Sample records for infertility

  1. Defining Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or men who use recreational drugs such as marijuana are more likely to have problems with their ... more in-depth information about infertility and infertility testing, please see the ASRM booklet titled “Infertility: An ...

  2. Infertility - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  3. Infertility FAQ's

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with unexplained infertility. What is assisted reproductive technology (ART)? Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes all fertility treatments ... of Page How often is assisted reproductive technology (ART) successful? Success rates vary and depend on many ...

  4. Infertility Decision Making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Saaty; Luis G. Vargas

    \\u000a Infertility is perceived as a major crisis in life. There are strong religious, cultural and societal pressures to have children.\\u000a The most commonly accepted definition of infertility is the continued inability of a couple to conceive after a year. The\\u000a high level of interest in the problems associated with infertility has led to the rapid development of medical technology\\u000a in

  5. Genetics of human male infertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poongothai J

    Infertility is defined as a failure to conceive in a couple trying to reproduce for a period of two years without conception. Approximately 15 percent of couples are infertile, and among these couples, male factor infertility accounts for approximately 50 percent of causes. Male infertility is a multifactorial syndrome encompassing a wide variety of disorders. In more than half of

  6. Drug Treatment of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Corenblum, Bernard

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of infertility, once a purely empirical process, can now be based on rational exclusion of alternatives. The author reviews the drug treatment of infertility, emphasizing ovulation induction. He also discusses the endocrine treatment of men, drug treatment of endometriosis, and antibiotic treatment of infections. The author recommends referral to a specialist when more invasive drugs, such as gonadotrophins or gonadotrophin-releasing hormone or analogue, are indicated, if the couple continues to be infertile, or when the physician suspects endometriosis. PMID:21249096

  7. Causes of Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... normal hormone functioning. For more information on environmental contaminants and infertility please click here. Causes of female ... of animal studies have been published linking environmental contaminants, synthetic chemicals and endocrine disruptors to possible irregularities ...

  8. Female obesity and infertility.

    PubMed

    Talmor, Alon; Dunphy, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Infertility affects one in seven couples, and its rate is on the increase. Ovulatory defects and unexplained causes account for >50% of infertile aetiologies. It is postulated that a significant proportion of these cases are either directly or indirectly related to obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obese men and women has topped 50% in some developed countries. Obesity is on the increase worldwide; in turn, the consequences in terms of the associated morbidity and mortality have also been increasing. Obesity is associated with various reproductive sequelae including anovulation, subfertility and infertility, increased risk of miscarriage and poor neonatal and maternal pregnancy outcomes. Thus, the combination of infertility and obesity poses some very real challenges in terms of both the short- and long-term management of these patients. The mechanism with which obesity impacts female reproductive function is summarised in this review. PMID:25619586

  9. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... in 2011 for the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Be sure to check out more of ASRM's ... Roger Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine discusses the various methods to evaluate infertility. Causes ...

  10. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was developed ... endometriosis is through a surgical procedure called laparoscopy. Does endometriosis cause infertility? If you have endometriosis, it ...

  11. Psychological impact of infertility.

    PubMed

    Cousineau, Tara M; Domar, Alice D

    2007-04-01

    The inability to conceive children is experienced as a stressful situation by individuals and couples all around the world. The consequences of infertility are manifold and can include societal repercussions and personal suffering. Advances in assisted reproductive technologies, such as IVF, can offer hope to many couples where treatment is available, although barriers exist in terms of medical coverage and affordability. The medicalization of infertility has unwittingly led to a disregard for the emotional responses that couples experience, which include distress, loss of control, stigmatization, and a disruption in the developmental trajectory of adulthood. Evidence is emerging of an association between stress of fertility treatment and patient drop-out and pregnancy rates. Fortunately, psychological interventions, especially those emphasizing stress management and coping-skills training, have been shown to have beneficial effects for infertility patients. Further research is needed to understand the association between distress and fertility outcome, as well as effective psychosocial interventions. PMID:17241818

  12. Infertility: Medical and Social Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report illustrates a range of options for Congressional action in nine principal areas of public policy related to infertility: (1) collecting data on reproductive health; (2) preventing infertility; (3) information to inform and protect consumers; (4) providing access to infertility services; (5) reproductive health of veterans; (6) transfer…

  13. Treating infertility in autoimmune patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Coli

    2008-01-01

    In Western countries, the rate of infertility is about 10-20% and is age dependent. Since the infertile partner among couples can be either the man or the woman, specification of which sex con- tributes to infertility is necessary in studies of patients with autoimmune diseases. This review focuses on patients with SLE—the only group for which extensive data are available.

  14. Pregnancy following infertility.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, A K; Sarala, G; Dhaliwal, L

    1992-08-01

    Pregnancies of 112 patients who had conceived after a history of a minimum of 2 years of infertility were compared to an equal number of matching controls without prior infertility to find out any risk of increased pregnancy complications. These patients were at a significantly higher risk of developing first trimester bleeding, antepartum haemorrhage and intrauterine fetal death. Also there were higher rates of preterm delivery and Caesarean section. The patients in the study group had a significantly higher number of stillborn babies. The incidence of other complications such as ectopic pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, and medical complications was also higher in these patients but the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:1445139

  15. Male infertility microsurgical training

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Akanksha; Li, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    Microsurgical training is imperative for urologists and clinical andrologists specializing in male infertility. Success in male infertility microsurgery is heavily dependent on the surgeon's microsurgical skills. Laboratory-based practice to enhance microsurgical skills improves the surgeon's confidence, and reduces stress and operating time, benefiting both the patient and the surgeon. This review provides guidelines for setting up a microsurgical laboratory to develop and enhance microsurgical skills using synthetic and animal models. The role of emerging techniques, such as robotic-assisted microsurgery, is also discussed. PMID:23160265

  16. Fertility and Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  17. Psychological Component of Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mental health professionals help people work through their grief, fear, and other emotions so that they can find resolution of their infertility. A good therapist can help you sort out feelings, strengthen already present coping skills and develop new ones, and communicate with ...

  18. Preconception interventions in infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Kazemi, Ashraf; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preconception interventions in infertile couples can increase the chance of pregnancy and lower its complications. The success in infertility treatment and achieving a successful pregnancy is of great importance among infertile couples compared to others. This study has tried to investigate necessary preconception interventions before beginning of infertility treatment cycle among infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 268 individuals presenting to fertility clinics (Moshtagh and Shahid beheshty) across the city of Isfahan, Iran. Simple sampling method was used. Questionnaire and patients’ medical records were used to collect data. Descriptive and analytic statistical methods and SPSS software were used for analysis. Results: The results showed that the interventions related to diseases treatment and prescription of folic acid before the beginning of infertility treatment were complete for most of the subject (47.06% and 79.9% respectively), but referral for genetics counseling had not been conducted in most of the cases (98.9%). Specific interventions in relation with the infertility treatment before beginning the treatment cycle had been conducted in 50% of the subjects. Conclusion: The results of this study showed a weakness concerning necessary preconception interventions before beginning of infertility treatment cycle in most of the studied subjects. With regard to the effect of preconception interventions on outcome of infertility treatment, and with consideration of high importance of pregnancy success in infertile couples, paying more attention to conduct this manner is necessary. PMID:25250367

  19. [Obesity and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Herá?ek, J; Sobotka, V; Urban, M

    2012-10-01

    The authors present a review on the effects of obesity on male fertility. Current scientific findings suggest an elevated risk of infertility among couples in which the male partner is obese. In obese men can be found reduced serum levels of androgens and SHBG and increased estrogen levels without compensatory increase in FSH. Among other impacts of male obesity that may contribute to increased risk of infertility are altered retention and metabolism of environmental toxins, lifestyle, sexual dysfunction, genetic factors, excessive secretion of hormones derived from adipose tissue, oxidative stress, sperm specific proteomic changes or elevated levels of cytokines. The increasing prevalence of obesity calls for greater clinical awareness of its impact on male fertility. PMID:23116351

  20. Tarlov Cyst and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Conclusions: Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients. PMID:19569467

  1. Dermatoglyphic pattern in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sontakke, B R; Talhar, S; Ingole, I V; Shende, M R; Pal, A K; Bhattacharaya, T

    2013-06-01

    Dermatoglyphics in infertile male patients were studied and compared with that of age matched controls to see whether any specific dermatoglyphic pattern exists in infertile male patients. Infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile were referred to Cytogenetic Laboratory for karyotyping. We selected twenty-four infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile. Out of twenty-four infertile male patients, nineteen were with normal Karyotype and five patients were with abnormal Karyotype. Loop was the commonest pattern observed in the infertile male patients. All these fingertip and palmar dermatoglyphic findings were compared with that of result on finger and palmar dermatoglyphics of equal number of age matched controls. Statistical evaluation was done with software "EPI- info, version-6.04 d". Infertile males had reduced number of loops as compared to that of controls which was statistically significant. Total whorls were increased in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant. Percentage of true palmar pattern in I 3 and I 4 areas was reduced in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant. PMID:24696927

  2. [Genetics and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Stouffs, K; Vandermaelen, D; Tournaye, H; Liebaers, I; Van Steirteghem, A; Lissens, W

    2009-01-01

    Infertility is a problem affecting many couples with a child wish. In about half of these couples a male factor is (co-) responsible for the fertility concern. For part of these patients a genetic factor will be the underlying cause of the problems. This paper gives an overview of the studies performed in the Department of Embryology and Genetics of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the Centre for Medical Genetics of UZ Brussel in order to gain more insight into the genetic causes of male infertility. The studies, focusing on men with fertility problems, can be subdivided into three groups: studies on deletions on the long arm of the Y chromosome, studies on X-linked genes and studies on autosomal genes. It is obvious that Yq microdeletions should be considered as a cause of male infertility. Only for patients with a complete AZFc deletion, a small number of spermatozoa can be retrieved. However, even for these patients assisted reproductive technologies are necessary. Complete AZF deletions are found in 4.6% of the patients visiting the centres for Reproductive Medicine and Medical Genetics of the UZ Brussel and for whom no other cause of the fertility problems have been detected. Taken into consideration this low prevalence of Yq microdeletions, it is obvious that also other factors, including genetic factors, must be causing fertility problems. Potentially, gr/gr deletions (partial deletions of the AZFc region) might influence the fertility status of the patients. It remains, however, unclear which of the genes located in the deleted regions are important for the progression of spermatogenesis, in case of partial or complete AZF deletions. In our studies we have also investigated mutations in genes located on the X chromosome. In analogy to the Y chromosome, the X chromosome is interesting in view of studying male infertility since men only have a single copy of the sex chromosomes. As a consequence, mutations in genes crucial for spermatogenesis will have an immediate impact on the sperm production. The genes NXF2, USP26 and TAF7L were investigated for the presence of mutations. All observed single nucleotide changes were also present in control samples, questioning their relationship with male infertility. We also studied five autosomal genes: SYCP3, MSH4, DNMT3L, STRA8 and ETV5. Only for the genes STRA8 and ETV5, changes were detected that were absent in a control population existing of men with normozoospermia. Functional analysis of the changes in ETV5 and the localization of the change observed in STRA8 showed that also these alterations were probably not the cause of the fertility problems in these men. It can be concluded that mutations are rarely detected in men with fertility problems. This low frequency of mutations has also been confirmed in several published studies. Therefore, further research is necessary to determine the impact of genetic causes on male infertility. PMID:20088251

  3. Does Caesarean section cause infertility?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen Porter; Siladitya Bhattacharya; Edwin van Teijlingen; Allan Templeton

    2003-01-01

    The global rise in the rate of Caesarean sections (CS) during the last 20 years has coincided with an increase in the number of couples seeking help for infertility. There have been attempts to examine the link between these two conditions, and available data confirm an association between CS and infertility. The relationship is complex, however, involving more than a

  4. Managed care of infertility.

    PubMed

    Hull, M G

    1996-08-01

    Mandated managed care of infertility, as for other branches of medicine, demands cost-effectiveness, appropriate use of proven clinical methods, and audit of the services provided. Proper standards, and protocols of clinical diagnosis and selection of treatment need to be agreed, although allowing for valid alternatives. A diagnostic process and classification staged for primary, secondary, and tertiary care as appropriate, which has been derived by consensus, is offered in this paper. It is assumed that all couples would be allowed access to diagnostic services. A national estimate has attributed one-quarter of the costs of full infertility services to diagnostic procedures and three-quarters to treatments. It is assumed that any constraints owing to funding would apply only to access to treatment. One model proposed would limit treatment to those couples and methods which could achieve a 50% birthrate target within a reasonable time limit or number of cycles. Although there is as yet no existing model of managed care on which to base exact costing, it should be possible by initial over-restrictiveness to leave room for annual adjustments of treatment provision and to allow for new developments. Other more equitable ways of sharing resources can be argued, and ethical standards should be agreed in any system of managed care for a population. PMID:8875044

  5. Stigma: The hidden burden of infertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda M. Whiteford; Lois Gonzalez

    1995-01-01

    Infertility is experienced by 5 million U.S. couples, some of whom perceive it a stigmatizing condition. Recent technological innovations have created a multitude of medical interventions for those infertile individuals who can financially afford them. For some infertile women, those interventions also transform infertility from a private pain to a public, prolonged crisis. Our research focuses on 25 U.S. women

  6. Infertility Status and Infertility Treatment: Racial and Ethnic Disparities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Guendelman; Laura Stachel

    \\u000a Difficulties in conceiving or carrying a child to term affect 12% of the 62 million American women between ages 15–44 (Chandra,\\u000a Martinez, Mosher, Abma, & Jones, 2005). Involuntary childlessness often leads to disappointment and despair, contributing\\u000a to depression, marital strife and social stigma. Although infertility status, access to infertility care, and response to\\u000a medical treatment are not ­distributed uniformly among

  7. What Infertility Treatments Are Available?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Males Fertility Treatments for Females Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Treatments for Diseases That Cause Infertility Other FAQs ... medications to embryo implantation through assisted reproductive technology (ART). There are treatments that are specifically for men ...

  8. Genetic Testing of Male Infertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Csilla Krausz

    \\u000a Patients with severe male factor are more likely to be carriers of chromosomal abnormalities both in their sperm and in their\\u000a lymphocytes. These abnormalities include numerical alterations, structural alterations, and Y chromosome microdeletions. Gene\\u000a mutations that cause male infertility and studies identifying polymorphic regions that, in conjunction with environmental\\u000a factors, may be associated with male infertility have been described. Until

  9. Infertility as a psychological problem.

    PubMed

    Podolska, Magdalena Z; Bidzan, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been enormous progress in couple infertility treatment and diagnostics. Some couples cannot conceive despite the fact that there seems to be no objective somatic or immunologic reasons. In such situations gynaecologists are helpless and couples may be overwhelmed by a sense of defeat and hopelessness. Thus, consulting a psychologist or therapist on how to cope better with the problem may be a good solution. The objective of the following paper is to discuss the dilemmas of couples undergoing infertility treatment, related psychological problems, and to determine the need for psychological and therapeutic support. The study demonstrates numerous infertility causes and concludes that there is no universal method of dealing with them. Very frequently psychological and somatic problems overlap. Psychological causes are often the primary factors, but sometimes they are secondary derivatives of the therapeutic process. A wide scope of factors must be considered to attempt psychological analysis of patients treated for infertility including the influence of the family and relations within, reaction to the diagnosis and suggested treatment, the influence of religion on the treatment, the evaluation of the relations in the family of procreation, sexual life assessment, the sense of a woman's self-esteem and self-acceptance. Basing on empirical analysis it was concluded that all women treated for infertility want to create a full family. They have problems in coping with emotional liability during treatment and a sense of fear and failure. Understanding the psychological mechanisms observed in patients treated for infertility might help to diagnose the causes of their problems with facing the new, extremely difficult situation. PMID:21469521

  10. Genetic evaluation of infertile men.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, S E; Yogev, L; Gamzu, R; Hauser, R; Botchan, A; Lessing, J B; Paz, G; Yavetz, H

    1999-01-01

    Recently, microdeletions in the azoospermic factor region of the Y chromosome, in addition to chromosomal anomalies, have been detected in men with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. In this study we evaluated the molecular and cytogenetic defects of infertile men. The frequency of Y microdeletions among 105 azoospermic, 28 oligozoospermic and 32 fertile men was tested on lymphocyte DNA using a series of 20 sequence-tagged sites. In addition, microdeletions were evaluated on testicular-derived DNA among 26 azoospermic patients who underwent testicular biopsy and in whom no sperm cells could be identified. Karyotype analysis was performed on 72 of the infertile patients. Deletions were detected in 6.7% azoospermic and 3.6% oligozoospermic men. No deletions were identified among the fertile men. Identical results were obtained with DNA derived either from lymphocytes or testicular tissue. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the 72 infertile patients tested (62 azoospermic, 10 oligozoospermic) was 16.6%, with a high percentage of gonosome anomalies. Additional andrological parameters (hormone values, cryptorchidism) failed to identify men at risk for having microdeletions before the test. Our findings support the recommendation to perform genetic defect screening among infertile men before their enrollment in an intracytoplasmic injection/in-vitro fertilization programme. PMID:10374090

  11. A survey of equine infertility

    E-print Network

    Balasubramanian, R. K. R

    1966-01-01

    infertile because of apparently abnormal ovaries. Crowhurst and Caslick (1946) tried stilbestrol in doses of Z5 to 50 rng. on 14 mares and achieved 50 percent pregnancy. Bain (1957) found that only 60 percent of the mares came in estrus within 10 days... an overt manifestation of physiologic estrus and pregnancy J The number of successful cases was not indicated. Split Estrus: Van Rensburg and Van Heerden (1953), Fowler (1962) and Patter- son (1963) found split estrus in mares which was characterized...

  12. [Sophrology: a different tool for infertile couples].

    PubMed

    Heymčs, O; Forges, T; Guillet-May, F; Zaccabri, A; Dandachi, N; Monnier, P

    2006-12-01

    Because of the high degree of complexity of assisted reproduction techniques (ART), the human and conscious dimensions of infertility problems are often neglected. Different strategies may help infertile couples coping with infertility and related treatments; among these, Caycedian sophrology relies on the cognitive, emotional, and somatic aspects of consciousness. In the present article, the authors report on their experience with sophrologic support for infertile patients by a midwife qualified in caycedian sophrology. Overall, since 1988, 310 couples have benefied from this kind of support, with an average of 10 sophrologic trainings per patient. Whereas some couples consider sophrology as a short time training to better cope with any particular aspect of their infertility treatment, others want to undertake more profound work on their body scheme. The authors wish to call the attention of ART professionals to this kind of medical support for infertile couples, and also to the particular role of midwives with sophrologic competence in an ART center. PMID:17151535

  13. Social correlates of female infertility in Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Jumayev, Izatulla; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Rustamov, Oybek; Zakirova, Nodira; Kasuya, Hideki; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this matched case-control study was to investigate the social correlates of primary infertility among females aged 35 years or less. The study was conducted in the Clinics of Samarkand Medical Institute, Uzbekistan, among 120 infertile and 120 healthy women matched by age, residential area, and occupation from January to June 2009. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Median duration of infertility was 10.0 months (interquartile range = 6.0-13.0). The rate of remarriage was 3.5 times higher among infertile women compared with healthy subjects. Insufficient family income, poor quality of life, life stress, and discontentment with daily routines as well as 'bad' relationships with family members (husband, mother- and father-in-law) were significant correlates of female infertility. Infertile women were more likely to underestimate the importance of sexual intimacy, and a negative attitude to sex. Female infertility is associated with various social correlates leading to higher remarriage rates and to further complicating the problem of infertility. Thus, a correction of women's basic attitudes and their relationships to their surrounding social habitat should be an essential component of any program of infertility management. PMID:23092100

  14. Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods: This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman’s test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Many of the current problems in this society, particularly in families are due to the transition of the society from a traditional model to a modern one. The majority of the infertile women experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing counseling services to women in infertility treatment centers is suggested to prevent domestic violence against infertile women. PMID:25695010

  15. Ethnography, epidemiology and infertility in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia C. Inhorn; Kimberly A. Buss

    1994-01-01

    Infertility in the developing world has been relatively neglected as an international health problem and a topic of social scientific and epidemiological inquiry. In this study, we examine factors placing poor urban Egyptian men and women at risk of infertility, and we explore the sociocultural and political-economic contexts in which these health-demoting factors are perpetuated. Our approach to the problem

  16. Is Infertility Associated with Childhood Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grether, Judith K.; Qian, Yinge; Croughan, Mary S.; Wu, Yvonne W.; Schembri, Michael; Camarano, Loretta; Croen, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns persist about a possible link between infertility and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Interpretation of existing studies is limited by racial/ethnic homogeneity of study populations and other factors. Using a case-control design, we evaluated infertility history and treatment documented in medical records of members of Kaiser…

  17. Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatments such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) Medicines to treat infections and clotting ... does not include advanced techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

  18. Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use this medicine for women who have insulin resistance and/or PCOS. This drug helps lower the ... are at a higher risk of health and developmental problems. Return to top What is intrauterine insemination ( ...

  19. SPERM MORPHOLOGY, MOTILITY, AND CONCENTRATION IN FERTILE AND INFERTILE MEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D AVID S. G UZICK; J AMES W. O VERSTREET; C HARLENE K. B RAZIL; TEVEN T. N AKAJIMA; C HRISTOS C OUTIFARIS; S ANDRA; P AULINE; M ICHAEL; P. S TEINKAMPF; J OSEPH; D ONG X U; M. P HIL; ONNA L. V OGEL

    2010-01-01

    Background Although semen analysis is routinely used to evaluate the male partner in infertile couples, sperm measurements that discriminate between fer- tile and infertile men are not well defined. Methods We evaluated two semen specimens from each of the male partners in 765 infertile couples and 696 fertile couples at nine sites. The female partners in the infertile couples had

  20. Definition and epidemiology of unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Gelbaya, Tarek A; Potdar, Neelam; Jeve, Yadava B; Nardo, Luciano G

    2014-02-01

    The diagnosis of unexplained infertility can be made only after excluding common causes of infertility using standard fertility investigations,which include semen analysis, assessment of ovulation, and tubal patency test. These tests have been selected as they have definitive correlation with pregnancy. It is estimated that a standard fertility evaluation will fail to identify an abnormality in approximately 15% to 30% of infertile couples. The reported incidence of such unexplained infertility varies according to the age and selection criteria in the study population. We conducted a review of the literature via MEDLINE. Articles were limited to English-language, human studies published between 1950 and 2013. Since first coined more than 50 years ago, the term unexplained infertility has been a subject of debate. Although additional investigations are reported to explain or define other causes of infertility, these have high false-positive results and therefore cannot be recommended for routine clinical practice. Couples with unexplained infertility might be reassured that even after 12 months of unsuccessful attempts, 50% will conceive in the following 12 months and another 12% in the year after. PMID:25112489

  1. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in infertile women and evaluation of response of treatment for hypothyroidism on infertility

    PubMed Central

    Priya, D. Mohana; Akhtar, Nishat; Ahmad, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aim was to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism in infertile women and evaluation of response of treatment for hypothyroidism on infertility. Materials and Methods: A total of 95 infertile women were investigated for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Infertile women with clinical/subclinical hypothyroidism were given thyroxine ranges from 25 to 150 ?g. Results: Of 95 infertile women, 53.7% were hypothyroid (TSH > 4.6 ?IU/ml). After the treatment with thyroxine, 33.3% of subclinical hypothyroid women conceived within 6 weeks to 2-year period. The mean time to conception was 14.56 ± 4.83 months. Conclusion: Thyroid profile should be done in infertility work up. Women with normal TSH levels who are positive for thyroid antibodies should also be treated with levothyroxine. PMID:26180766

  2. Treatments for Diseases That Cause Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is the most common treatment for infertility in women with PCOS. Studies have shown that in women with PCOS, those ... ovulating after losing weight and trying fertility medicines. Studies of women with PCOS have shown that ovarian drilling results ...

  3. Use of Diagnostic Testing to Detect Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kathleen; Lipshultz, Larry I.; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of the infertile male continues to be a clinical challenge of increasing significance with considerable emotional and financial burdens. Many physiological, environmental and genetic factors are implicated; however, the etiology of suboptimal semen quality is poorly understood. This review focuses on the diagnostic testing currently available, as well as future directions that will be helpful for the practicing urologist and other clinicians to fully evaluate the infertile male. PMID:21088937

  4. Root traits for infertile soils

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued. PMID:23781228

  5. Secondary infertility and the aging male, overview

    PubMed Central

    Al–Hawsawi, Khalid; Motair, Wael; Bawa, Abdallah Makhloof

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Old men preparing themselves for marriage late in their lives might face infertility. Infertility in this group of men should be considered from a wider perspective, as they face any age–related health troubles that include, but are not limited to, androgen deficiency and psychological disorders that impede early conception. This review aims to shed light on the proper approach to this minority of secondarily infertile men. Material and methods A comprehensive electronic English literature search was conducted, using various medical websites and books, for the factors that cause infertility in senior fathers. The physiology of geriatric males, together with their common comorbidities, were discussed. Results Old men presenting with secondary infertility should be approached differently. Aging, itself, has a significant impact on male sexual function, sperm parameters, and fertility; all of which contribute to poor fecundability, decreased fertilizing capacity, increased time to pregnancy, increased rate of DNA damage, high abortion rates and increased prevalence of fetal developmental failures. The complexity and the unknowns of the aging male physiology, together with the interaction of obstinate diseases the patient might have, make the issue very difficult to tackle. Conclusions Management should include the conventional way of treating young sufferers and further target the underlying causes, if known, along with the provision of geriatric, psychologic, and andrologic support. PMID:25140235

  6. Attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy

    PubMed Central

    Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. SETTING AND DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: While 33.3% of men and 43.3% of women surveyed insisted on not using surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). CONCLUSION: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples. PMID:24829531

  7. Infertility in Malawi: exploring its impact and social consequences 

    E-print Network

    de Kok, Christina

    Infertility is a serious personal, social and public health issue in developing countries such as Malawi. Infertility is often a ‘hidden’ problem in this context as the policy and service emphasis is on issues like infant ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Sensorineural deafness and male infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and male infertility is unknown. What are the genetic changes related to sensorineural deafness and male infertility? ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

  9. An Investigation into Steroids and One Couple's Experience with Infertility

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Thomas, Megan

    This case is an investigation into the effect of steroids on infertility. Students learn about sperm counts, sperm lab analysis, infertility diagnoses, and how to put together an informative health pamphlet.

  10. Impact of obesity on infertility in women

    PubMed Central

    Da?, Zeynep Özcan; Dilbaz, Berna

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight are increasing and have become an epidemic worldwide. Obesity has detrimental influences on all systems, including reproductive health. The prevalence of obesity in infertile women is high, and it is well known that there is an association between obesity and infertility. The relationship between obesity and reproductive functions is still being explored. Overweight women have a higher incidence of menstrual dysfunction and anovulation. Overweight and obese women are at a high risk for reproductive health. The risk of subfecundity and infertility, conception rates, miscarriage rates, and pregnancy complications are increased in these women. They have poor reproductive outcomes in natural as well as assisted conception. These poor reproductive outcomes include assisted reproduction such as ovulation induction, in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), and ovum donation cycles. Weight loss has beneficial effects on the reproductive outcomes in these patients.

  11. Impact of obesity on infertility in women.

    PubMed

    Da?, Zeynep Özcan; Dilbaz, Berna

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight are increasing and have become an epidemic worldwide. Obesity has detrimental influences on all systems, including reproductive health. The prevalence of obesity in infertile women is high, and it is well known that there is an association between obesity and infertility. The relationship between obesity and reproductive functions is still being explored. Overweight women have a higher incidence of menstrual dysfunction and anovulation. Overweight and obese women are at a high risk for reproductive health. The risk of subfecundity and infertility, conception rates, miscarriage rates, and pregnancy complications are increased in these women. They have poor reproductive outcomes in natural as well as assisted conception. These poor reproductive outcomes include assisted reproduction such as ovulation induction, in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), and ovum donation cycles. Weight loss has beneficial effects on the reproductive outcomes in these patients. PMID:26097395

  12. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari, Fatemeh; Ghahiri, Ataollah; Habibi, Mojtaba; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis ap- proach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women) and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives) as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their medical treatments as well as provision of psychosocial services by development of patient-centered approaches and couple-based interventions can improve their quality of life and treatment results and also relieve their negative psychosocial consequences. PMID:25918596

  13. Preconception risk assessment of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpur, Soheila; Beigi, Nastaran Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: With regard to the importance of preconception conditions in maternal health and fertility, preconception risk assessment makes treatment trends and pregnancy outcome more successful among infertile couples. This study has tried to investigate preconception risk assessment in infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive analytical survey conducted on 268 subjects, selected by convenient sampling, referring to Isfahan infertility centers (Iran). The data were collected by questionnaires through interview and clients’ medical records. Pre-pregnancy risk assessment including history taking (personal, familial, medical, medications, menstruation, and pregnancy), exams (physical, genital, and vital signs), and routine test requests (routine, cervix, infections, and biochemical tests) was performed in the present study. Results: The results showed that the lowest percentage of taking a complete history was for personal history (0.4%) and the highest was for history of menstruation (100%). The lowest percentage of complete exam was for physical exam (3.4%) and the highest for genital exam (100%). With regard to laboratory assessment, the highest percentage was for routine tests (36.6%) and the lowest was for infection tests (0.4%). Conclusion: Based o the results of the present study, most of the risk assessment components are poorly assessed in infertile couples. With regard to the importance of infertility treatment, spending high costs and time on that, and existence of high-risk individuals as well as treatment failures, health providers should essentially pay special attention to preconception risk assessment in infertile couples in order to enhance the chance of success and promote treatment outcome. PMID:23983724

  14. Lymphangiocele: A very rare cause of primary infertility

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sunita; Swain, Sudeepta Kumar; Pallavee, P.; Ghose, Seetesh

    2015-01-01

    There are limited causes of surgically treatable male infertility. Lymphangiocele of scrotum is a very rare condition particularly in adult life. Lymphangiocele causing infertility is further rare and not reported in English literature so far. We report an extremely rare case of lymphangiocele in a 29 years male presenting with male infertility that improved after surgery. PMID:25838750

  15. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Treat Infertility Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Eifert, Georg H.

    2011-01-01

    Women and men diagnosed with infertility experience a variety of infertility-related stressors, including changes to their family and social networks, strain on their sexual relationship, and difficulties and unexpected challenges in their relationship. Infertility stress is linked with depression and psychological distress, and can lead to…

  16. Infertility and chylous ascites? A case report

    PubMed Central

    Frey, C.; Poncelet, C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Chylous ascites is defined by an accumulation of chylous fluid in the peritoneal cavity and it clinically appears as a milky fluid in which laboratory examination reveals triglycerides, cholesterol, and sometimes chylomicrons and lymphocytes. Presentation of case We report the first case of primary chylous ascites observed during laparoscopy for unexplained secondary infertility. Discussion Chylous ascites has never been linked to fertility but bathes all internal reproductive organs surfaces and is considered a communication mean between ovaries. Conclusion Despite a lack of evidence, the question of peritoneal fluid role remains in infertility. PMID:22096750

  17. Infertility, infertility treatment and psychomotor development: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Hvidtjřrn, Dorte; Olsen, Jřrn

    2009-03-01

    Babies born of infertile couples, regardless of treatment, have a higher risk of preterm birth and low birthweight, conditions associated with delayed development. We examined developmental milestones in singletons as a function of parental infertility [time to pregnancy (TTP) > 12 months] and infertility treatment. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 37 897 singletons born of fertile couples (TTP < or = 12 months), 4351 born of infertile couples conceiving naturally (TTP > 12 months), and 3309 born after infertility treatment. When the children were about 18 months old, mothers reported 12 developmental milestones by responding to structured questions. We defined a failure to achieve the assessed milestone or the minimal numbers of milestones in a summary (motor, or cognitive/language skills) as delay. Naturally conceived children born of infertile couples had a pattern of psychomotor development similar to that of children born of fertile couples, but increasing TTP correlated with a modest delay. When the analysis was restricted to infertile couples (treated and untreated), children born after treatment showed a slight delay in cognitive/language development (odds ratio 1.24, [95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.53]) for not meeting at least three out of six cognitive/language milestones); children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) had the highest estimated relative risk of delay for most milestones, especially motor milestones. These results suggest that a long TTP may be associated with a modest developmental delay. Infertility treatment, especially ICSI, may be associated with a slight delay for some of these early milestones. PMID:19159396

  18. Characteristics of the Biopsychosocial Crisis of Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1987-01-01

    Presents a framework for understanding the crisis of infertility which is characterized by extensive anxiety, damaged self-esteem, grief, uncertainty about the future, and estranged relationships with each other and with family and friends. Proposes some interventions appropriate to helpers from a variety of disciplines. (ABB)

  19. [Male infertility: non-surgical therapy.

    PubMed

    Gulino, Gaetano; Stefanucci, Marco; Antonucci, Michele; Racioppi, Marco; Sacco, Emilio; Pinto, Francesco; Bassi, Pier Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Infertility is defined as the inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of unprotected intercourse and affects 15% of couples with male component of 50%. The failure of spermatogenesis can result from hypothalamic, pituitary or testicular disorders although in the majority of cases it remains idiopathic. The diagnostic process includes medical history, semen analysis, hormonal studies, genetic studies and radiological evaluation.Targeted hormonal therapies are available for patients whose infertility is caused by altered levels of androgens, prolactin, or TSH. Main treatments aim to restore normal sexual function by administering testosterone and to increase spermatogenesis with pulsatile GnRH.Fertility in men suffering from hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism can be restored through hormone therapy using GnRH or with the use of gonadotropins when there is hypothalamic failure. In the past, treatment options for the factors of idiopathic male infertility were mainly based on the use of anti-estrogens that cause an increased secretion of FSH and LH and therefore of testosterone.Oxytocin promotes the progression of the sperm and increases the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. The aromatase's inhibitors decrease the conversion of androgens to estrogens, increasing serum levels of androgens, resulting in an increased release of gonadotropins.Two areas showed interesting future perspectives for the treatment of infertility: gene therapy and transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells. PMID:25198940

  20. Infertility and childlessness: a qualitative study of the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility is a global reproductive health issue that affects many individuals and couples. Despite the high prevalence of infertility in Ghana, no study has been done on the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana. This study therefore explored the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. Methods We interviewed fifteen childless couples, forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants using a semi-structured interview guide. We also carried out three focus group discussions; one for childless women, one for women with children and one for men with children. The data were transcribed, coded, arranged and analyzed for categories and themes. Results Infertile couples are socially stigmatised and excluded from leadership roles in their communities. Couples without children are denied membership in the ancestral world thereby losing the opportunity to live again. Both males and females are engaged in sex with multiple partners to prove their fertility. Conclusions Both men and women suffer from the social effects of childlessness. The desire to have biological children in a pronatalist society results in unhealthy practices. Health policy makers and gender advocates should be more concerned about infertility. PMID:23517021

  1. New insights into the genetic basis of infertility

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Thejaswini; Suresh, Padmanaban S; Tsutsumi, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system characterized by inability to achieve pregnancy after 12 or more months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. A variety of factors, including ovulation defects, spermatogenic failure, parental age, obesity, and infections have been linked with infertility, in addition to specific karyotypes and genotypes. The study of genes associated with infertility in rodent models has expanded the field of translational genetics in identifying the underlying cause of human infertility problems. Many intriguing aspects of the molecular basis of infertility in humans remain poorly understood; however, application of genetic knowledge in this field looks promising. The growing literature on the genetics of human infertility disorders deserves attention and a critical concise summary is required. This paper provides information obtained from a systematic analysis of the literature related to current research into the genetics of infertility affecting both sexes. PMID:25506236

  2. Psychological adjustment to twins after infertility.

    PubMed

    Klock, Susan C

    2004-08-01

    The birth of twins and other multiples is physically and emotionally stressful. The increase in the use of the assisted reproductive technologies has lead to an exponential increase in the rates of twins and triplets in the US. Whereas the medical complications of twins and other multiples has been well studied, the psychological and social implications of these events has not. Very little empirical research has been conducted to assess the differential impact of twins, as compared to singletons, on maternal adjustment, postpartum depression and marital functioning. In addition, assessment of infant health, disposition and behavior and its relation to maternal adjustment is lacking. The birth of twins after a period of infertility complicates the clinical picture and the impact of infertility on subsequent parental adjustment is only beginning to be understood. Although research suggests that infertile couples often desire multiples, the experience of parenting multiples after infertility has not been studied. Research on fertile couples indicate that: (i) approximately 10% of women develop postpartum depression and; (ii) marital adjustment declines after the birth of the first child. Because of the unique demands of parenting multiples, it is hypothesized that mothers of twins who have a history of infertility would be at increased risk for depression and marital decline. Descriptive studies of these families support this view, although additional studies are needed to determine the degree and extent of the problem. Additionally, variables such as, prepregnancy adjustment, equitable division of child-care tasks and perceived social support should be studied to determine if they buffer against the expected effects. PMID:15279823

  3. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi

    2014-01-01

    Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life. PMID:25788801

  4. Infertility in South Africa: women's reproductive health knowledge and treatment-seeking behaviour for involuntary childlessness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Dyer; N. Abrahams; M. Hoffman; Z. M. van der Spuy

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infertility is a major reproductive health problem in Africa. This paper presents the findings of two studies which focus on the knowledge that infertile women have about fertility and the causes of infertility, their treatment-seeking behaviour and their expectations of an infertility clinic. METHODS: A total of 150 infertile women from a culturally diverse, urban community in South Africa

  5. [Treatment options for age-related infertility].

