hoornweg, Tabitha E.; van de Pol, Denise P. I.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue Virus (DENV) is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. Important target cells during DENV infection are macrophages, monocytes, and immature dendritic cells (imDCs). DENV-infected cells are known to secrete a large number of partially immature and fully immature particles alongside mature virions. Fully immature DENV particles are considered non-infectious, but antibodies have been shown to rescue their infectious properties. This suggests that immature DENV particles only contribute to the viral load observed in patients with a heterologous DENV re-infection. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, we re-evaluated the infectious properties of fully immature particles in absence and presence of anti-DENV human serum. We show that immature DENV is infectious in cells expressing DC-SIGN. Furthermore, we demonstrate that immature dendritic cells, in contrast to macrophage-like cells, do not support antibody-dependent enhancement of immature DENV. Conclusions/Significance Our data shows that immature DENV can infect imDCs through interaction with DC-SIGN, suggesting that immature and partially immature DENV particles may contribute to dengue pathogenesis during primary infection. Furthermore, since antibodies do not further stimulate DENV infectivity on imDCs we propose that macrophages/monocytes rather than imDCs contribute to the increased viral load observed during severe heterotypic DENV re-infections. PMID:24886790

  17. Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Carambola Fruit Fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian Papaya Fruit Fly, Bactrocera papayae, Reared On Guava Diet

    PubMed Central

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute wellrecognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

  18. Efficacy of the fipronil 10%+(S)-methoprene 9% combination against Rhipicephalus sanguineus in naturally infested dogs: speed of kill, persistent efficacy on immature and adult stages and effect of water.

    PubMed

    Brianti, Emanuele; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Brucato, Giuseppina; Risitano, Anna Lia; Gaglio, Gabriella; Lombardo, Gabriella; Malara, Daniela; Fogliazza, Alessandro; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2010-05-28

    This field trial was designed to test the efficacy, in terms of treatment and prevention, of the fipronil 10%+(S)-methoprene 9% combination against immature and adult stages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus in naturally infested dogs, and to assess the effect of a single plain water exposure. Twenty-four dogs of various age, sex, weight and coat length were divided into two homogeneous groups, treated (T) and control (C), and housed into twin outdoor kennels. Trial baseline was designed as day 0, when dogs from group T were treated with a commercial spot-on formulation of fipronil 10%+(S)-methoprene 9%, while subjects from group C were left untreated and served as control. After treatment, tick load for each included dog was estimated, for both adult and immature ticks, using the localization and count over the entire body surface at the following time-points: day 2, to evaluate the speed of kill and at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 to assess the persistence of efficacy. The effect of water exposure on the product efficacy was tested at day 14 of the study, when six dogs, homogenously selected from group T, were soaked through with plain water. The overall tick load in dogs from group C was high throughout the entire study period, ranging from 103.2 (day 28) to 161.3 (day 0), and confirmed the high tick pressure. Speed of kill calculated at 48 h post-treatment was slightly higher for adult ticks (96.2%) than for immature stages (91.6%). Compared to the control, dogs treated with the fipronil+(S)-methoprene maintained a significantly lower mean tick load for both adult and immature stages in the four weeks of observation. Persistence of efficacy against immature stages ranged from 97.1% the first week, 99.6% second week, 99.7 third week and 93.1% in the last week. In the same way, efficacy against adult ticks was constantly high, shifting from 94.5% to 92.5%. Overall efficacy (adults+immatures) was the strongest in the first two weeks (i.e., 96.1% and 96.6%) and lowered in the

  19. Proteomic profiling of the infective trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    PubMed

    Caumo, Karin Silva; Monteiro, Karina Mariante; Ott, Thiely Rodrigues; Maschio, Vinicius José; Wagner, Glauber; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2014-12-01

    Acanthamoeba polyphaga is a free-living protozoan pathogen, whose infective trophozoite form is capable of causing a blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis in humans. The damage caused by A. polyphaga trophozoites in human corneal or brain infections is the result of several different pathogenic mechanisms that have not yet been elucidated at the molecular level. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the proteins expressed by A. polyphaga trophozoites, based on complementary 2-DE MS/MS and gel-free LC-MS/MS approaches. Overall, 202 non-redundant proteins were identified. An A. polyphaga proteomic map in the pH range 3-10 was produced, with protein identification for 184 of 370 resolved spots, corresponding to 142 proteins. Additionally, 94 proteins were identified by gel-free LC-MS/MS. Functional classification revealed several proteins with potential importance for pathogen survival and infection of mammalian hosts, including surface proteins and proteins related to defense mechanisms. Our study provided the first comprehensive proteomic survey of the trophozoite infective stage of an Acanthamoeba species, and established foundations for prospective, comparative and functional studies of proteins involved in mechanisms of survival, development, and pathogenicity in A. polyphaga and other pathogenic amoebae. PMID:25149354

  20. Genes expressed in Brugia malayi infective third stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Blaxter, M L; Raghavan, N; Ghosh, I; Guiliano, D; Lu, W; Williams, S A; Slatko, B; Scott, A L

    1996-04-01

    We have used a tag sequencing approach to survey genes expressed in the third stage infective larvae of the human filarial nematode parasite Brugia malayi. RNA was isolated from late vector-stage L3 larvae after days 9 or 10 of infection in mosquitos, and converted to cDNA by reverse transcriptase. Double-stranded cDNA was produced by either conventional methods (non-SL cDNA library) or by PCR using the nematode spliced leader (SLI) and oligo(dT) primers (SL cDNA library). Two clone libraries (one from SL and one from non-SL cDNAs) were constructed in lambda ZapII. A set of these full-length clones was selected and 596 inserts were sequenced from the 5' end. We have identified 364 B. malayi genes (the majority of which are new) that encode housekeeping proteins, structural proteins, proteins of immediate immunological or drug-discovery interest as well as a large class of novel sequences which may prove to have significant involvement in host invasion. Extensive, genome-wide approaches to the analysis of larval gene expression are now possible for B. malayi. We present several examples of this approach. PMID:8784774

  1. Hyperoxic Exposure of Immature Mice Increases the Inflammatory Response to Subsequent Rhinovirus Infection: Association with Danger Signals.

    PubMed

    Cui, Tracy X; Maheshwer, Bhargavi; Hong, Jun Y; Goldsmith, Adam M; Bentley, J Kelley; Popova, Antonia P

    2016-06-01

    Infants with a history of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia have a high risk of asthma and viral-induced exacerbations later in life. We hypothesized that hyperoxic exposure, a predisposing factor to bronchopulmonary dysplasia, modulates the innate immune response, producing an exaggerated proinflammatory reaction to viral infection. Two- to 3-d-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to air or 75% oxygen for 14 d. Mice were infected intranasally with rhinovirus (RV) immediately after O2 exposure. Lung mRNA and protein expression, histology, dendritic cells (DCs), and airway responsiveness were assessed 1-12 d postinfection. Tracheal aspirates from premature human infants were collected for mRNA detection. Hyperoxia increased lung IL-12 expression, which persisted up to 12 d postexposure. Hyperoxia-exposed RV-infected mice showed further increases in IL-12 and increased expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4, as well as increased airway inflammation and responsiveness. In RV-infected, air-exposed mice, the response was not significant. Induced IL-12 expression in hyperoxia-exposed, RV-infected mice was associated with increased IL-12-producing CD103(+) lung DCs. Hyperoxia also increased expression of Clec9a, a CD103(+) DC-specific damaged cell-recognition molecule. Hyperoxia increased levels of ATP metabolites and expression of adenosine receptor A1, further evidence of cell damage and related signaling. In human preterm infants, tracheal aspirate Clec9a expression positively correlated with the level of prematurity. Hyperoxic exposure increases the activation of CD103(+), Clec9a(+) DCs, leading to increased inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness upon RV infection. In premature infants, danger signal-induced DC activation may promote proinflammatory airway responses, thereby increasing respiratory morbidity. PMID:27183577

  2. Natural survivorship of immature stages of Culex vishnui (Diptera: Culicidae) complex, vectors of Japanese encephalitis virus, in rice fields in southern India.

    PubMed

    Sunish, I P; Reuben, R; Rajendran, R

    2006-03-01

    The development and survival of immatures of Culex vishnui (Diptera: Culicidae) complex, vectors of Japanese encephalitis virus, were studied in transplanted rice, Oryza savita L., fields during three crop growing seasons. The total duration of development from the first instar to adult emergence varied from 6 to 8 d. Survival rate estimates ranged from 0.003 to 0.524, but they generally were <0.1. Unusually high survival rates (0.192-0.524) were observed in summer and long-term monsoon crop seasons during 1993. A multiple regression method using backward elimination was used to analyze the factors responsible for these variations. The model identified nine parameters related with survival rates that explained 99% of the variance. Area of water surface and hardness were negatively related, whereas green algae, notonectid adults, anisopterans, dytiscids, salinity, water depth, and dissolved oxygen were positively associated with immature survival. PMID:16619597

  3. Description of the immature stages of Pentacomia (Mesochila) smaragdula Dejean 1825) (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae), with notes on the species distribution.

    PubMed

    Roza, André Silva; Mermudes, José Ricardo M

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Rainforest is one of the most threatened biomes of the world, with only 11-12 % of its original cover. The Cicindelinae are present in this biome with a relatively high diversity, but data of their immature forms are few. On the basis of six larvae and four pupae of Pentacomia (Mesochila) smaragdula we describe and illustrate the third larval instar of the larva and the pupa of this species. Notes on the species distribution are also given. PMID:26701489

  4. Parasitic infection in various stages life of cultured Acipenser persicus.

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Safari, Reza; Yaghoubzadeh, Zahra; Fazli, Hassan; Khalili, Elham

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the status of the parasite fauna in Acipenser persicus at different development stages, in order to find prevention protocols for parasitic diseases in this valuable species. For this purpose, sampling from each sex breeder, 10 egg samples, 5-day-old larvae (n = 20), 20-day-old larvae (n = 80) and fingerling of A. persicus (n = 60) released in earthen ponds were done. After the bioassay and preparing wet mount from the internal and external organs, identification was done according to the keys. According to the results, no fauna parasites were isolated from egg samples and 5-day-old larvae; but Trichodina spp. was isolated from 20-day-old larvae. Also, the same protozoan was isolated from fingerling released in earthen ponds, the mean intensity, prevalence and range of contamination by fingerling were higher with compared to 20-day-old larvae. Trichodina sp. and Diplostomum spathaceum were isolated from skin and eyes of females, respectively. However, Trichodina sp. and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis were isolated from skin of male breeders. In this study, no parasites were isolated from internal organs of larves and fingerling but four intestinal parasites included: Cucullanus sphaerocephlaus, Anisakis sp., Skyrjabinopsilus semiarmatus, and Lepto-rhynchoides plagicephalu were isolated from internal organs of breeder. Based on a wide range of parasitic infection observed in various life stages of A. persicus, it seems necessary to consider hygienic and management measures. PMID:27226891

  5. Parasitic infection in various stages life of cultured Acipenser persicus

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Milad; Safari, Reza; Yaghoubzadeh, Zahra; Fazli, Hassan; Khalili, Elham

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the status of the parasite fauna in Acipenser persicus at different development stages, in order to find prevention protocols for parasitic diseases in this valuable species. For this purpose, sampling from each sex breeder, 10 egg samples, 5-day-old larvae (n = 20), 20-day-old larvae (n = 80) and fingerling of A. persicus (n = 60) released in earthen ponds were done. After the bioassay and preparing wet mount from the internal and external organs, identification was done according to the keys. According to the results, no fauna parasites were isolated from egg samples and 5-day-old larvae; but Trichodina spp. was isolated from 20-day-old larvae. Also, the same protozoan was isolated from fingerling released in earthen ponds, the mean intensity, prevalence and range of contamination by fingerling were higher with compared to 20-day-old larvae. Trichodina sp. and Diplostomum spathaceum were isolated from skin and eyes of females, respectively. However, Trichodina sp. and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis were isolated from skin of male breeders. In this study, no parasites were isolated from internal organs of larves and fingerling but four intestinal parasites included: Cucullanus sphaerocephlaus, Anisakis sp., Skyrjabinopsilus semiarmatus, and Lepto-rhynchoides plagicephalu were isolated from internal organs of breeder. Based on a wide range of parasitic infection observed in various life stages of A. persicus, it seems necessary to consider hygienic and management measures. PMID:27226891

  6. Stage-dependent model for Hantavirus infection: the effect of the initial infection-free period.

    PubMed

    Reinoso, José A; de la Rubia, F Javier

    2013-04-01

    We propose a stage-dependent model with constant delay to study the effect of the initial infection-free period on the spread of Hantavirus infection in rodents. We analyze the model under various extreme weather conditions, in the context of the El Niño-La Niña Southern Oscillation phenomenon, and show how these variations determine the evolution of the system significantly. When the scenario corresponds to El Niño, the system presents a demographic explosion and a delayed outbreak of Hantavirus infection, whereas if the scenario is the opposite there is a rapid decline of the population, but with a possible persistence period that may imply a considerable risk for public health, a fact that is in agreement with available field data. We use the model to simulate a historical evolution that resembles the processes that occurred in the 1990s. PMID:23679449

  7. Stage-dependent model for Hantavirus infection: The effect of the initial infection-free period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinoso, José A.; de la Rubia, F. Javier

    2013-04-01

    We propose a stage-dependent model with constant delay to study the effect of the initial infection-free period on the spread of Hantavirus infection in rodents. We analyze the model under various extreme weather conditions, in the context of the El Niño-La Niña Southern Oscillation phenomenon, and show how these variations determine the evolution of the system significantly. When the scenario corresponds to El Niño, the system presents a demographic explosion and a delayed outbreak of Hantavirus infection, whereas if the scenario is the opposite there is a rapid decline of the population, but with a possible persistence period that may imply a considerable risk for public health, a fact that is in agreement with available field data. We use the model to simulate a historical evolution that resembles the processes that occurred in the 1990s.

  8. Description of immatures of the South American dictyopharid Taosa (C) longula (Hemiptera Fulgoroidea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immature stages of Taosa (Cuernavaca) longula Remes Lenicov (Dictyopharidae) are described and a key for their differentiation is provided. The descriptions and biological observations of immature stages were made on specimens collected on Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae) ...

  9. Semen CD4+ T Cells and Macrophages Are Productively Infected at All Stages of SIV infection in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Bernard-Stoecklin, Sibylle; Gommet, Céline; Corneau, Aurélien B.; Guenounou, Sabrina; Torres, Claire; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Cosma, Antonio; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The mucosal events of HIV transmission have been extensively studied, but the role of infected cells present in the genital and rectal secretions, and in the semen, in particular, remains a matter of debate. As a prerequisite to a thorough in vivo investigation of the early transmission events through infected cells, we characterized in detail by multi-parameter flow cytometry the changes in macaque seminal leukocytes during SIVmac251 infection, focusing on T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. Using immunocytofluorescence targeting SIV proteins and real-time quantitative PCR targeting SIV DNA, we investigated the nature of the infected cells on sorted semen leukocytes from macaques at different stages of infection. Finally, we cocultured semen CD4+ T cells and macrophages with a cell line permissive to SIV infection to assess their infectivity in vitro. We found that primary infection induced strong local inflammation, which was associated with an increase in the number of leukocytes in semen, both factors having the potential to favor cell-associated virus transmission. Semen CD4+ T cells and macrophages were productively infected at all stages of infection and were infectious in vitro. Lymphocytes had a mucosal phenotype and expressed activation (CD69 & HLA-DR) and migration (CCR5, CXCR4, LFA-1) markers. CD69 expression was increased in semen T cells by SIV infection, at all stages of infection. Macrophages predominated at all stages and expressed CD4, CCR5, MAC-1 and LFA-1. Altogether, we demonstrated that semen contains the two major SIV-target cells (CD4+ T cells and macrophages). Both cell types can be productively infected at all stages of SIV infection and are endowed with markers that may facilitate transmission of infection during sexual exposure. PMID:24348253

  10. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in early stages of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Brown, G R; Rundell, J R; McManis, S E; Kendall, S N; Zachary, R; Temoshok, L

    1992-01-01

    As part of a military universal HIV screening program, 442 men were assessed for the presence of DSM-III-R defined psychiatric disorders and symptoms of anxiety and depression after notification of HIV seroconversion. Of them, 84.4% were in the earliest, asymptomatic stages of disease at the time of interview (96% did not have AIDS). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scales were used. Relevant comparisons were made to Epidemiologic Catchment Area prevalence data. HIV seropositive men were more likely than age-matched men in the community to have current diagnoses of major depression (ages 18-44) and anxiety disorders (ages 25-44). Higher lifetime rates of major depression and alcohol use disorder, and high current prevalence of sexual dysfunction (21.7%) were noted. We conclude that men who become HIV seropositive have high rates of mood and substance use disorders prior to knowledge of seroconversion, and that early in the course of HIV infection men are at risk for developing major depression, anxiety disorders, and disorders of sexual desire. PMID:1438661

  11. Parasite distribution and early-stage encephalitis in Sarcocystis calchasi infections in domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica).

    PubMed

    Maier, Kristina; Olias, Philipp; Enderlein, Dirk; Klopfleisch, Robert; Mayr, Sylvia L; Gruber, Achim D; Lierz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pigeon protozoal encephalitis is a biphasic, neurologic disease of domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) caused by the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi. Despite severe inflammatory lesions of the brain, associated parasitic stages have only rarely been identified and the cause of the lesions is still unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the tissue distribution of S. calchasi within pigeons between the two clinical phases and during the occurrence of neurological signs. For this purpose, a semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Forty-five domestic pigeons were infected orally (via a cannula into the crop) with 200 S. calchasi sporocysts and euthanized in groups of three pigeons at intervals of 2 to 10 days over a period of 61 days. Tissue samples including brain and skeletal muscle were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. Schizonts were detected in the liver of one pigeon at day 10 post infection. A mild encephalitis was detected at day 20 post infection, around 4 weeks before the onset of neurological signs. At the same time, immature sarcocysts were present in the skeletal muscle. In seven pigeons a few sarcocysts were identified in the brain, but not associated with any lesion. These results suggest that the encephalitis is induced at a very early stage of the S. calchasi lifecycle rather than in the chronic phase of pigeon protozoal encephalitis. Despite the increasing severity of lesions in the central nervous system, the amount of sarcocysts did not increase. This supports the hypothesis of a delayed-type hypersensitivity response as the cause of the encephalitis. The study also demonstrated that S. calchasi DNA is detectable in tissues negative by histological methods, indicating a higher sensitivity of the real-time PCR. PMID:25338141

  12. Virological and immunological characteristics of HIV-infected individuals at the earliest stage of infection

    PubMed Central

    Ananworanich, Jintanat; Sacdalan, Carlo P.; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Chomont, Nicolas; de Souza, Mark; Luekasemsuk, Tassanee; Schuetz, Alexandra; Krebs, Shelly J; Dewar, Robin; Jagodzinski, Linda; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Spudich, Serena; Valcour, Victor; Sereti, Irini; Michael, Nelson; Robb, Merlin; Phanuphak, Praphan; Kim, Jerome H.; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2016-01-01

    Background The challenges of identifying acute HIV infection (AHI) have resulted in a lack of critical information on early AHI that constrains the development of therapeutics that are designed to eradicate HIV from the infected host. Methods AHI participants were recruited from the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic in Bangkok, Thailand into the RV254/SEARCH010 protocol and categorised according to Fiebig stages as follows: Fiebig I (HIV-RNA+, p24 Ag−, HIV IgM−) and Fiebig II–IV (HIV-RNA+, p24 Ag + or −, HIV IgM− or +, Western blot- or indeterminate). Proviral and viral burden and immune activation levels were compared between Fiebig stage groups at the time of AHI. CD4 and CD4/CD8 ratio were also compared between groups before and up to 96 weeks of ART. Results Median age was 27 years and 96% were male. Fiebig I individuals had lower median HIV-DNA in mononuclear cells from blood (3 vs. 190 copies/106 cells) and gut (0 vs. 898 copies/106 cells), and lower HIV-RNA in blood (4.2 vs. 6.2 log10 copies/mL), gut (1.7 vs. 3.1 log10 copies/mg) and cerebrospinal fluid (2.0 vs. 3.8 log10 copies/mL), when compared to Fiebig II–IV individuals (all P<0.01). Median plasma sCD14 level was lower (1.1 vs. 1.6 μg/mL) in Fiebig I individuals as was the frequency of CD8+HLADR+CD38+ T cells in blood (7.6 vs. 14.9%, both P<0.05). The median plasma interleukin 6 levels were similar between stages (0.6 in Fiebig I vs. 0.5 pg/mL in Fiebig II–IV, P>0.05). The frequencies of CD4+HLA-DR+CD38+ T cells were also similar between these stages (2.1 vs. 2.6%, P>0.05). Median CD4 count and CD4/CD8 ratio were higher in Fiebig I: 508 vs. 340 cells/mm3 and 1.1 vs. 0.7, respectively (both P<0.001). After ART, CD4 cell count normalised by week 24 in Fiebig I and week 48 in Fiebig II–IV. However, CD4/CD8 ratio was lower in both groups after 96 weeks of ART compared to healthy Thais (P=0.02). Conclusions Compared to later AHI stages, Fiebig I was associated with lower HIV burden in blood

  13. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and survival of HIV infected patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, P L; Umana, W O; Simmens, S J; Watson, J; Bosch, J P

    1993-08-01

    As the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients has increased in the U.S., the number of infected patients treated for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has stabilized at about 1 to 2% of the hemodialyzed population. Little has been written regarding the role of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in the treatment of HIV infected patients with ESRD. To evaluate the effectiveness of CAPD as a long term therapy for HIV infected patients with ESRD, we reviewed our ESRD program's experience. We entered 392 patients from its inception in February 1984 until April 1992. Thirty-one, or 7.9% of our population were HIV infected. Twenty, or 64.5% had stage IV infection. Patients were entered into our chronic hemodialysis (HD) or CAPD program according to standard clinical criteria. Eight HIV infected patients elected to start CAPD, while 23 patients were treated exclusively with HD. The proportion of stage IV infected patients was similar in both treatment modality groups. HIV infected ESRD patients were younger than non-HIV infected patients (37.5 +/- 9.7 vs. 49.8 +/- 15.7 years, respectively, P < 0.0001) at the start of treatment. We used Cox regression techniques to analyze survival data. Mean survival time for our entire non-HIV infected ESRD population (N = 361) was 44.0 +/- 33.9 months. Mean survival time for HIV infected patients with ESRD was 15.5 +/- 9.9 months. Median survival for HIV infected ESRD patients was 13 months compared to 38 months for the non-infected population. As expected, mean survival time in HIV infected ESRD patients was significantly diminished compared to non-infected ESRD patients (P < 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8377381

  14. Immunocompetence of chickens during early and tumorigenic stages of Rous-associated virus-1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    Fadly, A M; Lee, L F; Bacon, L D

    1982-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the effects of congenital infection with the Rous-associated virus-1 (RAV-1) on the immune function chickens during the early and late tumorigenic stages of infection. In another experiment, the effects of niridazole on the immune competence and the tumor incidence in chickens congenitally infected with RAV-1 were studied. Lymphocyte stimulation by phytohemagglutinin, the phytohemagglutinin skin test, the response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes and Brucella abortus, and histological evaluation of lymphoid organs were used to determine the immune competence in normal and infected chickens. Results indicated that both B- and T-cell immune functions during the early and late stages of RAV-1 infection were comparable to those of normal uninfected chickens. Administration of niridazole to congenitally infected chickens at 5 weeks of age for 7 or 21 days had no effect on the T-cell-mediated immunity; however, administration of the drug for 21 days eliminated lymphoma development. Unlike infection with other oncogenic viruses such as those causing Marek's disease and reticuloendotheliosis, infection with RAV-1 caused no detectable immunodepression during the early and late stages of infection. PMID:6290392

  15. Reorganization of Nuclear Pore Complexes and the Lamina in Late-Stage Parvovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Elina; Niskanen, Einari A; Ihalainen, Teemu O; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection induces reorganization of nuclear structures. Our studies indicated that late-stage infection induces accumulation of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and lamin B1 concomitantly with a decrease of lamin A/C levels on the apical side of the nucleus. Newly formed CPV capsids are located in close proximity to NPCs on the apical side. These results suggest that parvoviruses cause apical enrichment of NPCs and reorganization of nuclear lamina, presumably to facilitate the late-stage infection. PMID:26311881

  16. Reorganization of Nuclear Pore Complexes and the Lamina in Late-Stage Parvovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mäntylä, Elina; Niskanen, Einari A.; Ihalainen, Teemu O.

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection induces reorganization of nuclear structures. Our studies indicated that late-stage infection induces accumulation of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and lamin B1 concomitantly with a decrease of lamin A/C levels on the apical side of the nucleus. Newly formed CPV capsids are located in close proximity to NPCs on the apical side. These results suggest that parvoviruses cause apical enrichment of NPCs and reorganization of nuclear lamina, presumably to facilitate the late-stage infection. PMID:26311881

  17. First description of the immature stages and redescription of the adults of Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Acari: Ixodidae) with notes on its bionomics.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Walker, Jane B; Heyne, Heloise; Bezuidenhout, J Dürr; Horak, Ivan G

    2013-07-01

    Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Denny, 1843) is one of the most unusual, beautiful, and rare tick species known to the world. All stages of this species possess a unique morphology, on the one hand making them easy to identify, while on the other they exhibit similarities to certain species of Amblyomma Koch, 1844, Dermacentor Koch, 1844, and Hyalomma Koch, 1844. Adults of C. hippopotamensis have been collected on only two occasions from their hosts, namely Hippopotamus amphibius L. and Diceros bicornis (L.), and have been recorded from only a few widely separated localities in East and southern Africa. Here, the larva and nymph are described and illustrated for the first time, while the male and female are illustrated and redescribed. Data on hosts, geographic distribution, and life cycle of C. hippopotamensis are also provided. PMID:23926768

  18. The stability analysis of a general viral infection model with distributed delays and multi-staged infected progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinliang; Liu, Shengqiang

    2015-01-01

    We investigate an in-host model with general incidence and removal rate, as well as distributed delays in virus infections and in productions. By employing Lyapunov functionals and LaSalle's invariance principle, we define and prove the basic reproductive number R0 as a threshold quantity for stability of equilibria. It is shown that if R0 > 1 , then the infected equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, while if R0 ⩽ 1 , then the infection free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable under some reasonable assumptions. Moreover, n + 1 distributed delays describe (i) the time between viral entry and the transcription of viral RNA, (ii) the n - 1 -stage time needed for activated infected cells between viral RNA transcription and viral release, and (iii) the time necessary for the newly produced viruses to be infectious (maturation), respectively. The model can describe the viral infection dynamics of many viruses such as HIV-1, HCV and HBV.

  19. HIV Transmission by Stage of Infection and Pattern of Sexual Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Riolo, Rick L.; Koopman, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Most model analyses examining the role of primary HIV infection in the HIV epidemic ignore the fact that HIV is often transmitted through long-term, concurrent sexual partnerships. We sought to understand how duration and concurrency of sexual partnerships affect the role of transmissions during primary HIV infection. Methods We constructed a stochastic individual-based model of HIV transmission in a homogeneous population where partnerships form and dissolve. Using observed contagiousness by stage of HIV infection, the fraction of transmissions during primary HIV infection at equilibrium was examined across varying partnership durations and concurrencies. Results The fraction of transmissions during primary HIV infection has a U-shaped relationship with partnership duration. The fraction drops with increasing partnership duration for partnerships with shorter average duration but rises for partnerships with longer average duration. Partnership concurrency modifies this relationship. The fraction of transmissions during primary HIV infection increases with increasing partnership concurrency for partnerships with shorter average duration, but decreases for partnerships with longer average duration. Conclusions Partnership patterns strongly influence the transmission of HIV and do so differentially by stage of infection. Dynamic partnerships need to be taken into account to make a robust inference on the role of different stages of HIV infection. PMID:20571409

  20. Two-stage revision of implant-associated infections after total hip and knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ellenrieder, Martin; Lenz, Robert; Haenle, Maximilian; Bader, Rainer; Mittelmeier, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    Septic loosening of total hip and knee endoprostheses gains an increasing proportion of revision arthroplasties. Operative revisions of infected endoprostheses are mentally and physically wearing for the patient, challenging for the surgeon and a significant economic burden for healthcare systems. In cases of early infection within the first three weeks after implantation a one-stage revision with leaving the implant in place is widely accepted. The recommendations for the management of late infections vary by far. One-stage revisions as well as two-stage or multiple revision schedules have been reported to be successful in over 90% of all cases for certain patient collectives. But implant associated infection still remains a severe complication. Moreover, the management of late endoprosthetic infection requires specific logistics, sufficient and standardized treatment protocol, qualified manpower as well as an efficient quality management. With regard to the literature and experience of specialized orthopaedic surgeons from several university and regional hospitals we modified a commonly used treatment protocol for two-stage revision of infected total hip and knee endoprostheses. In addition to the achievement of maximum survival rate of the revision implants an optimisation of the functional outcome of the affected artificial joint is aimed for. PMID:22242098

  1. Human Cytomegalovirus Infection of Langerhans-Type Dendritic Cells Does Not Require the Presence of the gH/gL/UL128-131A Complex and Is Blocked after Nuclear Deposition of Viral Genomes in Immature Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lauron, Elvin J.; Yu, Dong; Fehr, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) enters its host via the oral and genital mucosae. Langerhans-type dendritic cells (LC) are the most abundant innate immune cells at these sites, where they constitute a first line of defense against a variety of pathogens. We previously showed that immature LC (iLC) are remarkably resistant to CMV infection, while mature LC (mLC) are more permissive, particularly when exposed to clinical-strain-like strains of CMV, which display a pentameric complex consisting of the viral glycoproteins gH, gL, UL128, UL130, and UL131A on their envelope. This complex was recently shown to be required for the infection of immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells. We thus sought to establish if the presence of this complex is also necessary for virion penetration of LC and if defects in entry might be the source of iLC resistance to CMV. Here we report that the efficiency of LC infection is reduced, but not completely abolished, in the absence of the pentameric complex. While virion penetration and nuclear deposition of viral genomes are not impaired in iLC, the transcription of the viral immediate early genes UL122 and UL123 and of the delayed early gene UL50 is substantially lower than that in mLC. Together, these data show that the UL128, UL130, and UL131A proteins are dispensable for CMV entry into LC and that progression of the viral cycle in iLC is restricted at the step of viral gene expression. PMID:24155395

  2. Susceptibility of some vertebrate hosts to infection with early third-stage larvae of Gnathostoma hispidum.

    PubMed

    Sohn, W M; Lee, S H

    1997-09-01

    Susceptibility of some vertebrates was examined to the early third-stage larvae (EL3) of Gnathostoma hispidum. The larvae collected from the Chinese loaches were infected to 4 silk carps, 3 snake heads, 3 bullfrogs, 5 mice and 9 albino rats. No worms were detected in fish, silk carps and snake heads. In 3 bullfrogs fed 30 larvae, a total of 9 EL3 was recovered in the gastrointestinal tract (8 larvae) and liver (one). In 5 mice infected with 50 larvae, a total of 37 (74.0%) advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) was recovered from the muscle (31 larvae), liver (5 larvae) and kidney at 4 weeks after infection. In 9 albino rats infected with 115 larvae, a total of 40 (34.8%) AdL3 was found in the muscle. The mammalian hosts were found susceptible to the EL3 of G. hispidum from Chinese loaches. PMID:9335187

  3. 2-stage revision of 120 deep infected hip and knee prostheses using gentamicin-PMMA beads.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Daniël M C; Geurts, Jan A P; Jütten, Liesbeth M C; Walenkamp, Geert H I M

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - A 2-stage revision is the most common treatment for late deep prosthesis-related infections and in all cases of septic loosening. However, there is no consensus about the optimal interval between the 2 stages. Patients and methods - We retrospectively studied 120 deep infections of total hip (n = 95) and knee (n = 25) prostheses that had occurred over a period of 25 years. The mean follow-up time was 5 (2-20) years. All infections had been treated with extraction, 1 or more debridements with systemic antibiotics, and implantation of gentamicin-PMMA beads. There had been different time intervals between extraction and reimplantation: median 14 (11-47) days for short-term treatment with uninterrupted hospital stay, and 7 (3-22) months for long-term treatment with temporary discharge. We analyzed the outcome regarding resolution of the infection and clinical results. Results - 88% (105/120) of the infections healed, with no difference in healing rate between short- and long-term treatment. 82 prostheses were reimplanted. In the most recent decade, we treated patients more often with a long-term treatment but reduced the length of time between the extraction and the reimplantation. More reimplantations were performed in long-term treatments than in short-term treatments, despite more having difficult-to-treat infections with worse soft-tissue condition. Interpretation - Patient, wound, and infection considerations resulted in an individualized treatment with different intervals between stages. The 2-stage revision treatment in combination with local gentamicin-PMMA beads gave good results even with difficult prosthesis infections and gentamicin-resistant bacteria. PMID:26822990

  4. One-stage revision in two cases of Salmonella prosthetic hip infection

    PubMed Central

    Jeroense, Kimberly TV; Kuiper, Jesse WP; Colen, Sascha; Schade, Rogier P; Saouti, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    We describe two cases of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip due to Salmonella. The first patient presented with an early infection 5 d after being discharged following a total hip replacement and the second patient presented at the emergency ward with a late infection, thirteen years following a total hip replacement. Both cases occurred within one month of each other at our institution and both were successfully treated with a one-stage revision. PJI caused by Salmonella species is very rare: so far only 20 Salmonella PJIs of the hip have been described. Therefore, full consensus on the best treatment approach has not yet been reached. An aggressive two-stage approach is advised because of the virulence of Salmonella, although a limited number of successful one-stage approaches have been described as well. According to the latest guidelines, one-stage revision has comparable success rates and less morbidity compared to two-stage treatment, when selecting the right patients. In our opinion, PJI caused by Salmonella should be treated just as PJI caused by other bacteria, with consideration of the selection criteria as mentioned in several treatment guidelines. As illustrated by these two cases, one-stage revision can be successful in both early and late Salmonella PJI of the hip. PMID:25032209

  5. Febrile temperatures induce cytoadherence of ring-stage Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Pipitaporn, Busaba; Silamut, Kamolrat; Pinches, Robert; Kyes, Sue; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Newbold, Christopher; White, Nicholas J

    2002-09-01

    In falciparum malaria, the malaria parasite induces changes at the infected red blood cell surface that lead to adherence to vascular endothelium and other red blood cells. As a result, the more mature stages of Plasmodium falciparum are sequestered in the microvasculature and cause vital organ dysfunction, whereas the ring stages circulate in the blood stream. Malaria is characterized by fever. We have studied the effect of febrile temperatures on the cytoadherence in vitro of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Freshly obtained ring-stage-infected red blood cells from 10 patients with acute falciparum malaria did not adhere to the principle vascular adherence receptors CD36 or intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). However, after a brief period of heating to 40 degrees C, all ring-infected red blood cells adhered to CD36, and some isolates adhered to ICAM-1, whereas controls incubated at 37 degrees C did not. Heating to 40 degrees C accelerated cytoadherence and doubled the maximum cytoadherence observed (P < 0.01). Erythrocytes infected by ring-stages of the ICAM-1 binding clone A4var also did not cytoadhere at 37 degrees C, but after heating to febrile temperatures bound to both CD36 and ICAM-1. Adherence of red blood cells infected with trophozoites was also increased considerably by brief heating. The factor responsible for heat induced adherence was shown to be the parasite derived variant surface protein PfEMP-1. RNA analysis showed that levels of var mRNA did not differ between heated and unheated ring-stage parasites. Thus fever-induced adherence appeared to involve increased trafficking of PfEMP-1 to the erythrocyte membrane. Fever induced cytoadherence is likely to have important pathological consequences and may explain both clinical deterioration with fever in severe malaria and the effects of antipyretics on parasite clearance. PMID:12177447

  6. Structure of the immature HIV-1 capsid in intact virus particles at 8.8 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schur, Florian K. M.; Hagen, Wim J. H.; Rumlová, Michaela; Ruml, Tomáš; Müller, Barbara; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly proceeds in two stages. First, the 55 kilodalton viral Gag polyprotein assembles into a hexameric protein lattice at the plasma membrane of the infected cell, inducing budding and release of an immature particle. Second, Gag is cleaved by the viral protease, leading to internal rearrangement of the virus into the mature, infectious form. Immature and mature HIV-1 particles are heterogeneous in size and morphology, preventing high-resolution analysis of their protein arrangement in situ by conventional structural biology methods. Here we apply cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging methods to resolve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature HIV-1 particles at subnanometre resolution, allowing unambiguous positioning of all α-helices. The resulting model reveals tertiary and quaternary structural interactions that mediate HIV-1 assembly. Strikingly, these interactions differ from those predicted by the current model based on in vitro-assembled arrays of Gag-derived proteins from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. To validate this difference, we solve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature Mason-Pfizer monkey virus particles. Comparison with the immature HIV-1 structure reveals that retroviral capsid proteins, while having conserved tertiary structures, adopt different quaternary arrangements during virus assembly. The approach demonstrated here should be applicable to determine structures of other proteins at subnanometre resolution within heterogeneous environments.

  7. An investigation of menopausal stage and symptoms on cognition in HIV-infected women

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Leah H.; Sundermann, Erin E.; Cook, Judith A.; Martin, Eileen M.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Crystal, Howard; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Anastos, Kathyrn; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Maki, Pauline M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the separate and interactive associations of menopausal stage, menopausal symptoms, and HIV infection on cognition. We hypothesized that HIV-infected, perimenopausal women would show the greatest cognitive difficulties and that menopausal symptoms would be inversely associated with cognition. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 708 HIV-infected and 278 HIV-uninfected, pre-, peri-, or postmenopausal women (64% African-American; median age 44 years) from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Participants completed tests of verbal learning and memory, attention/processing speed, and executive function. We administered a menopausal symptom questionnaire that assessed anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep symptoms and obtained measures of depressive symptoms. Results: In multivariable regression analyses controlling for relevant covariates, HIV infection, but not menopausal stage, was associated with worse performance on all cognitive measures (p’s<0.05). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower cognitive performance on measures of verbal learning and memory, attention, and executive function (p’s<0.05); anxiety symptoms were associated with lower performance on measures of verbal learning and memory (p’s<0.05). Vasomotor symptoms were associated with worse attention (p<0.05). HIV and anxiety symptoms interacted to influence verbal learning (p’s<0.05); elevated anxiety was associated with worse verbal learning in HIV-infected women only. Conclusion: Vasomotor, depressive, and anxiety symptoms, but not menopausal stage, were associated with worse cognitive performance in both HIV-infected and uninfected women, although elevated anxiety symptoms were associated with verbal learning deficits more in HIV-infected women. Since cognitive problems can interfere with everyday functioning including treatment adherence, it may be important to screen and treat anxiety in HIV-infected women. PMID:24496085

  8. Sulphur and oxygen sequestration of n-C37 and n-C38 unsaturated ketones in an immature kerogen and the release of their carbon skeletons during early stages of thermal maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopmans, M.P.; Schaeffer-Reiss, C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Maxwell, J.R.; Schaeffer, P.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Sedimentary rock from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) containing immature (Ro = 0.25%) S-rich organic matter was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at temperatures from 160 to 330??C for 72 h to study the diagenetic fate of n-C37 and n-C38 di-and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (alkenones) biosynthesised by several prymnesiophyte algae. During early diagenesis, the alkenones are incorporated into the kerogen by both sulphur and oxygen cross-linking as indicated by chemical degradation experiments with the kerogen of the unheated sample. Heating at temperatures between 160 and 260??C, which still represents early stages of thermal maturation, produces large amounts (up to 1 mg/g TOC) of S-bound, O-bound, and both S-and O-bound n-C37 and n-C38 skeletons, saturated n-C37 and n-C38 methyl, ethyl, and mid-chain ketones, C37 and C38 mid-chain 2,5-di-n-alkylthiophenes, C37 and C38 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes, and C37 and C38 n-alkanes. With increasing thermal maturation, three forms of the n-C37 and n-C38 skeletons are relatively stable (saturated hydrocarbons, 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and saturated ketones), whereas the S-and O-bound skeletons are relatively labile. These results suggest that in natural situations saturated ketones with an n-C37 and n-C38 skeleton can be expected as well as the corresponding hydrocarbons. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Dynamics of a Class of HIV Infection Models with Cure of Infected Cells in Eclipse Stage.

    PubMed

    Maziane, Mehdi; Lotfi, El Mehdi; Hattaf, Khalid; Yousfi, Noura

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose two HIV infection models with specific nonlinear incidence rate by including a class of infected cells in the eclipse phase. The first model is described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and generalizes a set of previously existing models and their results. The second model extends our ODE model by taking into account the diffusion of virus. Furthermore, the global stability of both models is investigated by constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals. Finally, we check our theoretical results with numerical simulations. PMID:26082312

  10. Hypoxia promotes liver-stage malaria infection in primary human hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shengyong; March, Sandra; Galstian, Ani; Hanson, Kirsten; Carvalho, Tânia; Mota, Maria M; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2014-02-01

    Homeostasis of mammalian cell function strictly depends on balancing oxygen exposure to maintain energy metabolism without producing excessive reactive oxygen species. In vivo, cells in different tissues are exposed to a wide range of oxygen concentrations, and yet in vitro models almost exclusively expose cultured cells to higher, atmospheric oxygen levels. Existing models of liver-stage malaria that utilize primary human hepatocytes typically exhibit low in vitro infection efficiencies, possibly due to missing microenvironmental support signals. One cue that could influence the infection capacity of cultured human hepatocytes is the dissolved oxygen concentration. We developed a microscale human liver platform comprised of precisely patterned primary human hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells to model liver-stage malaria, but the oxygen concentrations are typically higher in the in vitro liver platform than anywhere along the hepatic sinusoid. Indeed, we observed that liver-stage Plasmodium parasite development in vivo correlates with hepatic sinusoidal oxygen gradients. Therefore, we hypothesized that in vitro liver-stage malaria infection efficiencies might improve under hypoxia. Using the infection of micropatterned co-cultures with Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium yoelii or Plasmodium falciparum as a model, we observed that ambient hypoxia resulted in increased survival of exo-erythrocytic forms (EEFs) in hepatocytes and improved parasite development in a subset of surviving EEFs, based on EEF size. Further, the effective cell surface oxygen tensions (pO2) experienced by the hepatocytes, as predicted by a mathematical model, were systematically perturbed by varying culture parameters such as hepatocyte density and height of the medium, uncovering an optimal cell surface pO2 to maximize the number of mature EEFs. Initial mechanistic experiments revealed that treatment of primary human hepatocytes with the hypoxia mimetic, cobalt(II) chloride, as well as a HIF-1

  11. Fasciola hepatica induces eosinophil apoptosis in the migratory and biliary stages of infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, A; Bautista, M J; Zafra, R; Pacheco, I L; Ruiz, M T; Martínez-Cruz, S; Méndez, A; Martínez-Moreno, A; Molina-Hernández, V; Pérez, J

    2016-01-30

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the number of apoptotic eosinophils in the livers of sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica during the migratory and biliary stages of infection. Four groups (n=5) of sheep were used; groups 1-3 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 8 and 28 days post-infection (dpi), and 17 weeks post-infection (wpi), respectively. Group 4 was used as an uninfected control. Apoptosis was detected using immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody against anti-active caspase-3, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eosinophils were identified using the Hansel stain in serial sections for caspase-3, and by ultrastructural features using TEM. At 8 and 28 dpi, numerous caspase-3(+) eosinophils were mainly found at the periphery of acute hepatic necrotic foci. The percentage of caspase -3(+) apoptotic eosinophils in the periphery of necrotic foci was high (46.1-53.9) at 8 and 28 dpi, respectively, and decreased in granulomas found at 28 dpi (6%). Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of apoptotic eosinophils in hepatic lesions at 8 and 28 dpi. At 17 wpi, apoptotic eosinophils were detected in the infiltrate surrounding some enlarged bile ducts containing adult flukes. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by F. hepatica in sheep and the first study reporting apoptosis in eosinophils in hepatic inflammatory infiltrates in vivo. The high number of apoptotic eosinophils in acute necrotic tracts during the migratory and biliary stages of infection suggests that eosinophil apoptosis may play a role in F. hepatica survival during different stages of infection. PMID:26801599

  12. TLTF in Cerebrospinal Fluid for Detection and Staging of T. b. gambiense Infection

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Maha-Hamadien; Bakhiet, Moiz; Lejon, Veerle; Andersson, Jan; McKerrow, James; Al-Obeed, Omar; Harris, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Trypanosome-derived lymphocyte triggering factor (TLTF) is a molecule released by African trypanosomes that interacts with the host immune system, resulting in increased levels of IFN-γ production. Methodology/Principal findings TLTF and anti-TLTF antibodies were assessed in sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T. b. gambiense) in an attempt to identify alternative markers for diagnosis and stage determination of human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness. Seventy-four serum and sixty-one CSF samples from patients with parasitologically confirmed infection and known disease stage along with 13 sera and CSF from uninfected controls were tested. In serum the levels of anti-TLTF antibodies were unrelated to the disease stage. In contrast, levels of anti-TLTF antibodies in CSF were higher in intermediate/late stages than in early stage disease patients. Specificity of the detected antibodies was assessed by inhibition of TLTF bioactivity as represented by its ability to induce IFN-γ production. Additionally, TLTF was detected in CSF from late stage patients by Western blotting with the anti-TLTF specific monoclonal antibody MO3. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest a new possibility for disease diagnosis with focus on involvement of the CNS through detection of TLTF and anti-TLTF antibodies in the CSF. PMID:24260185

  13. Blastomycosis infection of the knee treated with staged total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Ian S; Day, Shandra R; Moore, Christopher C; Browne, James A

    2015-12-01

    Blastomycosis is a rare fungal disease that can cause intraarticular infection and joint destruction requiring surgical reconstruction. We describe a patient who presented with destruction of the knee joint of unknown etiology. The patient was initially treated with debridement and spacer placement followed by antifungal therapy after cultures grew blastomycosis. Following adequate treatment of the infection, the patient was taken back to the operating room for reconstruction with a total knee arthroplasty. The patient had a successful outcome with no evidence of infection at two years following surgery. To our knowledge, this case report represents the first documented case in which a blastomycotic infection of a native knee was successfully treated with a two-stage total knee arthroplasty. PMID:26081592

  14. Re-Infection Outcomes following One- and Two-Stage Surgical Revision of Infected Hip Prosthesis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kunutsor, Setor K.; Whitehouse, Michael R.; Blom, Ashley W.; Beswick, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The two-stage revision strategy has been claimed as being the “gold standard” for treating prosthetic joint infection. The one-stage revision strategy remains an attractive alternative option; however, its effectiveness in comparison to the two-stage strategy remains uncertain. Objective To compare the effectiveness of one- and two-stage revision strategies in treating prosthetic hip infection, using re-infection as an outcome. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, manual search of bibliographies to March 2015, and email contact with investigators. Study Selection Cohort studies (prospective or retrospective) conducted in generally unselected patients with prosthetic hip infection treated exclusively by one- or two-stage revision and with re-infection outcomes reported within two years of revision. No clinical trials were identified. Review Methods Data were extracted by two independent investigators and a consensus was reached with involvement of a third. Rates of re-infection from 38 one-stage studies (2,536 participants) and 60 two-stage studies (3,288 participants) were aggregated using random-effect models after arcsine transformation, and were grouped by study and population level characteristics. Results In one-stage studies, the rate (95% confidence intervals) of re-infection was 8.2% (6.0–10.8). The corresponding re-infection rate after two-stage revision was 7.9% (6.2–9.7). Re-infection rates remained generally similar when grouped by several study and population level characteristics. There was no strong evidence of publication bias among contributing studies. Conclusion Evidence from aggregate published data suggest similar re-infection rates after one- or two-stage revision among unselected patients. More detailed analyses under a broader range of circumstances and exploration of other sources of heterogeneity will require collaborative pooling of individual

  15. Re-Infection Outcomes Following One- And Two-Stage Surgical Revision of Infected Knee Prosthesis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kunutsor, Setor K.; Whitehouse, Michael R.; Lenguerrand, Erik; Blom, Ashley W.; Beswick, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of total knee arthroplasty. Two-stage revision is the most widely used technique and considered as the most effective for treating periprosthetic knee infection. The one-stage revision strategy is an emerging alternative option, however, its performance in comparison to the two-stage strategy is unclear. We therefore sought to ask if there was a difference in re-infection rates and other clinical outcomes when comparing the one-stage to the two-stage revision strategy. Objective Our first objective was to compare re-infection (new and recurrent infections) rates for one- and two-stage revision surgery for periprosthetic knee infection. Our second objective was to compare between the two revision strategies, clinical outcomes as measured by postoperative Knee Society Knee score, Knee Society Function score, Hospital for Special Surgery knee score, WOMAC score, and range of motion. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, reference lists of relevant studies to August 2015, and correspondence with investigators. Study selection Longitudinal (prospective or retrospective cohort) studies conducted in generally unselected patients with periprosthetic knee infection treated exclusively by one- or two-stage revision and with re-infection outcomes reported within two years of revision surgery. No clinical trials comparing both revision strategies were identified. Review methods Two independent investigators extracted data and discrepancies were resolved by consensus with a third investigator. Re-infection rates from 10 one-stage studies (423 participants) and 108 two-stage studies (5,129 participants) were meta-analysed using random-effect models after arcsine transformation. Results The rate (95% confidence intervals) of re-infection was 7.6% (3.4–13.1) in one-stage studies. The corresponding re-infection rate for two-stage revision

  16. 2-stage revision recommended for treatment of fungal hip and knee prosthetic joint infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Fungal prosthetic joint infections are rare and difficult to treat. This systematic review was conducted to determine outcome and to give treatment recommendations. Patients and methods After an extensive search of the literature, 164 patients treated for fungal hip or knee prosthetic joint infection (PJI) were reviewed. This included 8 patients from our own institutions. Results Most patients presented with pain (78%) and swelling (65%). In 68% of the patients, 1 or more risk factors for fungal PJI were found. In 51% of the patients, radiographs showed signs of loosening of the arthroplasty. Candida species were cultured from most patients (88%). In 21% of all patients, fungal culture results were first considered to be contamination. There was co-infection with bacteria in 33% of the patients. For outcome analysis, 119 patients had an adequate follow-up of at least 2 years. Staged revision was the treatment performed most often, with the highest success rate (85%). Interpretation Fungal PJI resembles chronic bacterial PJI. For diagnosis, multiple samples and prolonged culturing are essential. Fungal species should be considered to be pathogens. Co-infection with bacteria should be treated with additional antibacterial agents. We found no evidence that 1-stage revision, debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and retention (DAIR) or antifungal therapy without surgical treatment adequately controls fungal PJI. Thus, staged revision should be the standard treatment for fungal PJI. After resection of the prosthesis, we recommend systemic antifungal treatment for at least 6 weeks—and until there are no clinical signs of infection and blood infection markers have normalized. Then reimplantation can be performed. PMID:24171675

  17. Evaluation of immuno diagnostic assay for the exposure of stage specific filarial infection.

    PubMed

    Ravishankaran, Rajendran; Shridharan, Radhika Nagamangalam; Vishal, Lawrence Ansel; Meenakshisundaram, Sankaranarayanan; Karande, Anjali Anoop; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2016-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating diseases caused by filarial parasitic nematodes. The infection may be acquired in childhood but the symptoms become apparent only in later life. To evaluate the success of any intervention, sensitive diagnostics were used to identify infection among endemic normals that are likely to develop microfilaremia in due course of time. Capture assay was standardized using the recombinant protein Brugia malayi Abundant Larval Transcript-2 (ALT-2) specific monoclonal and poly-clonal antibodies and evaluated with serum samples of clinical groups from high and low filarial infection area individuals (HIA/LIA), Endemic Normal (EN, n = 478), microfilaeremics (MF, n = 77), chronic pathology (CP, n = 57) and non endemic normal (NEN, n = 20). In order to assess stage-specific infection, ALT-2 capture assay was compared with the early reported Venom allergen homologue (VAH) and microfilariae specific SXP-1 capture assays. Of the 632 serum samples tested, ALT-2 and VAH capture assays detected circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in 57% and 52% of HIA-EN individuals, respectively. As expected, the VAH and SXP-1 capture assays were positive for 100 % of MF individuals. The described capture assays can be useful for the detection of early and stage-specific filarial infections in endemic regions of developing countries. PMID:27078646

  18. Dynamics of an HIV Model with Multiple Infection Stages and Treatment with Different Drug Classes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Song, Xinyu; Tang, Sanyi; Rong, Libin

    2016-02-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy can effectively control HIV replication in infected individuals. Some clinical and modeling studies suggested that viral decay dynamics may depend on the inhibited stages of the viral replication cycle. In this paper, we develop a general mathematical model incorporating multiple infection stages and various drug classes that can interfere with specific stages of the viral life cycle. We derive the basic reproductive number and obtain the global stability results of steady states. Using several simple cases of the general model, we study the effect of various drug classes on the dynamics of HIV decay. When drugs are assumed to be 100% effective, drugs acting later in the viral life cycle lead to a faster or more rapid decay in viremia. This is consistent with some patient and experimental data, and also agrees with previous modeling results. When drugs are not 100% effective, the viral decay dynamics are more complicated. Without a second population of long-lived infected cells, the viral load decline can have two phases if drugs act at an intermediate stage of the viral replication cycle. The slopes of viral load decline depend on the drug effectiveness, the death rate of infected cells at different stages, and the transition rate of infected cells from one to the next stage. With a second population of long-lived infected cells, the viral load decline can have three distinct phases, consistent with the observation in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy containing the integrase inhibitor raltegravir. We also fit modeling prediction to patient data under efavirenz (a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor) and raltegravir treatment. The first-phase viral load decline under raltegravir therapy is longer than that under efavirenz, resulting in a lower viral load at initiation of the second-phase decline in patients taking raltegravir. This explains why patients taking a raltegravir-based therapy were faster to achieve

  19. The relationship between cognitive reserve and the clinical stage of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Tostado, Pablo; Inozemtseva, Olga; Aguiñiga, Miguel A; López, Enrique; Matute, Esmeralda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the effect of cognitive reserve (CR) on neuropsychological functioning differs according to the clinical stage of HIV infection. A sample of 34 HIV-positive individuals aged 23-49, with a minimum of 9 years of formal education, was assessed. Participants were grouped according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) clinical stages (A = 10, B = 16, C = 8). CR was calculated for each clinical stage group in accordance with estimates of premorbid IQ, years of education, and occupational attainment. The sum of these three variables was then transformed into z-scores. Individuals above the median were classified as having "High" CR (HCR), those below the median were classified as "Low" CR (LCR). Participants completed an evaluation of cognitive and executive functions based on selected, modified tasks from the HIV University of Miami Annotated Neuropsychological test in Spanish (HUMANS). Assessment included the following domains: attention, memory (visual, verbal, and working memory), executive functions (cognitive flexibility, switching), language (naming), and visual constructive skills (block design). HCR outperformed LCR in all cognitive domains. Comparison of HCR and LCR in each clinical stage revealed that the effect of CR was stronger in stage B than in stages A and C, suggesting that this effect does indeed vary among stages. PMID:26711542

  20. Newborn Physiological Immaturity

    PubMed Central

    Fabrellas-Padrés, Núria; Delgado-Hito, Pilar; Hurtado-Pardos, Bárbara; Martí-Cavallé, Montserrat; Gironès-Nogué, Marta; García-Berman, Rosa-Maria; Alonso-Fernandez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most standardized nursing care plans for healthy neonates include multiple nursing diagnoses to reflect nurses' judgments on the infant's status; however scientific literature concerning this issue is scarce. Newborn physiological immaturity is a concept in the ATIC terminology (architecture, terminology, interface, information, nursing [infermeria], and knowledge [coneixement]) to represent the natural status of vulnerability of the healthy neonate. Purpose: To identify the essential attributes of the concept and provide its conceptual and operational definition, using the Wilsonian approach. Findings: The concept under analysis embeds a natural cluster of vulnerabilities and environmental interactions that enhance the evolving maturation process. Implications for Practice: The use of this diagnosis may simplify the process of charting the nursing care plans and reduce time needed for documentation while maintaining the integrity of the information. Implications for Research: Consistent development and use of nursing concepts is essential for knowledge building. Studies on the actual use of nursing diagnoses are needed to inform decision making. PMID:25822514

  1. Low Infection Rates in Total Knee Arthroplasty in End Stage Renal Failure Patients.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhixing Marcus; Soong, Jun Wei; Loh, Bryan; Yeo, Seng Jin; Pang, Hee Nee; Lo, Ngai Nung

    2016-01-01

    End stage renal failure is considered a risk factor for postoperative infection and many surgeons are cautious in offering this group of patients total knee arthroplasty for symptomatic osteoarthritis. In this retrospective study, 16 total knee arthroplasties were performed in 13 patients and each case was followed up for an average of 5.1 years. We report no cases of infection and also an overall improvement in multiple validated outcome measures. There were, however, 2 cases of periprosthetic loosening. As the patients in our series were generally younger and none was diagnosed with stroke or peripheral vascular disease at the time of surgery, we believe that careful patient selection is key to reducing infection rates in this challenging group of patients. PMID:26282498

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of the Initial Stage of Acute WSSV Infection Caused by Temperature Change

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yumiao; Li, Fuhua; Sun, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Shihao; Zhang, Chengsong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most devastating virosis threatening the shrimp culture industry worldwide. Variations of environmental factors in shrimp culture ponds usually lead to the outbreak of white spot syndrome (WSS). In order to know the molecular mechanisms of WSS outbreak induced by temperature variation and the biological changes of the host at the initial stage of WSSV acute infection, RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in shrimp with a certain amount of WSSV cultured at 18°C and shrimp whose culture temperature were raised to 25°C. To analyze whether the expression changes of the DEGs were due to temperature rising or WSSV proliferation, the expression of selected DEGs was analyzed by real-time PCR with another shrimp group, namely Group T, as control. Group T didn’t suffer WSSV infection but was subjected to temperature rising in parallel. At the initial stage of WSSV acute infection, DEGs related to energy production were up-regulated, whereas most DEGs related to cell cycle and positive regulation of cell death and were down-regulated. Triose phosphate isomerase, enolase and alcohol dehydrogenase involved in glycosis were up-regulated, while pyruvate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase with NAD as the coenzyme involved in TCA pathway were down-regulated. Also genes involved in host DNA replication, including DNA primase, DNA topoisomerase and DNA polymerase showed down-regulated expression. Several interesting genes including crustin genes, acting binding or inhibiting protein genes, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 9 (ADAM9) gene and a GRP 78 gene were also analyzed. Understanding the interactions between hosts and WSSV at the initial stage of acute infection will not only help to get a deep insight into the pathogenesis of WSSV but also provide clues for therapies. PMID:24595043

  3. Host and parasite thermal acclimation responses depend on the stage of infection.

    PubMed

    Altman, Karie A; Paull, Sara H; Johnson, Pieter T J; Golembieski, Michelle N; Stephens, Jeffrey P; LaFonte, Bryan E; Raffel, Thomas R