    PubMed

    Belaisch-Allart, Joëlle

    2010-06-20

    There has been a consistent trend towards delayed childbearing in most Western countries. Treatment options for age-related infertility includes controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with intrauterine insemination and in vitro fertilization (IVF). A sharp decline in pregnancy rate with advancing female age is noted with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) including IVF. Evaluation and treatment of infertility should not be delayed in women 35 years and older. No treatment other than oocyte donation has been shown to be effective for women over 40 and for those with compromised ovarian reserve, but its pratice is not easy in France hence the procreative tourism. As an increasing number of couples choose to postpone childbearing, they should be informed that maternal age is an important risk factor for failure to conceive. PMID:20623902

  6. The place of IVF in infertility care.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Patricia A; Wagner, Marsden G

    1991-12-01

    In vitro fertilization has become standard treatment for infertility without the benefit of thorough evaluation. Today, the effectiveness of IVF is the subject of ongoing debate, the medical and non-medical risks of treatment are not adequately understood, and there is great concern about the true costs of care both for individuals and society. Added to this debate are ethical dilemmas which have changed the way we think about reproductive rights, the family, parenthood, intergenerational responsibilities, and the legal status of children and embryos. In order to address these issues, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe held a meeting in June 1990 on the Place of In Vitro Fertilization in Infertility Care. The recommendations from the meeting are presented. PMID:11651137

  7. [Efficiency of spematon in male infertility].

    PubMed

    Nashivochnikova, N A; Krupin, V N; Selivanova, S A

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of the application of spematon in 39 men from infertile couples with different forms of pathospermia (asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia, teratozoospermia). It is shown that the effect in the first 3 months of use of spematon is mainly associated with normalization of acrosome reaction of sperm cells. It was established that spematon, due to content of L-carnitine content, zinc, vitamin E, contributes restoration of induction of acrosome reaction. PMID:24956674

  8. Ejaculatory dysfunction as a cause of infertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyuki Kondoh

    Ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD), the most prevalent male sexual disorder, is clearly different from erectile dysfunction (ED).\\u000a EjD is divided into 4 categories: premature ejaculation, delayed ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation and anejaculation. EjD-related\\u000a infertility is one of the most serious problems in young patients. If sexual intercourse is achieved successfully without\\u000a any ejaculate sexual partners\\/wives will not be able to conceive. Therefore,

  9. Effect of Varicocelectomy on Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Su

    2014-01-01

    Varicocele is the most common cause of male infertility and is generally correctable or at least improvable by various surgical and radiologic techniques. Therefore, it seems simple and reasonable that varicocele should be treated in infertile men with varicocele. However, the role of varicocele repair for the treatment of subfertile men has been questioned during the past decades. Although varicocele repair can induce improvement of semen quality, the obvious benefit of spontaneous pregnancy has not been shown through several meta-analyses. Recently, a well-designed randomized clinical trial was introduced, and, subsequently, a novel meta-analysis was published. The results of these studies advocate that varicocele repair be regarded as a standard treatment modality in infertile men with clinical varicocele and abnormal semen parameters, which is also supported by current clinical guidelines. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has been regarded as the gold standard compared to other surgical techniques and radiological management in terms of the recurrence rate and the pregnancy rate. However, none of the methods has been proven through well-designed clinical trials to be superior to the others in the ability to improve fertility. Accordingly, high-quality data from well-designed studies are needed to resolve unanswered questions and update current knowledge. Upcoming trials should be designed to define the best technique and also to define how to select the best candidates who will benefit from varicocele repair. PMID:25405011

  10. Frequency and epidemiologic aspects of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Jafari, Mohammad; Shariat, Mamak; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Lotfi, Mandana

    2015-04-01

    According to different geographical conditions, human health in different sub-regions of the world and cultural differences, the male factor infertility has heterogeneous causes in the world. This study was performed in an attempt to clarify the associated factors which might play a role in this respect in a group of Iranian infertile men. This study was a cross - sectional, descriptive and retrospective study. The information was obtained from the men who had attended the clinic from March 2004-2006. The factors which were studied in this research are the demographic characteristics, smoking, addiction, alcohol drinking, and exposure to lead, cimetidine and history of surgery. In 23.7 % of couples the cause of infertility was pure male factor and in 19.3 % of them the problem was related to male and female factor both. The most important associated factors for male factor included smoking (29%) and history of varicocele operation (22%). Since the quality of individual and social life is related to fertility state, it seems that more comprehensive studies on factors affecting male fertility at the community level are justified and recommended. PMID:25871021

  11. Effect of varicocelectomy on male infertility.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kang Su; Seo, Ju Tae

    2014-11-01

    Varicocele is the most common cause of male infertility and is generally correctable or at least improvable by various surgical and radiologic techniques. Therefore, it seems simple and reasonable that varicocele should be treated in infertile men with varicocele. However, the role of varicocele repair for the treatment of subfertile men has been questioned during the past decades. Although varicocele repair can induce improvement of semen quality, the obvious benefit of spontaneous pregnancy has not been shown through several meta-analyses. Recently, a well-designed randomized clinical trial was introduced, and, subsequently, a novel meta-analysis was published. The results of these studies advocate that varicocele repair be regarded as a standard treatment modality in infertile men with clinical varicocele and abnormal semen parameters, which is also supported by current clinical guidelines. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has been regarded as the gold standard compared to other surgical techniques and radiological management in terms of the recurrence rate and the pregnancy rate. However, none of the methods has been proven through well-designed clinical trials to be superior to the others in the ability to improve fertility. Accordingly, high-quality data from well-designed studies are needed to resolve unanswered questions and update current knowledge. Upcoming trials should be designed to define the best technique and also to define how to select the best candidates who will benefit from varicocele repair. PMID:25405011

  12. Frequency and outcome of treatment in polycystic ovaries related infertility

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Farzana; Arif, Nesreen; Halepota, Hafeez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility is defined as inability of couple to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 21.9%. The most common cause of medically treatable infertility is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO). This study was conducted to see the frequency and outcome of treatment in PCOs related infertility in infertile couples coming to Mohammad Medical College Hospital, Mirpurkhas, Sindh. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted at Muhammad Medical College for three years from 2005 to 2008. Total 1289 infertile couples were included in this study. Result: The frequency of PCOs in female related infertility was 38.5%. Other causes of female infertility were in the frequency of 44% pelvic inflammatory disease, 12.3% endometriosis, 2.9% hyperprolactenemia, and 1.35% hypothyroidism. Patients with PCOS were given different treatment modalities. One hundred fifty patients with PCO were given ovulation induction with clomephene citrate and out of them 109 (72%) conceived. Sixty three women were given combination of clomephene citrate and Metformin. Out of them 50 (79%) conceived. Five patients were given gonadotrophins, Out of them 2 (40%) patients conceived. Five patients had laparoscopic drilling out of them 3 (60%) conceived. Conclusion: In contrast to the literature review Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome turned out to be the second most common cause of female related infertility. But as the international literature shows it had very good out come after medical and /or surgical treatment.

  13. Providing infertility treatment in resource-poor countries.

    PubMed

    Pennings, G; de Wert, G; Shenfield, F; Cohen, J; Tarlatzis, B; Devroey, P

    2009-05-01

    Recently, several initiatives were started to introduce medically assisted reproduction in developing countries. Infertility is a major problem in these countries and causes extensive social and psychological suffering. This article analyses the main ethical arguments pro and contra the provision of infertility treatment in resource-poor countries. It is concluded that infertility treatment should be part of an integrated reproductive care programme including family planning and motherhood care. Education, empowerment of women and economic prosperity are the most effective solutions to most problems related to both population growth and infertility. Simultaneously, investments in low-cost interventions are justified. PMID:19189993

  14. Constructing infertility in Malawi: Management of interpersonal, normative and moral issues in talk 

    E-print Network

    de Kok, Bregje Christina

    2007-01-01

    This study examines social constructions of infertility in Malawi. The literature on infertility consists of epidemiological studies, describing patterns of infertility in terms of its incidence, causes and health seeking ...

  15. [Feelings and emotions in women treated for infertility].

    PubMed

    Jedrzejczak, Piotr; Luczak-Wawrzyniak, Jadwiga; Szyfter, Joanna; Przewo?na, Joanna; Taszarek-Hauke, Grazyna; Pawelczyk, Leszek

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was an assessment of women's moods and emotions during infertil-ity treatment. Sixty married women diagnosed and treated for primary infertility at Division of Infertility and Reproductive Endocrinology Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics University of Poznan Medical Sciences from January to April 2003 were included in this study. The average age of women was 28.5 years. Control group consisted of 30 female students at similar age, single, not planning pregnancy in the nearest future. Depression was assessed using Beck scale. The special questionnaire was made to evaluate women's different psychological features connected with infertility. The interviews had a personal character and every question was filled in the questionnaire by the investigator. The first reaction most patients experienced when they found out about infertility was: 1) astonishment 2) sadness 3) anger, and similar was the opinion from the control group. Both the patients and the control group consider that having a baby is: 1) goal of their lives 2) sense of marriage 3) providing a woman with a sense of fulfillment. More than 25% of both groups of women think that infertility is the most important problem for their couples. Economic difficulties seem to be the biggest problem for patients during their treatment of infertility. What is very interesting patients average Beck scale depression score was significantly higher that of control respondents (8,6 points for patients and 4,4 for control group). PMID:15850324

  16. Population study of causes, treatment, and outcome of infertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M G Hull; C M Glazener; N J Kelly; D I Conway; P A Foster; R A Hinton; C Coulson; P A Lambert; E M Watt; K M Desai

    1985-01-01

    Specialist infertility practice was studied in a group of 708 couples within a population of residents of a single health district in England. They represented an annual incidence of 1.2 couples for every 1000 of the population. At least one in six couples needed specialist help at some time in their lives because of an average of infertility of 21\\/2

  17. Infertility evaluation and treatment according to Jewish law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph G. Schenker

    1997-01-01

    The Jewish attitude toward infertility can be learned from the fact that the first commandment of God to Adam was “be fruitful and multiply”. When evaluating an infertile couple according to the Halakha (Hebrew law), one should first evaluate the female factor. If pathology is found, one may proceed to investigate the male factor, inadequate or abnormal production, ejaculation, or

  18. Donor insemination and infertility: what general urologists need to know

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin S Han; Robert E Brannigan

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic donor insemination (TDI), also known as artificial insemination by donor, is one of the oldest forms of male infertility treatment. With the advent of assisted reproductive technologies and in vitro fertilization techniques over the past few decades, the use of TDI in male infertility treatment has decreased dramatically. Knowledge of its use, indications, efficacy, and related psychosocial issues has

  19. Is There a Relationship between Ovarian Epithelial Dysplasia and Infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Chene, Gautier; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Tardieu, Anne; Cayre, Anne; Lagarde, Nicole; Jaffeux, Patricia; Aublet-Cuvelier, Bruno; Dechelotte, Pierre; Felloni, Bertrand; Pouly, Jean-Luc; Dauplat, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Ovarian epithelial dysplasia was initially described in material from prophylactic oophorectomies performed in patients at genetic risk of ovarian cancer. Similar histopathological abnormalities have been revealed after ovulation stimulation. Since infertility is also a risk factor for ovarian neoplasia, the aim of this study was to study the relationship between infertility and ovarian dysplasia. Methods. We blindly reviewed 127 histopathological slides of adnexectomies or ovarian cystectomies according to three groups—an exposed group to ovulation induction (n = 30), an infertile group without stimulation (n = 35), and a spontaneously fertile control group (n = 62)—in order to design an eleven histopathological criteria scoring system. Results. The ovarian dysplasia score was significantly higher in exposed group whereas dysplasia score was low in infertile and control groups (resp., 8.21 in exposed group, 3.69 for infertile patients, and 3.62 for the controls). In the subgroup with refractory infertility there was a trend towards a more severe dysplasia score (8.53 in ovulation induction group and 5.1 in infertile group). Conclusion. These results raise questions as to the responsibility of drugs used to induce ovulation and/or infertility itself in the genesis of ovarian epithelial dysplasia. PMID:22496700

  20. Is There a Relationship between Ovarian Epithelial Dysplasia and Infertility?

    PubMed

    Chene, Gautier; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Tardieu, Anne; Cayre, Anne; Lagarde, Nicole; Jaffeux, Patricia; Aublet-Cuvelier, Bruno; Dechelotte, Pierre; Felloni, Bertrand; Pouly, Jean-Luc; Dauplat, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Ovarian epithelial dysplasia was initially described in material from prophylactic oophorectomies performed in patients at genetic risk of ovarian cancer. Similar histopathological abnormalities have been revealed after ovulation stimulation. Since infertility is also a risk factor for ovarian neoplasia, the aim of this study was to study the relationship between infertility and ovarian dysplasia. Methods. We blindly reviewed 127 histopathological slides of adnexectomies or ovarian cystectomies according to three groups-an exposed group to ovulation induction (n = 30), an infertile group without stimulation (n = 35), and a spontaneously fertile control group (n = 62)-in order to design an eleven histopathological criteria scoring system. Results. The ovarian dysplasia score was significantly higher in exposed group whereas dysplasia score was low in infertile and control groups (resp., 8.21 in exposed group, 3.69 for infertile patients, and 3.62 for the controls). In the subgroup with refractory infertility there was a trend towards a more severe dysplasia score (8.53 in ovulation induction group and 5.1 in infertile group). Conclusion. These results raise questions as to the responsibility of drugs used to induce ovulation and/or infertility itself in the genesis of ovarian epithelial dysplasia. PMID:22496700

  1. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin M Matzuk; Dolores J Lamb

    2008-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential 'sex' genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given

  2. [News from andrology. Infertility, erectile dysfunction, and hypogonadism].

    PubMed

    Weidner, W; Rusz, A; Pilatz, A; Hauptmann, A; Schuppe, H-C

    2011-09-01

    This contribution discusses new aspects in andrology focusing on infertility, erectile dysfunction (ED), and hypogonadism. Topics such as prostatitis and detection of Chlamydia, idiopathic infertility and PDE5 inhibitors, and ED after GreenLight laser treatment are addressed. PMID:21863409

  3. Psychosocial response of Chinese infertile husbands and wives.

    PubMed

    Lee, T Y; Sun, G H

    2000-01-01

    Some 15% or 1 in 6 American couples in the childbearing years have infertility problems. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both infertile men and women have negative emotional responses, such as stress, anxiety and depression. In Europe, Canada, and the United States the response of infertile husbands was different from that of their wives in self-image, marital adjustment, and sexual relations. The differences in psychological distress, marital satisfaction, and sexual satisfaction between Chinese infertile husbands and wives were evaluated. Fifty-nine infertile couples participated in this study. The subjects completed an Infertility Questionnaire, Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, and Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire as measures of gender differences in facing infertility problems. Paired t tests revealed that husbands expressed significantly less distress than that of the wives. The husbands' self-esteem was higher than that of the wives. The husbands' marital and sexual satisfaction was also higher than that of the wives. These results propose that although differences exist in cultural, ethnic, and religious norms between Chinese society and Western society, the Chinese couples' response to infertility is similar to that of Western couples. The major difference is that the in-laws play an important role in Chinese society, especially in marital satisfaction. PMID:11111862

  4. Gender differences in coping with infertility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jordan, C; Revenson, T A

    1999-08-01

    Infertility is a stressor that affects both husbands and wives. The literature suggests that infertility is more stressful for women, although most studies have not included men/husbands. If the experience of infertility is different for women and men, the next question is whether women and men cope differently. Meta-analytic procedures were used to review the empirical evidence (1966-1995) on gender differences in coping with infertility among heterosexual married couples; all studies used a standardized coping measure [The Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (Folkman et al., 1986)]. Significant gender differences were found for half the strategies studied: Women used the strategies of Seeking Social Support, Escape-Avoidance, Planful Problem-Solving, and Positive Reappraisal to a greater degree than their partners. The findings suggest that coping at both the individual and the couple level be considered in the treatment of infertile couples and that gender be considered before planning an intervention. PMID:10495967

  5. Infertility Evaluation and Treatment among Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Lawrence M.; Craig, Benjamin M.; Plosker, Shayne M.; Reed, Damon R.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the characteristics of women seeking infertility evaluation and treatment. Design Cross-sectional survey based on in-person interviews, followed by two-step hurdle analysis. Participants 4,558 married or cohabitating women ages 25–44 Setting U.S. household population of women based on the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth Intervention None Main Outcome Measure(s) Likelihood of seeking preliminary infertility evaluation. Likelihood of seeking infertility treatment once evaluated. Treatment type provided. Results 623 women (13.7%) reported seeking infertility evaluation, of which 328 reported undergoing subsequent infertility treatment. Age at marriage, marital status, education, health insurance status, race/ethnicity, and religion were associated with the likelihood of seeking infertility evaluation. For example, the predicted probability that a non-White woman who married at 25 will seek evaluation was 12%. This probability increased to 34% for White women with a graduate degree who married at age 30. Among women who are evaluated, income, employment status, and ethnicity correlated strongly with the likelihood of seeking infertility treatment. Infertility drug therapy was the most frequent treatment used. Reproductive surgery and in vitro fertilization (IVF) were used the least. Conclusions The use of infertility services is not random and understanding the socio-demographic factors correlated with use may assist new couples with family planning. Roughly 50% of the women evaluated for infertility progressed to treatment, and only a small proportion were treated with more advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as IVF therapy. Future research aimed at improving access to effective healthcare treatments within the boundaries of affordability is warranted. PMID:23849845

  6. Developments in infertility counselling and its accreditation.

    PubMed

    Monach, Jim

    2013-03-01

    Infertility counselling was placed in a unique position by the passage of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 and the requirement that couples being treated should be offered counselling. However professional counselling was, and largely still is, at a stage at which there was no universal agreement on the knowledge, standards or qualifications required for practice. Nevertheless, infertility counselling became the first example of counselling to be required by statute, beyond the more generalised requirement in adoption birth records access. Counselling is intended to describe skilled talking therapy offered by a professional with specific training and qualifications directed to helping individuals and couples to achieve goals they own themselves. The therapeutic intervention of counselling is primarily directed to helping clients in a stressful situation to deploy their own coping skills effectively and thus make the difficult choices inseparable from ART. Counselling outcome research consistently demonstrates the effectiveness of the sort of counselling delivered in assisted conception units with mild-moderate anxiety and depression delivered by skilled and experienced practitioners. This article reviews the role of counsellors as members of the assisted conception clinical team and the status of regulation and accreditation in this very new profession. PMID:23548094

  7. Spermatogonial stem cells, infertility and testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shree Ram; Burnicka-Turek, Ozanna; Chauhan, Chhavi; Hou, Steven X

    2011-03-01

    The spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are responsible for the transmission of genetic information from an individual to the next generation. SSCs play critical roles in understanding the basic reproductive biology of gametes and treatments of human infertility. SSCs not only maintain normal spermatogenesis, but also sustain fertility by critically balancing both SSC self-renewal and differentiation. This self-renewal and differentiation in turn is tightly regulated by a combination of intrinsic gene expression within the SSC as well as the extrinsic gene signals from the niche. Increased SSCs self-renewal at the expense of differentiation result in germ cell tumours, on the other hand, higher differentiation at the expense of self-renewal can result in male sterility. Testicular germ cell cancers are the most frequent cancers among young men in industrialized countries. However, understanding the pathogenesis of testis cancer has been difficult because it is formed during foetal development. Recent studies suggest that SSCs can be reprogrammed to become embryonic stem (ES)-like cells to acquire pluripotency. In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in SSCs biology and role of SSC in testicular cancer. We believe that studying the biology of SSCs will not only provide better understanding of stem cell regulation in the testis, but eventually will also be a novel target for male infertility and testicular cancers. PMID:21155977

  8. Complementary and alternative medicine utilization by a sample of infertile couples in Jordan for infertility treatment: clinics-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there is little information available to quantify the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), growing evidence suggests that CAM prevalence among patients seeking infertility treatment is increasing worldwide. There are many products available on the market and many infertile patients demand information about CAM from their health care providers. This paper investigates the prevalence of CAM use among infertile couples in Jordan. Additionally, trends and factors contributing to CAM use for infertility treatment among these couples have been evaluated. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire inquiring demographic information, use of CAM for medical conditions, in general, and types of CAM used for infertility treatment, in specific, was completed by one thousand twenty one infertile patients attending at two types of facilities; in vitro Fertilization (IVF) centers at both public and private hospitals and infertility private clinics. Both types of facilities were distributed in different areas of Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between May and August 2012. Results Our results show that CAM therapies for infertility treatment were encountered in 44.7% of the study sample. The vast majority of CAM users were females. The most commonly used CAM therapies were herbs and spiritual healing. A clear correlation between the use of CAM for infertility versus the use of CAM for other chronic medical conditions has been found. Conclusions The prevalence of CAM use for infertility treatment in Jordan is relatively high, particularly among young females, well educated and with a low income, in consistence with the studies reported elsewhere. Herbs and spiritual healing are widely used among patients in adjunct to conventional medical interventions. As CAM use is prevalent among patients, there is a clear need for health providers to become more aware of this phenomenon and for further research in this field. PMID:23414246

  9. Heterologous Ovum Penetration Test and Seminal Parameters in Fertile and Infertile Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. JEAN WICKINGS; CARL-WILHELM FREISCHEM; KLAUS LANGER; EBERHARD NIESCHLAG

    Sperm penetration rates in the heterologous ovum pen- etration test were correlated with results of routine semen analysis in 30 fertile and 50 infertile men. There was no difference in penetration rates when comparing infertile men with normal and abnormal seminal pa- rameters, nor was any difference seen between fertile (15-83%) and infertile men (8-83%). Of the 22 infertile men

  10. Hyperprolactinaemia and its Comparision with Hypothyroidism in Primary Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Turankar, Sunita; Sonone, Kanchan; Turankar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To study the serum prolactin levels and the serum TSH in primary infertile females. Material and Method: In this study, we investigated thirty women who were diagnosed cases of primary infertility, who attended the Biochemistry Department, Sir JJ Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India, for hormonal evaluations. Thirty fertile women with similar ages were enrolled as the controls. The status of the thyroid dysfunction and the levels of serum prolactin were reviewed in infertile women and in the controls. The serum Prolactin and the thyroid stimulating hormone levels were measured by using Siemens kits in IMMULITE 1000 chemiluminescence immunoassays. Results: In our study, the serum prolactin levels in the infertile group were found to be high as compared to those in the control group and they were highly significant (p<0.0001). The serum TSH levels in the infertile group were found to be high, as compared to those of control group and they were highly significant (p<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a higher incidence of hyperprolactinaemia in infertile patients. There is also a greater propensity for thyroid disorders in infertile women than in the fertile ones. The incidence of hypothyroidism in the hyperprolactinaemic subjects in the study population was found to be highly significant than the normal controls. PMID:23814712

  11. Association of exposure to phenols and idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjian; Tang, Rong; Fu, Guangbo; Xu, Bin; Zhu, Pengfei; Qiao, Shanlei; Chen, Xiaojiao; Xu, Bo; Qin, Yufeng; Lu, Chuncheng; Hang, Bo; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2013-04-15

    Widespread human exposure to phenols has been documented recently, and some phenols which are potential endocrine disruptors have demonstrated adverse effects on male reproduction in animal and in vitro studies. However, implications about exposure to phenols and male infertility are scarce in humans. Case-control study of 877 idiopathic infertile men and 713 fertile controls was conducted. Urinary levels of bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, pentachlorophenol, triclosan, 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-n-octylphenol (4-n-OP) and 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) and semen parameters were measured. After multivariate adjustment, we found 4-t-OP, 4-n-OP and 4-n-NP exposure was associated with idiopathic male infertility (p-value for trend: <0.0001, 0.014 and 0.001, respectively). Aside from these associations, 4-t-OP and 4-n-NP exposure was also associated with idiopathic male infertility with abnormal semen parameters. Moreover, we observed significant associations between sum alkylphenols (APs) exposure and idiopathic male infertility. There were no relationships between exposure to other phenols and idiopathic male infertility in the present study. Our study provides the first evidence that exposure to APs (4-t-OP, 4-n-OP and 4-n-NP) is associated with idiopathic male infertility. PMID:23435201

  12. Exploring infertile women's experiences about sexual life: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Ghasemi, Zahra; Beigi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a serious problem in a couple's life that affects their marriage relationships. So, dissatisfaction with sexual function resulting from interpersonal problems is common among these couples. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of infertile women in their sexual life. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. The participants were 20 infertile women referring to the health care centers and infertility clinics of Isfahan and were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected by tape recording of deep interviews and analyzed by Colaizzi's method. Results: Analysis of the participants’ experiences led to five main concepts: “Disturbed in femininity-body image,” “discouragement of sexual relations,” “sacrifice of sexual pleasure for the sake of getting pregnant,” “confusion in sexual relation during infertility treatment,” and “striving to protect their marriage.” Conclusions: Findings revealed that infertility affects women's different aspects of sexual life, especially disturbance in femininity-body image and sexual reluctance. With regard to women's willingness to protect their matrimonial life and prevent sexual trauma as a destroying factor for their family's mental health, it seems sexual counseling is necessary for infertile couples. PMID:25709688

  13. Experiencing infertility--social work dilemmas in child adoption procedures.

    PubMed

    Bevc, Viktorija; Jerman, Janja; Ovsenik, Rok; Ovsenik, Marija

    2003-12-01

    The research deals with experiencing infertility and its consequences in the adoption of a child and focuses on infertile couples that have wished to adopt a child and joined a program preparing them to be foster parents. The results show that most of the infertile couples experience infertility very much as being different from couples with children as well as having to cope with the feelings of deep emotional loss resulting from the inability to reproduce biologically. There is therefore the question whether these facts should be taken into account by the profession (i.e. social workers) when dealing with child adoption as, according to most of the respondents of our survey, the process of coming to terms with infertility and its consequences is an important factor in establishing healthy family relationships and the child's identity within the adoptive family. We concluded from the results of the research that the infertile couples preparation program for adopting a child carried out by the Society of Adoptive Families "Deteljica", is a comprehensive autopoietic social workers' answer to the needs of participants for a successful adoption of a child, as it makes it possible to supply these future adoptive parents with the requisite information and experience and provides support to the entire family upon accepting a child in its midst, while its fundamental attribute is offering help to couples in overcoming the traumas resulting from their infertility. PMID:14746131

  14. Tubal Factor Infertility and Perinatal Risk After Assisted Reproductive Technology

    PubMed Central

    Kawwass, Jennifer F.; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Session, Donna R.; Boulet, Sheree; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess trends of tubal factor infertility and to evaluate risk of miscarriage and delivery of preterm or low birth weight (LBW) neonates among women with tubal factor infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS We assessed trends of tubal factor infertility among all fresh and frozen, donor, and nondonor ART cycles performed annually in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (N=1,418,774) using the National ART Surveillance System. The data set was then limited to fresh, nondonor in vitro fertilization cycles resulting in pregnancy to compare perinatal outcomes for cycles associated with tubal compared with male factor infertility. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses controlling for maternal characteristics and calculated adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The percentage of ART cycles associated with tubal factor infertility diagnoses decreased from 2000 to 2010 (26.02–14.81%). Compared with male factor infertility, tubal factor portended an increased risk of miscarriage (14.0% compared with 12.7%, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.12); risk was increased for both early and late miscarriage. Singleton neonates born to women with tubal factor infertility had an increased risk of pre-term birth (15.8% compared with 11.6%, adjusted RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20–1.34) and LBW (10.9% compared with 8.5%, adjusted RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36). Significant increases in risk persisted for early and late preterm delivery and very low and moderately LBW delivery. A significantly elevated risk was also detected for twin, but not triplet, pregnancies. CONCLUSION Tubal factor infertility, which is decreasing in prevalence in the United States, is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and LBW delivery as compared with couples with male factor infertility using ART. PMID:23812461

  15. Increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment: A phenomenology study

    PubMed Central

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Parandavar, Nehle; Gholami, Morteza; Abdollahifard, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) provide the hope of pregnancy for infertile women, but do not always turn this hope into reality. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of infertile women from increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment. Materials and Methods: Using a qualitative research design (Phenomenology study), 23 subjects were selected who had experienced infertility failure visited by gynecologist (Rasekh Infertility center) in 2012. The data were collected through semi structured interviews and analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology by Collizi's seven-stage method. Results: Totally 96 codes were identified. The data arranged in two categories. The factors decreasing and increasing hope in infertility treatments. Totally 5 themes and 20 sub themes were extracted. The increasing factors which emerged from the data contain "spiritual source", "family interaction and support" and "information through the media", and decreasing factors contain "nature of treatments" and "negatively oriented mind". PMID:24799869

  16. Parental infertility and cerebral palsy in children

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Hvidtjřrn, Dorte; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Thorsen, Poul; Uldall, Peter; Olsen, Jřrn

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have been reported to have a higher risk of cerebral palsy (CP), perhaps due to the higher frequency of preterm birth, multiple births or vanishing embryo in the pregnancies. However, it has been suggested that the underlying infertility may be part of the pathway. In this study, we examined whether untreated subfecundity (measured by time to pregnancy) or infertility treatment was associated with an increased risk of CP in the offspring. METHODS Using the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997–2003), we compared children born after 0–2 months of waiting time to pregnancy (n = 35 848) with those born after a time to pregnancy of 3–5 months (n = 15 361), 6–12 months (n = 11 528) and >12 months (n = 7387), as well as those born after IVF/ICSI (n = 3617), ovulation induction with or without intrauterine insemination (n = 3000), and unplanned pregnancies (n = 13 462). CP cases were identified through the Danish CP Register. RESULTS In total, 165 (0.18%) children were diagnosed with CP in the entire cohort. We found no significant association between time to pregnancy and the risk of CP in children conceived spontaneously. Children born after IVF/ICSI had an increased risk of CP, even after adjustment for preterm birth and multiplicity (hazard ratio 2.30, 95% confidence interval 1.12–4.73). CONCLUSIONS Subfecundity per se did not appear to be associated with the risk of CP in children, whereas being born after IVF/ICSI conferred an increased risk. PMID:21045245

  17. Occupational exposure to solvents and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, N; Labreche, F; Collins, J; Tulandi, T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine whether, in a case-referent study of infertility patients, cases with low motile sperm count were more likely than referents to have had exposure to organic solvents.?METHODS—Occupations of men attending fertility clinics in Canada were assigned codes reflecting probable exposure to organic solvents, at four grades of intensity, using a job exposure matrix previously developed. A case referent design was used, with cases being defined as men with <12×106/ml motile sperm. Information from 656 men in manual work attending a single clinic in Montreal in 1972-91 was used for the main study. A separate analysis was conducted with information for 574 men in manual work attending 10 further clinics across Canada in 1984-7.?RESULTS—In the Montreal series a significant association was found between intensity of exposure to solvents and clinical findings of <12×106/ml motile sperm. Odds ratios (ORs), after allowing for confounding, were 2.07 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.24 to 3.44) for moderate exposure to solvents and 3.83 (95% CI 1.37 to 10.65) for high exposure. In the second series of 568 men, the effect was confirmed at high exposure to solvents (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.01 to 8.34) but not at moderate exposure (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.92).?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to organic solvents is common both at work and in recreational pursuits. The results of this study suggest that efforts should be made to identify the compounds hazardous to male fertility, and if the risk is confirmed, to regulate their use.???Keywords: infertility; solvents; male manual workers PMID:11555684

  18. The emotional-psychological consequences of infertility among infertile women seeking treatment: Results of a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady) PMID:24799871

  19. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000 Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility Research David Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  20. Nonsurgical treatment of male infertility: specific and empiric therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cocuzza, Marcello; Agarwal, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    Management of male infertility is always a difficult task, and the pathologic process is often poorly understood. Even though modern assisted reproduction techniques (ART) can help overcome severe male factor infertility, the application of these methods in all infertile couples would definitely represent over-treatment. Several conditions can interfere with spermatogenesis and reduce sperm quality and production. A careful diagnostic work-up is necessary before any andrological treatment can be initiated so that adequate treatment options can be selected for individual patients. Most hormonal imbalances can be readily identified and successfully treated nonsurgically. However, the treatment of men with unexplained idiopathic infertility remains a challenge. In the absence of a correctable etiology, patients are managed with either empirical medical therapy or ART. Empiric medical therapy continues as a viable option. However, physicians and patients must understand that the success rates with any of the pharmacological therapies remain suboptimal. PMID:19707335

  1. Risk factors associated with endometriosis among infertile Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Malekzadeh, Farideh; Amirchaghmaghi, Elham; Kashfi, Fahimeh; Akhoond, Mohammad Reza; Saei, Maryam; Mirbolok, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Endometriosis is defined as overgrowth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis may be asymptomatic or associated with dysmenorrheal symptoms, dyspareunia, pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding and infertility. The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors related to endometriosis among infertile Iranian women. Material and methods In this case control study, infertile women referred for laparoscopy and infertility workup to two referral infertility clinics in Tehran, Iran were studied. According to the laparoscopy findings, women were divided into case (women who had pelvic endometriosis) and control (women with normal pelvis) groups. The case group was divided into two subgroups: stage I and II of endometriosis were considered as mild while stage III and IV were categorized as severe endometriosis. A questionnaire was completed for each patient. Results Logistic regression showed that age, duration of infertility, body mass index (BMI), duration of menstrual cycle, abortion history, dyspareunia, pelvic pain and family history of endometriosis are independent predictive factors for any type of endometriosis. In addition, it was shown that education, duration of infertility, BMI, amount and duration of menstrual bleeding, menstrual pattern, dyspareunia, pelvic pain and family history of endometriosis are independent predictive factors of severe endometriosis. The AUCs for these models were 0.781 (0.735-0.827) and 0.855 (0.810-0.901) for any type of endometriosis and severe endometriosis, respectively. Conclusions It seems that any type of endometriosis and severe ones could be predicted according to demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of infertile women. PMID:23847674

  2. Report on varicocele and infertility: a committee opinion.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    This document discusses the evaluation and management of varicoceles in the male partners of infertile couples, and presents the controversies and recommendations regarding this condition. This document replaces the ASRM Practice Committee document titled "Report on Varicocele and Infertility," last published in 2008, and was developed in conjunction with the Society for Male Reproduction and Urology (Fertil Steril 2008;90:S247-9). PMID:25458620

  3. Antioxidant activity in the semen of fertile and infertile men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armand Zini; Kristina Garrels; Donna Phang

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate catalase- and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activities in the seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men.Methods. Semen samples were obtained from consecutive men presenting for vasectomy (n = 12) and infertility evaluation (n = 105) at our institution. Catalase-like activity was measured by the decrease in hydrogen peroxide after incubation with seminal plasma. SOD-like activity was measured as

  4. Recommended foods for male infertility in Iranian traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh; Nazem, Esmaeil; Goushegir, Ashrafeddin; Isfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Baygom Siahpoosh, Marzieh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Male infertility accounts for 30-50% of all infertilities among couples. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) stressed the importance of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of male infertility. Many Iranian traditional physicians have described the traits of specific foods for prevention and treatment of male infertility. Objective: To explore the principles and roles of foods recommended by ITM scientists in prevention and treatment of male infertility as well as enlisting all the recommended foods for treating this problem addressed through the ITM original resources written between 815 and 1901. Materials and Methods: In this review study specific data related to the subject among all referral ITM texts was extracted firstly, and then the collected data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Results: The analysis of data revealed that foods that enhance sexual performance must have 3 properties; they should be warm in nature, very nutritious, and flatulent. Foods that are warm in nature and nutritious affect the quality and quantity of semen. A food having the third trait of being flatulent is required to complete sexual performance by creating an erection. Foods with only one of these traits must be consumed with another food that has the other trait. This study also provided a list of foods that can enhance the quality and increase the quantity of semen. Conclusion: Foods that can enhance sexual performance and the quality and quantity of semen can be recommended to male patients who suffer from infertility in medical centers. PMID:25246919

  5. [THE VARICOCELE ENIGMA: "BACKGROUND NOISE" OR COMMON MALE INFERTILITY ETIOLOGY?].

    PubMed

    Gat, Itai; Madgar, Igael

    2015-05-01

    Infertility derived from mate etiology is a health problem which has increased over the last decades. Varicocele is a common cause for mate infertility with incidence of 35% and 75% among males with primary and secondary infertility, respectively, compared to 10%-15% among the general population. VaricoceLe is defined as dilated and entangled pampiniform plexus and internal spermatic veins located in the spermatic cord. The effect of varicocele on male infertility was controversial due to lack of published data uniformity and high standard studies. During recent years several published researches supplied reliable evidence regarding the influence of varicocele on mate infertility, treatment options and appropriate indications. Adequate patient selection significantly improves the chances for spontaneous pregnancy. Treatment varies between surgical veins ligation by various means and embolization by the endovascular approlch of the dilated veins. The current article summarizes updated treatment indications, advantages and drawbacks of the optional approaches and describes the considerations for choosing the optimal treatment for the infertile couple due to varicocele. PMID:26168642

  6. Estrogen promotes Leydig cell engulfment by macrophages in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wanpeng; Zheng, Han; Lin, Wei; Tajima, Astushi; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwen; Wu, Jihua; Han, Daishu; Rahman, Nafis A; Korach, Kenneth S; Gao, George Fu; Inoue, Ituro; Li, Xiangdong

    2014-06-01

    Male infertility accounts for almost half of infertility cases worldwide. A subset of infertile men exhibit reduced testosterone and enhanced levels of estradiol (E2), though it is unclear how increased E2 promotes deterioration of male fertility. Here, we utilized a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses human CYP19, which encodes aromatase (AROM+ mice), and mice with knockout of Esr1, encoding estrogen receptor ? (ER?KO mice), to analyze interactions between viable Leydig cells (LCs) and testicular macrophages that may lead to male infertility. In AROM+ males, enhanced E2 promoted LC hyperplasia and macrophage activation via ER? signaling. E2 stimulated LCs to produce growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6), which mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by bridging cells with surface exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) to macrophage receptors, including the tyrosine kinases TYRO3, AXL, and MER. Overproduction of E2 increased apoptosis-independent extrusion of PS on LCs, which in turn promoted engulfment by E2/ER?-activated macrophages that was mediated by AXL-GAS6-PS interaction. We further confirmed E2-dependant engulfment of LCs by real-time 3D imaging. Furthermore, evaluation of molecular markers in the testes of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) revealed enhanced expression of CYP19, GAS6, and AXL, which suggests that the AROM+ mouse model reflects human infertility. Together, these results suggest that GAS6 has a potential as a clinical biomarker and therapeutic target for male infertility. PMID:24762434

  7. Parenting after infertility: issues for families and infants.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Jacqueline M; Samra, Haifa A; Zukowsky, Ksenia; Baker, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the research related to parenting after assisted reproduction and uses that research to discuss clinical implications for nurses who work to support these families and the development of their children. The worldwide diagnosis of infertility continues to rise and now hovers near 20%. The increased availability and success of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) provides a potential option for infertile families to conceive and begin a family, but as nurses know, infertility treatments are not easy to tolerate, are time-consuming, physically taxing, and expensive. In addition, a positive outcome is far from guaranteed. Even when infertile couples successfully give birth, they can continue to struggle with the psychological aspects of infertility and the ongoing care of a child who may be premature, low birth weight, or afflicted with another high-risk condition such as long-term developmental or behavioral problems. Unfortunately, the psychological needs of the couple and the family may not be addressed during ART treatment or after the birth of a child. Parenting is a challenging life task; parenting when the partners may have to work through the psychological aspects of infertility and the care of a high-risk child is even more complex and may have long-lasting effects on the partners as well as their children. PMID:20453593

  8. Absence of sperm RNA elements correlates with idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Jodar, Meritxell; Sendler, Edward; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Librach, Clifford L; Goodrich, Robert; Swanson, Sonja; Hauser, Russ; Diamond, Michael P; Krawetz, Stephen A

    2015-07-01

    Semen parameters are typically used to diagnose male infertility and specify clinical interventions. In idiopathic infertile couples, an unknown male factor could be the cause of infertility even when the semen parameters are normal. Next-generation sequencing of spermatozoal RNAs can provide an objective measure of the paternal contribution and may help guide the care of these couples. We assessed spermatozoal RNAs from 96 couples presenting with idiopathic infertility and identified the final reproductive outcome and sperm RNA elements (SREs) reflective of fecundity status. The absence of required SREs reduced the probability of achieving live birth by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination from 73 to 27%. However, the absence of these same SREs does not appear to be critical when using assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. About 30% of the idiopathic infertile couples presented an incomplete set of required SREs, suggesting a male component as the cause of their infertility. Conversely, analysis of couples that failed to achieve a live birth despite presenting with a complete set of SREs suggested that a female factor may have been involved, and this was confirmed by their diagnosis. The data in this study suggest that SRE analysis has the potential to predict the individual success rate of different fertility treatments and reduce the time to achieve live birth. PMID:26157032

  9. Symptoms: Menopause, Infertility, and Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Barton, Debra L; Ganz, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    By 2022, the number of survivors is expected to grow to nearly 18 million. Therefore, addressing acute and chronic negative sequelae of a cancer diagnosis and its treatments becomes a health imperative. For women with a history of breast cancer, one of the common goals of treatment and prevention of recurrence is to reduce circulating concentrations of estradiol, especially in women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Hormone deprivation after a diagnosis of breast cancer impacts physiological targets other than in the breast tissue and can result in unwanted side effects, all of which can negatively impact quality of life and function and cause distress. Symptoms that are most strongly linked by evidence to hormone changes after cancer diagnosis and treatment include hot flashes, night sweats, sleep changes, fatigue, mood changes, and diminishing sexual function, including vaginal atrophy (decreased arousal, dryness and dyspareunia), infertility, decreased desire and negative self-image. Weight gain and resulting body image changes are often concomitants of the abrupt onset of treatment-induced menopause.The purpose of this chapter is to briefly review what is known about the advent of premature menopause in women treated for breast cancer, menopausal symptoms that are exacerbated by endocrine treatments for breast cancer, and the associated concerns of hot flashes and related menopausal symptoms, sexual health and fertility issues. We will discuss limitations in the current research and propose strategies that address current limitations in order to move the science forward. PMID:26059933

  10. Expectations of assisted conception for infertility.

    PubMed Central

    Hull, M. G.; Eddowes, H. A.; Fahy, U.; Abuzeid, M. I.; Mills, M. S.; Cahill, D. J.; Fleming, C. F.; Wardle, P. G.; Ford, W. C.; McDermott, A.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To provide reliable prognostic information for couples seeking assisted conception. DESIGN--Analysis of four years' practice (1988-91). SETTING--Private university service linked with NHS reproductive medicine services. PATIENTS--804 couples with various causes of subfertility, median duration five years, median age of women 34 years. INTERVENTIONS--1280 completed cycles: 950 in vitro fertilisation, 144 gamete intrafallopian transfer, and 186 intrauterine insemination and superovulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Pregnancy and birth rates per cycle and cumulative pregnancy and take home baby rates per couple. RESULTS--In women under 40 years and men with normal sperm, whatever the cause of infertility, results with in vitro fertilisation improved steadily reaching a pregnancy rate per cycle of 30% (95% confidence interval 26% to 35%) during 1990-1 and birth rate per cycle of 29% (23% to 35%) in 1990. Pregnancy and birth rates for gamete intrafallopian transfer were 36% (28% to 44%) and 26% (17% to 37%) and for intrauterine insemination 18% (12% to 24%) and 16% (10% to 22%). After six cycles cumulative probability of pregnancy was 82% and cumulative take home baby rate 70%. Considering only in vitro fertilisation and gamete intrafallopian transfer after four cycles the pregnancy rate was 78% (66% to 91%). CONCLUSIONS--Conception is less likely in women over 40 and men with sperm dysfunction. For other couples the prognosis for a live birth is at least as good as for fertile couples if they persist with treatment. PMID:1611367

  11. Prevalence of Primary Infertility in Iran in 2010

    PubMed Central

    AKHONDI, Mohammad Mehdi; KAMALI, Koorosh; RANJBAR, Fahimeh; SHIRZAD, Mahdi; SHAFEGHATI, Shiva; BEHJATI ARDAKANI, Zohreh; GOODJANI, Abolfazl; PARSAEIAN, Mahboubeh; MOHAMMAD, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Infertility is one of the most significant medical, as well as social problems that affect psychological health of families and societies. Determining the prevalence of infertility is important for evaluating the potential of fertility. There are different reports on the prevalence of infertility in Iran, but the current research employs fertility history in order to provide an unbiased estimation of primary infertility. Methods Data from a national survey of Iranian women aged 20-40 years was used in this study in year 2011. Totally, 1011 clusters were randomly selected according to post office codes, proportional to the population of the province. We evaluated the history of fertility as the basis for gathering information. Accordingly, we designed a questionnaire. Subsequently, we recruited and trained nurses and obstetricians to call on married women to fill the questionnaires. Primary infertility refers to a condition in which couples have not been able to conceive a child after one year of un-protected intercourse. Results In this research, we questioned 17187 women in 1011 clusters. The mean age of the women at the time of their marriage was 20.1, and that of their husbands was 25.4 years. The mean age of women at the time of their first pregnancy was 21.1. This research revealed the prevalence of primary infertility to be 20.2% in Iran. Conclusion The prevalence of primary infertility in Iran seems to be higher than the world average. Therefore, it is crucially important to support the large number of couples who face this problem.

  12. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Matzuk, Martin M; Lamb, Dolores J

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other individuals with a known etiology, effective cures are lacking, although their infertility is often bypassed with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some accompanied by safety or ethical concerns. Certainly, progress in the field of reproduction has been realized in the twenty-first century with advances in the understanding of the regulation of fertility, with the production of over 400 mutant mouse models with a reproductive phenotype and with the promise of regenerative gonadal stem cells. Indeed, the past six years have witnessed a virtual explosion in the identification of gene mutations or polymorphisms that cause or are linked to human infertility. Translation of these findings to the clinic remains slow, however, as do new methods to diagnose and treat infertile couples. Additionally, new approaches to contraception remain elusive. Nevertheless, the basic and clinical advances in the understanding of the molecular controls of reproduction are impressive and will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:18989307

  13. Empirical medical therapy in idiopathic male infertility: Promise or panacea?

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Hung; Seo, Ju Tae

    2014-09-01

    Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility and in 25% of cases, the etiology of male infertility is unknown. Effective treatments are well-established for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, male accessory gland infection, retrograde ejaculation, and positive antisperm antibody. However, the appropriate treatment for idiopathic male infertility is unclear. Empirical medical treatment (EMT) has been used in men with idiopathic infertility and can be divided into two categories based on the mode of action: hormonal treatment and antioxidant supplementation. Hormonal medications consist of gonadotropins, androgens, estrogen receptor blockers, and aromatase inhibitors. Antioxidants such as vitamins, zinc, and carnitines have also been widely used to reduce oxidative stress-induced spermatozoa damage. Although scientifically acceptable evidence of EMT is limited because of the lack of large, randomized, controlled studies, recent systematic reviews with meta-analyses have shown that the administration of gonadotropins, anti-estrogens, and oral antioxidants results in a significant increase in the live birth rate compared with control treatments. Therefore, all physicians who treat infertility should bear in mind that EMT can improve semen parameters and subsequent fertility potential through natural intercourse. PMID:25309854

  14. Microbiota of the seminal fluid from healthy and infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dongsheng; Zhou, Xia; Zhong, Xue; Settles, Matt; Herring, Jessica; Wang, Li; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Xu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore potential causes of male infertility by determining the composition and structure of commensal bacterial communities in seminal fluids. Design: Microscopy of gram stained semen samples and classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences to determine the species composition of semen bacterial communities. Setting(s): Clinical andrology laboratory and academic research laboratories. Patient(s): 19 sperm donors and 58 infertility patients. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustering of seminal microbial communities, and multiple statistical tests. Result(s): High numbers of diverse kinds of bacteria were present in most samples of both sperm donors and infertility patients. The bacterial communities varied widely between subjects, but they could be clustered into six groups based on similarities in composition and the rank abundances of taxa. Overall there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients. However, multiple statistical tests showed a significant negative association between sperm quality and the presence of Anaerococcus. The results also indicated that many of the bacterial taxa identified in semen also occur in the vaginal communities of some women, especially those with bacterial vaginosis, which suggests heterosexual sex partners may share bacteria. Conclusion(s): Diverse kinds of bacteria were present in the human semen, there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients, The presence of Anaerococcus might be a biomarker for low sperm quality. PMID:23993888

  15. Power of Proteomics in Linking Oxidative Stress and Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sajal; Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis, PCOS, and unexplained infertility are currently the most common diseases rendering large numbers of women infertile worldwide. Oxidative stress, due to its deleterious effects on proteins and nucleic acids, is postulated to be the one of the important mechanistic pathways in differential expression of proteins and in these diseases. The emerging field of proteomics has allowed identification of proteins involved in cell cycle, as antioxidants, extracellular matrix (ECM), cytoskeleton, and their linkage to oxidative stress in female infertility related diseases. The aim of this paper is to assess the association of oxidative stress and protein expression in the reproductive microenvironments such as endometrial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and follicular fluid, as well as reproductive tissues and serum. The review also highlights the literature that proposes the use of the fertility related proteins as potential biomarkers for noninvasive and early diagnosis of the aforementioned diseases rather than utilizing the more invasive methods used currently. The review will highlight the power of proteomic profiles identified in infertility related disease conditions and their linkage with underlying oxidative stress. The power of proteomics will be reviewed with regard to eliciting molecular mechanisms for early detection and management of these infertility related conditions. PMID:24900998

  16. Empirical medical therapy in idiopathic male infertility: Promise or panacea?

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hung

    2014-01-01

    Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility and in 25% of cases, the etiology of male infertility is unknown. Effective treatments are well-established for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, male accessory gland infection, retrograde ejaculation, and positive antisperm antibody. However, the appropriate treatment for idiopathic male infertility is unclear. Empirical medical treatment (EMT) has been used in men with idiopathic infertility and can be divided into two categories based on the mode of action: hormonal treatment and antioxidant supplementation. Hormonal medications consist of gonadotropins, androgens, estrogen receptor blockers, and aromatase inhibitors. Antioxidants such as vitamins, zinc, and carnitines have also been widely used to reduce oxidative stress-induced spermatozoa damage. Although scientifically acceptable evidence of EMT is limited because of the lack of large, randomized, controlled studies, recent systematic reviews with meta-analyses have shown that the administration of gonadotropins, anti-estrogens, and oral antioxidants results in a significant increase in the live birth rate compared with control treatments. Therefore, all physicians who treat infertility should bear in mind that EMT can improve semen parameters and subsequent fertility potential through natural intercourse. PMID:25309854

  17. Cohesion and adaptability among individuals under treatment for infertility.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza; Caleffi, Lorena; Baron, Ana; Mattana, Eunice; Chaves, Marcia Lorena F

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cohesion and adaptability as relationship patterns of individuals in the presence or absence of infertility. Infertile subjects (20 men and 26 women, age 29.9 yr., SD = 3.8), and 100 fertile individuals (52 men and 48 women, age 29.5 yr., SD = 3.6) were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in Brazil. Subjects were married for the first time and had no children. The pattern of relationship (cohesion and adaptability) was assessed on the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES III). Subjects were also interviewed and the interviews tape-recorded and analyzed by independent and blinded senior psychiatrists. The concepts of cohesion and adaptability did not differentiate infertile couples from fertile ones. Further, the recorded interviews also resulted in heterogeneous. nonconcordant judgments. These results lead to two conclusions: that awareness of infertility is not present in the population studied or that it is present but the magnitude of its effect is quite small and that FACES III and the interview focus on adaptability and cohesion are not sensitive enough to measure the difficulties in these couples' relationships. This leads us to reflect on the type of psychiatric support available to infertile couples. PMID:15077748

  18. Cadmium-induced infertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Alaee, Sanaz; Moradshahi, Ali; Rohani, Lahya

    2010-02-01

    The effects of cadmium in a concentration similar to that found in Maharloo Lake (Shiraz, Iran) on male reproductive system was studied in adult Balb/c male mice that received 0, 23, and 50 mg/kg of cadmium chloride in 0.5 mL distilled water for 45 days. Sperm count and motility, sperm nuclear maturity and chromatin structure tests were carried out. Testis of each mouse was examined histologically. The treated male mice were mated with females. Prostatic and nonprostatic acid phosphatase activity in blood serum, testis, and prostate, lipid peroxidation and cadmium accumulation in testis, seminal vesicle, and middle 1/3 of the quadericeps femoris muscle were measured. The sperm count, sperm motility, sperm maturity, and the level of testosterone decreased significantly in the high dose adminstered group. Histological studies showed a severe necrosis and atrophy in the testis of high dose group, consequently, there was no successful mating in some groups. The number of newborns and their weights and crown rump lengths reduced. Cadmium accumulation in testis and middle of the quadriceps femoris muscle was significantly higher in animals receiving 50 mg/kg cadmium chloride. Nonprostatic acid phosphatase activity decreased, whereas prostatic acid phosphatase activity increased significantly in serum of animals receiving 50 mg/kg cadmium chloride. Also prostatic acid phosphatase activity decreased significantly in prostate of animals receiving 50 mg/kg cadmium chloride. Lipid peroxidation was significantly higher in testis of animals treated with 50 mg/kg cadmium chloride compared with control group. Cadmium affects male reproductive system activity and can cause infertility in mice as an animal model. PMID:19161232

  19. [New concepts for varicolele treatment in male infertility: the current situation].

    PubMed

    Weidner, W; Pilatz, A; Rusz, A; Altinkilic, B

    2011-09-01

    There is no question that therapy for a varicocele in cases of male infertility improves the ejaculate quality. New data provide hints for an additional influence on the pregnancy rates in infertile partnerships. PMID:21898279

  20. Couples' reactions to male infertility and donor insemination.

    PubMed

    Berger, D M

    1980-09-01

    The author interviewed 16 couples after the husband had been diagnosed as infertile. Eleven husbands experienced a period of impotency. Fourteen of the women experienced anger toward the husband, psychiatric symptoms, and/or dreams about their concern for the husband, a wish to be rid of him, and guilt over this wish. Ten couples had decided to pursue donor insemination; 6 had delayed 1 3/4 to 4 years after the diagnosis of infertility and had a better adjustment than 3 of the 4 couples who did not. The author believes that the total secrecy involved in donor insemination inhibits the working through of conflicts about infertility and donor insemination itself. PMID:7425152

  1. Male infertility: the role of imaging in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, T; Sidhu, P S; Wilkins, C J

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of male infertility is assuming greater importance, with male factors implicated as a causal factor in up to half of infertile couples. Following routine history, examination and blood tests, imaging is frequently utilised in order to assess the scrotal contents for testicular volume and morphology. Additionally, this may give indirect evidence of the presence of possible reversible pathology in the form of obstructive azoospermia. Further imaging in the form of transrectal ultrasound and MRI is then often able to categorise the level of obstruction and facilitate treatment planning without resort to more invasive imaging such as vasography. Ultrasound guidance of therapy such as sperm or cyst aspiration and vasal cannulation may also be performed. This article reviews the imaging modalities used in the investigation of male infertility, and illustrates normal and abnormal findings that may be demonstrated. PMID:22763036

  2. Infertility in public health: the case of Norway

    PubMed Central

    Sundby, J.

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a health issue that demonstrates how unequal access to health care is at a global level. In the poorer segments of the world, and in poor parts of wealthy societies, access is often minimal or non-existent. Public and lay attitudes to modern infertility treatment have been heavily debated alongside development of methods. I have looked at the changes in the public discourse in modern media, legislation, politics, and among professionals. The paper seeks to present and discuss some of these changes as they have evolved in one of the countries that have had one of the more strict laws regulating access to treatment, namely Norway. It is a country that nevertheless offers treatment in the public health system. The paper also tries to connect this discussion to the difficulties faced in every attempt to expand infertility services to the developing world. PMID:25013709

  3. Global infertility and the globalization of new reproductive technologies: illustrations from Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia C. Inhorn

    2003-01-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on average 8–12 percent of couples worldwide. In some societies, however—particularly those in the “infertility belt” of sub-Saharan Africa—as many as one-third of all couples are unable to conceive. Factors causing high rates of tubal infertility in parts of the developing world include sexually transmitted, postpartum, and postabortion infections; however, male infertility,

  4. The Infertility Resilience Model: Assessing Individual, Couple, and External Predictive Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron F. Ridenour; Jeremy B. Yorgason; Brennan Peterson

    2009-01-01

    Resilience in couples experiencing infertility is critical to decrease the impact of infertility-related stress and sustain\\u000a positive interactions and collective perceptions in couples. The Infertility Resilience Model (IRM) presented in this article\\u000a provides a framework within which various individual, couple, and external factors that influence resilience can be understood.\\u000a Although numerous approaches have been applied to infertility, few of them

  5. MicroRNA and Male Infertility: A Potential for Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Khazaie, Yahya; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding single stranded RNA molecules that are physiologically produced in eukaryotic cells to regulate or mostly down-regulate genes by pairing with their complementary base-sequence in related mRNA molecules in the cytoplasm. It has been reported that other than its function in many physiological cell processes, dysregulation of miRNAs plays a role in the development of many diseases. In this short review, the association between miRNAs and some male reproductive disorders is surveyed. Male factor Infertility is a devastating problem from which a notable percentage of couples suffer. However, the molecular mechanism of many infertility disorders has not been clearly elucidated. Since miRNAs have an important role in numerous biological cell processes and cellular dysfunctions, it is of interest to review the related literature on the role of miRNAs in the male reproductive organs. Aberrant expression of specific miRNAs is associated with certain male reproductive dysfunctions. For this reason, assessment of expression of such miRNAs may serve as a suitable molecular biomarker for diagnosis of those male infertility disorders. The presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the miRNAs’ binding site in its targeted mRNA has been reported to have an association with idiopathic male infertility. Also, a relation with male infertility has been shown with SNP in the genes of the factors necessary for miRNA biogenesis. Therefore, focusing on the role of miRNAs in male reproductive disorders can further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of male infertility and generate the potential for locating efficient biomarkers and therapeutic agents for these disorders. PMID:25083174

  6. Engaging practicing gynecologists in the management of infertile men.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Hamada, Alaa; Esteves, Sandro C

    2015-04-01

    In the modern era, contemporary management of male infertility has undergone groundbreaking changes with the introduction of new concepts, advanced testing, and therapeutic interventions. As practicing gynecologists are often the first physicians who encounter an infertile couple, it is essential that these clinicians are continuously updated about the new pearls and pitfalls of male infertility management. Semen analysis is commonly ordered by gynecologists. In 2010, the WHO released new cutoff reference values for the semen parameters adopting novel methodology, which has incited much debate. Reference values have been lowered in comparison with previous standards, with a direct clinical implication in decision-making strategies. Specialized sperm-function tests, such as sperm oxidative stress and sperm chromatin integrity assessments, became clinically available, thus offering an opportunity to better understand sperm dysfunctions concealed during routine semen analysis. Furthermore, the initial counseling of azoospermic men by an andrologically well educated gynecologist may alleviate the misconception and distress surrounding the false belief of sterility, and will clarify the available options of percutaneous and microsurgical sperm-retrieval techniques and assisted conception outcome. Regarding varicocele, which is commonly seen in infertile males, it is now clear that the best treatment option for infertile men with clinical varicocele is the microsurgical vein ligation. Natural conception is significantly improved after varicocelectomy, and recent data suggest that such treatment optimizes reproductive outcome of couples undergoing ICSI or micro-TESE sperm retrieval. Lastly, new therapeutic interventions, including oral antioxidant therapy and lifestyle modifications, have gained increasing attention, as they aid in alleviating male infertility. PMID:25883438

  7. What Are the Issues Confronting Infertile Women? A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerli, Katja; Znoj, Hansjorg; Berger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a stressful experience, yet little is known about the specific issues confronting infertile women. In the present study, researchers sought to identify themes important to infertile women and examine possible associations with mental health levels. Using qualitative content analysis, researchers analyzed the email messages of 57…

  8. Detection of Chronic Endometritis by Diagnostic Hysteroscopy in Asymptomatic Infertile Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda Polisseni; Eduardo A. Bambirra; Aroldo F. Camargos

    2003-01-01

    Chronic endometritis has been related to infertility and recurrent abortion. It is usually asymptomatic, and the diagnosis is rarely clinically suspected. We performed a prospective study to evaluate both the role of diagnostic hysteroscopy in the detection of chronic endometritis in infertile patients and Chlamydia trachomatis is a potential etiologic factor. Fifty consecutive patients who sought treatment for infertility in

  9. The rhetoric of belief and identity making in the experience of infertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merve Demircio?lu

    2010-01-01

    Based on the research about infertility experiences of women and demand for in vitro fertilisation treatment in Turkey, this paper discusses how the rhetorical strategies employed by childless women bring meaning to their infertility experience as well as help them attain adult gender identity. It also briefly touches on men's experiences of infertility. The author argues that the prevalent references

  10. Infertility: from a personal to a public health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, A T; Bernstein, J

    1999-01-01

    The inability to conceive a child is most often viewed as a private matter, but public health perspectives and skills can contribute greatly to our knowledge about infertility, and the development of effective and rational public policy for prevention, access to health care, and regulation of new technologies. We offer a primer of public health aspects of infertility in an effort to encourage the broad spectrum of public health professionals to become more knowledgeable about these topics and join in the national debate about preventive strategies, cost-benefit assessment, resource allocation, and ethics. Images p494-a p495-a p499-a p506-a PMID:10670617

  11. Laparoscopic myomectomy and pregnancy outcome in infertile patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Conti Ribeiro; Harry Reich; Jay Rosenberg; Enrica Guglielminetti; Andrea Vidali

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess outcomes and pregnancy-related complications after laparoscopic myomectomy in infertile patients.Design: Retrospective analysis.Setting: Tertiary care advanced laparoscopic center.Patient(s): Twenty-eight infertile patients with at least one uterine leiomyoma of >5 cm in diameter.Intervention(s): Laparoscopic myomectomy.Main Outcome Measure(s): Occurrence of pregnancy, delivery rate, and pregnancy-related complications.Result(s): The average size of the myomas removed was 6 cm (range, 4–13.3 cm). None

  12. Robot-assisted microsurgery in male infertility and andrology.

    PubMed

    Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Parekattil, Sijo J

    2014-11-01

    Use of the operative microscope marked a new era for microsurgery in male infertility and andrology in the 1970s. More than a decade has passed since the initial description of the first robotic-assisted microsurgical vasovasostomy. Large single-center series have recently been published on robotic-assisted microsurgery for vasectomy reversal, especially in the past few years. Multicenter studies are also beginning to be reported, and the potential for this new platform for microsurgery is starting to become more apparent. This article describes the basic technical details of robotic-assisted microsurgery in male infertility and andrology, and reviews the latest literature. PMID:25306167

  13. The role of salivary progesterone in studies of infertile women.

    PubMed

    Walker, S; Mustafa, A; Walker, R F; Riad-Fahmy, D

    1981-10-01

    Fifteen women with normal menstrual cycles, dated by accepted criteria, had salivary progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase of the cycle which were significantly higher than those in the follicular phase. Progesterone concentrations in matched samples of plasma and saliva showed excellent correlation in both normal and infertile women. Salivary progesterone profiles derived from daily sampling of 20 infertile patients not only allowed accurate assessment of ovarian dysfunction but also indicated more effectively than conventional techniques the change in hormonal status following ovulation induction therapy with clomiphene citrate or bromocriptine. PMID:7284279

  14. Bromocriptine treatment of female infertility: report of 13 pregnancies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M O Thorner; G M Besser; A Jones; J Dacie

    1975-01-01

    Thirteen pregnancies occurred in 12 women who were treated with bromocriptine for infertility. Pretreatment prolactin levels were recorded in 11 patients and were normal in three. Five patients had suspected pituitary tumours, and they received irradiation to prevent swelling of the pituitary and the consequent visual field defects caused by the pressure of the swollen gland on the optic nerve.

  15. Gamete intrafallopian transfer: A treatment for long-standing infertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. Wessels; Daniel R. Franken; Elize Pretorius; Hendrik S. Cronjé; Henry J. Burchell

    1987-01-01

    Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) has been described by Asch et al. (1,2) as an alternative technique in the treatment of infertile couples. At the University of the Orange Free State, the GIFT technique was introduced in July 1985, and during phase I, 31 patients were treated by means of GIFT. All patients had had at least six cycles of ovulation

  16. Testicular touch preparation cytology in the evaluation of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz-Aktas, Isil Z.; Monaco, Sara E.; Khalbuss, Walid E.; Parwani, Anil V.; Jaffe, Thomas M.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2011-01-01

    Background: Male infertility is traditionally evaluated by tissue core biopsies of the testes. Touch preparations (TP) of these biopsies have been infrequently used. The aim of this study is to report our experience with using testicular biopsy TP for the evaluation of male infertility. Materials and Methods: A retrospective search was performed for cases of testes biopsies with concurrent TP. These cases were evaluated for clinical information, specimen adequacy, and cytological–histological correlation. Results: A total of 39 cases were identified from men with a mean age of 34 years (range 23 to 50 years). TP slides were satisfactory for evaluation in 31 (89%) cases, and less than optimal in four due to low cellularity, obscuring blood or air drying artifact. Cytopathology showed concordance with the biopsy in almost all cases. In one discordant case where the biopsies showed no active spermatogenesis, a rare sperm were identified on the TP. Conclusions: TP of the testis is a helpful adjunct to biopsy because of its ability to clearly evaluate all stages of spermatogenesis. These data demonstrate that TP cytopathology of the testes in our experience has an excellent correlation with both normal testicular biopsies and those showing pathological spermatogenesis, and in rare cases may provide added benefit in evaluating the presence of spermatogenesis for male infertility. Albeit uncommon, cytopathologists may be required to identify and evaluate spermatogenic elements in cytology specimens being submitted from men with infertility. PMID:22279493

  17. Womanhood first: sex workers & infertility in Pune city

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Apte; L. Mali; M. Navle; S. Revle

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study is based on interviews and group discussions with 107 sex workers from the red?light district of Pune city, Maharashtra, India. Data were collected on the stigma of infertility and how sex workers deal with it. It was found that because sex workers have sex outside marriage, they are stigmatized for not fitting the ‘ideal’ image of womanhood.