    2016-07-01

    Global climate change is expected to alter patterns of temperature variability, which could influence species interactions including parasitism. Species interactions can be difficult to predict in variable-temperature environments because of thermal acclimation responses, i.e. physiological changes that allow organisms to adjust to a new temperature following a temperature shift. The goal of this study was to determine how thermal acclimation influences host resistance to infection and to test for parasite acclimation responses, which might differ from host responses in important ways. We tested predictions of three, non-mutually exclusive hypotheses regarding thermal acclimation effects on infection of green frog tadpoles (Lithobates clamitans) by the trematode parasite Ribeiroia ondatrae with fully replicated controlled-temperature experiments. Trematodes or tadpoles were independently acclimated to a range of 'acclimation temperatures' prior to shifting them to new 'performance temperatures' for experimental infections. Trematodes that were acclimated to intermediate temperatures (19-22 °C) had greater encystment success across temperatures than either cold- or warm-acclimated trematodes. However, host acclimation responses varied depending on the stage of infection (encystment vs. clearance): warm- (22-28 °C) and cold-acclimated (13-19 °C) tadpoles had fewer parasites encyst at warm and cold performance temperatures, respectively, whereas intermediate-acclimated tadpoles (19-25 °C) cleared the greatest proportion of parasites in the week following exposure. These results suggest that tadpoles use different immune mechanisms to resist different stages of trematode infection, and that each set of mechanisms has unique responses to temperature variability. Our results highlight the importance of considering thermal responses of both parasites and hosts when predicting disease patterns in variable-temperature environments. PMID:27040618

  4. Whole transcriptome profiling of adult and infective stages of the trematode Opisthorchis felineus.

    PubMed

    Pomaznoy, Mikhail Yu; Logacheva, Maria D; Young, Neil D; Penin, Aleksey A; Ershov, Nikita I; Katokhin, Alexey V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

    2016-02-01

    Opisthorchis felineus, the trematode belonging to the family Opisthorchiidae, is a causative agent of the infection called opisthorchiasis or liver fluke infection. Being a close relative of Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis (oriental liver flukes) it is encountered in northern Eurasia, especially in Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Ukraine, and Baltic countries. Whole genome data for oriental liver flukes revealed their adaptations for life in the bile duct but our knowledge of O. felineus is scarce. To address this knowledge gap and uncover evolutionary aspect of the adaptations on the transcriptomic level, we used RNA-sequencing approach to investigate two stages of the parasite residing in different hosts. Bioinformatic analysis revealed specific features affecting various biochemical pathways and gene networks. Namely, we observed the loss of genes involved in polyamine synthesis, methionine salvage and peroxisome biogenesis. Some of the gene families, like MD-2 lipid binding proteins, calmodulins and cathepsins on the contrary have expanded compared to free living eukaryotes. We identified significant differences between the stages in homeodomain-containing genes, G-protein coupled receptors, and neuroactive signaling systems. Granulin-like growth factors specific for O. felineus were also identified. In this work, we provide the first whole transcriptome investigation of this parasite. We also hope that these results will create a background for further molecular research of helminth infections and opisthorchiasis in particular. PMID:26363139

  5. Gene Expression Profiling during Early Acute Febrile Stage of Dengue Infection Can Predict the Disease Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Calzavara-Silva, Carlos E.; Gomes, Ana L. V.; Brito, Carlos A. A.; Cordeiro, Marli T.; Silva, Ana M.; Magalhães, Cecilia; Andrade, Raoni; Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Marques, Ernesto T. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background We report the detailed development of biomarkers to predict the clinical outcome under dengue infection. Transcriptional signatures from purified peripheral blood mononuclear cells were derived from whole-genome gene-expression microarray data, validated by quantitative PCR and tested in independent samples. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was performed on patients of a well-characterized dengue cohort from Recife, Brazil. The samples analyzed were collected prospectively from acute febrile dengue patients who evolved with different degrees of disease severity: classic dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) samples were compared with similar samples from other non-dengue febrile illnesses. The DHF samples were collected 2–3 days before the presentation of the plasma leakage symptoms. Differentially-expressed genes were selected by univariate statistical tests as well as multivariate classification techniques. The results showed that at early stages of dengue infection, the genes involved in effector mechanisms of innate immune response presented a weaker activation on patients who later developed hemorrhagic fever, whereas the genes involved in apoptosis were expressed in higher levels. Conclusions/Significance Some of the gene expression signatures displayed estimated accuracy rates of more than 95%, indicating that expression profiling with these signatures may provide a useful means of DHF prognosis at early stages of infection. PMID:19936257

  6. End-Stage Renal Disease Among HIV-Infected Adults in North America

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Alison G.; Althoff, Keri N.; Jing, Yuezhou; Estrella, Michelle M.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Wester, C. William; Bosch, Ronald J.; Crane, Heidi; Eron, Joseph; Gill, M. John; Horberg, Michael A.; Justice, Amy C.; Klein, Marina; Mayor, Angel M.; Moore, Richard D.; Palella, Frank J.; Parikh, Chirag R.; Silverberg, Michael J.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Napravnik, Sonia; Lucas, Gregory M.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Benson, Constance A.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Collier, Ann C.; Boswell, Stephen; Grasso, Chris; Mayer, Ken; Hogg, Robert S.; Harrigan, Richard; Montaner, Julio; Cescon, Angela; Brooks, John T.; Buchacz, Kate; Gebo, Kelly A.; Moore, Richard D.; Moore, Richard D.; Carey, John T.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Horberg, Michael A.; Silverberg, Michael J.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Goedert, James J.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Klein, Marina B.; Rourke, Sean B.; Burchell, Ann; Rachlis, Anita R.; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.; Mayor, Angel M.; Gill, M. John; Deeks, Steven G.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Saag, Michael S.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Willig, James; Eron, Joseph J.; Napravnik, Sonia; Kitahata, Mari M.; Crane, Heidi M.; Justice, Amy C.; Dubrow, Robert; Fiellin, David; Sterling, Timothy R.; Haas, David; Bebawy, Sally; Turner, Megan; Gange, Stephen J.; Anastos, Kathryn; Moore, Richard D.; Saag, Michael S.; Gange, Stephen J.; Althoff, Keri N.; Kitahata, Mari M.; McKaig, Rosemary G.; Justice, Amy C.; Freeman, Aimee M.; Moore, Richard D.; Freeman, Aimee M.; Lent, Carol; Kitahata, Mari M.; Van Rompaey, Stephen E.; Crane, Heidi M.; Webster, Eric; Morton, Liz; Simon, Brenda; Gange, Stephen J.; Althoff, Keri N.; Abraham, Alison G.; Lau, Bryan; Zhang, Jinbing; Jing, Jerry; Golub, Elizabeth; Modur, Shari; Hanna, David B.; Rebeiro, Peter; Wong, Cherise; Mendes, Adell

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, particularly those of black race, are at high-risk for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but contributing factors are evolving. We hypothesized that improvements in HIV treatment have led to declines in risk of ESRD, particularly among HIV-infected blacks. Methods. Using data from the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration for Research and Design from January 2000 to December 2009, we validated 286 incident ESRD cases using abstracted medical evidence of dialysis (lasting >6 months) or renal transplant. A total of 38 354 HIV-infected adults aged 18–80 years contributed 159 825 person-years (PYs). Age- and sex-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated by race. Poisson regression was used to identify predictors of ESRD. Results. HIV-infected ESRD cases were more likely to be of black race, have diabetes mellitus or hypertension, inject drugs, and/or have a prior AIDS-defining illness. The overall SIR was 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8–3.6) but was significantly higher among black patients (4.5 [95% CI, 3.9–5.2]). ESRD incidence declined from 532 to 303 per 100 000 PYs and 138 to 34 per 100 000 PYs over the time period for blacks and nonblacks, respectively, coincident with notable increases in both the prevalence of viral suppression and the prevalence of ESRD risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hepatitis C virus coinfection. Conclusions. The risk of ESRD remains high among HIV-infected individuals in care but is declining with improvements in virologic suppression. HIV-infected black persons continue to comprise the majority of cases, as a result of higher viral loads, comorbidities, and genetic susceptibility. PMID:25409471

  7. Titanium-copper-nitride coated spacers for two-stage revision of infected total hip endoprostheses

    PubMed Central

    Ellenrieder, Martin; Haenle, Maximilian; Lenz, Robert; Bader, Rainer; Mittelmeier, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    Within the first two years after total hip arthroplasty implant-associated infection has become the second most common reason for a revision surgery. Two-stage implant exchange is frequently conducted using temporary spacers made of antibiotic-loaded cement in order to prevent a bacterial colonization on the spacer. Avoiding several disadvantages of cement spacers, a conventional hemi-endoprosthesis was equipped with a copper-containing implant coating for inhibition of bacterial biofilms. In the present paper details of this novel treatment concept are presented including a case report. PMID:22242097

  8. Removal of Dolutegravir by Hemodialysis in HIV-Infected Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Moltó, José; Graterol, Fredzzia; Miranda, Cristina; Khoo, Saye; Bancu, Ioana; Amara, Alieu; Bonjoch, Anna; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2016-04-01

    Data on dolutegravir removal by hemodialysis are lacking. To study this, we measured dolutegravir plasma concentrations in samples of blood entering and leaving the dialyzer and of the resulting dialysate from 5 HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal disease. The median dolutegravir hemodialysis extraction ratio was 7%. The dolutegravir concentrations after the dialysis session remained far above the protein-binding-adjusted inhibitory concentration. Our results show minimal dolutegravir removal by hemodialysis, with no specific dolutegravir dosage adjustments required in this setting. (This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT02487706.). PMID:26856824

  9. Exogenous and endogenous stages of Eimeria perforans naturally infected domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Saudi Arabia: Light microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2011-01-01

    Exogenous and endogenous stages of Eimeria perforans naturally infected rabbits in Saudi Arabia were described. The prevalence of infection was 75%. Oocysts were ovoid to elliptical and measured 16 × 10 μm. The four dizoic sporocysts were ovoid and measured 7 × 5 μm. Endogenous stages were restricted to the duodenum. Meronts, microgamonts, macrogamonts and young oocysts were recorded and described. PMID:23961159

  10. Species- and infective stage-specific monoclonal antibodies to Leishmania major produced by an in vitro immunization method.

    PubMed

    Wu, S J; Rowton, E D; Ma, M; Andre, R G

    1990-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies specific to the infective-stage promastigotes of Leishmania major are needed for developing rapid diagnostic assays of infected sand flies. An in vitro immunization protocol was applied for the production of monoclonal antibodies using small amounts of L. major. Infective-stage promastigotes were isolated from sand flies (Phlebotomus papatasi) 7-10 days after infection and used as antigen for immunization. Two weeks after a primary immunization, murine splenocytes were removed and immunized in vitro with antigen in murine EL-4 thymoma cell conditioned medium. Three fusions were performed using X63-Ag.653 myeloma cells as fusion partners and two fusions were performed using FOX-NY cells. Antibodies specific to promastigotes were detected using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Initially 56 monoclonal antibodies were selected, and their species and stage specificity were determined using both an ELISA and an indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA). Twelve monoclonal antibodies showed species specificity to L. major when tested against four sympatric species of Leishmania. Four other monoclonal antibodies showed species and infective-stage specificity to L. major promastigotes. When tested in immunoblots, all four species- and stage-specific monoclonal antibodies bound to five protein bands that were unique to the infective-stage promastigotes. PMID:2087235

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of the SL221 Cells at the Early Stage during Spodoptera litura Nucleopolyhedrovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qian; Xiong, Youhua; Liu, Jianliang; Wen, Dongling; Wu, Xiaohui; Yin, Hanqi

    2016-01-01

    Spodoptera litura (S. litura) is one of the most destructive agricultural pests worldwide. There is urgent need for a nuclear polyhedrosis virus that is specific to S. litura. To date, there have been no reports regarding the responses of S. litura cells to early Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV) infection due to the lack of a reference genome and transcriptome for S. litura. In this study, a cell transcriptome from the host S. litura was assembled and used for Illumina strand-specific RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to generate 99180 unigenes, representing the 18 hour infection cycle. More than 2000 S. litura genes were significant differentially regulated throughout the infection. The levels of viral mRNAs began to increase dramatically at 6 hpi, and this increase continued throughout the remainder of the infection. We focused on the expression of genes related to stress responses, apoptosis, metabolic enzymes and host cell innate immune system. A small subset of genes related to host stress response, especially for 62 ones being able to annotated as enzyme, ligand and receptor genes, were observed to be specifically differentially expressed at 6 hpi. At 18 hpi, 104 unigenes were continuously significantly changing from 0 hpi to 18 hpi, considered to be viral multiplication related genes, including 3 annotated SL221 unigenes and 81 viral genes, such as tetraspanin and iap gene. This information and further studies on the regulation of host gene expression by baculovirus infection at early stage will provide the tools needed to enhance the utility of this virus as an effective insecticide. PMID:26840182

  12. TREM2 governs Kupffer cell activation and explains belr1 genetic resistance to malaria liver stage infection

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Lígia Antunes; Rodrigues-Duarte, Lurdes; Rodo, Joana; Vieira de Moraes, Luciana; Marques, Isabel; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium liver stage infection is a target of interest for the treatment of and vaccination against malaria. Here we used forward genetics to search for mechanisms underlying natural host resistance to infection and identified triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) and MHC class II molecules as determinants of Plasmodium berghei liver stage infection in mice. Locus belr1 confers resistance to malaria liver stage infection. The use of newly derived subcongenic mouse lines allowed to map belr1 to a 4-Mb interval on mouse chromosome 17 that contains the Trem2 gene. We show that Trem2 expression in the nonparenchymal liver cells closely correlates with resistance to liver stage infection, implicating TREM2 as a mediator of the belr1 genetic effect. Trem2-deficient mice are more susceptible to liver stage infection than their WT counterparts. We found that Kupffer cells are the principle cells expressing TREM2 in the liver, and that Trem2−/− Kupffer cells display altered functional activation on exposure to P. berghei sporozoites. TREM2 expression in Kupffer cells contributes to the limitation of parasite expansion in isolated hepatocytes in vitro, potentially explaining the increased susceptibility of Trem2−/− mice to liver stage infection. The MHC locus was also found to control liver parasite burden, possibly owing to the expression of MHC class II molecules in hepatocytes. Our findings implicate unexpected Kupffer–hepatocyte cross-talk in the control Plasmodium liver stage infection and demonstrate that TREM2 is involved in host responses against the malaria parasite. PMID:24218563

  13. Downregulation of protein kinase PKR activation by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at its early stage infection.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yueqiang; Ma, Zexu; Wang, Rong; Yang, Liping; Nan, Yuchen; Zhang, Yan-Jin

    2016-05-01

    The interferon-induced double-strand RNA activated protein kinase (PKR) plays an important role in antiviral response. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on PKR activation. Here we report that PRRSV inhibited PKR activation during its early stage infection of primary pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). PRRSV infection led to lower level of phosphorylated PKR in comparison with mock-infected cells. The PKR inhibition was sustained until 10h post infection in the presence of polyI:C, a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA activating PKR. PKR-mediated phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2α was also lower in the PRRSV-infected PAMs during the early stage infection. Interestingly, inactivated PRRSV was capable to inhibit the PKR activation until 6h post infection. This suggests that structural components of PRRSV virions were responsible for the inhibition, although PRRSV replication was needed for longer inhibition. These results indicate that the downregulation of PKR activation during early infection stage should be essential for PRRSV to avoid the antiviral response to initiate replication. This finding contributes to our understanding on PRRSV interaction with host innate immune response and reveal a target for control of PRRSV infection. PMID:27066702

  14. Effect of different stages of Schistosoma mansoni infection on the parasite burden and immune response to Strongyloides venezuelensis in co-infected mice.

    PubMed

    de Rezende, Michelle Carvalho; Araújo, Emília Souza; Moreira, João Marcelo Peixoto; Rodrigues, Vanessa Fernandes; Rodrigues, Jailza Lima; Pereira, Cíntia A de Jesus; Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Multiple schistosome and soil-transmitted nematode infections are frequently reported in human populations living in tropical areas of developing countries. In addition to exposure factors, the host immune response plays an important role in helminth control and morbidity in hosts with multiple infections; however, these aspects are difficult to evaluate in human populations. In the current study, female Swiss mice were simultaneously co-infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis and Schistosoma mansoni or infected with St. venezuelensis at 2, 4, or 14 weeks after Sc. mansoni infection. The simultaneously infected mice showed a similar parasite burden for St. venezuelensis compared with mono-infected mice. In contrast, there was a significant reduction of St. venezuelensis burden (primarily during the migration of the larvae) in mice that were previously infected with Sc. mansoni at the acute or chronic phase. Independent of the stage of Sc. mansoni infection, the St. venezuelensis co-infection was capable of inducing IL-4 production in the small intestine, increasing the IgE concentration in the serum and increasing eosinophilia in the lungs and intestine. This result suggests that the nematode infection stimulates local type 2 immune responses independently of the schistosomiasis stage. Moreover, previous Sc. mansoni infection stimulated early granulocyte infiltration in the lungs and trematode-specific IgM and IgG1 production that recognized antigens from St. venezuelensis infective larvae; these immune responses would act in the early control of St. venezuelensis larvae. Our data suggest that the effect of multiple helminth infections on host susceptibility and morbidity largely depends on the species of parasite and the immune response. PMID:26350380

  15. Lipid droplet dynamics at early stages of Mycobacterium marinum infection in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Barisch, Caroline; Paschke, Peggy; Hagedorn, Monica; Maniak, Markus; Soldati, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    Lipid droplets exist in virtually every cell type, ranging not only from mammals to plants, but also to eukaryotic and prokaryotic unicellular organisms such as Dictyostelium and bacteria. They serve among other roles as energy reservoir that cells consume in times of starvation. Mycobacteria and some other intracellular pathogens hijack these organelles as a nutrient source and to build up their own lipid inclusions. The mechanisms by which host lipid droplets are captured by the pathogenic bacteria are extremely poorly understood. Using the powerful Dictyostelium discoideum/Mycobacterium marinum infection model, we observed that, immediately after their uptake, lipid droplets translocate to the vicinity of the vacuole containing live but not dead mycobacteria. Induction of lipid droplets in Dictyostelium prior to infection resulted in a vast accumulation of neutral lipids and sterols inside the bacterium-containing compartment. Subsequently, under these conditions, mycobacteria accumulated much larger lipid inclusions. Strikingly, the Dictyostelium homologue of perilipin and the murine perilipin 2 surrounded bacteria that had escaped to the cytosol of Dictyostelium or microglial BV-2 cells respectively. Moreover, bacterial growth was inhibited in Dictyostelium plnA knockout cells. In summary, our results provide evidence that mycobacteria actively manipulate the lipid metabolism of the host from very early infection stages. PMID:25772333

  16. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection. PMID:25736976

  17. Is two-stage reimplantation effective for virulent pathogenic infection in a periprosthetic hip? A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yong-Cheol; Lakhotia, Devendra; Oh, Jong-Keon; Moon, Jun Gyu; Prashant, Kumar; Shon, Won Yong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of two-stage reimplantation using antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) and the risk factors associated with failure to control periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 38 consecutive hips managed using two-stage reimplantation with ALBC. The mean follow-up period was 5.4 years (range: 2.5-9 years). RESULTS: The causative pathogens were isolated from 29 patients (76%), 26 of whom were infected with highly virulent organisms. Sixteen patients (42%) underwent at least two first-stage debridements. An increased debridement frequency correlated significantly with high comorbidity (P < 0.001), a lower preoperative Harris hip score (HHS; P < 0.001), antimicrobial resistance, and gram-negative and polymicrobial infection (P = 0.002). Of the 35 patients who underwent two-stage reimplantation, 34 showed no signs of recurrence of infection. The mean HHS improved from 46 ± 12.64 to 78 ± 10.55 points, with 7 (20%), 12 (34%), 11 (32%) and 5 (14%) patients receiving excellent, good, fair and poor ratings, respectively. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated that two-stage reimplantation could successfully treat PJI after hip arthroplasty. However, the ability of ALBC to eradicate infection was limited because frequent debridement was required in high-risk patients (i.e., patients who are either in poor general health due to associated comorbidities or harbor infections due to highly virulent, difficult-to-treat organisms). Level of evidence: Level IV. PMID:26495248

  18. Tantalum acetabular augments in one-stage exchange of infected total hip arthroplasty: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Klatte, Till Orla; Kendoff, Daniel; Sabihi, Reza; Kamath, Atul F; Rueger, Johannes M; Gehrke, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    During the one-stage exchange procedure for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip arthroplasty (THA), acetabular defects challenge reconstructive options. Porous tantalum augments are an established tool for addressing acetabular destruction in aseptic cases, but their utility in septic exchange is unknown. This retrospective case-control study presents the initial results of tantalum augmentation during one-stage exchange for PJI. Primary endpoints were rates of re-infection and short-term complications associated with this technique. Study patients had no higher risk of re-infection with equivalent durability at early follow-up with a re-infection rate in both groups of 4%. In conclusion, tantalum augments are a viable option for addressing acetabular defects in one-stage exchange for septic THA. Further study is necessary to assess long-term durability when compared to traditional techniques for acetabular reconstruction. PMID:24559522

  19. LIFE TABLE ANALYSIS FOR CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IMMATURES AND ADULTS UNDER FIVE DIFFERENT CONSTANT TEMPERATURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory life history studies of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, were conducted at 18, 22, 26, 30 and 34 ºC. Duration of immature stages was generally longest at 18, declining significantly at 22 and shortest at 26, 30 and 34 ºC. Total immature development time from eggs to pupae was about...

  20. Dissecting host factors that regulate the early stages of tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Neha; Bhattacharyya, Chandrika; Mukherjee, Ankur; Ullah, Ubaid; Pandit, Bhaswati; Rao, Kanury V S; Majumder, Partha P

    2016-09-01

    Incomplete understanding of mechanisms involved in the host-pathogen interactions constrains our efforts to eliminate tuberculosis. In many individuals, resulting from immune response to mycobacterial infection organised structures called granulomas are formed. To identify host responses that may control at least the early stages of infection, we employed an in vitro granuloma model. Here, human PBMCs were infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture, and the appearance of granuloma-like structures was monitored over the next several days. Production of cytokines and chemokines in culture supernatants was monitored at various times, and the resulting temporal profiles were examined for possible correlations with either granuloma formation, or bacterial growth. While a positive association of TNF-α and IFN-γ secretion levels with extent of granuloma formation could clearly be identified, we were, however, unable to detect any statistically significant relationship between any cytokine/chemokine and bacterial growth. Examination of specific host cellular biochemical pathways revealed that either modulation of neutral lipid homeostasis through inhibition of the Gi-protein coupled receptor GPR109A, or regulation of host metabolic pathways through addition of vitamin D, provided a more effective means of controlling infection. A subsequent genotypic analysis for a select subset of genes belonging to pathways known to be significant for TB pathology revealed associations of polymorphisms with cytokine secretions and bacterial growth independently. Collectively therefore, the present study supports that key metabolic pathways of the host cell, rather than levels of relevant cytokines/chemokines might be more critical for regulating the intracellular mycobacterial load, in the context of granuloma formation. PMID:27553417

  1. Diagnosis of dengue infection using various diagnostic tests in the early stage of illness.

    PubMed

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Yoksan, Sutee; Vanprapar, Nirun; Phongsamart, Wanatpreeya; Chearskul, Sanay

    2004-06-01

    In order to elucidate the usefulness of various tests in the early course of dengue infection, in terms of diagnosis and correlation with clinical severity, blood specimens were collected every 48 hours on 3 occasions from patients with clinical suspicion of dengue infection with fever for less than 4 days. Viral isolation was attempted by mosquito inoculation (MI), tissue culture inoculation (TC), and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Antibodies were detected by hemagglutination inhibition test (HI), an in-house-ELISA (IH-ELISA), and an ELISA by MRL diagnostics Clinical data were collected from the time of enrollment to complete recovery. Of the 40 patients enrolled, 31 were diagnosed as dengue infection and confirmed by either serology or viral isolation. Of these, 12 had primary infection and 19 had secondary infection. Dengue fever occurred in 9 cases. Dengue viruses were isolated from 28 out of 31 patients, and dengue hemorrhagic fever was diagnosed in 22 patients. Viral serotypes identified by viral isolation, and RT-PCR were concordant: DEN1 was isolated in 8, DEN2 in 13, DEN3 in 5, and DEN4 in 2 patients. Viral isolation yielded positive results on blood collected before the 5th day of fever. MI was more sensitive than TC. RT-PCR was less sensitive than viral isolation during the early days of fever, but became more sensitive after the 5th day of fever. RT-PCR was able to detect virus up to day 7-8 of fever, even after defervescence, and in the presence of antibody. During the febrile stage, serological diagnosis on blood samples taken 48 hours apart was carried out by HI, IH-ELISA, and MRL-ELISA, facilitating diagnosis in 3 (10%), 21 (67%), and 27 (87%) of patients, respectively. All of the patients with secondary infection were diagnosed by MRL-ELISA before defervescence. By the 8th day of fever, a serological diagnosis aided to diagnose in 9 (29%), 29 (93%), and 31 (100%) of patients by HI, IH-ELISA, and MRL-ELISA, respectively

  2. Triterpenoids as inhibitors of erythrocytic and liver stages of Plasmodium infections.

    PubMed

    Ramalhete, Cátia; da Cruz, Filipa P; Lopes, Dinora; Mulhovo, Silva; Rosário, Virgílio E; Prudêncio, Miguel; Ferreira, Maria-José U

    2011-12-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of Momordica balsamina led to the isolation of two new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids, balsaminol F (1) and balsaminoside B (2), along with the known glycosylated cucurbitacins, cucurbita-5,24-diene-3β,23(R)-diol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and kuguaglycoside A (4). Compound 1 was acylated yielding two new triesters, triacetylbalsaminol F (5) and tribenzoylbalsaminol F (6). The structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR experiments (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). Compounds 1-6, were evaluated for their antimalarial activity against the erythrocytic stages of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 and the chloroquine-resistant clone Dd2. Assessment of compounds (1-3 and 5, 6) activity against the liver stage of Plasmodium berghei was also performed, measuring the luminescence intensity in Huh-7 cells infected with a firefly luciferase-expressing P. berghei line, PbGFP-Luc(con). Active compounds were shown to inhibit the parasite's intracellular development rather than its ability to invade hepatic cells. Toxicity of compounds (1-3 and 5, 6) was assessed on the same cell line and on mouse primary hepatocytes through the fluorescence measurement of cell confluency. Furthermore, toxicity of compounds 1-6 towards human cells was also investigated in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, showing that they were not toxic or exhibited weak toxicity. In blood stages of P. falciparum, compounds 1-5 displayed antimalarial activity, revealing triacetylbalsaminol F (5) the highest antiplasmodial effects (IC(50) values: 0.4μM, 3D7; 0.2μM, Dd2). The highest antiplasmodial activity against the liver stages of P.berghei was also displayed by compound 5, with high inhibitory activity and no toxicity. PMID:22071523

  3. Nocardia prosthetic knee infection successfully treated by one-stage exchange: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Laurent, F; Rodriguez-Villalobos, H; Cornu, O; Vandercam, B; Yombi, J C

    2015-08-01

    A 64-year-old man with a history of sarcoidosis on corticosteroids and azathioprine was admitted to our hospital with complaints of worsening left knee pain and swelling for the past 3 weeks. His past medical history is also significant for severe osteoarthritis requiring a cemented total left knee arthroplasty 1 year ago. Diagnostic investigation during his hospital admission eventually led to the diagnosis of Nocardia nova knee prosthetic joint infection in the setting of a disseminated nocardiosis. He was successful treated by one-stage complete hardware exchange in conjunction with an adapted antibiotic therapy regimen (meropenem and doxycycline followed by ceftriaxone and doxycycline). Two years later, his recovery was deemed excellent. PMID:25560058

  4. Polymer-attached zanamivir inhibits synergistically both early and late stages of influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia Min; Weight, Alisha K; Haldar, Jayanta; Wang, Ling; Klibanov, Alexander M; Chen, Jianzhu

    2012-12-11

    Covalently conjugating multiple copies of the drug zanamivir (ZA; the active ingredient in Relenza) via a flexible linker to poly-l-glutamine (PGN) enhances the anti-influenza virus activity by orders of magnitude. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of this phenomenon. Like ZA itself, the PGN-attached drug (PGN-ZA) binds specifically to viral neuraminidase and inhibits both its enzymatic activity and the release of newly synthesized virions from infected cells. Unlike monomeric ZA, however, PGN-ZA also synergistically inhibits early stages of influenza virus infection, thus contributing to the markedly increased antiviral potency. This inhibition is not caused by a direct virucidal effect, aggregation of viruses, or inhibition of viral attachment to target cells and the subsequent endocytosis; rather, it is a result of interference with intracellular trafficking of the endocytosed viruses and the subsequent virus-endosome fusion. These findings both rationalize the great anti-influenza potency of PGN-ZA and reveal that attaching ZA to a polymeric chain confers a unique mechanism of antiviral action potentially useful for minimizing drug resistance. PMID:23185023

  5. Pre-erythrocytic-stage immune effector mechanisms in Plasmodium spp. infections.

    PubMed Central

    Doolan, D L; Hoffman, S L

    1997-01-01

    The potent protective immunity against malaria induced by immunization of mice and humans with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium spp. sporozoites is thought to be mediated primarily by T-cell responses directed against infected hepatocytes. This has led to considerable efforts to develop subunit vaccines that duplicate this protective immunity, but a universally effective vaccine is still not available and in vitro correlates of protective immunity have not been established. Contributing to this delay has been a lack of understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the protection. There are now data indicating that CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, cytokines, and nitric oxide can all mediate the elimination of infected hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. By dissecting the protection induced by immunization with irradiated sporozoite, DNA and synthetic peptide-adjuvant vaccines, we have demonstrated that different T-cell-dependent immune responses mediate protective immunity in the same inbred strain of mouse, depending on the method of immunization. Furthermore, the mechanism of protection induced by a single method of immunization may vary among different strains of mice. These data have important implications for the development of pre-erythrocytic-stage vaccines designed to protect a heterogeneous human population, and of assays that predict protective immunity. PMID:9355128

  6. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sequester high prion titres at early stages of prion infection.

    PubMed

    Castro-Seoane, Rocio; Hummerich, Holger; Sweeting, Trevor; Tattum, M Howard; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Fernandez de Marco, Mar; Brandner, Sebastian; Collinge, John; Klöhn, Peter-Christian

    2012-02-01

    In most transmissible spongiform encephalopathies prions accumulate in the lymphoreticular system (LRS) long before they are detectable in the central nervous system. While a considerable body of evidence showed that B lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells play a major role in prion colonization of lymphoid organs, the contribution of various other cell types, including antigen-presenting cells, to the accumulation and the spread of prions in the LRS are not well understood. A comprehensive study to compare prion titers of candidate cell types has not been performed to date, mainly due to limitations in the scope of animal bioassays where prohibitively large numbers of mice would be required to obtain sufficiently accurate data. By taking advantage of quantitative in vitro prion determination and magnetic-activated cell sorting, we studied the kinetics of prion accumulation in various splenic cell types at early stages of prion infection. Robust estimates for infectious titers were obtained by statistical modelling using a generalized linear model. Whilst prions were detectable in B and T lymphocytes and in antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells and macrophages, highest infectious titers were determined in two cell types that have previously not been associated with prion pathogenesis, plasmacytoid dendritic (pDC) and natural killer (NK) cells. At 30 days after infection, NK cells were more than twice, and pDCs about seven-fold, as infectious as lymphocytes respectively. This result was unexpected since, in accordance to previous reports prion protein, an obligate requirement for prion replication, was undetectable in pDCs. This underscores the importance of prion sequestration and dissemination by antigen-presenting cells which are among the first cells of the immune system to encounter pathogens. We furthermore report the first evidence for a release of prions from lymphocytes and DCs of scrapie-infected mice ex vivo, a process that is associated with

  7. Two-Stage Procedure for Infected Aortic Graft Pseudoaneurysm: 10-Year Follow Up after Omental Prosthesis Wrapping.

    PubMed

    von Aspern, Konstantin; Etz, Christian D; Mohr, Friedrich W; Battellini, Roberto R

    2015-08-01

    Prosthetic graft infections with mediastinitis following aortic surgery are rare, yet represent grave complications yielding high morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a 57-year-old female patient with past history of emergent surgery for iatrogenic Type A dissection treated by supracoronary ascending aortic replacement. Four months after the initial surgery, a sternal fistula had formed and due to severe bleeding emergent reoperation was required. Imaging and pathology on admission revealed an infected pseudoaneurysm at the distal aortic prosthesis and mediastinitis with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Rescue surgery was performed by means of a two-stage approach, with extensive debridement, graft replacement and continuous antiseptic lavage in a first step and an omental wrapping of the new prosthesis in a second stage 24 hours later. During 10 years of follow-up, no recurrent infection occurred. The operative approach and general considerations for management of infected pseudoaneurysms are discussed. PMID:27069945

  8. In Vitro Alterations Do Not Reflect a Requirement for Host Cell Cycle Progression during Plasmodium Liver Stage Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Kirsten K.; March, Sandra; Ng, Shengyong; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2014-01-01

    Prior to invading nonreplicative erythrocytes, Plasmodium parasites undergo their first obligate step in the mammalian host inside hepatocytes, where each sporozoite replicates to generate thousands of merozoites. While normally quiescent, hepatocytes retain proliferative capacity and can readily reenter the cell cycle in response to diverse stimuli. Many intracellular pathogens, including protozoan parasites, manipulate the cell cycle progression of their host cells for their own benefit, but it is not known whether the hepatocyte cell cycle plays a role during Plasmodium liver stage infection. Here, we show that Plasmodium parasites can be observed in mitotic hepatoma cells throughout liver stage development, where they initially reduce the likelihood of mitosis and ultimately lead to significant acquisition of a binucleate phenotype. However, hepatoma cells pharmacologically arrested in S phase still support robust and complete Plasmodium liver stage development, which thus does not require cell cycle progression in the infected cell in vitro. Furthermore, murine hepatocytes remain quiescent throughout in vivo infection with either Plasmodium berghei or Plasmodium yoelii, as do Plasmodium falciparum-infected primary human hepatocytes, demonstrating that the rapid and prodigious growth of liver stage parasites is accomplished independent of host hepatocyte cell cycle progression during natural infection. PMID:25416236

  9. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  10. Automated system for characterization and classification of malaria-infected stages using light microscopic images of thin blood smears.

    PubMed

    Das, D K; Maiti, A K; Chakraborty, C

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a comprehensive image characterization cum classification framework for malaria-infected stage detection using microscopic images of thin blood smears. The methodology mainly includes microscopic imaging of Leishman stained blood slides, noise reduction and illumination correction, erythrocyte segmentation, feature selection followed by machine classification. Amongst three-image segmentation algorithms (namely, rule-based, Chan-Vese-based and marker-controlled watershed methods), marker-controlled watershed technique provides better boundary detection of erythrocytes specially in overlapping situations. Microscopic features at intensity, texture and morphology levels are extracted to discriminate infected and noninfected erythrocytes. In order to achieve subgroup of potential features, feature selection techniques, namely, F-statistic and information gain criteria are considered here for ranking. Finally, five different classifiers, namely, Naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron neural network, logistic regression, classification and regression tree (CART), RBF neural network have been trained and tested by 888 erythrocytes (infected and noninfected) for each features' subset. Performance evaluation of the proposed methodology shows that multilayer perceptron network provides higher accuracy for malaria-infected erythrocytes recognition and infected stage classification. Results show that top 90 features ranked by F-statistic (specificity: 98.64%, sensitivity: 100%, PPV: 99.73% and overall accuracy: 96.84%) and top 60 features ranked by information gain provides better results (specificity: 97.29%, sensitivity: 100%, PPV: 99.46% and overall accuracy: 96.73%) for malaria-infected stage classification. PMID:25523795

  11. NK cells contribute to persistent airway inflammation and AHR during the later stage of RSV infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiaoru; Xie, Jun; Zhao, Keting; Li, Wei; Tang, Wei; Chen, Sisi; Zang, Na; Ren, Luo; Deng, Yu; Xie, Xiaohong; Wang, Lijia; Fu, Zhou; Liu, Enmei

    2016-10-01

    RSV can lead to persistent airway inflammation and AHR and is intimately associated with childhood recurrent wheezing and asthma, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. There are high numbers of NK cells in the lung, which not only play important roles in the acute stage of RSV infection, but also are pivotal in regulating the pathogenesis of asthma. Therefore, in this study, we assumed that NK cells might contribute to persistent airway disease during the later stage of RSV infection. Mice were killed at serial time points after RSV infection to collect samples. Leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted, lung histopathology was examined, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured by whole-body plethysmography. Cytokines were detected by ELISA, and NK cells were determined by flow cytometry. Rabbit anti-mouse asialo-GM-1 antibodies and resveratrol were used to deplete or suppress NK cells. Inflammatory cells in BALF, lung tissue damage and AHR were persistent for 60 days post-RSV infection. Type 2 cytokines and NK cells were significantly increased during the later stage of infection. When NK cells were decreased by the antibodies or resveratrol, type 2 cytokines, the persistent airway inflammation and AHR were all markedly reduced. NK cells can contribute to the RSV-associated persistent airway inflammation and AHR at least partially by promoting type 2 cytokines. Therefore, therapeutic targeting of NK cells may provide a novel approach to alleviating the recurrent wheezing subsequent to RSV infection. PMID:27329138

  12. Differentially proteomic analysis of the Chinese shrimp at WSSV latent and acute infection stages by iTRAQ approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Sun, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2016-07-01

    As the direct executors of biological function, the expression level of proteins will reveal the molecular mechanisms regulating WSSV acute infection more directly. In the present study, the iTRAQ approach was applied to identifying differentially expressed proteins in Chinese shrimp during WSSV latent infection and acute infection. A total of 4051 unique peptides corresponding to 1286 proteins were identified. 118 unique proteins showed differential up-regulation and 122 proteins were down-regulated in shrimp during WSSV acute infection compared with those in WSSV latent infection stage. A number of proteins related to actin-myosin cytoskeleton process, including myosin, actin, tubulin, clathrin, and tropomyosin were found up-regulated in shrimp at WSSV AI stage, indicating that the phagocytosis process was involved in WSSV AI stage. The apoptosis process in shrimp during WSSV AI seemed to be inhibited because some proteins suppressive on apoptosis were up-regulated, such as ALG-2 interacting protein x, Hsp90, 14-3-3-like protein, peroxiredoxin 5, peroxiredoxin 6 and adenine nucleotide translocase 2. Association analysis between the proteomic data and the previous transcriptome data was performed. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were carried out to verify the reliability of the proteomics data. The present study provided a comprehensive view of molecular mechanisms regulating WSSV acute infection at the protein level. PMID:27192146

  13. Use of a New Knee Prosthesis as an Articulating Spacer in Two-Stage Revision of Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Fabrin, Jesper; Poulsen, Klaus; Schroder, Henrik Morville

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report our experience with two-stage revision using a new femoral component (NFC) spacer (Depuy Synthes) as an articulating spacer. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, we reviewed 22 two-stage revisions that were performed using an NFC spacer in 22 patients suspected of having an infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA) from December 2010 to March 2013. The result was considered successful when eradication of infection was achieved using only one NFC spacer. Results The average time from primary TKA to the first stage procedure was 29.1 months and the average time from the first stage procedure until the final second stage procedure was 12.7 weeks. The average range of motion increased from 82° preoperatively to 104° postoperatively. The American Knee Society Knee score increased from 29.3 points to 66 points. The Function score increased from 29.5 points to 64 points. Four cases were reinfected after two-stage revision. The mean follow-up was 37.6 months. Conclusions The new articulating spacer showed promising short-term results both with regard to eradication of infection and functional improvement. PMID:27595079

  14. Autoclaved metal-on-cement spacer versus static spacer in two-stage revision in periprosthetic knee infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Pin; Wu, Cheng-Chun; Ho, Wei-Pin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periprosthetic knee infection is troublesome for Orthopedic surgeons and a catastrophy for patients. Reported rates of periprosthetic joint infection following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are 0.39–2%. Two stage revision arthroplasty, which has success rates exceeding 90%, has been the gold standard for treating subacute and chronic periprosthetic infection following TKA. Antibiotic spacers, a well established means of delivering local antibiotic therapy, maintain soft tissue tension during two stage revision arthroplasty. However, controversy remains around whether static or mobile antibiotic impregnated spacers are superior for treating infection following TKA. Various mobile spacers are available, including cement-on-cement, cement-on-polyethylene and metal-on-polyethylene. In this study, the efficacy of the modified metal-on-cement spacer, consisting of reinsertion of the autoclaved femoral component and implantation of antibiotic-loaded cement in the proximal tibia, is assessed. Materials and Methods: Records of 19 patients diagnosed as periprosthetic knee infection were reviewed in this retrospective study. Among these patients, 10 patients received first stage debridement with the autoclaved metal-on-cement spacer and 8 patients with the static spacer, who eventually underwent two-stage re-implantation, were listed in the final comparison. Patient demographics, infection eradication rates, average range of motion (ROM), surgical time and blood loss during the second-stage of the surgery, and Knee Society (KS) knee scores at last followup after revision total knee replacement were clinically evaluated. Results: At a minimum of 2-year followup after re-implantation, infection eradication rates, surgical times, blood loss during the second-stage of the surgery, and KS knee score after re-implantation were similar for the two groups. Patients receiving autoclaved metal-on-cement spacers had superior ROM after re-implantation compared to

  15. Prevalence and intensity of infection with third stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mollusks from Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tesana, Smarn; Srisawangwong, Tuanchai; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Laha, Thewarach; Andrews, Ross

    2009-06-01

    Prevalences and intensity of infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis third stage larvae were examined in mollusks to determine whether they are potential intermediate hosts in eight provinces, northeast Thailand. Mollusk samples were collected from 24 reservoirs (3 reservoirs/province) in close to human cases during the previous year. Six out of 24 localities and 9 (3 new record species) out of 27 species were found with the infection. The highest intensity in infected species was found to be only one or two snails, whereas the majority had very low or no infection. The highest density was found in Pila pesmei and the lowest in Pila polita. The edible snails, P. polita, P. pesmei, and Hemiplecta distincta have the potential to transmit A. cantonensis to man. The varying density levels of larvae in infected snails may reflect observed variation in symptoms of people who traditionally eat a raw snail dish. PMID:19478262

  16. Pinworm Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pinworm—egg, larva (immature stage), and mature worm—takes place inside the human body and requires ... barely noticeable. The movement of egg-laden female worms from your anus to deposit their eggs will ...

  17. Gamma-delta T cell responses in subclinical and clinical stages of Bovine Mycobacterium Avium Paratuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early immune response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle is characterized by a Th1-like immune response effective in controlling bacterial proliferation during the subclinical stage of infection. In young calves nearly 60% of circulating lymphocytes are gamma delta T ...

  18. CD40 is required for protective immunity against liver stage Plasmodium infection1

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Sara A; Mohar, Isaac; Miller, Jessica L; Brempelis, Katherine J; Vaughan, Ashley M; Kappe, Stefan HI; Crispe, Ian N

    2015-01-01

    The co-stimulatory molecule CD40 enhances immunity through several distinct roles in T cell activation and T cell interaction with other immune cells. In a mouse model of immunity to liver stage Plasmodium infection, CD40 was critical for the full maturation of liver dendritic cells, accumulation of CD8+ T cells in the liver, and protective immunity induced by immunization with the P. yoelii fabb/f- genetically attenuated parasite. Using mixed adoptive transfers of polyclonal wild type (WT) and CD40-deficient (CD40−/−) CD8+ T cells into WT and CD40−/− hosts, we evaluated the contributions to CD8+ T cell immunity of CD40 expressed on host tissues including antigen-presenting cells (APC), compared to CD40 expressed on the CD8+ T cells themselves. Most of the effects of CD40 could be accounted for by expression in the T cells’ environment, including the accumulation of large numbers of CD8+ T cells in the livers of immunized mice. Thus, protective immunity generated during immunization with fabb/f- was largely dependent on effective APC licensing via CD40 signaling. PMID:25646303

  19. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding ( sup 75 Se)selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Aikens, L.M.; Schad, G.A. )

    1989-10-01

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with ({sup 75}Se)selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and ({sup 75}Se)selenomethionine. When the {sup 75}Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood.

  20. The Modified Static Spacers Using Antibiotic-Impregnated Cement Rod in Two-Stage Revision for Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Juhyung; Lee, Seungyup; Han, Changdong

    2011-01-01

    The two-stage exchange arthroplasty (one- or two-stage) is believed to be the gold standard for the management of infections following total knee arthroplasty. We herein report a novel two-stage exchange arthroplasty technique using an antibiotic-impregnated cement intramedullary nail, which can be easily prepared during surgery using a straight thoracic tube and a Steinmann pin, and may provide additional stability to the knee to maintain normal mechanical axis. In addition, there is less pain between the period of prosthesis removal and subsequent reimplantation. Less soft tissue contracture, less scar adhesion, easy removal of the cement intramedullary nail, and successful infection control are the advantages of this technique. PMID:21909473

  1. Bilateral One-Stage Revision of Infected Total Hip Arthroplasties: Report of Two Cases and Management of Antibiotic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pommepuy, Thomas; Lons, Adrien; Benad, Kevin; Beltrand, Eric; Senneville, Eric; Migaud, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for the management of chronic and bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) infection are lacking. However, this type of infection involves medical problems concerning the management of the antibiotic therapy. We report two cases of such infections operated as one-stage revision. For each case, both hips were infected with the same bacteria (Staphylococcus caprae for one patient and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus for the other). The probabilistic antibiotic treatment started during the first side (after harvesting intraoperative samples) did not prevent the culture of the bacteriologic harvested during the intervention of the second side. Cultures were positive for the same bacteria for both sides in the two cases presented herein. After results of intraoperative cultures, patients received culture-guided antibiotic therapy for three months and were considered cured at the end of a two-year follow-up. Our results suggest one-stage bilateral change of infected THA is a viable option and that early intraoperative antibiotic, started during the first-side exchange, does not jeopardize microbiological documentation of the second side. This work brings indirect arguments, in favor of the use of prophylactic antibiotics during revision of infected THA. PMID:26904335

  2. Bilateral One-Stage Revision of Infected Total Hip Arthroplasties: Report of Two Cases and Management of Antibiotic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pommepuy, Thomas; Lons, Adrien; Benad, Kevin; Beltrand, Eric; Senneville, Eric; Migaud, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for the management of chronic and bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) infection are lacking. However, this type of infection involves medical problems concerning the management of the antibiotic therapy. We report two cases of such infections operated as one-stage revision. For each case, both hips were infected with the same bacteria (Staphylococcus caprae for one patient and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus for the other). The probabilistic antibiotic treatment started during the first side (after harvesting intraoperative samples) did not prevent the culture of the bacteriologic harvested during the intervention of the second side. Cultures were positive for the same bacteria for both sides in the two cases presented herein. After results of intraoperative cultures, patients received culture-guided antibiotic therapy for three months and were considered cured at the end of a two-year follow-up. Our results suggest one-stage bilateral change of infected THA is a viable option and that early intraoperative antibiotic, started during the first-side exchange, does not jeopardize microbiological documentation of the second side. This work brings indirect arguments, in favor of the use of prophylactic antibiotics during revision of infected THA. PMID:26904335

  3. Competence of Immature Maize Embryos for Agrobacterium-Mediated Gene Transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Schlappi, M; Hohn, B

    1992-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of viral sequences to plant cells (agroinfection) was applied to study the susceptibility of immature maize embryos to the pathogen. The shoot apical meristem of immature embryos 10 to 20 days after pollination from four different maize genotypes was investigated for competence for agroinfection. There was a direct correlation between different morphological stages of the unwounded immature embryos and their competence for agroinfection. Agroinfection frequency was highest in the embryogenic line A188. All developmental stages tested showed Agrobacterium virulence gene-inducing activity, whereas bacteriocidal substances were produced at stages of the immature embryos competent for agroinfection. The results suggested that Agrobacterium may require differentiated tissue in the maize shoot apical meristem before wounding for successful T-DNA transfer. This requirement for the young maize embryo has implications for the possible use of Agrobacterium for maize transformation. PMID:12297627

  4. Associations Between Helminth Infections, Plasmodium falciparum Parasite Carriage and Antibody Responses to Sexual and Asexual Stage Malarial Antigens.

    PubMed

    Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Jones, Sophie; Zinsou, Jeannot Fréjus; Honkpehedji, Josiane; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Agobe, Jean-Claude Dejon; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Bousema, Teun; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Infections with helminths and Plasmodium spp. overlap in their geographical distribution. It has been postulated that helminth infections may influence malarial transmission by altering Plasmodium falciparum gametocytogenesis. This cross-sectional study assessed the effect of helminth infections on P. falciparum gametocyte carriage and on humoral immune responses to sexual stage antigens in Gabon. Schistosoma haematobium and filarial infections as well as P. falciparum asexual forms and gametocyte carriage were determined. The antibody responses measured were to sexual (Pfs230, Pfs48/45) and asexual P. falciparum antigens (AMA1, MSP1, and GLURP). A total of 287 subjects were included. The prevalence of microscopically detectable P. falciparum asexual parasites was higher in S. haematobium-infected subjects in comparison to their uninfected counterparts (47% versus 26%, P = 0.003), but this was not different when filarial infections were considered. Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage was similar between Schistosoma- or filaria-infected and uninfected subjects. We observed a significant decrease of Pfs48/45 immunoglobulin G titer in S. haematobium-infected subjects (P = 0.037), whereas no difference was seen for Pfs230 antibody titer, nor for antibodies to AMA1, MSP1, or GLURP. Our findings suggest an effect of S. haematobium on antibody responses to some P. falciparum gametocyte antigens that may have consequences for transmission-blocking immunity. PMID:27273645

  5. Influence of Ribeiroia ondatrae (Trematoda: Digenea) infection on limb development and survival of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens): effects of host stage and parasite-exposure level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Koehler, Anson V.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that infection by larvae of the trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae accounts for a significant proportion of limb malformations currently observed in amphibian populations of North America. However, the effects of R. ondatrae infection on northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens), one of the species most frequently reported with malformations, have not been adequately explored. Moreover, the risk factors associated with R. ondatrae-induced malformations have not been clearly identified. We examined the effects of timing of infection on tadpole survival and limb development. Rana pipiens tadpoles were individually exposed to R. ondatrae cercariae at the pre-limb-bud (Gosner stages 24 and 25), limb-bud (Gosner stages 27 and 28), or paddle (Gosner stages 31–33) stages of development and monitored through metamorphosis. The effects of infection were stage-specific. Infections acquired at the pre-limb-bud stage resulted in a high mortality rate (47.5–97.5%), whereas tadpoles infected at the limb-bud stage displayed a high malformation rate (16% overall), and the magnitude of effects increased with the level of exposure to cercariae. In contrast, infections acquired at the paddle stage had no effect on limb development or tadpole survival, which suggests that the timing of R. ondatrae infection in relation to the stage structure of tadpole populations in the wild is an important determinant of the degree to which populations are affected by R. ondatrae.

  6. Two-stage reimplantation in infected total knee arthroplasty using a re-sterilized tibial polyethylene insert and femoral component.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Kyu; Choi, Choong H

    2012-10-01

    Infection in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a challenging complication. We reviewed 20 cases of infected TKAs treated by two-stage reimplantation procedure involving the use of a temporary articulating system composed of autoclaved femoral component, low temperature hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilized polyethylene insert, and antibiotic-impregnated bone cement. The knee and functional score of the Knee Society scoring system at the last follow (average, 64.8 months) up was 86.2 points and 78.8 points. The success rate in terms of eradication of infection was 95% (19/20 knees). Use of a temporary articulating system composed of the re-sterilized components with antibiotic-impregnated bone cement was an effective therapy not only for the eradication of the infection but also for the recovery of soft tissue health and knee function. PMID:22503405

  7. One-stage reconstruction with open bone grafting and vacuum-assisted closure for infected tibial non-union

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhouming; Jin, Wei; Ping, Ansong; Wei, Renxiong

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Non-union of the tibia complicated by osteomyelitis is one of the most challenging problems in orthopaedic surgery. There remains a significant amount of debate and controversy regarding the optimal medical management of infected tibial non-union. There are few articles which have reported the outcomes of treatment for infected non-union of tibia from single-stage reconstruction with open bone grafting plus vacuum-assisted closure (VAC). Material and methods Our report covers experience between March 2007 and February 2010 of open bone grafting plus VAC in one stage for patients with infected tibial non-union. The time for bone union and wound healing to occur, the duration of hospitalisation, and the rate of resolution of infection were all analysed. The main outcome measures were based on a clinical scoring system that assessed functional ability, range of knee and ankle motion, shortening, infection and pain. Fifteen patients were involved in this study. Results All patients were followed up for an average of 22.6 months (range: 14–42 months). Bone union was achieved in 93.3% (14/15) of patients after a mean of 5.93 months (range: 3–10 months). All wounds healed within an average period of 5 weeks (range: 3–10 weeks), and the function and appearance of all limbs were satisfactory. Conclusions Open bone grafting combined with VAC in a one-stage procedure can be a feasible alternative to the treatment of infected tibial non-union, especially for those wounds which are not good candidates for microsurgery; however, further studies are required to confirm the likely benefits. PMID:25276163

  8. Single-virus tracking approach to reveal the interaction of Dengue virus with autophagy during the early stage of infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Li-Wei; Huang, Yi-Lung; Lee, Jin-Hui; Huang, Long-Ying; Chen, Wei-Jun; Lin, Ya-Hsuan; Chen, Jyun-Yu; Xiang, Rui; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Ping, Yueh-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the major infectious pathogens worldwide. DENV infection is a highly dynamic process. Currently, no antiviral drug is available for treating DENV-induced diseases since little is known regarding how the virus interacts with host cells during infection. Advanced molecular imaging technologies are powerful tools to understand the dynamics of intracellular interactions and molecular trafficking. This study exploited a single-virus particle tracking technology to address whether DENV interacts with autophagy machinery during the early stage of infection. Using confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image analysis, we showed that DENV triggered the formation of green fluorescence protein-fused microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) puncta, and DENV-induced autophagosomes engulfed DENV particles within 15-min postinfection. Moreover, single-virus particle tracking revealed that both DENV particles and autophagosomes traveled together during the viral infection. Finally, in the presence of autophagy suppressor 3-methyladenine, the replication of DENV was inhibited and the location of DENV particles spread in cytoplasma. In contrast, the numbers of newly synthesized DENV were elevated and the co-localization of DENV particles and autophagosomes was detected while the cells were treated with autophagy inducer rapamycin. Taken together, we propose that DENV particles interact with autophagosomes at the early stage of viral infection, which promotes the replication of DENV.

  9. Is Infant Immunity Actively Suppressed or Immature?

    PubMed Central

    Gervassi, Ana L; Horton, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Almost 7 million children under the age 5 die each year, and most of these deaths are attributable to vaccine-preventable infections. Young infants respond poorly to infections and vaccines. In particular, dendritic cells secrete less IL-12 and IL-18, CD8pos T cells and NK cells have defective cytolysis and cytokine production, and CD4pos T cell responses tend to bias towards a Th2 phenotype and promotion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The basis for these differences is not well understood and may be in part explained by epigenetic differences, as well as immaturity of the infant’s immune system. Here we present a third possibility, which involves active suppression by immune regulatory cells and place in context the immune suppressive pathways of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), CD5pos B cells, and Tregs. The immune pathways that these immune regulatory cells inhibit are similar to those that are defective in the infant. Therefore, the immune deficiencies seen in infants could be explained, in part, by active suppressive cells, indicating potential new avenues for intervention. PMID:25429207

  10. Neutrophils have a protective role during early stages of Leishmania amazonensis infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Sousa, L M A; Carneiro, M B H; Resende, M E; Martins, L S; Dos Santos, L M; Vaz, L G; Mello, P S; Mosser, D M; Oliveira, M A P; Vieira, L Q

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are involved in the early stages of immune responses to pathogens. Here, we investigated the role of neutrophils during the establishment of Leishmania amazonensis infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. First, we showed an accumulation of neutrophils between 6 and 24 h post-infection, followed by a reduction in neutrophil numbers after 72 h. Next, we depleted neutrophils prior to infection using RB6-8C5 or 1A8 mAb. Neutrophil depletion led to faster lesion development, increased parasite numbers and higher arginase activity during the first week of infection in BALB/c mice, but not in C57BL/6 mice. Increased susceptibility was accompanied by augmented levels of anti-L. amazonensis IgG and increased production of IL-10 and IL-17. Because IL-10 is a mediator of susceptibility to Leishmania infection, we blocked IL-10 signalling in neutrophil-depleted mice using anti-IL-10R. Interestingly, inhibition of IL-10 signalling abrogated the increase in parasite loads observed in neutrophil-depleted mice, suggesting that parasite proliferation is at least partially mediated by IL-10. Additionally, we tested the effect of IL-17 in inflammatory macrophages and observed that IL-17 increased arginase activity and favoured parasite growth. Taken together, our data indicate that neutrophils control parasite numbers and limit lesion development during the first week of infection in BALB/c mice. PMID:24102495

  11. Morphology of Immatures of Acanthoderini (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).

    PubMed

    Casari, Sônia A

    2016-01-01

    Morphological descriptions and comparisons of immatures of five species of Acanthoderini are presented. Larvae and pupae of Psapharochrus cylindricus (Bates, 1861) and P. vetustus (Bates, 1880), larva of P. jaspideus (Germar, 1824), and pupae of Oreodera glauca (Linnaeus, 1758) and Steirastoma stellio Pascoe, 1866, from Brazil, are described; larvae of the two latter species are redescribed. Until now, immatures of 20 species of this tribe were known. Remarks on characters in Acanthoderini and genera with known immatures are also included. PMID:27470784

  12. Breeding behavior of immature mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irby, H.D.; Blankenship, L.H.

    1966-01-01

    Some immature mourning doves (Zenaidura mncroura) are capable of breeding in their first (calendar) year of life. The breeding activities of immatures observed in this study included calling, copulating, and nesting. Development of sexual structures such as cloacal papillae, oviduct openings, and gonads was also regarded as evidence of breeding potential. Immatures were identified principally by white-tipped wing coverts. Sexes were distinguished by behavioral characteristics. Males coo, perform flights, carry nest material, and attend nests during the day and females attend nests at night. Immatures were involved in at least ten nestings on two areas near Tucson, Arizona, in 1963. Five young fledged from these nests.