  18. Associations of psychosocial factors with the stress of infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Myra G; Forthofer, Melinda S

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated psychosocial factors thought to be associated with perceived stress over the course of infertility treatment. The research was based on secondary analysis of data from the Study of Marriage, Family, and Life Quality with a sample of 128 people who completed an infertility-related stress instrument at all three measurement intervals (1988, 1999, and 1990). Self-esteem and perceived health were associated with stress at the study baseline, importance of a biological family and extent of spousal support associated with stress at the 12-month follow-up, and factors pertaining to infertility treatment (number of treatments, relationship with physicians) associated with stress at the 24-month follow-up. Self-esteem was the only psychosocial factor associated with change in stress over the course of treatment. Social workers and health care professionals should be sensitive to the emotional experiences of couples during infertility treatment. Identifying factors explaining stress, or that may be targets for intervention, has significance for social workers in health care and other settings. PMID:16190294

  19. Prevalence of low serum cobalamin in infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Pront, R; Margalioth, E J; Green, R; Eldar-Geva, T; Maimoni, Z; Zimran, A; Elstein, D

    2009-02-01

    A high prevalence of low levels of cobalamin had been found in a survey of multi-ethnic normal individuals in Israel. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of cobalamin deficiency among Israeli couples suffering from infertility. All couples seen at the in vitro fertilization clinic at an urban hospital (Shaare Zedek Medical Center) in Jerusalem for a 6-month period were invited. Mean cobalamin levels were 259.2 pg ml(-1) in males and 275.1 pg ml(-1) in females (normal >200 pg ml(-1)), 35.5% of 172 men and 23.3% of 223 females had cobalamin deficiency (P = 0.01). There were 171 couples with complete demographic questionnaires and cobalamin values for each partner. In 74 couples (43.3%), one partner was cobalamin deficient, with no significant difference between those with unexplained infertility versus those with explained infertility; and in 13 couples, both partners were cobalamin deficient. Thirty-nine per cent of all men with an abnormal semen analysis had cobalamin deficiency, a finding that requires further investigation. This study questions whether higher rates of male infertility in Israel are partially ascribable to cobalamin deficiency. Recommendation for supplementation in both males and females to achieve high-normal levels of cobalamin would be prudent. PMID:19143730

  20. Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fnu Deepinder; Kartikeya Makker; Ashok Agarwal

    2007-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the use of mobile phones in the past decade and concerns are growing about the possible hazardous effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic waves (EMW) emitted by these devices on human health. Preliminary studies, though with limitations in study design, suggest a possible link between cell phone use and infertility. A recent study found that

  1. Male infertility testing: reactive oxygen species and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Ko, Edmund Y; Sabanegh, Edmund S; Agarwal, Ashok

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an integral component of sperm developmental physiology, capacitation, and function. Elevated ROS levels, from processes such as infection or inflammation, can be associated with aberrations of sperm development, function, and fertilizing capacity. We review the impact of ROS on sperm physiology, its place in infertility evaluation, the implications for reproductive outcomes, and antioxidant therapy. Our systematic review of PubMed literature from the last 3 decades focuses on the physiology and etiology of ROS and oxidative stress (OS), evaluation of ROS, and antioxidants. ROS is normally produced physiologically and is used to maintain cellular processes such as sperm maturation, capacitation, and sperm-oocyte interaction. When ROS production exceeds the buffering capacity of antioxidants, OS occurs and can have a negative impact on sperm and fertility. ROS and antioxidant capacity testing can potentially add additional prognostic information to standard laboratory testing for the infertile male, although its role as standard part of an evaluation has yet to be determined. Elevated ROS levels have been implicated with abnormal semen parameters and male infertility, but the impact of ROS on fertilization rates and pregnancy is controversial. This is partly because of the lack of consensus on what type of patients may be suitable for ROS testing and assay standardization. Routine ROS testing for the infertile male is not currently recommended. PMID:25458618

  2. Environmental Contaminants and Human Infertility: Hypothesis or Cause for Concern?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren G. Foster; Michael S. Neal; Myoung-Soek Han; Miguel M. Dominguez

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the crude human birth rate (live births per 1000 population) declined, indicating reduced fertility and suggesting a potential decline in fecundity (the potential to conceive). Detection of environmental contaminants in human tissues, together with reports of a global decline in semen quality, further fueled speculation that human infertility rates are increasing and environmental toxicants are

  3. Age-related infertility: a tale of two technologies.

    PubMed

    Szewczuk, Elizabeth

    2012-03-01

    The reproductive body has become the site of intensive medical intervention, yet, paradoxically, women have never been more at risk of suffering the distress of infertility. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 22 infertile women, this article explores their reproductive experience from fertility postponement to assisted conception. All had used both modern contraception and in vitro fertilisation, yet none achieved the fertility they desired, when they desired it. All had structured their use of these technologies around the social practice of postponement. Modern contraception, however, while removing the sexual costs of postponement, did not resolve its reproductive dilemmas. Rather it appeared to collapse the experience of this traditionally difficult process, sustaining an illusion of reproductive control in which fertility decisions were 'put on the back burner', undiscussed and sometimes unimagined. For these women this delay then revealed the hidden cost of postponement--infertility--which, in turn, led to their pursuit of assisted conception after the age of 35, at precisely the point when its already limited efficacy begins to fail sharply. In these accounts age-related infertility emerged as a tale of two technologies: two technologies linked to each woman, and each other, through the social practice of postponement. PMID:21812793

  4. Case-control study of leatherwork and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kurinczuk, J; Clarke, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To test the hypothesis that leatherwork is associated with male infertility mediated through the development of oligozoospermia. The basis of any association was postulated, at the outset, to be with exposure to the solvents used in leatherwork.?METHODS—All new referrals with infertility presenting in Leicestershire hospital clinics between November 1988 and September 1992 and Kettering District General Hospital from August 1990 were eligible to participate; 88.5% agreed to be interviewed. Exposure to leatherwork and work with solvents was defined by job title. Comparisons were made with fertile controls and in an analysis within men from infertile couples with oligozoospermia as the primary outcome. Effects on sperm motility and deformity were investigated secondarily. Analyses used logistic regression for binary outcomes and multilevel modelling for continuous outcomes.?RESULTS—1906 men were interviewed. Compared with the fertile controls the men from infertile couples were 1.10 times (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.46 to 2.63; p=0.99) more likely to be leatherworkers and 1.73 times (95% CI 1.26 to 2.38; p<0.001) more likely to work with solvents. Compared with other men, leatherworkers were 1.20 times (95% CI 0.43 to 3.33; p=0.73) more likely to present with oligozoospermia and 1.65 times (95% CI 0.37 to 7.30; p=0.51) more likely to present with teratozoospermia. Being a leatherworker was associated with only a 6% reduction in sperm concentration; motility and deformity were similarly unaffected by this exposure. Work with solvents did not statistically, nor clinically, increase the risk of oligozoospermia, teratozoospermia, or asthenozoospermia.?CONCLUSIONS—There was little evidence to support the hypothesis that leatherwork is associated with an increased risk of presenting with infertility or oligozoospermia. There was limited evidence that leatherwork is a risk factor for teratozoospermia. Workers with solvents were at an increased risk of presenting with infertility, although this was not mediated through effects on standard measures of semen quality; this finding merits further investigation.???Keywords: leatherwork; solvents; male infertility PMID:11245737

  5. Varicocele and male infertility in Northeast China: Y chromosome microdeletion as an underlying cause.

    PubMed

    Dai, R L; Hou, Y; Li, F B; Yue, J M; Xi, Q; Liu, R Z

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Y chromosome microdeletions among azoospermic, severe oligozoospermic, moderate oligozoospermic, and mild oligozoospermic patients with varicocele-related and idiopathic infertility shows conflicting data in Asian countries. We aimed to detect this frequency in Northeast China, and investigated spermatogenic defects whether associated with varicocele or Y chromosome microdeletions. All samples underwent a thorough physical examination, semen analysis, and PCR analyses for Y chromosome microdeletions. We randomly selected 150 infertile non-obstructive azoospermic patients with left varicocele (Group 1), 150 idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermic infertility patients (Group 2), 150 infertile severe oligozoospermic patients with left varicocele (Group 3), 150 idiopathic severe oligozoospermic infertility patients (Group 4), 150 infertile moderate oligozoospermic patients with left varicocele (Group 5), 150 idiopathic moderate oligozoospermic infertility patients (Group 6), 150 infertile mild oligozoospermic patients with left varicocele (Group 7), 150 idiopathic mild oligozoospermic infertility patients (Group 8), and 60 healthy unrelated men with proven fertility were recruited as control subjects (Group 9). We observed that our samples from Northeastern China had a higher frequency of microdeletions among the non-obstructive azoospermic individuals with varicocele, as compared with other Asian countries. Furthermore, the spermatogenic defect is due to the underlying Y chromosome microdeletion, and not the varicocele itself. Although varicocele is not the cause of male infertility, it may be associated with male infertility in the Northeastern Chinese population. PMID:26125865

  6. Psychological profile of spouses of women with infertility in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fatoye, F O; Eegunranti, B A; Owolabi, A T; Fatoye, G K

    2009-03-01

    Ninety five men who accompanied their wives to the fertility clinic of a Nigerian teaching hospital (index group) were compared with 95 matched controls using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Their rates of significant anxiety symptoms (24.2%) and depressive symptoms (20.0%) were higher than the corresponding rates of 13.7% and 9.5% for the controls. The higher rate of significant depressive symptoms in the infertility group was significant (p < 0.05). Their mean scores on the two subscales of HADS (anxiety and depressive subscales) were also significantly higher (p < 0.001). Results of multiple regression analysis indicated that lower anxiety symptoms were predicted by age group among subjects in the index group, indicating that belonging to higher age groups was associated with lower anxiety symptoms. In addition, lower anxiety symptoms were predicted by 'being very religious'. However, higher anxiety symptoms were predicted by previous exposure to couple counselling. On the predictors of depressive symptoms, lower symptoms were predicted by age group and religiosity while higher symptoms were predicted by respondents' previous exposure to couple counselling and higher number of wives. Other factors investigated such as level of education, duration of infertility, attitude towards child adoption, pressure from extended family members on account of infertility, expectation of the respondents on the possible outcome of treatment and the result of semen analysis were not observed as predictors of anxiety and/or depressive symptoms. The observations on emotional distress among these men, together with previous observations that counselling/support received from gynecological consultations is usually inadequate indicates that the quality of psychological support that is available to them needs to be improved and modified. Involvement of mental health professionals (psychiatrists and clinical psychologists) in the provision of psychological couple counselling for infertility-related emotional distress could improve the quality of support provided. The establishment of special counselling units in hospitals providing treatment for infertility is advocated. PMID:19722430

  7. Investigating Marital Relationship in Infertility: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Peng; Coates, Rosemary; Maycock, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Background Infertility is a complex issue that affects individuals and groups, and also it has serious implications for the mental and social well-being of those involved. The aim of this review was to assess marital relationship in the context of infertility, using data from infertile individuals or both couples. Methods A literature search was undertaken using multiple databases (Medline, PsycInfo and Scopus) to identify and synthesize all relevant literature published from 1990 to 2011. All studies in the systematic review were confirmed using specific inclusion criteria; the methodological quality of these studies were examined according to a checklist. Results Of the potential 794 articles, 18 studies were included in the final analysis, of which 6 were graded as high quality and 12 as moderate. The results indicated male factor infertility did not have a negative marital impact. In addition, infertile male participants expressed higher marital satisfaction than their wives. Infertile females had significantly less stable marital relationship compared to fertile females, which was associated with their socio-demographics and treatment experience. For infertile couples, the infertile subjects or their partners’ marital relationship was affected by either member's infertility, experience specifically coping strategies. Moreover other factors such as sexual satisfaction, age of the infertile couples, education level, and congruency of couples’ perceptions of infertility were associated with the quality of martial relationship. Conclusion Although the review can provide an outline of marital relationship in infertility, future studies should focus on the perspective from both infertile couple, across a range of different infertility types, including extended sample sizes and longitudinal study designs. In addition, more consideration should be given to qualitative study. PMID:23926528

  8. Infertility Care Among OEF/OIF/OND Women Veterans in the Department of Veterans Affairs

    PubMed Central

    Mattocks, Kristin; Kroll-Desrosiers, Aimee; Zephyrin, Laurie; Katon, Jodie; Weitlauf, Julie; Bastian, Lori; Haskell, Sally; Brandt, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Background An increasing number of young women Veterans seek reproductive health care through the VA, yet little is known regarding the provision of infertility care for this population. The VA provides a range of infertility services for Veterans including artificial insemination, but does not provide in vitro fertilization. This study will be the first to characterize infertility care among OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans using VA care. Methods We analyzed data from the OEF/OIF/OND roster file from the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC)—Contingency Tracking System Deployment file of military discharges from October 1, 2001–December 30, 2010, which includes 68,442 women Veterans between the ages of 18 and 45 who utilized VA health care after separating from military service. We examined the receipt of infertility diagnoses and care using ICD-9 and CPT codes. Results Less than 2% (n = 1323) of OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans received an infertility diagnosis during the study period. Compared with women VA users without infertility diagnosis, those with infertility diagnosis were younger, obese, black, or Hispanic, have a service-connected disability rating, a positive screen for military sexual trauma, and a mental health diagnosis. Overall, 22% of women with an infertility diagnosis received an infertility assessment or treatment. Thirty-nine percent of women Veterans receiving infertility assessment or treatment received this care from non-VA providers. Conclusions Overall, a small proportion of OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans received infertility diagnoses from the VA during the study period, and an even smaller proportion received infertility treatment. Nearly 40% of those who received infertility treatments received these treatments from non-VA providers, indicating that the VA may need to examine the training and resources needed to provide this care within the VA. Understanding women’s use of VA infertility services is an important component of understanding VA’s commitment to comprehensive medical care for women Veterans. PMID:25767979

  9. The impact of perceived stigma and mediating social factors on infertility-related stress among women seeking infertility treatment in Southern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Donkor, Ernestina S; Sandall, Jane

    2007-10-01

    This research aimed to investigate the extent to which women in Southern Ghana seeking infertility treatment perceived themselves as stigmatised in order to investigate the relationship between perceived stigma and infertility-related stress. A survey was conducted using face-to-face interviews in three languages with 615 women receiving infertility treatment on three health sites in Southern Ghana. The majority (64%) of women in this sample felt stigmatised. Sequential multiple regression analyses indicated that higher levels of perceived stigma were associated with increased infertility-related stress. Also women with higher levels of education felt less infertility-related stress. The presence of an existing child/children, the number of years spent in infertility treatment and the type of marriage (monogamous/polygamous union) were less important in predicting stress. The findings suggest that the social status of infertile women derived from other factors can be of importance in minimising the impact of stigmatisation and stress related to infertility. These findings highlight the wider beneficial effects of improved educational opportunities for girls and women. PMID:17673344

  10. The evolving role of saline infusion sonography (SIS) in infertility.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, S; Khalil, M; Osman, A; Clough, A; Jayaprakasan, K; Khalaf, Y

    2015-02-01

    Saline infusion sonography (SIS) has become a valuable diagnostic modality in gynaecology over the last three decades. SIS is now commonly employed for detailed evaluation of the uterine cavity as part of pre-treatment assessment in infertile women. The objective of this paper is review the scientific literature on SIS in infertility. Medline, Ovid and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant articles. The indications, technical aspects and the potential advantages of SIS are discussed. The efficacy and sensitivity of SIS are compared to hysteroscopy in the evaluation of uterine polyps, fibroids, intrauterine adhesions and uterine anomalies. Increasing evidence suggests the use of SIS prior to an in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle as it has increased sensitivity in the detection of intrauterine pathology. SIS is cost-effective and results in better patient satisfaction scores than hysteroscopy. PMID:25528732

  11. Male Reproductive Cancers and Infertility: A Mutual Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Tvrda, Eva; Agarwal, Ashok; Alkuhaimi, Nawaf

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction and malignancies related to the male gender represent a serious health concern, whose incidence has significantly risen over the past years. Prior to treatment, testicular or prostate cancer patients often display poor semen characteristics similar to subfertile or infertile patients. This fact is underscored by cases where the malignancy is often diagnosed in males who undergo a general fertility screening. This review aims to examine the associations between male infertility and reproductive cancers focusing on common etiologies and biological mechanisms underlining these pathologies. Furthermore, we discuss compelling epidemiological data hypothesizing that male reproductive failure may act as a precursor of future andrological malignancies, including testicular or prostate cancer, thus providing a stimulus for a more specific research in male reproductive health and emphasizing the importance of this relation for physicians taking care of male patients with a reproductive disease. PMID:25837470

  12. Male reproductive cancers and infertility: a mutual relationship.

    PubMed

    Tvrda, Eva; Agarwal, Ashok; Alkuhaimi, Nawaf

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction and malignancies related to the male gender represent a serious health concern, whose incidence has significantly risen over the past years. Prior to treatment, testicular or prostate cancer patients often display poor semen characteristics similar to subfertile or infertile patients. This fact is underscored by cases where the malignancy is often diagnosed in males who undergo a general fertility screening. This review aims to examine the associations between male infertility and reproductive cancers focusing on common etiologies and biological mechanisms underlining these pathologies. Furthermore, we discuss compelling epidemiological data hypothesizing that male reproductive failure may act as a precursor of future andrological malignancies, including testicular or prostate cancer, thus providing a stimulus for a more specific research in male reproductive health and emphasizing the importance of this relation for physicians taking care of male patients with a reproductive disease. PMID:25837470

  13. Genital tuberculosis in the infertile women - an update.

    PubMed

    Ishrat, S; Fatima, P

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is endemic in many developing countries of the world including Bangladesh. Genital tuberculosis is a significant cause of infertility in the women of these countries. The diagnosis of genital tuberculosis in infertile women is difficult as most of the cases are usually asymptomatic. A high index of clinical suspicion is required. Genital tuberculosis always affects the fallopian tubes. It affects the endometrium in half of the cases. In addition to tuberculin skin tests and interferon gamma release assays, procedures like hysterosalpingography, laparoscopy-dye test, endometrial curettage and laparoscopy with multiple sampling for smear microscopy and culture for mycobacterium tuberculosis can detect the cases. In recent years diagnosis has been improved by polymerase chain reaction targeted against mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. Following early diagnosis, treatment with anti-tubercular drugs is favourable for fertility only when tubal and endometrial damage is minimal. In cases where the organs are more severely involved the outcome is poor even with in- vitro fertilization. PMID:25725695

  14. Aetiologic factors in male infertility: clinical, microbiological and hormonal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nalini, K; Sethi, B K; Sharma, M; Dash, R J

    1992-03-01

    Seventy two infertile men were studied. History of small pox and mumps infection was noted in 4 and 3 patients respectively. Seven patients had varicocele (9.2%), and small atrophic testes were found in 9 (12.5%). Azoospermia was reported in 41 (58.3%) and oligospermia in 17 (23.6%), and 14 patients (19.4%) had normal sperm counts. Mycoplasma were grown from urethral swabs in 25 (35%) patients. Mean LH and FSH were elevated in azoospermics (p less than 0.001), E2-17B in oligospermics (p less than 0.001) and FSH in normospermic (p less than 0.01) patients. Hypergonadotropism suggestive of primary testicular failure was recorded in 43 (59.7%) patients. Hypogonadotropism was noted in 3 (4%) and hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary microadenoma induced infertility in only one patient. No aetiology could be determined in 11 (16%) patients. PMID:1634475

  15. Antioxidant therapy in male infertility: fact or fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Zini, Armand; Al-Hathal, Naif

    2011-01-01

    Infertile men have higher levels of semen reactive oxygen species (ROS) than do fertile men. High levels of semen ROS can cause sperm dysfunction, sperm DNA damage and reduced male reproductive potential. This observation has led clinicians to treat infertile men with antioxidant supplements. The purpose of this article is to discuss the rationale for antioxidant therapy in infertile men and to evaluate the data on the efficacy of dietary and in vitro antioxidant preparations on sperm function and DNA damage. To date, most clinical studies suggest that dietary antioxidant supplements are beneficial in terms of improving sperm function and DNA integrity. However, the exact mechanism of action of dietary antioxidants and the optimal dietary supplement have not been established. Moreover, most of the clinical studies are small and few have evaluated pregnancy rates. A beneficial effect of in vitro antioxidant supplements in protecting spermatozoa from exogenous oxidants has been demonstrated in most studies; however, the effect of these antioxidants in protecting sperm from endogenous ROS, gentle sperm processing and cryopreservation has not been established conclusively. PMID:21516118

  16. Contemporary concepts in the evaluation and management of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kathleen; Walters, R. Chanc; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2013-01-01

    Infertility in men is a common condition. At the core of the medical evaluation of the male partner in a couple who are unable to conceive is the history and physical examination. Special attention should be directed to the patient’s developmental history and any use of testosterone products. The physical examination focuses on the genitals, and includes assessments of the size and consistency of the testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, and presence of varicoceles. Although many sophisticated tests are available, semen analysis is still the most important diagnostic tool used to assess fertility, and includes parameters such as sperm count, motility and viability. Treatment of male factor infertility can involve targeted agents, in the case of specific conditions such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, or it can be empirical—using medical therapy or assisted conception techniques—for patients in whom no underlying cause has been identified. Although an all-encompassing treatment for male factor infertility has not yet been developed, the field offers many promising avenues of research. PMID:21243017

  17. Trace elements in seminal plasma of men from infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Szynkowska, Ma?gorzata I.; Motak-Pochrz?st, Hanna; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Sypniewski, Stanis?aw

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An analysis of lead, zinc, cadmium and other trace elements in semen of men from infertile couples was performed to determine the association between abnormal semen parameters and enviromental or occupational exposure to some trace metals. Material and methods Presence of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead was measured in seminal plasma of 34 men from infertile couples using spectrometry with time-of-flight analysis. Correlations among sperm parameters and trace metals were determined using cluster analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Abnormally high concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc and cobalt were found in 23 seminal plasma of men from infertile couples. The most consistent evidence was determined for an association between high cadmium concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count, motility and morphology below reference limits (p < 0.01). A correlation of significantly increased tin level and reduced sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential was observed (p = 0.04). Conclusions In our study we observed a correlation of tin level with sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential. PMID:26170853

  18. The psychological impact of male factor infertility and fertility treatment on men: a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maeve Dooley; Aonghus Nolan; K. M. Sarma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the subjective experiences of males attending a fertility treatment unit due to male factor infertility (MFI). In particular, the study aimed to explore how infertile males construe their infertility and how this impacts on their psychological well-being. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine males and analysed using grounded theory. Three inter-dependent themes were identified: (1) Impact to

  19. Chromosomal Aberrations and Polymorphic Evaluation in Males with Primary Infertility from Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pokale, Yamini S.; Jadhav, Ajinkya M.; Gangane, Suresh D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: The chromosomal abnormalities are one of the important causes of male infertility. In view of the genetic risks for the next generation, the importance of careful evaluation of karyotype is essential. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men with primary infertility from Indian population. Materials and Methods: The 78 infertile men with primary infertility, out of which 26 men were azoospermic, 19 men were oligospermic, 4 men were asthenospermic and 29 men were oligoasthenospermic were studied. Karyoptying was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes by using the Giemsa trypsin banding (GTG) banding technique. Additional data was collected from published studies in Indian population leading to a total of 1814 cases. Results: Chromosome analysis of 78 infertile males showed major chromosome abnormalities in 10.2%, with 6.4% in autosomal chromosome abnormalities and 3.8% in sex chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of major chromosome abnormalities in oligospermic males were 21% and azoospermic males were 15.4 %. Chromosomal polymorphic variants were identified to be 16.7%. Combining the data from other published studies identified 153/ 1814 (8.4%) infertile men of chromosomal abnormalities; with 10.8% in azoospermia, 7.3% in oligospermia and 7.3% in oligoasthenoteratospermic from India. Interpretation and Conclusion: The overall high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile males suggests that the conventional chromosomal analysis is an important investigative tool for male infertility, especially prior to use of any assisted reproductive techniques. PMID:25478430

  20. Infertility: Why can't we classify this inability as disability?

    PubMed

    Khetarpal, Abha; Singh, Satendra

    2012-01-01

    Disability is a complex phenomenon. It reflects an interaction between features of a person's body and features of the society in which he or she lives. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), lays stress on the functional as well as the structural problem of a person. All the definitions of disability also include the disorders of the reproductive and endocrine system. So infertility and impotency should also be included in the category of disability. It affects the participation in areas of life and can have a disabling affect on an individual. Like any other disability the couple has to adapt and integrate infertility in their sense of self thus infertility comes as a major life crisis. Medically, infertility, in most cases, is considered to be the result of a physical impairment or a genetic abnormality. Socially, couples are incapable of their reproductive or parental roles. On social level, infertility in most cultures remains associated with social stigma and taboo just like the social model of disability. Couples who are unable to reproduce may be looked down upon due to social stigmatisation. Infertility can lead to divorces and separation leading to a broken family life. Without labelling infertility as a disability, it is difficult for the people to access services and welfare benefits offered by the government. Infertility treatments are highly sophisticated so they are very expensive and are even not covered by insurance and government aid.In the light of all this it becomes imperative to categorise infertility as disability. PMID:22848333

  1. Gene transfer to sperm and testis: future prospects of gene therapy for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Kurokawa, Satoshi; Mizuno, Kentaro; Umemoto, Yukihiro; Sasaki, Shoichi; Hayashi, Yutaro; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2008-04-01

    Male infertility has been considered a major contributory factor to infertility. The causes of spermatogenetic failure found in most cases of male infertility remain largely idiopathic. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment to improve spermatogenesis for idiopathic male infertility patients. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the current treatment of choice for severe male infertility and has brought the joy of childbearing to couples for whom it was previously impossible; however, several problems exist with this treatment. In addition, if there are no spermatozoa in the testis of these patients, they do not have paternity potential even if ICSI is conducted. Ultimately, fertilization is better in vivo than in vitro. Recently, on the other hand, gene transfer to sperm and testis has been developed to find more effective and simple methods to obtain transgenic animals. This technique has the potential to be the most useful approach for the future treatment of male infertility. In this review, we will give an overview of the recent advanced technique of gene transfer to sperm and testis, and discuss the future prospects of gene therapy for the treatment of male infertility. In conclusion, although more investigations on the mechanism of spermatogenesis and male infertility and the establishment of techniques for more efficient and safer gene transfer to the sperm and testis will be needed, gene therapy will enable a revolutionary advance for reproductive treatment and provide great benefit for patients with male infertility in the future. PMID:18393832

  2. Preterm delivery and low birth weight in singleton pregnancies conceived by women with and without a history of infertility

    PubMed Central

    Camarano, Loretta; Alkon, Abbey; Nachtigall, Robert D.; Schembri, Michael; Weiss, Sandra; Croughan, Mary S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine predictors of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery (PTD) in singleton pregnancies conceived by women with and without a history of infertility. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Eleven infertility clinics in Northern California. Patients Three groups of women who carried singleton pregnancies to ? 20 weeks gestation: 542 infertile women who conceived after treatment, 441 infertile women who conceived spontaneously, and 1008 fertile women for comparison. Interventions Chart review. Main Outcome Measures Association of LBW or PTD with infertility treatment, maternal age, parity, obesity, or development of gestational diabetes. Results Infertile women who conceived with treatment were more likely to be obese, develop gestational diabetes, and have ovarian, ovulatory, or male factor infertility than infertile women who conceived spontaneously. Infertile women who conceived after treatment had 1.61 (95% CI 1.08– 2.41) times greater odds of having a LBW infant. Nulliparity was an independent predictor of LBW 1.54 (95% CI 1.09– 2.16) and PTD (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.20–2.49) in all three groups after controlling for maternal age, history of infertility, infertility treatment, obesity, and gestational diabetes. Conclusions Nulliparous women and women with a history of infertility who conceive a singleton after treatment may be at increased odds for having a LBW infant. Infertile women do not appear to be at increased odds for PTD. PMID:22633266

  3. Clinical management and therapeutic outcome of infertile couples in southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Menuba, Ifeanyi E; Ugwu, Emmanuel O; Obi, Samuel N; Lawani, Lucky O; Onwuka, Chidinma I

    2014-01-01

    Background Infertility is highly prevalent in Nigeria and most infertile couples in southeast Nigeria are offered conventional forms of treatment, which consist mainly of ovulation induction and tubal surgery, due to limited availability and high cost of endoscopic and assisted reproductive technologies like laparoscopy and in vitro fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infertility, outcome of infertility investigation, and the treatment outcome of infertile couples following therapeutic interventions in southeast Nigeria over a 12-month period. Methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study of 218 consecutive infertile couples presenting for infertility management at the infertility clinics of two tertiary health institutions in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Infertility investigations were carried out on these couples using the available conventional diagnostic facilities. Following the results of the investigations/diagnosis, conventional treatment was offered to the couples as appropriate. Data analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. Results The mean age of the women was 33.5±4.62 (range: 15–49) years. Most (58.3% [n=127]) were nulliparous. The prevalence of infertility was 12.1%. Infertility was primary in 28.4% (n=62) and secondary in 71.6% (n=156). Female etiologic factors were responsible in 32.1% (n=70), male factors in 26.1% (n=57), and a combination of male/female factors in 29.4% (n=64). The etiology was unknown in 12.4% (n=27). Tubal factors 23.8 % (n=52) and ovulation failures 26.1% (n=57) are common female factors implicated. Pregnancy rate following treatment was 16.7% (n=28). Multivariate regression analysis indicates that younger age of ?30 years, duration of infertility ?5 years, and female factor infertility were associated with higher pregnancy outcome following treatment. Conclusion The prevalence of infertility is high and pregnancy rate following conventional treatment is poor. There is a need to improve facilities for managing infertility as well as making artificial reproductive techniques readily available, accessible, and affordable. PMID:25328391

  4. Increased Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer Among Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Thomas J.; Schembri, Michael; Turek, Paul J.; Chan, June M.; Carroll, Peter R.; Smith, James F.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Croughan, Mary S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND It has been reported that fatherhood status may be a risk factor for prostate cancer. In the current study, the authors examined the subsequent occurrence of prostate cancer in a cohort of men evaluated for infertility to determine whether male infertility is a risk factor for prostate cancer. METHODS A total of 22,562 men who were evaluated for infertility from 1967 to 1998 were indentified from 15 California infertility centers and linked to the California Cancer Registry. The incidence of prostate cancer was compared with the incidence in an age-matched and geography-matched sample of men from the general population. The risk of prostate cancer in men with and those without male factor infertility was modeled using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS A total of 168 cases of prostate cancer that developed after infertility were identified. Men evaluated for infertility but not necessarily with male factors were not found to have an increased risk of cancer compared with the general population (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 0.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.8-1.1). This risk was found to be highest for men with male factor infertility who developed high–grade prostate cancer (SIR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0). On multivariate analyses, men with male factor infertility were found to be 2.6 times more likely to be diagnosed with high–grade prostate cancer (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4-4.8). CONCLUSIONS Men with male factor infertility were found to have an increased risk of subsequently developing high–grade prostate cancer. Male infertility may be an early and identifiable risk factor for the development of clinically significant prostate cancer. PMID:20309846

  5. Thyroid Hormones and Prolactin Levels in Infertile Women in Southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Udoh, Alphonsus Ekpe; Essien, Okon Ekwerre; Isong, Idongesit Kokoabasi Paul; Gali, Rebecca Mtaku; Archibong, Edim Eyo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Human infertility is a complex global health problem. It has multiple social consequences which are especially profound for thyroid hormones in infertility with the aim of determining the degree of association of thyroid hormones with hyperprolactinemia in our population. Materials and Methods: The serum levels of prolactin, T3, T4 and TSH were determined in 90 hyperprolactinemic infertile women, 90 normoprolactinemic infertile women and 50 fertile women. The hormones were assayed using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay kits. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation were used to analyze the data, with the significant p-level set at 0.05. Results: A significantly higher mean serum prolactin and TSH were observed among the infertile groups compared to the fertile controls (p<0.05). The mean serum T3 and T4 were significantly lower in the hyperprolactinemic infertile women compared to the fertile controls (p<0.05). The mean TSH and T3 of normoprolactinemic infertile women and controls were comparable (p>0.05). However, the mean T4 was significantly lower in normoprolactinemic infertile women compared to the fertile controls (p<0.05). In all the groups, TSH correlated inversely with T3 and T4, while T3 correlated positively with T4. It was only in the control group that prolactin correlated positively and significantly with TSH. Conclusion: It is therefore concluded that hyperprolactinemia with thyroid dysfunction may be a major contributory hormonal factor in infertility among infertile women and as such, estimation of prolactin, T3, T4 and TSH should be included in the workup for infertile women especially those with hyperprolactinaemia. PMID:25954648

  6. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; male infertility and sex ratio of offspring.

    PubMed

    Baste, Valborg; Riise, Trond; Moen, Bente E

    2008-01-01

    Concern is growing about exposure to electromagnetic fields and male reproductive health. The authors performed a cross-sectional study among military men employed in the Royal Norwegian Navy, including information about work close to equipment emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, one-year infertility, children and sex of the offspring. Among 10,497 respondents, 22% had worked close to high-frequency aerials to a "high" or "very high" degree. Infertility increased significantly along with increasing self-reported exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. In a logistic regression, odds ratio (OR) for infertility among those who had worked closer than 10 m from high-frequency aerials to a "very high" degree relative to those who reported no work near high-frequency aerials was 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46-2.37), adjusted for age, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and exposure to organic solvents, welding and lead. Similar adjusted OR for those exposed to a "high", "some" and "low" degree were 1.93 (95% CI: 1.55-2.40), 1.52 (95% CI: 1.25-1.84), and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.15-1.68), respectively. In all age groups there were significant linear trends with higher prevalence of involuntary childlessness with higher self-reported exposure to radiofrequency fields. However, the degree of exposure to radiofrequency radiation and the number of children were not associated. For self-reported exposure both to high-frequency aerials and communication equipment there were significant linear trends with lower ratio of boys to girls at birth when the father reported a higher degree of radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure. PMID:18415687

  7. Hormonal imbalances and psychological scars left behind in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Bak, Chong Won; Seok, Hyun Ha; Song, Seung-Hun; Kim, Eun Sun; Her, Young Sun; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2012-01-01

    The effect of infertility on the psychological well-being of couples has been the subject of increasing attention in recent years. The frustration of couples of a relatively young age (ie, in their fourth decades) provokes not only anxiety and depression but also negative effects on the relationships. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a diagnosis of male infertility on anxiety and depression in the men themselves and in fertile female spouses. The prospective cross-sectional study consisted of 264 participants, 72 males diagnosed with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) and their fertile spouses and 60 fertile couples attending our university between January 1, 2009, and April 30, 2010. The Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and hormone levels were measured during initial and follow-up visits. In NOA men, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were positively associated with anxiety, in contrast to testosterone, which was inversely associated with anxiety. After the diagnosis of NOA, producing no testicular sperm, the panic intensity among men increased significantly, whereas their spouses exhibited less panic. By contrast, fertile female partners of NOA men reported higher BDI scores after the initial diagnosis of azoospermia, whereas their partners recorded higher levels of depression after the absence of testicular sperm was discovered. Insomnia was the most common complaint for both sexes after the diagnosis of azoospermia. Hormonal abnormalities had a negative effect on the quality of life. Physicians and clinicians should acknowledge the immense psychosocial effect of the diagnosis of male infertility on both males and their fertile female partners. PMID:21546616

  8. Prospective Changes in Infertile Patients using Nonlinear Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuko; Tomiyama, Tatsuhiro; Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Tsukamoto, Asami; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi

    2011-06-01

    We measured pulse waves in 22 infertile women from the beginning of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) through to pregnancy testing. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and autonomic nerve balance in the pregnancy group were significantly lower than that in the non-pregnancy group. In this study, we measured plethysmograms of four women who became pregnant and 18 who did not, ten times from each. We calculated LLE and a value for the autonomic nerve balance; from this analysis, we conclude that a mental state that allows for the possibility of becoming pregnant is necessary for a successful pregnancy.

  9. When is azoospermic infertility treatable without intracytoplasmic sperm injection?

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Robert I

    2013-02-01

    Infertility with azoospermia requires a diligent search for reversible factors and treatment to restore natural fertility, even though most cases are due to untreatable primary spermatogenic failure and are destined to require consideration of assisted reproductive treatment (ART) options. Complete clinical and diagnostic evaluation is essential for avoiding both unnecessary ART and overlooking important co-morbidities. Gonadotrophin deficiency is the most treatable cause, resulting from drug effects or congenital or acquired disease, and medical therapy is highly efficacious. A range of uncommon endocrinocrinopathies may also result in reversible azoospermia. Finally, obstructive azoospermia may be surgically remediable in selected cases. PMID:22998070

  10. Mobile phone usage and male infertility in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Behari, Jitendra

    2010-10-01

    A significant decrease in protein kinase C and total sperm count along with increased apoptosis were observed in male Wistar rats exposed to mobile phone frequencies (2 h/day x 35 days at 0.9 W/kg specific absorption rate). The results suggest that a reduction in protein kinase activity may be related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under microwave field exposure. Decrease in sperm count and an increase in apoptosis may be causative factor due to mobile radiation exposure leading to infertility. PMID:21299041

  11. Mental Health and Its Personal and Social Predictors in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpour, Shirin; Bani, Soheila; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Yahyavi Kochaksarayie, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility is considered a traumatic stressor for infertile couples, and it becomes a psychosocial crisis for that person. Considering the importance of fertility and based on the cultural and social aspects of it in Iran, the present study aimed to determine mental health and its individual and social predictors in infertile women referring to the infertility center of Al-Zahra hospital in Tabriz, Iran, during 2012-2013. Methods: This was a descriptive-correlational study on 345 infertile women referring to Al-Zahra hospital in Tabriz, Iran, via convenient sampling. Data was gathered by the perceived social support questionnaire and mental health questionnaire. To determine the relationship between social support and personal and social characteristics, and mental health, multivariate linear regression was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The mean (SD) total score of mental health of women was 29.70 (11.50), the score ranged from 0 to 84. The best condition was below the depression scale, and the worst condition was below the social dysfunction scale. Social support from the family was also a predictor of the mental health of infertile women. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that infertile women, in terms of mental health and its subscales, have unfavorable conditions. Moreover, social support from the family is an important factor influencing mental health. Therefore, strengthening the social support of the family to improve the mental health of infertile women seems necessary. PMID:25276747

  12. Characterization of Peripheral Blood and Peritoneal Fluid Mononuclear Cell Subsets in Fertile and Infertile Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Opsahl; Clifford C. Hayslip; Thomas A. Klein; Dean S. Cunningham

    1994-01-01

    Mononuclear cell subpopulations from the peripheral blood (PB) and peritoneal fluid (PF) of fertile and infertile women were quantified by flow cytometry using a double-staining monoclonal antibody technique. No differences in the percentage distribution of mononuclear cells between fertile and infertile women were demonstrated when either the PB constituents or the PF components were compared to one another. When the

  13. Survey of the Situation of Infertile Women Seeking In Vitro Fertilization Treatment in China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xuan; Wang, Gongxian; Liu, Sisun; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Fang; Qiu, Yun; Huang, Xiaojin

    2013-01-01

    Background. In previous studies, people's knowledge of reproductive health and infertile women's psychological states was surveyed in several countries. However, there has been limited information concerning the psychological states of infertile women seeking treatment and the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in China. Methods. Infertile women were asked to complete short questionnaires on the day that their oocytes were retrieved; these questionnaires covered the durations of their infertility, levels of education, sources of pressure, and psychological states. Data concerning IVF outcomes were provided by embryologists and clinicians. The correlations between the duration of infertility and educational level, psychological state and education level, and psychological state and outcome of IVF were analyzed in the cohort study. Results. The duration of infertility in more than half of the females was longer than 5 years. Compared with less-educated women, women with higher levels of education sought treatment earlier and their rates of depressive symptoms were lower. There is an association between negative emotions and outcome of IVF. Conclusions. The survey of the situations of infertile women seeking IVF treatment in China indicates the importance of popularizing knowledge concerning reproductive health. Improving medical conditions, reducing the costs of treatment, and developing social culture will aid in relieving the stress of infertile women and improving assisted reproductive treatment. PMID:24369006

  14. Osseous metaplasia of the endometrium associated with infertility: a case report and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio César Rosa-e-Silva; Ionara Diniz Barcelos; Paula Andrea Navarro; Ana Carolina Japur de Sá Rosa-e-Silva; Antonio Alberto Nogueira; Rui Alberto Ferriani

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Endometrial ossification is an uncommon disease related to secondary infertility and its etiology and pathogenesis are controversial. More than 80% of reported cases occur after pregnancy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted with a history of secondary infertility and with a regular menstrual cycle. She reported a miscarriage at 12 weeks of gestation 7 years previously and

  15. Effect of Infertility on Sexual Function: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Direkvand-Moghadam; Azadeh, Direkvand-Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sexual dysfunction is an important psychological disorder that may increase in infertile couples. Aim To evaluate the effect of infertility on sexual function in women attending in private and public institutions in Ilam during 2013. Materials and Methods In a cross - sectional study evaluated the sexual function among 384 women attending in health care centers of Ilam western of Iran during 2013. Participants were divided in two groups, fertilities and infertilities women. Data was collected by trained research midwives using demographic and FSFI questionnaires. SPSS software Package 16 was used to analyse the data of this project. Differences were regarded statistically significant with an alpha error of 0.05. Results The mean age was 29.29 ± 6.7 years in fertile and 31.74 ± 8.07 in infertile women. Significant difference was reported in mean age between fertile and infertile women (p=0.014). The Mean± SD of all demissions of female sexual function was difference between fertile and infertile women. Sexual function was lower in infertile women. Conclusion All dimensions of sexual function were lower in infertile women in compared with fertile women. Further research should be done on this subject and ways to address such problems should be found. PMID:26155520

  16. Assessment of Questionnaires Measuring Quality of Life in Infertile Couples: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyyed Abbas; Masoumi, Seyyedeh Zahra; Keramat, Afsaneh; Pooralajal, Jalal; Shobeiri, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility has potentially inappropriate effects on quality of life in infertile couples. Various general and specific questionnaires have been structured for assessing different aspects of quality of life in infertile men, women, or couples. The present systematic review was designed to assess these questionnaires and also identify different factors affecting infertile couples based on the aforesaid questionnaires. Methods The research strategy involved general and specific terms in relation to couples's infertility and their quality of life. A review was done for studies published from 1982 to 2012 that were indexed in Medline, ISI Web of Science and Scopus as well as abstract books on this subject. We also corresponded with the authors of the references in related studies for introducing more resources and references. Results In all reviewed studies, different aspects of the quality of life in couples were evaluated including sexual, psychological, social, communicational, environmental, occupational, medical, as well as economical ones. In total, after initial screening of all studies, 10 general and 2 specific questionnaires were retrieved. Although no meta-analysis was found in the review, infertility had a negative effect on quality of life in couples. Conclusion This study revealed that some general questionnaires such as SF-36 and WHO-QOL were mostly used for assessing quality of life in infertile couples and some specific questionnaires such as FERTI-QoL and Fertility Problem Inventory were rarely used. Thus, it seems that the evaluation of quality of life in infertile couples needs valid instruments for measurement. PMID:24163794

  17. Response to varicocelectomy in oligospermic men with and without defined genetic infertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selahittin Cayan; Douglas Lee; Lauri D Black; Renee A Reijo Pera; Paul J Turek

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the clinical characteristics of infertile men who have varicocele with and without a genetic anomaly, and report the results of varicocelectomy in these two cohorts of men.Methods. Study subjects included 33 men who underwent genetic counseling and testing for a diagnosis of oligospermia with varicocele. Seven men were diagnosed with coexisting genetic infertility (genetic [+]; abnormal karyotype

  18. The evaluation of morphological abnormalities of human spermatozoa in fertile and infertile men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis Matalliotakis; Dimitrios Panidis; Georgios Vlassis; Achilleas Kalogeropoulos; Ageliki Zolindaki; Evgenios Koumantakis

    1996-01-01

    Spermatozoal morphology in semen from 114 fertile men, 107 infertile men with varicocele and 35 infertile men with infection of the accesory genital organs, aged from 18 to 53 years were evaluated by Papanicolaou-stained smears in order to investigate: (a) the frequency of abnormalities in the neck and tail of spermatozoa with an abnormal head and (b) the ability of

  19. In-vitro maturation of immature oocytes for infertile women with PCOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ri-Cheng Chian

    2004-01-01

    Immature oocyte retrieval followed by in-vitro maturation (IVM) is a promising potential treatment option, especially for women who are infertile through polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Although the pregnancy and implantation rates of IVM treatment are not as high as conventional IVF treatment, IVM treatment has many advantages for infertile women with PCOS, because this group of patients is extremely sensitive

  20. Recent insights on the significance of transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Lee, L K; Foo, K Y

    2014-07-01

    Infertility is a worldwide reproductive health problem which affects approximately 15% of couples, with male factor infertility dominating nearly 50% of the affected population. The nature of the phenomenon is underscored by a complex array of transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic differences which interact in unknown ways. Many causes of male factor infertility are still defined as idiopathic, and most diagnosis tends to be more descriptive rather than specific. As such, the emergence of novel transcriptomic and metabolomic studies may hold the key to more accurately diagnose and treat male factor infertility. This paper provides the most recent evidence underlying the role of transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis in the management of male infertility. A summary of the current knowledge and new discovery of noninvasive, highly sensitive and specific biomarkers which allow the expansion of this area is outlined. PMID:24875852

  1. Nature versus nurture--plant resources in management of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao; Akhand, Pratap Singh; Rajender, Singh

    2010-01-01

    Male infertility, apart from being a multi-factorial disorder, has no defined etiology in almost half of the infertile men. The complex etiology demands a complex remedy which can heal several ailments together. Currently available specific treatments are largely inefficient in infertility treatment. Medicinal plants present a repertoire capable of providing varied constituents which could be helpful in infertility management. However, the literature on the same is scanty and we have not explored even 1 percent of the available plant resources. Herein, we present a systematic review of clinical and experimental data on the use of Indian medicinal herbs in the treatment of male infertility. Literature suggests that most of the medicinal herbs exhibit a three dimensional effect of reducing oxidative/psychological stress, fatigue and promoting libido. This review is oriented to identify and highlight aphrodisiac, adaptogenic, anti-oxidant and nutritional properties of these plants and aims at promoting exploration of these valuable medicinal resources. PMID:20515771

  2. Are Caucasian-European men delaying fatherhood? Results of a 7 year observational study of infertile couples with male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Salonia, A; Matloob, R; Saccŕ, A; Ferrari, M; Gallina, A; Castiglione, F; Abdollah, F; Raber, M; Brigante, C; Candiani, M; Rigatti, P; Montorsi, F

    2012-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing presence and predictors of a trend towards more advanced paternal age at presentation in a cohort of 1283 Caucasian-European infertile couples with male factor infertility (MFI) over a short time frame. Multivariate linear regression analysis tested the association between predictors [namely, partners' age, length of infertility at first presentation, patients' comorbidities as scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and educational status] and patient's age at presentation. Using anova, patient's age at presentation (F ratio: 2.43; p = 0.024) and patients' educational status (?(2) trend: 142.38; p < 0.001) significantly increased over time. In contrast, length of infertility at first presentation, CCI and partners' age did not significantly change over time (all p ? 0.05). Linear regression analyses showed that CCI, educational status and year of presentation were not correlated with patients' age at presentation (all p ? 0.05), whereas partners' age (? = 0.170; p < 0.001) and length of infertility (? = 0.123; p = 0.004) were independent predictors of delayed fatherhood. These results showed a significant shift towards advanced paternal age, but a non-significant increase of maternal age at first presentation among Caucasian-European infertile couples with MFI over a short time frame. PMID:21696399

  3. Women’s Experiences and Preferences in Relation to Infertility Counselling: A Multifaith Dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Allan, Helen T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Religion and spirituality are a fundamental part of culture and influence how individuals experience and interpret infertility counselling. Thus far, little research has examined the influence of religiosity on the experience of infertility, and to our knowledge no study exists investigating the responses of religious infertile women to counselling. In this study we explored Muslim and Christian women’s experiences and preferences with regard to infertility counselling. Materials and Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 30 infertile women affiliated to different denominations of Islam (Shiite and Sunni) and Christianity (Protestantism, Catholicism, Orthodoxies) were interviewed. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews at fertility clinics in the UK and Iran, and analyzed using the Straussian mode of grounded theory. Results Emerging categories included: Appraising the meaning of infertility religiously, applying religious coping strategies, and gaining a faith-based strength. These were encompassed in the core category of ‘relying on a higher being’. Religious infertile women experienced infertility as an enriching experience for spiritual growth. This perspective helped them to acquire a feeling of self- confidence and strength to manage their emotions. Hence, they relied more on their own religious coping strategies and less on formal support resources like counselling services. However, they expected counsellors to be open to taking time to discuss their spiritual concerns in counselling sessions. Conclusion In addition to focusing on clients’ psychosocial needs, infertility counsellors should also consider religious and spiritual issues. Establishing a sympathetic and accepting relationship with infertile women will allow them to discuss their religious perspectives, which consequently may enhance their usage of counselling services. PMID:25101160

  4. Does varicocelectomy affect DNA fragmentation in infertile patients?

    PubMed Central

    Telli, Onur; Sarici, Hasmet; Kabar, Mucahit; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Resorlu, Berkan; Bozkurt, Selen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of varicocelectomy on DNA fragmentation index and semen parameters in infertile patients before and after surgical repair of varicocele. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 72 men with at least 1-year history of infertility, varicocele and oligospermia were examined. Varicocele sperm samples were classified as normal or pathological according to the 2010 World Health Organization guidelines. The acridine orange test was used to assess the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: DFI decreased significantly after varicocelectomy from 34.5% to 28.2% (P = 0.024). In addition all sperm parameters such as mean sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility and sperm morphology significantly increased from 19.5 × 106 to 30.7 × 106, 5.4 × 106/ml to 14.3 × 106/ml, and 19.9% to 31.2% (P < 0.001) and 2.6% to 3.1% (P = 0.017). The study was limited by the loss to follow-up of some patients and unrecorded pregnancy outcome due to short follow-up. Conclusion: Varicocele causes DNA-damage in spermatozoa. We suggest that varicocelectomy improves sperm parameters and decreases DFI. PMID:25878412

  5. The link between infertility and poverty: evidence from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Papreen

    2012-03-01

    The link between high fertility and poverty is well established. However, this paper shows how infertility may also generate poverty among childless families in Bangladesh. An ethnographic study was conducted, involving various qualitative research methods that revealed economic consequences to be one of the crucial sequelae of childlessness in Bangladesh. This paper details how the poverty/fertility relationship is dependent on social and institutional characteristics, including patriarchal values, education, urban-rural location and health services. Empirical data show that childlessness generates poverty in various ways, including the deprivation of children's earnings, decline in women's mobility, demoralisation of men to earn an income, marriage devaluation by the husband, disbursements for treatment and denial of microcredit (very small loans to those in poverty, which support them to become self-employed to generate income). The current study shows that the infertility/poverty relationship is mostly contingent upon class and gender. It is therefore the rural poor childless women who are most badly affected economically in Bangladesh rather than the urban middle class childless women. In other words, this study reveal that along with gender, class plays a dominant role in terms of the economic consequences of childlessness in Bangladesh. It sheds light on a different and unusual aspect of poverty and aims to contribute to the gender discussion of livelihood and poverty. PMID:22313219

  6. Does recommending timed intercourse really help the infertile couple?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S K; Haney, A F

    1994-08-01

    Timed sexual intercourse is a frequently prescribed component in the treatment for infertile couples. This recommendation is based on a combination of intuition and data from studies often lacking in methodology. With increasingly sophisticated and expensive methods available to time coitus with the presumptive evidence of ovulation, such as the urinary LH kits, the already significant stress of timed intercourse is compounded by the expense of these timing modalities. There is a complete lack of data demonstrating an increased chance of pregnancy with use of such devices. Yet there is evidence that the stress of timed intercourse is a major problem for infertile couples and may even hinder normal reproductive functioning. Available data suggest that much of the period of peak fertility during the menstrual cycle is missed if coitus is timed with the menstrual calendar, basal body temperature thermometer, or LH kit. In addition, the recommendation of a coital frequency of at least a couple of times per week would not only help reduce stress, but also ensure coitus during the period of the menstrual cycle with the greatest chance of resulting in a pregnancy. PMID:8041552

  7. Serum oestradiol levels in male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Hagiuda, J; Ishikawa, H; Marumo, K

    2015-08-01

    A prospective clinical study was performed in the reproduction centre of Ichikawa General Hospital (Chiba, Japan) to investigate the relationship between sperm quality and serum oestradiol (E2) level in male partners of infertile couples. The semen parameters and blood samples were assessed in relation to several variables, including body mass index (BMI) and serum oestradiol (E2) levels. Four hundred and nine male partners of infertile couples aged 22-55 years (mean: 36.5 years) were referred to the reproduction centre. In total, 143 patients (35.0%) were included in the low E2 level group (18 pg ml(-1)  ? E2). Serum E2 levels were slightly correlated with testosterone levels, BMI and serum FSH levels. Total motile sperm count and morphology were decreased in low E2 level group. In multivariate analysis, serum testosterone, E2 levels, existence of varicocele and age were risk factors for decreased semen quality. Serum E2 might be associated with BMI, serum testosterone level and spermatogenesis. PMID:25059733

  8. Traditional Practices of Turkish infertile women: an example from a rural county.

    PubMed

    Nazik, Evsen; Apay, Serap; Özdemir, Funda; Nazik, Hakan

    2015-03-01

    Infertility is not only a health problem, but is also a central existential intrapersonal and relational conflict. Infertility treatments are invasive, expensive, time-consuming, emotionally draining. All over the world there are numerous traditional methods used in the treatment of infertility. This investigation was carried out to determine the traditional practices of infertile women in a rural county in Eastern Turkey. This is a descriptive study carried out in 105 primary infertile women. Data were collected between September 2007 and April 2008 by using a questionnaire. Data analysis included descriptive statistics. 55% of the women were in the 25-34 year age range. It was observed that only 17% of the women applied to a gynecologist without using any traditional applications while 83% of the women applied for traditional applications. The most prevalent traditional practices were consulting traditional healers, visiting mausoleums where religious leaders were buried, using traditional drugs, use of written fertility amulets. Various traditional practices against infertility are prevalent rural counties. Some of these practices may be potentially harmful for women. Health professionals should be aware that infertile women may sometimes follow questionable traditional practices and advices. PMID:26040063

  9. Therapeutic vaccines: hope therapy and its effects on psychiatric symptoms among infertile women.

    PubMed

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Abdolahifard, Khadije; Jahromi, Masoumeh Golestan

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a life crisis which leads to serious psychological problems. The present study aims to investigate the effects of hope therapy as a psychological intervention on psychological distresses among infertile women. The present study was an experimental one. The study population included infertile women referring to gynecology clinics. Women who lived in Jahrom and could take part in psychotherapy sessions, had no chronic physical or mental disorders, suffered from primary infertility, had infertility unknown causes and had no history of miscarriage and stillbirth were selected through convenience sampling method and were divided into control and intervention groups (n=61). Women in the intervention group participated in eight 2-hour sessions for a period of 2 months. Study results revealed that there was a significant difference between the two groups after the intervention. Besides, there was a significant difference between the two groups through paired T-test (p<0.05). Furthermore, results of ANCOVA showed that after eliminating demographic variables, the intervention was effective in the total mean difference of the study groups. It means that the difference between the two groups was resulted from intervention.Hope therapy as a positive psychological approach can improve infertile women's general health and subsequently improve family's health. Therefore, in addition to assisted reproductive techniques, hope therapy is recommended to be presented to infertile people in order to improve the quality of their life and help them adapt with their problems. PMID:24373279

  10. Associations of variants in MTHFR and MTRR genes with male infertility in the Jordanian population.

    PubMed

    Mfady, Doaa S; Sadiq, May F; Khabour, Omar F; Fararjeh, Abdulfattah S; Abu-Awad, Aymen; Khader, Yousef

    2014-02-15

    Folate pathway is expected to play an important role in spermatogenesis since it is involved in DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and MTRR (A66G) polymorphisms. A group of 300 males was recruited in this study from different Jordanian infertility clinics. Of these, 150 cases of infertile men that included oligozoospermia cases (n=45), severe oligozoospermia (n=71) and azoospermia (n=34) were studied. The other 150 males were age matched fertile controls. Genotyping of MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP technique. The results showed an association between MTHFR 677TT genotype and male infertility (P<0.05). However, the distribution of MTHFR A1298C and MTRR A66G genotypes were not different between the fertile and infertile groups (P>0.05). In addition, none of the examined polymorphisms was related to any of the semen parameters in the infertile group. In conclusion, this study showed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with male infertility in Jordanians. PMID:24334125

  11. Comparison of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment strategies in promotion of infertility self-efficacy scale in infertile women: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Hajar; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Esmailzadeh, Seddigheh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Salmalian, Hajar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The infertility is associated with psychological consequence including depression, and lack of self-efficacy. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacological and no pharmacological strategies in promotion of self-efficacy of infertile women. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 89 infertile women who were recruited from Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center and were randomized into three groups; cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), antidepressant therapy with flouxetine 20 mg daily for 3 month, and a control group. All participants completed Infertility Self-efficacy Inventory (ISE) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at the beginning and end of the study. Results: The means ISE scores among the CBT, fluoxetine, and control groups at the beginning and end of the study were 6.1±1.6 vs. 7.2±0.9, 6.4±1.4 vs. 6.9±1.3 and 6.1±1.1 vs. 5.9±1.4 respectively. Both CBT and fluoxetine increased the mean of ISE scores more than control group after intervention (p<0.0001, p=0.033; respectively), but increase in the CBT group was significantly greater than flouxetine group. Finally, there was evidence of high infertility self-efficacy for women exposed to the intervention compared with those in the control group. Also, there was an improvement in depression. Both fluoxetine and CBT decreased significantly the mean of BDI scores more than the control group; decrease in the CBT group was significantly more than that in the fluoxetine group. Conclusion: CBT can serve as an effective psychosocial intervention for promoting self-efficacy of infertile women. Registration ID in IRCT: IRCT2012061710048N1 PMID:24639784

  12. Plundered kitchens and empty wombs: fear of infertility in the Cameroonian grassfields.

    PubMed

    Feldman-Savelsberg, P

    1994-08-01

    In Bangangté, a Bamiléké kingdom in the Grassfields of Cameroon, local understandings of reproductive illness contrast with standard demographic indicators of high fertility in this region. Bangangté are preoccupied with threats to reproductive health. This article explores the culinary metaphors of building kitchens, choosing, measuring, and mixing ingredients, and slow and skillful cooking in Bangangté notions of procreation and infertility. The violent imagery of plundered kitchens, cannibalistic witchcraft, and theft permeates Bangangté women's accounts of infertility and child loss. The analysis suggests that infertility anxiety in Bangangté reflects women's feelings of vulnerability in the context of rural female poverty and the gender-specific consequences of political change in Cameroon. PMID:7973847

  13. Approaches to improve the diagnosis and management of infertility

    PubMed Central

    Devroey, P.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Diedrich, K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent advances in our understanding of the causes of infertility and of assisted reproductive technology (ART) have led to the development of complex diagnostic tools, prognostic models and treatment options. The Third Evian Annual Reproduction (EVAR) Workshop Meeting was held on 26–27 April 2008 to evaluate evidence supporting current approaches to the diagnosis and management of infertility and to identify areas for future research efforts. METHODS Specialist reproductive medicine clinicians and scientists delivered presentations based on published literature and ongoing research on patient work-up, ovarian stimulation and embryo quality assessment during ART. This report is based on the expert presentations and subsequent group discussions and was supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. RESULTS It was agreed that single embryo transfer (SET) should be used with increasing frequency in cycles of ART. Continued improvements in cryopreservation techniques, which improve pregnancy rates using supernumerary frozen embryos, are expected to augment the global uptake of SET. Adaptation and personalization of fertility therapy may help to optimize efficacy and safety outcomes for individual patients. Prognostic modelling and personalized management strategies based on individual patient characteristics may prove to represent real progress towards improved treatment. However, at present, there is limited good-quality evidence to support the use of these individualized approaches. CONCLUSIONS Greater quality control and standardization of clinical and laboratory evaluations are required to optimize ART practices and improve individual patient outcomes. Well-designed, good-quality studies are required to drive improvements to the diagnosis and management of ART processes. PMID:19380415

  14. Novel methods of treating ovarian infertility in older and POF women, testicular infertility, and other human functional diseases.

    PubMed

    Bukovsky, Antonin

    2015-01-01

    In vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies are facing with growing demands of older women to conceive. Although ovarian stem cells (OSCs) of older women are capable of producing in vitro fresh oocyte-like cells (OLCs), such cells cannot respond to IVM and IVF due to the lack of granulosa cells required for their maturation. Follicular renewal is also dependent on support of circulating blood mononuclear cells. They induce intermediary stages of meiosis (metaphase I chromosomal duplication and crossover, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis) in newly emerging ovarian germ cells, as for the first time demonstrated here, induce formation of granulosa cells, and stimulate follicular growth and development. A pretreatment of OSC culture with mononuclear cells collected from blood of a young healthy fertile woman may cause differentiation of bipotential OSCs into both developing germ and granulosa cells. A small blood volume replacement may enable treatment of ovarian infertility in vivo. The transferred mononuclear cells may temporarily rejuvenate virtually all tissues, including improvement of the function of endocrine tissues. Formation of new follicles and their development may be sufficient for IVM and IVF. The novel proposed in vitro approaches may be used as a second possibility. Infertility of human males affects almost a half of the infertility cases worldwide. Small blood volume replacement from young healthy fertile men may also be easy approach for the improvement of sperm quality in older or other affected men. In addition, body rejuvenation by small blood volume replacement from young healthy individuals of the same sex could represent a decline of in vitro methodology in favor of in vivo treatment for human functional diseases. Here we propose for the first time that blood mononuclear cells are essential for rejuvenation of those tissues, where immune system components participate in an appropriate division and differentiation of tissue stem cells. If needed, small blood volume replacement from distinct young healthy individuals could be utilized in six month intervals for repair of young altered or aged reproductive and other tissue functions. Systemic and local use of honey bee propolis tincture is an alternative option for functional rejuvenation of some tissues. PMID:25889983

  15. Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

  16. Infertility, blood mercury concentrations and dietary seafood consumption: a case–control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine M. Y Choy; Christopher W. K Lam; Lorena T. F Cheung; Christine M Briton-Jones; L. P Cheung; Christopher J Haines

    2002-01-01

    ObjectiveTo compare blood mercury concentrations of infertile couples with those of fertile couples in Hong Kong, and to examine the relationship between blood mercury concentrations and seafood consumption.

  17. Is there too much emphasis on psychosocial counseling for infertile patients?

    PubMed

    Boivin, J

    1997-04-01

    Clinical papers strongly recommend psychosocial counseling for patients attending infertility clinics. These recommendations are at odds with studies showing that very few patients actually take-up such services. The disparity between recommendation and actual use would seem to be due to the lack of distinction between the needs of the few highly distressed patients who feel overwhelmed by their infertility and those of the average infertile couple who experience distress but cope well with it. In the former case, psychosocial counseling is likely to be beneficial, while in the latter case informal sources of help, for example, that provided through documentation, are likely to be sufficient. Unfortunately, the emphasis on psychosocial counseling for highly distressed patients in the area of infertility has left the needs of less distressed patients neglected and the potential usefulness of alternative methods of intervening with these patients unexplored. PMID:9130063

  18. The transition from pregnancy to postpartum in previously infertile women: a focus on depression.

    PubMed

    Olshansky, Ellen; Sereika, Susan

    2005-12-01

    Women with previous infertility may be at risk for developing depression during pregnancy (Olshansky, E. (2003). A theoretical explanation for previously infertile mothers' vulnerability to depression. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 35(3), 23-268) and postpartum, a possibility often overlooked in this population. There is a dearth of research about depression in women during the transition from pregnancy to postpartum. This pilot longitudinal, cohort design study examined this transition, focusing on potential predictors of postpartum depression (PPD) in previously infertile women. Two significant variables, marital satisfaction and the "divided self," a condition in which women present an outer compliant self while experiencing internal anger, may be predictors of the development of PPD in new mothers with a history of infertility. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:16308127

  19. [Professor LAI Xinsheng's treatment experience of infertility by Tongyuan needling technique].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuemei; Meng, Zhenzhen; Wang, Ranran

    2015-03-01

    Professor LAI Xinsheng's treatment experience of infertility mainly by Tongyuan needling technique for both females and males is summarized. Tongyuan needling technique is a treatment method of leading qi to its primordial location mainly through viscera back-shu points that can dredge the governor vessel and tonify the spirit and conception vessel points in abdomen and abdominal front-mu points, and according to state of illness acupoints for opening the 4 gates or five shu points are combined; reinforcing and reducing manipulations of acupuncture are applied for reference. With the method of listing cases, professor LAI Xinsheng's Tongyuan needling technique is detailedly introduced in different aspects, such as the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome infertility and male infertility and improving the success rate of test-tube baby, and the manipulation of Tongyuan needling technique is summarized, indicating that Tongyuan needling technique is worth vigorously prompting in clinical treatment of infertility. PMID:26062206

  20. Polymorphic variants in the dopamine receptor D2 in women with endometriosis-related infertility.

    PubMed

    Szczepa?ska, Malgorzata; Mostowska, Adrianna; Wirstlein, Przemyslaw; Skrzypczak, Jana; Misztal, Matthew; Jagodzi?ski, Pawe? P

    2015-08-01

    Data suggests that dopamine receptor DRD2 gene variants may contribute to hyperprolactinemia and that they may be risk factors for endometriosis?related infertility. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether nucleotide variants of the DRD2 gene may be associated with infertility related to endometriosis. Five DRD2 SNPs, rs1800497, rs6277, rs2283265, rs4245146 and rs4648317, which are located in different blocks of linkage disequilibrium, were studied in 151 cases and 381 controls. No significant differences between DRD2 rs1800497, rs6277, rs2283265, rs4245146 and rs4648317 genotype, allele nor haplotype frequencies were observed in women with endometriosis?related infertility compared with the control group. The present results did not confirm DRD2 gene variants to be genetic risk factors for endometriosis-related infertility. PMID:25955176

  1. A maternally inherited autosomal point mutation in human phospholipase C zeta (PLC?) leads to male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kashir, Junaid; Konstantinidis, Michalis; Jones, Celine; Lemmon, Bernadette; Chang Lee, Hoi; Hamer, Rebecca; Heindryckx, Bjorn; Deane, Charlotte M.; De Sutter, Petra; Fissore, Rafael A.; Parrington, John; Wells, Dagan; Coward, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Male factor and idiopathic infertility contribute significantly to global infertility, with abnormal testicular gene expression considered to be a major cause. Certain types of male infertility are caused by failure of the sperm to activate the oocyte, a process normally regulated by calcium oscillations, thought to be induced by a sperm-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta (PLC?). Previously, we identified a point mutation in an infertile male resulting in the substitution of histidine for proline at position 398 of the protein sequence (PLC?H398P), leading to abnormal PLC? function and infertility. METHODS AND RESULTS Here, using a combination of direct-sequencing and mini-sequencing of the PLC? gene from the patient and his family, we report the identification of a second PLC? mutation in the same patient resulting in a histidine to leucine substitution at position 233 (PLC?H233L), which is predicted to disrupt local protein interactions in a manner similar to PLC?H398P and was shown to exhibit abnormal calcium oscillatory ability following predictive 3D modelling and cRNA injection in mouse oocytes respectively. We show that PLC?H233L and PLC?H398P exist on distinct parental chromosomes, the former inherited from the patient's mother and the latter from his father. Neither mutation was detected utilizing custom-made single-nucleotide polymorphism assays in 100 fertile males and females, or 8 infertile males with characterized oocyte activation deficiency. CONCLUSIONS Collectively, our findings provide further evidence regarding the importance of PLC? at oocyte activation and forms of male infertility where this is deficient. Additionally, we show that the inheritance patterns underlying male infertility are more complex than previously thought and may involve maternal mechanisms. PMID:22095789

  2. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of small supernumerary marker chromosomes in human infertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Guediche; L. Tosca; A. Kara Terki; C. Bas; L. Lecerf; J. Young; A. Briand-Suleau; B. Tou; J. Bouligand; S. Brisset; M. Misrahi; A. Guiochon-Mantel; M. Goossens; G. Tachdjian

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are structurally abnormal chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by conventional banding cytogenetics. This study describes four patients with sSMC in relation with infertility. Patient 1 had primary infertility. His brother, fertile, carried the same sSMC (patient 2). Patient 3 presented polycystic ovary syndrome and patient 4 primary ovarian insufficiency. Cytogenetic studies, array comparative genomic

  3. Health disparities and infertility: impacts of state-level insurance mandates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne Bitler; Lucie Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    Infertility is more common for non-Hispanic black women, non-Hispanic other race women, and Hispanic women than for non-Hispanic white women, and both infertility and impaired fecundity are more common for high school dropouts and high school graduates with no college than for 4-year college graduates, and for older women compared with women 29 and younger. Older women, non-Hispanic white women,

  4. Perceptions of Infertility Risks Among Female Pediatric Cancer Survivors Following Gonadotoxic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gilleland Marchak, Jordan; Elchuri, Swati V; Vangile, Kristen; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Mertens, Ann C; Meacham, Lillian R

    2015-07-01

    Research has established that childhood cancer treatments can place survivors at risk for reproductive health problems, yet little is known about pediatric survivors' perceptions of their risk for infertility and worry about future family planning. The purpose of this study was to explore factors that affect awareness of risk for and worry about infertility among female pediatric cancer survivors aged 10 to 21 (N=48) and their parents (N=41) following exposure to treatments associated with reproductive late effects. The majority of female childhood cancer survivors (71%) and their parents (95%) reported worry about infertility following gonadotoxic therapy. Cross-sectional data indicated that survivors' awareness of risk for and worry about infertility increase during adolescence, whereas parents' awareness of risk and worry generally remain constant throughout their daughters' development. Survivor worry about infertility was predicted by a variety of factors, yet parent worry about infertility was only associated with increased gonadotoxic radiation exposure. Overall, these findings reinforce the necessity of developmentally appropriate education about reproductive health risks and fertility preservation options across the continuum of pediatric oncology care from diagnosis to survivorship. PMID:25985237

  5. AUTOANTIGENS IN OVARIAN AUTOIMMUNITY ASSOCIATED WITH UNEXPLAINED INFERTILITY AND PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE

    PubMed Central

    Edassery, Seby L.; Shatavi, Seerin V.; Kunkel, Jeremy P.; Hauer, Charles; Brucker, Cosima; Penumatsa, Krishna; Yu, Yi; Dias, James A.; Luborsky, Judith L.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective To identify ovarian autoantigens associated with ovarian autoantibodies. Design Hypothesis generating prospective study. Setting Urban infertility referral centers and academic research institution. Patients 74 patients with infertility, 19 patients with premature ovarian failure, 16 healthy control women. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Identification of autoantigens. Results In order to identify major antigens for ovarian autoimmunity, 74 sera from women with unexplained infertility were screened for ovarian autoantibodies (AOA) by immunoassay and one-dimensional Western blot. The majority of sera had immuno-reactions at 50-56kDa. Six representative positive infertility sera were used to identify antigens between 40-60kD by two-dimensional Western blot and mass spectrometry. Antigens included aldehyde (retinal) dehydrogenases (ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH7A1), protein disulfide-isomerase A3 (PDIA3), vimentin (VIME), ?-enolase (ENO1), phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and selenium binding protein 1 (SBP1). 60% (n=24/40) of infertility and POF sera were positive for recombinant ALDH1A1, SBP1 or enolase. 80.7% (n=21/26) of AOA positive sera had antibodies to one or more of the three antigens, while only 7% (n=1/14) of AOA negative sera had antibodies to recombinant proteins. Conclusion ALDH1A1 and SBP1 are unique to ovarian autoimmunity associated with infertility and POF, and may provide the basis for specific tests to identify patients with ovarian autoimmunity. PMID:20522323

  6. Smallpox vaccination is not associated with infertility in a healthy young adult population.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Isabel G; Gumbs, Gia R; Sevick, Carter J; Smith, Tyler C; Ryan, Margaret A K