  13. Short interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing in Globodera pallida and Meloidogyne incognita infective stage juveniles.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Johnathan J; McMaster, Steven; Fleming, Colin C; Maule, Aaron G

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of gene function through RNA interference (RNAi)-based reverse genetics in plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) remains inexplicably reliant on the use of long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing triggers; a practice inherently disadvantageous due to the introduction of superfluous dsRNA sequence, increasing chances of aberrant or off-target gene silencing through interactions between nascent short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and non-cognate mRNA targets. Recently, we have shown that non-nematode, long dsRNAs have a propensity to elicit profound impacts on the phenotype and migrational abilities of both root knot and cyst nematodes. This study presents, to our knowledge for the first time, gene-specific knockdown of FMRFamide-like peptide (flp) transcripts, using discrete 21bp siRNAs in potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida, and root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infective (J2) stage juveniles. Both knockdown at the transcript level through quantitative (q)PCR analysis and functional data derived from migration assay, indicate that siRNAs targeting certain areas of the FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) transcripts are potent and specific in the silencing of gene function. In addition, we present a method of manipulating siRNA activity through the management of strand thermodynamics. Initial evaluation of strand thermodynamics as a determinant of RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) strand selection (inferred from knockdown efficacy) in the siRNAs presented here suggested that the purported influence of 5' stand stability on guide incorporation may be somewhat promiscuous. However, we have found that on strategically incorporating base mismatches in the sense strand of a G. pallida-specific siRNA, we could specifically increase or decrease the knockdown of its target (specific to the antisense strand), presumably through creating more favourable thermodynamic profiles for incorporation of either the sense (non-target-specific) or antisense (target

  14. Parasite-induced ER stress response in hepatocytes facilitates Plasmodium liver stage infection.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Patricia; Zuzarte-Luís, Vanessa; Ruivo, Margarida T G; Falkard, Brie; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Rooijers, Koos; Mann, Matthias; Mair, Gunnar; Fidock, David A; Mota, Maria M

    2015-08-01

    Upon infection of a mammalian host, Plasmodium parasites first replicate inside hepatocytes, generating thousands of new parasites. Although Plasmodium intra-hepatic development represents a substantial metabolic challenge to the host hepatocyte, how infected cells respond to and integrate this stress remains poorly understood. Here, we present proteomic and transcriptomic analyses, revealing that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in host hepatocytes upon Plasmodium berghei infection. The expression of XBP1s--the active form of the UPR mediator XBP1--and the liver-specific UPR mediator CREBH is induced by P. berghei infection in vivo. Furthermore, this UPR induction increases parasite liver burden. Altogether, our data suggest that ER stress is a central feature of P. berghei intra-hepatic development, contributing to the success of infection. PMID:26113366

  15. Parasite-induced ER stress response in hepatocytes facilitates Plasmodium liver stage infection

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Patricia; Zuzarte-Luís, Vanessa; Ruivo, Margarida TG; Falkard, Brie; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Rooijers, Koos; Mann, Matthias; Mair, Gunnar; Fidock, David A; Mota, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Upon infection of a mammalian host, Plasmodium parasites first replicate inside hepatocytes, generating thousands of new parasites. Although Plasmodium intra-hepatic development represents a substantial metabolic challenge to the host hepatocyte, how infected cells respond to and integrate this stress remains poorly understood. Here, we present proteomic and transcriptomic analyses, revealing that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in host hepatocytes upon Plasmodium berghei infection. The expression of XBP1s—the active form of the UPR mediator XBP1—and the liver-specific UPR mediator CREBH is induced by P. berghei infection in vivo. Furthermore, this UPR induction increases parasite liver burden. Altogether, our data suggest that ER stress is a central feature of P. berghei intra-hepatic development, contributing to the success of infection. PMID:26113366

  16. Induction of immune response in macaque monkeys infected with simian-human immunodeficiency virus having the TNF-{alpha} gene at an early stage of infection

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Yuya; Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Ibuki, Kentaro; Suzuki, Hajime; Kaneyasu, Kentaro; Goto, Yoshitaka; Hayami, Masanori; Miura, Tomoyuki; Haga, Takeshi . E-mail: a0d518u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp

    2005-12-20

    TNF-{alpha} has been implicated in the pathogenesis of, and the immune response against, HIV-1 infection. To clarify the roles of TNF-{alpha} against HIV-1-related virus infection in an SHIV-macaque model, we genetically engineered an SHIV to express the TNF-{alpha} gene (SHIV-TNF) and characterized the virus's properties in vivo. After the acute viremic stage, the plasma viral loads declined earlier in the SHIV-TNF-inoculated monkeys than in the parental SHIV (SHIV-NI)-inoculated monkeys. SHIV-TNF induced cell death in the lymph nodes without depletion of circulating CD4{sup +} T cells. SHIV-TNF provided some immunity in monkeys by increasing the production of the chemokine RANTES and by inducing an antigen-specific proliferation of lymphocytes. The monkeys immunized with SHIV-TNF were partly protected against a pathogenic SHIV (SHIV-C2/1) challenge. These findings suggest that TNF-{alpha} contributes to the induction of an effective immune response against HIV-1 rather than to the progression of disease at the early stage of infection.

  17. Rationale for one stage exchange of infected hip replacement using uncemented implants and antibiotic impregnated bone graft

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Infection of a total hip replacement (THR) is considered a devastating complication, necessitating its complete removal and thorough debridement of the site. It is undoubted that one stage exchange, if successful, would provide the best benefit both for the patient and the society. Still the fear of re-infection dominates the surgeons´ decisions and in the majority of cases directs them to multiple stage protocols. However, there is no scientifically based argument for that practice. Successful eradication of infection with two stage procedures is reported to average 80% to 98%. On the other hand a literature review of Jackson and Schmalzried (CORR 2000) summarizing the results of 1,299 infected hip replacements treated with direct exchange (almost exclusively using antibiotic loaded cement), reports of 1,077 (83%) having been successful. The comparable results suggest, that the major factor for a successful outcome with traditional approaches may be found in the quality of surgical debridement and dead space management. Failures in all protocols seem to be caused by small fragments of bacterial colonies remaining after debridement, whereas neither systemic antibiotics nor antibiotic loaded bone cement (PMMA) have been able to improve the situation significantly. Reasons for failure may be found in the limited sensitivity of traditional bacterial culturing and reduced antibiotic susceptibility of involved pathogens, especially considering biofilm formation. Whenever a new prosthesis is implanted into a previously infected site the surgeon must be aware of increased risk of failure, both in single or two stage revisions. Eventual removal therefore should be easy with low risk of additional damage to the bony substance. On the other hand it should also have potential of a good long term result in case of success. Cemented revisions generally show inferior long term results compared to uncemented techniques; the addition of antibiotics to cement reduces its

  18. Management of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in patients with end-stage renal disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre Valadez, Jonathan; García Juárez, Ignacio; Rincón Pedrero, Rodolfo; Torre, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, mainly in those on hemodialysis (HD). The seroprevalence of HCV in developing countries ranges between 7% and 40%. Risk factors for this infection in the CKD population include the number of blood transfusions, duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and prevalence of HCV in HD. Chronic HCV infection in patients with ESRD is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality in the pre and post kidney transplant periods. The increase in mortality is directly associated with liver complications and an elevated cardiovascular risk in HCV-infected patients on hemodialysis. Antiviral treatment may improve the prognosis of patients with HCV, and standard interferon remains the cornerstone of treatment. Treatment of HCV in patients with CKD is complex, but achieving a sustained viral response may decrease the frequency of complications after transplantation. It appears that HCV-infected patients who remain on maintenance dialysis are at increased risk of death compared with HCV patients undergoing renal transplantation. PMID:25767389

  19. Loss of IL-17-producing CD8 T cells during late chronic stage of pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Pragati; Kwa, Suefen; Velu, Vijayakumar; Amara, Rama Rao

    2011-01-15

    Progressive disease caused by pathogenic SIV/HIV infections is marked by systemic hyperimmune activation, immune dysregulation, and profound depletion of CD4(+) T cells in lymphoid and gastrointestinal mucosal tissues. IL-17 is important for protective immunity against extracellular bacterial infections at mucosa and for maintenance of mucosal barrier. Although IL-17-secreting CD4 (Th17) and CD8 (Tc17) T cells have been reported, very little is known about the latter subset for any infectious disease. In this study, we characterized the anatomical distribution, phenotype, and functional quality of Tc17 and Th17 cells in healthy (SIV-) and SIV+ rhesus macaques. In healthy macaques, Tc17 and Th17 cells were present in all lymphoid and gastrointestinal tissues studied with predominance in small intestine. About 50% of these cells coexpressed TNF-α and IL-2. Notably, ∼50% of Tc17 cells also expressed the co-inhibitory molecule CTLA-4, and only a minority (<20%) expressed granzyme B suggesting that these cells possess more of a regulatory than cytotoxic phenotype. After SIV infection, unlike Th17 cells, Tc17 cells were not depleted during the acute phase of infection. However, the frequency of Tc17 cells in SIV-infected macaques with AIDS was lower compared with that in healthy macaques demonstrating the loss of these cells during end-stage disease. Antiretroviral therapy partially restored the frequency of Tc17 and Th17 cells in the colorectal mucosa. Depletion of Tc17 cells was not observed in colorectal mucosa of chronically infected SIV+ sooty mangabeys. In conclusion, our results suggest a role for Tc17 cells in regulating disease progression during pathogenic SIV infection. PMID:21148794

  20. CD8+ T Cells from a Novel T Cell Receptor Transgenic Mouse Induce Liver-Stage Immunity That Can Be Boosted by Blood-Stage Infection in Rodent Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mollard, Vanessa; Sturm, Angelika; Neller, Michelle A.; Cozijnsen, Anton; Gregory, Julia L.; Davey, Gayle M.; Jones, Claerwen M.; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Haque, Ashraful; Engwerda, Christian R.; Nie, Catherine Q.; Hansen, Diana S.; Murphy, Kenneth M.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Miles, John J.; Burrows, Scott R.; de Koning-Ward, Tania; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Carbone, Francis R.; Crabb, Brendan S.; Heath, William R.

    2014-01-01

    To follow the fate of CD8+ T cells responsive to Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection, we generated an MHC I-restricted TCR transgenic mouse line against this pathogen. T cells from this line, termed PbT-I T cells, were able to respond to blood-stage infection by PbA and two other rodent malaria species, P. yoelii XNL and P. chabaudi AS. These PbT-I T cells were also able to respond to sporozoites and to protect mice from liver-stage infection. Examination of the requirements for priming after intravenous administration of irradiated sporozoites, an effective vaccination approach, showed that the spleen rather than the liver was the main site of priming and that responses depended on CD8α+ dendritic cells. Importantly, sequential exposure to irradiated sporozoites followed two days later by blood-stage infection led to augmented PbT-I T cell expansion. These findings indicate that PbT-I T cells are a highly versatile tool for studying multiple stages and species of rodent malaria and suggest that cross-stage reactive CD8+ T cells may be utilized in liver-stage vaccine design to enable boosting by blood-stage infections. PMID:24854165

  1. Interleukin-15 production at the early stage after oral infection with Listeria monocytogenes in mice

    PubMed Central

    MITANI, A; NISHIMURA, H; HIROSE, K; WASHIZU, J; KIMURA, Y; TANAKA, S; YAMAMOTO, G; NOGUCHI, T; YOSHIKAI, Y

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that exogenous interleukin-15 (IL-15) induces proliferation and activation of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (i-IEL) in naive mice. To investigate the ability of endogenous IL-15 to stimulate i-IEL in vivo, we monitored i-IEL and intestinal epithelial cells (i-EC) in mice after an oral infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Although the populations of αβ and γδ i-IEL were not significantly changed after the oral infection, the expression level of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was increased both at transcriptional and protein levels, and a conversely marked decrease in interleukin-4 (IL-4) was detected in the i-IEL on day 1 after infection as compared with before infection. The T helper 1 (Th1)-biased response of i-IEL coincided with a peak response of IL-15 production in the i-EC after oral infection. These results suggested that IL-15 produced from i-EC may be at least partly involved in the stimulation of i-IEL to produce IFN-γ after oral infection with L. monocytogenes. PMID:10447719

  2. The Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Is Capable of Developing Late Stage Infections of Leishmania enriettii

    PubMed Central

    Seblova, Veronika; Sadlova, Jovana; Vojtkova, Barbora; Votypka, Jan; Carpenter, Simon; Bates, Paul Andrew; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their importance in animal and human health, the epidemiology of species of the Leishmania enriettii complex remains poorly understood, including the identity of their biological vectors. Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) have been implicated in the transmission of a member of the L. enriettii complex in Australia, but the far larger and more widespread genus Culicoides has not been investigated for the potential to include vectors to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Females from colonies of the midges Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen and C. sonorensis Wirth & Jones and the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Nevia (Diptera: Psychodidae) were experimentally infected with two different species of Leishmania, originating from Australia (Leishmania sp. AM-2004) and Brazil (Leishmania enriettii). In addition, the infectivity of L. enriettii infections generated in guinea pigs and golden hamsters for Lu. longipalpis and C. sonorensis was tested by xenodiagnosis. Development of L. enriettii in Lu. longipalpis was relatively poor compared to other Leishmania species in this permissive vector. Culicoides nubeculosus was not susceptible to infection by parasites from the L. enriettii complex. In contrast, C. sonorensis developed late stage infections with colonization of the thoracic midgut and the stomodeal valve. In hamsters, experimental infection with L. enriettii led only to mild symptoms, while in guinea pigs L. enriettii grew aggressively, producing large, ulcerated, tumour-like lesions. A high proportion of C. sonorensis (up to 80%) feeding on the ears and nose of these guinea pigs became infected. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that L. enriettii can develop late stage infections in the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis. This midge was found to be susceptible to L. enriettii to a similar degree as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum in South America. Our results support the hypothesis that some

  3. Transcriptional changes of cytokines in rooster testis and epididymis during sexual maturation stages and Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, M; Michailidis, G

    2016-08-01

    Infection of rooster testis and epididymis by pathogens can lead to impaired fertility, resulting in economic losses in the poultry industry. Antimicrobial protection of rooster reproductive organs is, therefore, an important aspect of reproductive physiology. Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, caused by Salmonella bacteria including Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and is usually the result of infection of the reproductive organs. Thus, knowledge of the endogenous innate immune mechanisms of the rooster testis and epididymis is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for stimulating the immune response and inflammation in chickens to Salmonella infection. In the present study the expression profile of 11 pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in the rooster testis and epididymis in vivo and transcriptional changes in these organs during sexual maturation and SE infection were investigated. Gene expression analysis data revealed that in both testis and epididymis nine cytokines namely the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17 and IL-18 genes were expressed, while no mRNA transcripts were detected in both organs for IL-2 and IL-4. Furthermore, the expression of various cytokine genes during sexual maturation appeared to be developmentally regulated, while SE infection resulted in a significant up-regulation of IL-1β, -6, -12 and -18 genes in the testis and an increase in the mRNA relative abundance of IL-1β, -6, -12, -16 and -18 in the epididymis of SE-infected sexually mature 28-week-old roosters. These results suggest a cytokine-mediated immune response mechanism against Salmonella infection in the rooster reproductive tract. PMID:27289435

  4. Recognition of Stage-Specific Mycobacterial Antigens Differentiates between Acute and Latent Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Demissie, Abebech; Leyten, Eliane M. S.; Abebe, Markos; Wassie, Liya; Aseffa, Abraham; Abate, Getahun; Fletcher, Helen; Owiafe, Patrick; Hill, Philip C.; Brookes, Roger; Rook, Graham; Zumla, Alimuddin; Arend, Sandra M.; Klein, Michel; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Andersen, Peter; Doherty, T. Mark

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is estimated to infect 80 to 100 million people annually, the majority of whom do not develop clinical tuberculosis (TB) but instead maintain the infection in a latent state. These individuals generally become positive in response to a tuberculin skin test and may develop clinical TB at a later date, particularly if their immune systems are compromised. Latently infected individuals are interesting for two reasons. First, they are an important reservoir of M. tuberculosis, which needs to be considered for TB control. Second, if detected prior to recrudescence of the disease, they represent a human population that is making a protective immune response to M. tuberculosis, which is very important for defining correlates of protective immunity. In this study, we show that while responsiveness to early secretory antigenic target 6 is a good marker for M. tuberculosis infection, a strong response to the 16-kDa Rv2031c antigen (HspX or α-crystallin) is largely restricted to latently infected individuals, offering the possibility of differential immunodiagnosis of, or therapeutic vaccination against, TB. PMID:16467323

  5. Houttuynia cordata Targets the Beginning Stage of Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Pei-Yun; Ho, Bing-Ching; Lee, Szu-Yuan; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Lee, Chun-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a common latent virus in humans, causes certain severe diseases. Extensive use of acyclovir (ACV) results in the development of drug-resistant HSV strains, hence, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs to treat HSV infection. Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata), a natural herbal medicine, has been reported to exhibit anti-HSV effects which is partly NF-κB-dependent. However, the molecular mechanisms by which H. cordata inhibits HSV infection are not elucidated thoroughly. Here, we report that H. cordata water extracts (HCWEs) inhibit the infection of HSV-1, HSV-2, and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 mainly via blocking viral binding and penetration in the beginning of infection. HCWEs also suppress HSV replication. Furthermore, HCWEs attenuate the first-wave of NF-κB activation, which is essential for viral gene expressions. Further analysis of six compounds in HCWEs revealed that quercetin and isoquercitrin inhibit NF-κB activation and additionally, quercetin also has an inhibitory effect on viral entry. These results indicate that HCWEs can inhibit HSV infection through multiple mechanisms and could be a potential lead for development of new drugs for treating HSV. PMID:25643242

  6. Houttuynia cordata targets the beginning stage of herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pei-Yun; Ho, Bing-Ching; Lee, Szu-Yuan; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Lee, Chun-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a common latent virus in humans, causes certain severe diseases. Extensive use of acyclovir (ACV) results in the development of drug-resistant HSV strains, hence, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs to treat HSV infection. Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata), a natural herbal medicine, has been reported to exhibit anti-HSV effects which is partly NF-κB-dependent. However, the molecular mechanisms by which H. cordata inhibits HSV infection are not elucidated thoroughly. Here, we report that H. cordata water extracts (HCWEs) inhibit the infection of HSV-1, HSV-2, and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 mainly via blocking viral binding and penetration in the beginning of infection. HCWEs also suppress HSV replication. Furthermore, HCWEs attenuate the first-wave of NF-κB activation, which is essential for viral gene expressions. Further analysis of six compounds in HCWEs revealed that quercetin and isoquercitrin inhibit NF-κB activation and additionally, quercetin also has an inhibitory effect on viral entry. These results indicate that HCWEs can inhibit HSV infection through multiple mechanisms and could be a potential lead for development of new drugs for treating HSV. PMID:25643242

  7. Unusual forms of immature sporulating Coccidioides immitis diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yong; Smith, Corey W; Salaru, Gratian; Joho, Kim L; Deen, Malik F

    2006-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic infection acquired by inhalation of the spores (arthroconidia) of the thermally dimorphic fungus, Coccidioides immitis. The arthroconidia transform into spherical cells called mature spherules in the lung. Immature spherules and other atypical forms of immature C immitis have rarely been found in vivo. We report on a case that presented unusual forms of immature sporulating C immitis in a fine-needle aspiration specimen. A 36-year-old Chinese woman, living in New Jersey for the past 10 years, presented with fever, night sweats, hemoptysis, and an abnormal chest radiograph approximately 9 months after a brief vacation trip to the Grand Canyon in Arizona. She was treated with antibiotics for 4 weeks without improvement. Subsequent chest computed tomography showed a 3-cm cavitary lesion in the right lower lobe of the lung. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealed diverse morphologic forms of a fungus that was confirmed by culture as immature sporulating C immitis. PMID:16390247

  8. Serologic markers in early stages of African horse sickness virus infection.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Díaz-Laviada, M; Roy, P; Sánchez, C; Vela, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Casal, J I

    1997-02-01

    Fifteen horses were experimentally infected with African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4. To learn more about the time course of production and specificity of AHSV-specific antibodies, sera were analyzed by immunoblot analysis. Only animals that survived for more than 9 days were able to develop a humoral immune response detectable by immunoblotting. The earliest serological markers corresponded mainly to VP5, VP6, and NS2 and to a lesser extent to VP3, NS1, and NS3. Neutralizing antibodies to VP2 were not detected by immunoblotting, suggesting that they are mostly conformation dependent. VP7-specific antibodies were detected later in infection. These results make NS2 and VP6 the most attractive candidates for the rapid diagnosis of the infection. PMID:9003637

  9. Multi-Agent Simulations of the Immune Response to Hiv during the Acute Stage of Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walshe, R.; Ruskin, H. J.; Callaghan, A.

    Results of multi-agent based simulations of the immune response to HIV during the acute phase of infection are presented here. The model successfully recreates the viral dynamics associated with the acute phase of infection, i.e., a rapid rise in viral load followed by a sharp decline to what is often referred to as a "set point", a result of T-cell response and emergence of HIV neutralizing antibodies. The results indicate that sufficient T Killer cell response is the key factor in controlling viral growth during this phase with antibody levels of critical importance only in the absence of a sufficient T Killer response.

  10. Stage-specific regulation of natural killer cell homeostasis and response against viral infection by microRNA-155

    PubMed Central

    Zawislak, Carolyn L.; Beaulieu, Aimee M.; Loeb, Gabriel B.; Karo, Jenny; Canner, David; Bezman, Natalie A.; Lanier, Lewis L.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.; Sun, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells function in the recognition and destruction of host cells infected with pathogens. Many regulatory mechanisms govern the potent responses of NK cells, both at the cellular and molecular level. Ablation of microRNA (miRNA) processing enzymes demonstrated that miRNAs play critical roles in NK cell differentiation and function; however, the role of individual miRNAs requires further investigation. Using mice containing a targeted deletion of microRNA-155 (miR-155), we observed defects in NK cell maintenance and maturation at steady state, as well as in homeostatic proliferation in lymphopenic mice. In addition, we discovered that miR-155 is up-regulated in activated NK cells during mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in response to signals from the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12 and IL-18 and through signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) signaling. Although miR-155 was found to be dispensable for cytotoxicity and cytokine production when triggered through activating receptors, NK cells lacking miR-155 exhibited severely impaired effector and memory cell numbers in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues after MCMV infection. We demonstrate that miR-155 differentially targets Noxa and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) in NK cells at distinct stages of homeostasis and activation. NK cells constitutively expressing Noxa and SOCS1 exhibit profound defects in expansion during the response to MCMV infection, suggesting that their regulation by miR-155 promotes antiviral immunity. PMID:23572582

  11. Detecting Presymptomatic Infection Is Necessary to Forecast Major Epidemics in the Earliest Stages of Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Robin N.; Gilligan, Christopher A.; Cunniffe, Nik J.

    2016-01-01

    We assess how presymptomatic infection affects predictability of infectious disease epidemics. We focus on whether or not a major outbreak (i.e. an epidemic that will go on to infect a large number of individuals) can be predicted reliably soon after initial cases of disease have appeared within a population. For emerging epidemics, significant time and effort is spent recording symptomatic cases. Scientific attention has often focused on improving statistical methodologies to estimate disease transmission parameters from these data. Here we show that, even if symptomatic cases are recorded perfectly, and disease spread parameters are estimated exactly, it is impossible to estimate the probability of a major outbreak without ambiguity. Our results therefore provide an upper bound on the accuracy of forecasts of major outbreaks that are constructed using data on symptomatic cases alone. Accurate prediction of whether or not an epidemic will occur requires records of symptomatic individuals to be supplemented with data concerning the true infection status of apparently uninfected individuals. To forecast likely future behavior in the earliest stages of an emerging outbreak, it is therefore vital to develop and deploy accurate diagnostic tests that can determine whether asymptomatic individuals are actually uninfected, or instead are infected but just do not yet show detectable symptoms. PMID:27046030

  12. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 secretion and expression after Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro depend on the stage of the parasite.

    PubMed

    Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Vigan, Inés; Jouvin-Marche, Evelyne; Marche, Patrice Noél; Pelet, Elisabeth; Gross, Uwe; Ambroise-Thomas, Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé

    2002-08-27

    Infection of human fibroblasts with tachyzoites of RH and Prugniaud strains, two different strains of Toxoplasma gondii, significantly increased monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 secretion contrary to what happened with bradyzoites of the cystogenetic strain. Quantification of MCP-1 mRNA by RT-PCR showed that this phenomenon is regulated at the transcriptional level. Thus, the stage of parasite can be deciding in MCP-1 induction since only tachyzoites induced MCP-1 expression and secretion. MCP-1 induced by tachyzoites could be involved in cell recruitment, as shown by the quantification of MCP1 ARNm by real-time PCR (LightCycler, Roche Diagnostics), in the pathogenesis of T. gondii infection. PMID:12204371

  13. Human iPSC-derived Immature Astroglia Promote Oligodendrogenesis by increased TIMP-1 Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Chen, Chen; Liu, Xiao-Bo; Pleasure, David E.; Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Astrocytes, once considered passive support cells, are increasingly appreciated as dynamic regulators of neuronal development and function, in part via secreted factors. The extent to which they similarly regulate oligodendrocytes, or proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) is less well understood. Here, we generated astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-Astros) and demonstrate that immature astrocytes - as opposed to mature - promoted oligodendrogenesis in vitro. In the PVL mouse model of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy, associated with cerebral palsy in humans, transplanted immature hiPSC-Astros promote myelinogenesis and behavioral outcome. We further identified TIMP-1 as a selectively upregulated component secreted from immature hiPSC-Astros. Accordingly, in the rat PVL model, intranasal administration of conditioned medium from immature hiPSC-Astros promoted oligodendrocyte maturation in a TIMP-1 dependent manner. Our findings suggest stage-specific developmental interactions between astroglia and oligodendroglia, with important therapeutic implications for promoting myelinogenesis. PMID:27134175

  14. Immature Development of Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Montezano, D G; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Paula-Moraes, S V; Roque-Specht, V F; Fronza, E; Barros, N M; Specht, A

    2016-02-01

    We provide detailed temporal and morphological parameters of the immature stages of Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius) larvae fed on artificial diet under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 14 h photophase). The viability of the egg, larval, pupal, and prepupal stages was 97.5%, 97.0%, 93.1%, and 98.9%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larval, prepupal, and pupal stages was 5.0, 23.4, 3.2, and 21.5 days, respectively. Females took longer at the larval stage than males, with 10.5% of them having seven instars. The growth rate of female larvae that developed through six and seven instars was 1.72 and 1.54, respectively. Female pupae were significantly larger, exhibiting slower development than males. PMID:26429580

  15. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  16. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize.

    PubMed

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K D; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  17. Metabolic profiles of soybean roots during early stages of Fusarium tucumaniae infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean germplasm exhibits various levels of resistance to Fusarium tucumaniae, the main causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean in Argentina. In this study, two soybean genotypes, one susceptible (NA 4613) and one partially resistant (DM 4670) to SDS infection, were inoculated with F...

  18. The physiology of infection with nematodes: the role of intracellular pH in the development of the early parasitic stage.

    PubMed

    Petronijevic, T; Rogers, W P

    1987-01-01

    1. H2CO3, the host's signal which induced (less than 25 min) the Ca2+-dependent development of the first parasitic stage of Haemonchus contortus, produced a diphasic change in the pHi (less than 30 min), measured with 5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione, in the infective stage. The intensity of the diphasic change was related to the [H2CO3] and so to the efficiency of the stimulus for development. 2. MES and HEPES buffers induced a rapid rise in pHi of infective stages in step with pHo. Ortho-and pyrophosphate induced greater changes in pHi. Such buffers did not initiate development. 3. These and other results suggest that the stimulus for development, H2CO3, induced an energy-dependent Ca2+/H+ exchange mediated by mitochondria of the infective stage, which initiated development of the parasitic stage. PMID:2890466

  19. Host cell autophagy modulates early stages of adenovirus infections in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xuehuo; Carlin, Cathleen R

    2013-02-01

    Human adenoviruses typically cause mild infections in the upper or lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or ocular epithelium. However, adenoviruses may be life-threatening in patients with impaired immunity and some serotypes cause epidemic outbreaks. Attachment to host cell receptors activates cell signaling and virus uptake by endocytosis. At present, it is unclear how vital cellular homeostatic mechanisms affect these early steps in the adenovirus life cycle. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway for recycling intracellular components that is upregulated during periods of cell stress. Autophagic cargo is sequestered in double-membrane structures called autophagosomes that fuse with endosomes to form amphisomes which then deliver their content to lysosomes. Autophagy is an important adaptive response in airway epithelial cells targeted by many common adenovirus serotypes. Using two established tissue culture models, we demonstrate here that adaptive autophagy enhances expression of the early region 1 adenovirus protein, induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and production of new viral progeny in airway epithelial cells infected with adenovirus type 2. We have also discovered that adenovirus infections are tightly regulated by endosome maturation, a process characterized by abrupt exchange of Rab5 and Rab7 GTPases, associated with early and late endosomes, respectively. Moreover, endosome maturation appears to control a pool of early endosomes capable of fusing with autophagosomes which enhance adenovirus infection. Many viruses have evolved mechanisms to induce autophagy in order to aid their own replication. Our studies reveal a novel role for host cell autophagy that could have a significant impact on the outcome of respiratory infections. PMID:23236070

  20. Soluble cell adhesion molecules in human Chagas' disease: association with disease severity and stage of infection.

    PubMed

    Laucella, S; De Titto, E H; Segura, E L; Orn, A; Rottenberg, M E

    1996-12-01

    Formation of inflammatory lesions, one of the pathologic consequences of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, involves intricate cell-cell interactions in which cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are involved. Sera from 56 Chagas' disease patients grouped according to disease severity were studied for the presence of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1), soluble endothelial selectin (s-E-selectin), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (s-VCAM-1), soluble platelet selectin (s-P-selectin), and s-CD44 were studied to determine if they could be used alone or in different combinations as markers for specific diagnostic procedures. Comparisons were made between congenitally, acutely, and chronically infected patients and aged-matched, noninfected individuals, as well as between patients with chronic Chagas' disease grouped according to the severity of their heart-related pathology. No differences in levels of s-CAMs were detected between sera from children with congenital T. cruzi infection and sera from noninfected infants born from chagasic mothers. In contrast, titers of s-ICAM-1, s-VCAM-1, s-selectin, and s-CD44 but not s-P-selectin were significantly increased in sera from patients during the acute phase of infection with T. cruzi. Titers of s-VCAM-1 and s-P-selectin were increased in chronically infected patients. A positive association with disease severity in sera from patients with chronic disease was observed for the levels of s-P-selectin. In contrast, we found no association between clinical symptoms and levels of s-VCAM-1. Patients with chronic disease with severe cardiopathy also showed diminished levels of s-CD44 in comparison with healthy controls or patients with mild disease. The results are discussed in the context of pathology of Chagas' disease. PMID:9025689

  1. The JAK-STAT Pathway Controls Plasmodium vivax Load in Early Stages of Anopheles aquasalis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bahia, Ana C.; Kubota, Marina S.; Tempone, Antonio J.; Araújo, Helena R. C.; Guedes, Bruno A. M.; Orfanó, Alessandra S.; Tadei, Wanderli P.; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M.; Han, Yeon S.; Secundino, Nágila F. C.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the transcription factor Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT), the regulatory Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT (PIAS) and the Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (NOS) were characterized. Expression of STAT and PIAS was higher in males than females and in eggs and first instar larvae when compared to larvae and pupae. RNA levels for STAT and PIAS increased 24 and 36 hours (h) after P. vivax challenge. NOS transcription increased 36 h post infection (hpi) while this protein was already detected in some midgut epithelial cells 24 hpi. Imunocytochemistry experiments using specific antibodies showed that in non-infected insects STAT and PIAS were found mostly in the fat body, while in infected mosquitoes the proteins were found in other body tissues. The knockdown of STAT by RNAi increased the number of oocysts in the midgut of A. aquasalis. This is the first clear evidence for the involvement of a specific immune pathway in the interaction of the Brazilian malaria vector A. aquasalis with P. vivax, delineating a potential target for the future development of disease controlling strategies. PMID:22069502

  2. The JAK-STAT pathway controls Plasmodium vivax load in early stages of Anopheles aquasalis infection.

    PubMed

    Bahia, Ana C; Kubota, Marina S; Tempone, Antonio J; Araújo, Helena R C; Guedes, Bruno A M; Orfanó, Alessandra S; Tadei, Wanderli P; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Han, Yeon S; Secundino, Nágila F C; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Pimenta, Paulo F P; Traub-Csekö, Yara M

    2011-11-01

    Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the transcription factor Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT), the regulatory Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT (PIAS) and the Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (NOS) were characterized. Expression of STAT and PIAS was higher in males than females and in eggs and first instar larvae when compared to larvae and pupae. RNA levels for STAT and PIAS increased 24 and 36 hours (h) after P. vivax challenge. NOS transcription increased 36 h post infection (hpi) while this protein was already detected in some midgut epithelial cells 24 hpi. Imunocytochemistry experiments using specific antibodies showed that in non-infected insects STAT and PIAS were found mostly in the fat body, while in infected mosquitoes the proteins were found in other body tissues. The knockdown of STAT by RNAi increased the number of oocysts in the midgut of A. aquasalis. This is the first clear evidence for the involvement of a specific immune pathway in the interaction of the Brazilian malaria vector A. aquasalis with P. vivax, delineating a potential target for the future development of disease controlling strategies. PMID:22069502

  3. Transovarial Transmission Efficiency of Babesia bovis Tick Stages Acquired by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus during Acute Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protozoan parasite Babesia bovis, a reemerging threat to U.S. cattle, is acquired by adult female ticks of the subgenus Boophilus, and is transovarially transmitted as the kinete stage to developing larval offspring. Sporozoites develop within larvae and are transmitted during larval feeding on ...

  4. Antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease. Current recommendations by stage and extent of infection.

    PubMed

    Rahn, D W

    1992-05-15

    Much has been learned about Lyme disease over the past several years, but much remains to be learned. Careful clinical observation has led to elucidation of the natural history of this disease, and further clinical observations are needed to unravel the remaining areas of uncertainty. It is by no means clear that all the symptoms attributed to Lyme disease today actually represent true manifestations of Borrelia burgdorferi infection or that patients with well-documented Lyme disease whose symptoms do not respond to antibiotic therapy have persistent infection. Immunologically mediated mechanisms may be responsible for the chronic disease manifestations that seem so resistant to antibiotics. Uncovering answers to these questions requires the close collaboration of astute practicing physicians and biomedical scientists working together for their patients' benefit. PMID:1589368

  5. 2-Hexadecynoic Acid Inhibits Plasmodial FAS-II Enzymes and Arrest Erythrocytic and Liver Stage Plasmodium Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L.; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H.; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2010-01-01

    Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of P. yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC50 value 6.6. μg/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC50 value 2-HDA 15.3 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescense analysis (IC50 2-HDA 4.88 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC50 values of 0.38 and 0.58 μg/ml (IC50 control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml) respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 values 3.7–31.7 μg/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC50 20.2 μg/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC50 values 4.1–13.4 μg/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggest that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to study the interaction of fatty

  6. Surface Proteome of “Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” during the Early Stages of Macrophage Infection

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Michael; Tzeng, Shin-Cheng; Maier, Claudia; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    “Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” is a robust and pervasive environmental bacterium that can cause opportunistic infections in humans. The bacterium overcomes the host immune response and is capable of surviving and replicating within host macrophages. Little is known about the bacterial mechanisms that facilitate these processes, but it can be expected that surface-exposed proteins play an important role. In this study, the selective biotinylation of surface-exposed proteins, streptavidin affinity purification, and shotgun mass spectrometry were used to characterize the surface-exposed proteome of M. avium subsp. hominissuis. This analysis detected more than 100 proteins exposed at the bacterial surface of M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Comparisons of surface-exposed proteins between conditions simulating early infection identified several groups of proteins whose presence on the bacterial surface was either constitutive or appeared to be unique to specific culture conditions. This proteomic profile facilitates an improved understanding of M. avium subsp. hominissuis and how it establishes infection. Additionally, surface-exposed proteins are excellent targets for the host adaptive immune system, and their identification can inform the development of novel treatments, diagnostic tools, and vaccines for mycobacterial disease. PMID:22392927

  7. Depressed Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Ventilatory Responses at Early Stage of Lethal Avian Influenza A Virus Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Zemmie; Harrod, Kevin S.; Xu, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    H5N1 virus infection results in ~60% mortality in patients primarily due to respiratory failure, but the underlying causes of mortality are unclear. The goal of this study is to reveal respiratory disorders occurring at the early stage of infection that may be responsible for subsequent respiratory failure and death. BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with one of two H5N1 virus strains: HK483 (lethal) or HK486 (non-lethal) virus. Pulmonary ventilation and the responses to hypoxia (HVR; 7% O2 for 3 min) and hypercapnia (HCVR; 7% CO2 for 5 min) were measured daily at 2 days prior and 1, 2, and 3 days postinfection (dpi) and compared to mortality typically by 8 dpi. At 1, 2, and 3 dpi, immunoreactivities (IR) of substance P (SP-IR) in the nodose ganglion or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-IR) in the carotid body coupled with the nucleoprotein of influenza A (NP-IR) was examined in some mice, while arterial blood was collected in others. Our results showed that at 2 and 3 dpi: 1) both viral infections failed to alter body temperature and weight, V˙CO2, or induce viremia while producing similarly high lung viral titers; 2) HK483, but not HK486, virus induced tachypnea and depressed HVR and HCVR without changes in arterial blood pH and gases; and 3) only HK483 virus led to NP-IR in vagal SP-IR neurons, but not in the carotid body, and increased density of vagal SP-IR neurons. In addition, all HK483, rather than HK486, mice died at 6 to 8 dpi and the earlier death was correlated with more severe depression of HVR and HCVR. Our data suggest that tachypnea and depressed HVR/HCVR occur at the early stage of lethal H5N1 viral infection associated with viral replication and increased SP-IR density in vagal neurons, which may contribute to the respiratory failure and death. PMID:26808681

  8. Depressed Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Ventilatory Responses at Early Stage of Lethal Avian Influenza A Virus Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jianguo; Gao, Peng; Pollock, Zemmie; Harrod, Kevin S; Xu, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    H5N1 virus infection results in ~60% mortality in patients primarily due to respiratory failure, but the underlying causes of mortality are unclear. The goal of this study is to reveal respiratory disorders occurring at the early stage of infection that may be responsible for subsequent respiratory failure and death. BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with one of two H5N1 virus strains: HK483 (lethal) or HK486 (non-lethal) virus. Pulmonary ventilation and the responses to hypoxia (HVR; 7% O2 for 3 min) and hypercapnia (HCVR; 7% CO2 for 5 min) were measured daily at 2 days prior and 1, 2, and 3 days postinfection (dpi) and compared to mortality typically by 8 dpi. At 1, 2, and 3 dpi, immunoreactivities (IR) of substance P (SP-IR) in the nodose ganglion or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-IR) in the carotid body coupled with the nucleoprotein of influenza A (NP-IR) was examined in some mice, while arterial blood was collected in others. Our results showed that at 2 and 3 dpi: 1) both viral infections failed to alter body temperature and weight, [Formula: see text], or induce viremia while producing similarly high lung viral titers; 2) HK483, but not HK486, virus induced tachypnea and depressed HVR and HCVR without changes in arterial blood pH and gases; and 3) only HK483 virus led to NP-IR in vagal SP-IR neurons, but not in the carotid body, and increased density of vagal SP-IR neurons. In addition, all HK483, rather than HK486, mice died at 6 to 8 dpi and the earlier death was correlated with more severe depression of HVR and HCVR. Our data suggest that tachypnea and depressed HVR/HCVR occur at the early stage of lethal H5N1 viral infection associated with viral replication and increased SP-IR density in vagal neurons, which may contribute to the respiratory failure and death. PMID:26808681

  9. Experimental caprine neosporosis: the influence of gestational stage on the outcome of infection.

    PubMed

    Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Kim, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto; Benavides, Julio; Silva, Ana Clécia dos Santos; Horcajo, Pilar; Oliveira, Andrea Alice da Fonseca; Ferre, Ignacio; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Here, we assessed outcome of experimental infection by Neospora caninum in goats intravenously inoculated with 10(6) tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at 40 (G1), 90 (G2) and 120 (G3) days of gestation. Infected goats had fever between 5 and 9 days post inoculation (dpi); all were seropositive at the time of abortion/birth. Foetal death occurred in G1 from 10 to 21 dpi (n = 7) and in G2 from 27 to 35 dpi (n = 4). Goats in G2 also had seropositive stillbirth (n = 1) and healthy kids (n = 2). G3 goats (n = 7) had 3 seropositive and 3 seronegative weak kids, and 2 seronegative healthy kids. Parasite DNA detection in placentomes was 100% in G2, 85.7% in G3 and in G1 was detected only in placentomes from the goats with foetal losses from 17 dpi (100%). Parasites were detected in foetal/kid brain (>85.7%) and liver (≥ 50%) of G2 and G3, and in G1 after 17 dpi (100%). The highest parasite loads were detected in the placentomes of G1 from 17 dpi and G2, and in foetal tissues of G1 from 17 dpi and G3. Multifocal necrotic lesions were observed in the placentas of the three groups, but they were larger and more frequent in G1 and G2. Similar lesions were observed in foetal tissues, but they were more frequent in G3. These findings suggest that, as observed in cattle and sheep, the clinical consequences of N. caninum in pregnant goats are dependent in part on the time of gestation when animals were infected. PMID:26864744

  10. Fighting while parasitized: can nematode infections affect the outcome of staged combat in beetles?

    PubMed

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals. PMID:25830367

  11. Pf155/RESA protein influences the dynamic microcirculatory behavior of ring-stage Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez-Silva, Monica; Park, Yongkeun; Huang, Sha; Bow, Hansen; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Deplaine, Guillaume; Lavazec, Catherine; Perrot, Sylvie; Bonnefoy, Serge; Feld, Michael S.; Han, Jongyoon; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra

    2012-08-01

    Proteins exported by Plasmodium falciparum to the red blood cell (RBC) membrane modify the structural properties of the parasitized RBC (Pf-RBC). Although quasi-static single cell assays show reduced ring-stage Pf-RBCs deformability, the parameters influencing their microcirculatory behavior remain unexplored. Here, we study the dynamic properties of ring-stage Pf-RBCs and the role of the parasite protein Pf155/Ring-Infected Erythrocyte Surface Antigen (RESA). Diffraction phase microscopy revealed RESA-driven decreased Pf-RBCs membrane fluctuations. Microfluidic experiments showed a RESA-dependent reduction in the Pf-RBCs transit velocity, which was potentiated at febrile temperature. In a microspheres filtration system, incubation at febrile temperature impaired traversal of RESA-expressing Pf-RBCs. These results show that RESA influences ring-stage Pf-RBCs microcirculation, an effect that is fever-enhanced. This is the first identification of a parasite factor influencing the dynamic circulation of young asexual Pf-RBCs in physiologically relevant conditions, offering novel possibilities for interventions to reduce parasite survival and pathogenesis in its human host.

  12. CD8+ T Cells Mediate Robust Stage-Specific Immunity to P. berghei under Chemoprophylaxis and This Protective Environment Is Not Downregulated by the Presence of Blood-Stage Infection

    PubMed Central

    Heiss, Kirsten; Mueller, Ann-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Sterile protection against malaria infection can be achieved by the inoculation of intact sporozoites while treating concomitantly with the 4-aminoquinoline chloroquine. We present an analysis of protective immunity elicited by successive immunization with Plasmodium berghei sporozoites under chemoprophylaxis. Immunization resulted in a protective, stage-specific immune response. Protection appeared to be mediated by CD8+ T cells and was abrogated upon their specific depletion. Adoptive transfer of splenocytes rendered recipient animals resistant to sporozoite infection, but not to blood-stage challenge. Immunization with sporozoites under chemoprophylaxis results in robust immunity, and the presence of blood-stage infection at sporozoite immunization had no downregulating effect on the protective immune response. PMID:24516592

  13. Metabolic profiles of soybean roots during early stages of Fusarium tucumaniae infection.

    PubMed

    Scandiani, María M; Luque, Alicia G; Razori, María V; Ciancio Casalini, Lucila; Aoki, Takayuki; O'Donnell, Kerry; Cervigni, Gerardo D L; Spampinato, Claudia P

    2015-01-01

    Soybean germplasm exhibits various levels of resistance to Fusarium tucumaniae, the main causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean in Argentina. In this study, two soybean genotypes, one susceptible (NA 4613) and one partially resistant (DM 4670) to SDS infection, were inoculated with F. tucumaniae. Disease symptoms were scored at 7, 10, 14, and 25 days post-inoculation (dpi). The greatest difference in the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) values among genotypes was observed at 25 dpi. In order to detect early metabolic markers that could potentially discriminate between susceptible and resistant genotypes, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of root samples were performed. These analyses show higher levels of several amino acids and the polyamine cadaverine in the inoculated than in the uninoculated susceptible cultivar at 7 dpi. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the metabolic profile of roots harvested at the earliest time points from the inoculated susceptible genotype was clearly differentiated from the rest of the samples. Furthermore, variables associated with the first principal component were mainly amino acids. Taken together, the results indicate that the pathogen induced the susceptible plant to accumulate amino acids in roots at early time points after infection, suggesting that GC-MS-based metabolomics could be used for the rapid characterization of cultivar response to SDS. PMID:25336687

  14. Evidence for the expression of actomyosin in the infective stage of the sporozoan protist Eimeria.

    PubMed

    Preston, T M; King, C A

    1992-04-01

    A high-speed supernatant extract was obtained from infective oocysts of Eimeria tenella homogenised in a sucrose-low ionic strength buffer. Immunoblotting showed this soluble, micropore-filtered preparation (designated E1) to be rich in actin. E1 underwent superprecipitation on addition of ATP but not its non-hydrolysable analogue AMP.PMP--behaviour typical of an actomyosin solution. The superprecipitate fluoresced strongly in the presence of rhodamine-phalloidin (indicative of the presence of F-actin) and electron microscopy of negatively-stained preparations of this flocculent matter confirmed the abundance of filamentous material within it. This is the first demonstration of a functional actomyosin isolated from a member of the economically important phylum Apicomplexa. PMID:1525837

  15. Experimental infections of rabbits with proliferative and latent stages of Besnoitia besnoiti.

    PubMed

    Liénard, Emmanuel; Pop, Loredana; Prevot, Françoise; Grisez, Christelle; Mallet, Virginie; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Bouhsira, Émilie; Franc, Michel; Jacquiet, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Cattle besnoitiosis due to Besnoitia besnoiti is spreading across Europe and is responsible for severe economic losses in newly infected herds. Experimentally speaking, rabbits have been found to be susceptible to this parasite. The adaptation of B. besnoiti to rabbits may offer a new, easier and cheaper model of investigation for this disease. This study compared the virulence between tachyzoites and bradyzoites of B. besnoiti in rabbits. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were allocated into three groups of six animals each. The rabbits from the control (group C), "tachyzoite" (group T) and "bradyzoite" (group B) groups were subcutaneously injected in the right flank with 66 μg of ovalbumin, 6.10(6) tachyzoites (125th passage on Vero cells) and 6.10(6) bradyzoites (collected from a natural infected cow) of B. besnoiti, respectively. Clinical follow-up and blood sampling for serological survey and qPCR were performed during 10 weeks until euthanasia. Molecular and immunohistochemistry examination was achieved on 25 samples of tissue per rabbit. Seroconversion occurred in group T without any clinical signs. Rabbits of group B exhibited a febrile condition (temperature above 40 °C from day 8 to day 11 following injection) with positive qPCR in blood. Cysts of B. besnoiti were found on skin samples and organs of rabbits from group B in tissue explored with threshold cycle (Ct) values below 30. These results suggest a higher virulence of bradyzoites in rabbits than Vero cell-cultivated tachyzoites. The proposed model could be used to assess the in vivo effectiveness of vaccine or drugs against cattle besnoitiosis. PMID:26143866

  16. The Malaria Secretome: From Algorithms to Essential Function in Blood Stage Infection

    PubMed Central

    van Ooij, Christiaan; Tamez, Pamela; Bhattacharjee, Souvik; Hiller, N. Luisa; Harrison, Travis; Liolios, Konstantinos; Kooij, Taco; Ramesar, Jai; Balu, Bharath; Adams, John; Waters, Andy; Janse, Chris; Haldar, Kasturi

    2008-01-01

    The malaria agent Plasmodium falciparum is predicted to export a “secretome” of several hundred proteins to remodel the host erythrocyte. Prediction of protein export is based on the presence of an ER-type signal sequence and a downstream Host-Targeting (HT) motif (which is similar to, but distinct from, the closely related Plasmodium Export Element [PEXEL]). Previous attempts to determine the entire secretome, using either the HT-motif or the PEXEL, have yielded large sets of proteins, which have not been comprehensively tested. We present here an expanded secretome that is optimized for both P. falciparum signal sequences and the HT-motif. From the most conservative of these three secretome predictions, we identify 11 proteins that are preserved across human- and rodent-infecting Plasmodium species. The conservation of these proteins likely indicates that they perform important functions in the interaction with and remodeling of the host erythrocyte important for all Plasmodium parasites. Using the piggyBac transposition system, we validate their export and find a positive prediction rate of ∼70%. Even for proteins identified by all secretomes, the positive prediction rate is not likely to exceed ∼75%. Attempted deletions of the genes encoding the conserved exported proteins were not successful, but additional functional analyses revealed the first conserved secretome function. This gave new insight into mechanisms for the assembly of the parasite-induced tubovesicular network needed for import of nutrients into the infected erythrocyte. Thus, genomic screens combined with functional assays provide unexpected and fundamental insights into host remodeling by this major human pathogen. PMID:18551176

  17. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii.

    PubMed

    Fosu-Nyarko, John; Nicol, Paul; Naz, Fareeha; Gill, Reetinder; Jones, Michael G K

    2016-01-01

    The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668) with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii. PMID:26824923

  18. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii

    PubMed Central

    Fosu-Nyarko, John; Nicol, Paul; Naz, Fareeha; Gill, Reetinder; Jones, Michael G. K.

    2016-01-01

    The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668) with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii. PMID:26824923

  19. Interleukin-6 in two-stage revision arthroplasty: what is the threshold value to exclude persistent infection before re-implanatation?

    PubMed

    Hoell, S; Borgers, L; Gosheger, G; Dieckmann, R; Schulz, D; Gerss, J; Hardes, J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the serum level of interleukin 6 (IL-6) could be used to identify the persistence of infection after the first stage of a two-stage revision for periprosthetic joint infection. Between 2010 and 2011, we prospectively studied 55 patients (23 men, 32 women; mean age 69.5 years; 36 to 86) with a periprosthetic joint infection. Bacteria were identified in two intra-operative tissue samples during re-implantation in 16 patients. These cases were classified as representing persistent infection. To calculate a precise cut-off value which could be used in everyday clinical practice, a 3 x 2 contingency table was constructed and manually defined. We found that a serum IL-6 ≥ 13 pg/mL can be regarded as indicating infection: its positive-predictive value is 90.9%. A serum IL-6 ≤ 8 pg/mL can be regarded as indicating an absence of infection: its negative predictive value is 92.1%. The serum IL-6 level seems to be a reasonable marker for identifying persistent infection after the first stage of a revision joint arthroplasty and before attempting re-implantation. PMID:25568416

  20. Effect of Thai 'koi-hoi' food flavoring on the viability and infectivity of the third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Yong, Hoi-Sen

    2010-03-01

    The effect of the food flavoring of 'koi-hoi', a popular Thai snail dish, on the viability and infectivity of Angiostrongylus (=Parastrongylus) cantonensis third-stage larvae was assessed in a mouse model. Groups of 50 each of actively moving, non-motile coiled, and extended larvae were obtained from experimentally infected snail meat, after one-hour exposure to standard 'koi-hoi' flavoring. These larvae and groups of 50 unexposed moving larvae (control) were individually fed to each group of three experimental BALB/c mice. The effect on Angiostrongylus worm burden was measured after 3 weeks of infection. Infectivity of the motile larvae after exposure to 'koi-hoi' food flavoring was 38 + or - 5.29%. This was highly significantly lower than the infectivity (62 + or - 7.21%) of the control (unexposed) third-stage larvae (chi(2) = 17.28, P < 0.001). In the non-motile larvae resulting from exposure to the food flavoring, no adult worm was recovered from the extended larvae, indicating that they were no longer alive and unable to cause infection. A small proportion (3.33 + or - 2.31%) of the coiled larvae developed into young adult worms, indicating that mobility alone is not a definitive indicator of viability. The present study confirms that the food flavoring components of 'koi-hoi' dish adversely affect the viability and infectivity of A. cantonensis larvae. Exposure of the third-stage larvae to 'koi-hoi' food flavoring resulted in decreased viability and eventually death. Prolonged treatment with food flavoring to inactivate/immobilize and then kill the infective, third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis in snail meat prior to consumption may be one of the possible economical means of reducing human infection. PMID:19931504

  1. Use of a High Resolution Melting (HRM) Assay to Compare Gag, Pol, and Env Diversity in Adults with Different Stages of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Matthew M.; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Beauchamp, Geetha; Brookmeyer, Ronald; Towler, William I.; Hudelson, Sarah E.; Khaki, Leila; Koblin, Beryl; Chesney, Margaret; Moore, Richard D.; Kelen, Gabor D.; Coates, Thomas; Celum, Connie; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Seage, George R.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Donnell, Deborah; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional assessment of HIV incidence relies on laboratory methods to discriminate between recent and non-recent HIV infection. Because HIV diversifies over time in infected individuals, HIV diversity may serve as a biomarker for assessing HIV incidence. We used a high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay to compare HIV diversity in adults with different stages of HIV infection. This assay provides a single numeric HRM score that reflects the level of genetic diversity of HIV in a sample from an infected individual. Methods HIV diversity was measured in 203 adults: 20 with acute HIV infection (RNA positive, antibody negative), 116 with recent HIV infection (tested a median of 189 days after a previous negative HIV test, range 14–540 days), and 67 with non-recent HIV infection (HIV infected >2 years). HRM scores were generated for two regions in gag, one region in pol, and three regions in env. Results Median HRM scores were higher in non-recent infection than in recent infection for all six regions tested. In multivariate models, higher HRM scores in three of the six regions were independently associated with non-recent HIV infection. Conclusions The HRM diversity assay provides a simple, scalable method for measuring HIV diversity. HRM scores, which reflect the genetic diversity in a viral population, may be useful biomarkers for evaluation of HIV incidence, particularly if multiple regions of the HIV genome are examined. PMID:22073290

  2. Detoxification and function of immature tomato.

    PubMed

    Yamashoji, Shiro; Onoda, Eri

    2016-10-15

    α-Tomatine and chlorophyll (a and b) decreased, and β-carotene and lycopene increased with ripening of tomatoes. α-Tomatine was localised in peel of immature green tomatoes. The dose-response curve of α-tomatine determined by WST-1 (water soluble tetrazolium) assay was the same as that by LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assay, suggesting that the cytotoxicity of α-tomatine depends on the destruction of plasma membrane. Immature green tomatoes had little cytotoxic effect after one month-incubation with 25% ethanol or 4.5% acetate at 7°C, and α-tomatine was decomposed by crude enzymes extracted from immature green tomatoes. Immature green tomatoes incubated with 4.5% acetic acid inhibited the accumulation of lipid in adipocytes. From the above facts the detoxification and the anti-obesity effect of immature green tomatoes are expected to be controlled by the removal of peel, the enzymatic decomposition or the incubation with 4.5% acetate or 25% ethanol. PMID:27173549

  3. Does Male Care, Provided to Immature Individuals, Influence Immature Fitness in Rhesus Macaques?

    PubMed Central

    Langos, Doreen; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Among many mammals, maternal care strongly impacts infant survival; however, less is known about whether adult males also affect infant fitness. Paternal care is expected when providing care enhances offspring survival and reproduction, which likewise increases fathers’ fitness. Males might also care for unrelated immature individuals to increase their mating probability with the immature individuals’ mothers. Studies in multimale primate groups showed that sires enhance food access for offspring and provide protection in conflicts. Furthermore, fathers’ presence during infancy has been suggested to accelerate offspring sexual maturation. However, no study has yet directly linked the degree of father-offspring bonds to offspring fitness in primates. We previously reported father-offspring affiliation in rhesus macaques, pronounced during early infancy and independent of mothers’ presence. The present study aims at investigating whether affiliation with fathers or other males affects proxies of immature fitness (body mass gain, body fat and testis size). First, we combined behavioral, genetic and morphometric data from 55 subjects of one group. Second, using demographic and genetic data, we investigated for 92 individuals of the population whether mother- and father-offspring co-residence during immaturity influenced offspring lifetime reproductive success (LRS). Our results show that focal rank and higher amounts of affiliation with high-ranking males during infancy tend to positively impact body mass gain of female, but not male focal animals. In contrast, body mass gain of male focal individuals, but not females’, appeared to be higher when affiliation of male immature individuals was evenly distributed across their adult male partners. Moreover, we found mothers’, but not fathers’, presence during immaturity to predict offspring LRS. Our results suggest that male-immature affiliation, but not father-offspring co-residence, potentially impacts

  4. Immatures of the New World Treehopper Tribe Amastrini (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae) with a key to genera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immatures stages of 9 of the 11 genera (Amastris Stål, Bajulata Ball, Erosne Stål, Harmonides Kirkaldy, Idioderma Van Duzee, Lallemandia Funkhouser, Neotynelia Creão-Duarte & Sakakibara, Tynelia Stål, and Vanduzea Goding) of the tribe Amastrini are described for the first time long with brief di...

  5. Pollination triggers female gametophyte development in immature Nicotiana tabacum flowers.

    PubMed

    Brito, Michael S; Bertolino, Lígia T; Cossalter, Viviane; Quiapim, Andréa C; DePaoli, Henrique C; Goldman, Gustavo H; Teixeira, Simone P; Goldman, Maria H S

    2015-01-01

    In Nicotiana tabacum, female gametophytes are not fully developed at anthesis, but flower buds pollinated 12 h before anthesis produce mature embryo sacs. We investigated several pollination-associated parameters in N. tabacum flower buds to determine the developmental timing of important events in preparation for successful fertilization. First, we performed hand pollinations in flowers from stages 4 to 11 to study at which developmental stage pollination would produce fruits. A Peroxtesmo test was performed to correlate peroxidase activity on the stigma surface, indicative of stigma receptivity, with fruit set. Pollen tube growth and female gametophyte development were microscopically analyzed in pistils of different developmental stages. Fruits were obtained only after pollinations of flower buds at late stage 7 and older; fruit weight and seed germination capacity increased as the developmental stage of the pollinated flower approached anthesis. Despite positive peroxidase activity and pollen tube growth, pistils at stages 5 and 6 were unable to produce fruits. At late stage 7, female gametophytes were undergoing first mitotic division. After 24 h, female gametophytes of unpollinated pistils were still in the end of the first division, whereas those of pollinated pistils showed egg cells. RT-qPCR assay showed that the expression of the NtEC1 gene, a marker of egg cell development, is considerably higher in pollinated late stage 7 ovaries compared with unpollinated ovaries. To test whether ethylene is the signal eliciting female gametophyte maturation, the expression of ACC synthase was examined in unpollinated and pollinated stage 6 and late stage 7 stigmas/styles. Pollination induced NtACS expression in stage 6 pistils, which are unable to produce fruits. Our results show that pollination is a stimulus capable of triggering female gametophyte development in immature tobacco flowers and suggests the existence of a yet undefined signal sensed by the pistil. PMID

  6. Pollination triggers female gametophyte development in immature Nicotiana tabacum flowers

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Michael S.; Bertolino, Lígia T.; Cossalter, Viviane; Quiapim, Andréa C.; DePaoli, Henrique C.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Teixeira, Simone P.; Goldman, Maria H. S.