    2008-01-01

    Concerns exist regarding reproductive health, including potential infertility, among young adults with military-related occupational exposures. This study evaluated infertility diagnoses in a large population of healthy young adults in relation to prior smallpox vaccination. Using a retrospective cohort design, the population consisted of United States military members eligible for smallpox vaccination in 2003-2004 who had electronic health care utilization records available through at least December 2005. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to evaluate infertility among male and female populations separately. Among 253,973 men and 44,332 women included in these analyses, the adjusted odds of infertility diagnoses in those with prior smallpox vaccination were 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-1.06] and 1.10 (95% CI, 0.94-1.28), respectively. Therefore, no association was found between smallpox vaccination and subsequent infertility diagnoses in either men or women. This study represents the first large epidemiologic investigation of infertility after the smallpox vaccine. PMID:18382140

  7. Comparison of Sperm Parameters in Patients with Infertility Induced by Genital Infection versus Varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Pajovic, Bogdan; Dimitrovski, Antonio; Radojevic, Nemanja; Vukovic, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Male infertility is a common and complex problem and, despite much research in this field, the major cause of infertility unfortunately remains unknown. Genital infection and varicocele are important causes of infertility. Aims: To compare the influence of genital infection and varicocele individually on male infertility based on semen analysis. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The study included 120 infertile patients divided into two groups according to the presence of genital infection or varicocele. The first group included 60 examinees with proven genital infection, but without varicocele formation. The second included 60 patients with varicocele, regardless of the varicocele grade, but without genital infection. The fertile parameters were compared and an assessment was performed on the impact on quality of spermatogenesis due to infection and varicocele. Results: There is a statistically significant difference regarding abnormal forms of spermatozoids (45.94±9.79 vs. 25.27±6.54) and progressive motility (8.15±1.24 vs. 24.95±7.2), between two groups of patients. However, acidity of ejaculates, minimum sperm concentration, total spermatozoid motility and ejaculate volume showed no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The study showed a stronger negative influence of genital infection on fertile parameters over varicocele. The significance of our study is the lack of contemporary researches comparing varicocele and genital infection influence on male infertility individually. PMID:26185712

  8. The psychosocial impact of infertility two years after completed surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Lalos, A; Lalos, O; Jacobsson, L; von Schoultz, B

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four infertile couples were interviewed prior to and 2 years after the woman's reconstructive tubal operation. Their marital relationship, social and sexual life, mental health, possible solutions to the infertility problem and need of professional psychosocial counselling were studied. Moreover, various mental symptoms were recorded by means of a 'symptom checklist'. The personality characteristics were evaluated by the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). The partners feelings for each other were worsening 2 years after the operation. There was also a tendency to a deterioration in the participants' opinion about their marital relationship, but no statistically significant change could be found. The women reported deterioration of sexual life and the men experienced an increased negative influence of the infertility problem on the marital relationship. The negative emotional and social effects of infertility were pronounced both before and 2 years after the surgical treatment. The participants' personality characteristics as regards neuroticism and extroversion had not changed. Most of the infertile couples found it difficult to work on their own towards a solution to the crisis of infertility during the 2 years following the surgical treatment. PMID:4082934

  9. Sexual satisfaction of infertile couples assessed using the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS).

    PubMed

    Shoji, Mayumi; Hamatani, Toshio; Ishikawa, Shoko; Kuji, Naoaki; Ohta, Hiroaki; Matsui, Hideo; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Recently, infertility treatment-related psychological effects are receiving increased attention. However, whether sexual satisfaction is reduced amongst infertile couples remains to be elucidated. In this study, sexual satisfaction of Japanese infertile couples was assessed using a validated questionnaire designed to assess the male and female partner individually, and the couple as a whole for the first time. This study randomly included 170 infertile couples seen at the outpatient clinic and 170 couples that had recently achieved spontaneous pregnancy. All couples were given the Japanese version of the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS). In couples aged 35 years or older, the male partners showed significantly worse sexual satisfaction scores than the female partners. Sexual satisfaction also deteriorated with therapeutic interventions, with mental factors affected more than physical factors. Therapeutic interventions such as timed sexual intercourse and assisted reproductive technology were considered emotionally stressful for infertile couples, with sexual satisfaction accordingly lower in this group than in couples achieving spontaneous pregnancy. GRISS successfully evaluated lower sexual satisfaction associated with infertility, and hence is a useful tool for identifying couples whose sexual satisfaction could be enhanced by counselling or other stress-reduction modalities. PMID:24902628

  10. X chromosome aneuploidy in infertile women: Analysis by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.A.; Moix, I.; Mermillod, B. [Univ. and Cantonal Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Up to 1 in 3 couples have a problem of infertility at some time in their lives. Sex chromosome anomalies are found in 5-10% of couples, with mosaic aneuploidy being a common finding in primary infertility. Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), in contrast, is frequently associated with autosomal structural anomalies. We hypothesized that low-level mosaic X chromosome aneuploidy was associated with primary infertility but not with RSA. Three groups were studied: women from couples with primary infertillity (n=26); women with three or more spontaneous abortions (n=22); and age-matched normally fertile women (at least two pregnancies; n=28). Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine X chromosome ploidy in 100 nuclei per patient, using a contig of three cosmids from MAO locus (kindly donated by W. Berger, Nijmegen). A control probe (chr. 15 centromere) was simultaneously hybridized, and only nuclei containing two control signals were scored for the X chromosome. The mean numbers of nuclei with two X chromosome signals were the same in all groups (Welch equality of means test: p>0.97). However, there is a significant difference between the variances of the primary infertile and RSA groups (Levene`s test: p=0.025 after Bonferrone correction for multiple testing). This provides preliminary support for the hypothesis of an association between primary infertility and low-level mosaic X chromosome aneuploidy.

  11. [Validation of the Questionnaire of Emotional Maladjustment and Adaptive Resources in Infertility (DERA)].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rosset, Carmen; Antequera Jurado, Rosario; Jenaro Río, Cristina

    2009-02-01

    Validation of the Questionnaire of Emotional Maladjustment and Adaptive Resources in Infertility (DERA). Given the absence of measures to help psychologists working with infertile couples, this paper presents the process of developing a standardized measure to assess emotional maladjustment and adaptive resources in this population. A cross-sectional design was utilized to gather data from the assisted reproduction units of two public hospitals. Preliminary analyses were performed with a sample of 85 infertile patients. Psychometric properties of the measure were tested with a second sample of 490 infertile patients. Concerning reliability analyses, alpha indexes were adequate both for the measure and its factors. Concerning validity, second-order factor analysis yielded a four-factor solution that conjointly explains 56% of the total variance. Additional analyses with a third sample of 50 participants from the general population matched with a sample of 50 infertile participants were performed. In sum, this measure seems to be a useful psychological assessment tool to determine emotional adjustment, and individual, and interpersonal resources, for coping with infertility diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19178866

  12. Social support, marital adjustment, and psychological distress among women with primary infertility in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Medhin, Girmay

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify prevalence rates of psychological distress among Pakistani women seeking help for primary infertility. The associations of social support, marital adjustment, and sociodemographic factors with psychological distress were also examined. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were interviewed from one hospital in Islamabad using a Self-Reporting Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. The prevalence of psychological distress was 37.3 percent. The results of the logistic regression suggested that marital adjustment and social support were significantly negatively associated with psychological distress in this sample. These associations were not confounded by any of the demographic variables controlled in the multivariable regression models. The role of perceived social support and adjustment in marriage among women experiencing primary infertility are important factors in understanding their psychological distress. The results of this small-scale effort highlight the need for social and familial awareness to help tackle the psychological distress related to infertility. Future research needs to focus on the way the experience of infertility is conditioned by social structural realities. New ways need to be developed to better take into account the process and nature of the infertility experience. PMID:25837531

  13. Sexuality, Self-Esteem and Partnership Quality in Infertile Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Wischmann, T.; Schilling, K.; Toth, B.; Rösner, S.; Strowitzki, T.; Wohlfarth, K.; Kentenich, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Infertile couples often report quality-of-life impairments, especially in terms of sexuality, self-esteem and partnership quality. So far, there have been no systematic studies of the sex lives and behaviour of infertile women and men before and after the emergence of their mutual desire for a child. Materials and Methods: From February 2010 to August 2010 all couples starting treatment either at Heidelberg University?s Women?s Hospital or at the Fertility Center Berlin were asked to fill out the Self-Esteem and Relationship Questionnaire (SEAR). A total of n?=?158 women and n?=?153 men participated in the study. Results: Decreasing tendencies were observable for both partners in the domains Sexual Relationship Satisfaction and Confidence and in the subscales Self-Esteem and Overall Relationship Satisfaction. There were especially clear indications of a loss of spontaneous sexuality during the experience of infertility. We were also able to establish that infertility has a negative impact on women?s self-esteem. Discussion: The results of this study indicate that SEAR can be used as a feasible instrument for identifying infertile women and men whose infertility has a negative effect on their relationship quality and/or sex lives. PMID:25221344

  14. Infertility in reproductive-age female cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jennifer M; Kelvin, Joanne Frankel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-05-15

    Improved survival rates among reproductive-age females diagnosed with cancer have increased the focus on long-term quality of life, including maintenance of the ability to conceive biological children. Cancer-directed therapies such as high-dose alkylating agents and radiation to the pelvis, which deplete ovarian reserve, radiation to the brain, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and surgical resection of reproductive structures can decrease the likelihood of having biological children. Standard fertility preservation strategies such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation before the onset of therapy offer the opportunity to conserve fertility, but they may not be feasible because of the urgency to start cancer therapy, financial limitations, and a lack of access to reproductive endocrinologists. Ovarian tissue freezing is considered experimental, with limited data related to pregnancies, but it minimizes treatment delay. Studies evaluating gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues have had mixed results, although a recent randomized, prospective study in women with breast cancer demonstrated a protective effect. Fertility preservation programs are increasingly being developed within cancer programs. In this article, we describe risks to infertility and options for preservation, raise psychosocial and ethical issues, and propose elements for establishing an effective fertility preservation program. PMID:25649243

  15. Human sperm chromatin epigenetic potential: genomics, proteomics, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballescá, Josep Lluis; Oliva, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The classical idea about the function of the mammalian sperm chromatin is that it serves to transmit a highly protected and transcriptionally inactive paternal genome, largely condensed by protamines, to the next generation. In addition, recent sperm chromatin genome-wide dissection studies indicate the presence of a differential distribution of the genes and repetitive sequences in the protamine-condensed and histone-condensed sperm chromatin domains, which could be potentially involved in regulatory roles after fertilization. Interestingly, recent proteomic studies have shown that sperm chromatin contains many additional proteins, in addition to the abundant histones and protamines, with specific modifications and chromatin affinity features which are also delivered to the oocyte. Both gene and protein signatures seem to be altered in infertile patients and, as such, are consistent with the potential involvement of the sperm chromatin landscape in early embryo development. This present work reviews the available information on the composition of the human sperm chromatin and its epigenetic potential, with a particular focus on recent results derived from high-throughput genomic and proteomic studies. As a complement, we provide experimental evidence for the detection of phosphorylations and acetylations in human protamine 1 using a mass spectrometry approach. The available data indicate that the sperm chromatin is much more complex than what it was previously thought, raising the possibility that it could also serve to transmit crucial paternal epigenetic information to the embryo. PMID:25926607

  16. Clinical management of infertile men with nonobstructive azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sandro C

    2015-01-01

    The clinical management of men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) seeking fertility has been a challenge for andrologists, urologists, and reproductive medicine specialists alike. This review presents a personal perspective on the clinical management of NOA, including the lessons learned over 15 years dealing with this male infertility condition. A five-consecutive-step algorithm is proposed to manage such patients. First, a differential diagnosis of azoospermia is made to confirm/establish that NOA is due to spermatogenic failure. Second, genetic testing is carried out not only to detect the males in whom NOA is caused by microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome, but also to counsel the affected patients about their chances of having success in sperm retrieval. Third, it is determined whether any intervention prior to a surgical retrieval attempt may be used to increase sperm production. Fourth, the most effective and efficient retrieval method is selected to search for testicular sperm. Lastly, state-of-art laboratory techniques are applied in the handling of retrieved gametes and cultivating the embryos resulting from sperm injections. A coordinated multidisciplinary effort is key to offer the best possible chance of achieving a biological offspring to males with NOA. PMID:25677138

  17. Sperm counts and sperm sex ratio in male infertility patients.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Murthy, Lata; Hwang, Kathleen; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, investigators have noted a trend toward a declining proportion of male births in many industrialized nations. While men bear the sex-determining chromosome, the role of the female partner as it pertains to fertilization or miscarriage may also alter the gender ratio. We attempted to determine a man's secondary sex ratio (F1 generation) by directly examining the sex chromosomes of his sperm. We examined our male infertility clinic database for all men who had undergone a semen fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Patient demographic and semen parameters were recorded. Chi-squared analysis was used to compare gender ratios (Y chromosomes/total chromosomes). Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the odds of possessing a Y-bearing sperm after accounting for demographic and semen parameters. A total of 185 men underwent sperm FISH. For the entire cohort, the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm was 51.5%. Men with less than five million motile sperm had a significantly lower proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm (50.8%) compared to men with higher sperm counts (51.6%; P=0.02). After multivariable adjustment, a higher sperm concentration, total motile sperm count and semen volume significantly increased the odds of having a Y chromosome-bearing sperm (P<0.01). As a man's sperm production declines, so does the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm. Thus, a man's reproductive potential may predict his ability to sire male offspring. PMID:22842703

  18. Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fode, Mikkel; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Brackett, Nancy L; Ohl, Dana A; Lynne, Charles M; Sřnksen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms. Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic and retroperitoneal surgery, diabetes, congenital spinal abnormalities, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Erectile dysfunction can be managed by an increasingly invasive range of treatments including medications, injection therapy and the surgical insertion of a penile implant. Retrograde ejaculation is managed by medications to reverse the condition in mild cases and in bladder harvest of semen after ejaculation in more severe cases. Anejaculation might also be managed by medication in mild cases while assisted ejaculatory techniques including penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation are used in more severe cases. If these measures fail, surgical sperm retrieval can be attempted. Ejaculation with penile vibratory stimulation can be done by some spinal cord injured men and their partners at home, followed by in-home insemination if circumstances and sperm quality are adequate. The other options always require assisted reproductive techniques including intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The method of choice depends largely on the number of motile sperm in the ejaculate. PMID:22138899

  19. SEPT12 mutations cause male infertility with defective sperm annulus.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yung-Che; Lin, Ying-Hung; Chen, Hau-Inh; Wang, Ya-Yun; Chiou, Yu-Wei; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Pan, Hsien-An; Wu, Ching-Ming; Su, Shih-Ming; Hsu, Chao-Chin; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2012-04-01

    Septins are members of the GTPase superfamily, which has been implicated in diverse cellular functions including cytokinesis and morphogenesis. Septin 12 (SEPT12) is a testis-specific gene critical for the terminal differentiation of male germ cells. We report the identification of two missense SEPT12 mutations, c.266C>T/p.Thr89Met and c.589G>A/p.Asp197Asn, in infertile men. Both mutations are located inside the GTPase domain and may alter the protein structure as suggested by in silico modeling. The p.Thr89Met mutation significantly reduced guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) hydrolytic activity, and the p.Asp197Asn mutation (SEPT12(D197N)) interfered with GTP binding. Both mutant SEPT12 proteins restricted the filament formation of the wild-type SEPT12 in a dose-dependent manner. The patient carrying SEPT12(D197N) presented with oligoasthenozoospermia, whereas the SEPT12(T89M) patient had asthenoteratozoospermia. The characteristic sperm pathology of the SEPT12(D197N) patient included defective annulus with bent tail and loss of SEPT12 from the annulus of abnormal sperm. Our finding suggests loss-of-function mutations in SEPT12 disrupted sperm structural integrity by perturbing septin filament formation. PMID:22275165

  20. Alternative and antioxidant therapies used by a sample of infertile males in Jordan: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used in the Middle East, especially to treat chronic diseases such as infertility. We aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics, and determinants of CAM use, particularly herbs and antioxidant therapies, among infertile males presenting for infertility evaluation in Jordan. Methods Demographic information, use of alternative and antioxidant therapies for infertility treatment, and patients’ belief in efficacy and safety of the therapies used were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. Data were collected from 428 infertile male patients presenting at infertility clinics in Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between April 2013 and September 2013. Results Of the 428 men who completed the questionnaire, 184 (43%) used at least one of the alternative and antioxidant therapies specified in the questionnaire. Nutritional regime; vitamins, such as vitamins C and E; and medicinal herbs, such as ginger, saw palmetto, and ginseng were the most commonly used therapies reported. A correlation between the use of alternative and antioxidant therapies versus infertility duration was found. Additionally, the majority of males using CAM did not inform their health care providers about their usage. Conclusions The high prevalence of CAM use among infertile male patients underscores the urge to assimilate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as to improve infertile patients’ knowledge of the safe use of CAM modalities. PMID:25026980

  1. History of infertility and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Deirdre K.; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Hu, Frank B.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Zhang, Cuilin; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We sought to evaluate the relationship between delayed conception and type 2 diabetes risk, given that there are plausible underlying mechanisms linking the two, including inflammation and insulin resistance. Methods Participants of the Nurses’ Health Study II prospective cohort were included if they were free of chronic disease (cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer) at baseline. Biennial questionnaires updated information on infertility status (>12 months attempted pregnancy), lifestyle characteristics and several health-related outcomes. Self-reported cases of diabetes were confirmed using a follow-up questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute the HRs and 95% CIs). Results Incident type 2 diabetes occurred in 5,993 of the 112,106 participants over 24 years of follow-up (1989–2013). A history of infertility was reported in 27,774 (24.8%) women and was associated with a 20% greater risk of developing diabetes, compared with those never reporting infertility (HR 1.20 [95% CI 1.14, 1.28]), after adjusting for age, lifestyle factors, marital status, oral contraceptive use, family history of diabetes and BMI. Compared with women without a history of infertility, the causes of infertility associated with a higher diabetes risk were ovulation disorders (HR 1.43 [95% CI 1.29, 1.58]) and tubal factor (HR 1.34 [95% CI 1.13, 1.58]). Cervical factor (HR 1.06 [95% CI 0.81, 1.40]) and endometriosis (HR 1.06 [95% CI 0.89, 1.27]) were not associated, while male factor infertility was associated with a modestly higher diabetes risk (HR 1.15 [95% CI 1.00, 1.33]). Conclusions/interpretation These novel findings suggest a history of infertility, particularly that related to ovulation disorders and tubal blockage, is significantly associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25796371

  2. Development of a scale for determining violence against infertile women: a scale development study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To develop a scale to evaluate violence experienced among infertile women. Method Three steps were followed in the development of the scale: Literature review and deep interviews to generate item pool, content validity testing, and administration of draft. Content validity was evaluated by experts. The draft scale was pilot-tested with a convenience sample of 30 women during their treatment. After the pilot-test, 166 infertile females filled the scale in the infertility clinic of a university hospital in Istanbul. Results For evaluation of construct validity, Kaiser-Mayer Olkin was 0.91. Bartlett test was statistically significant (p?=?0.00). According to the results of analysis, 5 domains were determined: “domestic violence”, “social pressure”, “punishment”, “exposure to traditional practices” and “exclusion”. The values of correlation of item were between 0.50 and 0.82. Item-total and subscale-total correlation varied between 0.57-0.91. The scale had good internal reliability, with Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient of 0.96. The other coefficients of subscales varied between 0.80-0.94. Conclusions The scale called “Infertile Women’s Exposure to Violence Determination Scale” indicates high reliability, good content and construct validity. Routine screening for domestic violence in infertility clinics is necessary to give affected women an opportunity to access appropriate health care and support services. On the other hand, common use of Infertile Women’s Exposure to Violence Determination Scale in infertility clinics provides increased sensitivity and awareness by caregivers. PMID:24576353

  3. The Effect of The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy on Infertility Stress: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Pasha, Hajar; Esmailzadeh, Seddigheh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Heidary, Shima; Afshar, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infertility has been described as creating a form of stress leading to a variety of psychological problems. Both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are effective treatments for infertility stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy along with fluoxetine for improvement infertility stress in infertile women. Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 89 infertile women with mild to moderate depression (Beck scores 10-47) were recruited into the following three groups: i. cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), ii. antidepressant therapy, and iii. control group. Twenty-nine participants in the CBT method received gradual relaxation training, restructuring, and eliminating of negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes to infertility for 10 sessions. Thirty participants in the pharmacotherapy group took 20 mg fluoxetine daily for 90 days. Thirty individuals in control group did not receive any intervention. All participants completed fertility problem inventory (FPI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at the beginning and end of the study. We applied Chi-square paired t test, ANOVA and Turkey’s test to analyze the data. Results: The mean of the infertility stress scores in CBT, fluoxetine, and control groups at the beginning and end of the study were as follows, respectively: 3.5 ± 0.62 vs.2.7 ± 0.62 (p<0.05), 3.5 ± 0.53 vs.3.2 ± 4.4 (p<0.05), and 3.4 ± 0.55 vs. 3.5 ± 0.48. In CBT group, the mean scores of social concern, sexual concern, marital concern, rejection of child-free lifestyle, and need for parenthood decreased meaningfully compared to those before starting the therapy. But in fluoxetine group, mean score of women sexual concern out of those five main problems of infertility reduced significantly. Also, fluoxetine and CBT reduced depression compared to the control group. Conclusion: CBT improved the social concerns, sexual concerns, marital concerns, rejection of child-free lifestyle, and need for parenthood more than floxitine group. Thus, CBT was not only a reliable alternative to pharmacotherapy, but also superior to fluoxetine in resolving and reducing of infertility stress (Registration Number: IRCT2012061710048N1). PMID:24520487

  4. Significant Impact of the MTHFR Polymorphisms and Haplotypes on Male Infertility Risk

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishi; Sarkar, Saumya; David, Archana; Gangwar, Pravin Kumar; Gupta, Richa; Khanna, Gita; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Khanna, Anil; Rajender, Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) converts 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate to 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate and affects the activity of cellular cycles participating in nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair, genome stability, maintenance of methyl pool, and gene regulation. Genetically compromised MTHFR activity has been suggested to affect male fertility. The objective of the present study was to find the impact on infertility risk of c.203G>A, c.1298A>C, and c.1793G>A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene. Methods PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing were used to genotype the common SNPs in the MTHFR gene in 630 infertile and 250 fertile males. Chi-square test was applied for statistical comparison of genotype data. Linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs and the frequency of common haplotypes were assessed using Haploview software. Biochemical levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) and folic acid were measured. Meta-analysis on c.1298A>C polymorphism was performed using data from ten studies, comprising 2734 cases and 2737 controls. Results c.203G>A and c.1298A>C were found to be unrelated to infertility risk. c.1793G>A was protective against infertility (P?=?0.0008). c.677C>T and c.1793G>A were in significant LD (D’?=?0.9). Folic acid and tHcy level did not correlate with male infertility. Pooled estimate on c.1298A>C data from all published studies including our data showed no association of this polymorphism with male infertility (Odds ratio?=?1.035, P?=?0.56), azoospermia (Odds ratio?=?0.97, P?=?0.74), or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (Odds ratio?=?0.92, p?=?0.29). Eight haplotypes with more than 1% frequency were detected, of which CCGA was protective against infertility (p?=?0.02), but the significance of the latter was not seen after applying Bonferroni correction. Conclusion Among MTHFR polymorphisms, c.203G>A and c.1298A>C do not affect infertility risk and c.1793G>A is protective against infertility. Haplotype analysis suggested that risk factors on the MTHFR locus do not extend too long on the DNA string. PMID:23874907

  5. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Mycoplasma Hominis in Infertile Female and Male Reproductive System

    PubMed Central

    Jamalizadeh Bahaabadi, Samaneh; Mohseni Moghadam, Naeime; Kheirkhah, Babak; Farsinejad, Alireza; Habibzadeh, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infection of urogenital system with Mycoplasma potentially affect reproductive system and increases infants mortalities. Therefore, detection of these organisms is an important issue that should be considered and appropriate diagnostic methods should be used to identify these microorganisms. In the female reproductive system, infection can affect different parts of the cervix, endometrium, and fallopian tube. The extent of this infection in different diseases and its pathogenesis might be related to anatomic site of involvement. Some infections can lead to infertility in both males and females. Genital infection with Mycoplasmas have devastating effects on reproductive organs and cause fertility disorders and mortality in infants. In recent years, many studies have been conducted to isolate these pathogens; however, the isolates have not been identified so far. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the molecular identity of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from infertile female and male reproductive system in the Infertility Center of Kerman. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed purposefully on 100 infertile females and 100 infertile males who were referred to the Infertility Center of Kerman during a six-month period. The collected samples of semen and vaginal swabs were examined for the presence of M. hominis by PCR. The samples with positive results in PCR were selected for molecular identification. Alignment of samples sequence was performed using MEGA 5 software through Neighbor-joining method. Results: Among 100 samples from infertile males, the presence of genus Mycoplasma was confirmed in 45 cases of which 15 cases were infected with M. hominis. Among 100 samples from infertile female, the presence of genus Mycoplasma was confirmed in 43 cases of which 18 case were infected with M. hominis. The positive samples were sequenced and the phylogenetic tree was plotted. Conclusions: The results showed that 37.5% of infertile males and females were infected with M. hominis. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the study isolates indicates a particular variety among these isolates. In comparing the isolates in the study, a very little genotypic similarity was found among some of them. PMID:25738116

  6. Seminal plasma oxytocin and oxidative stress levels in infertile men with varicocele.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, T; Rashed, L A; Osman, I; Marawan, M

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess seminal plasma oxytocin (OT) and oxidative stress (OS) levels in infertile men with varicocele (Vx). A total of 131 men were divided into fertile men (n = 20), fertile men with Vx (n = 17), infertile men without Vx (n = 40) and infertile men with Vx (n = 54). OT, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated in seminal plasma. Mean levels of seminal OT, MDA were significantly decreased, and the mean level of GPx was significantly increased in fertile men with/without Vx compared with infertile men with/without Vx. Mean levels of OT, MDA were increased, and mean level of GPx was significantly decreased in Vx grade III cases compared with Vx grades I, II cases and in bilateral Vx cases compared with unilateral Vx. There was significant negative correlation between seminal OT with sperm count, sperm motility, seminal GPx and significant positive correlation with sperm abnormal forms, seminal MDA. It is concluded that seminal OT is significantly decreased in fertile men with/without Vx compared with infertile men with/without Vx. Seminal OT demonstrated significant negative correlation with sperm count, sperm motility, seminal GPx and significant positive correlation with sperm abnormal forms, seminal MDA. Seminal OT is associated with Vx grade and its bilaterality. PMID:24635706

  7. The epidemiology of infertility: a review with particular reference to sub-Saharan Africa*

    PubMed Central

    Belsey, Mark A.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of infertility, with particular reference to Africa south of the Sahara, is reviewed. In many areas, up to 40% of women are reported to have completed their reproductive years without bearing a child. The condition is widely distributed, but also often localized in pockets corresponding to geographical or tribal units. Most available demographic data provide estimates of childlessness but it is not sufficient to define the problem in terms of primary and secondary infertility, pregnancy wastage, and infant and child mortality. The major underlying cause for the high levels of infertility appears to be the sequelae of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in both men and women, manifested as obstructive azoospermia and tubal occlusion. Other infections, such as those that may follow abortion or delivery, or systemic infections, may be important in some areas. The available data suggest that different patterns of infertility and pregnancy wastage, and different etiological agents and processes, contribute to the problem of infertility in the different areas. The need for a systematic, standardized research approach in several areas is clearly indicated. PMID:798639

  8. Association of infertile patients having polycystic ovarian syndrome with recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Banu, J; Fatima, P; Sultana, P; Chowdhury, M A; Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Ishrat, S; Deeba, F; Begum, S A

    2014-10-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has a pivotal role in the development of various complications during pregnancy. Polycystic ovarian syndrome women having elevated LH and hyper insulineuia may be at increased risk of miscarriage. The study was done to find out the recurrent pregnancy loss among the PCOS patient. This was a cross sectional case control study in total 100 infertile patients between age 20-40 years attending BSMMU out patient Department from July 2011 to June 2012, among them 50 infertile patients with PCOS regarding as a case and 50 infertile patients without PCOS selected as a control. Regarding case (infertile patients with PCOS) shows 20(40%) recurrent miscarriage and among control (infertile patients without PCOS) shows recurrent miscarriage 6(12%). And also among case group shows insulin resistance 8(16%) and control group insulin resistance 1(2%). Six (75%) abortion occur among PCOS with insulin resistance and 5(62.5%) abortion occur among PCOS with raised testosterone level. It is observed that recurrent miscarriage is higher in PCOS group. And also concluded that insulin resistance and raised testosterone level is responsible for this condition. So, further large scale study would be needed to reduce the chance of recurrent pregnancy loss by treatment with insulin sensitizer in case of obese PCOS with insulin resistance patient. PMID:25481599

  9. FSHR Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Frequencies in Proven Fathers and Infertile Men in Southeast Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Balkan, Mahmut; Gedik, Abdullah; Akkoc, Hasan; Izci Ay, Ozlem; Erdal, M. Emin; Isi, Hilmi; Budak, Turgay

    2010-01-01

    The influence of FSH receptor (FSHR) variants on male infertility is not completely understood. The present investigation is the first screening study for SNP at nucleotide position ?29 in the core promoter region and codon 680 in exon 10 of the FSHR and the effect of the serum levels of FSH on male infertility in Southeast Turkey. The SNPs in codon 680 and at position ?29 of the FSHR gene were analyzed by PCR-RFLP technique in 240 men with proven fathers, and 270 infertile men (150 nonobstructive azoospermic and 120 severe oligozoospermic). The separate analysis for SNP at nucleotide position ?29 did not show any difference in genotypic frequencies and serum FSH levels. The genotype distribution of SNP at position 680 was different but does not influence serum FSH levels. Together the two SNPs form four discrete haplotypes (A-Thr-Asn, G-Thr-Asn, A-Ala-Ser, and G-Ala-Ser) occurring in 10 combinations. A statistically significant difference in the allelic distribution of G-Asn/G-Ser and G-Ser/G-Ser genotype between proven fathers and infertile men but there were not any statistically significant difference in the overall frequency of the four FSHR haplotypes. We conclude that the FSHR haplotype does not associate with different serum FSH levels but it is differently distributed in proven fathers and infertile men. PMID:20454649

  10. A retrospective chromosome studies among Iranian infertile women: Report of 21 years

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Cyrus; Khaleghian, Malihea; Farzanfar, Farideh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The infertility is an important health problem, affecting about 15% of couples. The important role of genetic factors in pathogenesis of infertility is now increasingly recognized. The value of karyotyping women in the routine work-out of couples referred for sterility has long been recommended. Objective: The aim of this study was to define the frequency of all chromosomal aberrations among women which referred to our department due to infertility during the 21-year period. Materials and Methods: In this 21-year retrospective study, for the first time, we investigated 896 women which referred to our department due to infertility during 1986 to 2006. For chromosome analysis, heparinized peripheral blood samples were cultured, harvested and banded according to standard methods. Results: Out of 896 patients, 710 patients (79.24%) had a normal karyotype, and 186 patients (20.76%) showed abnormal karyotype. Among the abnormal ones 48 patients (25.81%) showed Turner's syndrome (45,X), and 45 patients (24.19%) were sex reversal with 46,XY karyotype. The rest of 93 patients (50%) revealed a wide range of chromosome abnormalities. Conclusion: Our results emphasized the importance of the standard cytogenetic methods in assessing the genetic characteristics of infertile females, which allows detecting a variety of somatic chromosome abnormalities, because some of these may interfere with the success of reproduction. PMID:24639762

  11. Regional and geographical variations in infertility: effects of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Leke, R J; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K M

    1993-07-01

    Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomplete without consideration of the sociocultural and environmental factors. The most cost-effective approach to solving the infertility problems in Africa is prevention and education. In Mexico, problems of reproductive health are associated with pregnancy in adolescents, sexually transmitted diseases and genitourinary neoplasms. Infertility affects 10% of couples, usually as a result of asymptomatic infection. Education, poverty, nutrition, and pollution are problems that must be tackled. The government has taken positive action in the State of Săo Paulo in Brazil, where gender discrimination is a major factor affecting women's health and reproductive outcomes. The implementation of new policies with adequate funding has resulted in marked improvements. PMID:8243409

  12. Women who conceived with infertility treatment were more likely to receive planned cesarean deliveries in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chien, Li-Yin; Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Yu-Hung; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of conception with infertility treatment on planned cesarean delivery. The participants were from a panel of primiparous pregnant women in northern Taiwan. The data analysis included 771 women with a singleton pregnancy, of whom 160 had a planned cesarean delivery and 611 who had a vaginal delivery. The study women answered structured questionnaires during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and at one-month postpartum. Women who conceived with infertility treatment were more likely to have planned cesarean deliveries than women who conceived without it (44.7% versus 18.1%, p < 0.001; crude odds ratio: 3.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24-5.98). After adjustment for maternal age over 35 years, whether they were currently unmarried, selection of time for birth in advance, gestational hypertension, and birthweight < 2500 g, women who conceived with infertility treatment were 2.95 times (95% CI: 1.47-5.92) more likely to have planned cesarean deliveries. The increased risk for planned cesarean deliveries among singleton women who conceived with infertility treatment cannot be explained by older maternal age or higher number of morbidities during pregnancy. Counseling for women who conceive with infertility treatments may be needed to decrease unnecessary cesarean deliveries. PMID:25581216

  13. Addressing the particular recordkeeping needs of infertile Orthodox Jewish couples considering the use of donated eggs.

    PubMed

    Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2014-03-01

    Infertility counseling is a specialized field that will continue to grow in coming years as the impact of infertility and its treatment is documented more and more in terms of emotional, physical, social and life consequences. Counselors should anticipate issues that may arise in the future and assist couples in their efforts to address them. We report here on recordkeeping issues of possible future concern that should be addressed when Orthodox Jewish couples make use of donor eggs. Good medical practice values the importance of understanding the patient's individual concerns and values, including the complex psychological, sociological and cultural context in which they experience their infertility. Good counseling anticipates and addresses future problems about which patients might not currently be aware. PMID:24446049

  14. Partnered Decisions? U.S. Couples and Medical Help-seeking for Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined male partners’ influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using from the National Survey of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we found an association between couple-level attitudes and medical help-seeking even when other predisposing and enabling conditions existed. Overall, the findings highlight that both partners contribute to the infertility help-seeking process, and that different factors may play a role in different stages of help-seeking. Studies of infertility help-seeking need to be more inclusive of the context that these decisions are embedded within to better understand service use. PMID:20160961

  15. Identity of self as infertile: an example of theory-generating research.

    PubMed

    Olshansky, E F

    1987-01-01

    This article presents results of a study using grounded-theory methodology to explore the meaning of infertility to those persons experiencing it. Thirty-two persons were interviewed, including 15 married couples and two married women whose husbands were either unable or unwilling to participate in the study. Forty-five semistructured interviews were conducted, as each person was interviewed separately and 13 couples were interviewed conjointly. Through the ongoing process of data collection and analysis, a substantive grounded theory was generated, with a core concept being that as persons experience unwanted infertility they take on a central identity of themselves as infertile. The process of taking on and managing this identity is described. PMID:3099637

  16. Two cases of mosaicism for complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRM) associated with secondary infertility.

    PubMed

    Lebbar, Aziza; Callier, Patrick; Baverel, Françoise; Marle, Nathalie; Patrat, Catherine; Le Tessier, Dominique; Mugneret, Francine; Dupont, Jean-Michel

    2008-10-15

    Structural chromosomal abnormalities can be associated with infertility through meiosis impairment or the formation of unbalanced gametes. Among these structural abnormalities, complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR) relate to situations with more than two breakpoints and/or more than two chromosomes involved. Mosaic balanced chromosomal rearrangements are very rare events usually ascertained through infertility, recurrent miscarriages or liveborn abnormal children. Mosaicism for complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRM) has never been described to date. Here we report on two patients with secondary infertility whose karyotype revealed mosaic partially cryptic CCRs, revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). To our knowledge, this is the first report of mosaicism for complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRM). We discuss the importance of molecular cytogenetic characterization of structural rearrangements to assist in genetic counseling related to the possible use of assisted reproductive technology. PMID:18798330

  17. Looking at Infertility Treatment through The Lens of The Meaning of Life: The Effect of Group Logotherapy on Psychological Distress in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Khodabakshi Koolee, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women in particular suffer from psychological stress when diagnosed with infertility. Psychosocial interventions are known to not only prevent and lessen various mental problems, but also to play a positive role in physical health and pregnancy rates. The aim of this study is to determine the unique impact of spiritual psychotherapy on concerns about infertility and their perceived psychological stresses. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study population included nearly 800 infertile couples who attended the Maternity and Gynecology Clinic of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran. We enrolled65 people who were randomly divided into two groups, experimental (n=33)and control (n=32). The experimental group received spiritual group psychotherapy counseling for 12 sessions, 2 hours per week for a 3 months period. The control group did not receive any intervention, but due to ethical considerations, we gave a presentation (one session) about infertility treatment for this group after the research process was completed. We used two questionnaires to obtain data, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Data analysis was done by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS 16 software. Results: Psychological intervention in the treatment group significantly decreased the PSWQ (p=0.004). There were significant differences in the mean score of the PSWQ in both groups as determined by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA; p=0.009). Psychological intervention in the treatment group decreased the level of perceived stress, when compared with the control group. According to ANCOVA there were significant differences between the mean PSS scores of both groups (p=0.01). Conclusion: Logotherapy is related to stress reduction and can decrease psychiatric symptoms of worry and perceived stress. This approach tends to improve an infertile person's ability to deal with their problem of finding the meaning of life. Thus it can be concluded that logotherapy along with other treatment methods, is a useful approach for infertile couples (Registration Number:IRCT201108247407N2). PMID:24520444

  18. Idiopathic Infertility: Effect of Palmitoylethanolamide (a Homologue of Anandamide) on Hyperactivated Sperm Cell Motility and Ca21 Influx

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANNARINA AMBROSINI; GIOVANNA ZOLESE; SIMONA AMBROSI; ENRICO BERTOLI; FRANCO MANTERO; MARCO BOSCARO; GIANCARLO BALERCIA

    The goal of this study was to examine the effect of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) on the capacitation process and hy- peractivated motility (HA) in idiopathic infertile men. Our data show the effect of PEA on the kinematic parameters of sperm cells from idiopathic infertile men during the capacitation of spermatozoa in vitro, both in the presence and absence of 2.5 nM

  19. The śIranian ART Revolutionť: Infertility, Assisted Reproductive Technology, and Third-Party Donation in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia C. Inhorn; Ghasem Toloo

    2008-01-01

    Infertility is a social onus for women in Iran, who are expected to produce children early within marriage. With its estimated 1.5 million infertile couples, Iran is the only Muslim country in which assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) using donor gametes and embryos have been legitimized by religious authorities and passed into law. This has placed Iran, a Shia-dominant country, in

  20. Study of Three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the SLC6A14 Gene in Association with Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Noveski, P; Mircevska, M; Plaseski, T; Peterlin, B; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2014-12-01

    Although several genetic causes of male infertility are known, the condition in around 60.0-75.0% of infertile male patients appears to be idiopathic. In some, genetic causes may be polygenic and require several low-penetrance genes to produce a phenotype outcome. In others, pleiotropy, when a gene can produce several phenotypic traits, may be involved. We have investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLC6A14 [solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14] gene are associated with male infertility. This gene has previously been linked with obesity and cystic fibrosis, which are associated with male infertility. It has a role in the transport of tryptophan and synthesis of serotonin that are important for normal spermatogenesis and testicular function. We have analyzed three SNPs (rs2312054, rs2071877 and rs2011162) in 370 infertile men and 241 fertile controls from two different populations (Macedonian and Slovenian). We found that the rs2011162(G) allele and rs2312054(A)-rs2071877(C)-rs2011162(G) haplotype are present at lower frequencies in the infertile rather than the fertile men (p = 0.044 and p = 0.0144, respectively). We concluded that the SLC6A14 gene may be a population-specific, low-penetrance locus which confers susceptibility to male infertility/subfertility. Additional follow-up studies of a large number of infertile men of different ethnic backgrounds are needed to confirm such a susceptibility. PMID:25937799

  1. Review Treatment of Palpable Varicocele in Infertile Men: A Meta-analysis to Define the Best Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SELAHITTIN CAYAN; SHAVKAT SHAVAKHABOV

    To date, there have been no randomized, controlled, prospective clinical studies that compare various techniques to describe the best method for the treatment of varicocele in infertile men. This meta-analysis aims to address the best treatment modality for palpable varicocele in infertile men. A MEDLINE search was performed for articles published between January 1980 and April 2008, and we analyzed

  2. Characterizing semen parameters and their association with reactive oxygen species in infertile men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A routine semen analysis is a first step in the laboratory evaluation of the infertile male. In addition, other tests such as measurement of reactive oxygen species can provide additional information regarding the etiology of male infertility. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of semen parameters with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in two groups: healthy donors of unproven and proven fertility and infertile men. In addition, we sought to establish an ROS cutoff value in seminal plasma at which a patient may be predicted to be infertile. Methods Seminal ejaculates from 318 infertile patients and 56 donors, including those with proven fertility were examined for semen parameters and ROS levels. Correlations were determined between traditional semen parameters and levels of ROS among the study participants. ROS levels were measured using chemiluminescence assay. Receiver operating characteristic curves were obtained to calculate a cutoff value for these tests. Results Proven Donors (n?=?28) and Proven Donors within the past 2 years (n?=?16) showed significantly better semen parameters than All Patients group (n?=?318). Significantly lower ROS levels were seen in the two Proven Donor groups compared with All Patients. The cutoff value of ROS in Proven Donors was determined to be 91.9 RLU/s with a specificity of 68.8% and a sensitivity of 93.8%. Conclusions Infertile men, irrespective of their clinical diagnoses, have reduced semen parameters and elevated ROS levels compared to proven fertile men who have established a pregnancy recently or in the past. Reactive oxygen species are negatively correlated with traditional semen parameters such as concentration, motility and morphology. Measuring ROS levels in the seminal ejaculates provides clinically-relevant information to clinicians. PMID:24885775

  3. The association of PON1 192 Q/R polymorphism and the risk of female infertility.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, F; Behrouzi, S; Yousefi, M; Salehi, Z

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Both environmental and genetic factors are involved in female infertility. Paraoxonase (PON) is an oxidant enzyme which plays an important role in various diseases and is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. The present study was aimed to evaluate the PON1 192 Q/R gene polymorphism in female infertility. Samples were obtained from 150 patients diagnosed with female infertility and 150 controls subjects and genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction—Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR—RFLP). The PON genotype frequencies amongst the 70 cases were C/C=40%, C/T=52.8% and T/T=7.2%; the C and T allele frequencies were 66% and 34%, respectively. The PON genotype frequencies amongst the 73 controls were C/C=45.20%, C/T=50.70% and T/T=4.1%; the C and T allele frequencies were 70% and 30%, respectively. We observed a significant difference in the genotype distributions of PON1 192 Q/R polymorphism between patients and controls (P= 0.03). Our findings revealed that individuals with the variant QR had a significant decrease risk of female infertility (OR= 0.55, 95% CI= 0.33 - 0.91, P= 0.019). The data from this study indicates that the PON1 192 Q/R polymorphism may be associated with decreased risk of female infertility. Although more studies should be considered with larger number of patients and control subjects to confirm our results. PMID:26025407

  4. Identification of human candidate genes for male infertility by digital differential display.

    PubMed

    Olesen, C; Hansen, C; Bendsen, E; Byskov, A G; Schwinger, E; Lopez-Pajares, I; Jensen, P K; Kristoffersson, U; Schubert, R; Van Assche, E; Wahlstroem, J; Lespinasse, J; Tommerup, N

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for the importance of genetic factors in male fertility is accumulating. In the literature and the Mendelian Cytogenetics Network database, 265 cases of infertile males with balanced reciprocal translocations have been described. The candidacy for infertility of 14 testis-expressed transcripts (TETs) were examined by comparing their chromosomal mapping position to the position of balanced reciprocal translocation breakpoints found in the 265 infertile males. The 14 TETs were selected by using digital differential display (electronic subtraction) to search for apparently testis-specific transcripts in the TIGR database. The testis specificity of the 14 TETs was further examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on adult and fetal tissues showing that four TETs (TET1 to TET4) were testis-expressed only, six TETs (TET5 to TET10) appeared to be differentially expressed and the remaining four TETs (TET11 to TET14) were ubiquitously expressed. Interestingly, the two tesis expressed-only transcripts, TET1 and TET2, mapped to chromosomal regions where seven and six translocation breakpoints have been reported in infertile males respectively. Furthermore, one ubiquitously, but predominantly testis-expressed, transcript, TET11, mapped to 1p32-33, where 13 translocation breakpoints have been found in infertile males. Interestingly, the mouse mutation, skeletal fusions with sterility, sks, maps to the syntenic region in the mouse genome. Another transcript, TET7, was the human homologue of rat Tpx-1, which functions in the specific interaction of spermatogenic cells with Sertoli cells. TPX-1 maps to 6p21 where three cases of chromosomal breakpoints in infertile males have been reported. Finally, TET8 was a novel transcript which in the fetal stage is testis-specific, but in the adult is expressed in multiple tissues, including testis. We named this novel transcript fetal and adult testis-expressed transcript (FATE). PMID:11134355

  5. Primary infertility in nuclear industry employees: report from the nuclear industry family study

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, P; Roman, E; Maconochie, N; Davies, G; Smith, P; Beral, V

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether men and women who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are at increased risk of primary infertility.?METHODS—A cross sectional analysis of reproductive outcome was reported in an occupational cohort of nuclear industry workers from the Atomic Energy Authority, Atomic Weapons Establishment, and British Nuclear Fuels in the United Kingdom. Data on employment and radiation monitoring supplied by employers were linked to data obtained from self administered questionnaires sent to all current employees and a sample of past workers. A total of 5353 men and 603 women aged 40 years or more at the time of survey whose first pregnancy, or attempt at pregnancy, had occurred after first employment in the nuclear industry were recruited to the study. Primary infertility was defined as consultation with a doctor about the failure to achieve at least one viable (24 weeks gestational age or more) pregnancy.?RESULTS—2.6% Of men and 3.7% of women reported primary infertility. For men, this proportion did not differ by amount of radiation monitored or by dose received. The prevalence of infertility was higher among monitored women than non-monitored women, but not significantly so and the numbers were too small to draw any firm conclusions.?CONCLUSIONS—No support was found for a hypothesis linking exposure to low level ionising radiation among men with primary infertility. There was weak evidence of an association in women, but the relatively few monitored women prevented detailed examination of these data.???Keywords: infertility; nuclear industry PMID:11452049

  6. A probable secondary infertility due to osseous metaplasia of the endometrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Metin Akbulut; Çi?dem Berna Ege; Esra Canan Kelten; Mehmet Emin Soysal

    2008-01-01

    Objective  Osseous metaplasia is a rare pathological entity that affects the uterus and usually appears following abortion, chronic endometritis,\\u000a metabolic disorders or following LEEP excision of the cervix.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case  Herein, we present the occurrence of osseous metaplasia in a 27-year-old patient with a history of an abortion 2 years ago\\u000a and suffering infertility.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusion  We suggest that the infertility in this patient may be

  7. Male infertility in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Wasilewski-Masker, K; Seidel, K D; Leisenring, W; Mertens, A C; Shnorhavorian, M; Ritenour, C W; Stovall, M; Green, D M; Sklar, C A; Armstrong, G T; Robison, L L; Meacham, L R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of male infertility and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Methods Within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, 1622 survivors and 274 siblings completed the Male Health Questionnaire. The analysis was restricted to survivors (938/1622; 57.8%) and siblings (174/274; 63.5%) who tried to become pregnant. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the prevalence of self-reported infertility were calculated using generalized linear models for demographic variables and treatment-related factors to account for correlation among survivors and siblings of the same family. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among those who provided self-report data, the prevalence of infertility was 46.0% in survivors versus 17.5% in siblings (RR=2.64, 95% CI 1.88-3.70, p < 0.001). Of survivors who met the definition for infertility, 37% had reported at least one pregnancy with a female partner that resulted in a live birth. In a multivariable analysis, risk factors for infertility included an alkylating agent dose score (AAD) ? 3 (RR= 2.13, 95% CI 1.69-2.68 for AAD ? 3 versus AAD<3), surgical excision of any organ of the genital tract (RR=1.63, 95% CI 1.20-2.21), testicular radiation ? 4Gy (RR=1.99, 95% CI 1.52-2.61), and exposure to bleomycin (RR=1.55, 95% CI 1.20-2.01). Conclusion Many survivors who experience infertility father their own children suggesting episodes of both fertility and infertility. This and the novel association of infertility with bleomycin warrant further investigation. Implications for Cancer Survivors Though infertility is common, male survivors reporting infertility often father their own children. Bleomycin may pose some fertility risk. PMID:24711092

  8. Correlation between serum lipids profile with sperm parameters of infertile men with abnormal semen analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Ali Khalili; Najmeh Zare-Zadeh; Hamideh Hashemi

    2009-01-01

    Background: One of the main laboratory tests for evaluation of infertility is semen analysis (SA). However, additional tests may be suggested for further diagnosis of male fertility potentials. The seminal fluid contains sperms, non-sperm cells, and various types of lipids and glucose. Objective: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to correlate the sperm parameters with concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride,

  9. Psychosocial characteristics of infertile couples: a study by the `Heidelberg Fertility Consultation Service'

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Wischmann; H. Stammer; H. Scherg; I. Gerhard; R. Verres

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to identify differences in psychological characteristics between couples with fertility disorders, especially idiopathic infertility, and a representative sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 564 couples was examined using psychological questionnaires pertaining to sociodemographic factors, motives for wanting a child, dimensions of life satisfaction and couple relationships, physical and psychic complaints, and a

  10. Infertile Individuals’ Marital Relationship Status, Happiness, and Mental Health: A Causal Model

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi Forooshany, Seyed Habiballah; Yazdkhasti, Fariba; Safari Hajataghaie, Saiede; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relation- ship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. Materials and Methods In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78), who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Ques- tionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Results Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (p<0.05) and happiness was directly related to mental health, (p<0.05). Also, indirect relation between marital relationship status and mental health was significant (p<0.05). These results were confirmed in women participants but in men participants only the direct relation between happiness and mental health was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion Based on goodness of model fit in fitness indexes, happiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individu- als disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health. PMID:25379161

  11. Terminal Mannose Residues in Seminal Plasma Glycoproteins of Infertile Men Compared to Fertile Donors.

    PubMed

    Olejnik, Beata; Jarz?b, Anna; Kratz, Ewa M; Zimmer, Mariusz; Gamian, Andrzej; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Miros?awa

    2015-01-01

    The impact of seminal plasma components on the fertilization outcomes in humans is still under question. The increasing number of couples facing problems with conception raises the need for predictive biomarkers. Detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms accompanying fertilization remains another challenge. Carbohydrate-protein recognition may be of key importance in this complex field. In this study, we analyzed the unique glycosylation pattern of seminal plasma proteins, the display of high-mannose and hybrid-type oligosaccharides, by means of their reactivity with mannose-specific Galanthus nivalis lectin. Normozoospermic infertile subjects presented decreased amounts of lectin-reactive glycoepitopes compared to fertile donors and infertile patients with abnormal semen parameters. Glycoproteins containing unveiled mannose were isolated in affinity chromatography, and 17 glycoproteins were identified in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The N-glycome of the isolated glycoproteins was examined in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven out of 27 identified oligosaccharides expressed terminal mannose residues, responsible for lectin binding. We suggest that lowered content of high-mannose and hybrid type glycans in normozoospermic infertile patients may be associated with impaired sperm protection from preterm capacitation and should be considered in the search for new infertility markers. PMID:26147424

  12. Clinical Factors Associated with Sperm DNA Fragmentation in Male Patients with Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Akira; Kato, Tomonori; Kawauchi, Yoko; Watanabe, Akihiko; Fuse, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The clinical factors associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) were investigated in male patients with infertility. Materials and Methods. Fifty-four ejaculates from infertile Japanese males were used. Thirty-three and twenty-one were from the patients with varicoceles and idiopathic causes of infertility, respectively. We performed blood tests, including the serum sex hormone levels, and conventional and computer-assisted semen analyses. The sperm nuclear vacuolization (SNV) was evaluated using a high-magnification microscope. The SDF was evaluated using the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) to determine the SDF index (SDFI). The SDFI was compared with semen parameters and other clinical variables, including lifestyle factors. Results. The SDFI was 41.3 ± 22.2% (mean ± standard deviation) and did not depend on the cause of infertility. Chronic alcohol use increased the SDFI to 49.6 ± 23.3% compared with 33.9 ± 18.0% in nondrinkers. The SDFI was related to adverse conventional semen parameters and sperm motion characteristics and correlated with the serum FSH level. The SNV showed a tendency to increase with the SDFI. The multivariate analysis revealed that the sperm progressive motility and chronic alcohol use were significant predictors of the SDF. Conclusion. The SCDt should be offered to chronic alcohol users and those with decreased sperm progressive motility. PMID:25165747

  13. The History and Challenges Surrounding Ovarian Stimulation in the Treatment of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Beall, Stephanie A.; Decherney, Alan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the history of superovulation for ovulation induction, its contributions to reproductive medicine and its impact on multiple births. DESIGN A search of the relevant literature using Pubmed and other online tools. RESULT(S) Infertility has been a condition known and studied for thousands of years. However, it was not until this past century that effective treatments were developed. With the advancement of our knowledge of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, therapies utilizing gonadotropins were developed to stimulate ovulation. Not only were we now able to treat anovulatory infertility, but also induce superovulation for in vitro fertilization. With these successes came consequences, including increased multiple pregnancies. Several countries recognized the high costs associated with multiple births and implemented regulations on the infertility industry. The rate of triplet and higher-order multiples has declined over the past decade. This is largely attributed to a decreased number of embryos transferred. Nonetheless, the twin rate has remained consistently high. CONCLUSION(S) Superovulation has become a routine medical therapy used for ovulation induction and in vitro fertilization. With the development of this technology have come effective therapies for infertility and new ethical and medical challenges. Since the advent of gonadotropin therapy we have already developed technologies to improve monitoring and decrease hyperstimulation and high order multiple pregnancies. In the future, we anticipate new tools devised to optimize one embryo for one singleton live birth. PMID:22463773

  14. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH AND SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility Research and Screening David Miller1, David Dix2, Robert Reid3, Susan Wykes3 and Stephen Krawetz3 1Reproductive Biology Group, University of Leeds, UK 2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmenta...

  15. USING DNA MICROARRAYS TO CHARACTERIZE GENE EXPRESSION IN TESTES OF FERTILE AND INFERTILE HUMANS AND MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    USING DNA MICROARRAYS TO CHARACTERIZE GENE EXPRESSION IN TESTES OF FERTILE AND INFERTILE HUMANS AND MICE John C. Rockett1, J. Christopher Luft1, J. Brian Garges1, M. Stacey Ricci2, Pasquale Patrizio2, Norman B. Hecht2 and David J. Dix1 Reproductive Toxicology Divisio...

  16. Long-Term Adjustment of Infertile Couples Following Unsuccessful Medical Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith C.; Tench, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    A 33-month longitudinal study was conducted with 38 infertile couples making the transition to biological childlessness after unsuccessful fertility treatments. Changes in their levels of psychological distress; marital, sexual, and life satisfaction; and self-esteem were examined. Increased self-esteem and decreased sexual satisfaction were…

  17. Reconstructing Their Lives: A Longitudinal, Qualitative Analysis of the Transition to Biological Childlessness for Infertile Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith C.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a three-year, longitudinal study conducted to determine how infertile couples make the transition to biological childlessness after medical treatment fails. Phenomenological analysis of data indicated progressive adaptation by the participants to their biological childlessness over time, with greater overall life satisfaction being most…

  18. Association between methionine synthase reductase A66G polymorphism and primary infertility in Chinese males.

    PubMed

    Li, X Y; Ye, J Z; Ding, X P; Zhang, X H; Ma, T J; Zhong, R; Ren, H Y

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), and methionine synthase (MS A2756G) genotypes and non-obstructive male infertility in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 162 infertile Chinese patients with azoospermia (N = 100) or oligoasthenozoospermia (N = 62) and 120 fertile men as controls. The polymorphisms MTRR A66G, MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MS A2756G were identified by direct DNA sequencing and the results were statistically analyzed. We found no association between the incidence of any of these variants in azoospermia patients and control populations. The frequency of the MTRR66 polymorphic genotypes (AG, AG+GG) was significantly higher in the oligoasthenozoospermia group compared to the controls (P = 0.013, 0.012). Our findings revealed an association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism A66G in the MTRR gene and male infertility, particularly in oligoasthenozoospermia males, suggesting that this polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for male infertility in Chinese men. PMID:25966116

  19. An association study of HFE gene mutation with idiopathic male infertility in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Bin-Bin; Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Tao; Ma, Ke; Jiang, Jian; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Li-Hua; Peng, Yi-Feng; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the haemochromatosis gene (HFE) influence iron status in the general population of Northern Europe, and excess iron is associated with the impairment of spermatogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between three mutations (C282Y, H63D and S65C) in the HFE gene with idiopathic male infertility in the Chinese Han population. Two groups of Chinese men were recruited: 444 infertile men (including 169 with idiopathic azoospermia) and 423 controls with proven fertility. The HFE gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The experimental results demonstrated that no C282Y or S65C mutations were detected. Idiopathic male infertility was not significantly associated with heterozygous H63D mutation (odds ratio=0.801, 95% confidence interval=0.452–1.421, ?2=0.577, P=0.448). The H63D mutation frequency did not correlate significantly with the serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) levels in infertile men (P=0.896, P=0.404 and P=0.05, respectively). Our data suggest that the HFE H63D mutation is not associated with idiopathic male reproductive dysfunction. PMID:22504868

  20. TSPY gene copy number as a potential new risk factor for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Vodicka, Radek; Vrtel, Radek; Dusek, Ladislav; Singh, Arvind R; Krizova, Katerina; Svacinova, Veronika; Horinova, Vera; Dostal, Jiri; Oborna, Ivana; Brezinova, Jana; Sobek, Ales; Santavy, Jiri

    2007-05-01

    The human TSPY (testis-specific protein, Y-linked) gene family (30-60 copies) is situated in the MSY (male-specific) region of the Y chromosome. Testis-specific expression indicates that the gene plays a role in spermatogenesis. Refined quantitative fluorescence PCR (polymerase chain reaction) was applied to evaluate the relative number of TSPY copies compared with AMELY/X (amelogenin gene, Y-linked) genes in 84 stratified infertile men and in 40 controls. A significantly higher number of TSPY copies was found in infertile men compared with the controls (P = 0.002). The diagnostic discrimination potential of the relative number of TSPY copies was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. TSPY/AMELY was unambiguously found to be powerful in the diagnostic separation of both the control samples and the infertile men, reaching a good level of specificity (0.642) and sensitivity (0.732) at a cut-off point of 0.46. The findings were supported by independently repeated studies of randomly selected positive samples and controls. Evaluation of the TSPY copy number offers a completely new diagnostic approach in relation to the genetic cause of male infertility. The possible effect of the copy number of TSPY genes on spermatogenesis may explain indiscrete pathological alterations of spermatid quality and quantity. PMID:17509197

  1. Long-term resistance to simulated climate change in an infertile grassland

    E-print Network

    Fridley, Jason D.

    Long-term resistance to simulated climate change in an infertile grassland J. Philip Grime* , Jason stable over the course of the experiment; (iii) no change in productivity in response to climate in response to drought and winter heating. Overall, compositional changes induced by 13-yr exposure to climate

  2. A pilot study comparing the DuoFertility® monitor with ultrasound in infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Rollason, Jennie CB; Outtrim, Joanne G; Mathur, Raj S

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of ovulation detection by the DuoFertility® monitor compared with transvaginal ultrasound in infertile women with regular menstrual cycles. Methods Eight infertile patients, aged 27–40 years, with a body mass index of 19–29, regular menses, normal ovaries on pelvic ultrasound scan, and normal early follicular luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin were recruited from infertility clinics in primary and secondary care for this pilot, prospective, observational study. The patients were asked to use the DuoFertility monitor for the whole cycle, with investigators and patients blind to DuoFertility data. Daily urine LH monitoring commenced on cycle day 8, with daily transvaginal ultrasound following the first positive LH until ovulation was observed. Ovulation was further confirmed by serum progesterone. The main outcome measure was detection of ovulation by the DuoFertility monitor, and correlation between day of ovulation assessed by DuoFertility and ultrasound. Results DuoFertility identified ovulation as having occurred within one day of that determined via ultrasound in all cycles. The sensitivity of ovulation detection was 100% (95% confidence interval 82–100). The specificity could not be concluded from the data. Conclusion In infertile women with regular cycles, the DuoFertility monitor appears to accurately identify ovulatory cycles and the day of ovulation. PMID:25075200

  3. Coenzyme Q10, ?-Tocopherol, and Oxidative Stress Could Be Important Metabolic Biomarkers of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kucharská, Jarmila; Dubravicky, Jozef; Mojto, Viliam; Singh, Ram B.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant capacity, and impaired sperm mitochondrial function are the main factors contributing to male infertility. The goal of the present study was to assess the effect of the per os treatment with Carni-Q-Nol (440?mg L-carnitine fumarate + 30?mg ubiquinol + 75?IU vitamin E + 12?mg vitamin C in each softsule) in infertile men on sperm parameters, concentration of antioxidants (coenzyme Q10,??CoQ10-TOTAL, ?, and ?-tocopherols), and oxidative stress in blood plasma and seminal fluid. Forty infertile men were supplemented daily with two or three Carni-Q-Nol softsules. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, improved sperm density was observed (by 48.9% and 80.9%, resp.) and after 3-month treatment the sperm pathology decreased by 25.8%. Concentrations of CoQ10-TOTAL (ubiquinone + ubiquinol) and ?-tocopherol were significantly increased and the oxidative stress was decreased. In conclusion, the effect of supplementary therapy with Carni-Q-Nol showed benefits on sperm function in men, resulting in 45% pregnancies of their women. We assume that assessment of oxidative stress, CoQ10-TOTAL, and ?-tocopherol in blood plasma and seminal fluid could be important metabolic biomarkers in both diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:25810566

  4. Infertility resulting from transgenic I-PpoI male Anopheles gambiae in large cage trials

    PubMed Central

    Klein, T A; Windbichler, N; Deredec, A; Burt, A; Benedict, M Q

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Anopheles gambiae is the primary vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and is a potential target of genetic control programs. We determined the capacity of male A. gambiae created by germline transformation to introduce infertility into stable age-distribution populations. We also determined effects of the transgenes on life history. Methods Stable age-distribution populations of A. gambiae mosquitoes were established in large indoor cages. Male mosquitoes carrying an I-PpoI homing endonuclease gene were introduced at ×5 and ×10 release rates where they competed with target male mosquitoes for matings. Similar trials were conducted in small cages with an additional ×1 release level. Results Infertility was successfully introduced into all target populations. In supporting experiments, complete female infertility was observed in all strains and species of the A. gambiae complex to which transgenic males were mated. Life history experiments demonstrated that reductions in I-PpoI male vigor exist in the form of reduced adult male emergence, longevity and competitiveness. Discussion A. gambiae I-PpoI males are capable of introducing high levels of infertility in target populations in indoor cage trials. This was accomplished despite losses of vigor resulting from the HEG transgene. These results motivate further trials of sexually I-PpoI A. gambiae in outdoor cage and field trials. PMID:22595271

  5. Mutation analysis of TNP1 gene in infertile men with varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Mohammad Mehdi; Khatami, Mehri; Talebi, Ali Reza; Moezzi, Fahime

    2014-01-01

    Background: Varicocele is associated with the failure of ipsilateral testicular growth and development, and the symptoms of pain and reduced fertility. The highly condensed structure of the sperm nuclear chromatin is provided by proper expression of Transition Nuclear Protein (TNP) genes, so any dysregulational expression of these genes results in abnormal spermatogenesis and infertility. Objective: The aim of present study was to assess the association between TNP1 mutations and varicocele in Iranian infertile men. Materials and Methods: Analysis of association between TNP1 gene mutation and varicocele phenotype was performed using PCR and Single-Stranded Conformational Polymorphism technique and DNA sequencing in 82 varicocele infertile men and 80 control subjects. Results: Sequence analysis was identified one variant in this gene that found in 15 infertile men and was absent in control group. This variant was a single nucleotide polymorphism that were identified in the intron region of this gene at position g.IVS1+75T>C. Conclusion: The effect of this nucleotide substitution in intronic region of the TNP1 gene and their role on expression remains to be determined. PMID:24976820

  6. The Efficiency of a Group-Specific Mandated Benefit Revisited: The Effect of Infertility Mandates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Joanna N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the labor market effects of state health insurance mandates that increase the cost of employing a demographically identifiable group. State mandates requiring that health insurance plans cover infertility treatment raise the relative cost of insuring older women of child-bearing age. Empirically, wages in this group are…

  7. Removal of vertebrate-dispersed fruits in vegetation on fertile and infertile soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristine French; Mark Westoby

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that more plant species with vertebrate-dispersed fruits occur on fertile soils because there is a greater probability of fruit removal from the parent plant was tested at 16 sites around Sydney, Australia. Removal rates from artificial fruit spikes were two and a half times greater on fertile than infertile soil sites, although this was not quite statistically significant.

  8. Doppler ultrasound investigation of uterine and ovarian blood flow in infertility and early pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. Dickey

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the current use of Doppler ultrasound to examine blood flow in the uterus and ovaries in infertile patients and during early pregnancy. The basics of Doppler ultrasound and the different methods of measuring blood flow are discussed from the viewpoint of the clinician who may be unfamiliar with Doppler physics and terminology. Normal values in the menstrual

  9. Infertility in the dromedary bull: a review of causes, relations and implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Al-Qarawi

    2005-01-01

    Research into infertility in the dromedary bull, as reported during the last two decades, is reviewed with emphasis on causes and effects. Reproductive activity of such animals is naturally limited by a breeding season, though with enough encouragement some may mate with oestrous females out of season but a full fertilization potential can in no way be expected. It is

  10. Partnered Decisions? U.S. Couples and Medical Help-Seeking for Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined male partners' influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using the National Study of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we…

  11. Comparative birth weights of singletons born after assisted reproduction and natural conception in previously infertile women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. De Geyter; M. De Geyter; S. Steimann; H. Zhang; W. Holzgreve

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The possible interference of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) with epigenetic reprogram- ming during early embryo development has recently sparked renewed interest about the reported lower birth weight among infants born as a consequence of infertility treatments. However, the latter finding so far has relied on the comparison of the birth weight of infants conceived with ART to general population

  12. Treating Faith-Based Infertile Couples Using Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling Strategies: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, June A.; Smith, Alanzo H.

    2004-01-01

    The authors have found no study that addressed the influence of religious practices, biblical texts, and a spiritual environment on the dynamics of coping with crises often experienced by couples who are infertile and who transition into childlessness. Twenty-five couples from the greater New York area who were referred by religious leaders…

  13. The effect of obesity on the outcome of infertility management in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majedah Al-Azemi; Florence E. Omu; Alexander E. Omu

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic with ever increasing incidence and public health problems in both developing and developed countries. Objective The objective of the study is to investigate the incidence of obesity among patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome attending infertility clinic and the effect on treatment outcome. Methodology Two hundred and seventy women with polycystic ovarian syndrome attending

  14. Kinship, the biological tie, and infertility: Factors that affect the willingness to adopt a child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Scott Bausch

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model that explains an individual's willingness to adopt a child. Several factors are explored as possible determinants of willingness to adopt, including the importance of the biological tie in family relationships, the presence of pronatalist beliefs, attitudes toward adoptive parenthood as inferior to biological parenthood, and definitions of infertility

  15. Infertility and Crisis: Self-Discovery and Healing through Poetry Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Offers a personal narrative on how the author's own poetry helped her cope with the crisis of infertility, serving as a tool for self-discovery and healing. Suggests that specific advantages of poetry writing within the context of psychotherapy include problem solving; expression of feelings; insight; couple communication; and individual and…

  16. Global access to infertility care in developing countries: a case of human rights, equity and social justice

    PubMed Central

    Ombelet, W.

    2011-01-01

    According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well. PMID:24753875

  17. Global access to infertility care in developing countries: a case of human rights, equity and social justice.

    PubMed

    Ombelet, W

    2011-01-01

    According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well. PMID:24753875

  18. Testosterone levels and bone mineral density in young healthy men and in young infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Karasek, Michal; Kochanski, Jan Wieslaw; Bierowiec, Jadwiga; Suzin, Jacek; Swietoslawski, Jacek

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Although relatively little information exists concerning bone mineral density (BMD) in men, it has been demonstrated that similarly to observations in women, BMD decreases also with age in men, although to a smaller extent, and osteoporosis is increasingly recognized. Most reports concentrate, however, on men of advanced age. Therefore, we decided to investigate BMD in young healthy volunteers and in young patients suffering from infertility, and to compare it with serum tes-tosterone levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study was performed on 80 men divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 39 young healthy men (mean age 22.1+/-0.3 years; range 20-29). The second group consisted of 41 infertile men with oligozoospermia (mean age 28.0+/-0.5 years; range 23-34). Serum testosterone levels and BMD were measured in each subject. RESULTS. Decrease in BMD (T-score below -0.3) was observed in 35.9% of the subjects in the group of young healthy men and in 60.9% of the subjects in the group of infertile patients. Among these numbers -penia (T-score between -1 and -2.5) was found in 4 subjects (10.3%) in the group of young healthy men and in 13 subjects (31.7%) in the group of infertile patients. There was a positive correlation between testosterone concentrations and BMD as well as T-score both in healthy subjects and in infertile patients. CONCLUSION. Results of the present study indicate that attention should be paid to testosterone deficiency in the young age in terms of the potential risk of decreased bone mineral density in the advanced age. PMID:11455325

  19. Determination of organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl levels in adipose tissue of infertile men.