    2015-01-01

    In Nicotiana tabacum, female gametophytes are not fully developed at anthesis, but flower buds pollinated 12 h before anthesis produce mature embryo sacs. We investigated several pollination-associated parameters in N. tabacum flower buds to determine the developmental timing of important events in preparation for successful fertilization. First, we performed hand pollinations in flowers from stages 4 to 11 to study at which developmental stage pollination would produce fruits. A Peroxtesmo test was performed to correlate peroxidase activity on the stigma surface, indicative of stigma receptivity, with fruit set. Pollen tube growth and female gametophyte development were microscopically analyzed in pistils of different developmental stages. Fruits were obtained only after pollinations of flower buds at late stage 7 and older; fruit weight and seed germination capacity increased as the developmental stage of the pollinated flower approached anthesis. Despite positive peroxidase activity and pollen tube growth, pistils at stages 5 and 6 were unable to produce fruits. At late stage 7, female gametophytes were undergoing first mitotic division. After 24 h, female gametophytes of unpollinated pistils were still in the end of the first division, whereas those of pollinated pistils showed egg cells. RT-qPCR assay showed that the expression of the NtEC1 gene, a marker of egg cell development, is considerably higher in pollinated late stage 7 ovaries compared with unpollinated ovaries. To test whether ethylene is the signal eliciting female gametophyte maturation, the expression of ACC synthase was examined in unpollinated and pollinated stage 6 and late stage 7 stigmas/styles. Pollination induced NtACS expression in stage 6 pistils, which are unable to produce fruits. Our results show that pollination is a stimulus capable of triggering female gametophyte development in immature tobacco flowers and suggests the existence of a yet undefined signal sensed by the pistil. PMID

  7. Cryopreservation of immature embryos of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Pence, V C

    1991-06-01

    Immature, white zygotic embryos of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao) retained the ability to produce callus and to undergo somatic embryogenesis after slow hydrated freezing and desiccated fast freezing in liquid nitrogen. The highest rate of somatic embryogenesis occurred in embryos which were precultured on a medium containing 3% sucrose, frozen slowly with cryoprotectants before exposure to liquid nitrogen, and recovered on a medium containing 3 mg/liter NAA. Embryos precultured on media containing sucrose increasing to 21% had a higher rate of survival but were less embryogenic after freezing. These results suggest that immature embryos might be used for long-term germplasm storage of T. cacao germplasm. PMID:24221494

  8. An Immediate Innate Immune Response Occurred In the Early Stage of E.granulosus Eggs Infection in Sheep: Evidence from Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jishun; Hou, Hongyan; Chen, Sheng; Jia, Bin; Ban, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic Echinococcosis(CE), caused by infection with the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus), is a chronic parasitic zoonosis, with highly susceptible infection in sheep. However, the comprehensive molecular mechanisms that underlie the process of E. granulosus infection in the early stage remain largely unknown. The objective of this present study was to gain a cluster of genes expression profiles in the intestine tissue of sheep infected with CE. Methods Nine healthy sheep were divided into infection group and healthy controls, with six infected perorally 5000 E. granulosus eggs suspended in 1000μl physiological saline and three controls perorally injected 1000μl physiological saline. All animals were sacrificed at 4 hours post-infection, respectively. The intestine tissue was removed and the RNA was extracted. In the infection group, the biology replicates were designed to make sure the accuracy of the data. The ovine microarrays were used to analyze changes of gene expression in the intestine tissue between CE infected sheep and healthy controls. Real-time PCR was used to assess reliability of the microarray data. Results By biology repeats, a total of 195 differentially expressed genes were identified between infected group and controls at 4 hours post-infection, with 105 genes related to immune responses, while 90 genes associated with functions including energy metabolism, fat soluble transport, etc. Among the 105 immunity genes, 72 genes showed up-regulated expression levels while 33 showed down-regulation levels. Function analysis showed that most of up-regulated genes were related to innate immune responses, such as mast cell, NK cell, cytokines, chemokines and complement. In addition, Real-time PCR analysis of a random selection of nine genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray data. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report describing gene expression profiles in the intestine tissue of CE

  9. Simethicone retinopathy in an immature infant.

    PubMed

    Chan, Annie; Tsai, Tony; O'Brien, Joan; Moshfeghi, Darius M

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe retinal findings in an immature infant consuming simethicone, a common over-the-counter drug used in the treatment of colic. The lesions are most consistent with an embolic phenomenon possibly from systemic absorption of a medication such as simethicone. PMID:21053868

  10. Cathepsin Gene Family Reveals Transcriptome Patterns Related to the Infective Stages of the Salmon Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Aguayo, Waleska; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsins are proteases involved in the ability of parasites to overcome and/or modulate host defenses so as to complete their own lifecycle. However, the mechanisms underlying this ability of cathepsins are still poorly understood. One excellent model for identifying and exploring the molecular functions of cathepsins is the marine ectoparasitic copepod Caligus rogercresseyi that currently affects the Chilean salmon industry. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, 56 cathepsin-like sequences were found distributed in five cysteine protease groups (B, F, L, Z, and S) as well as in an aspartic protease group (D). Ontogenic transcriptome analysis evidenced that L cathepsins were the most abundant during the lifecycle, while cathepsins B and K were mostly expressed in the larval stages and adult females, thus suggesting participation in the molting processes and embryonic development, respectively. Interestingly, a variety of cathepsins from groups Z, L, D, B, K, and S were upregulated in the infective stage of copepodid, corroborating the complexity of the processes involved in the parasitic success of this copepod. Putative functional roles of cathepsins were conjectured based on the differential expressions found and on roles previously described in other phylogenetically related species. Moreover, 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified in transcripts annotated for cysteine and aspartic proteases located into untranslated regions, or the coding region. This study reports for the first time the presence of cathepsin-like genes and differential expressions throughout a copepod lifecycle. The identification of cathepsins together with functional validations represents a valuable strategy for pinpointing target molecules that could be used in the development of new delousing drugs or vaccines against C. rogercresseyi. PMID:25923525

  11. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE ON THIRD-STAGE LARVAE OF Lagochilascaris minor IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE

    PubMed Central

    CAMPOS, Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa; BARBOSA, Alverne Passos; OLIVEIRA, Jayrson Araújo; BARBOSA, Carlos Augusto Lopes; LOBO, Tamara Flavia Correa; SILVA, Luana Gabriella; THOMAZ, Douglas Vieira; PEIXOTO, Josana de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Lagochilascariosis, a disease caused by Lagochilascaris minor, affects the neck, sinuses, tonsils, lungs, the sacral region, dental alveoli, eyeballs and the central nervous system of humans. A cycle of autoinfection may occur in human host tissues characterized by the presence of eggs, larvae and adult worms. This peculiarity of the cycle hinders therapy, since there are no drugs that exhibit ovicidal, larvicidal and vermicidal activity. Given these facts, we studied the action of levamisole hydrochloride on third-stage larvae in the migration phase (G1) and on encysted larvae (G3) of L. minor. To this end, 87 inbred mice of the C57BL/6 strain were divided into test groups comprising 67 animals (G1-37; G3-30) and a control group (G2-10; G4-10) with 20 animals. Each animal was inoculated orally with 2,000 infective eggs of the parasite. The animals of the test groups were treated individually with a single oral dose of levamisole hydrochloride at a concentration of 0.075 mg. The drug was administered either 30 minutes prior to the parasite inoculation (G1 animals) or 120 days after the inoculation (G3 animals). The mice in the control groups were not treated with the drug. After the time required for the migration and the encysting of L. minor larvae, all the animals were euthanized and their tissues examined. The data were analyzed using the Student's unpaired t-test and the Levene test. The groups showed no statistically significant difference. Levamisole hydrochloride was ineffective on third-stage larvae of L. minor. These findings explain the massive expulsion of live adult worms, as well as the use of long treatment schemes, owing to the persistence of larvae and eggs in human parasitic lesions. PMID:27253745

  12. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE ON THIRD-STAGE LARVAE OF Lagochilascaris minor IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE.

    PubMed

    Campos, Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa; Barbosa, Alverne Passos; Oliveira, Jayrson Araújo; Barbosa, Carlos Augusto Lopes; Lobo, Tamara Flavia Correa; Silva, Luana Gabriella; Thomaz, Douglas Vieira; Peixoto, Josana de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Lagochilascariosis, a disease caused by Lagochilascaris minor, affects the neck, sinuses, tonsils, lungs, the sacral region, dental alveoli, eyeballs and the central nervous system of humans. A cycle of autoinfection may occur in human host tissues characterized by the presence of eggs, larvae and adult worms. This peculiarity of the cycle hinders therapy, since there are no drugs that exhibit ovicidal, larvicidal and vermicidal activity. Given these facts, we studied the action of levamisole hydrochloride on third-stage larvae in the migration phase (G1) and on encysted larvae (G3) of L. minor. To this end, 87 inbred mice of the C57BL/6 strain were divided into test groups comprising 67 animals (G1-37; G3-30) and a control group (G2-10; G4-10) with 20 animals. Each animal was inoculated orally with 2,000 infective eggs of the parasite. The animals of the test groups were treated individually with a single oral dose of levamisole hydrochloride at a concentration of 0.075 mg. The drug was administered either 30 minutes prior to the parasite inoculation (G1 animals) or 120 days after the inoculation (G3 animals). The mice in the control groups were not treated with the drug. After the time required for the migration and the encysting of L. minor larvae, all the animals were euthanized and their tissues examined. The data were analyzed using the Student's unpaired t-test and the Levene test. The groups showed no statistically significant difference. Levamisole hydrochloride was ineffective on third-stage larvae of L. minor. These findings explain the massive expulsion of live adult worms, as well as the use of long treatment schemes, owing to the persistence of larvae and eggs in human parasitic lesions. PMID:27253745

  13. Cathepsin Gene Family Reveals Transcriptome Patterns Related to the Infective Stages of the Salmon Louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Aguayo, Waleska; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsins are proteases involved in the ability of parasites to overcome and/or modulate host defenses so as to complete their own lifecycle. However, the mechanisms underlying this ability of cathepsins are still poorly understood. One excellent model for identifying and exploring the molecular functions of cathepsins is the marine ectoparasitic copepod Caligus rogercresseyi that currently affects the Chilean salmon industry. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, 56 cathepsin-like sequences were found distributed in five cysteine protease groups (B, F, L, Z, and S) as well as in an aspartic protease group (D). Ontogenic transcriptome analysis evidenced that L cathepsins were the most abundant during the lifecycle, while cathepsins B and K were mostly expressed in the larval stages and adult females, thus suggesting participation in the molting processes and embryonic development, respectively. Interestingly, a variety of cathepsins from groups Z, L, D, B, K, and S were upregulated in the infective stage of copepodid, corroborating the complexity of the processes involved in the parasitic success of this copepod. Putative functional roles of cathepsins were conjectured based on the differential expressions found and on roles previously described in other phylogenetically related species. Moreover, 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified in transcripts annotated for cysteine and aspartic proteases located into untranslated regions, or the coding region. This study reports for the first time the presence of cathepsin-like genes and differential expressions throughout a copepod lifecycle. The identification of cathepsins together with functional validations represents a valuable strategy for pinpointing target molecules that could be used in the development of new delousing drugs or vaccines against C. rogercresseyi. PMID:25923525

  14. Morphological and morphometric differentiation of dorsal-spined first stage larvae of lungworms, (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) infecting muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in the Central Canadian Arctic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis and Varestrongylus eleguneniensis are the two most common protostrongylid nematodes infecting muskoxen in the North American Arctic and Subarctic. First stage larvae (L1) of both these lungworms have a characteristic dorsal spine originating at the level of proxima...

  15. Development of life stages of Leptotrombidium imphalum and Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis (Acari: Trombiculidae) uninfected and infected with the scrub typhus rickettsia, Orientia tsustugamushi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis Tanskul and Linthicum and Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean are important vectors of scrub typhus in ricefield habitats in northern Thailand. The developmental biology of all stages of the life cycle of two generations of mites infected with Orientia tsutsug...

  16. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of potassium permanganate at early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) against early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was evaluated. Fish were experimentally challenged, by waterborne exposure for 2 h to F. columnare after cutaneous abrasion, an...

  17. Colletotrichum orbiculare WHI2, a Yeast Stress-Response Regulator Homolog, Controls the Biotrophic Stage of Hemibiotrophic Infection Through TOR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Harata, Ken; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Kubo, Yasuyuki

    2016-06-01

    The hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum orbiculare first establishes a biotrophic infection stage in cucumber (Cucumber sativus) epidermal cells and subsequently transitions to a necrotrophic stage. Here, we found that C. orbiculare established hemibiotrophic infection via C. orbiculare WHI2, a yeast stress regulator homolog, and TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling. Plant defense responses such as callose deposition, H2O2, and antimicrobial proteins were strongly induced by the C. orbiculare whi2Δ mutant, resulting in defective pathogenesis. Expression analysis of biotrophy-specific genes evaluated by the promoter VENUS fusion gene indicated weaker VENUS signal intensity in the whi2Δ mutant, thereby suggesting that C. orbiculare WHI2 plays a key role in regulating biotrophic infection of C. orbiculare. The involvement of CoWHI2 in biotrophic infection was further explored with a DNA microarray. In the Cowhi2Δ mutant, TOR-dependent ribosomal protein-related genes were strikingly upregulated compared with the wild type. Moreover, callose deposition in the host plant after inoculation with the Cowhi2Δ mutant treated with rapamycin, which inhibits TOR activity, was reduced, and the mutant remained biotrophic in contrast to the untreated mutant. Thus, regulation of TOR by Whi2 is apparently crucial to the biotrophic stage of hemibiotrophic infection in C. orbiculare. PMID:27018615

  18. Multi-Stage Tuberculosis Subunit Vaccine Candidate LT69 Provides High Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Hongxia; Peng, Jinxiu; Bai, Chunxiang; Liu, Xun; Hu, Lina; Luo, Yanping; Wang, Bingxiang; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jianzhu; Yu, Hongjuan; Xian, Qiaoyang; Zhu, Bingdong

    2015-01-01

    Effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine should target tubercle bacilli with various metabolic states and confer long-term protective immunity. In this study, we constructed a novel multi-stage TB subunit vaccine based on fusion protein ESAT6-Ag85B-MPT64(190-198)-Mtb8.4-HspX (LT69 for short) which combined early expressed antigens and latency-associated antigen. The fusion protein was mixed with an adjuvant being composed of N, N’-dimethyl-N, N’-dioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (PolyI:C) to construct subunit vaccine, whose immunogenicity and protective ability were evaluated in C57BL/6 mice. The results showed that LT69 had strong immunogenicity and high protective effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) H37Rv aerosol challenge. Low-dose (2 μg) of LT69 generated long-term immune memory responses and provided effective protection, which was even higher than traditional vaccine BCG did at 30 weeks post the last vaccination. In conclusion, multistage subunit vaccine LT69 showed high and long-term protection against M. tuberculosis infection in mice, whose effect could be enhanced by using a relative low dosage of antigen. PMID:26098302

  19. Stages of HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Dementia Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination ... New Media Tools Blogs Mashups Mobile Office Hours Online Collaboration Tools Photo Sharing Sites Podcasts QR Codes ...

  20. Rapid and Slow Progressors Show Increased IL-6 and IL-10 Levels in the Pre-AIDS Stage of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Rúbia M.; Valverde-Villegas, Jacqueline M.; Junqueira, Dennis M.; Gräf, Tiago; Lindenau, Juliana D.; de Mello, Marineide G.; Vianna, Priscila; Almeida, Sabrina E. M.; Chies, Jose Artur B.

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines are intrinsically related to disease progression in HIV infection. We evaluated the plasma levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in extreme progressors, including slow (SPs) and rapid (RPs) progressors, who were thus classified based on clinical and laboratory follow-up covering a period of time before the initiation of HAART, ranging from 93–136.5 months for SPs and 7.5–16.5 months for RPs. Analyses were also performed based on the different stages of HIV infection (chronic, pre-HAART individuals—subjects sampled before initiating HAART but who initiated therapy from 12 to 24 months—and those receiving HAART). The plasma cytokine levels of 16 HIV-infected rapid progressors and 25 slow progressors were measured using a Human Th1/Th2/Th17 CBA kit. The IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels differed significantly between the stages of HIV infection. The IL-6 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in chronically infected SPs and HIV-seronegative individuals. The IL-10 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in slow progressors receiving HAART and HIV-seronegative controls, and in rapid progressors, the IL-10 levels were higher in pre-HAART subjects than in HIV-seronegative controls. The results reflect the changes in the cytokine profile occurring during different clinical stages in HIV+ subjects. Our results suggest an association between increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels and pre-HAART stages independent of the slow or rapid progression status of the subjects. Thus, increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels could indicate a global inflammatory status and could be used as markers of the disease course in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27214135

  1. Rapid and Slow Progressors Show Increased IL-6 and IL-10 Levels in the Pre-AIDS Stage of HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Rúbia M; Valverde-Villegas, Jacqueline M; Junqueira, Dennis M; Gräf, Tiago; Lindenau, Juliana D; de Mello, Marineide G; Vianna, Priscila; Almeida, Sabrina E M; Chies, Jose Artur B

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines are intrinsically related to disease progression in HIV infection. We evaluated the plasma levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in extreme progressors, including slow (SPs) and rapid (RPs) progressors, who were thus classified based on clinical and laboratory follow-up covering a period of time before the initiation of HAART, ranging from 93-136.5 months for SPs and 7.5-16.5 months for RPs. Analyses were also performed based on the different stages of HIV infection (chronic, pre-HAART individuals-subjects sampled before initiating HAART but who initiated therapy from 12 to 24 months-and those receiving HAART). The plasma cytokine levels of 16 HIV-infected rapid progressors and 25 slow progressors were measured using a Human Th1/Th2/Th17 CBA kit. The IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels differed significantly between the stages of HIV infection. The IL-6 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in chronically infected SPs and HIV-seronegative individuals. The IL-10 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in slow progressors receiving HAART and HIV-seronegative controls, and in rapid progressors, the IL-10 levels were higher in pre-HAART subjects than in HIV-seronegative controls. The results reflect the changes in the cytokine profile occurring during different clinical stages in HIV+ subjects. Our results suggest an association between increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels and pre-HAART stages independent of the slow or rapid progression status of the subjects. Thus, increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels could indicate a global inflammatory status and could be used as markers of the disease course in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27214135

  2. Biology and External Morphology of Immatures of O psiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Neves, D A; Paluch, M

    2016-02-01

    The genus Opsiphanes Doubleday occurs in the Neotropics. Adults belong to the guild of frugivorous butterflies and use as host plants some genera of Arecaceae and Musaceae. The present study provides information on the biology and describes the external morphology of immatures of the species Opsiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger obtained from females collected in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. The development of immatures was monitored and photographed in the laboratory. The larvae were fed with leaves of Dypsis lutescens (Arecaceae), an ornamental plant. The egg stage lasted, on average, 7.2 days. The larval stage had five instars, with an average duration of 48.5 days. The pupal stage lasted 16.5 days. The average growth rate of the head capsule was 1.5 mm. PMID:26341197

  3. Long-Term Relationships: the Complicated Interplay between the Host and the Developmental Stages of Toxoplasma gondii during Acute and Chronic Infections.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Kelly J; Knoll, Laura J

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii represents one of the most common parasitic infections in the world. The asexual cycle can occur within any warm-blooded animal, but the sexual cycle is restricted to the feline intestinal epithelium. T. gondii is acquired through consumption of tissue cysts in undercooked meat as well as food and water contaminated with oocysts. Once ingested, it differentiates into a rapidly replicating asexual form and disseminates throughout the body during acute infection. After stimulation of the host immune response, T. gondii differentiates into a slow-growing, asexual cyst form that is the hallmark of chronic infection. One-third of the human population is chronically infected with T. gondii cysts, which can reactivate and are especially dangerous to individuals with reduced immune surveillance. Serious complications can also occur in healthy individuals if infected with certain T. gondii strains or if infection is acquired congenitally. No drugs are available to clear the cyst form during the chronic stages of infection. This therapeutic gap is due in part to an incomplete understanding of both host and pathogen responses during the progression of T. gondii infection. While many individual aspects of T. gondii infection are well understood, viewing the interconnections between host and parasite during acute and chronic infection may lead to better approaches for future treatment. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of what is known and unknown about the complex relationship between the host and parasite during the progression of T. gondii infection, with the ultimate goal of bridging these events. PMID:26335719

  4. Phenotypic and functional analyses of NK and NKT-like populations during the early stages of chikungunya infection.

    PubMed

    Thanapati, Subrat; Das, Rumki; Tripathy, Anuradha S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize NK (CD56(+)CD3(-)) and NKT-like cell (CD56(+)CD3(+)) responses early after chikungunya infection. Expression profiling and functional analysis of T/NK/NKT-like cells were performed on samples from 56 acute and 31 convalescent chikungunya patients and 56 control individuals. The percentages of NK cells were high in both patient groups, whereas NKT-like cell percentages were high only in the convalescent group. The percentages of NKp30(+)CD3(-)CD56(+), NKp30(+)CD3(+)CD56(+), CD244(+)CD3(-)CD56(+), and CD244(+)CD3(+)CD56(+)cells were high, whereas the percentages of NKG2D(+)CD3(-)CD56(+) and NKG2D(+)CD3(+)CD56(+)cells were low in both patient groups. The percentages of NKp44(+)CD3(-)CD56(+) cells were high in both patient groups, whereas the percentages of NKp44(+)CD3(+)CD56(+) cells were higher in the acute group than in convalescent and control groups. The percentages of NKp46(+)CD3(-)CD56(+) cells were high in both patient groups. Higher percentages of perforin(+)CD3(-)CD56(+) and perforin(+)CD3(+)CD56(+) cells were observed in acute and convalescent patients, respectively. Higher cytotoxic activity was observed in acute patients than in controls. IFN-γ expression on NK cells of convalescent patients and on NKT-like cells of both patient groups was indicative of the regulatory role of NK and NKT-like cells. Collectively, these data showed that higher expression of activating receptors on NK/NKT-like cells and perforin(+) NK cells in acute patients could be responsible for increased cytotoxicity. The observed expression of perforin(+) NK cells in the acute phase and IFN-γ(+) NKT-like cells in the subsequent convalescent stage showed that NK/NKT-like cells mount an early and efficient response to chikungunya virus. Further study of the molecular mechanisms that limit viral dissemination/establishment of chronic disease will aid in understanding how NK/NKT-like cells control chikungunya infection. PMID:26388848

  5. Phenotypic and functional analyses of NK and NKT-like populations during the early stages of chikungunya infection

    PubMed Central

    Thanapati, Subrat; Das, Rumki; Tripathy, Anuradha S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize NK (CD56+CD3−) and NKT-like cell (CD56+CD3+) responses early after chikungunya infection. Expression profiling and functional analysis of T/NK/NKT-like cells were performed on samples from 56 acute and 31 convalescent chikungunya patients and 56 control individuals. The percentages of NK cells were high in both patient groups, whereas NKT-like cell percentages were high only in the convalescent group. The percentages of NKp30+CD3−CD56+, NKp30+CD3+CD56+, CD244+CD3−CD56+, and CD244+CD3+CD56+cells were high, whereas the percentages of NKG2D+CD3−CD56+ and NKG2D+CD3+CD56+cells were low in both patient groups. The percentages of NKp44+CD3−CD56+ cells were high in both patient groups, whereas the percentages of NKp44+CD3+CD56+ cells were higher in the acute group than in convalescent and control groups. The percentages of NKp46+CD3−CD56+ cells were high in both patient groups. Higher percentages of perforin+CD3−CD56+ and perforin+CD3+CD56+ cells were observed in acute and convalescent patients, respectively. Higher cytotoxic activity was observed in acute patients than in controls. IFN-γ expression on NK cells of convalescent patients and on NKT-like cells of both patient groups was indicative of the regulatory role of NK and NKT-like cells. Collectively, these data showed that higher expression of activating receptors on NK/NKT-like cells and perforin+ NK cells in acute patients could be responsible for increased cytotoxicity. The observed expression of perforin+ NK cells in the acute phase and IFN-γ+ NKT-like cells in the subsequent convalescent stage showed that NK/NKT-like cells mount an early and efficient response to chikungunya virus. Further study of the molecular mechanisms that limit viral dissemination/establishment of chronic disease will aid in understanding how NK/NKT-like cells control chikungunya infection. PMID:26388848

  6. A core MRB1 complex component is indispensable for RNA editing in insect and human infective stages of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Michelle L; Tomasello, Danielle L; Faktorová, Drahomíra; Kafková, Lucie; Hashimi, Hassan; Lukeš, Julius; Read, Laurie K

    2013-01-01

    Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing is a unique and vital process in kinetoplastids, required for creation of translatable open reading frames in most mitochondrially-encoded RNAs. Emerging as a key player in this process is the mitochondrial RNA binding 1 (MRB1) complex. MRB1 comprises an RNA-independent core complex of at least six proteins, including the GAP1/2 guide RNA (gRNA) binding proteins. The core interacts in an RNA-enhanced or -dependent manner with imprecisely defined TbRGG2 subcomplexes, Armadillo protein MRB10130, and additional factors that comprise the dynamic MRB1 complex. Towards understanding MRB1 complex function in RNA editing, we present here functional characterization of the pentein domain-containing MRB1 core protein, MRB11870. Inducible RNAi studies demonstrate that MRB11870 is essential for proliferation of both insect vector and human infective stage T. brucei. MRB11870 ablation causes a massive defect in RNA editing, affecting both pan-edited and minimally edited mRNAs, but does not substantially affect mitochondrial RNA stability or processing of precursor transcripts. The editing defect in MRB1-depleted cells occurs at the initiation stage of editing, as pre-edited mRNAs accumulate. However, the gRNAs that direct editing remain abundant in the knockdown cells. To examine the contribution of MRB11870 to MRB1 macromolecular interactions, we tagged core complexes and analyzed their composition and associated proteins in the presence and absence of MRB11870. These studies demonstrated that MRB11870 is essential for association of GAP1/2 with the core, as well as for interaction of the core with other proteins and subcomplexes. Together, these data support a model in which the MRB1 core mediates functional interaction of gRNAs with the editing machinery, having GAP1/2 as its gRNA binding constituents. MRB11870 is a critical component of the core, essential for its structure and function. PMID:24250748

  7. PSEUDARTHROSIS OF THE SCAPHOID IN IMMATURE SKELETONS

    PubMed Central

    de Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Bentes, Ádria Simone Ferreira; Neto, Miguel Flores do Amaral; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Lech, Osvandré

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature individuals, taking into consideration its epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, as well as its controversies. Knowledge of this subject makes it possible for patients to be given appropriate treatment immediately. Pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature patients is a rare condition that results from error or lack of diagnosis of a fracture. Thus, careful clinical and radiographic examination should be performed in order to confirm or rule out this diagnosis. Several treatment methods have been reported and have shown good results. These include conservative plaster cast treatment, bone graft without osteosynthesis, bone graft with Kirschner wires, percutaneous screws and bone graft with compression screws. The treatment performed depends on the characteristics of the pseudarthrosis and the surgeon's experience. PMID:27042636

  8. Efficacy of Single-stage Revision with Aggressive Debridement Using Intra-articular Antibiotics in the Treatment of Infected Joint Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Suresh J; Westbrook, Richard S; Jackson, John S; Heydemann, Jacob S; Nelson, Jenny L

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections (PJI) of the hip and knee are uncommon, but result in significant morbidity and mortality when they do occur. Current management consists of a combination of either single- or two-stage exchange of the prosthesis and/or exchange of polymer components with intravenous (IV) antibiotics (4–6 weeks) and intraoperative debridement of the joint prior to reimplantation. However, failure rate, morbidity, and expense associated with current management are high, especially if the infection involves resistant pathogens and/or osteomyelitis. Also, the current use of systemic antibiotics does not allow for high local concentrations of the drug and biofilm penetration of the infected prosthesis. To overcome these difficulties, we examined the outcomes of aggressive operative debridement of the infected prosthesis. This was achieved through the use of a single-stage revision and administration of high concentrations of local intra-articular antibiotics via Hickman catheters. We present 57 patients with PJI who were treated with intra-articular antibiotics and single-stage revisions. Minimal systemic toxicity was observed along with a 100% microbiologic cure rate and 89% without relapse at 11-month follow-up despite isolation of multidrug resistant pathogens. This is the largest study to date using this method in the treatment of PJI. PMID:26279625

  9. Early stages of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in lymph nodes. Evidence for high viral load and successive populations of target cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, L.; Isola, P.; Cumont, M. C.; Claessens-Maire, M. A.; Hurtrel, M.; Montagnier, L.; Hurtrel, B.

    1994-01-01

    Lymph nodes obtained from 14 macaques sacrificed at early time points following experimental inoculation with simian immunodeficiency virus were analyzed by in situ hybridization for virus load and virus cellular tropism. The lymph nodes presented a remarkably high viral load during the early phase of infection, as viral RNA was detected in as many as 2% of lymph node cells 1 week after inoculation. At this stage, macrophages and T4 lymphocytes were identified by combined immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization as the target cells of the virus. Simian immunodeficiency virus-positive macrophages concentrated in the subcapsular sinuses, suggesting an entry of infected cells via the afferent lymphatics. A shift in the pattern of viral infection was observed at 2 weeks after inoculation, with a concentration of viral RNA in the germinal centers of the developing lymphoid follicles. Follicular dendritic cells were found to be the major target of the virus at this stage. Follicular dendritic cells were associated with high levels of viral RNA but little or no detectable viral DNA, suggesting that the virus was present mostly in the form of viral particles trapped at the cell surface. Follicular dendritic cell-associated virus persisted at high levels for 2 months before subsiding, indicating that follicular dendritic cells constituted a major reservoir of the virus during the early stages of simian immunodeficiency virus infection. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8203463

  10. Efficacy of OZ439 (artefenomel) against early Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage malaria infection in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, James S.; Baker, Mark; O'Rourke, Peter; Marquart, Louise; Griffin, Paul; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Möhrle, Jörg J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives OZ439, or artefenomel, is an investigational synthetic ozonide antimalarial with similar potency, but a significantly improved pharmacokinetic profile, compared with artemisinins. We wished to measure key pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of artefenomel in humans to guide the drug's further development as combination therapy in patients. Patients and methods We tested artefenomel in the human induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) model. Plasmodium infection was monitored by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and upon reaching 1000 parasites/mL single doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg of artefenomel were administered orally with evaluation of drug exposure and parasitaemia until rescue treatment after 16 days or earlier, if required. Results A single 100 mg dose had only a transient effect, while the 200 mg dose resulted in a significant reduction in parasitaemia before early recrudescence. At the highest (500 mg) dose, initial clearance of parasites below the limit of detection of qPCR was observed, with a 48 h parasite reduction ratio (PRR48) >10 000 and a parasite clearance half-life of 3.6 h (95% CI 3.4–3.8 h). However, at this dose, recrudescence was seen in four of eight subjects 6–10 days after treatment. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling predicted an MIC of 4.1 ng/mL. Conclusions These results confirm the antimalarial potential of artefenomel for use in a single-exposure combination therapy. The observations from this study support and will assist further clinical development of artefenomel. PMID:27272721

  11. Immature mediastinal teratoma with unusual histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Osama M.; Mohammed, Shamayel F.; Aljubran, Ali; Saleh, Waleed N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a well-recognized group of heterogeneous neoplasms with diverse clinical, histopathological, diagnostic, and prognostic characteristics. We present a rare case of a locally aggressive, chemotherapy-resistant immature mediastinal teratoma with a peculiar histological finding of a multilineage somatic-type malignant degeneration. A 21-year-old male patient presented with a 3-week history of persistent, blood-tinged productive cough and shortness of breath. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest showed a heterogeneous mass occupying the right hemithorax and abutting on adjacent structures. CT-guided biopsy was consistent with immature teratoma. Combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin was initiated, albeit without success; the mass showed interval progression in size, and surgical resection through clamshell incision was performed. Histological assessment of the resected mass confirmed the diagnosis of immature teratoma and revealed an extensive multilineage malignant differentiation into sarcomatous, carcinomatous, and melanomatous components. The patient underwent an uneventful recovery but presented 2 months later with extensive liver and bone melanomatous metastases. In this report, relevant findings from the literature are also highlighted. Despite being exceptionally rare, such tumors carry poor prognosis. Understanding the clinicopathological characteristics and biological behavior of such tumors may provide an insight into interventions tailored to improve the otherwise dismal disease outlook. PMID:27367976

  12. Deep pulmonary lymphatics in immature lungs.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Renée; Cormack, Meredith; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Tsuda, Akira

    2009-09-01

    Recently, we found that the translocation of inhaled nanoparticles from the air space to secondary organs is age dependent and substantially greater in neonates than in adults (J Respir Crit Care Med 177: A48, 2008). One reason for this difference might be age-dependent differences in alveolar barrier integrity. Because the neonate lung is undergoing morphogenetic and fluid balance changes, we hypothesize that the alveolar barrier of developing lungs is more easily compromised and susceptible to foreign material influx than that of adult lungs. On the basis of these hypotheses, we predict that the postnatally developing lung is also more likely to allow the translocation of some materials from the air space to the lymphatic lumens. To test this idea, we intratracheally instilled methyl methacrylate into immature and adult lungs and compared lymphatic filling between these two age groups. Scanning electron microscopy of the resultant corrosion casts revealed peribronchial saccular and conduit lymphatic architecture. Deep pulmonary lymphatic casts were present on the majority (58.5%) of airways in immature lungs, but lymphatic casting in adult lungs, as anticipated, was much more infrequent (21.6%). Thus the neonate lung appears to be more susceptible than the adult lung to the passage of instilled methyl methacrylate from the air space into the lymphatics. We speculate that this could imply greater probability of translocation of other materials, such as nanoparticles, from the immature lung as well. PMID:19556455

  13. Structure and Uncoating of Immature Adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Berna, A.J.; Mangel, W.; Marabini, R.; Scheres, S. H. W., Menendez-Conejero, R.; Dmitriev, I. P.; Curiel, D. T.; Flint, S. J.; San Martin, C.

    2009-09-18

    Maturation via proteolytic processing is a common trait in the viral world and is often accompanied by large conformational changes and rearrangements in the capsid. The adenovirus protease has been shown to play a dual role in the viral infectious cycle: (a) in maturation, as viral assembly starts with precursors to several of the structural proteins but ends with proteolytically processed versions in the mature virion, and (b) in entry, because protease-impaired viruses have difficulties in endosome escape and uncoating. Indeed, viruses that have not undergone proteolytic processing are not infectious. We studied the three-dimensional structure of immature adenovirus particles as represented by the adenovirus type 2 thermosensitive mutant ts1 grown under non-permissive conditions and compared it with the mature capsid. Our three-dimensional electron microscopy maps at subnanometer resolution indicate that adenovirus maturation does not involve large-scale conformational changes in the capsid. Difference maps reveal the locations of unprocessed peptides pIIIa and pVI and help define their role in capsid assembly and maturation. An intriguing difference appears in the core, indicating a more compact organization and increased stability of the immature cores. We have further investigated these properties by in vitro disassembly assays. Fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments reveal differences in the stability and uncoating of immature viruses, both at the capsid and core levels, as well as disassembly intermediates not previously imaged.

  14. Evaluation of the comparative efficacy of a moxidectin plus triclabendazole pour-on solution against adult and immature liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, in cattle.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Thomas; Bartram, David; Van Brussel, Leen; Bo, Liu; Scott-Baird, Emer; Rugg, Douglas

    2012-10-26

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a pour-on solution containing moxidectin plus triclabendazole (MOX plus TCBZ) against immature and adult stages of the liver fluke in cattle and compare the efficacy with other commercially available preparations. To this end, 104 male Holstein-Friesian calves aged between 3 and 4 months, were randomly allocated to 13 groups of eight animals each, and infected with approximately 500 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. One group remained untreated, four groups were treated with MOX plus TCBZ at a dose rate of 0.1 mL/kg, four other groups were treated with ivermectin (IVM) plus clorsulon injectable at a dose rate of 0.02 mL/kg, and the remaining four groups were treated with IVM plus closantel pour-on at a dose rate of 0.1 mL/kg. Each treatment was applied to one of the groups at 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after the experimental infection. At necropsy (99-102 days after infection), all untreated animals were infected with a minimum of 30 flukes. The MOX plus TCBZ treated animals had significantly (P<0.0001) lower fluke counts compared to the untreated control animals at all time points after treatment. Efficacy against 8-week old and adult flukes was >99.5%. For 6-week old immature fluke, the efficacy was 98.0% and for 4-week old immature fluke the efficacy was 90.9%. The IVM plus closantel pour-on treated animals had significantly lower fluke counts compared to the untreated control animals for adult and 8-week old flukes (P<0.0001), and for 6-week old flukes (P=0.002). The efficacy was 26.8%, 68.2%, 90.6% and 99.3% against 4-week, 6-week and 8-week old immature flukes, and adult flukes respectively. The IVM plus clorsulon treated animals had significantly lower fluke counts compared to the untreated control animals for adult (P<0.0001) and 8-week old (P<0.05) flukes. The efficacy was 29.7%, 43.4%, 53.2% and 99.2% against 4-week, 6-week and 8-week old immature flukes, and adult flukes respectively

  15. Cyclooxygenase activity is important for efficient replication of mouse hepatitis virus at an early stage of infection

    PubMed Central

    Raaben, Matthijs; Einerhand, Alexandra WC; Taminiau, Lucas JA; van Houdt, Michel; Bouma, Janneke; Raatgeep, Rolien H; Büller, Hans A; de Haan, Cornelis AM; Rossen, John WA

    2007-01-01

    Cyclooxygenases (COXs) play a significant role in many different viral infections with respect to replication and pathogenesis. Here we investigated the role of COXs in the mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) infection cycle. Blocking COX activity by different inhibitors or by RNA interference affected MHV infection in different cells. The COX inhibitors reduced MHV infection at a post-binding step, but early in the replication cycle. Both viral RNA and viral protein synthesis were affected with subsequent loss of progeny virus production. Thus, COX activity appears to be required for efficient MHV replication, providing a potential target for anti-coronaviral therapy. PMID:17555580

  16. One-stage débridement and knee fusion for infected total knee arthroplasty using the hybrid frame.

    PubMed

    VanRyn, Jacques S; Verebelyi, David M

    2002-01-01

    In 1997 and 1998, a hybrid fixator was used for a one-step arthrodesis in 2 cases of infected total knee arthroplasty. One patient had rheumatoid arthritis, and the other had an infected reimplant arthroplasty. Neither patient was a candidate for reimplantation. Fusions were achieved with the hybrid frame in an average of 10 weeks. All signs of local and systemic infections were eliminated. After 24 months for patient 1 and 37 months for patient 2, both are infection-free and ambulatory without the aid of a wheelchair. PMID:11805940

  17. The 11,600-MW protein encoded by region E3 of adenovirus is expressed early but is greatly amplified at late stages of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Tollefson, A E; Scaria, A; Saha, S K; Wold, W S

    1992-01-01

    We have reported that an 11,600-MW (11.6K) protein is coded by region E3 of adenovirus. We have now prepared two new antipeptide antisera that have allowed us to characterize this protein further. The 11.6K protein migrates as multiple diffuse bands having apparent Mws of about 14,000, 21,000, and 31,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunoblotting as well as virus mutants with deletions in the 11.6K gene were used to show that the various gel bands represent forms of 11.6K. The 11.6K protein was synthesized in very low amounts during early stages of infection, from the scarce E3 mRNAs d and e which initiate from the E3 promoter. However, 11.6K was synthesized very abundantly at late stages of infection, approximately 400 times the rate at early stages, from new mRNAs termed d' and e'. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and RNA blot experiments indicated that mRNAs d' and e' had the same body (the coding portion) and the same middle exon (the y leader) as early E3 mRNAs d and e, but mRNAs d' and e' were spliced at their 5' termini to the major late tripartite leader which is found in all mRNAs in the major late transcription unit. mRNAs d' and e' and the 11.6K protein were the only E3 mRNAs and protein that were scarce early and were greatly amplified at late stages of infection. This suggests that specific cis- or trans-acting sequences may function to enhance the splicing of mRNAs d' and e' at late stages of infection and perhaps to suppress the splicing of mRNAs d and e at early stages of infection. We propose that the 11.6K gene be considered not only a member of region E3 but also a member of the major late transcription unit. Images PMID:1316473

  18. Survival of immature Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in aquatic habitats in Mwea rice irrigation scheme, central Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mwangangi, Joseph M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat; Muriu, Simon M; Jacob, Benjamin; Kabiru, Ephantus W; Mbogo, Charles M; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Background The survivorship and distribution of Anopheles arabiensis larvae and pupae was examined in a rice agro-ecosystem in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, central Kenya, from August 2005 to April 2006, prior to implementation of larval control programme. Methods Horizontal life tables were constructed for immatures in semi-field condition. The time spent in the various immature stages was determined and survival established. Vertical life tables were obtained from five paddies sampled by standard dipping technique. Results Pre-adult developmental time for An. arabiensis in the trays in the experimental set up in the screen house was 11.85 days from eclosion to emergence. The mean duration of each instar stage was estimated to be 1.40 days for first instars, 2.90 days for second instars, 1.85 days for third instars, 3.80 days for fourth instars and 1.90 days for pupae. A total of 590 individuals emerged into adults, giving an overall survivorship from L1 to adult emergence of 69.4%. A total of 4,956 An. arabiensis immatures were collected in 1,400 dips throughout the sampling period. Of these, 55.9% were collected during the tillering stage, 42.5% during the transplanting period and 1.6% during the land preparation stage. There was a significant difference in the An. arabiensis larval densities among the five stages. Also there was significant variation in immature stage composition for each day's collection in each paddy. These results indicate that the survival of the immatures was higher in some paddies than others. The mortality rate during the transplanting was 99.9% and at tillering was 96.6%, while the overall mortality was 98.3%. Conclusion The survival of An. arabiensis immatures was better during the tillering stage of rice growth. Further the survival of immatures in rice fields is influenced by the rice agronomic activities including addition of nitrogenous fertilizers and pesticides. For effective integrated vector management, the application of larvicides

  19. Clinical disease and stage of lactation influence shedding of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stabel, J R; Bradner, L; Robbe-Austerman, S; Beitz, D C

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows was affected by severity of infection as well as the number of days in milk (DIM). Milk was collected over the 305-d lactation period from naturally infected cows in the asymptomatic subclinical (n=39) and symptomatic clinical (n=29) stages of disease, as well as 8 noninfected control cows. All milk samples were assayed for MAP by culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium and either BACTEC 12B (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) or para-JEM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH) liquid medium, and by direct PCR for the IS900 target gene. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was detected in 3.8, 4.1, and 12.6% of milk samples collected from cows with subclinical JD after culture in Herrold's egg yolk medium, liquid medium, and direct PCR, respectively. The frequency of MAP positivity increased to 12.9, 18.4, and 49.2% of milk samples collected from cows with clinical JD by these same methods, respectively. None of the milk samples collected from control cows was positive for MAP by any detection method. Viable MAP was primarily isolated from milk and colostrum of subclinically and clinically infected cows collected in early lactation (DIM 0-60), with negligible positive samples observed in mid (DIM 60-240) and late (DIM 240-305) lactation. This study demonstrates that shedding of MAP into milk is affected by infection status of the cow as well as stage of lactation, providing useful information to producers to help break the cycle of infection within a herd. PMID:25064655

  20. The Maturely, Immature Orientale Impact Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, J. T.; Lawrence, D. J.; Stickle, A. M.; Delen, O.; Patterson, G.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar surface maturity is consistently examined using the NIR optical maturity parameter (OMAT) [1]. However, the NIR only provides a perspective of the upper microns of the lunar surface. Recent studies of Lunar Prospector (LP) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter data sets are now demonstrating additional measures of maturity with sensitivities to greater depths (~2 m) in the regolith. These include thermal infrared, S-band radar, and epithermal neutron data sets [2-4]. Interestingly, each of these parameters is directly comparable to OMAT despite each measuring slightly different aspects of the regolith. This is demonstrated by Lawrence et al. [3] where LP-measured non-polar highlands epithermal neutrons trend well with albedo, OMAT, and the Christensen Feature (CF). Lawrence et al. [3] used these data to derive and map highlands hydrogen (H) which is dominantly a function of H-implantation. With this in mind, areas of enriched-H are mature, while areas of depleted H are immature. Surface roughness as measured by S-band radar [4], also provides a measure of maturity. In this case, the circular polarization ratio (CPR) is high when rough and immature, and low when smooth and mature. Knowing this, one can recognize areas in the non-polar lunar highlands that show contradictory measures of maturity. For example, while many lunar localities show consistently immature albedo, OMAT, CF, CPR, and H concentrations (e.g., Tycho), others do not. Orientale basin is the most prominent example, shown to have immature CPR, CF, and H concentrations despite a relatively mature albedo and OMAT values as well as an old age determination (~3.8 Ga). To better understand how the lunar regolith is weathering in the upper 1-2 m of regolith with time we examine the Orientale basin relative to other highlands regions. [1] Lucey et al. (2000) JGR, 105, 20377; [2] Lucey et al. (2013) LPSC, 44, 2890; [3] Lawrence et al. (2015) Icarus, j.icarus.2015.01.005; [4] Neish et al. (2013) JGR, 118

  1. Human iPSC-Derived Immature Astroglia Promote Oligodendrogenesis by Increasing TIMP-1 Secretion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Chen, Chen; Liu, Xiao-Bo; Pleasure, David E; Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-05-10

    Astrocytes, once considered passive support cells, are increasingly appreciated as dynamic regulators of neuronal development and function, in part via secreted factors. The extent to which they similarly regulate oligodendrocytes or proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) is less understood. Here, we generated astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-Astros) and demonstrated that immature astrocytes, as opposed to mature ones, promote oligodendrogenesis in vitro. In the PVL mouse model of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy, associated with cerebral palsy in humans, transplanted immature hiPSC-Astros promoted myelinogenesis and behavioral outcome. We further identified TIMP-1 as a selectively upregulated component secreted from immature hiPSC-Astros. Accordingly, in the rat PVL model, intranasal administration of conditioned medium from immature hiPSC-Astros promoted oligodendrocyte maturation in a TIMP-1-dependent manner. Our findings suggest stage-specific developmental interactions between astroglia and oligodendroglia and have important therapeutic implications for promoting myelinogenesis. PMID:27134175

  2. Survivorship and distribution of immature Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Banambani village, Mali.

    PubMed

    Edillo, Frances E; Touré, Yeya T; Lanzaro, Gregory C; Dolo, Guimogo; Taylor, Charles E

    2004-05-01

    We observed the survivorship and distribution of larvae and pupae of Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles immature stages in three habitats (rock pools, swamp, and puddles) in Banambani village. Mali, West Africa, during the mid-rainy season of 2000. Horizontal life tables were constructed for immatures in the laboratory. Times spent in the various immature stages were determined, and laboratory survival was measured. Vertical life tables were obtained from each habitat. We found large day-to-day variation for age class composition within habitats across days. The swamp samples had small but statistically significant different distributions in some instar stages compared with rock pools and puddles as affected by precipitation history. There were obviously unstable age distributions in the swamp and puddles and to some extent in rock pools. There were more individuals in some later age classes than in earlier ones. The daily survival estimates using an exponential decay model were 0.807 in rock pools, 0.899 in the swamp, 0.818 in puddles, and 0.863 in the overall village. Possible reasons for the departure from stable age distribution were cannibalism, predation and other complex interactions, rainfall effects, sampling bias, and differences in physicochemical properties of the water in the habitats. PMID:15185933

  3. THY-1 Cell Surface Antigen (CD90) Has an Important Role in the Initial Stage of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingxue; Wilkie, Adrian R; Weller, Melodie; Liu, Xueqiao; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2015-07-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects about 50% of the US population, is the leading infectious cause of birth defects, and is considered the most important infectious agent in transplant recipients. The virus infects many cell types in vivo and in vitro. While previous studies have identified several cellular proteins that may function at early steps of infection in a cell type dependent manner, the mechanism of virus entry is still poorly understood. Using a computational biology approach, correlating gene expression with virus infectivity in 54 cell lines, we identified THY-1 as a putative host determinant for HCMV infection in these cells. With a series of loss-of-function, gain-of-function and protein-protein interaction analyses, we found that THY-1 mediates HCMV infection at the entry step and is important for infection that occurs at a low m.o.i. THY-1 antibody that bound to the cell surface blocked HCMV during the initial 60 minutes of infection in a dose-dependent manner. Down-regulation of THY-1 with siRNA impaired infectivity occurred during the initial 60 minutes of inoculation. Both THY-1 antibody and siRNA inhibited HCMV-induced activation of the PI3-K/Akt pathway required for entry. Soluble THY-1 protein blocked HCMV infection during, but not after, virus internalization. Expression of exogenous THY-1 enhanced entry in cells expressing low levels of the protein. THY-1 interacted with HCMV gB and gH and may form a complex important for entry. However, since gB and gH have previously been shown to interact, it is uncertain if THY-1 directly binds to both of these proteins. Prior observations that THY-1 (a) interacts with αVβ3 integrin and recruits paxillin (implicated in HCMV entry), (b) regulates leukocyte extravasation (critical for HCMV viremia), and (c) is expressed on many cells targeted for HCMV infection including epithelial and endothelial cells, fibroblast, and CD34+/CD38- stem cells, all support a role for THY-1 as an HCMV entry mediator in

  4. THY-1 Cell Surface Antigen (CD90) Has an Important Role in the Initial Stage of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingxue; Wilkie, Adrian R.; Weller, Melodie; Liu, Xueqiao; Cohen, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects about 50% of the US population, is the leading infectious cause of birth defects, and is considered the most important infectious agent in transplant recipients. The virus infects many cell types in vivo and in vitro. While previous studies have identified several cellular proteins that may function at early steps of infection in a cell type dependent manner, the mechanism of virus entry is still poorly understood. Using a computational biology approach, correlating gene expression with virus infectivity in 54 cell lines, we identified THY-1 as a putative host determinant for HCMV infection in these cells. With a series of loss-of-function, gain-of-function and protein-protein interaction analyses, we found that THY-1 mediates HCMV infection at the entry step and is important for infection that occurs at a low m.o.i. THY-1 antibody that bound to the cell surface blocked HCMV during the initial 60 minutes of infection in a dose-dependent manner. Down-regulation of THY-1 with siRNA impaired infectivity occurred during the initial 60 minutes of inoculation. Both THY-1 antibody and siRNA inhibited HCMV-induced activation of the PI3-K/Akt pathway required for entry. Soluble THY-1 protein blocked HCMV infection during, but not after, virus internalization. Expression of exogenous THY-1 enhanced entry in cells expressing low levels of the protein. THY-1 interacted with HCMV gB and gH and may form a complex important for entry. However, since gB and gH have previously been shown to interact, it is uncertain if THY-1 directly binds to both of these proteins. Prior observations that THY-1 (a) interacts with αVβ3 integrin and recruits paxillin (implicated in HCMV entry), (b) regulates leukocyte extravasation (critical for HCMV viremia), and (c) is expressed on many cells targeted for HCMV infection including epithelial and endothelial cells, fibroblast, and CD34+/CD38- stem cells, all support a role for THY-1 as an HCMV entry mediator in

  5. In Vivo Antiprotozoal Activity of the Chloroform Extract from Carica papaya Seeds against Amastigote Stage of Trypanosoma cruzi during Indeterminate and Chronic Phase of Infection.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutierrez, Salud; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds during the subacute and chronic phase of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg were evaluated during the subacute phase, including a mixture of their main components (oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids). Subsequently, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg in mice during the chronic phase of infection (100 dpi) were also evaluated. It was found that chloroform extract was able to reduce the amastigote nests numbers during the subacute phase in 55.5 and 69.7% (P > 0.05) as well as in 56.45% in animals treated with the mixture of fatty acids. Moreover, the experimental groups treated with 50 and 75 mg/kg during the chronic phase of the infection showed a significant reduction of 46.8 and 53.13% respectively (P < 0.05). It is recommended to carry out more studies to determine if higher doses of chloroformic extract or its administration in combination with other antichagasic drugs allows a better response over the intracellular stage of T. cruzi in infected animal models and determine if the chloroform extract of C. papaya could be considered as an alternative for treatment during the indeterminate and chronic phase of the infection. PMID:25276216

  6. In Vivo Antiprotozoal Activity of the Chloroform Extract from Carica papaya Seeds against Amastigote Stage of Trypanosoma cruzi during Indeterminate and Chronic Phase of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutierrez, Salud; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds during the subacute and chronic phase of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg were evaluated during the subacute phase, including a mixture of their main components (oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids). Subsequently, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg in mice during the chronic phase of infection (100 dpi) were also evaluated. It was found that chloroform extract was able to reduce the amastigote nests numbers during the subacute phase in 55.5 and 69.7% (P > 0.05) as well as in 56.45% in animals treated with the mixture of fatty acids. Moreover, the experimental groups treated with 50 and 75 mg/kg during the chronic phase of the infection showed a significant reduction of 46.8 and 53.13% respectively (P < 0.05). It is recommended to carry out more studies to determine if higher doses of chloroformic extract or its administration in combination with other antichagasic drugs allows a better response over the intracellular stage of T. cruzi in infected animal models and determine if the chloroform extract of C. papaya could be considered as an alternative for treatment during the indeterminate and chronic phase of the infection. PMID:25276216

  7. Evaluation of clorsulon against immature Fascioloides magna in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1988-07-01

    Efficacy of clorsulon was evaluated against infection with immature Fascioloides magna in 24 cattle and 12 sheep. Infections were induced by oral administration of 600 metacercariae/host. In cattle, clorsulon at dosages of 7 and 21 mg/kg of body weight was 65 and 100% effective against 8-week-old flukes, and 20 and 74% effective against 16-week-old flukes, respectively. In sheep, clorsulon at a dosage of 21 mg/kg was 92% effective against 8-week-old flukes. Significantly (P less than 0.05) more F magna were recovered from untreated sheep than from untreated cattle. PMID:3421522

  8. Altered microRNA expression and pre-mRNA splicing events reveal new mechanisms associated with early stage Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guanxiang; Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Guan, Yongjuan; Ren, Yuwei; Griebel, Philip J; Guan, Le Luo

    2016-01-01

    The molecular regulatory mechanisms of host responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection during the early subclinical stage are still not clear. In this study, surgically isolated ileal segments in newborn calves (n = 5) were used to establish in vivo MAP infection adjacent to an uninfected control intestinal compartment. RNA-Seq was used to profile the whole transcriptome (mRNAs) and the microRNAome (miRNAs) of ileal tissues collected at one-month post-infection. The most related function of the differentially expressed mRNAs between infected and uninfected tissues was "proliferation of endothelial cells", indicating that MAP infection may lead to the over-proliferation of endothelial cells. In addition, 46.2% of detected mRNAs displayed alternative splicing events. The pre-mRNA of two genes related to macrophage maturation (monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated) and lysosome function (adenosine deaminase) showed differential alternative splicing events, suggesting that specific changes in the pre-mRNA splicing sites may be a mechanism by which MAP escapes host immune responses. Moreover, 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed after MAP infection. The integrated analysis of microRNAome and transcriptome revealed that these miRNAs might regulate host responses to MAP infection, such as "proliferation of endothelial cells" (bta-miR-196 b), "bacteria recognition" (bta-miR-146 b), and "regulation of the inflammatory response" (bta-miR-146 b). PMID:27102525

  9. Altered microRNA expression and pre-mRNA splicing events reveal new mechanisms associated with early stage Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Guanxiang; Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Guan, Yongjuan; Ren, Yuwei; Griebel, Philip J.; Guan, Le Luo

    2016-01-01

    The molecular regulatory mechanisms of host responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection during the early subclinical stage are still not clear. In this study, surgically isolated ileal segments in newborn calves (n = 5) were used to establish in vivo MAP infection adjacent to an uninfected control intestinal compartment. RNA-Seq was used to profile the whole transcriptome (mRNAs) and the microRNAome (miRNAs) of ileal tissues collected at one-month post-infection. The most related function of the differentially expressed mRNAs between infected and uninfected tissues was “proliferation of endothelial cells”, indicating that MAP infection may lead to the over-proliferation of endothelial cells. In addition, 46.2% of detected mRNAs displayed alternative splicing events. The pre-mRNA of two genes related to macrophage maturation (monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated) and lysosome function (adenosine deaminase) showed differential alternative splicing events, suggesting that specific changes in the pre-mRNA splicing sites may be a mechanism by which MAP escapes host immune responses. Moreover, 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed after MAP infection. The integrated analysis of microRNAome and transcriptome revealed that these miRNAs might regulate host responses to MAP infection, such as “proliferation of endothelial cells” (bta-miR-196 b), “bacteria recognition” (bta-miR-146 b), and “regulation of the inflammatory response” (bta-miR-146 b). PMID:27102525

  10. Infection.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Gaurav; Nagornaya, Natalya; Post, M Judith D

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is useful in the diagnosis and management of infections of the central nervous system. Typically, imaging findings at the outset of the disease are subtle and nonspecific, but they often evolve to more definite imaging patterns in a few days, with less rapidity than for stroke but faster than for neoplastic lesions. This timing is similar to that of noninfectious inflammatory brain disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Fortunately, imaging patterns help to distinguish the two kinds of processes. Other than for sarcoidosis, the meninges are seldom involved in noninfectious inflammation; in contrast, many infectious processes involve the meninges, which then enhance with contrast on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, brain infection causes a vast array of imaging patterns. Although CT is useful when hemorrhage or calcification is suspected or bony detail needs to be determined, MRI is the imaging modality of choice in the investigation of intracranial infections. Imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging help in accurately depicting the location and characterizing pyogenic infections and are particularly useful in differentiating bacterial infections from other etiologies. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is extremely useful for the detection of hemorrhage. Although MR spectroscopy findings can frequently be nonspecific, certain conditions such as bacterial abscesses show a relatively specific spectral pattern and are useful in diagnosing and constituting immediate therapy. In this chapter we review first the imaging patterns associated with involvement of various brain structures, such as the epidural and subdural spaces, the meninges, the brain parenchyma, and the ventricles. Involvement of these regions is illustrated with bacterial infections. Next we illustrate the patterns associated with viral and prion diseases, followed by mycobacterial and fungal infections, to conclude with a review of imaging findings

  11. Oldest Known Objects May Be Surprisingly Immature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    the end of their evolution. However, Chandra data along with theoretical work suggest this may not be the case. When single and double stars interact in the crowded centers of globular clusters, double stars can form that transfer mass and give off X-rays. Since such double stars are expected to mostly be formed in the middle of a globular cluster’s evolution and then lost in old age, the relative number of X-ray sources gives clues about the stage of evolution the cluster is in. A new study by Fregeau of 13 globular clusters in the Milky Way shows that three of them have unusually large number of X-ray sources, or X- ray binaries, suggesting the clusters are middle-aged. Previously, these globular clusters had been classified as being in old age because they had very tight concentrations of stars in their centers, another litmus test of age used by astronomers. The implication is that most globular clusters, including the other ten studied by Fregeau, are not in the middle age of their evolution, as previously thought, but are actually in adolescence. "It’s remarkable that these objects, which are thought to be some of the oldest in the Universe, may really be very immature in their development," said Fregeau whose paper appears in The Astrophysical Journal. "This would represent a major change in thinking about the current evolutionary status of globular clusters." If confirmed, this result would help reconcile other observations with recent theoretical work that suggest the tightness of the central concentration of stars in the most evolved globular clusters is consistent with them being in a middle, rather than an advanced phase of evolution. Other theoretical studies have suggested it can take longer than the current age of the Universe for globular clusters to reach old age. Besides improving the understanding of the basic evolution of globular clusters, this result has implications for understanding stellar interactions in dense environments. It also

  12. Oldest Known Objects May Be Surprisingly Immature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    the end of their evolution. However, Chandra data along with theoretical work suggest this may not be the case. When single and double stars interact in the crowded centers of globular clusters, double stars can form that transfer mass and give off X-rays. Since such double stars are expected to mostly be formed in the middle of a globular cluster’s evolution and then lost in old age, the relative number of X-ray sources gives clues about the stage of evolution the cluster is in. A new study by Fregeau of 13 globular clusters in the Milky Way shows that three of them have unusually large number of X-ray sources, or X- ray binaries, suggesting the clusters are middle-aged. Previously, these globular clusters had been classified as being in old age because they had very tight concentrations of stars in their centers, another litmus test of age used by astronomers. The implication is that most globular clusters, including the other ten studied by Fregeau, are not in the middle age of their evolution, as previously thought, but are actually in adolescence. "It’s remarkable that these objects, which are thought to be some of the oldest in the Universe, may really be very immature in their development," said Fregeau whose paper appears in The Astrophysical Journal. "This would represent a major change in thinking about the current evolutionary status of globular clusters." If confirmed, this result would help reconcile other observations with recent theoretical work that suggest the tightness of the central concentration of stars in the most evolved globular clusters is consistent with them being in a middle, rather than an advanced phase of evolution. Other theoretical studies have suggested it can take longer than the current age of the Universe for globular clusters to reach old age. Besides improving the understanding of the basic evolution of globular clusters, this result has implications for understanding stellar interactions in dense environments. It also

  13. Bacterial endotoxin sensitizes the immature brain to hypoxic--ischaemic injury.

    PubMed

    Eklind, S; Mallard, C; Leverin, A L; Gilland, E; Blomgren, K; Mattsby-Baltzer, I; Hagberg, H

    2001-03-01

    Epidemiological studies show a markedly increased risk of cerebral palsy following the combined exposure of infection and birth asphyxia. However, the underlying mechanisms of this increased vulnerability remain unclear. We have examined the effects of a low dose of bacterial endotoxin on hypoxic--ischaemic injury in the immature brain of rats. Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide 0.3 mg/kg) was administered to 7-day-old rats 4 h prior to unilateral hypoxia--ischaemia and the neurological outcome was determined 3 days later. Rectal temperature and cerebral blood flow was measured during the study and the expression of CD14 and toll-like receptor-4 mRNA in the brain was examined. We found that a low dose of endotoxin dramatically sensitizes the immature brain to injury and induces cerebral infarction in response to short periods of hypoxia--ischaemia that by themselves caused no or little injury. This effect could not be explained by a reduction in cerebral blood flow or hyperthermia. In association with the sensitization of injury we found an altered expression of CD14 mRNA and toll-like receptor-4 mRNA in the brain. These results suggest that the innate immune system may be involved in the vulnerability of the immature brain following the combination of infection and hypoxia--ischaemia. PMID:11285007

  14. A Mechanistic Model of Botrytis cinerea on Grapevines That Includes Weather, Vine Growth Stage, and the Main Infection Pathways.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Elisa; Caffi, Tito; Ciliberti, Nicola; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    A mechanistic model for Botrytis cinerea on grapevine was developed. The model, which accounts for conidia production on various inoculum sources and for multiple infection pathways, considers two infection periods. During the first period ("inflorescences clearly visible" to "berries groat-sized"), the model calculates: i) infection severity on inflorescences and young clusters caused by conidia (SEV1). During the second period ("majority of berries touching" to "berries ripe for harvest"), the model calculates: ii) infection severity of ripening berries by conidia (SEV2); and iii) severity of berry-to-berry infection caused by mycelium (SEV3). The model was validated in 21 epidemics (vineyard × year combinations) between 2009 and 2014 in Italy and France. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to: i) evaluate the ability of the model to predict mild, intermediate, and severe epidemics; and ii) assess how SEV1, SEV2, and SEV3 contribute to epidemics. The model correctly classified the severity of 17 of 21 epidemics. Results from DFA were also used to calculate the daily probabilities that an ongoing epidemic would be mild, intermediate, or severe. SEV1 was the most influential variable in discriminating between mild and intermediate epidemics, whereas SEV2 and SEV3 were relevant for discriminating between intermediate and severe epidemics. The model represents an improvement of previous B. cinerea models in viticulture and could be useful for making decisions about Botrytis bunch rot control. PMID:26457808

  15. A Mechanistic Model of Botrytis cinerea on Grapevines That Includes Weather, Vine Growth Stage, and the Main Infection Pathways

    PubMed Central

    González-Domínguez, Elisa; Caffi, Tito; Ciliberti, Nicola; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    A mechanistic model for Botrytis cinerea on grapevine was developed. The model, which accounts for conidia production on various inoculum sources and for multiple infection pathways, considers two infection periods. During the first period (“inflorescences clearly visible” to “berries groat-sized”), the model calculates: i) infection severity on inflorescences and young clusters caused by conidia (SEV1). During the second period (“majority of berries touching” to “berries ripe for harvest”), the model calculates: ii) infection severity of ripening berries by conidia (SEV2); and iii) severity of berry-to-berry infection caused by mycelium (SEV3). The model was validated in 21 epidemics (vineyard × year combinations) between 2009 and 2014 in Italy and France. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to: i) evaluate the ability of the model to predict mild, intermediate, and severe epidemics; and ii) assess how SEV1, SEV2, and SEV3 contribute to epidemics. The model correctly classified the severity of 17 of 21 epidemics. Results from DFA were also used to calculate the daily probabilities that an ongoing epidemic would be mild, intermediate, or severe. SEV1 was the most influential variable in discriminating between mild and intermediate epidemics, whereas SEV2 and SEV3 were relevant for discriminating between intermediate and severe epidemics. The model represents an improvement of previous B. cinerea models in viticulture and could be useful for making decisions about Botrytis bunch rot control. PMID:26457808

  16. Pure Immature Teratoma of the Ovary in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Alwazzan, Ahmad Bakr; Popowich, Shaundra; Dean, Erin; Robinson, Christine; Lotocki, Robert; Altman, Alon D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment outcome, and reproductive function in women diagnosed with ovarian immature teratoma (IT). Our standard chemotherapy regime is currently etoposide/cisplatin (EP), creating a unique opportunity to evaluate this protocol in ovarian ITs. Materials and Methods This study is a retrospective analysis. Twenty-seven women older than 18 years with ovarian IT stages IA to IIIC were identified and included in this study. Patients were treated at 1 institution, Health Sciences Center, Women’s Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, between 1983 and 2013. Results The median age at diagnosis was 27.0 years (range, 18–36 years). Twenty-two (82%) presented with an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I disease, 3 (11%) had stage II, and 2 patients (7%) had stage III disease. The histologic grade distribution was grade I in 9 patients (33%), grade II in 3 patients (11%), and grade III in 15 patients (56%). Initial management was surgical for all patients: 3 (11%) hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 1 (4%) cystectomy only, and 23 (85%) unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Twenty-one patients (78%) received adjuvant therapy. The median follow-up was 60 months (range, 36–72 months). One patient recurred (histological grade III) 6 months after surgery and had a complete clinical response to 4 cycles of EP chemotherapy. Twelve patients reported an attempt to conceive resulting in 10 pregnancies (8 after chemotherapy). Conclusions Ovarian IT is a curable disease. Fertility-sparing surgery should be offered. Adjuvant treatment with cisplatinum-based chemotherapy, typically with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin, is still considered the standard in stages greater than stage IA grade I. Etoposide/cisplatin as a primary chemotherapy regime for early- or advanced-stage disease is an effective treatment with minimal adverse effects and high tolerability. This is

  17. Synovial chondromatosis of the spine in the skeletally immature: case report and updated review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Hsun; Grigoriou, Emmanouil; Dormans, John P

    2015-05-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a benign disorder characterized by the formation of multiple cartilaginous nodules in the synovium of large joints. Synovial chondromatosis of the spine is very rare; this is the first reported case in the skeletally immature pediatric spine. A 12-year-old female presented with a posteriolateral neck mass and discomfort. A two-stage surgical resection of the mass was performed. This case shows that synovial chondromatosis can occur in the immature pediatric spine. Synovial chondromatosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a calcified paravertebral or lateral neck mass in children. PMID:25493704

  18. Pulmonary embolization of immature Fascioloides magna causing fatal hemothorax confirmed by molecular technique in a heifer in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Keun; Rosser, Thomas Graham; Cooley, Jim

    2016-09-01

    The current report describes the use of a molecular technique to identify immature Fascioloides magna An 18-month-old Brangus heifer was found dead in the field without any prior clinical signs. The cause of death was exsanguination into the thoracic cavity associated with pulmonary embolization and infection by immature Fascioloides magna resulting in 2 large foci of pulmonary necrosis and focal arteriolar and lung rupture. The liver had a few random migratory tracts with typical iron and porphyrin fluke exhaust, but no identified fluke larvae. A single immature fluke was found in the lungs, and species level identification as F. magna was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 region, 5.8S rRNA gene, and ITS2) and of partial 28S rRNA gene sequence. This is one of only a few pulmonary fascioloidiasis cases associated with hemothorax in the veterinary literature. PMID:27423736

  19. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Plays an Important Role during Various Stages of the Coronavirus Infection Cycle ▿

    PubMed Central

    Raaben, Matthijs; Posthuma, Clara C.; Verheije, Monique H.; te Lintelo, Eddie G.; Kikkert, Marjolein; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Snijder, Eric J.; Rottier, Peter J. M.; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a key player in regulating the intracellular sorting and degradation of proteins. In this study we investigated the role of the UPS in different steps of the coronavirus (CoV) infection cycle. Inhibition of the proteasome by different chemical compounds (i.e., MG132, epoxomicin, and Velcade) appeared to not only impair entry but also RNA synthesis and subsequent protein expression of different CoVs (i.e., mouse hepatitis virus [MHV], feline infectious peritonitis virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV). MHV assembly and release were, however, not appreciably affected by these compounds. The inhibitory effect on CoV protein expression did not appear to result from a general inhibition of translation due to induction of a cellular stress response by the inhibitors. Stress-induced phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) generally results in impaired initiation of protein synthesis, but the sensitivity of MHV infection to proteasome inhibitors was unchanged in cells lacking a phosphorylatable eIF2α. MHV infection was affected not only by inhibition of the proteasome but also by interfering with protein ubiquitination. Viral protein expression was reduced in cells expressing a temperature-sensitive ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 at the restrictive temperature, as well as in cells in which ubiquitin was depleted by using small interfering RNAs. Under these conditions, the susceptibility of the cells to virus infection was, however, not affected, excluding an important role of ubiquitination in virus entry. Our observations reveal an important role of the UPS in multiple steps of the CoV infection cycle and identify the UPS as a potential drug target to modulate the impact of CoV infection. PMID:20484504

  20. Pulp revascularization of immature maxillary first premolar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghamdi, Nuha S.; Al-Nazhan, Saad

    2015-01-01

    An immature maxillary first premolar in an 8-year-old female was treated using a regenerative approach. The root canal was gently irrigated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite without instrumentation under aseptic conditions and then medicated with calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) for 3 weeks. The Ca(OH)2 was removed, and bleeding was initiated mechanically using a hand file to form an intracanal blood clot. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed over the blood clot, and the access cavity was sealed with a double filling. Increases in root length and width were radiographically evident, at the 6-month follow-up exam. The case was followed for 3 years. The development of 3 roots with complete apical closure was confirmed using cone beam computed tomography. PMID:26752847

  1. Congenital immature teratoma of the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Rickert, C H; Probst-Cousin, S; Louwen, F; Feldt, B; Gullotta, F

    1997-10-01

    Congenital intracranial tumors are very rare and only account for 0.5-1.5% of all childhood brain tumors. Even rarer are those with prenatal manifestation. The most common of these present at birth are teratomas, which show divergent differentiation with 90% of them containing tissues from all three germ layers. We report a rare case of an intrauterine congenital immature teratoma in a female fetus at 23 weeks of gestation, which was sonographically diagnosed in vivo by detection of the tumor and associated craniomegaly. Because of the poor prognosis, termination of the pregnancy was induced by Rivanol instillation. The cerebral tumor was confirmed at autopsy and was not associated with any other malformations. Histological and immunohistochemical features of this tumor are presented. PMID:9403206

  2. First descriptions of early- and middle-stage copepodids of Anthosoma crassum (Dichelesthiidae: Siphonostomatoida) and lesions on shortfin makos (Isurus oxyrinchus) infected with A. crassum.

    PubMed

    Benz, George W; Borucinska, Joanna D; Greenwaldt, Scott A

    2002-02-01

    Early- and middle-stage copepodids of Anthosoma crassum (Dichelesthiidae: Siphonostomatoida) and lesions associated with A. crassum infections are described from samples collected from the jaws of shortfin makos captured off southern California. The copepodids did not possess frontal filaments or frontal organs, and they resided in a headstandlike position firmly attached by their embedded antennae. Copepod larvae and small adults were lodged in shallow mucosal ulcers that basally exhibited mild, acute granulocytic stomatitis; large adults were lodged in deep tunnels encompassing the anterior aspects of their bodies. Some lesions contained more than I copepod. Examinations of lesions revealed that A. crassum infection of shortfin makos can result in severe subacute, necrotizing stomatitis with hemorrhage, granulation tissue, and lymphocytic aggregations in the mucosa, and reactive lymphocytic infiltration of the submucosal skeletal muscle. Copepod gut contents consisted of shark erythrocytes, hemosiderin granules, and necrotic host cells. These observations, along with reports of sharks heavily infected with A. crassum, suggest that this copepod may sometimes play a role in the morbidity and mortality of sharks that it infects. PMID:12053965

  3. [Studies upon behaviour of snails in anthropogenically changed water environment. 1. Locomotor activity of Lymnaea stagnalis (L.), with regard to subpopulations infected with developmental stages of digeneans].

    PubMed

    Pokora, Zbigniew

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to analyse the locomotor activity of snails, Lymnaea stagnalis, with regard to physico-chemical properties of water in an inhabited reservoir and parasitic infection. The material was collected in selected anthropogenic water environments situated in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (sinkhole ponds, sand- and clay-excavations). The locomotor activity of each snail was analysed in laboratory conditions by designation of number of penetrated segments, marked in tanks filled with water originating from a given reservoir, during 15', with intervals of 1'. It was observed the significant relationship between locomotor activity of examined snails and the water carbonaceous hardness (r = -0,812, at range of the independent variable 173.0-863.5 mg CaCO3/dm3). Correlation coefficients with other physico-chemical parameters of water were close to zero. Locomotion of snails infected with developmental stages of digenetic trematodes was significantly lower comparing to non-infected individuals. Locomotor activity of these former ones was dependend more on degree of the digestive gland damage by the parasite than on the infection agent. PMID:16883702

  4. Pasteurella multocida non-native joint infection after a dog lick: A case report describing a complicated two-stage revision and a comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Philip W, Lam; Page, Andrea V

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are commonly caused by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci; however, other microbial etiologies and specific risk factors are increasingly recognized. Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that is part of the normal oral flora in many animals, and is particularly common in dogs and cats. PJIs caused by P multocida have been reported only rarely in the literature and typically occur in the context of an animal bite or scratch. The present article describes a P multocida joint infection that occurred after a dog lick and complicated a two-stage revision arthroplasty. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding P multocida PJIs follows. PMID:26361490

  5. Acetosyringone, pH and temperature effects on transient genetic transformation of immature embryos of Brazilian wheat genotypes by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Manfroi, Ernandes; Yamazaki-Lau, Elene; Grando, Magali F.; Roesler, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Low transformation efficiency is one of the main limiting factors in the establishment of genetic transformation of wheat via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. To determine more favorable conditions for T-DNA delivery and explant regeneration after infection, this study investigated combinations of acetosyringone concentration and pH variation in the inoculation and co-cultivation media and co-culture temperatures using immature embryos from two Brazilian genotypes (BR 18 Terena and PF 020037). Based on transient expression of uidA, the most favorable conditions for T-DNA delivery were culture media with pH 5.0 and 5.4 combined with co-culture temperatures of 22 °C and 25 °C, and a 400 μM acetosyringone supplement. These conditions resulted in blue foci in 81% of the embryos. Media with more acidic pH also presented reduced A. tumefaciens overgrowth during co-culture, and improved regeneration frequency of the inoculated explants. BR 18 Terena was more susceptible to infection by A. tumefaciens than PF 020037. We found that it is possible to improve T-DNA delivery and explant regeneration by adjusting factors involved in the early stages of A. tumefaciens infection. This can contribute to establishing a stable transformation procedure in the future. PMID:26537604

  6. Serum, liver, and lung levels of the major extracellular matrix components at the early stage of BCG-induced granulomatosis depending on the infection route.

    PubMed

    Kim, L B; Shkurupy, V A; Putyatina, A N

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on the model of mouse BCG-induced granulomatous showed that the content of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of the liver and lungs are changed at the early stages of inflammation (days 3 and 30 postinfection) before cell destruction in the organs begins. This is related to degradation of extracellular matrix structures. Their high content in the blood and interstitium probably contributes to the formation of granulomas, fibroblast proliferation and organ fibrosis. These processes depend on the infection route that determines different conditions for generalization of the inflammation process. Intravenous method of vaccine injection is preferable to use when designing the experiments simulating tuberculosis granulomatosis, especially for the analysis of its early stages. PMID:25573360

  7. The early stages of the immune response of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata to a Vibrio harveyi infection.

    PubMed

    Cardinaud, Marion; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Huchette, Sylvain; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone mortalities in France, Japan and Australia. In the European abalone, V. harveyi invades the circulatory system in a few hours after exposure and is lethal after 2 days of infection. In this study, we investigated the responses of European abalone immune cells over the first 24 h of infection. Results revealed an initial induction of immune gene expression including Rel/NF-kB, Mpeg and Clathrin. It is rapidly followed by a significant immuno-suppression characterized by reduced cellular hemocyte parameters, immune response gene expressions and enzymatic activities. Interestingly, Ferritin was overexpressed after 24 h of infection suggesting that abalone attempt to counter V. harveyi infection using soluble effectors. Immune function alteration was positively correlated with V. harveyi concentration. This study provides the evidence that V. harveyi has a hemolytic activity and an immuno-suppressive effect in the European abalone. PMID:25766281

  8. The Leishmania donovani chaperone cyclophilin 40 is essential for intracellular infection independent of its stage-specific phosphorylation status.

    PubMed

    Yau, Wai-Lok; Pescher, Pascale; MacDonald, Andrea; Hem, Sonia; Zander, Dorothea; Retzlaff, Silke; Blisnick, Thierry; Rotureau, Brice; Rosenqvist, Heidi; Wiese, Martin; Bastin, Philippe; Clos, Joachim; Späth, Gerald F

    2014-07-01

    During its life cycle, the protozoan pathogen Leishmania donovani is exposed to contrasting environments inside insect vector and vertebrate host, to which the parasite must adapt for extra- and intracellular survival. Combining null mutant analysis with phosphorylation site-specific mutagenesis and functional complementation we genetically tested the requirement of the L. donovani chaperone cyclophilin 40 (LdCyP40) for infection. Targeted replacement of LdCyP40 had no effect on parasite viability, axenic amastigote differentiation, and resistance to various forms of environmental stress in culture, suggesting important functional redundancy to other parasite chaperones. However, ultrastructural analyses and video microscopy of cyp40-/- promastigotes uncovered important defects in cell shape, organization of the subpellicular tubulin network and motility at stationary growth phase. More importantly, cyp40-/- parasites were unable to establish intracellular infection in murine macrophages and were eliminated during the first 24 h post infection. Surprisingly, cyp40-/- infectivity was restored in complemented parasites expressing a CyP40 mutant of the unique S274 phosphorylation site. Together our data reveal non-redundant CyP40 functions in parasite cytoskeletal remodelling relevant for the development of infectious parasites in vitro independent of its phosphorylation status, and provide a framework for the genetic analysis of Leishmania-specific phosphorylation sites and their role in regulating parasite protein function. PMID:24811325

  9. Cytoskeleton remodling and alterations in smooth muscle contractility in the bovine jejunum during the early stage of Cooperia oncophora infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes of the genus Cooperia are arguably the most important parasites of cattle. We characterized the bovine jejunal transcriptome in response to C. oncophora infection using RNA-seq technology. Approximately 71% of the 25,670 bovine genes were detected in the jejunal transcript...

  10. Role of lipids in the transmission of the infective stage (L3) of Strongylus vulgaris (Nematoda: Strongylida).

    PubMed

    Medica, D L; Sukhdeo, M V

    1997-10-01

    Infective larvae (L3) of Strongylus vulgaris have limited energy stores for host finding and for infection. For transmission to occur, the larvae must have sufficient energy to (a) migrate onto grass, where they are ingested by their equine host (host finding), and (b) penetrate into the host gut. This study is designed to test the hypothesis that L3 larvae of S. vulgaris partition their energy stores between locomotory activity (used in host finding) and infection activity (penetration). Chronic locomotory activity was stimulated by incubating S. vulgaris L3 larvae at a constant temperature (38 C). After 8 days of treatment, locomotory activity ceased (exhaustion). Exhausted L3 larvae had significantly decreased total lipid when compared to controls (P < 0.05), but there was no decrease in levels of protein of carbohydrate. Lipids of S. vulgaris L3 larvae are comprised of 9 fatty acids, some of which are depleted in exhausted worms (14:0, 14:1, 16:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2), whereas others (18:0, 20:4, 24:0) remain unchanged. These data suggest that specific fatty acids provide the energy source for locomotory activity in S. vulgaris. Exhausted L3 larvae were also less able to penetrate host cecal tissue in in vitro penetration assays when compared to controls (P < 0.05), suggesting that the depletion of individual fatty acids during locomotory activity also reduced infectivity. These data do not support the hypothesis that S. vulgaris L3 larvae partition their energy stores between host-finding and infection activities. A comparison of lipid storage profiles in the L3 larvae of 4 nematode species with similar transmission strategies (S. vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, Strongylus equinus, and Haemonchus contortus) revealed similarities in the fatty acid composition of these species. These data suggest a relationship between transmission patterns and energy storage strategies in the L3 larvae of nematode parasites of vertebrates. PMID:9379277

  11. Monocyte- and Neutrophil-Derived CXCL10 Impairs Efficient Control of Blood-Stage Malaria Infection and Promotes Severe Disease.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Lisa J; Nie, Catherine Q; Ly, Ann; Ryg-Cornejo, Victoria; Chiu, Chris Y; Hansen, Diana S

    2016-02-01

    CXCL10, or IFN-γ-inducible protein 10, is a biomarker associated with increased risk for Plasmodium falciparum-mediated cerebral malaria (CM). Consistent with this, we have previously shown that CXCL10 neutralization or genetic deletion alleviates brain intravascular inflammation and protects Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected mice from CM. In addition to organ-specific effects, the absence of CXCL10 during infection was also found to reduce parasite biomass. To identify the cellular sources of CXCL10 responsible for these processes, we irradiated and reconstituted wild-type (WT) and CXCL10(-/-) mice with bone marrow from either WT or CXCL10(-/-) mice. Similar to CXCL10(-/-) mice, chimeras unable to express CXCL10 in hematopoietic-derived cells controlled infection more efficiently than WT controls. In contrast, expression of CXCL10 in knockout mice reconstituted with WT bone marrow resulted in high parasite biomass levels, higher brain parasite and leukocyte sequestration rates, and increased susceptibility to CM. Neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes were identified as the main cellular sources of CXCL10 responsible for the induction of these processes. The improved control of parasitemia observed in the absence of CXCL10-mediated trafficking was associated with a preferential accumulation of CXCR3(+)CD4(+) T follicular helper cells in the spleen and enhanced Ab responses to infection. These results are consistent with the notion that some inflammatory responses elicited in response to malaria infection contribute to the development of high parasite densities involved in the induction of severe disease in target organs. PMID:26718341

  12. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Avram, Dorina; McCabe, Amanda; MacNamara, Katherine C; Sellati, Timothy J; Harton, Jonathan A

    2016-03-01

    Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection. PMID:27015566

  13. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia

    PubMed Central

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Avram, Dorina; McCabe, Amanda; MacNamara, Katherine C.; Sellati, Timothy J.; Harton, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection. PMID:27015566

  14. Morphology of the infective larval stage of the equid parasite Habronema muscae (Spirurida: Habronematidae), from houseflies (Musca domestica).

    PubMed

    Buzzell, Gerald R; Tariq, Saeed; Traversa, Donato; Schuster, Rolf

    2011-03-01

    The infective larva of the spirurid nematode Habronema muscae, a parasite of houseflies, was measured and specimens fixed in Karnovsky's fluid were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The oral opening contains six teeth and is surrounded by large bilobed dorsal and ventral lips and smaller lateral lips. A pair of amphids lie behind the lateral lips. There are two rows of four cephalic papillae. The body is deeply ridged, both transversely and longitudinally. The caudal end of the worm is studded by small papillae. The position of the anal opening is somewhat ambiguous. These larval morphological features are discussed, as well as the changes which must have occurred in the metamorphosis of the infective larva to the adult in the stomach of horses. PMID:20949282

  15. Nervous Necrosis Virus Replicates Following the Embryo Development and Dual Infection with Iridovirus at Juvenile Stage in Grouper

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Chen, Peng-Peng; Lee, Szu-Hsien; Chen, Young-Mao; Tsai, Tieh-Jung; Wang, Chien-Kai; Ku, Hsiao-Tung; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2012-01-01

    Infection of virus (such as nodavirus and iridovirus) and bacteria (such as Vibrio anguillarum) in farmed grouper has been widely reported and caused large economic losses to Taiwanese fish aquaculture industry since 1979. The multiplex assay was used to detect dual viral infection and showed that only nervous necrosis virus (NNV) can be detected till the end of experiments (100% mortality) once it appeared. In addition, iridovirus can be detected in a certain period of rearing. The results of real-time PCR and in situ PCR indicated that NNV, in fact, was not on the surface of the eggs but present in the embryo, which can continue to replicate during the embryo development. The virus may be vertically transmitted by packing into eggs during egg development (formation) or delivering into eggs by sperm during fertilization. The ozone treatment of eggs may fail to remove the virus, so a new strategy to prevent NNV is needed. PMID:22563447

  16. Specific cessation of minus-strand RNA accumulation at an early stage of tobacco mosaic virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, M; Meshi, T; Ohno, T; Okada, Y

    1991-02-01

    The time course of accumulation of viral plus-strand RNAs (genomic RNA and subgenomic mRNA for the coat protein) and minus-strand RNA in tobacco protoplasts synchronously infected with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA was examined. In protoplasts infected with the wild-type TMV L RNA, the plus and minus strands accumulated differently not only in quantity but also in the outline of kinetics. The time courses of accumulation of the genomic RNA and coat protein mRNA were similar: they became detectable at 2 or 4 h postinoculation (p.i.), and their accumulation increased until 14 to 18 h p.i. The accumulation rate reached the maximum at about 4 h p.i. and then gradually decreased. In contrast, accumulation of the minus-strand RNA ceased at 6 to 8 h p.i., at which time the plus-strand accumulation was already about 100 times greater and still continued vigorously. This specific halt of minus-strand accumulation was not caused exclusively by encapsidation of the genomic RNA, because a similar halt was observed upon infection with a deletion mutant that lacks the 30K and coat protein genes. Upon infection with a mutant that could not produce the 130K protein (one of the two proteins that are thought to be involved in viral RNA replication), the accumulation levels of both plus and minus strands were lower than that of the parental wild-type virus. Given these observations, possible mechanisms of TMV replication are discussed. PMID:1987377

  17. Growth of HIV-Infected Children in the Early Stage of Antiretroviral Treatment: A Retrospective Cohort Study in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ran; Mu, Weiwei; Sun, Xin; Wu, Hao; Pang, Lin; Wang, Liming; Zhao, Qingxia; Wu, Yasong; Zhao, Decai; Chen, Meiling; Ma, Ye; Zhang, Fujie

    2016-08-01

    Malnutrition and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related complications are commonly seen in HIV-infected children, and these have been shown in high-prevalent areas such as Africa. Antiviral therapy (ART) has notably controlled disease progression, whereas it effectively reverses underweight and growth retardation in HIV-infected children. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth status after initiation of ART in HIV-infected children in China. A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on the National Science and Technology Major Project. HIV-infected children who initiated antiretroviral treatment between January 1st, 2012 and December 31st, 2012 were followed up to December 31st, 2014. Z-scores of height and weight were calculated by WHO Anthro (plus). Linear mixed-effects models were used to model trajectories of weight- and height-for-age Z-scores. Seven hundred forty-four participants enrolled in the study, with 585 participants and 712 participants who had WAZ (weight-for-age Z-score) and HAZ (height-for-age Z-score), respectively, before initiation of ART. Among them, 125 (21.4%) were underweight and 301 (42.3%) were stunted. After treatment, among the 125 underweight children, WAZ improved in 69 patients, regained more than -2 on average. Among the 301 stunted children, HAZ improved in 123 patients, regained more than -2 on average. WAZ improved for the first 6 months by 0.052 units each month and then stabilized, whereas HAZ consistently improved by 0.014 units each month over time. Antiretroviral treatment reversed the adverse effects of HIV to some degree. Early diagnosis and treatment, with an effective nutrition program, is necessary to improve malnutrition further. PMID:27509236

  18. Plagiorchis elegans (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) infections in Stagnicola elodes (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae): host susceptibility, growth, reproduction, mortality, and cercarial production.

    PubMed

    Zakikhani, M; Rau, M E

    1999-06-01

    Eggs of Plagiorchis elegans were readily ingested by Stagnicola elodes of all ages, but were more infective to immature than mature snails. Infection enhanced the growth of the host in a dose-dependent manner. The number of cercariae released by immature snails increased with the age of the snail host; mature snails yielded fewer cercariae. Heavily infected snails tended to die prematurely, thereby reducing their total production of cercariae to levels below those of more lightly infected individuals. Even light infections castrated the snail host. Snails that acquired the infection as juveniles never produced eggs. Actively reproducing snails ceased egg laying within days of infection and never recovered. All parasite effects on the growth and reproduction of the snail host first manifested themselves during the early stages of infection, long before the development of daughter sporocysts and cercariae, and are therefore attributable to the effects of mother sporocysts. The study provides insight into how this natural enemy of mosquito larvae may be established in natural snail populations by means of strategically timed introductions of parasite eggs, with a goal of maximizing cercarial production for the biological control of sympatric mosquito larvae. PMID:10386437

  19. ICAM-1 regulates the survival of influenza virus in lung epithelial cells during the early stages of infection.

    PubMed

    Othumpangat, Sreekumar; Noti, John D; McMillen, Cynthia M; Beezhold, Donald H

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is an inducible cell surface glycoprotein that is expressed on many cell types. Influenza virus infection enhanced ICAM-1 expression and messenger RNA levels. Human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpC) and nasal epithelial cells, on exposure to different strains of influenza virus (H1N1, H3N2, and H9N1) showed significant increase in ICAM-1 gene expression (p<0.001) along with the ICAM-1 protein levels (surface and secreted). Depleting ICAM-1 in HBEpC with ICAM-1 siRNA and subsequently infecting with H1N1 showed increased viral copy numbers. Influenza virus infection in HBEpC resulted in up-regulation of NF-ĸB protein and the lack of ICAM-1 decreased NF-ĸB activity in NF-ĸB luciferase reporter assay. Addition of exogenous IL-1β to HBEpC induced the ICAM-1 expression and decreased matrix gene copy number. Taken together, HBEpC induced ICAM-1 plays a key role in modulating the influenza virus survival possibly through the NF-ĸB pathway. PMID:26499045

  20. Efficacy of an anthelmintic combination in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica resistant to albendazole and clorsulon.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valladares, M; Cordero-Pérez, C; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we identified five sheep flocks with fasciolosis in the province of León (northwestern Spain) in order to determine the anthelmintic resistance status to three commonly used anthelmintics, namely albendazole (ABZ), triclabendazole (TCBZ) and clorsulon (CLOR). The identification of one flock resistant to ABZ and CLOR was shown after the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). The reductions in eggs per gram values were -17.6% and -68% against immature and adult flukes, respectively, after ABZ treatment; 85.15% and 44.91% against immature and adult flukes, respectively, after CLOR treatment; and 97.06% against both stages, after the administration of TCBZ. As an alternative to control the infection, two combinations of ABZ and CLOR were tested. In the first, both drugs were administered at the recommended dose of each; in this case, the efficiency reached values above 95% against both immature and adult flukes. However, when the combined drugs were administered at half the recommended dose of each, the efficiency of the combination was very low, i.e. 16.67% and -11.11% against mature and immature flukes, respectively. In conclusion, this preliminary report suggests a possible interaction between ABZ and CLOR after their joint administration. However, these results should be confirmed in other flocks. PMID:24211419

  1. [The effect of betain on biology and morphology of developmental stages of Eimeria acervulina in broiler chicks experimentally infected].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marcel; Niang, Tania Marcia S; Gomes, Augusto V da C; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2006-01-01

    Purposing to investigate the betaine effect on biology and morphology of developmental stages of Eimeria acervulina, 420 broiler chicks Cobb were experimentally inoculated with 2 x 10(5) sporulated oocysts and housed in battery cages in a block design with five treatments and six replicates each, including a positive control, a group treated with salinomycin and growth promoter plus three levels of betaine as additive in the feed at 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15%. Measurements of oocysts, sporocysts and endogenous stages were performed as morphological parameters, while pre patent and patent periods and sporulation time were taken as biological parameters. Morphology was also associated with the mathematical constant Phi (1.618) to evaluate possible relationship. Betaine was able to cause modifications in both biology and morphology of oocysts and sporocysts, whereas it was weakly able to affect developmental stages based on trophozoites and macrogamonts measurements. According to the measures of sporocysts E. acervulina development was closely related to Phi. PMID:17196124

  2. Transphyseal ACL Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aristides I.; Lakomkin, Nikita; Fabricant, Peter D.; Lawrence, J. Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most studies examining the safety and efficacy of transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction for skeletally immature patients utilize transtibial drilling. Independent femoral tunnel drilling may impart a different pattern of distal femoral physeal involvement. Purpose: To radiographically assess differences in distal femoral physeal disruption between transtibial and independent femoral tunnel drilling. We hypothesized that more oblique tunnels associated with independent drilling involve a significantly larger area of physeal disruption compared with vertically oriented tunnels. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We analyzed skeletally immature patients aged between 10 and 15 years who underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction utilizing an independent femoral tunnel drilling technique between January 1, 2008, and March 31, 2011. These patients were matched with a transtibial technique cohort based on age and sex. Radiographic measurements were recorded from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative radiographs. Results: Ten patients in each group were analyzed. There were significant differences between independent drilling and transtibial drilling cohorts in the estimated area of physeal disruption (1.64 vs 0.74 cm2; P < .001), femoral tunnel angles (32.1° vs 72.8°; P < .001), and medial/lateral location of the femoral tunnel (24.2 vs 36.1 mm from lateral cortex; P = .001), respectively. There was a significant inverse correlation between femoral tunnel angle and estimated area of distal femoral physeal disruption (r = –0.8255, P = .003). Conclusion: Femoral tunnels created with an independent tunnel drilling technique disrupt a larger area of the distal femoral physis and create more eccentric tunnels compared with a transtibial technique. Clinical Relevance: As most studies noting the safety of transphyseal ACL reconstruction have utilized a central, vertical femoral tunnel

  3. Why the proportion of transmission during early-stage HIV infection does not predict the long-term impact of treatment on HIV incidence

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the infectiousness of HIV-infected persons, but only after testing, linkage to care, and successful viral suppression. Thus, a large proportion of HIV transmission during a period of high infectiousness in the first few months after infection (“early transmission”) is perceived as a threat to the impact of HIV “treatment-as-prevention” strategies. We created a mathematical model of a heterosexual HIV epidemic to investigate how the proportion of early transmission affects the impact of ART on reducing HIV incidence. The model includes stages of HIV infection, flexible sexual mixing, and changes in risk behavior over the epidemic. The model was calibrated to HIV prevalence data from South Africa using a Bayesian framework. Immediately after ART was introduced, more early transmission was associated with a smaller reduction in HIV incidence rate—consistent with the concern that a large amount of early transmission reduces the impact of treatment on incidence. However, the proportion of early transmission was not strongly related to the long-term reduction in incidence. This was because more early transmission resulted in a shorter generation time, in which case lower values for the basic reproductive number (R0) are consistent with observed epidemic growth, and R0 was negatively correlated with long-term intervention impact. The fraction of early transmission depends on biological factors, behavioral patterns, and epidemic stage and alone does not predict long-term intervention impacts. However, early transmission may be an important determinant in the outcome of short-term trials and evaluation of programs. PMID:25313068

  4. APOBEC3G mRNA expression in exposed seronegative and early stage HIV infected individuals decreases with removal of exposure and with disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Pérez, Joel A; Ormsby, Christopher E; Hernández-Juan, Ramón; Torres, Klintsy J; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Background APOBEC3G is an antiretroviral factor that acts by inducing G to A mutations. In this study, we examined the expression of APOBEC3G in uninfected HIV-1 exposed individuals at the time of their partner's diagnosis and one year later. We then compared this expression with that of infected individuals at different disease stages. APOBEC3G mRNA was measured in PBMCs from three groups: healthy controls with no known risk factor to HIV infection (n = 26), exposed uninfected individuals who had unprotected sex with their HIV+ partners for at least 3 months (n = 37), and HIV infected patients at various disease stages (n = 45), including 8 patients with low HIV viral loads < 10,000 copies/mL (LVL) for at least 3 years. Additionally, we obtained sequences from the env, gag, pol, nef, vif and the LTR of the patients' virus. Results Exposed uninfected individuals expressed higher APOBEC3G than healthy controls (3.86 vs. 1.69 relative expression units), and their expression significantly decreased after a year from the HIV diagnosis and subsequent treatment of their partners. Infected individuals showed a positive correlation (Rho = 0.57, p = 0.00006) of APOBEC3G expression with CD4+ T cell count, and a negative correlation with HIV viremia (Rho = -0.54, p = 0.00004). The percentage of G to A mutations had a positive correlation (Rho = 0.43, p = 0.0226) with APOBEC3G expression, and it was higher in LVL individuals than in the other patients (IQR 8.27 to 9.64 vs. 7.06 to 8.1, p = 0.0084). Out of 8 LVLs, 3 had hypermutations, and 4 had premature stop codons only in viral vif. Conclusion The results suggest that exposure to HIV may trigger APOBEC3G expression in PBMCs, in the absence of infection. Additionally, cessation of exposure or advanced disease is associated with decreased APOBEC3G expression. PMID:19254362

  5. Efficient monitoring of the blood-stage infection in a malaria rodent model by the rotating-crystal magneto-optical method.

    PubMed

    Orbán, Ágnes; Rebelo, Maria; Molnár, Petra; Albuquerque, Inês S; Butykai, Adam; Kézsmárki, István

    2016-01-01

    Intense research efforts have been focused on the improvement of the efficiency and sensitivity of malaria diagnostics, especially in resource-limited settings for the detection of asymptomatic infections. Our recently developed magneto-optical (MO) method allows the accurate quantification of malaria pigment crystals (hemozoin) in blood by their magnetically induced rotation. First evaluations of the method using β-hematin crystals and in vitro P. falciparum cultures implied its potential for high-sensitivity malaria diagnosis. To further investigate this potential, here we study the performance of the method in monitoring the in vivo onset and progression of the blood-stage infection in a rodent malaria model. Our results show that the MO method can detect the first generation of intraerythrocytic P. berghei parasites 66-76 hours after sporozoite injection, demonstrating similar sensitivity to Giesma-stained light microscopy and exceeding that of flow cytometric techniques. Magneto-optical measurements performed during and after the treatment of P. berghei infections revealed that both the follow up under treatment and the detection of later reinfections are feasible with this new technique. The present study demonstrates that the MO method - besides being label and reagent-free, automated and rapid - has a high in vivo sensitivity and is ready for in-field evaluation. PMID:26983695

  6. Influence of stripe rust infection on the photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant system of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars at the adult plant stage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Su, Yan-Qiu; Yuan, Shu; Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Huai-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Wheat stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst), is one of the most serious diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To gain a better understanding of the protective mechanism against stripe rust at the adult plant stage, the differences in photosystem II and antioxidant enzymatic systems between susceptible and resistant wheat in response to stripe rust disease (P. striiformis) were investigated. We found that chlorophyll fluorescence and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes were higher in resistant wheat than in susceptible wheat after stripe rust infection. Compared with the susceptible wheat, the resistant wheat accumulated a higher level of D1 protein and a lower level of reactive oxygen species after infection. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that D1 and light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) phosphorylation are involved in the resistance to stripe rust in wheat. The CP29 protein was phosphorylated under stripe rust infection, like its phosphorylation in other monocots under environmental stresses. More extensive damages occur on the thylakoid membranes in the susceptible wheat compared with the resistant wheat. The findings provide evidence that thylakoid protein phosphorylation and antioxidant enzyme systems play important roles in plant responses and defense to biotic stress. PMID:26442087

  7. Efficient monitoring of the blood-stage infection in a malaria rodent model by the rotating-crystal magneto-optical method

    PubMed Central

    Orbán, Ágnes; Rebelo, Maria; Molnár, Petra; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Butykai, Adam; Kézsmárki, István

    2016-01-01

    Intense research efforts have been focused on the improvement of the efficiency and sensitivity of malaria diagnostics, especially in resource-limited settings for the detection of asymptomatic infections. Our recently developed magneto-optical (MO) method allows the accurate quantification of malaria pigment crystals (hemozoin) in blood by their magnetically induced rotation. First evaluations of the method using β-hematin crystals and in vitro P. falciparum cultures implied its potential for high-sensitivity malaria diagnosis. To further investigate this potential, here we study the performance of the method in monitoring the in vivo onset and progression of the blood-stage infection in a rodent malaria model. Our results show that the MO method can detect the first generation of intraerythrocytic P. berghei parasites 66–76 hours after sporozoite injection, demonstrating similar sensitivity to Giesma-stained light microscopy and exceeding that of flow cytometric techniques. Magneto-optical measurements performed during and after the treatment of P. berghei infections revealed that both the follow up under treatment and the detection of later reinfections are feasible with this new technique. The present study demonstrates that the MO method – besides being label and reagent-free, automated and rapid – has a high in vivo sensitivity and is ready for in-field evaluation. PMID:26983695

  8. Efficient monitoring of the blood-stage infection in a malaria rodent model by the rotating-crystal magneto-optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbán, Ágnes; Rebelo, Maria; Molnár, Petra; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Butykai, Adam; Kézsmárki, István

    2016-03-01

    Intense research efforts have been focused on the improvement of the efficiency and sensitivity of malaria diagnostics, especially in resource-limited settings for the detection of asymptomatic infections. Our recently developed magneto-optical (MO) method allows the accurate quantification of malaria pigment crystals (hemozoin) in blood by their magnetically induced rotation. First evaluations of the method using β-hematin crystals and in vitro P. falciparum cultures implied its potential for high-sensitivity malaria diagnosis. To further investigate this potential, here we study the performance of the method in monitoring the in vivo onset and progression of the blood-stage infection in a rodent malaria model. Our results show that the MO method can detect the first generation of intraerythrocytic P. berghei parasites 66–76 hours after sporozoite injection, demonstrating similar sensitivity to Giesma-stained light microscopy and exceeding that of flow cytometric techniques. Magneto-optical measurements performed during and after the treatment of P. berghei infections revealed that both the follow up under treatment and the detection of later reinfections are feasible with this new technique. The present study demonstrates that the MO method – besides being label and reagent-free, automated and rapid – has a high in vivo sensitivity and is ready for in-field evaluation.

  9. Value of the oral swab for the molecular diagnosis of dogs in different stages of infection with Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Aschar, Mariana; de Oliveira, Eveline Tozzi Braga; Laurenti, Marcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary; Tolezano, Jose Eduardo; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo P; da Matta, Vania Lucia Ribeiro

    2016-07-30

    This study was based on the need to employ a sensitive and specific method with samples that could be easily collected for diagnosing dogs infected with Leishmania infantum. To this end, we used real time-PCR (qPCR) to assess the value of the oral swab (OS) in detecting infected sick dogs (SD; n=62), including, for the first time, the analysis of apparently healthy infected dogs (AD; n=30), both from endemic areas for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). For comparison, we also evaluated the performance of the conjunctival swab (CS), blood (BL), lymph node (LN) and serology. We detected the presence of Leishmania DNA in the oral cavity in 62 out of the 92 dogs studied. The OS positivity (67.4%) was equivalent to the CS (68.5%) (p>0.05), higher than BL (52.2%) (p≤0.05), and lower than LN (84.8%) (p≤0.05). OS and CS performed well in SD dogs (82.3% and 83.9%, respectively) but not in AD dogs (36.7% for both samples). BL showed the lowest positivity (52.2%) and provided equivalent results between AD (60.0%) and SD (48.4%) dogs (p>0.05). LN yielded the highest positivity (84.8%), and it was also higher in the SD population (93.5%) compared to the AD population (66.7%) (p≤0.05). Parasite load was high in LN, moderate in OS and CS, and low in BL, showing the relationship between the levels of parasitism and the positivity rates found in these samples. Serology was positive in 82.2% of the SD group and in 70% of the AD dogs (p>0.05). Among the 20 seronegative dogs, seven (35%) were positive in either OS or CS, and 12 (60%) were positive when both noninvasive samples were jointly considered. The OS/CS combination resulted in a significant increase of positivity (p≤0.05) for the AD dogs (from 36.7% to 63.4%), as well as OS/serology (80%) and OS/CS/serology (83.4%). For the SD population, positivity reached up to 95.2% with the same combinations, showing that combination of samples and/or tests is required for the identification of dogs infected with L. infantum and that the

  10. Molecular evidence for the localization of Plasmodium falciparum immature gametocytes in bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Ruth; Magallon-Tejada, Ariel; Achtman, Ariel H.; Moraleda, Cinta; Joice, Regina; Cisteró, Pau; Li Wai Suen, Connie S. N.; Nhabomba, Augusto; Macete, Eusebio; Mueller, Ivo; Marti, Matthias; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menéndez, Clara; Schofield, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum immature gametocytes are not observed in peripheral blood. However, gametocyte stages in organs such as bone marrow have never been assessed by molecular techniques, which are more sensitive than optical microscopy. We quantified P falciparum sexual stages in bone marrow (n = 174) and peripheral blood (n = 70) of Mozambican anemic children by quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting transcripts specific for early (PF14_0748; PHISTa), intermediate (PF13_0247; Pfs48/45), and mature (PF10_0303; Pfs25) gametocytes. Among children positive for the P falciparum housekeeping gene (PF08_0085; ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene) in bone marrow (n = 136) and peripheral blood (n = 25), prevalence of immature gametocytes was higher in bone marrow than peripheral blood (early: 95% vs 20%, P < .001; intermediate: 80% vs 16%; P < .001), as were transcript levels (P < .001 for both stages). In contrast, mature gametocytes were more prevalent (100% vs 51%, P < .001) and abundant (P < .001) in peripheral blood than in the bone marrow. Severe anemia (3.57, 95% confidence interval 1.49-8.53) and dyserythropoiesis (6.21, 95% confidence interval 2.24-17.25) were independently associated with a higher prevalence of mature gametocytes in bone marrow. Our results highlight the high prevalence and abundance of early sexual stages in bone marrow, as well as the relationship between hematological disturbances and gametocyte development in this tissue. PMID:24335496

  11. Synthesis and assembly of retrovirus Gag precursors into immature capsids in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sakalian, M; Parker, S D; Weldon, R A; Hunter, E

    1996-01-01

    The assembly of retroviral particles is mediated by the product of the gag gene; no other retroviral gene products are necessary for this process. While most retroviruses assemble their capsids at the plasma membrane, viruses of the type D class preassemble immature capsids within the cytoplasm of infected cells. This has allowed us to determine whether immature capsids of the prototypical type D retrovirus, Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), can assemble in a cell-free protein synthesis system. We report here that assembly of M-PMV Gag precursor proteins can occur in this in vitro system. Synthesized particles sediment in isopycnic gradients to the appropriate density and in thin-section electron micrographs have a size and appearance consistent with those of immature retrovirus capsids. The in vitro system described in this report appears to faithfully mimic the process of assembly which occurs in the host cell cytoplasm, since M-PMV gag mutants defective in in vivo assembly also fail to assemble in vitro. Likewise, the Gag precursor proteins of retroviruses that undergo type C morphogenesis, Rous sarcoma virus and human immunodeficiency virus, which do not preassemble capsids in vivo, fail to assemble particles in this system. Additionally, we demonstrate, with the use of anti-Gag antibodies, that this cell-free system can be utilized for analysis in vitro of potential inhibitors of retrovirus assembly. PMID:8648705

  12. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    PubMed Central

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  13. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Weeks, E N I; Geden, C J

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  14. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children

    PubMed Central

    Tiadi, Aimé; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Peyre, Hugo; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this article is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, 55 chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and 55 reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2). The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the center of the screen for 30 s. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 s of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system. PMID:26924975

  15. Pathology of porcine peripheral white blood cells during infection with African swine fever virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF) that is the significant disease of domestic pigs. Several studies showed that ASFV can influence on porcine blood cells in vitro. Thus, we asked ourselves whether ASFV infection results in changes in porcine blood cells in vivo. A series of experiments were performed in order to investigate the effects of ASFV infection on porcine peripheral white blood cells. Nine pigs were inoculated by intramuscular injection with 104 50% hemadsorbing doses of virus (genotype II) distributed in Armenia and Georgia. The total number of fifteen cell types was calculated during experimental infection. Results Although band-to-segmented neutrophils ratio became much higher (3.5) in infected pigs than in control group (0.3), marked neutropenia and lymphopenia were detected from 2 to 3 days post-infection. In addition to band neutrophils, the high number of other immature white blood cells, such as metamyelocytes, was observed during the course of infection. From the beginning of infection, atypical lymphocytes, with altered nuclear shape, arose and became 15% of total cells in the final phase of infection. Image scanning cytometry revealed hyperdiploid DNA content in atypical lymphocytes only from 5 days post-infection, indicating that DNA synthesis in pathological lymphocytes occurred in the later stages of infection. Conclusion From this study, it can be concluded that ASFV infection leads to serious changes in composition of white blood cells. Particularly, acute ASFV infection in vivo is accompanied with the emergence of immature cells and atypical lymphocytes in the host blood. The mechanisms underlying atypical cell formation remain to be elucidated. PMID:22373449

  16. Mechanical Characterization of Immature Porcine Brainstem in Tension at Dynamic Strain Rates

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Li, Kui; Liao, Zhikang; Xiang, Hongyi; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Many brain injury cases involve pediatric road traffic accidents, and among these, brainstem injury causes disastrous outcomes. A thorough understanding of the tensile characterization of immature brainstem tissue is crucial in modeling traumatic brain injury sustained by children, but limited experimental data in tension is available for the immature brain tissue at dynamic strain rates. Material/Methods We harvested brainstem tissue from immature pigs (about 4 weeks old, and at a developmental stage similar to that of human toddlers) as a byproduct from a local slaughter house and very carefully prepared the samples. Tensile tests were performed on specimens at dynamic strain rates of 2/s, 20/s, and 100/s using a biological material instrument. The constitutive models, Fung, Ogden, Gent, and exponential function, for immature brainstem tissue material property were developed for the recorded experimental data using OriginPro® 8.0 software. The t test was performed for infinitesimal shear modules. Results The curves of stress-versus-stretch ratio were convex in shape, and inflection points were found in all the test groups at the strain of about 2.5%. The average Lagrange stress of the immature brainstem specimen at the 30% strain at the strain rates of 2, 20, and 100/s was 273±114, 515±107, and 1121±197 Pa, respectively. The adjusted R-Square (R2) of Fung, Ogden, Gent, and exponential model was 0.820≤R2≤0.933, 0.774≤R2≤0.940, 0.650≤R2≤0.922, and 0.852≤R2≤0.981, respectively. The infinitesimal shear modulus of the strain energy functions showed a significant association with the strain rate (p<0.01). Conclusions The immature brainstem is a rate-dependent material in dynamic tensile tests, and the tissue becomes stiffer with increased strain rate. The reported results may be useful in the study of brain injuries in children who sustain injuries in road traffic accidents. Further research in more detail should be performed in the

  17. Correlation of Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Fusarium-Infected Winter and Spring Wheat Cultivars with Secondary Metabolites at Different Growth Stages.

    PubMed

    Etzerodt, Thomas; Gislum, Rene; Laursen, Bente B; Heinrichson, Kirsten; Gregersen, Per L; Jørgensen, Lise N; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium infection in wheat causes Fusarium head blight, resulting in yield losses and contamination of grains with trichothecenes. Some plant secondary metabolites inhibit accumulation of trichothecenes. Eighteen Fusarium infected wheat cultivars were harvested at five time points and analyzed for the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) and 38 wheat secondary metabolites (benzoxazinoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and flavonoids). Multivariate analysis showed that harvest time strongly impacted the content of secondary metabolites, more distinctly for winter wheat than spring wheat. The benzoxazinoid 2-β-glucopyranoside-2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA-glc), α-tocopherol, and the flavonoids homoorientin and orientin were identified as potential inhibitors of DON accumulation. Several phenolic acids, lutein and β-carotene also affected DON accumulation, but the effect varied for the two wheat types. The results could form a basis for choosing wheat cultivars using metabolite profiling as a marker for selecting wheat cultivars with improved resistance against Fusarium head blight and accumulation of trichothecene toxins in wheat heads. PMID:27195655

  18. Stress-Induced Glucocorticoids at the Earliest Stages of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection Suppress Subsequent Antiviral Immunity, Implicating Impaired Dendritic Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Elftman, Michael D.; Hunzeker, John T.; Mellinger, Jennifer C.; Bonneau, Robert H.; Norbury, Christopher C.; Truckenmiller, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The systemic elevation of psychological stress-induced glucocorticoids strongly suppresses CD8+ T cell immune responses resulting in diminished antiviral immunity. However, the specific cellular targets of stress/glucocorticoids, the timing of exposure, the chronology of immunological events, and the underlying mechanisms of this impairment are incompletely understood. In this study, we address each of these questions in the context of a murine cutaneous HSV infection. We show that exposure to stress or corticosterone in only the earliest stages of an HSV-1 infection is sufficient to suppress, in a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent manner, the subsequent antiviral immune response after stress/corticosterone has been terminated. This suppression resulted in early onset and delayed resolution of herpetic lesions, reduced viral clearance at the site of infection and draining popliteal lymph nodes (PLNs), and impaired functions of HSV-specific CD8+ T cells in PLNs, including granzyme B and IFN-γ production and the ability to degranulate. In knockout mice lacking glucocorticoid receptors only in T cells, we show that these impaired CD8+ T cell functions are not due to direct effects of stress/corticosterone on the T cells, but the ability of PLN-derivcd dendritic cells to prime HSV-1–specific CD8+ T cells is functionally impaired. These findings highlight the susceptibility of critical early events in the generation of an antiviral immune response to neuroendocrine modulation and implicate dendritic cells as targets of stress/glucocorticoids in vivo. These findings also provide insight into the mechanisms by which the clinical use of glucocorticoids contributes to altered immune responses in patients with viral infections or tumors. PMID:20089700

  19. In vitro maturation, fertilization and embryo development after ultrarapid freezing of immature human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Zhang, L; Wang, X

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rates of maturation, fertilization and embryo development of ultrarapidly frozen immature oocytes (immature cumulus-oocyte complexes; COCs) obtained from antral follicles in ovaries of patients with chocolate ovarian cysts. The COCs were cryopreserved by a vitrification method using 5.5 mol ethylene glycol l (-1) plus 1.0 mol sucrose l (-1) in Dulbecco's PBS (DPBS). The survival, maturation and fertilization rates, and the percentage of embryos developing to the two-cell stage were 59, 64, 70 and 71%, respectively. No significant differences were noted in the rates of maturation, fertilization and embryo development between control and cryopreserved oocytes. Two embryos that developed from cryopreserved oocytes of the oocyte donor programme were selected for transfer into the uterus of a recipient with premature ovarian failure, after the recipient had received steroid replacement. A biochemical pregnancy occurred in the recipient after embryo transfer. These results indicate that immature oocytes can survive after cryopreservation and subsequently can be cultured to mature oocytes that are capable of undergoing fertilization in vitro and developing into embryos. PMID:11226064

  20. Economic Burden of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Different Stages of Disease: A Report From Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Fatemeh; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Safarpour, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major blood-borne infection which imposes high economic cost on the patients. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the total annual cost due to chronic HCV related diseases imposed on each patient and their family in Southern Iran. Patients and Methods Economic burden of chronic hepatitis C-related liver diseases (chronic hepatitis C, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) were examined. The current retrospective study evaluated 200 Iranian patients for their socioeconomic status, utilization (direct and indirect costs) and treatment costs and work days lost due to illness by a structured questionnaire in 2015. Costs of hospital admissions were extracted from databases of Nemazee hospital, Shiraz, Iran. The outpatient expenditure per patient was measured through the rate of outpatient visits and average cost per visit reported by the patients; while the inpatient costs were calculated through annual rate of hospital admissions and average expenditure. Self-medication and direct non-medical costs were also reported. The human capital approach was used to measure the work loss cost. Results The total annual cost per patient for chronic hepatitis C, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on purchasing power parity (PPP) were USD 1625.50, USD 6117.2, and USD 11047.2 in 2015, respectively. Conclusions Chronic hepatitis C-related liver diseases impose a substantial economic burden on patients, families and the society. The current study provides useful information on cost of treatment and work loss for different disease states, which can be further used in cost-effectiveness evaluations. PMID:27257424

  1. Immature Gastric Teratoma in a Newborn: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Yadav, Hemant; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Srivastava, Divya; Chandana, Abha; Prakash, Sant

    2016-01-01

    A case of immature gastric teratoma in a neonate is being reported here. The neonate was presented with abdominal mass and distension and managed with excision of mass; the patient is doing fine postoperatively. PMID:27123405

  2. The effect of vitrification of immature bovine oocytes to the subsequent in vitro development and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Faheem, Marwa S; Baron, E; Carvalhais, I; Chaveiro, A; Pavani, K; da Silva, F Moreira

    2015-12-01

    Immature bovine oocytes were vitrified using the cryotop method and their post-warming survivability and capability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryonic development were evaluated. In addition throughout the embryonic 2-cell, 4-cell, morula and blastocyst stages, the expression of four developmentally important genes (Cx43, CDH1, DNMT1 and HSPA14) was analysed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immature oocytes (n = 550) were randomly assigned to non-vitrified (fresh) or cryotop vitrification groups using ethylene glycol (EG) with 1,2 propanediol (PROH) or dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). After warming, oocytes survivability, embryo cleavage and embryonic developmental rates were not statistically different between the two cryoprotectants groups. However, the DMSO group had a lower (P < 0.05) oocyte maturation rate compared with the fresh and PROH groups. For morula and blastocyst rates, the DMSO group achieved a lower (P < 0.05) morula rate compared with the fresh group, while at the blastocyst stage, there were no differences between fresh and both cryoprotectants groups. For molecular analysis, at the 4-cell stage, most studied genes showed an inconsistent pattern of expression either from the PROH or DMSO groups. Noteworthily, these differences were limited at the morula and blastocyst stages. In conclusion, the cryotop method is sufficient for vitrification of immature bovine oocytes, both for embryonic developmental competence and at the molecular level. Moreover, PROH showed some advantage over DMSO as a cryoprotectant. PMID:25424305

  3. Role of the long cytoplasmic domain of the SIV Env glycoprotein in early and late stages of infection

    PubMed Central

    Vzorov, Andrei N; Weidmann, Armin; Kozyr, Natalia L; Khaoustov, Vladimir; Yoffe, Boris; Compans, Richard W

    2007-01-01

    Background The Env glycoproteins of retroviruses play an important role in the initial steps of infection involving the binding to cell surface receptors and entry by membrane fusion. The Env glycoprotein also plays an important role in viral assembly at a late step of infection. Although the Env glycoprotein interacts with viral matrix proteins and cellular proteins associated with lipid rafts, its possible role during the early replication events remains unclear. Truncation of the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env glycoprotein is acquired by SIV in the course of adaptation to human cells, and is known to be a determinant of SIV pathogenicity. Results We compared SIV viruses with full length or truncated (T) Env glycoproteins to analyze possible differences in entry and post-entry events, and assembly of virions. We observed that early steps in replication of SIV with full length or T Env were similar in dividing and non-dividing cells. However, the proviral DNA of the pathogenic virus clone SIVmac239 with full length Env was imported to the nucleus about 20-fold more efficiently than proviral DNA of SIVmac239T with T Env, and 100-fold more efficiently than an SIVmac18T variant with a single mutation A239T in the SU subunit and with a truncated cytoplasmic tail (CT). In contrast, proviral DNA of SIVmac18 with a full length CT and with a single mutation A239T in the SU subunit was imported to the nucleus about 50-fold more efficiently than SIVmac18T. SIV particles with full length Env were released from rhesus monkey PBMC, whereas a restriction of release of virus particles was observed from human 293T, CEMx174, HUT78 or macrophages. In contrast, SIV with T Envs were able to overcome the inhibition of release in human HUT78, CEMx174, 293T or growth-arrested CEMx174 cells and macrophages resulting in production of infectious particles. We found that the long CT of the Env glycoprotein was required for association of Env with lipid rafts. An Env mutant C787S which

  4. Ultrastructural changes in the third-stage, infective larvae of ruminant nematodes treated with sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) extract.

    PubMed

    Brunet, S; Fourquaux, I; Hoste, H

    2011-12-01

    Plants rich in condensed tannins are an alternative to chemical anthelmintics to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in ruminants. Previous functional studies have shown that sainfoin extracts affect the two forms of infective larvae (L3), ensheathed and exsheathed. However, the mechanisms of action remain unknown. The aim of this study was thus to compare ultrastructural changes in ensheathed and exsheathed L3 of two GIN species after in vitro contact with sainfoin extracts using transmission electron microscopy. The main changes identified were an alteration of the hypodermis, the presence of numerous vesicles in the cytoplasm and degeneration and/or death of muscular and intestinal cells. The changes suggested similar and nonspecies-specific lesions in the two nematode species. Comparison of the modifications found in the ensheathed vs. exsheathed L3s revealed different locations of the main cellular changes depending on the larval form. It is hypothesized that these spatial differences in lesions are mainly influenced by the presence of the sheath which favors contact between the active compounds and either the cuticle or the digestive tract. Overall, our observations suggest that the functional changes observed in the biology of GIN L3s after contact with sainfoin extracts are mediated through a direct mode of action, i.e. different interactions between the bioactive plant metabolites and the nematode structure depending on the route of contact. PMID:21787880

  5. Characterization of a multi-component anthrax vaccine designed to target the initial stages of infection as well as toxaemia

    PubMed Central

    Cote, C. K.; Kaatz, L.; Reinhardt, J.; Bozue, J.; Tobery, S. A.; Bassett, A. D.; Sanz, P.; Darnell, S. C.; Alem, F.; O’Brien, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Current vaccine approaches to combat anthrax are effective; however, they target only a single protein [the protective antigen (PA) toxin component] that is produced after spore germination. PA production is subsequently increased during later vegetative cell proliferation. Accordingly, several aspects of the vaccine strategy could be improved. The inclusion of spore-specific antigens with PA could potentially induce protection to initial stages of the disease. Moreover, adding other epitopes to the current vaccine strategy will decrease the likelihood of encountering a strain of Bacillus anthracis (emerging or engineered) that is refractory to the vaccine. Adding recombinant spore-surface antigens (e.g. BclA, ExsFA/BxpB and p5303) to PA has been shown to augment protection afforded by the latter using a challenge model employing immunosuppressed mice challenged with spores derived from the attenuated Sterne strain of B. anthracis. This report demonstrated similar augmentation utilizing guinea pigs or mice challenged with spores of the fully virulent Ames strain or a non-toxigenic but encapsulated ΔAmes strain of B. anthracis, respectively. Additionally, it was shown that immune interference did not occur if optimal amounts of antigen were administered. By administering the toxin and spore-based immunogens simultaneously, a significant adjuvant effect was also observed in some cases. Thus, these data further support the inclusion of recombinant spore antigens in next-generation anthrax vaccine strategies. PMID:22767539

  6. trans-dominant interference with virus infection at two different stages by a mutant envelope protein of Friend murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Matano, T; Odawara, T; Ohshima, M; Yoshikura, H; Iwamoto, A

    1993-01-01

    A dominant negative mutant Friend murine leukemia virus (FMLV) env gene was cloned from an immunoselected Friend erythroleukemia cell. The mutant env had a point mutation which resulted in a Cys-to-Arg substitution at the 361st amino acid in the FMLV envelope protein (Env). The mutant Env was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and accumulated because of its slow degradation. The NIH 3T3 cells expressing the mutant env were resistant to ecotropic Moloney MLV (MoMLV) penetration, suggesting that the mutant Env traps the ecotropic MLV receptors in the ER. When the mutant env gene was transfected into and expressed in the cells persistently infected with MoMLV, the wild-type Env was trapped in the ER, and the MoMLV production was suppressed. Thus, the mutant Env accumulating in the ER trans-dominantly and efficiently interfered with the ecotropic MLV infection at both the early and the late stages. Images PMID:8445721

  7. Effects of prenatal infection on prepulse inhibition in the rat depend on the nature of the infectious agent and the stage of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Marie-Eve; Luheshi, Giamal N; Boksa, Patricia

    2007-08-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy is a risk factor for some psychiatric illnesses of neurodevelopmental origin such as schizophrenia and autism. In experimental animals, behavioral and neuropathological outcomes relevant to schizophrenia have been observed in offspring of infected dams. However, the type of infectious agent used and gestational age at time of administration have varied. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of prenatal challenge with different immune agents given at different time windows during gestation on behavioral outcomes in offspring. For this, pregnant rats were administered bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), the viral mimic polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), or turpentine, an inducer of local inflammation, at doses known to produce fever, at three different stages in pregnancy: embryonic day (E)10-11, E15-16 and E18-19. Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) was later measured in male adult offspring. PPI was significantly decreased in offspring after prenatal LPS treatment at E15-16 and E18-19. Intramuscular injection of pregnant dams with turpentine at E15-16 also decreased PPI in adult offspring. Maternal poly I:C administration had no significant effect on PPI in offspring. In contrast to prenatal LPS exposure, acute LPS administration to naive adult males had no effect on PPI. Thus, prenatal exposure both to a systemic immunogen and to local inflammation at brief periods during later pregnancy produced lasting deficits in PPI in rat offspring. These findings support the idea that maternal infection during critical windows of pregnancy could contribute to sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:17553574

  8. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Clinical Isolates from Initial Stages of Dental Pulp Infection: Identification of a New Exopolysaccharide Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Mangala A.; Chen, Zhiliang; Wilkins, Marc R.; Hunter, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The human oral microbiome has a major role in oral diseases including dental caries. Our studies on progression of caries infection through dentin and more recently, the invasion of vital dental pulp, detected Lactobacillus rhamnosus in the initial stages of infection of vital pulp tissue. In this study employing current high-throughput next generation sequencing technology we sought to obtain insight into genomic traits of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus, to recognise biomarkers that could provide an understanding of pathogenic potential of lactobacilli, generally regarded as safe. Roche GS FLX+ technology was used to generate whole genome sequences of two clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus infecting vital pulp. Detailed genome-wide comparison of the genetic profiles of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus with probiotic L. rhamnosus was performed to test the hypothesis that specific strains of L. rhamnosus possessing a unique gene complement are selected for the capacity to invade vital pulp tissue. Analysis identified 264 and 258 genes respectively, from dental pulp-invasive L. rhamnosus strains LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 isolated from two different subjects that were not present in the reference probiotic L. rhamnosus strain ATCC 53103 (GG). Distinct genome signatures identified included the presence of a modified exopolysaccharide cluster, a characteristic confirmed in a further six clinical isolates. Additional features of LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 were altered transcriptional regulators from RpoN, NtrC, MutR, ArsR and zinc-binding Cro/CI families, as well as changes in the two-component sensor kinase response regulator and ABC transporters for ferric iron. Both clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus contained a single SpaFED cluster, as in L. rhamnosus Lc705, instead of the two Spa clusters (SpaCBA and SpaFED) identified in L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (GG). Genomic distance analysis and SNP divergence confirmed a close relationship of the clinical isolates but segregation from the reference

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals that T3SS, Tfp, and xanthan gum are key factors in initial stages of Citrus sinensis infection by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    PubMed

    Facincani, Agda P; Moreira, Leandro M; Soares, Márcia R; Ferreira, Cristiano B; Ferreira, Rafael M; Ferro, Maria I T; Ferro, Jesus A; Gozzo, Fabio C; de Oliveira, Julio C F

    2014-03-01

    The bacteria Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus canker. The disease symptoms are characterized by localized host cell hyperplasia followed by tissue necrosis at the infected area. An arsenal of bacterial pathogenicity- and virulence-related proteins is expressed to ensure a successful infection process. At the post-genomic stage of Xac, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the proteins that are displayed differentially over time when the pathogen attacks the host plant. Protein extracts were prepared from infectious Xac grown in inducing medium (XAM1) for 24 h or from host citrus plants for 3 or 5 days after infection, detached times to evaluate the adaptation and virulence of the pathogen. The protein extracts were proteolyzed, and the peptides derived from tryptic digestion were investigated using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Changes in the protein expression profile were compared with the Xac genome and the proteome recently described under non-infectious conditions. An analysis of the proteome of Xac under infectious conditions revealed proteins directly involved in virulence such as the type III secretion system (T3SS) and effector proteins (T3SS-e), the type IV pilus (Tfp), and xanthan gum biosynthesis. Moreover, four new mutants related to proteins detected in the proteome and with different functions exhibited reduced virulence relative to the wild-type proteins. The results of the proteome analysis of infectious Xac define the processes of adaptation to the host and demonstrate the induction of the virulence factors of Xac involved in plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:24676796

  10. Parasitostatic effect of maslinic acid. I. Growth arrest of Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic stages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural products have played an important role as leads for the development of new drugs against malaria. Recent studies have shown that maslinic acid (MA), a natural triterpene obtained from olive pomace, which displays multiple biological and antimicrobial activities, also exerts inhibitory effects on the development of some Apicomplexan, including Eimeria, Toxoplasma and Neospora. To ascertain if MA displays anti-malarial activity, the main objective of this study was to asses the effect of MA on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in vitro. Methods Synchronized P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte cultures were incubated under different conditions with MA, and compared to chloroquine and atovaquone treated cultures. The effects on parasite growth were determined by monitoring the parasitaemia and the accumulation of the different infective stages visualized in thin blood smears. Results MA inhibits the growth of P. falciparum Dd2 and 3D7 strains in infected erythrocytes in, dose-dependent manner, leading to the accumulation of immature forms at IC50 concentrations, while higher doses produced non-viable parasite cells. MA-treated infected-erythrocyte cultures were compared to those treated with chloroquine or atovaquone, showing significant differences in the pattern of accumulation of parasitic stages. Transient MA treatment at different parasite stages showed that the compound targeted intra-erythrocytic processes from early-ring to schizont stage. These results indicate that MA has a parasitostatic effect, which does not inactivate permanently P. falciparum, as the removal of the compound allowed the infection to continue Conclusions MA displays anti-malarial activity at multiple intraerythrocytic stages of the parasite and, depending on the dose and incubation time, behaves as a plasmodial parasitostatic compound. This novel parasitostatic effect appears to be unrelated to previous mechanisms proposed for current anti-malarial drugs, and

  11. Rates of cardiovascular events and deaths are associated with advanced stages of HIV-infection: results of the HIV HEART study 7, 5 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Stefan; Eisele, Lewin; Schwarz, Birte; Schulze, Christina; Holzendorf, Volker; Brockmeyer, Nobert H; Hower, Martin; Kwirant, Friedhelm; Rudolph, Roland; Neumann, Till; Reinsch, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are increasing in aging HIV-positive patients (HIV+). Impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, HIV-specific parameters and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE) and on the mortality rate are investigated in different HIV+ cohorts. Methods The HIV HEART (HIVH) study is an ongoing prospective observational cohort study in the German Ruhr area to assess the frequency and clinical course of cardiac disorders in 1481 HIV+ by standardized non-invasive cardiovascular screening. CVE were defined as diagnosed or documented myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, arterial coronary intervention, stent implantation, bypass operation and stroke. Results 1481 HIV+ subjects (mean age: 49.3±10.7 years (y), female: 15.6%) were included. 130 CVE and 90 deaths were documented until the end of 7, 5 year follow-up of HIVH. Mean duration of the HIV-infection was 12.9±6.8 y. HIV+ were treated with ART on average for 8.6±6.8 y. According to the CDC classification of the HIV-infection, HIV+ were distributed over the clinical categories (A:34.6%; B:31.4% and C:33.9%) while more than the half had an advanced immunodeficiency (I:8.3%; II:41.1%; III:50.7%). Advanced clinical and immunological stages were significantly (p<0.001) associated with higher incidences of deaths (A:16.7%; B:26.7%; C:56.7% and I:6.7%; II:27.7%; III:65.6%) and CVE (A:17.7%; B:33.1%; C:49.2% and I:3.1%; II:32.3%; III:64.6%) but not with the duration of HIV-infection (per y: Hazard ratio (HR): 0.91 [0.88–0.94]) and ART (per y: HR: 0.81 [0.79–0.84]) adjusted for age. The proportion of deceased HIV+ with HIV-RNA ≥50 copies/mL and lower CD4-cell counts at their last visit is significantly higher compared with living HIV+ without CVE (HIV-RNA ≥50 copies/mL: 25.6% vs 14.7%). Median CD4-cells: 286.5 cells/µL (IQR: 168.8–482.8) versus 574 cells/µL (IQR: 406–786). 96.1% of the living HIV+ with CVE had HIV-RNA<50 copies

  12. Unstimulated human CD4 lymphocytes express a cytoplasmic immature form of the common cytokine receptor gamma-chain.

    PubMed

    Bani, L; Pasquier, V; Kryworuchko, M; Salamero, J; Thèze, J

    2001-07-01

    As a component of various cytokine receptors, common cytokine receptor gamma-chain (gamma(c)) is essential in the development of the immune system and plays an important role in different stages of inflammatory and immune responses. Here we establish that resting CD4 T cells and the Jurkat CD4 T cell line do not express the mature form of gamma(c) (64 kDa) recognized by mAb Tugh4. However, these cells constitutively transcribe the corresponding gamma(c) gene. This apparent paradox was solved by the demonstration that polyclonal anti-gamma(c) Abs detected endoglycosidase-H-sensitive immature forms of gamma(c) (54-58 kDa) expressed by quiescent CD4 T lymphocytes and Jurkat cells. Immature gamma(c) is characterized as an intracellular component localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Pulse-chase analysis shows that the immature gamma(c) is rapidly degraded after synthesis. After activation of CD4 T lymphocytes, and as seen in the CD4 T cell line Kit 225, the endoglycosidase-H-resistant mature form of gamma(c) is detectable at the cell surface and in the endosomal compartment. For the first time, our results demonstrate that a cytokine receptor chain may be constitutively produced as an immature form. Furthermore, this supports the notion that expression of the functional form of gamma(c) may require intracellular interactions with lineage- or subset-specific molecular partners. PMID:11418669

  13. Somatic embryogenesis in cultured immature zygotic embryos and leaf protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Y; Koop, H U

    1997-01-01

    Immature zygotic embryos of six ecotypes (Nd-0, Ler, C24, Col-0, Nossen, Ws-2) of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. were cultured in vitro. The same ecotypes, except Nossen, were used for studies on leaf protoplast culture. Experimental conditions for the induction of somatic embryos were established in both culture systems. In the case of immature zygotic embryos, the parameters investigated were the influence of developmental stage of the explant, the ecotypes used, and various concentrations and combinations of growth regulatory substances (phytohormones). In the ecotype Ler, structures were discovered which were very similar to those found in the early stages of zygotic embryo-genesis: globular structures at the end of a suspensor-like single file of cells were frequently observed. In the case of leaf protoplasts, high efficiencies of colony formation and plant regeneration occurred in Ws-2 and C24. A novel type of cell division pattern was found in Col-0 and C24, again highly reminiscent of the early division patterns in zygotic embryos. Similarities and differences between zygotic and somatic embryogenesis are discussed. PMID:9232908

  14. Modeling the impact of hepatitis C viral clearance on end-stage liver disease in an HIV co-infected cohort with Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzer, Mireille E; Moodie, Erica EM; van der Laan, Mark J; Platt, Robert W; Klein, Marina B

    2013-01-01

    Summary Despite modern effective HIV treatment, hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is associated with a high risk of progression to end-stage liver disease (ESLD) which has emerged as the primary cause of death in this population. Clinical interest lies in determining the impact of clearance of HCV on risk for ESLD. In this case study, we examine whether HCV clearance affects risk of ESLD using data from the multicenter Canadian Co-infection Cohort Study. Complications in this survival analysis arise from the time-dependent nature of the data, the presence of baseline confounders, loss to follow-up, and confounders that change over time, all of which can obscure the causal effect of interest. Additional challenges included non-censoring variable missingness and event sparsity. In order to efficiently estimate the ESLD-free survival probabilities under a specific history of HCV clearance, we demonstrate the doubly-robust and semiparametric efficient method of Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation (TMLE). Marginal structural models (MSM) can be used to model the effect of viral clearance (expressed as a hazard ratio) on ESLD-free survival and we demonstrate a way to estimate the parameters of a logistic model for the hazard function with TMLE. We show the theoretical derivation of the efficient influence curves for the parameters of two different MSMs and how they can be used to produce variance approximations for parameter estimates. Finally, the data analysis evaluating the impact of HCV on ESLD was undertaken using multiple imputations to account for the non-monotone missing data. PMID:24571372

  15. The Skeletally Immature and Newly Mature Throwing Athlete.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Kiery A; Marshall, Kelley W

    2016-09-01

    Injuries to the shoulder and elbow in the pediatric and adolescent throwing athlete are common. Both knowledge of throwing mechanics and understanding of normal bone development in the immature skeleton are key to the diagnosis, treatment, and potential prevention of these common injuries. Pathologic changes from chronic repetitive trauma to the developing shoulder and elbow manifest as distinctly different injuries that can be predicted by the skeletal maturation of the patient. Sites of vulnerability and resulting patterns of injury change as the child evolves from the skeletally immature little league player to the skeletally mature high school/college athlete. PMID:27545423

  16. The morphology of the immature HIV-1 virion.

    PubMed

    Ohagen, A; Luftig, R B; Reicin, A S; Yin, L; Ikuta, K; Kimura, T; Goff, S P; Höglund, S

    1997-02-01

    Newly released HIV-1 particles exhibit an immature morphology, previously reported to be characterized by a doughnut/ring-shaped structure. In this study we showed that among immature extracellular virus particles not only were particles with doughnut-shaped morphology present, but particles with a crescent morphology were also observed. These particles occurred with different frequencies, depending on whether they were in the cell or in cell-free fractions. The crescent-shaped particles were more abundant in the cell-free fractions, whereas the particles in the cell fraction mainly exhibited doughnut-shaped morphology. The crescent-shaped structure may represent an assembly intermediate. PMID:9024816

  17. A PfRH5-Based Vaccine Is Efficacious against Heterologous Strain Blood-Stage Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Aotus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Alexander D.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Lucas, Carmen M.; Lugo-Roman, Luis A.; Crosnier, Cécile; Bartholdson, S. Josefin; Diouf, Ababacar; Miura, Kazutoyo; Lambert, Lynn E.; Ventocilla, Julio A.; Leiva, Karina P.; Milne, Kathryn H.; Illingworth, Joseph J.; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Hjerrild, Kathryn A.; Alanine, Daniel G.W.; Turner, Alison V.; Moorhead, Jeromy T.; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Wu, Yimin; Long, Carole A.; Wright, Gavin J.; Lescano, Andrés G.; Draper, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Antigenic diversity has posed a critical barrier to vaccine development against the pathogenic blood-stage infection of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. To date, only strain-specific protection has been reported by trials of such vaccines in nonhuman primates. We recently showed that P. falciparum reticulocyte binding protein homolog 5 (PfRH5), a merozoite adhesin required for erythrocyte invasion, is highly susceptible to vaccine-inducible strain-transcending parasite-neutralizing antibody. In vivo efficacy of PfRH5-based vaccines has not previously been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that PfRH5-based vaccines can protect Aotus monkeys against a virulent vaccine-heterologous P. falciparum challenge and show that such protection can be achieved by a human-compatible vaccine formulation. Protection was associated with anti-PfRH5 antibody concentration and in vitro parasite-neutralizing activity, supporting the use of this in vitro assay to predict the in vivo efficacy of future vaccine candidates. These data suggest that PfRH5-based vaccines have potential to achieve strain-transcending efficacy in humans. PMID:25590760

  18. Respiratory viral infections in institutions from late stage of the first and second waves of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Sandra; Peci, Adriana; Marchand‐Austin, Alex; Winter, Anne‐Luise; Olsha, Romy; Kristjanson, Erik; Low, Donald E.; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Asner et al. (2012) Respiratory viral infections in institutions from late stage of the first and second waves of pandemic A (H1N1) 2009, Ontario, Canada. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e11–e15. We report the impact of respiratory viruses on various outbreak settings by using surveillance data from the late first and second wave periods of the 2009 pandemic. A total of 278/345(78·5%) outbreaks tested positive for at least one respiratory virus by multiplex PCR. We detected A(H1N1)pdm09 in 20·6% of all reported outbreaks of which 54·9% were reported by camps, schools, and day cares (CSDs) and 29·6% by long‐term care facilities (LCFTs), whereas enterovirus/human rhinovirus (ENT/HRV) accounted for 62% outbreaks of which 83·7% were reported by long‐term care facilities (LCTFs). ENT/HRV was frequently identified in LTCF outbreaks involving elderly residents, whereas in CSDs, A(H1N1)pdm09 was primarily detected. PMID:22353417

  19. Characterization and cloning of metallo-proteinase in the excretory/secretory products of the infective-stage larva of Trichinella spiralis.

    PubMed

    Lun, H M; Mak, C H; Ko, R C

    2003-05-01

    Inhibitor sensitivity assays using azocaesin and FTC-caesin as substrates showed that the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of the infective-stage larvae of Trichinella spiralis contained serine, metallo-, cysteine and aspartic proteinases. The activity of the metallo-proteinase was zinc ion dependent (within a range of ZnSO(4) concentrations). Gelatin-substrate gel electrophoresis revealed two bands of molecular mass 48 and 58 kDa which were sensitive to the metallo-proteinase inhibitor EDTA. The former peptide was probably a cleavage product of the latter. The authenticity of the 58 kDa metallo-proteinase as an E/S product was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Using PCR and RACE reactions, a complete nucleotide sequence of the metallo-proteinase gene was obtained. It comprised 2,223 bp with an open reading frame encoding 604 amino acid residues. The 3' untranslated region consisted of 352 bp, including a polyadenylation signal AATAA. A consensus catalytic zinc-binding motif was present. The conserved domains suggest that the cloned metallo-proteinase belongs to the astacin family and occurs as a single copy gene with 11 introns and 10 exons. Cluster analysis showed that the sequence of the metallo-proteinase gene of T. spiralis resembles those of Caenorhabdites elegans and Strongyloides stercoralis. PMID:12743801

  20. Overview of the functional virulent genome of the coffee leaf rust pathogen Hemileia vastatrix with an emphasis on early stages of infection

    PubMed Central

    Talhinhas, Pedro; Azinheira, Helena G.; Vieira, Bruno; Loureiro, Andreia; Tavares, Sílvia; Batista, Dora; Morin, Emmanuelle; Petitot, Anne-Sophie; Paulo, Octávio S.; Poulain, Julie; Da Silva, Corinne; Duplessis, Sébastien; Silva, Maria do Céu; Fernandez, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Hemileia vastatrix is the causal agent of coffee leaf rust, the most important disease of coffee Arabica. In this work, a 454-pyrosequencing transcriptome analysis of H. vastatrix germinating urediniospores (gU) and appressoria (Ap) was performed and compared to previously published in planta haustoria-rich (H) data. A total of 9234 transcripts were identified and annotated. Ca. 50% of these transcripts showed no significant homology to international databases. Only 784 sequences were shared by the three conditions, and 75% were exclusive of either gU (2146), Ap (1479) or H (3270). Relative transcript abundance and RT-qPCR analyses for a selection of genes indicated a particularly active metabolism, translational activity and production of new structures in the appressoria and intense signaling, transport, secretory activity and cellular multiplication in the germinating urediniospores, suggesting the onset of a plant-fungus dialogue as early as at the germ tube stage. Gene expression related to the production of carbohydrate-active enzymes and accumulation of glycerol in germinating urediniospores and appressoria suggests that combined lytic and physical mechanisms are involved in appressoria-mediated penetration. Besides contributing to the characterization of molecular processes leading to appressoria-mediated infection by rust fungi, these results point toward the identification of new H. vastatrix candidate virulence factors, with 516 genes predicted to encode secreted proteins. PMID:24672531

  1. Surgical Treatment of an Immature Short-Rooted Traumatized Incisor with an Extensive Apical Lesion Using CEM Cement

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    Severe traumatic injuries to immature teeth often cause damage to periodontal ligament as well as dental pulp; pulp necrosis, root resorption and subsequent apical lesion are common consequences. This article reports the surgical management of an infected immature maxillary central incisor associated with a gigantic periradicular lesion and severe root resorption. The tooth had a history of trauma and the patient suffered from purulent sinus tract and tooth mobility. After unsuccessful multi-session disinfection with calcium hydroxide, root end surgery was planned. During flap surgery and lesion enucleation, the root end was cleaned and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. After one year, the radiographic examination revealed that the lesion was almost completely replaced with newly formed bone. In addition, clinical examination showed favorable outcomes; the tooth was symptom-free and in function. Due to chemical, physical and biological properties of CEM cement, this biomaterial might be considered as the root-end filling material of choice. PMID:25834603

  2. Disparate developmental patterns of immune responses to bacterial and viral infections in fish.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rosario; Jouneau, Luc; Tacchi, Luca; Macqueen, Daniel J; Alzaid, Abdullah; Secombes, Christopher J; Martin, Samuel A M; Boudinot, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    During early stages of development vertebrates rely on an immature immune system to fight pathogens, but in non mammalian species few studies have taken an in-depth analysis of the transition from reliance on innate immune mechanisms to the appearance of adaptive immunity. Using rainbow trout as a model we characterized responses to two natural pathogens of this species, the Gram negative bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida and the virus VHSV, using microarray analysis at four early life history stages; eyed egg, post hatch, first feeding and three weeks post first feeding when adaptive immunity starts to be effective. All stages responded to both infections, but the complexity of the response increased with developmental stage. The response to virus showed a clear interferon response only from first feeding. In contrast, bacterial infection induced a marked response from early stages, with modulation of inflammatory, antimicrobial peptide and complement genes across all developmental stages. Whilst the viral and bacterial responses were distinct, there were modulated genes in common, mainly of general inflammatory molecules. This work provides a first platform to explore the development of fish immunity to infection, and to compare the age-dependent changes (from embryo to adults) across vertebrates. PMID:26487553

  3. Effect of plant spacing on the population of mosquito immatures in rice fields in Madurai, south India.

    PubMed

    Victor, T J; Reuben, R

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted during 'Kuruvai' crop season from December 1992 to January 1993 in the rice fields of the Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu to determine the influence of plant spacing and plant canopy on the populations of mosquito immatures. Three paddy varieties (ADT36, IR50 and IR20) were selected with two types of plant spacing, one with normal spacing (15 x 10 cm) and another wider (20 x 15 cm) than the normal spacing. Results showed that the field planted with normal spacing of paddy had significantly higher populations of culicine and anopheline immatures than the fields planted with wider spacing of paddy. The paddy varieties did not have any significant effect on the population of mosquito immatures. Light intensity, measured at the water surface using an illuminometer, was inversely related to the development of plant canopy and the results suggested that plant canopy does not inhibit oviposition by mosquitoes in the early stages of paddy growth, but it was responsible for the decline in the populations in the later stages of paddy growth. The plant spacing had a significant effect on the populations of chironomids and libellulids and other insects were not affected significantly. PMID:11820078

  4. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions of Unbiased Sampled Microglia Shows not Continuous Morphological Changes from Stage 1 to 2 after Multiple Dengue Infections in Callithrix penicillata

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Daniel G.; Silva, Geane O.; Naves, Thaís B.; Fernandes, Taiany N.; Araújo, Sanderson C.; Diniz, José A. P.; de Farias, Luis H. S.; Sosthenes, Marcia C. K.; Diniz, Cristovam G.; Anthony, Daniel C.; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F.; Picanço Diniz, Cristovam W.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that microglial morphology and function are related, but few studies have explored the subtleties of microglial morphological changes in response to specific pathogens. In the present report we quantitated microglia morphological changes in a monkey model of dengue disease with virus CNS invasion. To mimic multiple infections that usually occur in endemic areas, where higher dengue infection incidence and abundant mosquito vectors carrying different serotypes coexist, subjects received once a week subcutaneous injections of DENV3 (genotype III)-infected culture supernatant followed 24 h later by an injection of anti-DENV2 antibody. Control animals received either weekly anti-DENV2 antibodies, or no injections. Brain sections were immunolabeled for DENV3 antigens and IBA-1. Random and systematic microglial samples were taken from the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus for 3-D reconstructions, where we found intense immunostaining for TNFα and DENV3 virus antigens. We submitted all bi- or multimodal morphological parameters of microglia to hierarchical cluster analysis and found two major morphological phenotypes designated types I and II. Compared to type I (stage 1), type II microglia were more complex; displaying higher number of nodes, processes and trees and larger surface area and volumes (stage 2). Type II microglia were found only in infected monkeys, whereas type I microglia was found in both control and infected subjects. Hierarchical cluster analysis of morphological parameters of 3-D reconstructions of random and systematic selected samples in control and ADE dengue infected monkeys suggests that microglia morphological changes from stage 1 to stage 2 may not be continuous. PMID:27047345

  5. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions of Unbiased Sampled Microglia Shows not Continuous Morphological Changes from Stage 1 to 2 after Multiple Dengue Infections in Callithrix penicillata.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Daniel G; Silva, Geane O; Naves, Thaís B; Fernandes, Taiany N; Araújo, Sanderson C; Diniz, José A P; de Farias, Luis H S; Sosthenes, Marcia C K; Diniz, Cristovam G; Anthony, Daniel C; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F; Picanço Diniz, Cristovam W

    2016-01-01

    It is known that microglial morphology and function are related, but few studies have explored the subtleties of microglial morphological changes in response to specific pathogens. In the present report we quantitated microglia morphological changes in a monkey model of dengue disease with virus CNS invasion. To mimic multiple infections that usually occur in endemic areas, where higher dengue infection incidence and abundant mosquito vectors carrying different serotypes coexist, subjects received once a week subcutaneous injections of DENV3 (genotype III)-infected culture supernatant followed 24 h later by an injection of anti-DENV2 antibody. Control animals received either weekly anti-DENV2 antibodies, or no injections. Brain sections were immunolabeled for DENV3 antigens and IBA-1. Random and systematic microglial samples were taken from the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus for 3-D reconstructions, where we found intense immunostaining for TNFα and DENV3 virus antigens. We submitted all bi- or multimodal morphological parameters of microglia to hierarchical cluster analysis and found two major morphological phenotypes designated types I and II. Compared to type I (stage 1), type II microglia were more complex; displaying higher number of nodes, processes and trees and larger surface area and volumes (stage 2). Type II microglia were found only in infected monkeys, whereas type I microglia was found in both control and infected subjects. Hierarchical cluster analysis of morphological parameters of 3-D reconstructions of random and systematic selected samples in control and ADE dengue infected monkeys suggests that microglia morphological changes from stage 1 to stage 2 may not be continuous. PMID:27047345

  6. Immature spinal cord neurons are dynamic regulators of adult nociceptive sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Rusanescu, Gabriel; Mao, Jianren

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with unknown mechanism. Nociceptive sensitivity may be regulated by genetic factors, some of which have been separately linked to neuronal progenitor cells and neuronal differentiation. This suggests that genetic factors that interfere with neuronal differentiation may contribute to a chronic increase in nociceptive sensitivity, by extending the immature, hyperexcitable stage of spinal cord neurons. Although adult rodent spinal cord neurogenesis was previously demonstrated, the fate of these progenitor cells is unknown. Here, we show that peripheral nerve injury in adult rats induces extensive spinal cord neurogenesis and a long-term increase in the number of spinal cord laminae I–II neurons ipsilateral to injury. The production and maturation of these new neurons correlates with the time course and modulation of nociceptive behaviour, and transiently mimics the cellular and behavioural conditions present in genetically modified animal models of chronic pain. This suggests that the number of immature neurons present at any time in the spinal cord dorsal horns contributes to the regulation of nociceptive sensitivity. The continuous turnover of these neurons, which can fluctuate between normal and injured states, is a dynamic regulator of nociceptive sensitivity. In support of this hypothesis, we find that promoters of neuronal differentiation inhibit, while promoters of neurogenesis increase long-term nociception. TrkB agonists, well-known promoters of nociception in the short-term, significantly inhibit long-term nociception by promoting the differentiation of newly produced immature neurons. These findings suggest that promoters of neuronal differentiation may be used to alleviate chronic pain. PMID:26223362

  7. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    PubMed Central

    Abayasekara, C. L.; Adikaram, N. K. B.; Wanigasekara, U. W. N. P.; Bandara, B. M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

  8. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv 'Embul'.

    PubMed

    Abayasekara, C L; Adikaram, N K B; Wanigasekara, U W N P; Bandara, B M R

    2013-03-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar 'Embul' (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4'-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

  9. Effects of different factors on immature embryo culture, PLBs differentiation and rapid mass multiplication of Coelogyne suaveolens (Lindl.) Hook.

    PubMed

    Sungkumlong; Deb, Chitta Ranjan

    2008-04-01

    In vitro mass production of C. suaveolens (Lindl.) Hook, an endangered orchid with its snowy white flowers having horticultural potential was accomplished through immature seed culture, and subsequent plant regeneration. The developmental stage of the immature seeds and nutrient media significantly influenced the germination frequency. Seeds at 13 months after pollination cultured on 3% sucrose containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 9 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 15% coconut water exhibited 93% germination after 40 days of culture. Upon subculture, the germinated shoots on MS medium with 9 microM BA, 6 microM NAA, 3% casein hydrolysate and 0.1% activated charcoal (AC) yielded >12 shoots per shoot or bud. Addition of AC favoured the enlargement of pseudobulbs and better rooting. The plantlets transferred to community potting mix after in vitro hardening (8-10 wk) displayed 85% survival. PMID:18512333

  10. Neurotensin enhances estradiol induced DNA synthesis in immature rat uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, A.; Vijayan, E.

    1985-05-27

    Systemic administration of Neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, in immature rats treated with estradiol benzoate significantly enhances uterine DNA synthesis as reflected by the incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine. The peptide may have a direct action on the uterus. Substance P, a related peptide, had no effect on uterine DNA synthesis. 18 references, 4 tables.

  11. Multiscale Computer Simulation of the Immature HIV-1 Virion

    PubMed Central

    Ayton, Gary S.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Multiscale computer simulations, employing a combination of experimental data and coarse-graining methods, are used to explore the structure of the immature HIV-1 virion. A coarse-grained (CG) representation is developed for the virion membrane shell and Gag polypeptides using molecular level information. Building on the results from electron cryotomography experiments, the simulations under certain conditions reveal the existence of an incomplete p6 hexameric lattice formed from hexameric bundles of the Gag CA domains. In particular, the formation and stability of the immature Gag lattice at the CG level requires enhanced interfacial interactions of the CA protein C-terminal domains (CTDs). An exact mapping of the CG representation back to the molecular level then allows for detailed atomistic molecular dynamics studies to confirm the existence of these enhanced CACTD interactions and to probe their possible origin. The multiscale simulations further provide insight into potential CACTD mutations that may disrupt or modify the Gag immature lattice assembly process in the immature HIV-1 virion. PMID:21044572

  12. Pulp revascularization for immature replanted teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nagata, J Y; Rocha-Lima, T F; Gomes, B P; Ferraz, C C; Zaia, A A; Souza-Filho, F J; De Jesus-Soares, A

    2015-09-01

    Immature avulsed teeth are not usually treated with pulp revascularization because of the possibility of complications. However, this therapy has shown success in the treatment of immature teeth with periapical lesions. This report describes the case of an immature replanted tooth that was successfully treated by pulp revascularization. An 8-year-old boy suffered avulsion on his maxillary left lateral incisor. The tooth showed incomplete root development and was replanted after 30 minutes. After diagnosis, revascularization therapy was performed by irrigating the root canal and applying a calcium hydroxide paste and 2% chlorhexidine gel for 21 days. In the second session, the intracanal dressing was removed and a blood clot was stimulated up to the cervical third of the root canal. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed as a cervical barrier at the entrance of the root canal and the crown was restored. During the follow-up period, periapical repair, apical closure and calcification in the apical 4 mm of the root canal was observed. An avulsed immature tooth replanted after a brief extra-alveolar period and maintained in a viable storage medium may be treated with revascularization. PMID:26219350

  13. ASB2α regulates migration of immature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Lamsoul, Isabelle; Métais, Arnaud; Gouot, Emmanuelle; Heuzé, Mélina L; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Moog-Lutz, Christel; Lutz, Pierre G

    2013-07-25

    The actin-binding protein filamins (FLNs) are major organizers of the actin cytoskeleton. They control the elasticity and stiffness of the actin network and provide connections with the extracellular microenvironment by anchoring transmembrane receptors to the actin filaments. Although numerous studies have revealed the importance of FLN levels, relatively little is known about the regulation of its stability in physiological relevant settings. Here, we show that the ASB2α cullin 5-ring E3 ubiquitin ligase is highly expressed in immature dendritic cells (DCs) and is down-regulated after DC maturation. We further demonstrate that FLNs are substrates of ASB2α in immature DCs and therefore are not stably expressed in these cells, whereas they exhibit high levels of expression in mature DCs. Using ASB2 conditional knockout mice, we show that ASB2α is a critical regulator of cell spreading and podosome rosette formation in immature DCs. Furthermore, we show that ASB2(-/-) immature DCs exhibit reduced matrix-degrading function leading to defective migration. Altogether, our results point to ASB2α and FLNs as newcomers in DC biology. PMID:23632887

  14. Characterization of swine testicular cell line as immature porcine Sertoli cell line.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changping; Song, Huibin; Guan, Kaifeng; Zhou, Jiawei; Xia, Xuanyan; Li, Fenge

    2016-04-01

    Swine testicular (ST) cell line is isolated from swine fetal testes and has been widely used in biomedical research fields related to pig virus infection. However, the potential benefit and utilization of ST cells in boar reproductive studies has not been fully explored. As swine fetal testes mainly contain multiple types of cells such as Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, gonocytes, and peritubular myoid cells, it is necessary to clarify the cell type of ST cell line. In this study, we identified ST cell line was a collection of Sertoli cells by analyzing the unique morphological characteristic with satellite karyosomes and determining the protein expression of two markers (androgen-binding protein, ABP; Fas ligand, FASL) of Sertoli cells. Then ST cells were further confirmed to be immature Sertoli cells by examining the expression of three markers (anti-Mullerian hormone, AMH; keratin 18, KRT18; follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, FSHR). In conclusion, ST cells are a collection of immature Sertoli cells which can be good experimental materials for the researches involved in Sertoli cell functions and maturation, or even in boar reproductions. PMID:26744029

  15. Effects of neuregulin-1 administration on neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus, and characterization of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Ian; MacIsaac, Angus; Kim, John Junghan; Qiang, Calvin; Davoli, Maria Antonietta; Turecki, Gustavo; Mechawar, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with learning and affective behavioural regulation. Its diverse functionality is segregated along the septotemporal axis from the dorsal to ventral hippocampus. However, features distinguishing immature neurons in these regions have yet to be characterized. Additionally, although we have shown that administration of the neurotrophic factor neuregulin-1 (NRG1) selectively increases proliferation and overall neurogenesis in the mouse ventral dentate gyrus (DG), likely through ErbB3, NRG1's effects on intermediate neurogenic stages in immature neurons are unknown. We examined whether NRG1 administration increases DG ErbB3 phosphorylation. We labeled adultborn cells using BrdU, then administered NRG1 to examine in vivo neurogenic effects on immature neurons with respect to cell survival, morphology, and synaptogenesis. We also characterized features of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis. We found that neurogenic effects of NRG1 are temporally and subregionally specific to proliferation in the ventral DG. Particular morphological features differentiate immature neurons in the dorsal and ventral DG, and cytogenesis differed between these regions. Finally, we identified synaptic heterogeneity surrounding the granule cell layer. These results indicate neurogenic involvement of NRG1-induced antidepressant-like behaviour is particularly associated with increased ventral DG cell proliferation, and identify novel distinctions between dorsal and ventral hippocampal neurogenic development. PMID:27469430

  16. Effects of neuregulin-1 administration on neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus, and characterization of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis

    PubMed Central

    Mahar, Ian; MacIsaac, Angus; Kim, John Junghan; Qiang, Calvin; Davoli, Maria Antonietta; Turecki, Gustavo; Mechawar, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with learning and affective behavioural regulation. Its diverse functionality is segregated along the septotemporal axis from the dorsal to ventral hippocampus. However, features distinguishing immature neurons in these regions have yet to be characterized. Additionally, although we have shown that administration of the neurotrophic factor neuregulin-1 (NRG1) selectively increases proliferation and overall neurogenesis in the mouse ventral dentate gyrus (DG), likely through ErbB3, NRG1’s effects on intermediate neurogenic stages in immature neurons are unknown. We examined whether NRG1 administration increases DG ErbB3 phosphorylation. We labeled adultborn cells using BrdU, then administered NRG1 to examine in vivo neurogenic effects on immature neurons with respect to cell survival, morphology, and synaptogenesis. We also characterized features of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis. We found that neurogenic effects of NRG1 are temporally and subregionally specific to proliferation in the ventral DG. Particular morphological features differentiate immature neurons in the dorsal and ventral DG, and cytogenesis differed between these regions. Finally, we identified synaptic heterogeneity surrounding the granule cell layer. These results indicate neurogenic involvement of NRG1-induced antidepressant-like behaviour is particularly associated with increased ventral DG cell proliferation, and identify novel distinctions between dorsal and ventral hippocampal neurogenic development. PMID:27469430

  17. Assessment of Humoral Immune Responses to Blood-Stage Malaria Antigens following ChAd63-MVA Immunization, Controlled Human Malaria Infection and Natural Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Sean C.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Milne, Kathryn H.; de Cassan, Simone C.; Collins, Katharine A.; Halstead, Fenella D.; Bliss, Carly M.; Ewer, Katie J.; Osier, Faith H.; Hodgson, Susanne H.; Duncan, Christopher J. A.; O’Hara, Geraldine A.; Long, Carole A.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Draper, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of protective vaccines against many difficult infectious pathogens will necessitate the induction of effective antibody responses. Here we assess humoral immune responses against two antigens from the blood-stage merozoite of the Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite – MSP1 and AMA1. These antigens were delivered to healthy malaria-naïve adult volunteers in Phase Ia clinical trials using recombinant replication-deficient viral vectors – ChAd63 to prime the immune response and MVA to boost. In subsequent Phase IIa clinical trials, immunized volunteers underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) with P. falciparum to assess vaccine efficacy, whereby all but one volunteer developed low-density blood-stage parasitemia. Here we assess serum antibody responses against both the MSP1 and AMA1 antigens following i) ChAd63-MVA immunization, ii) immunization and CHMI, and iii) primary malaria exposure in the context of CHMI in unimmunized control volunteers. Responses were also assessed in a cohort of naturally-immune Kenyan adults to provide comparison with those induced by a lifetime of natural malaria exposure. Serum antibody responses against MSP1 and AMA1 were characterized in terms of i) total IgG responses before and after CHMI, ii) responses to allelic variants of MSP1 and AMA1, iii) functional growth inhibitory activity (GIA), iv) IgG avidity, and v) isotype responses (IgG1-4, IgA and IgM). These data provide the first in-depth assessment of the quality of adenovirus-MVA vaccine-induced antibody responses in humans, along with assessment of how these responses are modulated by subsequent low-density parasite exposure. Notable differences were observed in qualitative aspects of the human antibody responses against these malaria antigens depending on the means of their induction and/or exposure of the host to the malaria parasite. Given the continued clinical development of viral vectored vaccines for malaria and a range of other

  18. New Biological and Immature Morphological Records of the Masked Chafer, Cyclocephala paraguayensis

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Larissa Simões Corrêa; de Souza, Thamyrys Bezerra; Maia, Artur Campos Dália; Iannuzzi, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain information on the biology of the masked chafer, Cyclocephala paraguayensis Arrow (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini), and its immature morphology, the beetle life cycle was studied under laboratory conditions. After field collection, adults were placed inside containers filled with soil obtained in the original capture to provide an oviposition site after mating ocurred. Eggs were collected daily and isolated for manipulation experiments and life cycle observations. Detailed information about the eggs, instars and life cycle duration, and morphological features of immature stages were noted and examined. Egg viability was higher in the “nonmanipulated” batch. The complete ontogenic cycle of C. paraguayensis was 171 ± 11 days (n = 7). Despite the records of Cyclocephala being crop pests, reared larvae of C. paraguayensis thrived and developed into well-formed, fertile adults on an entirely saprophagous diet, indicating that they are not rhizophagous in the wild. The third instar can be distinguished from the other species mainly by the following unique characters: maximum width of the head capsule, distal antennal setae, and bifurcated setae on the raster. PMID:25201356

  19. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed. PMID:27404496

  20. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Gleiser, Raquel M.

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed. PMID:27404496

  1. Assessment of Immune Interference, Antagonism and Diversion following Human Immunization with Bi-Allelic Blood-Stage Malaria Viral Vectored Vaccines and Controlled Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Sean C.; Collins, Katharine A.; Halstead, Fenella D.; Choudhary, Prateek; Bliss, Carly M.; Ewer, Katie J.; Sheehy, Susanne H.; Duncan, Christopher J. A.; Biswas, Sumi; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Draper, Simon J.

    2012-01-01

    Overcoming antigenic variation is one of the major challenges in the development of an effective vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum, a causative agent of human malaria. Inclusion of multiple antigen variants in subunit vaccine candidates is one strategy that has aimed to overcome this problem for the leading blood-stage malaria vaccine targets, merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). However previous studies, utilizing malaria antigens, have concluded that inclusion of multiple allelic variants, encoding altered peptide ligands (APL), in such a vaccine may be detrimental to both the priming and in vivo re-stimulation of antigen-experienced T cells. Here we analyze the T cell responses to two alleles of MSP1 and AMA1 induced by vaccination of malaria-naïve adult volunteers with bi-valent viral vectored vaccine candidates. We show a significant bias to the 3D7/MAD20 allele compared to the Wellcome allele for the 33kDa region of MSP1, but not for the 19kDa fragment or the AMA1 antigen. Whilst this bias could be caused by ‘immune interference’ at priming, the data don’t support a significant role for ‘immune antagonism’ during memory T cell re-stimulation, despite observation of the latter at a minimal epitope level in vitro. A lack of class I HLA epitopes in the Wellcome allele that are recognized by vaccinated volunteers may in fact contribute to the observed bias. We also show that controlled infection with 3D7 strain P. falciparum parasites neither boosts existing 3D7-specific T cell responses nor appears to ‘immune divert’ cellular responses towards the Wellcome allele. PMID:23293353

  2. Limited Interference at the Early Stage of Infection between Two Recombinant Novirhabdoviruses: Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus and Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Biacchesi, Stéphane; Lamoureux, Annie; Mérour, Emilie; Bernard, Julie; Brémont, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The genome sequence of a hypervirulent novirhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) French strain 23-75, was determined. Compared to the genome of the prototype Fil3 strain, a number of substitutions, deletions, and insertions were observed. Following the establishment of a plasmid-based minigenome replication assay, recombinant VHSV (rVHSV) was successfully recovered. rVHSV exhibits wild-type-like growth properties in vitro as well as in vivo in rainbow trout. The dispensable role of NV for the novirhabdovirus replication was confirmed by generating rVHSV-ΔNV, in which the NV gene was deleted. This deletion mutant was shown to be as debilitated as that previously described for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a distantly related novirhabdovirus (S. Biacchesi, M. I. Thoulouze, M. Bearzotti, Y. X. Yu, and M. Bremont, J. Virol. 74:11247-11253, 2000). Recombinant VHSV and IHNV expressing tdTomato and GFPmax reporter genes, respectively, were generated, demonstrating the potential of these rhabdoviruses to serve as viral vectors. Interestingly, rIHNV-GFPmax could be recovered using the replicative complex proteins of either virus, whereas rVHSV-Tomato could be recovered only by using its own replicative complex, reflecting that the genome signal sequences of VHSV are relatively distant from those of IHNV and do not allow their cross-recognition. Moreover, the use of heterologous protein combinations underlined the importance of strong protein-protein interactions for the formation of a functional ribonucleoprotein complex. The rIHNV-GFPmax and rVHSV-Tomato viruses were used to simultaneously coinfect cell monolayers. It was observed that up to 74% of the cell monolayer was coinfected by both viruses, demonstrating that a limited interference phenomenon exists during the early stage of primary infection, and it was not mediated by a cellular antiviral protein or by some of the viral proteins. PMID:20631140

  3. Papillary Immature Metaplasia of the Anal Canal: A Low-grade Lesion That Can Mimic a High-grade Lesion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jennifer M; Cornall, Alyssa M; Ekman, Deborah; Law, Carmella; Poynten, I Mary; Jin, Fengyi; Hillman, Richard J; Templeton, David J; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Thurloe, Julia K; Grulich, Andrew E; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2016-03-01

    In a natural history study of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-related lesions among homosexual men in Sydney, Australia, we identified 15 examples of papillary immature metaplasia (PIM) in anal biopsy samples. PIM has previously been described in the cervix, but not in the anal canal. PIM is a form of exophytic low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (eLSIL) also known as condyloma. In contrast to the maturing keratinocytes and koilocytosis seen in conventional eLSIL, the slender papillary structures of PIM have a surface population of immature squamous cells. In our anal samples PIM was characterized by close proximity to conventional eLSIL, was negative for p16 (p16) expression, and revealed the presence of a single low-risk HPV genotype (either 6 or 11) in laser capture microdissected lesions. The clinical significance of recognizing PIM lies in preventing misdiagnosis as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, (the presumed precursor to anal cancer), due to the morphologic immaturity of the cell population. In routine practice, awareness of anal canal PIM and p16 immunostaining will prevent this. Further study of the natural history of anal canal PIM is needed. PMID:26551619

  4. Efficacy of various larvicides against Aedes aegypti immatures in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Yuan; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lee, Si-Jia; Lin, Cheo; Wu, Jhy-Wen; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the efficacy of control agents against small larvae, large larvae, and pupae of Aedes aegypti to determine an appropriate larvicide regime to employ in emergency dengue control programs. The control agents included Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator), a larvicidal oil, Aquatain AMF (polydimethylsiloxane, a monomolecular film), and temephos at the recommend application dosages and rates. Our results showed that Bti, pyriproxyfen, and temephos were efficacious (100% mortality) against larvae, irrespective of the instar stage, but not against pupae of Ae. aegypti (1.5-7.8% mortality). Aquatain AMF, on the other hand, was very effective at controlling the pupal stage (100% mortality), but had limited efficacy against small larvae (38.0% mortality) and large larvae (78.0% mortality). The larvicidal oil was effective against all immature stages (93.3-100% mortality). Therefore, we concluded that for effectively interrupting the dengue transmission cycle, larvicides that kill the pupal stage (Aquatain AMF or larvicidal oil) should be included in an emergency dengue control program in addition to Bti, pyriproxyfen, or temephos. PMID:23883850

  5. Use of NAA to determine nutritive elements in immature and mature soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1986-01-01

    During the maturation of soybeans, several changes in the chemical composition take place. However, data available relating mineral and vitamin content to maturation stage are limited and show a wide range of values. There are several factors that affect the mineral content of soybeans. These factors include, but are not limited to, soil composition, application of fertilizers, environmental conditions, and genetic factors. For the samples examined in this study all the aforementioned factors, except genetic, were kept unchanged. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was employed to measure calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in three soybean varieties at three maturation stages. Samples from three soybean varieties were investigated. The three maturation stages were defined as immature, green mature, and dry mature. The concentration of calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in the three soybean varieties at different maturation stages are shown. The concentration of some nutritive elements (for example, calcium, iron, manganese, and zinc) in soybeans are much higher than in other grain cereals such as wheat and corn. However, it is questionable whether too much nutritional importance be given to these elements in soybeans since phytate content in soybeans is much higher than that of wheat or corn, and it has been postulated that low bioavailability of the aforementioned elements are related to phytate content.

  6. Small Rho GTPases and Cholesterol Biosynthetic Pathway Intermediates in African Swine Fever Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Quetglas, Jose I.; Hernáez, Bruno; Galindo, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Moreno, Raquel; Cuesta-Geijo, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    The integrity of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway is required for efficient African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection. Incorporation of prenyl groups into Rho GTPases plays a key role in several stages of ASFV infection, since both geranylgeranyl and farnesyl pyrophosphates are required at different infection steps. We found that Rho GTPase inhibition impaired virus morphogenesis and resulted in an abnormal viral factory size with the accumulation of envelope precursors and immature virions. Furthermore, abundant defective virions reached the plasma membrane, and filopodia formation in exocytosis was abrogated. Rac1 was activated at early ASFV infection stages, coincident with microtubule acetylation, a process that stabilizes microtubules for virus transport. Rac1 inhibition did not affect the viral entry step itself but impaired subsequent virus production. We found that specific Rac1 inhibition impaired viral induced microtubule acetylation and viral intracellular transport. These findings highlight that viral infection is the result of a carefully orchestrated modulation of Rho family GTPase activity within the host cell; this modulation results critical for virus morphogenesis and in turn, triggers cytoskeleton remodeling, such as microtubule stabilization for viral transport during early infection. PMID:22114329

  7. Immatures of the New World treehopper tribe Amastrini (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae) with a key to genera

    PubMed Central

    McKamey, Stuart H.; Wallner, Adam M.; Porter, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The immatures stages of 8 of the 11 genera (Amastris Stål, Bajulata Ball, Erosne Stål, Harmonides Kirkaldy, Idioderma Van Duzee, Neotynelia Creão-Duarte & Sakakibara, Tynelia Stål, and Vanduzea Goding) of the tribe Amastrini are described for the first time along with brief diagnoses of Membracidae and the subfamily Smiliinae. A key to genera and notes on biology are provided. Multiple species of most genera are illustrated. Based on its distinct nymphal morphology, Vanduzea laeta nolina Ball is elevated to specific rank as Vanduzea nolina stat. n., and Bajulata, despite the superficial similarity of its adults to those of Vanduzea, is confirmed as warranting generic rank based on its unique nymphal morphology. Colombia is a new country record for Tynelia. PMID:26478706

  8. Global dynamics of delay equations for populations with competition among immature individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liz, Eduardo; Ruiz-Herrera, Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    We analyze a population model for two age-structured species allowing for inter- and intra-specific competition at immature life stages. The dynamics is governed by a system of Delay Differential Equations (DDEs) recently introduced by Gourley and Liu. The analysis of this model presents serious difficulties because the right-hand sides of the DDEs depend on the solutions of a system of nonlinear ODEs, and generally cannot be solved explicitly. Using the notion of strong attractor, we reduce the study of the attracting properties of the equilibria of the DDEs to the analysis of a related two-dimensional discrete system. Then, we combine some tools for monotone planar maps and planar competing Lotka-Volterra systems to describe the dynamics of the model with three different birth rate functions. We give easily verifiable conditions for global extinction of one or the two species, and for global convergence of the positive solutions to a coexistence state.

  9. Immatures of the New World treehopper tribe Amastrini (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae) with a key to genera.

    PubMed

    McKamey, Stuart H; Wallner, Adam M; Porter, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    The immatures stages of 8 of the 11 genera (Amastris Stål, Bajulata Ball, Erosne Stål, Harmonides Kirkaldy, Idioderma Van Duzee, Neotynelia Creão-Duarte & Sakakibara, Tynelia Stål, and Vanduzea Goding) of the tribe Amastrini are described for the first time along with brief diagnoses of Membracidae and the subfamily Smiliinae. A key to genera and notes on biology are provided. Multiple species of most genera are illustrated. Based on its distinct nymphal morphology, Vanduzea laeta nolina Ball is elevated to specific rank as Vanduzea nolina stat. n., and Bajulata, despite the superficial similarity of its adults to those of Vanduzea, is confirmed as warranting generic rank based on its unique nymphal morphology. Colombia is a new country record for Tynelia. PMID:26478706

  10. Toxicity of injected radium-226 in immature dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of injected {sup 226}Ra in immature dogs and to compare the results with those from studies of injected {sup 226}Ra in young adult dogs. An historic objective of these studies, initiated at the University of Utah and continued at ITRI, was to compare the results in dogs to the population of dial painters who ingested {sup 226}Ra as young adults. Age at the time of exposure is considered to be an important factor in dosimetry and risk of developing radiation-induced disease, particularly bone cancer. In summary, dogs injected with {sup 226}Ra when immature had increased occurrences of bone tumors in a dose-related fashion.

  11. Immature mouse unilateral carotid ligation model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Comi, Anne M; Johnston, Michael V; Wilson, Mary Ann

    2005-12-01

    Cerebral palsy in humans results from a diverse group of disorders that produce nonprogressive motor impairments in the developing brain. Stroke is an important cause of hemiparetic cerebral palsy in neonates and young children. We recently developed a new immature mouse model of stroke that demonstrates seizures, the severity of which correlates with brain injury. This model has strengths compared with other immature rodent models of ischemic injury, such as relative technical ease and the presence of seizures, as is seen in humans. This model also has relative weaknesses, such as the inability to titrate the severity of the injury with different periods of hypoxia. In addition, more work is needed to delineate the long-term consequences of the insult in this new model. PMID:16417846

  12. Uterotrophic activity of bisphenol A in the immature rat.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, J; Tinwell, H

    1998-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is active in immature AP rat uterotrophic assays when evaluated using either the oral or the subcutaneous (sc) injection routes of exposure (three daily administrations of 400-800 mg/kg BPA). Premature vaginal opening was seen for 8 of 14 animals exposed to 600 and 800 mg/kg BPA by sc injection. Vaginal opening was not produced by BPA in the gavage studies. These results are consistent with those of Dodds and Lawson [Nature 137:96 (1936)] who found that BPA induces persistent vaginal cornification in ovariectomized rats exposed to three twice-daily injections of 85 mg/kg BPA (total daily dose 170 mg/kg), but they conflict with the reported inactivity of BPA in the immature mouse uterotrophic assay. The uterotrophic activity of diethylstilbestrol in the rat is also established (0.04 mg/kg/day for three days). PMID:9799186

  13. A Simple Model for Immature Retrovirus Capsid Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquay, Stefan; van der Schoot, Paul; Dragnea, Bogdan

    In this talk I will present simulations of a simple model for capsomeres in immature virus capsids, consisting of only point particles with a tunable range of attraction constrained to a spherical surface. We find that, at sufficiently low density, a short interaction range is sufficient for the suppression of five-fold defects in the packing and causes instead larger tears and scars in the capsid. These findings agree both qualitatively and quantitatively with experiments on immature retrovirus capsids, implying that the structure of the retroviral protein lattice can, for a large part, be explained simply by the effective interaction between the capsomeres. We thank the HFSP for funding under Grant RGP0017/2012.

  14. Immature male gibbons produce female-specific songs.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hiroki; Oyakawa, Chisako; Kato, Akemi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Rizaldi; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Gibbons are apes that are well known to produce characteristic species-specific loud calls, referred to as "songs." Of particular interest is the sex specificity of the "great calls" heard in gibbon songs. However, little is known about the development of such calls. While great calls are given by female gibbons of various ages, they have never been recorded from males. Here, we report two observations of immature male gibbons from two different species, wild Hylobates agilis and captive H. lar, which spontaneously sang female-specific great calls. Based on the video clips, we conclude that immature males also have the potential to produce great calls. Our observations led us to propose a new hypothesis for the development of sexual differentiation in the songs of gibbons, and its implications for the general issue of sex-specific behavior in primates. PMID:24158401

  15. Salvage of Immature Arteriovenous Fistulas with Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Sung Wook; Do, Young Soo Choo, Sung Wook; Lieu, Wei Chiang; Choo, In-Wook

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for the salvage of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) that fail to mature. From November 1998 to February 2003, 19 patients who were treated with PTA due to immature forearm AVFs were selected. Fistulography and PTA were performed via a retrograde transvenous approach after direct puncture of the fistular vein. Technical success was defined as less than a 30% residual stenosis, whereas clinical success was defined as the ability to perform at least one session of normal hemodialysis after PTA. Findings of fistulograms, success rates of PTA, and patency rates were evaluated. On initial fistulograms, stenoses were observed in all cases and 68% (13/19) of the stenoses were located in the perianastomotic area of these immature AVFs. The initial technical success rate was 84% (16/19). Technical failures comprised two patients with diffuse narrowing and segmental thrombosis of the cephalic veins and one case of elastic recoil of the anastomotic site stenosis after PTA. Two patients were immediately lost on follow-up. The remaining 14 cases underwent successful hemodialysis 0 to 33 (mean = 15) days after PTA, showing 74% (14/19) clinical success. Although accessory branch veins were noted in most cases (74%, 14/19), leaving them alone did not affect the maturation of AVFs following PTA. There was no significant procedural or late complication. Primary and secondary patency rates at 1 year were 61 and 82%, respectively. For those AVFs that failed to mature, there were stenoses along their vascular courses as underlying causes. For the percutaneous procedure, the retrograde transvenous approach was a reasonable one. As PTA is effective and quick for the salvation of immature AVFs, it can be considered a primary method for salvaging these immature AVFs.

  16. Isolated Diaphyseal Fractures of the Radius in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guitton, Thierry G.; Van Dijk, Niek C.; Raaymakers, Ernst L.

    2009-01-01

    Diaphyseal radius fractures without associated ulna fracture or radioulnar dislocation (isolated fracture of the radius) are recognized in adults but are rarely described in skeletally immature patients. A search of our database (1974–2002) identified 17 pediatric patients that had an isolated fracture of the radius. Among the 13 patients with at least 1 year follow-up, ten were treated with manipulative reduction and immobilization in an above elbow cast and three had initial operative treatment with plate and screw fixation. These 13 patients were evaluated for an average of 18 months (range, 12 to 45 months) after injury using the system of Price and colleagues. The incidence of isolated diaphyseal radius fractures in skeletally immature patients was 0.56 per year in our database and represented 27% of the 63 patients with a diaphyseal forearm fracture. All 13 patients, with at least 1 year follow-up, regained full elbow flexion and extension and full forearm rotation. According to the classification system of Price, all 13 patients (100%) had an excellent result. As in adults, isolated radius fractures seem to occur in children more frequently than previously appreciated. Treatment of isolated radius fractures in skeletally immature patients has a low complication rate, and excellent functional outcomes are the rule. PMID:19859772

  17. Hormonal treatment and flight feather molt in immature Sandhill Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Molt, the production of a new generation of feathers, is a poorly understood physiological phenomenon in nondomestic birds. Often in large birds like geese, flight is restricted by clipping the primary remiges on 1 wing and flight is restored after the molt when the primaries are replaced. A similar technique would be desirable for use with cranes conditioned for release to the native habitat. However, immature sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) did not appear to replace their primaries annually; therefore, we studied their flight feather molt (from 4 months to 3.5 years of age) and attempted to influence molting. Under natural conditions tail feathers (rectrices) were replaced annually and all secondaries replaced in 2.5-year-old birds. However, replacement of primaries in immature sandhill cranes appears to be a gradual process beginning the 2nd year; about 33% of the original primaries (present at 10 months of age) persisted in the 3.5-year-oId birds. Pulling out the primaries of immature sandhill cranes induces the growth of new primaries, as is true of many other birds. However, the new primaries were incapable of supporting flight, fell out repeatedly, and those that remained were often deformed. Pulling the primaries, under the influence of tranquilizers and anesthetics to relax the feather papillae, also did not induce normal growth of the replacement primaries. Progesterone (including excessively high doses), thyroxine, and follicle stimulating hormone, although effective in inducing feather replacement in domestic poultry, had no effect on crane molt.

  18. Factors associated with initiation of antiretroviral therapy in the advanced stages of HIV infection in six Ethiopian HIV clinics, 2012 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Denis; Tymejczyk, Olga; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Kulkarni, Sarah Gorrell; Hoffman, Susie; Yigzaw, Muluneh; Elul, Batya; Remien, Robert H; Lahuerta, Maria; Daba, Shalo; El Sadr, Wafaa; Melaku, Zenebe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most HIV-positive persons in sub-Saharan Africa initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) with advanced infection (late ART initiation). Intervening on the drivers of late ART initiation is a critical step towards achieving the full potential of HIV treatment scale-up. This study aimed to identify modifiable factors associated with late ART initiation in Ethiopia. Methods From 2012 to 2013, Ethiopian adults (n=1180) were interviewed within two weeks of ART initiation. Interview data were merged with HIV care histories to assess correlates of late ART initiation (CD4+ count <150 cells/µL or World Health Organization Stage IV). Results The median CD4 count at enrolment in HIV care was 263 cells/µL (interquartile range (IQR): 140 to 390) and 212 cells/µL (IQR: 119 to 288) at ART initiation. Overall, 31.2% of participants initiated ART late, of whom 85.1% already had advanced HIV disease at enrolment. Factors associated with higher odds of late ART initiation included male sex (vs. non-pregnant females; adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.02; 95% CI: 1.50 to 2.73), high levels of psychological distress (vs. low/none, aOR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.34 to 2.87), perceived communication barriers with providers (aOR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.24 to 4.75), diagnosis via provider initiated testing (vs. voluntary counselling and testing, aOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.04), tuberculosis (TB) treatment prior to ART initiation (aOR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.43 to 3.25) and a gap in care of six months or more prior to ART initiation (aOR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.10 to 3.72). Testing because of partner illness/death (aOR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.95) was associated with lower odds of late ART initiation. Conclusions Programmatic initiatives promoting earlier diagnosis, engagement in pre-ART care, and integration of TB and HIV treatments may facilitate earlier ART initiation. Men and those experiencing psychological distress may also benefit from targeted support prior to ART initiation. PMID:27113335

  19. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis amastigotes from patients with mucosal leishmaniasis have increased ability to disseminate and are controlled by nitric oxide at the early stage of murine infection.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Clayson M; Ávila, Lucilla R; Santos, Jéssica C; Oliveira, Pollyana G; Tomé, Fernanda D; Pereira, Ledice I A; Dorta, Miriam L; Lino, Ruy S; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima; Oliveira, Milton A P

    2016-06-01

    Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) caused by Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis usually appears after the healing of the primary lesion when amastigotes disseminate from the infection site to the mucosal area. Here, we investigated murine infection with amastigotes obtained from patients with ML or localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL). Amastigotes were used to infect wild type, IFN-γ KO and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) KO mice. Amastigotes from patients with LCL induced lesions that appeared earlier in IFN-γ KO than parasites from ML. The lesion after infection with ML appeared early in iNOS KO than in IFN-γ KO mice and in iNOS KO mice parasites from ML and LCL cause similar lesions at the initial phase of infection, while parasites from ML induced greater lesions than the ones from LCL at the late phase. A greater number of parasites were observed in spleen of IFN-γ KO and iNOS KO mice infected with amastigotes from patients with ML than those with LCL. Parasites from ML infect a lower percentage of macrophages and are killed independent on IFN-γ and dependent on NO. The data suggest that amastigotes responsible for mucosal lesion in humans develop slowly on the initial phase of infection due to high susceptibility to NO and they have an increased ability to disseminate. PMID:27073255

  20. Evaluation of Antibody Response to Various Developmental Stage Specific Somatic Antigens of Paramphistomum epiclitum in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Jyoti; Prasad, A.; Singh, Nirbhay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of various developmental stage specific somatic antigens of Paramphistomum epiclitum (Digenea: Paramphistomidae), namely, metacercariae (McAg), immature intestinal flukes (ImIAg), immature ruminal flukes (ImRAg), and adult flukes (AAg), was done by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Result revealed presence of 3 (range 15.2–40.3 kDa), 13 (9.3–121.2 kDa), 14 (9.3–169.3 kDa), and 15 (8.0–169.3 kDa) polypeptides in McAg, ImIAg, ImRAg, and AAg, respectively. With an aim to identify a suitable immunodiagnostic antigen for early diagnosis of amphistomosis, the IgG antibody response to various developmental stage antigens in goats experimentally infected with metacercariae of P. epiclitum was evaluated by ELISA. The highest OD values were recorded with ImIAg which ranged between 0.23 and 0.55 with a significant increase from the 2nd week till 8th week of infection with a peak at 6th week. The analysis of statistical significance using a one-way analysis of variance with multiple pair wise comparisons revealed that IgG response was significantly higher with all antigens (P < 0.01) except McAg (P > 0.05) with a maximum mean difference of 0.1838 in comparison to control with ImIAg, thus, indicating that ImIAg which could be further exploited for its potential is a candidate for immunodiagnostic antigen for early diagnosis of amphistomosis. PMID:24995303

  1. Suitability and accessibility of immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. The current protocol for rearing T. ...

  2. Morphological and molecular description of immature stages of Ornithodoros savignyi (Acari: Argasidae).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy; Gabr, Hanan S M; Abdullah, Hend H A M; Mahmoud, Mona S

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to provide more details about larva, first nymph, and second nymph of Ornithodoros savignyi using a combination of light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and partial sequence of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA). The main characteristics of larva are wrinkled integument with many grooves, gnathosoma without camerostome cheeks, hypostome with a pair of large teeth apically, and tarsus without humps. The comparisons between the first and the second nymphs are different shape and distribution of dorsal grooves; a few spots without mammilla on the dorsal surface of the second nymph; 27 and 63-65 pairs of setae on the dorsal surface of the first and second nymphs, respectively; small holes on mammillae that are more dense in the second nymph; basis capitulum with two pairs of small setae in the second nymph; and one pair of sate in the first nymph, hypostome with dental formula 2/2 in the first nymph, and 3/3 in the second nymph. The partial 16S rRNA sequence of the second nymph that was determined as O. savignyi (450 bp) was deposited in GenBank under the accession number KU163242. PMID:27117161

  3. Environmental variables associated with immature stage habitats of culicidae collected in aboriginal villages in Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Wan Najdah Wan Mohamad; Ahmad, Rohani; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ismail, Zamree; Ibrahim, Mohd Noor; Hadi, Azahari Abdul; Hassan, Rahimi; Lim, Lee Han

    2012-11-01

    Many of the most widely spread vector-borne diseases are water related, in that the mosquito vectors concerned breed or pass part of their lifecycle in or close to water. A major reason for the study of mosquito larval ecology is to gather information on environmental variables that may determine the species of mosquitoes and the distribution of larvae in the breeding habitats. Larval surveillance studies were conducted six times between May 2008 and October 2009 in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. Twelve environmental variables were recorded for each sampling site, and samples of mosquito larvae were collected. Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected from 79 and 67 breeding sites, respectively. All breeding sites were classified into nine habitat groups. Culicine larvae were found in all habitat groups, suggesting that they are very versatile and highly adaptable to different types of environment. Rock pools or water pockets with clear water formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls were the most common habitats associated with An. maculatus. Environmental variables influence the suitability of aquatic habitats for anopheline and culicine larvae, but not significantly associated with the occurrence of both larvae genera (p>0.05). This study provides information on mosquito ecology in relation to breeding habitats that will be useful in designing and implementing larval control operations. PMID:23413702

  4. Expression of insecticide resistance in immature life stages of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Roca-Acevedo, Gonzalo; Picollo, María Inés; Santo-Orihuela, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the susceptibility to the insecticide deltamethrin and the expression of resistance to this insecticide in developing eggs and neonate nymphs of Triatoma infestans from two areas of Argentina (Campo Largo) and Bolivia (Entre Ríos), where resistance to this pyrethroid is suspected. Both nymphal populations showed resistance to deltamethrin, with lower resistance ratio for Entre Ríos (173X) than Campo Largo (1108X). Efficacy of deltamethrin on 4-, 7-, and 12-d-old eggs for both field populations were significantly lower than efficacy on eggs of the susceptible strain. This is the first documented evidence of the expression of pyrethroid resistance during the embryonic development of Chagas Disease vectors. PMID:23926779

  5. Morphology of immature stages of flesh flies, Boettcherisca nathani and Lioproctia pattoni (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Samerjai, Chutharat; Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kom; Morakote, Nimit; Wannasan, Anchalee; Pereira, Roberto M; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2016-11-01

    The flesh flies are medically-important because the larvae found in the human corpses can provide evidence in forensic investigations through larva identification and their developmental rate. Firstly, we thoroughly described the larval morphology of Boettcherisca nathani and Lioproctia pattoni, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The third instar of the two species differed markedly in two characters: (1) spines between the prothorax and mesothorax-B. nathani has more or less slender triangular spines, with those at the posterior region more slender than the anterior region; whereas L. pattoni has stout triangular spines with one or two tips anteriorly, with smaller and tapered triangular shape, grouped two to four laterally in the posterior end, and (2) morphology of the peristigmatic tufts at the posterior spiracle-B. nathani has extensively branched long, fine hairs, whereas tufts in L. pattoni have moderately branched long, fine hairs. The anterior spiracle displayed similarity; B. nathani has two irregular rows of 21-27 papillae, while L. pattoni has a single irregular row of 20-28 papillae. Secondly, we use light microscopy to compare morphology of the third instar of the two species and additional three species, i.e., Bercaea africa, Parasarcophaga dux and Liopygia ruficornis. Particular attention was paid to the features of anterior spiracle, spines between prothorax and mesothorax and posterior spiracle. These results are useful in species identification and estimation of age of larvae found associated with corpses. PMID:27515808

  6. Biology and morphology of immature stages of Lixus canescens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Lixinae).

    PubMed

    Skuhrovec, Jiří; Volovnik, Semyon

    2015-01-01

    Mature larvae and pupae of Lixus (Eulixus) canescens Steven, 1829 (Curculionidae: Lixinae: Lixini) are described and compared with known larvae and pupae of other Lixus species. The biology of the species was studied in Ukraine. A species of Crambe (Brassicaceae) was identified as host plant of both larvae and adults of this weevil. The weevil is very likely oligophagous. Lixus canescens prefers dry, sunny places, such as open areas of sand close to sea shores with growing host plants. Overwintering beetles emerge in the late spring (mid-May), and then feed and mate on the host plants. The highest level of activity of the adults was observed at the end of May. Larvae are endophagous in the host plant stem. At the end of July, the larvae pupate within the stem inside a pupation cell. Adults leave the cells at the end of summer and do not hibernate on the host plants. They then, most likely, spend some time feeding on the host plants and looking for suitable shelter in which to overwinter. PMID:26624410

  7. Comparative morphology of immature stages of two sympatric Tenebrionidae species, with comments on their biology.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Grzegorz K; Gosik, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    The mature larva and pupa of Neomida haemorrhoidalis are described and illustrated for the first time. The mature larva of Bolitophagus reticulatus is completely redescribed and illustrated, and its pupa is described for the first time. The differential diagnosis of the two species is presented. Information about their biology and life history is also given. PMID:27395086

  8. Biology and morphology of immature stages of Adosomus roridus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Lixinae).

    PubMed

    Trnka, Filip; Stejskal, Robert; Skuhrovec, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Mature larva and pupa of Adosomus (s. str.) roridus (Pallas, 1781) (Curculionidae: Lixinae: Cleonini) are described and compared with ten other taxa of Cleonini with known larvae. This weevil is an oligophagous species on the Asteraceae family. From our observations in Slovakia, we found active adults from April to September in dry sunny places within extensively used or fallow vineyards and in ruderal vegetation with host plants. The weevil is a root borer--larvae, pupae and fresh adults were collected from the root necks and roots of Common Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) and rarely from Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.). Each plant was usually occupied by one larva, or more rarely with two or three larvae. The new generation of adult individuals appeared from early summer to autumn. Both larvae and some of the adults overwinter, which is quite unique within Cleonini. PMID:26624140

  9. Immature Platelet Fraction in Septic Patients: Clinical Relevance of Immature Platelet Fraction is Limited to the Sensitive and Accurate Discrimination of Septic Patients From Non-Septic Patients, Not to the Discrimination of Sepsis Severity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Ha, Sang Ook; Cho, Young-Uk; Park, Chan-Jeoung

    2016-01-01

    Background The immature platelet fraction (IPF) reflects the degree of reticulated platelets. We evaluated performances of IPF as a biomarker for the discrimination of septic patients from non-septic patients and sepsis severity. Methods Total 312 patients admitted between March and July 2013 were enrolled and samples were obtained at admission. Lactate (LA), procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), immature granulocyte fraction (IG), immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), and IPF were analyzed as sepsis biomarkers and their performances were compared. Results The performance of IPF (area under the curve [AUC]=0.868) in the discrimination of septic patients from non-septic patients was comparable to PCT/CRP/LA/IG (AUC=0.923/0.940/0.781/0.812, P=0.233/0.106/0.186/0.353, respectively), and was significantly better than the IRF (AUC=0.658, P=0.007). Sensitivity (89.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 84.9-99.8%) and accuracy (83.2%, 95% CI 78.8-90.0%) of IPF were the best among all biomarkers. The performance of IPF in discriminating septic patients from non-septic patients with local infection showed similar results. However, the IPF could not efficiently discriminate sepsis severity (AUC=0.599), similar to other biomarkers (AUC=0.519-0.752). Conclusions The IPF possessed high sensitivity/accuracy in discriminating septic patients from non-septic patients, regardless of local infection status. However, the IPF did not efficiently discriminate sepsis severity. The clinical relevance of IPF as a sepsis biomarker is, therefore, limited to sensitive and accurate discrimination of septic patients from non-septic patients, not discrimination of sepsis severity. PMID:26522752

  10. A Temporospatial Map That Defines Specific Steps at Which Critical Surfaces in the Gag MA and CA Domains Act during Immature HIV-1 Capsid Assembly in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Bridget A.; Reed, Jonathan C.; Geary, Clair D.; Swain, J. Victor

    2014-01-01

    biochemical and ultrastructural analyses to generate a temporospatial map showing the precise order in which four critical surfaces in Gag act during immature capsid formation in provirus-expressing cells. Because three of these surfaces make important contacts in the hexameric lattices that are found in the completed immature capsid, these data allow us to propose a model for the sequence of events leading to formation of the hexameric lattices. By providing a dynamic view of when and where critical Gag-Gag contacts form during the assembly process and how those contacts function in the nascent capsid, our study provides novel insights into how an immature capsid is built in infected cells. PMID:24623418

  11. Effectiveness of ivermectin in the treatment of equine Parascaris equorum and Oxyuris equi infections.

    PubMed

    Yazwinski, T A; Hamm, D; Williams, M; Greenway, T; Tilley, W

    1982-06-01

    Fifteen horses harboring naturally acquired, patent Parascaris equorum and Oxyuris equi infections were equally allotted to 3 treatment groups given (1) injectable vehicle; (2) injectable ivermectin at the dose rate of 200 microgram/kg of body weight; and (3) injectable ivermectin at the rate of 300 microgram/kg. All treatments were given IM in the neck. All animals were killed 14 days after treatment and examined for the targeted nematodes. Regardless of dose rate, ivermectin proved 100% effective in the removal of adult O equi and P equorum infections. Levels of immature P equorum were decreased by 98.5% in both ivermectin-treated groups. Oxyuris equi 4th-stage larval injections were decreased by 95.7% and 99.9% by the 200 and 300 microgram/kg ivermectin treatments, respectively. Adverse reactions to the injections of drug were not seen. PMID:6896611

  12. Targeting of a Fixed Bacterial Immunogen to Fc Receptors Reverses the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of the Gram-Negative Bacterium, Francisella tularensis, during the Early Stages of Infection.

    PubMed

    Babadjanova, Zulfia; Wiedinger, Kari; Gosselin, Edmund J; Bitsaktsis, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells at the early stages of bacterial infection is important for host protection against the pathogen. Many intracellular bacteria, including Francisella tularensis, the agent of tularemia, utilize the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, to evade the host immune response. It is well established that IL-10 has the ability to inhibit robust antigen presentation by dendritic cells and macrophages, thus suppressing the generation of protective immunity. The pathogenesis of F. tularensis is not fully understood, and research has failed to develop an effective vaccine to this date. In the current study, we hypothesized that F. tularensis polarizes antigen presenting cells during the early stages of infection towards an anti-inflammatory status characterized by increased synthesis of IL-10 and decreased production of IL-12p70 and TNF-α in an IFN-ɣ-dependent fashion. In addition, F. tularensis drives an alternative activation of alveolar macrophages within the first 48 hours post-infection, thus allowing the bacterium to avoid protective immunity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that targeting inactivated F. tularensis (iFt) to Fcγ receptors (FcɣRs) via intranasal immunization with mAb-iFt complexes, a proven vaccine strategy in our laboratories, reverses the anti-inflammatory effects of the bacterium on macrophages by down-regulating production of IL-10. More specifically, we observed that targeting of iFt to FcγRs enhances the classical activation of macrophages not only within the respiratory mucosa, but also systemically, at the early stages of infection. These results provide important insight for further understanding the protective immune mechanisms generated when targeting immunogens to Fc receptors. PMID:26114641

  13. The critical time of avian leukosis virus subgroup J-mediated immunosuppression during early stage infection in specific pathogen-free chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Xiaowei; Chen, Hongbo; Liu, Jianzhu; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2011-09-01

    The critical time of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J)-mediated immunosuppression was determined by body weight, relative immune organ weight, histopathology, and presence of group specific antigen and antibodies in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell activity in the spleen, total and differential leukocyte counts in blood, and viral RNA levels in spleen were measured. Significant growth suppression was observed in the two ALV-J-infected groups. A strong immune response by infected groups was present in spleen at 2-weeks-of-age, but after 4-weeks-of-age, the response decreased quickly. The thymus and bursa showed persistent immunosuppression until 4-weeks-of-age. Proliferation of fibroblasts and dendritic cells were observed in immune organs at 4- and 5-weeks-of-age. However, the granulocyte cell number was markedly lower in the infected groups than in the control group. In group 1 (day 1 infection) CD4(+) cells increased during the second week but significantly decreased during the fourth week, while group 2 (day 7 infection) showed the opposite effect. Viral RNA increased significantly by the fourth week. These data identify 3~4 weeks post-infection as the key time at which the ALV-J virus exerts its immunosuppressive effects on the host. PMID:21897096

  14. The critical time of avian leukosis virus subgroup J-mediated immunosuppression during early stage infection in specific pathogen-free chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Xiaowei; Chen, Hongbo; Liu, Jianzhu

    2011-01-01

    The critical time of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J)-mediated immunosuppression was determined by body weight, relative immune organ weight, histopathology, and presence of group specific antigen and antibodies in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. CD4+ and CD8+ cell activity in the spleen, total and differential leukocyte counts in blood, and viral RNA levels in spleen were measured. Significant growth suppression was observed in the two ALV-J-infected groups. A strong immune response by infected groups was present in spleen at 2-weeks-of-age, but after 4-weeks-of-age, the response decreased quickly. The thymus and bursa showed persistent immunosuppression until 4-weeks-of-age. Proliferation of fibroblasts and dendritic cells were observed in immune organs at 4- and 5-weeks-of-age. However, the granulocyte cell number was markedly lower in the infected groups than in the control group. In group 1 (day 1 infection) CD4+ cells increased during the second week but significantly decreased during the fourth week, while group 2 (day 7 infection) showed the opposite effect. Viral RNA increased significantly by the fourth week. These data identify 3~4 weeks post-infection as the key time at which the ALV-J virus exerts its immunosuppressive effects on the host. PMID:21897096

  15. Persistent Gut Microbiota Immaturity in Malnourished Bangladeshi Children

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sathish; Huq, Sayeeda; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Haque, Rashidul; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Alam, Mohammed A.; Benezra, Amber; DeStefano, Joseph; Meier, Martin F.; Muegge, Brian D.; Barratt, Michael J.; VanArendonk, Laura G.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Province, Michael A.; Petri, William A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic food interventions have reduced mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) but incomplete restoration of healthy growth remains a major problem1,2. The relationships between the type of nutritional intervention, the gut microbiota, and therapeutic responses are unclear. In the current study, bacterial species whose proportional representation define a healthy gut microbiota as it assembles during the first two postnatal years were identified by applying a machine-learning-based approach to 16S rRNA datasets generated from monthly fecal samples obtained from a birth-cohort of children, living in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh, who exhibited consistently healthy growth. These age-discriminatory bacterial species were incorporated into a model that computes a ‘relative microbiota maturity index’ and ‘microbiota-for-age Z-score’ that compare development (defined here as maturation) of a child’s fecal microbiota relative to healthy children of similar chronologic age. The model was applied to twins and triplets (to test for associations of these indices with genetic and environmental factors including diarrhea), children with SAM enrolled in a randomized trial of two food interventions, and children with moderate acute malnutrition. Our results indicate that SAM is associated with significant relative microbiota immaturity that is only partially ameliorated following two widely used nutritional interventions. Immaturity is also evident in less severe forms of malnutrition and correlates with anthropometric measurements. Microbiota maturity indices provide a microbial measure of human postnatal development, a way of classifying malnourished states, and a parameter for judging therapeutic efficacy. More prolonged interventions with existing or new therapeutic foods and/or addition of gut microbes may be needed to achieve enduring repair of gut microbiota immaturity in childhood malnutrition and improve clinical outcomes. PMID

  16. Persistent gut microbiota immaturity in malnourished Bangladeshi children.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sathish; Huq, Sayeeda; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Haque, Rashidul; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Alam, Mohammed A; Benezra, Amber; DeStefano, Joseph; Meier, Martin F; Muegge, Brian D; Barratt, Michael J; VanArendonk, Laura G; Zhang, Qunyuan; Province, Michael A; Petri, William A; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2014-06-19

    Therapeutic food interventions have reduced mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), but incomplete restoration of healthy growth remains a major problem. The relationships between the type of nutritional intervention, the gut microbiota, and therapeutic responses are unclear. In the current study, bacterial species whose proportional representation define a healthy gut microbiota as it assembles during the first two postnatal years were identified by applying a machine-learning-based approach to 16S ribosomal RNA data sets generated from monthly faecal samples obtained from birth onwards in a cohort of children living in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh, who exhibited consistently healthy growth. These age-discriminatory bacterial species were incorporated into a model that computes a 'relative microbiota maturity index' and 'microbiota-for-age Z-score' that compare postnatal assembly (defined here as maturation) of a child's faecal microbiota relative to healthy children of similar chronologic age. The model was applied to twins and triplets (to test for associations of these indices with genetic and environmental factors, including diarrhoea), children with SAM enrolled in a randomized trial of two food interventions, and children with moderate acute malnutrition. Our results indicate that SAM is associated with significant relative microbiota immaturity that is only partially ameliorated following two widely used nutritional interventions. Immaturity is also evident in less severe forms of malnutrition and correlates with anthropometric measurements. Microbiota maturity indices provide a microbial measure of human postnatal development, a way of classifying malnourished states, and a parameter for judging therapeutic efficacy. More prolonged interventions with existing or new therapeutic foods and/or addition of gut microbes may be needed to achieve enduring repair of gut microbiota immaturity in childhood malnutrition and improve clinical

  17. Taurine activates GABAergic networks in the neocortex of immature mice

    PubMed Central

    Sava, Bogdan A.; Chen, Rongqing; Sun, Haiyan; Luhmann, Heiko J.; Kilb, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that taurine is the main endogenous neurotransmitter acting on glycine receptors, the implications of glycine receptor-mediated taurine actions on immature neocortical networks have not been addressed yet. To investigate the influence of taurine on the excitability of neuronal networks in the immature neocortex, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from visually identified pyramidal neurons and interneurons in coronal slices from C57Bl/6 and GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice (postnatal days 2–4). In 46% of the pyramidal neurons bath-application of taurine at concentrations ≥ 300 μM significantly enhanced the frequency of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) by 744.3 ± 93.8% (n = 120 cells). This taurine-induced increase of PSC frequency was abolished by 0.2 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX), 1 μM strychnine or 3 μM gabazine, but was unaffected by the glutamatergic antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and (±) R(-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), suggesting that taurine specifically activates GABAergic network activity projecting to pyramidal neurons. Cell-attached recordings revealed that taurine enhanced the frequency of action potentials (APs) in pyramidal neurons, indicating an excitatory action of the GABAergic PSCs. In order to identify the presynaptic targets of taurine we demonstrate that bath application of taurine induced in GAD67-GFP labeled interneurons an inward current that is mainly mediated by glycine receptors and can generate APs in these cells. We conclude from these results that taurine can enhance network excitability in the immature neocortex by selectively activating GABAergic interneurons via interactions with glycine receptors. PMID:24550782

  18. Parasite-specific IgM plays a significant role in the protective immune response to asexual erythrocytic stage Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection.

    PubMed

    Couper, K N; Phillips, R S; Brombacher, F; Alexander, J

    2005-05-01

    A comparison of Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection in BALB/c and BALB/c IgM-deficient mice demonstrated a protective role for IgM during infection. IgM-/- mice, unlike microMT mice, display competent B cell humoral immune responses. Increased susceptibility of IgM-/- mice was demonstrated by increased mortality, an advanced ascending infection and higher peak parasitaemia, as well as enhanced anaemia and weight loss compared with wild-type mice. The recrudescent parasitaemias were also higher in the IgM-/- mice. Early specific IgM production in P. chabaudi-infected wild-type mice was followed by IgG1 and IgG2a production, while IgG1 and IgG2a production in IgM-/- mice was preceded by specific IgD production. No protective role for natural IgM against P. chabaudi AS infection was detected as passive transfer of naïve WT serum into IgM-/- mice did not alter the disease outcome or reduce parasite numbers. Passive transfer of WT antiserum, containing predominantly specific IgM, into IgM-/- mice delayed the ascending parasitaemia and reduced mortality. Similarly, coating parasitized red blood cells with WT antiserum, but not IgM-/- antisera, prior to infection also slightly delayed the ascending acute parasitaemia. Specific IgM therefore plays an important role in the limitation of parasite replication during asexual erythrocytic P. chabaudi AS infection. PMID:15987340

  19. Brain Invasion by CD4(+) T Cells Infected with a Transmitted/Founder HIV-1BJZS7 During Acute Stage in Humanized Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xilin; Liu, Li; Cheung, Ka-Wai; Wang, Hui; Lu, Xiaofan; Cheung, Allen Ka Loon; Liu, Wan; Huang, Xiuyan; Li, Yanlei; Chen, Zhiwei W; Chen, Samantha M Y; Zhang, Tong; Wu, Hao; Chen, Zhiwei

    2016-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is one of the common causes of cognitive dysfunction and morbidity among infected patients. However, to date, it remains unknown if a transmitted/founder (T/F) HIV-1 leads to neurological disorders during acute phase of infection. Since it is impossible to answer this question in humans, we studied NOD.Cg-Prkdc scid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice (NSG) reconstituted with human PBMC (NSG-HuPBL), followed by the peritoneal challenge with the chronic HIV-1JR-FL and the T/F HIV-1BJZS7, respectively. By measuring viral load, P24 antigenemia and P24(+) cells in peripheral blood and various tissue compartments, we found that systemic infections were rapidly established in NSG-HuPBL mice by both HIV-1 strains. Although comparable peripheral viral loads were detected during acute infection, the T/F virus appeared to cause less CD4(+) T cell loss and less numbers of infected cells in different organs and tissue compartments. Both viruses, however, invaded brains with P24(+)/CD3(+) T cells detected primarily in meninges, cerebral cortex and perivascular areas. Critically, brain infections with HIV-1JR-FL but not with HIV-1BJZS7 resulted in damaged neurons together with activated microgliosis and astrocytosis as determined by significantly increased numbers of Iba1(+) microglial cells and GFAP(+) astrocytes, respectively. The increased Iba1(+) microglia was correlated positively with levels of P24 antigenemia and negatively with numbers of NeuN(+) neurons in brains of infected animals. Our findings, therefore, indicate the establishment of two useful NSG-HuPBL models, which may facilitate future investigation of mechanisms underlying HIV-1-induced microgliosis and astrocytosis. PMID:26838362

  20. Effects of intra-mammary bacterial infection with coagulase negative staphylococci and stage of lactation on shedding of epithelial cells and infiltration of leukocytes into milk: comparison among cows, goats and sheep.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi; Krifucks, Oleg; Blum, Shlomo; Rivas, Ariel L; Silanikove, Nissim

    2012-06-30

    The effects of mammary gland bacterial infection and stage of lactation on leukocyte infiltration into the mammary gland were compared among cows, goats and sheep. Animals were at two stages of lactation: mid or late. In mid-lactation animals, bacterial-free glands and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS)-infected glands were compared. In late lactation only uninfected glands were studied. Of mid-lactation bacteria-free animals, goats had the highest number of leukocytes and % polymorphonuclears (PMNs), whereas sheep had the lowest and leukocytes number in cows were intermediate between sheep and goats. Based on %PMN, two cell clusters were found in sheep, which overlapped with the parallel cell clusters of cows and goats, but with a slightly higher number of leukocytes in each cell cluster. At late lactation, goats had higher values for %PMN and leukocyte numbers in comparison to cows, which had a similar cellular profile to sheep. The cellular immune response to CNS infection was similar for the three animal species, although the number of cells was different, while the basal cell level at mid-lactation and especially at the end of lactation was species specific. PMID:22584045

  1. Pulp revascularization of a severely malformed immature maxillary canine.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won Chang; Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Hyo-Seol; Choi, Sung Chul; Nam, Ok Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a dental anomaly exhibiting complex anatomical forms. Because of this anatomical complexity, immature DI teeth with necrotic pulp are difficult to treat via apexification. We used revascularization as an alternative treatment for a patient with DI. An 11-year-old boy visited our clinic with chief complaints of gingival swelling and pain in the left maxillary canine. Clinical and radiographic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of type III DI. Revascularization therapy was performed, and a 24-month follow-up examination confirmed healing of the periapical radiolucency and physiological root formation. (J Oral Sci 58, 295-298, 2016). PMID:27349553

  2. Total 'shrink' losses, and where they occur, in commercially sized silage piles constructed from immature and mature cereal crops.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P H; Swanepoel, N; Heguy, J M; Price, P; Meyer, D M

    2016-07-15

    Silage 'shrink' (i.e., fresh chop crop lost between ensiling and feedout) represents losses of potential animal nutrients which degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds. Regulatory efforts have, in some cases, resulted in semi-mandatory mitigations (i.e., dairy farmers select a minimum number of mitigations from a list) to reduce silage shrink, mitigations often based on limited data of questionable relevance to large commercial silage piles where silage shrink may or may not be a problem of a magnitude equal to that assumed. Silage 'shrink' is generally ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost during oven drying (vcoDM). As no research has documented shrink in large cereal silage piles, 6 piles ranging from 1456 to 6297tonnes (as built) were used. Three used cereal cut at an immature stage and three at a mature stage. Physiologically immature silages had generally higher (P<0.01) levels of total volatile fatty acids (especially acetic acid; P=0.01) and total alcohols (P<0.01) than did physiologically mature crops, suggesting higher carbon compound volatilization potential from immature silages. However expressed as WW, oDM and vcoDM, total shrink (as well as from where in the piles it occurred) was little impacted by crop maturity, and whole pile vcoDM shrink was only ~35g/kg. Overall, real shrink losses (vcoDM) of large well managed cereal silage piles were relatively low, and a lower potential contributor to aerosol emissions of volatile carbon compounds than has often been assumed. Losses from the silage mass and the exposed silage face were approximately equal contributors to vcoDM shrink. Mitigations to reduce these relatively low emission levels of volatile organic compounds from cereal silage piles should focus on the ensiled mass and the exposed silage face. PMID:27054492

  3. In vitro Asymbiotic Germination of Immature Seed and Formation of Protocorm by Cephalanthera falcata (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    YAMAZAKI, JUN; MIYOSHI, KAZUMITSU

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Many Orchidaceous species are threatened globally by development and over-collection from their natural habitats for horticultural purposes. Artificial propagation from seeds is difficult in most terrestrial orchids native to temperate regions. Seed production is another limiting factor in the artificial propagation for these species because of the lessened probability of pollination and the destruction of fruit by insect larvae. Members of the genus Cephalanthera are distributed across Europe, Asia and North America. C. falcata is a temperate species of East Asia and an endangered species in Japan. As successful propagation from seeds of this species has never been reported, a reproducible method is described here for seed production in situ and propagation using immature seeds in asymbiotic culture in vitro. • Methods Effects of hand-pollination and bagging treatment of ovaries were examined. Young capsules were collected every 10 d from 50 d after pollination until 120 d after pollination. Immature seeds obtained from these capsules were cultured asymbiotically on modified Kano medium and ND medium. Seed viability was examined within TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) test solution and histological observations were made on viable seeds by paraffin embedding at each collection stage. • Key Results and Conclusions Hand-pollination followed by bagging treatment of ovaries with aluminium foil was effective for insect control during fruit development, and successfully yielded capsules. Of the capsules, 74·5 % survived to full maturity. The highest frequency (39·8 %) of seed germination was obtained with seeds harvested 70 d after pollination. The frequency declined with progress of seed maturity on the mother plant. Minimal germination was observed with seeds harvested 100 d or later after pollination. Histological observation suggests that accumulation of such substances as lignin in the inner integument surrounding the embryo

  4. Cell Phone-Based System (Chaak) for Surveillance of Immatures of Dengue Virus Mosquito Vectors

    PubMed Central

    LOZANO–FUENTES, SAUL; WEDYAN, FADI; HERNANDEZ–GARCIA, EDGAR; SADHU, DEVADATTA; GHOSH, SUDIPTO; BIEMAN, JAMES M.; TEP-CHEL, DIANA; GARCÍA–REJÓN, JULIÁN E.; EISEN, LARS

    2014-01-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, México, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788

  5. Characterization and isolation of immature neurons of the adult mouse piriform cortex.

    PubMed

    Rubio, A; Belles, M; Belenguer, G; Vidueira, S; Fariñas, I; Nacher, J

    2016-07-01

    Physiological studies indicate that the piriform or primary olfactory cortex of adult mammals exhibits a high degree of synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, a subpopulation of cells in the layer II of the adult piriform cortex expresses neurodevelopmental markers, such as the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) or doublecortin (DCX). This study analyzes the nature, origin, and potential function of these poorly understood cells in mice. As previously described in rats, most of the PSA-NCAM expressing cells in layer II could be morphologically classified as tangled cells and only a small proportion of larger cells could be considered semilunar-pyramidal transitional neurons. Most were also immunoreactive for DCX, confirming their immature nature. In agreement with this, detection of PSA-NCAM combined with that of different cell lineage-specific antigens revealed that most PSA-NCAM positive cells did not co-express markers of glial cells or mature neurons. Their time of origin was evaluated by birthdating experiments with halogenated nucleosides performed at different developmental stages and in adulthood. We found that virtually all cells in this paleocortical region, including PSA-NCAM-positive cells, are born during fetal development. In addition, proliferation analyses in adult mice revealed that very few cells were cycling in layer II of the piriform cortex and that none of them was PSA-NCAM-positive. Moreover, we have established conditions to isolate and culture these immature neurons in the adult piriform cortex layer II. We find that although they can survive under certain conditions, they do not proliferate in vitro either. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 748-763, 2016. PMID:26487449

  6. Role of CD56-expressing immature biliary epithelial cells in biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui-Zhong; Yu, Jia-Kang; Peng, Jiao; Wang, Feng-Hua; Liu, Hai-Ying; Lui, Vincent CH; Nicholls, John M; Tam, Paul KH; Lamb, Jonathan R; Chen, Yan; Xia, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical and pathological parameters and expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) in patients with biliary atresia (BA). METHODS: Established clinical laboratory markers of hepatic function, including enzyme activity, protein synthesis, and bilirubin metabolism, were evaluated in patients with BA and compared with those in patients with choledochal cysts and neonatal hepatitis. Pathological changes in tissue morphology and fibrosis were examined by histological and tissue collagen staining. Immunohistochemical staining for the biliary epithelial cell markers CD56 and CK19 together with the Notch signaling related molecules Notch1 and Notch2 was performed in the context of alterations in the structure of intrahepatic biliary ducts. RESULTS: Differences in some clinical laboratory parameters among the three diseases examined were observed, but they did not correlate with the pathological classification of fibrosis in BA. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of CD56-positive immature bile ducts in most patients (74.5%) with BA but not in patients with choledochal cysts or neonatal hepatitis. The number of CD56-expressing cells correlated with disease severity, with more positive cells present in the later stages of liver damage (81.8% vs 18.2%). Furthermore, bile plugs were mainly found in CD56-positive immature biliary ducts. Notch signaling was a key regulatory pathway in biliary duct formation and played a role in tissue fibrosis. Notch1 was co-expressed in CD56-positive cells, whereas Notch2 was found exclusively in blood vessels in the portal area of patients with BA. CONCLUSION: The maturation of biliary epithelial cells and the expression of Notch may play a role in the pathogenesis of BA. PMID:26937142

  7. Impeded establishment of the infective stage of Trichinella in the intestinal mucosa of mice by passive transfer of an IgA monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Takashi; Sato, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Haruo

    2003-11-01

    Our previous study showed that the IgA monoclonal antibody (mAb) HUSM-Tb1 forms immunoprecipitates on the cuticular surface of infective larvae of Trichinella britovi, and that intraperitoneal injection of this mAb to mice 5 hr before challenge infection confers a high level of protection against intestinal T. britovi. The same treatment produced a similar effect in BALB/c mice inoculated orally with Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae, indicating that the effects may be seen upon most members of the genus Trichinella. Worms recovered from the intestinal mucosa at 1 hr after challenge infection with T. pseudospiralis was few in mice passively immunized with the mAb, whereas a substantial number of worms were recovered from the mucosa of control groups. These results suggest that the IgA mAb impedes establishment of infective Trichinella worms in the intestinal mucosa. Trichinella worms inoculated orally into BALB/c mice vaccinated with ultraviolet-irradiated muscle larvae 3 weeks earlier were expelled between days 4 and 7 after challenge infection. Although the mAb HUSM-Tb1 originated from the mesenteric lymph node cells of mice vaccinated repeatedly with such irradiated larvae, IgA-mediated expulsion does not seem to play an important role in this vaccination model. PMID:14665753

  8. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.; Kuo, Chay T.; Wadiche, Jacques I.; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spike due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations. PMID:27095423

  9. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.; Kuo, Chay T.; Wadiche, Jacques I.; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-04-20

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spikemore » due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Here, our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations.« less

  10. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons.

    PubMed

    Dieni, Cristina V; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B; Kuo, Chay T; Wadiche, Jacques I; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spike due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations. PMID:27095423

  11. Curculio Curculis lupus: biology, behavior and morphology of immatures of the cannibal weevil Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943

    PubMed Central

    Bená, Daniela de Cássia; Vanin, Sergio Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Weevils are one of the largest groups of living organisms, with more than 60,000 species feeding mostly on plants. With only one exception, their described larvae are typical plant-feeders, with mouthparts adapted to chewing plant material. Here we describe the second case of a weevil with early-instar larvae adapted to killing conspecifics. We have studied the life history of Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943 (Curculioninae: Derelomini sensu Caldara, Franz & Oberprieler (2014)), a species whose immatures feed internally on palm flowers and fruits. We provide detailed descriptions of all immature stages, including the extremely modified first-instar larva. Unlike other weevils and later instars, this stage exhibits a flat body with very long ventropedal lobe setae, a large and prognathous head with a gula, and falciform mandibles, each with a serrate retinaculum, that are used to fight with and eventually kill other first-instar larvae. We also provide biological notes on all stages and the results of behavioral tests that showed that larval aggression occurs only among early life stages. Finally we show that adult size is highly dependent on timing of oviposition. This specialized killer first instar probably evolved independently from the one other case known in weevils, in Revena rubiginosa (Conoderinae: Bariditae sensu Prena, Colonnelli & Hespenheide (2014)). Interestingly, both lineages inhabit the same hosts, raising the possibility that both intra- and inter-specific competition shaped those phenotypes. Given the scarcity of knowledge on early larval stages of concealed insect herbivores, it is possible that our findings represent an instance of a much broader phenomenon. Our observations also allowed us to conclude that Anchylorhynchus eriospathae and A. hatschbachi G. G. Bondar, 1943 are actually the same species, which we synonymize here by considering the latter as a junior synonym (new synonymy). PMID:25101231

  12. Curculio Curculis lupus: biology, behavior and morphology of immatures of the cannibal weevil Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Bruno Augusto Souza; Bená, Daniela de Cássia; Vanin, Sergio Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Weevils are one of the largest groups of living organisms, with more than 60,000 species feeding mostly on plants. With only one exception, their described larvae are typical plant-feeders, with mouthparts adapted to chewing plant material. Here we describe the second case of a weevil with early-instar larvae adapted to killing conspecifics. We have studied the life history of Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943 (Curculioninae: Derelomini sensuCaldara, Franz & Oberprieler (2014)), a species whose immatures feed internally on palm flowers and fruits. We provide detailed descriptions of all immature stages, including the extremely modified first-instar larva. Unlike other weevils and later instars, this stage exhibits a flat body with very long ventropedal lobe setae, a large and prognathous head with a gula, and falciform mandibles, each with a serrate retinaculum, that are used to fight with and eventually kill other first-instar larvae. We also provide biological notes on all stages and the results of behavioral tests that showed that larval aggression occurs only among early life stages. Finally we show that adult size is highly dependent on timing of oviposition. This specialized killer first instar probably evolved independently from the one other case known in weevils, in Revena rubiginosa (Conoderinae: Bariditae sensuPrena, Colonnelli & Hespenheide (2014)). Interestingly, both lineages inhabit the same hosts, raising the possibility that both intra- and inter-specific competition shaped those phenotypes. Given the scarcity of knowledge on early larval stages of concealed insect herbivores, it is possible that our findings represent an instance of a much broader phenomenon. Our observations also allowed us to conclude that Anchylorhynchus eriospathae and A. hatschbachi G. G. Bondar, 1943 are actually the same species, which we synonymize here by considering the latter as a junior synonym (new synonymy). PMID:25101231

  13. The infection capacity of P. expansum and P. digitatum on apples and histochemical analysis of host response.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, L; Teixidó, N; Torres, R; Usall, J; Viñas, I

    2012-07-16

    Fruit ripening is a complex process that involves a variety of biochemical changes and is also associated with increased susceptibility to pathogens. The present study determined the effects of fruit maturity and storage conditions on the infection capacity of a host (P. expansum) and non-host (P. digitatum) pathogen on apple. A range of inoculum concentrations and two different storage temperatures were utilized. Exposure to P. expansum at 20 °C resulted in significant differences in rot dynamics in apples collected at the earliest harvest date compared to all later harvest dates and inoculum concentrations assayed. Greater differences in infection capacity between harvests were obtained when fruit was stored at low temperature (0 °C). In contrast, P. digitatum was able to infect apples only under specific conditions and disease symptoms were limited to the initial wound inoculation site. When apples were resistant to P. digitatum, a visible browning reaction around the infection site was observed. Histochemical analyses of tissues surrounding the wound site were conducted. A positive reaction for lignin was observed in immature apples as early as 1 day after inoculation with either pathogen. Experiments conducted with the non-host pathogen indicated that lignification was an essential component of resistance in apples harvested prior to maturity or at commercial maturity. Apples harvested at an over-mature stage and inoculated with P. digitatum did not show evidence of staining for lignin until 7 days post-inoculation. Control samples only showed positive reaction in immature harvest. Results demonstrated that the maturity stage of fruit is an important factor in apple resistance to both P. expansum and P. digitatum and that lignin accumulation seems to play an important role when resistance is observed. Moreover, this is the first report demonstrating that P. digitatum, a non-host pathogen, has a limited capacity to infect apples. PMID:22727432

  14. Thai koi-hoi snail dish and angiostrongyliasis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis: Effects of food flavoring and alcoholic drink on the third-stage larvae in infected snail meat.

    PubMed

    Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Punthuprapasa, Paibulaya; Yong, Hoi-Sen

    2009-04-01

    Human infection with the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Parastrongylus cantonensis) in Thailand, especially in the northeastern region, is associated with the habit of eating koi-hoi, which contains raw snail meat. Infection results from the snails being carriers of the larval parasite. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of food flavorings in koi-hoi, alcohol, and exposure time of the two variable on the infective larvae of A. cantonensis. Infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails were used for koi-hoi preparation. Raw snail meat was mixed with koi-hoi flavoring and left at room temperature for various time periods ranging from 5 to 60 minutes. At a predetermined time, two pieces of snail meat were removed at random and examined for viability (as determined by motility) of the parasitic third-stage larvae. At the same time, two random pieces of snail meat were removed and treated with 10 mL of a local 40% alcoholic drink for 30 minutes before examination of larval viability. Exposure of infected snail meat for 10 minutes or more to koi-hoi food flavoring resulted in significantly more nonmotile (dying or dead) larvae. Addition of the local alcoholic drink after exposure to the flavoring exerted an additional killing effect on the larvae. Despite long exposure time, both the koi-hoi flavoring and addition of alcoholic drink were not completely effective in killing the infective larvae in the snail meat. Thorough cooking of the food intended for human consumption should still be practiced. PMID:19272010

  15. Disseminated Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Infection Manifesting as Multiple Areas of Lymphadenitis and Skin Abscess in the Preclinical Stage of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Masahiro; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Kei; Orihashi, Takeshi; Hirosawa, Makoto; Ogoshi, Takaaki; Noguchi, Shingo; Nishida, Chinatsu; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Yonezawa, Akihito; Tsukada, Junichi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman was admitted to a hospital due to a prolonged fever and a rash on her legs. She had systemic lymphadenitis and a skin abscess on her left leg. Pathological findings of a left leg skin biopsy revealed abscess formation with granulomatous dermatitis, Mycobacterium abscessus complex was cultured from the resected left supraclavicular lymph node, and disseminated M. abscessus complex infection was diagnosed. She was treated with combination treatment with antimicrobials and percutaneous drainage, and her clinical findings improved. Four months later, she developed acute lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia is a risk factor for disseminated M. abscessus complex infection, even before developing leukemia. PMID:27374685

  16. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation. PMID:23179710

  17. Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, S.M.; Jones, R.J.; Brenner, M.L.

    1986-04-01

    Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos were determined in vitro utilizing a /sup 14/C-sugar solution incubation method. Hexose uptake rates were greater than those for sucrose, however, all showed biphasic kinetics. Glucose and fructose saturable components were evidence at <50 mM and sucrose at <5 mM. Chemical inhibitors (CCCP, DNP, NaCN, and PCMBS) and low temperature reduced sugar uptake. Sucrose influx was pH dependent while glucose was not. Embryos maintained a high sucrose to hexose ratio throughout development. At 25 days after pollination sucrose levels exceeded 200 mM while hexose levels remained below 5 mM. Glucose was rapidly converted to sucrose upon transport into the embryo. These circumstantial data indicate that sugar uptake by immature maize embryos is metabolically dependent and carrier mediated. Furthermore, sucrose transport appears to occur against its concentration gradient involving a H+/sucrose cotransport mechanism, while glucose influx is driven by its concentration gradient and subsequent metabolism.

  18. Disinfection of immature teeth with a triple antibiotic paste.

    PubMed

    Windley, William; Teixeira, Fabricio; Levin, Linda; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Trope, Martin

    2005-06-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of a triple antibiotic paste in the disinfection of immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis. The canals were sampled before (S1) and after (S2) irrigation with 1.25% NaOCL and after dressing with a triple antibiotic paste (S3), consisting of metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline. At S1, 100% of the samples cultured positive for bacteria with a mean CFU count of 1.7 x 10. At S2, 10% of the samples cultured bacteria-free with a mean CFU count of 1.4 x 10. At S3, 70% of the samples cultured bacteria-free with a mean CFU count of only 26. Reductions in mean CFU counts between S1 and S2 (p < 0.0001) as well as between S2 and S3 (p < 0.0001) were statistically significant. These results indicate the effectiveness of a triple antibiotic paste in the disinfection of immature teeth with apical periodontitis. PMID:15917683

  19. Chronic asthma results in cognitive dysfunction in immature mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruo-Bing; Sun, Pei-Li; Zhao, An-Peng; Gu, Jun; Ding, Xu; Qi, Jun; Sun, Xiu-Lan; Hu, Gang

    2013-09-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic childhood illness today. However, little attention is paid for the impacts of chronic asthma-induced hypoxia on cognitive function in children. The present study used immature mice to establish ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma model, and found that chronic asthma impaired learning and memory ability in Morris Water Maze test. Further study revealed that chronic asthma destroyed synaptic structure, impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) maintaining in the CA1 region of mouse hippocampal slices. We found that intermittent hypoxia during chronic asthma resulted in down-regulation of c-fos, Arc and neurogenesis, which was responsible for the impairment of learning and memory in immature mice. Moreover, our results showed that budesonide treatment alone was inadequate for attenuating chronic asthma-induced cognitive impairment. Therefore, our findings indicate that chronic asthma might result in cognitive dysfunction in children, and more attention should be paid for chronic asthma-induced brain damage in the clinical therapy. PMID:23639832

  20. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yercan, Hüseyin Serhat; Kale, Gürler; Erkan, Serkan; Özalp, Taçkın; Okcu, Güvenir

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the clinical outcome after medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction for patellofemoral instability in skeletally immature patients. Methods: Study participants were 8 patients ( median age, 10 years; range, 5-14 and one male , others female) who had suffered from persistent patellofemoral instability. Our technique preserves femoral and patellar insertion anatomy of MPFL using a free semitendinosus autograft, together with tenodesis to the adductor magnus tendon thus sparing the open physis of distal femur and the patellar attachment of MPFL. The clinical results were evaluated preoperatively and the final follow-up period using the Kujala patellofemoral score. Patellar shift, tilt and height were measured preoperatively and on the latest follow-up on plain radiographs. Results: At average 42 months follow-up ( range, 16 to 56), %80 of patients were satisfied with the treatment. Redislocation or instability symptoms occurred in two patients. No apprehension signs or redislocations were seen in the remanining six patients. A significant improvement (p‹0.05) in Kujala score (from 36 to 77) was found. Patellar shift & tilt decreased to anatomic values in six patients but patella alta persisted. Conclusion: The result of this study show that MPFL reconstruction with our technique seems to be an effective treatment for recurrent and habitual patellofemoral dislocation in skeletally immature patients; leading to significant increases in stability and functionality.

  1. Historical notes on immaturity. Part 2: surviving against the odds.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Survivors of immaturity of outstanding intelligence include Fortunio Licetus, born in 1577, and Isaac Newton, born in 1643. Reliable descriptions began appearing around 1820, and over a dozen infants were born weighing under 1000 g and before World War II, who developed normally. From 1876 to 2006, the birth weight at which half of the infants survived dropped from 2200 to 600 g. Statistics depended on how abortion, stillbirth and live birth were defined, which differed greatly from country to country. WHO definitions in 1993 required the registration of all infants weighing 500 g (22 complete weeks) or above. This definition was not universally adopted, resulting in considerable underreporting. Many medical societies issued ethical recommendations concerning the obligatory or optional treatment of immature infants. The "window", at which treatment is optional has been set at 22-23 weeks (Japan, Germany), 23-24 weeks (UK, USA, Canada), or 24-26 weeks (France, Netherlands, Switzerland). Instead of assessing an infant's individual prognosis, and ignoring its gender, co-morbidities, and particular cause of premature delivery, these rules frequently relied on gestational age alone to initiate or withhold life support. PMID:21726179

  2. Immature recent thymic emigrants are eliminated by complement1

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Fan-Chi; Shapiro, Michael J.; Chen, Meibo W.; McWilliams, Douglas C.; Seaburg, Lauren M.; Tangen, Sarah N.; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

    2014-01-01

    Recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) must undergo phenotypic and functional maturation to become long-lived mature naïve T cells. In CD4-cre NKAP conditional knockout mice, NKAP-deficient RTEs fail to complete T cell maturation. Here, we demonstrate that NKAP-deficient immature RTEs do not undergo apoptosis, but are eliminated by complement. C3, C4 and C1q are bound to NKAP-deficient peripheral T cells, demonstrating activation of the classical arm of the complement pathway. As thymocytes mature and exit to the periphery, they increase sialic acid incorporation into cell surface glycans. This is essential to peripheral lymphocyte survival, as stripping sialic acid with neuraminidase leads to the binding of natural IgM and complement fixation. NKAP-deficient T cells have a defect in sialylation on cell surface glycans, leading to IgM recruitment. We demonstrate that the defect in sialylation is due to aberrant α2,8-linked sialylation, and the expression of three genes (ST8sia1, ST8sia4 and ST8sia6) that mediate α2,8 sialylation are down regulated in NKAP-defcient RTEs. The maturation of peripheral NKAP-deficient T cells is partially rescued in a C3-deficient environment. Thus, sialylation during T cell maturation is critical to protect immature RTEs from complement in the periphery. PMID:25367120

  3. Immature and Mature Megakaryocytes Enhance Osteoblast Proliferation and Inhibit Osteoclast Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ciovacco, Wendy A.; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Horowitz, Mark C.; Kacena, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent data suggests that megakaryocytes (MKs) play a role in skeletal homeostasis. In vitro and in vivo data show that MKs stimulate osteoblast (OB) proliferation and inhibit osteoclast (OC) formation, thus favoring net bone deposition. There are several mouse models with dysregulated megakaryopoiesis and resultant high bone mass phenotypes. One such model that our group has extensively studied is GATA-1 deficient mice. GATA-1 is a transcription factor required for normal megakaryopoiesis, and mice deficient in GATA-1 have increases in immature MK number and a striking increase in bone mass. While the increased bone mass could simply be a result of increased MK number, here we take a more in depth look at the MKs of these mice to see if there is a unique factor inherent to GATA-1 deficient MKs that favors increased bone deposition. We show that increased MK number does correspond with increased OB proliferation and decreased OC proliferation, that stage of maturation does not alter the effect of MKs on bone cell lineages beyond the megakaryoblast stage, and that GATA-1 deficient MKs survive longer than wild-type controls. So while increased MK number in GATA-1 deficient mice likely contributes to the high bone mass phenotype, we propose that the increased longevity of this lineage also plays a role. Since GATA-1 deficient MKs live longer they are able to exert both more proliferative influence on OBs and more inhibitory influence on OCs. PMID:20052670

  4. Immature oocyte quality and maturational competence of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Gabriel Martin; Dalvit, Gabriel Carlos; Achi, María Verónica; Miguez, Marcelo Sergio; Cetica, Pablo Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Porcine immature oocyte quality (i.e., that of live oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage) was evaluated according to features of the surrounding cumulus, aiming to establish maturational competence of different subpopulations of such cumulus-oocyte complexes. Six subpopulations were identified: A1 (with a dense cumulus), A2 (with a translucent cumulus), B1 (with the corona radiata), B2 (partly naked oocytes), C (naked oocytes), D (with a dark cumulus). The percent incidence of live oocyte in these subpopulations changed significantly as related to cumulus features, however the occurrence of oocytes in the germinal vesicle stage was lower in class D only. Similar metaphase II rates achieved in A1, A2, B1 and B2 classes after in vitro maturation suggest that the nucleus may in fact mature in vitro, in spite of the different accompanying cumulus features which are typical of these classes. In contrast, a higher cytoplasmic maturation rate obtained in class A may indicate a stronger dependence of this variable upon cumulus features than that shown by nuclear maturation. When different types of cumulus expansion after in vitro maturation were considered (i.e., fully expanded cumulus, partly expanded cumulus, and partly naked oocyte), no differences were found in the percent of oocytes reaching metaphase II or cytoplasmic maturation. It is concluded that morphological features of the collected porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (rather than cumulus behavior during culture) may be useful for selection of potentially competent oocytes for in vitro fertilization and embryo production. PMID:20067032

  5. In Vitro Investigation of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Human Immature Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Maryam; Moghimi, Sahar; Shafagh, Mina; Kalani, Hadi; Mazhari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Heat generated within tooth during clinical dentistry can cause thermally induced damage to hard and soft components of the tooth (enamel, dentin and pulp). Geometrical characteristics of immature teeth are different from those of mature teeth. The purpose of this experimental and theoretical study was to investigate thermal changes in immature permanent teeth during the use of LED light-curing units (LCU). Materials and methods. This study was performed on the second mandibular premolars. This experimental investiga-tion was carried out for recording temperature variations of different sites of tooth and two dimensional finite element models were used for heat transfer phenomenon in immature teeth. Sensitivity analysis and local tests were included in the model validation phase. Results. Overall, thermal stimulation for 30 seconds with a low-intensity LED LCU increased the temperature from 28°C to 38°C in IIT (intact immature tooth) and PIT (cavity-prepared immature tooth). When a high-intensity LED LCU was used, tooth temperature increased from 28°C to 48°C. The results of the experimental tests and mathematical modeling illustrated that using LED LCU on immature teeth did not have any detrimental effect on the pulp temperature. Conclusion. Using LED LCU in immature teeth had no effect on pulp temperature in this study. Sensitivity analysis showed that variations of heat conductivity might affect heat transfer in immature teeth; therefore, further studies are required to determine thermal conductivity of immature teeth. PMID:25587383

  6. Fatal Case of Brucellosis Misdiagnosed in Early Stages of Brucella suis Infection in a 46-Year-Old Patient with Marfan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, M.; Choe, U.; Ubillos, S.; Stanek, D.; Campbell, M.; Wansbrough, L.; Lee, P.; Churchwell, G.; Rosas, K.; Zaki, S. R.; Drew, C.; Paddock, C. D.; DeLeon-Carnes, M.; Guerra, M.; Hoffmaster, A. R.; Tiller, R. V.

    2012-01-01

    We report a fatal case of Brucella suis endocarditis initially misdiagnosed by automated identification systems as Ochrobactrum anthropi infection in a patient with a history of Marfan syndrome and recreational feral swine hunting. This report emphasizes the need to consider brucellosis as a part of the differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness, particularly in patients with known risk of exposure. PMID:22495564

  7. [The nature of changes of some immunophysiological characteristics in bream (Abramis brama) infected with plerocercoids (Ligula intestinalis) at various stages of parasite development].

    PubMed

    Silkina, N I; Mikriakov, V R; Mikriakov, D V

    2012-01-01

    The data from studies of the antimicrobial properties of blood serum, the content of total lipids, and antioxidant activity of immunocompetent tissues and organs of breams Abramis brama infected with plerocercoids Ligula intestinalis depending on the phase of development of the parasite are presented. The quantitative characteristics of the studied parameters are determined. PMID:23136746

  8. Antimicrobial peptides in the duodenum at the acute and convalescent stages in patients with diarrhea due to Vibrio cholerae O1 or enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection.

    PubMed

    Shirin, Tahmina; Rahman, Arman; Danielsson, Åke; Uddin, Taher; Bhuyian, Taufiqur Rahman; Sheikh, Alaullah; Qadri, Syed Saleheen; Qadri, Firdausi; Hammarström, Marie-Louise

    2011-11-01

    Patients with acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 or enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) were analyzed for innate immune factors produced by the epithelium during the disease process. Duodenal biopsies were obtained from study participants at the acute (day 2) and convalescent (day 21) stages of disease. Levels of α-defensin (HD-5 and -6), β-defensin (hBD-1-4), and cathelicidin (LL-37) mRNAs were determined by real-time qRT-PCR. hBD-2, HD-5, LL-37 peptides were analyzed in duodenal epithelium by immunomorphometry. Concentration of hBD-2 in stool was determined by ELISA. Specimens from healthy controls were also analyzed. hBD-2 mRNA levels were significantly increased at acute stage of diarrhea; hBD-2 peptide was detected in fecal specimens but barely in duodenal epithelium at acute stage. Immunomorphometry analysis showed that Paneth cells contain significantly higher amounts of HD-5 pre/propeptide at convalescence (P<0.01) and in healthy controls (P<0.001) compared to acute stage, LL-37 peptide levels also decreased at acute stage while mRNA levels remained unchanged. mRNA expression levels of the other antimicrobial peptides remained unchanged with higher levels of α-defensins than β-defensins. V. cholerae induced an innate immune response at the acute stage of disease characterized by increased expression of hBD-2, and continued expression of hBD-1, HD-5-6, and LL-37. PMID:21782033

  9. Stage design

    DOEpatents

    Shacter, J.

    1975-12-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage.

  10. Estimation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral load harbored by lymphocyte subpopulations in BLV-infected cattle at the subclinical stage of enzootic bovine leucosis using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infection may remain clinically silent at the aleukemic (AL) stage, cause persistent lymphocytosis (PL), or, more rarely, B cell lymphoma. BLV has been identified in B cells, CD2+ T cells, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, γ/δ T cells, monocytes, and granulocytes in infected cattle that do not have tumors, although the most consistently infected cell is the CD5+ B cell. The mechanism by which BLV causes uncontrolled CD5+ B cell proliferation is unknown. Recently, we developed a new quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR, which enabled us to demonstrate that the proviral load correlates not only with BLV infection, as assessed by syncytium formation, but also with BLV disease progression. The present study reports the distribution of BLV provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subpopulations isolated from BLV-infected cows at the subclinical stage of EBL as examined by cell sorting and BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR. Results Phenotypic characterization of five BLV-infected but clinically normal cattle with a proviral load of > 100 copies per 1 × 105 cells identified a high percentage of CD5+ IgM+ cells (but not CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+T cells). These lymphocyte subpopulations were purified from three out of five cattle by cell sorting or using magnetic beads, and the BLV proviral load was estimated using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR. The CD5+ IgM+ B cell population in all animals harbored a higher BLV proviral load than the other cell populations. The copy number of proviruses infecting CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ cells, and CD8+ T cells (per 1 ml of blood) was 1/34 to 1/4, 1/22 to 1/3, and 1/31 to 1/3, respectively, compared with that in CD5+ IgM+ B cells. Moreover, the BLV provirus remained integrated into the genomic DNA of CD5+ IgM+ B cells, CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ T

  11. Physeal Disruption During ACL Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aristides Ignacio; Lakomkin, Nikita; Fabricant, Peter D.; Lawrence, John Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to radiographically assess differences in distal femoral physeal disruption between transtibial and independent femoral tunnel drilling techniques following ACL reconstruction in skeletally immature patients. Methods: A retrospective, matched comparative cohort study was performed of skeletally immature patients who underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction between January 1, 2008 and March 31, 2011. All skeletally immature patients between ten and fifteen years old who underwent independent femoral tunnel drilling and had adequate baseline and post-operative radiographs were analyzed. These patients were matched with a transtibial technique cohort based on age and sex. Demographic characteristics and peri-operative metrics were collected. Radiographic measurements were recorded from pre-operative MRI and post-operative plain radiographs. Results: Twenty patients were analyzed. Between groups, there were significant differences between independent tunnel drilling and transtibial tunnel drilling in the estimated area of physeal disruption (1.64 cm2 vs. 0.74 cm2, P<0.001), femoral (32.1º vs. 72.8º, P<0.001) and tibial (50.1º vs. 60.5º, P=0.003) tunnel angles, medial/lateral location of the femoral tunnel (24.2 mm vs. 36.1 mm from lateral cortex, P=0.001), and distance from the lateral aspect of the distal femoral physis and the femoral tunnel exit (4.7 mm vs. 26.7 mm from the perichondrial ring, P<0.001), respectively. All patients who underwent femoral tunnel drilling at an angle of less than 25º from the transverse axis experienced a greater than 6% disruption of physeal area. There was a significant inverse correlation between femoral tunnel angle and estimated area of femoral physeal involvement (r=-0.8255, P=0.003). Conclusion: With femoral tunnel drilling techniques that create more oblique tunnels, the area of distal femoral physeal damage is larger, more eccentric and closer to the perichondrial ring. Since most

  12. Stimulation of HIV-1 Replication in Immature Dendritic Cells in Contact with Primary CD4 T or B Lymphocytes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Holl, Vincent; Xu, Ke; Peressin, Maryse; Lederle, Alexandre; Biedma, Marina Elizabeth; Delaporte, Maryse; Decoville, Thomas; Schmidt, Sylvie; Laumond, Géraldine; Aubertin, Anne-Marie; Moog, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is the major route of HIV-1 infection worldwide. Dendritic cells (DCs) from the mucosal layers are considered to be the initial targets of HIV-1 and probably play a crucial role in HIV-1 transmission. We investigated the role of cell-to-cell contact between HIV-1-exposed immature DCs and various lymphocyte subsets in the stimulation of HIV-1 replication. We found that HIV-1 replication and production in DCs were substantially enhanced by the coculture of DCs with primary CD4 T or nonpermissive B lymphocytes but not with primary activated CD8 T lymphocytes or human transformed CD4 T lymphocytes. Most of the new virions released by cocultures of HIV-1-exposed immature DCs and primary B lymphocytes expressed the DC-specific marker CD1a and were infectious for both immature DCs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cocultured DCs thus produced large numbers of infectious viral particles under these experimental conditions. The soluble factors present in the supernatants of the cocultures were not sufficient to enhance HIV-1 replication in DCs, for which cell-to-cell contact was required. The neutralizing monoclonal antibody IgG1b12 and polyclonal anti-HIV-1 sera efficiently blocked HIV-1 transfer to CD4 T lymphocytes but did not prevent the increase in viral replication in DCs. Neutralizing antibodies thus proved to be more efficient at blocking HIV-1 transfer than previously thought. Our findings show that HIV-1 exploits DC-lymphocyte cross talk to upregulate replication within the DC reservoir. We provide evidence for a novel mechanism that may facilitate HIV-1 replication and transmission. This mechanism may favor HIV-1 pathogenesis, immune evasion, and persistence. PMID:20147388

  13. Evidence for a Stable Interaction of gp41 with Pr55Gag in Immature Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Particles

    PubMed Central

    Wyma, Donald J.; Kotov, Alexander; Aiken, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Assembly of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions requires incorporation of the viral envelope glycoproteins gp41 and gp120. Several lines of evidence have suggested that the cytoplasmic tail of the transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41, associates with Pr55Gag in infected cells to facilitate the incorporation of HIV-1 envelope proteins into budding virions. However, direct evidence for an interaction between gp41 and Pr55Gag in HIV-1 particles has not been reported. To determine whether gp41 is associated with Pr55Gag in HIV-1 particles, viral cores were isolated from immature HIV-1 virions by sedimentation through detergent. The cores contained a major fraction of the gp41 that was present on untreated virions. Association of gp41 with cores required the presence of the gp41 cytoplasmic tail. In HIV-1 particles containing a functional protease, a mutation that prevents cleavage of Pr55Gag at the matrix-capsid junction was sufficient for the detergent-resistant association of gp41 with the isolated cores. In addition to gp41, a major fraction of virion-associated gp120 was also detected on immature HIV-1 cores. Isolation of cores under conditions known to disrupt lipid rafts resulted in the removal of a raft-associated protein incorporated into virions but not the HIV-1 envelope proteins. These results provide biochemical evidence for a stable interaction between Pr55Gag and the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 in immature HIV-1 particles. Moreover, findings in this study suggest that the interaction of Pr55Gag with gp41 may regulate the function of the envelope proteins during HIV-1 maturation. PMID:11000206

  14. Biological phenotype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clones at different stages of infection: progression of disease is associated with a shift from monocytotropic to T-cell-tropic virus population.

    PubMed Central

    Schuitemaker, H; Koot, M; Kootstra, N A; Dercksen, M W; de Goede, R E; van Steenwijk, R P; Lange, J M; Schattenkerk, J K; Miedema, F; Tersmette, M

    1992-01-01

    The composition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clonal populations at different stages of infection and in different compartments was analyzed. Biological HIV-1 clones were obtained by primary isolation from patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells under limiting dilution conditions, with either blood donor peripheral blood lymphocytes or monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as target cells, and the biological phenotype of the clones was analyzed. In asymptomatic individuals, low frequencies of HIV-1 clones were observed. These clones were non-syncytium inducing and preferentially monocytotropic. In individuals progressing to disease, a 100-fold increase in frequencies of productively HIV-1-infected cells was observed as a result of a selective expansion of nonmonocytotropic clones. In a person progressing to AIDS within 19 months after infection, only syncytium-inducing clones were detected, shifting from MDM-tropic to non-MDM-tropic over time. From his virus donor, a patient with wasting syndrome, only syncytium-inducing clones, mostly non-MDM-tropic, were recovered. Parallel clonal analysis of HIV-1 populations in cells present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood from an AIDS patient revealed a qualitatively and quantitatively more monocytotropic virus population in the lung compartment than in peripheral blood at the same time point. These findings indicate that monocytotropic HIV-1 clones, probably generated in the tissues, are responsible for the persistence of HIV-1 infection and that progression of HIV-1 infection is associated with a selective increase of T-cell-tropic, nonmonocytotropic HIV-1 variants in peripheral blood. PMID:1738194

  15. Cardamom Bushy Dwarf Virus Infection in Large Cardamom Alters Plant Selection Preference, Life Stages, and Fecundity of Aphid Vector, Micromyzus kalimpongensis (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Das, Amrita; Vijayanandraj, S; Mandal, Bikash

    2016-02-01

    Cardamom bushy dwarf virus (CBDV) causes foorkey disease of large cardamom (Ammomum subulatum Roxburgh) in the eastern sub-Himalayan mountains. Although the aphid Micromyzus kalimpongensis Basu (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is known as a vector of CBDV, its behavior in dissemination of CBDV has not been investigated. In the present study, M. kalimpongensis was observed to colonize in higher number on CBDV-infected large cardamom plants compared with the healthy plants in the several plantations in Sikkim and Darjeeling hills. The affinity of M. kalimpongensis to the diseased large cardamom plants was further confirmed in a contained field experiment with intact plant as well as in a laboratory bioassay with the plant extract, where significantly higher number of aphids settled on the diseased plants or extracts compared with the healthy counterparts. Aphids grown on CBDV-infected large cardamom plants had shortened nymphal period and increased longevity and fecundity compared with those grown on the healthy plants. In the contained field experiment, M. kalimpongensis migrated to the CBDV-infected plants, colonized there, acquired CBDV, and once the diseased plants withered, migrated to healthy plants, which eventually became diseased. Our results suggest a general pattern of spread of CBDV by M. kalimpongensis where CBDV-infected plants attract or arrest and stimulate emergence and migration of viruliferous aphids that otherwise are sedentary in the underground plant parts of large cardamom. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the influence of a plant virus from the family Nanoviridae in altering behavior of its insect vector that favors its dissemination. PMID:26518036

  16. Induction of anxiety-like behavior in mice during the initial stages of infection with the agent of murine colonic hyperplasia Citrobacter rodentium.

    PubMed

    Lyte, Mark; Li, Wang; Opitz, Noel; Gaykema, Ronald P A; Goehler, Lisa E

    2006-10-30

    Symptoms of anxiety frequently occur concomitant to the development and persistence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients. In the present study, we utilized an animal model of IBD, infection with Citrobacter rodentium, to determine whether the infection per se can drive anxiety-like behavior. Nine-week-old CF-1 male mice were challenged orally with either saline or C. rodentium. Early in the infective process (7-8 h later), mice were tested on a hole-board open field apparatus for anxiety-like behavior measurement. Immediately following behavioral testing, plasma samples were obtained for immune cytokine analysis and colons were excised for histological analysis. In additional animals, vagal ganglia were removed and processed for c-Fos protein detection. Challenge with C. rodentium significantly increased anxiety-like behavior as evidenced by avoidance of the center area and increased risk assessment behavior. Plasma levels of the cytokines IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-12 were not different. However vagal sensory ganglia from C. rodentium-treated animals evinced significantly more c-Fos protein-positive neurons, consistent with vagal afferent transmission of C. rodentium-related signals from gut to brain. Histological examination of the colon indicated a lack of overt inflammation at the 8 h post-challenge time point, indicating that the differences in behavior were unlikely to follow from inflammation-related stress. The results of the present study demonstrate that infection with C. rodentium can induce anxiety-like symptoms that are likely mediated via vagal sensory neurons. PMID:16887154

  17. Modulation of Intrathymic Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Levels Promotes Escape of Immature Thymocytes to the Periphery with a Potential Proinflammatory Role in Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Flávia Nardy, Ana; Santos, Leonardo; Freire-de-Lima, Célio Geraldo; Morrot, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) system regulates both thymic and lymph nodes T cell egress which is essential for producing and maintaining the recycling T cell repertoire. Infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi induces a hormonal systemic deregulation that has impact in the thymic S1P homeostasis that ultimately promotes the premature exit of immature CD4−CD8− T cells expressing TCR and proinflamatory cytokines to peripheral lymphoid organs, where they may interfere with adaptive immune responses. In what follows, we review recent findings revealing escape of these immature T cells exhibiting an activation profile to peripheral compartments of the immune system in both experimental murine and human models of Chagas disease. PMID:26347020

  18. Characterization of tuberculous granulomas in different stages of progression and associated tertiary lymphoid tissue in goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis.

    PubMed

    Schinköthe, Jan; Köhler, Heike; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Oral infection of goats with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) resulted in a large variety of granulomas in organized gut-associated lymphatic tissues and intestinal lymph nodes. To characterize the cellular composition of granulomas, CD4(+), CD8(+), γδ, B lymphocytes and plasma, CD25(+), CD68(+), MHC-II(+), Ki67(+) and endothelial cells were labeled in consecutive frozen sections by immunohistochemistry and acid fast bacilli (AFB) by Kinyoun stain. Granulomas with extensive necrosis, little mineralization and variable numbers of AFB surrounded by many CD4(+) T cells, but only few epitheloid macrophages were observed in severely sick goats at 2-3mpi. They were interpreted as exuberant immune reaction. Organized granulomas with very few AFB were seen in clinically healthy goats at 13mpi. The necrotic cores were surrounded by a zone of granulomatous infiltrate with many epitheloid macrophages and few lymphocytes. This zone was initially wide and highly vascularized and became progressively smaller. It was enclosed by an increasing layer of connective tissue. All organized granulomas were surrounded by compartimentalized tertiary lymphoid tissue. The granulomas in experimental infection of goats with MAH reflect the heterogeneity of lesions seen in mycobacterial infections of humans and ruminants and are therefore valuable for comparative research. PMID:27477506

  19. Expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha and microRNA-155 in immature rat model of status epilepticus and children with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ashhab, Muhammad Usman; Omran, Ahmed; Kong, Huimin; Gan, Na; He, Fang; Peng, Jing; Yin, Fei

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the role of inflammation has attracted great attention in the pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), and microRNAs start to emerge as promising new players in MTLE pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the dynamic expression patterns of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and microRNA-155 (miR-155) in the hippocampi of an immature rat model of status epilepticus (SE) and children with MTLE. The expressions of TNF-α and miR-155 were significantly upregulated in the seizure-related acute and chronic stages of MTLE in the immature rat model and also in children with MTLE. Modulation of TNF-α expression, either by stimulation using myeloid-related protein (MRP8) or lipopolysaccharide or inhibition using lenalidomide on astrocytes, leads to similar dynamic changes in miR-155 expression. Our study is the first to focus on the dynamic expression pattern of miR-155 in the immature rat of SE lithium-pilocarpine model and children with MTLE and to detect their relationship at the astrocyte level. TNF-α and miR-155, having similar expression patterns in the three stages of MTLE development, and their relationship at the astrocyte level may suggest a direct interactive relationship during MTLE development. Therefore, modulation of the TNF-α/miR-155 axis may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of MTLE. PMID:23636891

  20. Efficacy of oxyclozanide against adult Paramphistomum leydeni in naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Rodrigo; Moreno, Laura; Alvarez, Luis; Lanusse, Carlos; Romero, Jorge

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the current study was to assess oxyclozanide (OCZ) efficacy against Paramphistomum leydeni in naturally infected adult sheep. OCZ concentrations in blood stream and gastrointestinal fluids collected from treated animals were also measured. Fifteen P. leydeni naturally infected sheep were randomly divided into two groups: untreated control (n=5) and treated (n=10). The treated group was orally drenched with OCZ (20mg/kg, day 0). A second dose was administered 72 h later. Faecal samples were taken at days 0, +3 and +5. Five sheep from both groups were slaughtered at day +5. At necropsies, rumen, abomasum and small intestine were examined for adult and immature flukes. All recovered flukes were counted and the treatment efficacy was estimated. Additionally, serum and gastrointestinal fluid content (ruminal, abomasal and small intestine) samples, obtained from five treated animals at day +5, were analyzed by HPLC to measure OCZ concentrations. OCZ showed high efficacy (99%) against mature P. leydeni. The post-treatment egg reduction was also high after the first dose with values ranging from 98.4% (day +3) to 99.5% (day +5). The highest OCZ concentrations were measured in serum (20.7 ± 11.5 μg/mL) followed by the small intestinal fluid (6.00 ± 4.50 μg/mL). Very low OCZ concentrations (ranging between 0.05 and 0.02 μg/mL) were measured in ruminal and abomasal fluids. OCZ administered to sheep twice (20mg/kg) by the oral route was highly efficacious against mature stages of P. leydeni in naturally infected sheep. Despite a high drug concentration at the intestinal fluid, OCZ efficacy against immature stages could not be assessed. OCZ efficacy and assessment of its concentration profiles in different tissues are considered a contribution to the scarce information available on this ruminant fluke. PMID:25458118

  1. Oxidative Stress after Surgery on the Immature Heart

    PubMed Central

    Fudulu, Daniel; Angelini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric heart surgery is associated with increased inflammation and the production of reactive oxygen species. Use of the extracorporeal cardiopulmonary bypass during correction of congenital heart defects generates reactive oxygen species by various mechanisms: haemolysis, neutrophil activation, ischaemia reperfusion injury, reoxygenation injury, or depletion of the endogenous antioxidants. The immature myocardium is more vulnerable to reactive oxygen species because of developmental differences compared to the adult heart but also because of associated congenital heart diseases that can deplete its antioxidant reserve. Oxidative stress can be manipulated by various interventions: exogenous antioxidants, use of steroids, cardioplegia, blood prime strategies, or miniaturisation of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. However, it is unclear if modulation of the redox pathways can alter clinical outcomes. Further studies powered to look at clinical outcomes are needed to define the role of oxidative stress in paediatric patients. PMID:27123154

  2. Overuse and throwing injuries in the skeletally immature athlete.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Ireland, Mary Lloyd

    2003-01-01

    Over 25 million children participate in school-sponsored sports, and an additional 20 million participate in extracurricular organized sports. Over the past decade, increased intensity of training, more pressure for success, new opportunities for structured play, and more organized advanced leagues and traveling teams have led to a corresponding increase in overuse injuries in the skeletally immature athlete. Perhaps the classic sports model for overuse injuries of the upper extremity is baseball. Throwing sports contribute to an increased incidence of elbow and shoulder injuries that might be related to intensity of training, throwing mechanics, and poor conditioning, including core strength. Specific areas of concern regarding overuse injuries in young athletes include such diagnoses as little leaguer's shoulder, little leaguer's elbow, osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow, tennis elbow, and distal radial epiphysitis. Ultimately, overuse injuries, and particularly physeal injuries, should be suspected in any young athlete who has pain in the upper extremity. Comparative bilateral radiographs are the rule in workup. PMID:12690838

  3. Antibacterial tetraoxygenated xanthones from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Auranwiwat, Chiramet; Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Saiai, Aroonchai; Pyne, Stephen G; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee

    2014-10-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa led to the isolation of two novel tetraoxygenated xanthones, garcicowanones A (1) and B (2), together with eight known tetraoxygeanted xanthones. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688, Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Escherichia coli TISTR 780, Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781, Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 292 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. α-Mangostin showed potent activity (MIC 0.25-1 μg/mL) against three Gram-positive strains and garcicowanone A and β-mangostin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus with the same MIC values of 0.25 μg/mL. PMID:25110196

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize (Zea mays) immature embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is one of the most efficient and simple gene delivery systems for genetic improvement and biology studies in maize. This system has become more widely used by both public and private laboratories. However, transformation efficiencies vary greatly from laboratory to laboratory for the same genotype. Here, we illustrate our advanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method in Hi-II maize using simple binary vectors. The protocol utilizes immature embryos as starting explants and the bar gene as a selectable marker coupled with bialaphos as a selective agent. The protocol offers efficient transformation results with high reproducibility, provided that some experimental conditions are well controlled. This transformation method, with minor modifications, can be also employed to transform certain maize inbreds. PMID:24243211

  5. Clinical complications in the revascularization of immature necrotic permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh, Basma; Alvaro, Emanuel; Vu, Duy-Dat; Rizkallah, Jean; Schwartz, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case series was to report on the use of a technique of revascularization for necrotic immature permanent teeth, several problems encountered, and solutions to those problems. Eighteen pulp revascularizations were performed in 2009 using the original protocol of revascularization (adapted from the AAE/AAPD joint meeting in 2007 in Chicago). The protocol consisted of opening the canal and disinfecting it with sodium hypochlorite, sealing in a triple antibiotic paste for 2-6 weeks, re-opening, re-irrigating, creating a blood clot in the canal, and sealing with an MTA barrier over the clot. Three problems were encountered during the treatment: (1) bluish discoloration of the crown; (2) failure to produce bleeding; and (3) collapse of the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) material into the canal. Modifications to solve these problems included: changing one of the antibiotics, using a local anesthesia without epinephrine, and adding collagen matrix to the blood clot. PMID:23211919

  6. Effects of Juniperus species and stage of maturity on nutritional, in vitro digestibility, and plant secondary compound characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stewart, W C; Whitney, T R; Scholljegerdes, E J; Naumann, H D; Cherry, N M; Muir, J P; Lambert, B D; Walker, J W; Adams, R P; Welch, K D; Gardner, D R; Estell, R E

    2015-08-01

    Rising feed costs and recurring feed shortages necessitate the investigation into alternative and underutilized feed resources. Nutritional characteristics of species are either unknown or limited to leaves and ground material from small stems. Therefore, the objective was to quantify nutritional characteristics, 48-h true IVDMD (tIVDMD), microbial gas production, and secondary compound characteristics of entire woody plant material of 4 species-, , , and -at immature and mature stages of growth. Immature plants had greater CP concentrations and lower NDF concentrations ( < 0.001) than mature plants regardless of species. Mature plants also had greater ( < 0.001) concentrations of ADF compared with immature plants with the exception of . In general, immature , , and had greater ( < 0.02) tIVDMD and total 48-h and asymptotic gas production than mature plants. Immature and plants were more digested (tIVDMD; < 0.001) than immature and , but tIVDMD did not differ in mature plant material across species. Condensed tannins (CT) were greater ( < 0.001) in immature and than mature plants; differences in CT concentrations among immature species were also detected ( < 0.04). Volatile oil yields were similar across maturity and species with 1 exception: immature yielded more ( < 0.02) volatile oil than mature material. Volatile oil composition across species varied and contained a range of 65 to 70 terpene compounds. The dominant terpenes across species were generally greater ( < 0.05) in immature vs. mature plant material with the exception of . Labdane acids were negligible in , , and and greater in ( < 0.001). Ground material from mature juniper species, although inferior in nutritional quality compared with immature plants, is comparable to traditional low-quality roughage ingredients. Given that has been successfully fed in lamb feedlot diets, the similarities of , and suggest that all three species have potential to be effective roughage ingredients. PMID:26440183

  7. Effect of complement depletion by cobra venom factor on fowlpox virus infection in chickens and chicken embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, H; Yoshikawa, Y; Kai, C; Yamanouchi, K; Taniguchi, H; Komine, K; Ishijima, Y; Okada, H

    1986-01-01

    The course of infection with an attenuated strain of fowlpox virus (FPV), which is known to induce antibody-independent activation of complement via the alternative pathway, was investigated in 1- to 3-day-old chickens and 14-day-old chicken embryos by treatment with cobra venom factor (CVF). CVF was found to inhibit complement activity transiently via the alternative pathway but not via the classical pathway. In chickens treated with CVF, virus growth in the skin was enhanced, and pock lesions tended to disseminate, leading to fatal infection in some birds. Histologically, an acute inflammation at an early stage of infection (within 3 days) was inhibited, and virus content in the pock lesion was increased. In chicken embryos with immature immune capacities, CVF treatment caused changes in pock morphology from clear pocks to diffuse ones, an increase in virus content in the pock, and inhibition of cell infiltration. Thus, FPV infection was aggravated in both CVF-treated chickens and chicken embryos. These results are discussed in relation to roles of complement in the elimination of virus at an early stage of FPV infection. Images PMID:3003397

  8. Radiation combined with thermal injury induces immature myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, April Elizabeth; Neely, Crystal Judith; Charles, Anthony G; Kartchner, Laurel Briane; Brickey, Willie June; Khoury, Amal Lina; Sempowski, Gregory D; Ting, Jenny P Y; Cairns, Bruce A; Maile, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The continued development of nuclear weapons and the potential for thermonuclear injury necessitates the further understanding of the immune consequences after radiation combined with injury (RCI). We hypothesized that sublethal ionization radiation exposure combined with a full-thickness thermal injury would result in the production of immature myeloid cells. Mice underwent either a full-thickness contact burn of 20% total body surface area or sham procedure followed by a single whole-body dose of 5-Gy radiation. Serum, spleen, and peripheral lymph nodes were harvested at 3 and 14 days after injury. Flow cytometry was performed to identify and characterize adaptive and innate cell compartments. Elevated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory serum cytokines and profound leukopenia were observed after RCI. A population of cells with dual expression of the cell surface markers Gr-1 and CD11b were identified in all experimental groups, but were significantly elevated after burn alone and RCI at 14 days after injury. In contrast to the T-cell-suppressive nature of myeloid-derived suppressor cells found after trauma and sepsis, myeloid cells after RCI augmented T-cell proliferation and were associated with a weak but significant increase in interferon γ and a decrease in interleukin 10. This is consistent with previous work in burn injury indicating that a myeloid-derived suppressor cell-like population increases innate immunity. Radiation combined injury results in the increase in distinct populations of Gr-1CD11b cells within the secondary lymphoid organs, and we propose these immature inflammatory myeloid cells provide innate immunity to the severely injured and immunocompromised host. PMID:23042190

  9. Radiation Combined with Thermal Injury Induces Immature Myeloid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, April Elizabeth; Neely, Crystal Judith; Charles, Anthony G.; Kartchner, Laurel Briane; Brickey, Willie June; Khoury, Amal Lina; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Ting, Jenny P.Y.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Maile, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The continued development of nuclear weapons and the potential for thermonuclear injury necessitates the further understanding of the immune consequences after radiation combined with injury (RCI). We hypothesized that sub-lethal ionization radiation exposure combined with a full thickness thermal injury would result in the production of immature myeloid cells. Mice underwent either a 20% total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness contact burn or sham procedure followed by a single whole body dose of 5-Gy radiation. Serum, spleen and peripheral lymph nodes were harvested at 3 and 14 days post-injury. Flow cytometry was performed to identify and characterize adaptive and innate cell compartments. Elevated pro- and anti-inflammatory serum cytokines and profound leukopenia were observed after RCI. A population of cells with dual expression of the cell surface markers Gr-1 and CD11b were identified in all experimental groups, but was significantly elevated after burn alone and RCI at 14 days post-injury. In contrast to the T-cell suppressive nature of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) found after trauma and sepsis, myeloid cells after RCI augmented T-cell proliferation and were associated with a weak but significant increase in IFN-γ and a decrease in IL-10. This is consistent with previous work in burn injury indicating that a MDSC-like population increases innate immunity. RCI results in the increase of distinct populations of Gr-1+ CD11b+cells within the secondary lymphoid organs, and we propose these immature inflammatory myeloid cells provide innate immunity to the severely injured and immunocompromised host. PMID:23042190

  10. Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) life stages to flameless catalytic infrared radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The susceptibility of various life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), a pest of stored wheat, to flameless catalytic infrared radiation in the 3 to 7 µm range was evaluated in the laboratory. Immature stages were collected from flour infested with T. castaneum adults only ...

  11. The Early Stages of Pedaliodes poesia (Hewitson, 1862) in Eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae: Pronophilina)

    PubMed Central

    Greeney, Harold F.; Pyrcz, Tomasz W.; DeVries, Philip J.; Dyer, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the immature stages Pedaliodes poesia Hewitson, 1862 from northeastern Ecuador. Chusquea scandens (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly or in pairs on the bottom side of host plant leaves. The duration of the egg, larval, and pupal stages, combined, is 99–107 days. PMID:19619029

  12. Oncogenic Virus Infections in the General Population and End-stage Renal Disease Patients With Special Emphasis on Kaposi’s Sarcoma Associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) in Northeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, Sanaz; Hassannia, Tahereh; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Hekmat, Reza; Valizadeh, Narges; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally, almost 20% of cancers are related to infectious agents that can be prevented. Oncogenicity refers to viruses that may cause cancers, more importantly in immunocompromised subjects such as transplant and hemodialysis patients. Therefore, epidemiological studies are the first line for understanding the importance of these agents in public health, particularly, in mobile populations, tourism and pilgrimage regions. Objectives: Oncogenic viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Epstein-barr virus (EBV) are the most common viral agents in immunocompromised patients. Furthermore, human T lymphocyte virus type I (HTLV-I), due to endemicity in Khorasan Razavi province located northeast of Iran as a pilgrimage region, and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV), as an oncogenic herpesvirus in immunocompromised subjects have been investigated among the general population and those with end-stage renal diseases (ESRD). Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1227 randomly selected individuals; 25 donors and 195 patients with ESRD, including 60 kidney transplant recipients and 135 dialysis patients from the Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Serological tests were carried out using commercial enzyme-immunoassay kits. To confirm positive serology tests, the extracted viral DNA or RNA was examined for the presence of KSHV, HTLV-I and HCV by conventional PCR. Results: The prevalence of KSHV infection in the general population was 1.71% (21/1227); 2.60% (10/384) males and 1.30% (11/843) females. In kidney transplants, viral infections occurred in 23.3% of subjects; including EBV, HTLV-I and HBV-HCV co-infection in 8.3%, 3.3% and 1.7%, respectively. In patients on hemodialysis, viral infections were present in 29.6% including EBV, HTLV-I and HBV-HCV co-infection in 2.2%, 5.9% and 16.3%, respectively. Seroprevalence of KSHV in patients with kidney transplants was 1.7% and in patients on

  13. Transcriptome analysis of immature xylem in the Chinese fir at different developmental phases

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Jian; He, Xuelian; Liu, Mingying; Qiao, Guirong; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background.Chinese fir [Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.] is one of the most important native tree species for timber production in southern China. An understanding of overall fast growing stage, stem growth stage and senescence stage cambium transcriptome variation is lacking. We used transcriptome sequencing to identify the repertoire of genes expressed during development of xylem tissue in Chinese fir, aiming to delineate the molecular mechanisms of wood formation. Results. We carried out transcriptome sequencing at three different cultivation ages (7Y, 15Y and 21Y) generating 68.71 million reads (13.88 Gbp). A total of 140,486 unigenes with a mean size of 568.64 base pairs (bp) were obtained via de novo assembly. Of these, 27,427 unigenes (19.52%) were further annotated by comparison to public protein databases. A total of 5,331 (3.79%) unigenes were mapped into 118 pathways by searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG). Differentially expressed genes (DEG) analysis identified 3, 16 and 5,899 DEGs from the comparison of 7Y vs. 15Y, 7Y vs. 21Y and 15Y vs. 21Y, respectively, in the immature xylem tissues, including 2,638 significantly up-regulated and 3,280 significantly down-regulated genes. Besides, five NAC transcription factors, 190 MYB transcription factors, and 34 WRKY transcription factors were identified respectively from Chinese fir transcriptome. Conclusion. Our results revealed the active transcriptional pathways and identified the DEGs at different cultivation phases of Chinese fir wood formation. This transcriptome dataset will aid in understanding and carrying out future studies on the molecular basis of Chinese fir wood formation and contribute to future artificial production and applications. PMID:27330860

  14. The effect of immature adult-born dentate granule cells on hyponeophagial behavior is related to their roles in learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei; Gage, Fred H.

    2015-01-01

    The neurogenesis hypothesis of depression is based on the correlation between the rate of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the affective status of rodents. However, studies investigating the role of neurogenesis in the causation of mood regulation have reported inconsistent results. Here, we explored whether the affective state can be affected differentially by adult-born neurons with distinctive physiological characteristics at different maturation stages. We revealed that reducing the immature newborn neuron population had no effect on anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in an array of tests; however, it enhanced hyponeophagia in a novelty suppressed feeding test, but only when the novel environment was drastically different from the home cage. We further demonstrated that reducing the immature newborn neuron population led to delayed habituation to a novel environment and impaired contextual learning. Hence, rather than being directly involved in mood regulation, our studies raise the possibility that adult neurogenesis may influence hyponeophagia through its role in mnemonic processing. PMID:25798094

  15. Redescription of immatures and bionomy of the Palaearctic species dicladispa testacea (Linnaeus, 1767) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Hispini), a leaf-mining hispine beetle.

    PubMed

    Swiętojańska, Jolanta; Borowiec, Lech; Stach, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Dicladispa testacea (Linnaeus, 1767) is a member of the tribe Hispini Gyllenhal, 1813 associated with plants of the family Cistaceae Juss. and is widely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin. Immature stages are described in detail, including line drawings, chaetotaxy, sculpture of integument, and SEM photos of morphological details. This is the first detailed description of immatures in the tribe Hispini, and this can be regarded as a model description for studies of other species in the tribe. Diagnostic characters for this species in comparison with other described larvae and pupae of the genus Dicladispa and the sympatric Hispa atra Linnaeus, 1767 are discussed. Some remarks on the biology of Dicladispa testacea, such as host plants, feeding patterns of adults, structure of larval and pupal mines, are also given. PMID:24943146

  16. Stearylamine Liposomal Delivery of Monensin in Combination with Free Artemisinin Eliminates Blood Stages of Plasmodium falciparum in Culture and P. berghei Infection in Murine Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rohra, Shilpa; Raza, Mohsin; Hasan, Gulam Mustafa; Dutt, Suparna

    2015-01-01

    The global emergence of drug resistance in malaria is impeding the therapeutic efficacy of existing antimalarial drugs. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop an efficient drug delivery system to circumvent drug resistance. The anticoccidial drug monensin, a carboxylic ionophore, has been shown to have antimalarial properties. Here, we developed a liposome-based drug delivery of monensin and evaluated its antimalarial activity in lipid formulations of soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC) cholesterol (Chol) containing either stearylamine (SA) or phosphatidic acid (PA) and different densities of distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine-methoxy-polyethylene glycol 2000 (DSPE-mPEG-2000). These formulations were found to be more effective than a comparable dose of free monensin in Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) cultures and established mice models of Plasmodium berghei strains NK65 and ANKA. Parasite killing was determined by a radiolabeled [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation assay (in vitro) and microscopic counting of Giemsa-stained infected erythrocytes (in vivo). The enhancement of antimalarial activity was dependent on the liposomal lipid composition and preferential uptake by infected red blood cells (RBCs). The antiplasmodial activity of monensin in SA liposome (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.74 nM) and SPC:Chol-liposome with 5 mol% DSPE-mPEG 2000 (IC50, 0.39 nM) was superior to that of free monensin (IC50, 3.17 nM), without causing hemolysis of erythrocytes. Liposomes exhibited a spherical shape, with sizes ranging from 90 to 120 nm, as measured by dynamic light scattering and high-resolution electron microscopy. Monensin in long-circulating liposomes of stearylamine with 5 mol% DSPE-mPEG 2000 in combination with free artemisinin resulted in enhanced killing of parasites, prevented parasite recrudescence, and improved survival. This is the first report to demonstrate that monensin in PEGylated stearylamine (SA) liposome has therapeutic potential against malaria

  17. Stearylamine Liposomal Delivery of Monensin in Combination with Free Artemisinin Eliminates Blood Stages of Plasmodium falciparum in Culture and P. berghei Infection in Murine Malaria.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Vinoth; Rohra, Shilpa; Raza, Mohsin; Hasan, Gulam Mustafa; Dutt, Suparna; Ghosh, Prahlad C

    2016-03-01

    The global emergence of drug resistance in malaria is impeding the therapeutic efficacy of existing antimalarial drugs. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop an efficient drug delivery system to circumvent drug resistance. The anticoccidial drug monensin, a carboxylic ionophore, has been shown to have antimalarial properties. Here, we developed a liposome-based drug delivery of monensin and evaluated its antimalarial activity in lipid formulations of soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC) cholesterol (Chol) containing either stearylamine (SA) or phosphatidic acid (PA) and different densities of distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine-methoxy-polyethylene glycol 2000 (DSPE-mPEG-2000). These formulations were found to be more effective than a comparable dose of free monensin in Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) cultures and established mice models of Plasmodium berghei strains NK65 and ANKA. Parasite killing was determined by a radiolabeled [(3)H]hypoxanthine incorporation assay (in vitro) and microscopic counting of Giemsa-stained infected erythrocytes (in vivo). The enhancement of antimalarial activity was dependent on the liposomal lipid composition and preferential uptake by infected red blood cells (RBCs). The antiplasmodial activity of monensin in SA liposome (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.74 nM) and SPC:Chol-liposome with 5 mol% DSPE-mPEG 2000 (IC50, 0.39 nM) was superior to that of free monensin (IC50, 3.17 nM), without causing hemolysis of erythrocytes. Liposomes exhibited a spherical shape, with sizes ranging from 90 to 120 nm, as measured by dynamic light scattering and high-resolution electron microscopy. Monensin in long-circulating liposomes of stearylamine with 5 mol% DSPE-mPEG 2000 in combination with free artemisinin resulted in enhanced killing of parasites, prevented parasite recrudescence, and improved survival. This is the first report to demonstrate that monensin in PEGylated stearylamine (SA) liposome has therapeutic potential against malaria

  18. Assessment of quality of life in early stage HIV-infected persons: data from the AIDS Time-oriented Health Outcome Study (ATHOS).

    PubMed

    Lubeck, D P; Fries, J F

    1997-08-01

    The development of new pharmaceutical interventions for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has resulted in extended survival and a need for valid, reliable and responsive instruments to assess health-related QoL (HRQoL). This paper reviews the reliability and validity of an HRQoL instrument, the AIDS Health Assessment Questionnaire (AIDS-HAQ), among persons participating in an observational database of HIV infection. The AIDS-HAQ includes nine subscales: disability, energy, general health, pain, cognitive functioning, mental health, social functioning, health distress and symptoms. Individuals complete the AIDS-HAQ quarterly. Data are reported for 440 individuals entering the study with early HIV infection. Fifty-nine progressed to symptomatic disease and 109 to AIDS after 1 year. The subscales of the instrument resulted in high internal consistency reliability (range = 0.79-0.88). Concurrent validity data reflected the ability to distinguish between patients with increasing disease severity. In all domains, except cognitive functioning, individuals who progressed to AIDS had significant decrements (p < 0.01) in HRQoL compared with symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Significant decrements (p < 0.01) were observed for disability, general health, energy and symptoms for patients who progressed to symptomatic disease from an asymptomatic status. Individuals who had decreasing CD4+ counts also had significant declines (p < 0.001) in disability, general health, social functioning, pain and symptoms. The AIDS-HAQ is an instrument that can be used when comparing group differences and within group changes in observational databases, naturalistic studies and clinical trials. PMID:9330550

  19. Effects of neuromedin-U on immature rat adrenocortical cells: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Macchi, Carlo; Trejter, Marcin; Rucinski, Marcin; Nowak, Magdalena; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2008-03-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a brain-gut peptide, that in the peripheral organs and tissues acts via a G protein-coupled receptor, called NMUR1. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed the expression of NMUR1 mRNA in either cortex and medulla or dispersed zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata-reticularis cells of the immature rat adrenals. Accordingly, immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of NMUR1-like immunoreactivity in the cortex and medulla of immature adrenals. NMU8 administration to immature rats was found to raise aldosterone, but not corticosterone, plasma concentration, without altering adrenal growth. Conversely, the exposure to NMU8 markedly enhanced the proliferative activity of immature rat inner adrenocortical cells in primary in vitro culture, without significantly affecting their corticosterone secretion. Collectively, our findings suggest that adrenals of immature rats may be a target for circulating NMU. However, the physiological significance and relevance of the adrenal effects of NMU remain to be ascertained. PMID:18288377

  20. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ceretti-Junior, Walter; de Oliveira Christe, Rafael; Rizzo, Marco; Strobel, Regina Claudia; de Matos Junior, Marco Otavio; de Mello, Maria Helena Silva Homem; Fernandes, Aristides; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be retained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for immature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages) in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects. Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically. Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected), followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens) and Cx. (Microculex) imitator (444). The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. PMID:27047978

  1. Species composition of larvae cultured after anthelmintic treatment indicates reduced moxidectin susceptibility of immature Cylicocyclus species in horses.

    PubMed

    Kooyman, F N J; van Doorn, D C K; Geurden, T; Mughini-Gras, L; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A

    2016-08-30

    For the control of cyathostomins in horses, the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM) are the most commonly used anthelmintics. However, reduced activity, observed as shortening of the egg reappearance period (ERP) has been described. Shortening of the ERP may be caused by a decreased susceptibility of immature worms for MLs. Alternatively, immature worms may develop faster into egg producing adults as a result of repeated ML treatments. The species composition of the larval cultures obtained shortly after ML and pyrantel (PYR) treatment can confirm the hypothesis of decreased ML susceptibility, as this is often class-specific, whereas faster development would also occur after treatment with anthelmintics with a different mode of action. From 3 farms with a known history of shortened ERP, 8 horses per farm were selected and divided into 2 groups. The MOX-PYR-MOX group was treated twice with MOX (day 0 and 126) and once with PYR (day 84) and the IVM-PYR-IVM group was treated twice with IVM (day 0 and 98) and once with PYR (day 56). Cultured infective larvae (L3s) were counted and differentiated with the reverse line blot on pooled samples. Per cyathostomin species, the number of larvae per gram was calculated. The efficacy of all ML treatments was 100% and a shortened ERP was found on all 3 farms. The species composition of the larval cultures after ML treatment did not differ significantly from that after PYR treatment in the IVM-PYR-IVM group, but it did differ in the MOX-PYR-MOX group. The larval cultures obtained after MOX treatment consisted mostly of Cylicocyclus nassatus, while after PYR treatment Cylicostephanus longibursatus was the most abundant species. In the cultures from 42days after MOX treatment 6 cyathostomin species from 3 genera were found on the farm with the lowest activity (farm 1), while on the farm with the highest activity (farm 3) only 3 species from one genus were found in the same number of examined L3s. The

  2. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  3. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  4. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  5. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  6. [Platelet activating factor in biological fluids of animals with different species-specific resistance at the stage of infective process after inoculation with mycobacterium tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Kaminskaia, G O; Abdullaev, R Iu; Gedymin, L E

    1998-01-01

    Following 24 hours, 1, 2, and 6 weeks of inoculation of guinea-pigs and albino rats by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT), the levels of platelet activation factor (PAF) were determined in the plasma, leukocytes, alveolar macrophages, nonfractionated cellular sediment and fluid of bronchoalveolar lavage (FBAL) by testing rabbit platelets. The guinea-pigs developed generalized tuberculosis, the rats receiving a small dose of MT developed nonspecific inflammation and those taking a large dose had specific foci. In both experiments, spontaneous regression of inflammatory changes began in rats after 6 weeks. In the guinea-pigs inoculated by MT, there was a steady increase in PAF synthesis in all cell populations, PAF levels dropped in fluids. In the rats receiving a small dose of MT, the cellular levels PAF levels periodically rose in early infection, but decreased below the control values during regression of inflammatory changes. Concurrently, the level of PAF became lower in plasma and FBAL. With high-dose inoculation, it drastically fell in the cells just after MT administration, then moderately increased during the development of specific changes and again dropped at the end of the experiment. In early infection the changes in PAF levels in the body's fluids were mirror as regards to the respective cells, but at regression of specific changes, the content of PAF was lower than the normal values in all the fluids under study. PMID:10067355

  7. Interferon-Based Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Reduces All-Cause Mortality in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease: An 8-Year Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yueh-Han; Hung, Peir-Haur; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    The long-term survival of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who received interferon treatment has not been extensively evaluated.The HCV cohort was the ESRD patients with de novo HCV infection from 2004 to 2011; they were classified into treated and untreated groups according to interferon therapy records. Patients aged <20 years and those with a history of hepatitis B, kidney transplantation, or cancer were excluded. The control cohort included ESRD patients without HCV infection matched 4:1 to the HCV cohort by age, sex, and year of ESRD registration. We followed up all study participants until kidney transplantation, death, or the end of 2011, whichever came first. We assessed risk of all-cause mortality by using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model with time-dependent covariate.In the HCV cohort, 134 patients (6.01%) received interferon treatment. Compared with the uninfected control cohort, the treated group had a lower risk of death (hazard ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.99). The untreated group had a 2.62-fold higher risk (95% CI 1.24-5.55) of death compared with the treated group. For the HCV cohort without cirrhosis or hepatoma, the risk of death in the treated group was further markedly reduced (hazard ratio 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.68) compared with that in the control cohort.For ESRD patients with HCV infection, receiving interferon treatment is associated with a survival advantage. Such an advantage is more prominent in HCV patients without cirrhosis or hepatoma. PMID:26632730

  8. Natural infection of small mammal species in Minnesota with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed

    Walls, J J; Greig, B; Neitzel, D F; Dumler, J S

    1997-04-01

    The natural reservoirs for the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) are suspected to be the small mammals that host immature stages of Ixodes scapularis ticks. To determine if such small mammals are naturally infected, we collected blood and serum samples from small mammal species in rural and suburban areas of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn. Samples were collected from white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), southern red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi), and insectivorous shrews (Blarina brevicauda and Sorex cinereus). Blood samples were tested by PCR for active infection with the HGE agent, and sera from P. leucopus mice were tested for serologic evidence of infection by indirect immunofluorescence. PCR analyses revealed the presence of HGE agent DNA in 20 of the 190 samples (10.5%) tested. Of the 119 P. leucopus mouse serum samples that were analyzed, 12 (10.1%) contained Ehrlichia equi antibodies. In 3 of 119 (2.5%) P. leucopus mice from which both blood and serum were collected. HGE agent DNA and antibodies against E. equi were present. Animals with evidence of infection with the HGE agent are widely distributed around the Minneapolis-St. Paul area in regions with known I. scapularis tick activity. Small mammals that are frequent hosts for larval I. scapularis ticks and that are found in areas where HGE occurs are likely to be a major reservoir from which infected ticks that bite humans are derived. PMID:9157141

  9. Epigenetic regulation of alternative promoters and enhancers in progenitor, immature, and mature gonadotrope cell lines.

    PubMed

    Laverrière, Jean-Noël; L'Hôte, David; Tabouy, Laure; Schang, Anne-Laure; Quérat, Bruno; Cohen-Tannoudji, Joëlle

    2016-10-15

    Gonadotrope cell identity genes emerge in a stepwise process during mouse pituitary development. Cga, encoding for the α-subunit of TSH, LH, and FSH, is initially detected at E11.5 followed by Gnrhr and steroidogenic factor Sf1 at E13.5, specifying cells engaged in a gonadotrope cell fate. Lhb and Fshb appear at E16.5 and 17.5, respectively, typifying differentiated gonadotrope cells. Using the αT1-1, αT3-1 and LβT2 cell lines recapitulating these stages of gonadotrope differentiation, DNA methylation at Gnrhr and Sf1 was investigated. Regulatory regions were found hypermethylated in progenitor αT1-1 cells and hypomethylated in differentiated LβT2 cells. Abundance of RNA polymerase II together with active histone modifications including H3K4me1, H3K4me3, and H3K27ac were strictly correlated with DNA hypomethylation. Analyses of epigenomic modifications and chromatin accessibility were further extended to Isl1, Lhx3, Gata2, and Pitx2, highlighting alternative usages of specific regulatory gene domains in progenitor αT1-1, immature αT3-1, and mature LβT2 gonadotrope cells. PMID:27402603

  10. Activity-dependent upregulation of presynaptic kainate receptors at immature CA3-CA1 synapses.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Vernon R J; Molchanova, Svetlana M; Hirvonen, Teemu; Taira, Tomi; Lauri, Sari E

    2014-12-10

    Presynaptic kainate-type glutamate receptors (KARs) regulate glutamate release probability and short-term plasticity in various areas of the brain. Here we show that long-term depression (LTD) in the area CA1 of neonatal rodent hippocampus is associated with an upregulation of tonic inhibitory KAR activity, which contributes to synaptic depression and causes a pronounced increase in short-term facilitation of transmission. This increased KAR function was mediated by high-affinity receptors and required activation of NMDA receptors, nitric oxide (NO) synthetase, and postsynaptic calcium signaling. In contrast, KAR activity was irreversibly downregulated in response to induction of long-term potentiation in a manner that depended on activation of the TrkB-receptor of BDNF. Both tonic KAR activity and its plasticity were restricted to early stages of synapse development and were lost in parallel with maturation of the network due to ongoing BDNF-TrkB signaling. These data show that presynaptic KARs are targets for activity-dependent modulation via diffusible messengers NO and BDNF, which enhance and depress tonic KAR activity at immature synapses, respectively. The plasticity of presynaptic KARs in the developing network allows nascent synapses to shape their response to incoming activity. In particular, upregulation of KAR function after LTD allows the synapse to preferentially pass high-frequency afferent activity. This can provide a potential rescue from synapse elimination by uncorrelated activity and also increase the computational dynamics of the developing CA3-CA1 circuitry. PMID:25505341

  11. Gonadal Morphology, Histology, and Endocrinological Characteristics of Immature Female Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus.

    PubMed

    Nozu, Ryo; Murakumo, Kiyomi; Matsumoto, Rui; Nakamura, Masaru; Ueda, Keiichi; Sato, Keiichi

    2015-10-01

    Captive breeding of whale sharks is one of the great challenges for aquariums. However, there is limited information available related to reproductive physiology due to the difficulty of sampling and long-term observation. In the present report, we provide information on the reproductive physiology of female whale sharks, which were incidentally captured as bycatch in a set-net off the coast of Okinawa, Japan. Total lengths of three captured female whale sharks were 403, 665, and 761 cm, respectively, at the time of their death. Collected paired ovaries differed in size between right and left. However, it seems not to determine which side of ovary becomes developed. Histological observations revealed that oocytes surrounded by follicle cell layers localized in the developed ovary, and most developed oocytes exhibited yolk vesicle stage. Additionally, in the largest specimen, there were low levels of three steroid hormones (Testosterone, Dihydrotestosterone, and Estradiol-17ß) that did not show seasonal variation. The present results indicate that even the whale shark over 7 m in TL are still histologically and endocrinologically immature. We expect that the present data will provide fundamental information related to reproductive physiology of female whale sharks, and will contribute to protection activities and increased success in captive breeding of whale sharks. PMID:26428723