    PubMed

    Cok, Ismet; Durmaz, Tuba Calik; Durmaz, Emre; Satiroglu, M Hakan; Kabukcu, Cihan

    2010-03-01

    During the recent two decades, a remarkable drop in fertility rates has been noticed almost all over the world. A series of studies have showed that environmental factors had the primary role causing the observed adverse trends in the male reproductive health problems. Especially chlorinated hydrocarbons, for instance polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and pesticides, could mimic or antagonize the effects of steroid hormones, like estrogens and androgens and possibly interfering with male reproductive capacity. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (i.e. p.p'-DDT, endosulfan...) and PCBs are widespread used chemicals in agriculture and industry for different purposes all over the world. Although direct evidence is lacking, theoretical considerations and epidemiological evidence implicate these compounds as potential hazards to human and wildlife reproductive health. For this purpose, in this study adipose tissue samples have provided from healthy males which were diagnosed as infertile men living in Ankara, Turkey at least for 5 years. Residual levels of OCPs (alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, gamma-BHC, HCB, Endosulfan I, II, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT) and seven major persistent PCB congeners (PCB 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) were measured in 25 infertile men and 21 healthy men's adipose tissue samples by GC-ECD. Levels of OCPs and PCBs in adipose tissue of infertile men compared with those provided from controls. When the concentrations of each of the OCP were compared between the fertile and infertile groups, no statistical significance was obtained. Concentrations of each of the PCB congeners were compared between the fertile and infertile groups, no statistical significance was obtained (p > 0.05), except for 2,2',5,5'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52) (p = 0.032) and 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB 180) (p = 0.017). PMID:19252989

  20. Preliminary study of blood methylmercury effects on reproductive hormones and relevant factors among infertile and pregnant women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hsiao-Ling; Wei, Hsiao-Jui; Chen, Po-Hsi; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is the most poisonous mercury species and an endocrine-disrupting chemical that could cause reproductive and developmental harm effects in animals. In this study, we recruited 310 infertile women and 57 pregnant women and investigated their blood MeHg levels. The distribution of blood reproductive hormone, selenium and zinc levels, and the difference of relevant factors by the reference level of blood MeHg (5.8?g/L) of infertile women were further examined. Results showed that greater percentages of sashimi consumption, frequencies of Chinese herbal medicine use, alcohol consumption, and lack of physical activity were observed in infertile women than those for pregnant women. Blood MeHg concentration was significantly greater in infertile than that in pregnant women. Significant concentration differences for FSH and LH by the dichotomized reference level of blood MeHg (5.8?g/L) in infertile women were not observed, which may stem from that these reproductive hormones in participated infertile women were mostly in the normal reference range. Consumption of fish and sashimi represented the major source of MeHg exposure in infertile women. MeHg levels were elevated in infertile women, and consistent with fish consumption frequency. Compared to the referent level of blood MeHg levels <5.8?g/L, the elevated blood MeHg levels (?5.8?g/L) in infertile women were 3.35 and 4.42 folds risk in categorized frequencies of fish consumption 1-2 meals per week and more than 3 meals per week, respectively. The obtained results provide evidences and help updating the advisory of fish consumption and improving women's reproductive health. PMID:26002048

  1. National, Regional, and Global Trends in Infertility Prevalence Since 1990: A Systematic Analysis of 277 Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, Ties; Vanderpoel, Sheryl; Stevens, Gretchen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Global, regional, and national estimates of prevalence of and tends in infertility are needed to target prevention and treatment efforts. By applying a consistent algorithm to demographic and reproductive surveys available from developed and developing countries, we estimate infertility prevalence and trends, 1990 to 2010, by country and region. Methods and Findings We accessed and analyzed household survey data from 277 demographic and reproductive health surveys using a consistent algorithm to calculate infertility. We used a demographic infertility measure with live birth as the outcome and a 5-y exposure period based on union status, contraceptive use, and desire for a child. We corrected for biases arising from the use of incomplete information on past union status and contraceptive use. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate prevalence of and trends in infertility in 190 countries and territories. In 2010, among women 20–44 y of age who were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, 1.9% (95% uncertainty interval 1.7%, 2.2%) were unable to attain a live birth (primary infertility). Out of women who had had at least one live birth and were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, 10.5% (9.5%, 11.7%) were unable to have another child (secondary infertility). Infertility prevalence was highest in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa/Middle East, and Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Levels of infertility in 2010 were similar to those in 1990 in most world regions, apart from declines in primary and secondary infertility in Sub-Saharan Africa and primary infertility in South Asia (posterior probability [pp] ?0.99). Although there were no statistically significant changes in the prevalence of infertility in most regions amongst women who were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, reduced child-seeking behavior resulted in a reduction of primary infertility among all women from 1.6% to 1.5% (pp?=?0.90) and a reduction of secondary infertility among all women from 3.9% to 3.0% (pp>0.99) from 1990 to 2010. Due to population growth, however, the absolute number of couples affected by infertility increased from 42.0 million (39.6 million, 44.8 million) in 1990 to 48.5 million (45.0 million, 52.6 million) in 2010. Limitations of the study include gaps in survey data for some countries and the use of proxies to determine exposure to pregnancy. Conclusions We analyzed demographic and reproductive household survey data to reveal global patterns and trends in infertility. Independent from population growth and worldwide declines in the preferred number of children, we found little evidence of changes in infertility over two decades, apart from in the regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Further research is needed to identify the etiological causes of these patterns and trends. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23271957

  2. GENE ARRAYS FOR ELUCIDATING MECHANISTIC DATA FROM MODELS OF MALE INFERTILITY AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURE IN MICE, RATS AND HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene arrays for elucidating mechanistic data from models of male infertility and chemical exposure in mice, rats and humans John C. Rockett and David J. Dix Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects ...

  3. Chromosomal Translocation t (10;19) (q11.2;q13.4) in an Infertile Male

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Murat; Sen, Askin; Cetin, Esin Sakall?; Kargun, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements are usually associated with male factor infertility. We report here a 34-year-old man suffering from primary infertility for 15 years. The cytogenetic analysis and investigation of Y-chromosome microdeletions were performed. A reciprocal balanced translocation t (10;19) (q11.2;q13.4) was found in oligozoospermic infertile men with no Y-chromosome microdeletions. In this case, we aimed to evaluate the 46,XY,t (10;19) (q11.2;q13.4) karyo-type, which was detected through a cytogenetic analysis of a person referred to our genetic laboratory due to primary infertility, in the light of the literature. PMID:25610329

  4. Association study of four polymorphisms in three folate-related enzyme genes with non-obstructive male infertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han-Chul Lee; Yu-Mi Jeong; Sook Hwan Lee; Kwang Yul Cha; Seung-Hun Song; Nam Keun Kim; Kyo Won Lee; Suman Lee

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three typical folate metabolism enzymes—i.e. methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MS) and MS reductase (MTRR) in the folate cycle—play a critical role in DNA synthesis and methylation reactions. We evaluated whether polymorphisms of these three enzymes are associated with non- obstructive male infertility. METHOD: Three hundred and sixty patients with non-obstructive infertility and 325 fertile men without any chromosomal

  5. Relationship between seminal plasma interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor a levels with semen parameters in fertile and infertile men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izzet Koçak; Çigdem Yenisey; Mehmet Dündar; Pinar Okyay; Mukadder Serter

    2002-01-01

    The levels of two proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor ! (TNF-!) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), were investigated in seminal plasma (SP) of proven fertile (n=24) and infertile (n=55) men to evaluate the relationship between diagnosis and semen parameters in a prospective study. Infertile men were divided into four groups as follows: (1) varicocele (n=23), (2) 3 months after varicocelectomy

  6. Role of diagnostic hystero-laparoscopy in the evaluation of infertility: A retrospective study of 300 patients

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Prasanta K; Mahapatra, Purna C; Mallick, JJ; Swain, S; Mitra, Subarna; Sahoo, Jayaprakash

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of diagnostic hysterolaparoscopy in the evaluation of infertility in tertiary care centres. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at two tertiary care centres (the infertility clinics of Sriram Chandra Bhanj Medical College and Prachi hospital at Cuttack, Odisha) throughout the year in 2008. Women aged 20-40 years with normal hormone profile without male factor infertility were included. RESULTS: Out of 300 cases, 206 (69%) patients had primary infertility. While laparoscopy detected abnormalities in 34% of the cases, significant hysteroscopy findings were noted in 18% of cases. Together, diagnostic hysterolaparoscopy detected abnormalities in 26% of the infertile patients in both groups. While the most common laparoscopic abnormality was endometriosis (14%) and adnexal adhesion (12%) in primary and secondary infertile patients, respectively, hysteroscopy found intrauterine septum as the most common abnormality in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Hysterolaparoscopy is an effective diagnostic tool for evaluation of certain significant and correctable tubo-peritoneal and intrauterine pathologies like peritoneal endometriosis, adnexal adhesions, and subseptate uterus, which are usually missed by other imaging modalities. PMID:23869148

  7. Semen Quality Improvement in a Man with Idiopathic Infertility Treated with Traditional Korean Medicine: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jo, Junyoung; Lee, Sun Haeng; Lee, Jin Moo; Jerng, Ui Min

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 45-50% of the cases of infertility result from deficiencies associated with male factors, and 30-45% of these deficiencies are idiopathic. A standardized approach for the treatment of idiopathic male infertility remains elusive. In Korea, male infertility has been treated with either acupuncture, herbal remedies, or pharmacopuncture. We report a case of male idiopathic infertility in which the patient's semen quality improved through traditional Korean medicine (TKM) therapies, which was evaluated according to the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) standards. A 35-year-old infertile man visited the Conmaul Hospital from August 2013 to December 2013. He was diagnosed with asthenoteratozoospermia. The patient received 3 TKM therapies-acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and herbal remedies-for 3 months. After 3 months of treatment, a second semen analysis of the patient was conducted. The sperm motility increased by 13%, and the normal sperm morphology increased by 4% over 3 months. In addition, the total motile sperm count was 2.5 times higher than that before treatment. The results of the present study support the clinical potency of treatment with acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and herbal remedies in idiopathic infertile men, especially for the improvement of sperm motility and morphology. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials with elaborate designs should be performed to verify the clinical effect of TKM therapies. PMID:26025007

  8. Stem Cells as New Agents for the Treatment of Infertility: Current and Future Perspectives and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Volarevic, Vladislav; Nurkovic, Jasmin; Volarevic, Ana; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are present in the embryonic, fetal, and adult stages of life and give rise to differentiated cells that make up the building blocks of tissue and organs. Due to their unlimited source and high differentiation potential, stem cells are considered as potentially new therapeutic agents for the treatment of infertility. Stem cells could be stimulated in vitro to develop various numbers of specialized cells including male and female gametes suggesting their potential use in reproductive medicine. During past few years a considerable progress in the derivation of male germ cells from pluripotent stem cells has been made. In addition, stem cell-based strategies for ovarian regeneration and oocyte production have been proposed as future clinical therapies for treating infertility in women. In this review, we summarized current knowledge and present future perspectives and challenges regarding the use of stem cells in reproductive medicine. PMID:24826378

  9. An evolutionary perspective on Y-chromosomal variation and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variation on the Y chromosome is one of the best-documented causes of male infertility, but the genes responsible have still not been identified. This review discusses how an evolutionary perspective may help with interpretation of the data available and suggest novel approaches to identify key genes. Comparison with the chimpanzee Y chromosome indicates that USP9Y is dispensable in apes, but that multiple copies of TSPY1 may have an important role. Comparisons between infertile and control groups in search of genetic susceptibility factors are more complex for the Y chromosome than for the rest of the genome because of population stratification and require unusual levels of confirmation. But the extreme population stratification exhibited by the Y also allows populations particularly suitable for some studies to be identified, such as the partial AZFc deletions common in Northern European populations where further dissection of this complex structural region would be facilitated. PMID:18399979

  10. Use of a low-volume uterine flush for diagnosing endometritis in chronically infertile mares

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle M. LeBlanc; Joshua Magsig; Arnold J. Stromberg

    2007-01-01

    Low-volume uterine flush (n=401) was performed in 308 infertile mares to diagnose endometritis. Mares evaluated were either barren after three or more breedings or had two or more unsuccessful embryo recovery attempts during consecutive cycles. Culture results were compared with cytological and histological findings, efflux clarity and pH to substantiate that the micro-organisms recovered were truly pathogens. Cytological specimens were

  11. Noninvasive Imaging of the Meiotic Spindle of In Vivo Matured Oocytes From Infertile Women With Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Dib, Luciana A.; Araújo, Maria C. P. M.; Giorgenon, Roberta Cristina; Romăo, Gustavo S.; Ferriani, Rui A.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this prospective study were to evaluate the nuclear maturation stage and the presence and location of meiotic spindles of in vivo matured oocytes from infertile women with and without endometriosis (male or tubal causes of infertility) undergoing stimulated cycles for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We also compared the ICSI outcomes among groups. We analyzed the meiotic spindles of oocytes from 36 patients with endometriosis I/II, 24 with endometriosis III/IV, and 60 without endometriosis (male or tubal causes of infertility). The oocytes were imaged using polarization microscopy. There were no differences in the number of oocytes in telophase I (mean [standard deviation]: 0.1 [0.5], 0.2 [0.4], and 0.2 [0.5], respectively, in the endometriosis I/II, endometriosis III/IV, and control groups), in metaphase II with visible spindles (4.2 [2.5], 3.1 [2.0], and 3.6 [2.2], respectively, in the endometriosis I/II, endometriosis III/IV, and control groups), and in spindle location among groups. We can conclude from this study that noninvasive analysis of spindles from in vivo matured oocytes of infertile patients with endometriosis did not demonstrate significant differences in terms of the nuclear maturation stage, the percentage of oocytes in metaphase II with visible spindles, and the spindle localization when compared to the control group. However, it is important to state that there are no studies evaluating the accuracy of polarization microscopy for the detection of meiotic anomalies in human oocytes, which would need to be better evaluated in future studies using an appropriate methodology. PMID:22991379

  12. A Prospective Study of the Relationship Between Semen Quality and Fertility in Cases of Unexplained Infertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. JOHN AITKEN; FIONA S. M. BEST; PAMELA WARNER

    The male partners of 68 couples exhibiting 5.1 ± 0.3 (SEM) years of unexplained infertility were assessed using the conventional criteria of semen quality, the movement characteristics of the spermatozoa and the outcome of the zona-free hamster egg penetration test. After a follow-up period of 2.3 ± 0.06 (SEM) years, 25 (37%) of these patients were found to have initiated

  13. A rare case of respiratory disorders associated with two autosomal recessive diseases and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Mendeluk, Gabriela Ruth; Costa, Sergio López; Scigliano, Sergio; Menga, Guillermo; Demiceu, Sergio; Palaoro, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The study of nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ultrastructure may contribute to the understanding of pathognomonic cases of male infertility associated with defects in sperm motility. This study was designed to report a particular case of male infertility, characterized by the association of two respiratory autosomal recessive genetic diseases (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency [AAT-D] and primary ciliary dyskinesia [PCD]). A 39-year-old patient with complete sperm immotility, AAT-D, and bronchiectasis was studied in the Laboratory of Male Fertility, the Department of Urology, the Respiratory Center of a Pediatric Hospital, and in the Department of Clinical Medicine of a Rehabilitation Respiratory Hospital. Family history, physical examination, hormonal analysis, microbial assays, semen analysis, nasal ciliary function, and structure study by digital high-speed video photography and transmission electron microscopy are described. A noninvasive nasal biopsy to retrieve ciliated epithelium lining the inferior surface of the inferior nasal turbinates was performed and CBF was determined. Beat pattern was slightly curved and rigid, not wide, and metacronic in all the observed fields analyzed. CBF was 8.2 Hz in average (reference value, 10-15 Hz) Ultrastructural assay revealed absence of the inner dynein arms in 97% of the cilia observed. The final infertility accurate diagnosis was achieved by the study of nasal CBF and ultrastructure contributing to the patient health management and genetic counseling while deciding fatherhood. Beyond this particular case, the present report may open a new field of studies in male infertility, mainly in cases of asthenozoospermia. PMID:23772318

  14. A rare case of respiratory disorders associated with two autosomal recessive diseases and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sergio López; Scigliano, Sergio; Menga, Guillermo; Demiceu, Sergio; Palaoro, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The study of nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ultrastructure may contribute to the understanding of pathognomonic cases of male infertility associated with defects in sperm motility. This study was designed to report a particular case of male infertility, characterized by the association of two respiratory autosomal recessive genetic diseases (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency [AAT-D] and primary ciliary dyskinesia [PCD]). A 39-year-old patient with complete sperm immotility, AAT-D, and bronchiectasis was studied in the Laboratory of Male Fertility, the Department of Urology, the Respiratory Center of a Pediatric Hospital, and in the Department of Clinical Medicine of a Rehabilitation Respiratory Hospital. Family history, physical examination, hormonal analysis, microbial assays, semen analysis, nasal ciliary function, and structure study by digital high-speed video photography and transmission electron microscopy are described. A noninvasive nasal biopsy to retrieve ciliated epithelium lining the inferior surface of the inferior nasal turbinates was performed and CBF was determined. Beat pattern was slightly curved and rigid, not wide, and metacronic in all the observed fields analyzed. CBF was 8.2 Hz in average (reference value, 10–15 Hz) Ultrastructural assay revealed absence of the inner dynein arms in 97% of the cilia observed. The final infertility accurate diagnosis was achieved by the study of nasal CBF and ultrastructure contributing to the patient health management and genetic counseling while deciding fatherhood. Beyond this particular case, the present report may open a new field of studies in male infertility, mainly in cases of asthenozoospermia. PMID:23772318

  15. Association of the MTHFR A1298C Variant with Unexplained Severe Male Infertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdelmajid Eloualid; Omar Abidi; Majida Charif; Brahim El houate; Houda Benrahma; Noureddine Louanjli; Elbakkay Chadli; Maria Ajjemami; Abdelhamid Barakat; Anu Bashamboo; Ken McElreavey; Houria Rhaissi; Hassan Rouba

    2012-01-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is one of the main regulatory enzymes involved in folate metabolism, DNA synthesis and remethylation reactions. The influence of MTHFR variants on male infertility is not completely understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C variants using PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) in a case group

  16. Surgical treatment of male infertility in the era of intracytoplasmic sperm injection – new insights

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sandro C.; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology is an evolving area, and several adjuvant procedures have been created to increase a couple's chance of conceiving. For male infertility, the current challenges are to properly accommodate old and new techniques that are both cost-effective and evidence-based. In this context, urologists are expected to diagnose, counsel, provide medical or surgical treatment whenever possible and/or correctly refer male patients for assisted conception. Urologists are sometimes part of a multiprofessional team in an assisted reproduction unit and are responsible for the above-cited tasks as well as the surgical retrieval of sperm from either the epididymides or testicles. We present a comprehensive review of the surgical treatment options for infertile males, including the perioperative planning and prognostic aspects, with an emphasis on the role of microsurgery in the optimization of treatment results. This review also discusses current techniques for sperm retrieval that are used in association with assisted reproductive technology and includes sperm retrieval success rates according to the technique and the type of azoospermia. New insights are provided with regard to each surgical treatment option in view of the availability of assisted conception to overcome male infertility. PMID:21915501

  17. Current management of tubal infertility: from hysterosalpingography to ultrasonography and surgery

    PubMed Central

    Briceag, I; Costache, A; Purcarea, VL; Cergan, R; Dumitru, M; Briceag, I; Sajin, M; Ispas, AT

    2015-01-01

    Rationale. The development of IVF techniques has diminished the importance of tubal infertility but recent discoveries shed a new light on reproductive tubal surgery prior to any IVF cycle. Objective. To adapt current state of the art recommendations concerning tubal factor infertility to actual possibilities in Romanian healthcare system and to grow the awareness of fellow fertility specialists and general practitioners to the improved outcomes of novel management and treatment modalities. Methods and results. 67 free full text articles centered on the subject of management in tubal infertility were identified in international databases. Four articles described general diagnosis using data from medical history, 21 works approached the diagnosis through hysterosalpingography, 14 papers introduced the use of different sonographic procedures, 8 files analyzed the importance of exploratory laparoscopy and 20 articles reviewed different treatment modalities. Discussions. Current data show that active implementation of the large scale use of tubal surgery prior to any IVF cycle will reduce up to 30% the costs associated with obtaining a viable pregnancy in cases with tubal factor sterility. PMID:25866571

  18. The Desire for Multiple Pregnancy among Patients with Infertility and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Md Latar, Ida Lilywaty; Razali, Nuguelis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study the predictors for desire for multiple pregnancies and the influence of providing information regarding the maternal and fetal complications associated with multiple pregnancies on their preference for multiple pregnancies. Methods. Couples attending an infertility clinic were offered to fill up a questionnaire separately. Following this, they were handed a pamphlet with information regarding the risks associated with multiple pregnancies. The patients will then be required to answer the question on the number of pregnancies desired again. Results. Two hundred fifty three out of 300 respondents completed the questionnaires adequately. A higher proportion of respondents, 60.3% of females and 57.9% of males, prefer singleton pregnancy. Patients who are younger than 35 years, with preexisting knowledge of risks associated with multiple pregnancies and previous treatment for infertility, have decreased desire for multiple pregnancies. However, for patients who are older than 35, with longer duration of infertility, and those patients who have preexisting knowledge of the increased risk, providing further information regarding the risks did not change their initial preferences. Conclusion. Providing and reinforcing knowledge on the risks to mother and fetus associated with multiple pregnancies did not decrease the preference for multiple pregnancies in patients. PMID:25763396

  19. Luteal estradiol supplementation in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycles for infertile patients in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Su-Kyoung; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Jeon, Il Kyung; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the addition of estradiol to luteal progesterone supplementation in GnRH antagonist cycles for infertile patients undergoing IVF/ICSI. Methods One hundred and ten infertile patients, aged 28 to 39 years, were recruited for this prospective randomized study. They were randomly assigned to receive vaginal progesterone gel (Crinone) along with 4 mg estradiol valerate (group 1, n=55) or only Crinone (group 2, n=55) for luteal support. A GnRH antagonist multiple dose protocol using recombinant human FSH was used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) in all of the subjects. The COS results and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were compared. Results Group 1 and 2 were comparable with respect to the patient characteristics. The COS and IVF results were also comparable between the two groups. There were no differences in the clinical pregnancy rate (PR) and multiple PR between the two groups. However, the embryo implantation rate were significantly higher in group 1 than that in group 2 (22.2% vs. 13.3%, p=0.035). The incidence of luteal vaginal bleeding (LVB) was significantly lower in group 1 (7.4% vs. 27.8%, p=0.010). Conclusion The addition of estradiol to luteal progesterone supplementation in GnRH antagonist cycles reduces the incidence of LVB and increases the embryo implantation rate in infertile patients undergoing IVF/ICSI. PMID:24179871

  20. Women in limbo: life course consequences of infertility in a Nigerian community.

    PubMed

    Hollos, Marida; Whitehouse, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    Infertility is a devastating problem around the world, particularly in the high fertility context of sub-Saharan Africa. Regardless of its medical origins, infertility causes African women personal grief and economic deprivation.This research was conducted among the Ijo who are organized into exogamous patrilineal descent groups. Women who marry into a patrilineage are perceived as bearers of sons who will eventually take their place in the lineage's genealogy. Women only figure in the lineage structure as mothers.In addition to extensive ethnographic research in this community, the paper is based on a combination of surveys of 246 women and interviews of 25 fertile and 25 infertile women.Women who have never given birth were characterized as “useless”. Some managed to accumulate wealth or attained education but most feared a marginal old age. Respect was given to women who have had even one child, even if that child died. The biological process of gestation confers an adult status on women allowing them to undergo initiation and to function as mature individuals. In the life course the most prominent periods of suffering are the transition from the stages of ereso (girl) to erera (mature woman), and in the period of old age. PMID:25116234

  1. Effect of psychological stress on fertility hormones and seminal quality in male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Bhongade, M B; Prasad, S; Jiloha, R C; Ray, P C; Mohapatra, S; Koner, B C

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of psychological stress on male fertility hormones and seminal quality in male partner of infertile couples. Seventy male partners of infertile couples were evaluated for level of psychological stress using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) questionnaire, serum total testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by electrochemiluminescence assay and serum GnRH by ELISA. Seminal analysis was performed as per WHO guideline. Nineteen (27%) of them had HADS anxiety and depression score ?8 (abnormal HADS score). The persons having abnormal HADS had lower serum total testosterone, higher serum FSH and LH than those of persons having normal HADS. Serum total testosterone correlated negatively with HADS, but LH and FSH correlated positively. There was no change in GnRH with the change in stress or testosterone levels. Sperm count, motility and morphologically normal spermatozoa were lower in persons having abnormal HADS. Sperm count correlated positively with total testosterone and negatively with FSH and LH. Abnormal sperm motility and morphology were related to lower testosterone and higher LH and FSH levels. Psychological stress primarily lowers serum total testosterone level with secondary rise in serum LH and FSH levels altering seminal quality. Stress management is warranted for male infertility cases. PMID:24673246

  2. The value of testing semen for Chlamydia trachomatis in men of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Eley, A; Pacey, A A

    2011-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important bacterial cause of infertility. In men, the recommended specimen for diagnosing chlamydial infection is urine, with little or no emphasis placed on testing semen. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to search for studies in which men undergoing investigations for infertility produced both samples of urine and semen that were tested concurrently for C. trachomatis. An analysis of these studies was then performed. From 322 papers identified from the US National Library of Medicine PubMed database, 14 were selected for a detailed review and 11 were analysed further. Overall, the size of the study groups was only modest and differences between the studies included variation in geography and test methodology, especially whether commercial testing systems had been used. There was also a lack of consistency with regard to including men with azoospermia. Patients were typically 30-35 years old and the median duration of infertility was about 4 years. Of those patients positive for C. trachomatis in the 11 studies, 56% could be detected in both semen and urine, 20% only in urine and 23% only in semen. Deficiencies in existing studies would not allow for a meta-analysis, emphasizing the need for further research in this area for which a number of recommendations are made. PMID:20731730

  3. A systematic review of the effect of oral antioxidants on male infertility.

    PubMed

    Ross, C; Morriss, A; Khairy, M; Khalaf, Y; Braude, P; Coomarasamy, A; El-Toukhy, T

    2010-06-01

    The use of antioxidants in treatment of infertile men has been suggested, although the evidence base for this practice is unclear. A systematic review of randomized studies was conducted to evaluate the effects of oral antioxidants (vitamins C and E, zinc, selenium, folate, carnitine and carotenoids) on sperm quality and pregnancy rate in infertile men. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and CINAHL were searched for relevant trials published from respective database inception dates to May 2009. Study selection, quality appraisal and data extraction were performed independently and in duplicate. Seventeen randomized trials, including a total of 1665 men, were identified, which differed in the populations studied and type, dosage and duration of antioxidants used. Only two-thirds of the studies (11/17) reported using allocation concealment and three studies (18%) used intention-to-treat analysis. Despite the methodological and clinical heterogeneity, 14 of the 17 (82%) trials showed an improvement in either sperm quality or pregnancy rate after antioxidant therapy. Ten trials examined pregnancy rate and six showed a significant improvement after antioxidant therapy. The use of oral antioxidants in infertile men could improve sperm quality and pregnancy rates. Adequately powered robust trials of individual and combinations of antioxidants are needed to guide clinical practice. PMID:20378409

  4. Enterobius vermicularis infection of the fallopian tube in an infertile female.

    PubMed

    Young, Carmen; Tataryn, Ivanna; Kowalewska-Grochowska, Kinga T; Balachandra, Brinda

    2010-06-15

    Enterobius vermicularis (EV) is the most common nematode to infect humans. It inhabits the intestinal lumen, but rare, ectopic infections have been documented. The female genital tract is the most common ectopic site. We present a unique case of an EV infection of the fallopian tube resulting in inflammation, tubal obstruction, and infertility. A 30-year-old woman presented with infertility. Investigations included a laparoscopy with hydrotubation using methylene blue dye. This showed a left fallopian tube obstruction and extensive pelvic adhesions. A left salpingectomy was performed. Microscopic examination of the fallopian tube revealed numerous calcified and non-calcified ova associated with granulomatous reaction. The microscopic features were compatible with EV infection. Ectopic EV infections of the female genital tract result when the gravid female worm migrates from the perianal area to the vagina and ascends through the uterus and fallopian tubes to the peritoneal cavity. Microscopic examination of these ectopic sites can reveal adult worms or ova with granulomata formation, eosinophilic infiltrate, chronic inflammatory reaction, and fibrosis. The ova have a characteristic asymmetric oval configuration with flattening on one side. We postulate that our patient's salpingitis due to EV with accompanying fibrosis is a cause of her infertility. PMID:20080362

  5. The influence of endocrine disruptors in a selected population of infertile women.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Donatella; Bordi, Giulia; Ciardo, Francesca; Marci, Roberto; La Rocca, Cinzia; Tait, Sabrina; Bergamasco, Bruno; Stecca, Laura; Mantovani, Alberto; Guerranti, Cristiana; Fanello, Emiliano Leonida; Perra, Guido; Borghini, Francesca; Focardi, Silvano Ettore; Moscarini, Massimo

    2013-05-01

    Several studies report that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) able to interfere with endocrine homeostasis may affect women's reproductive health. We analyzed EDC serum levels and nuclear receptors (NRs) expression in order to have an indication of the internal dose of biologically active compounds and a measurement of indicators of their effects, as a result of the repeated uptake from environmental source. The percentage of patients with detectable bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations was significantly higher in the infertile patients compared with fertile subjects. No significant difference was found between the groups with regard to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) concentrations. Among infertile women, the mean expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and beta (Er?), androgen receptor (AR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) was significantly higher than fertile patients. The mean expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) did not show significant differences between two groups. Patients with endometriosis had higher levels of PPAR? than all women with other causes of infertility. This study led further support to EDC exposure as a risk factor for women's fertility. PMID:23347089

  6. Genome rearrangements and pervasive meiotic drive cause hybrid infertility in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Zanders, Sarah E; Eickbush, Michael T; Yu, Jonathan S; Kang, Ji-Won; Fowler, Kyle R; Smith, Gerald R; Malik, Harmit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid sterility is one of the earliest postzygotic isolating mechanisms to evolve between two recently diverged species. Here we identify causes underlying hybrid infertility of two recently diverged fission yeast species Schizosaccharomyces pombe and S. kambucha, which mate to form viable hybrid diploids that efficiently complete meiosis, but generate few viable gametes. We find that chromosomal rearrangements and related recombination defects are major but not sole causes of hybrid infertility. At least three distinct meiotic drive alleles, one on each S. kambucha chromosome, independently contribute to hybrid infertility by causing nonrandom spore death. Two of these driving loci are linked by a chromosomal translocation and thus constitute a novel type of paired meiotic drive complex. Our study reveals how quickly multiple barriers to fertility can arise. In addition, it provides further support for models in which genetic conflicts, such as those caused by meiotic drive alleles, can drive speciation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02630.001 PMID:24963140

  7. ‘At the hospital I learnt the truth’: diagnosing male infertility in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Fiona R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how men's reproductive bodies are problematised in rural northern Malawi as access to biomedically defined diagnoses of the health of men's sperm contribute to the visibility of male infertility. Ethnographic research with infertile and fertile men explored pathways into the sexual health and fertility services offered in district hospitals, men's clinical engagements and masculine imaginaries. The research suggested that men's willingness to be referred for semen analysis is an extension of intensive and persistent help-seeking for childlessness instigated by couples and encouraged by families. Within the laboratory, acceptable social arrangements for semen sample collection are negotiated between male clients and laboratory staff, which emphasise heterosexual and marital virility. Following diagnosis, counselling by clinical officers, without any significant therapeutic interventions, focuses on compassion in marriage. This paper considers: what is the role of semen analysis within public health facilities and why do men participate? How do men experience an infertility diagnosis and what do they and their partners do with this knowledge? In addition, how do these practices shape gendered relationships in families and communities? The analysis builds on Inhorn's (2012) concept of ‘emergent masculinities’ to better understand the connections between male subjectivities, medical technologies and the globalisation of male reproductive health, as they relate to men's lives in rural Malawi. PMID:25175293

  8. 'At the hospital I learnt the truth': diagnosing male infertility in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Fiona R

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how men's reproductive bodies are problematised in rural northern Malawi as access to biomedically defined diagnoses of the health of men's sperm contribute to the visibility of male infertility. Ethnographic research with infertile and fertile men explored pathways into the sexual health and fertility services offered in district hospitals, men's clinical engagements and masculine imaginaries. The research suggested that men's willingness to be referred for semen analysis is an extension of intensive and persistent help-seeking for childlessness instigated by couples and encouraged by families. Within the laboratory, acceptable social arrangements for semen sample collection are negotiated between male clients and laboratory staff, which emphasise heterosexual and marital virility. Following diagnosis, counselling by clinical officers, without any significant therapeutic interventions, focuses on compassion in marriage. This paper considers: what is the role of semen analysis within public health facilities and why do men participate? How do men experience an infertility diagnosis and what do they and their partners do with this knowledge? In addition, how do these practices shape gendered relationships in families and communities? The analysis builds on Inhorn's (2012) concept of 'emergent masculinities' to better understand the connections between male subjectivities, medical technologies and the globalisation of male reproductive health, as they relate to men's lives in rural Malawi. PMID:25175293

  9. Impact of soluble HLA-G levels and endometrial NK cells in uterine flushing samples from primary and secondary unexplained infertile women.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Roberta; Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Bortolotti, Daria; Graziano, Angela; Gentili, Valentina; Di Luca, Dario; Marci, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the levels of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) and endometrial Natural Killer ((e)NK) cell percentages in uterine flushing samples from primary and secondary infertile women. sHLA-G levels were lower in the uterine flushing samples from primary infertile women in comparison with women with secondary infertility. Lower CD56+KIR2DL4+ (e)NK cell percentages were detected in primary infertile women compared with secondary infertile women. This is the first study demonstrating that primary and secondary unexplained infertilities are characterized by different basal sHLA-G levels and CD56+KIR2DL4+ (e)NK cell percentages. PMID:25764161

  10. Impact of Soluble HLA-G Levels and Endometrial NK Cells in Uterine Flushing Samples from Primary and Secondary Unexplained Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Roberta; Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Bortolotti, Daria; Graziano, Angela; Gentili, Valentina; Di Luca, Dario; Marci, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the levels of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) and endometrial Natural Killer ((e)NK) cell percentages in uterine flushing samples from primary and secondary infertile women. sHLA-G levels were lower in the uterine flushing samples from primary infertile women in comparison with women with secondary infertility. Lower CD56+KIR2DL4+ (e)NK cell percentages were detected in primary infertile women compared with secondary infertile women. This is the first study demonstrating that primary and secondary unexplained infertilities are characterized by different basal sHLA-G levels and CD56+KIR2DL4+ (e)NK cell percentages. PMID:25764161

  11. Alteration in Endometrial Proteins during Early- and Mid-Secretory Phases of the Cycle in Women with Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Murli; Khan, Huma; Sirohi, Vijay Kumar; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad; Dwivedi, Anila

    2014-01-01

    Background Compromised receptivity of the endometrium is a major cause of unexplained infertility, implantation failure and subclinical pregnancy loss. In order to investigate the changes in endometrial protein profile as a cause of unexplained infertility, the current study was undertaken to analyze the differentially expressed proteins of endometrium from early-secretory (LH+2) to mid-secretory phase (LH+7), in women with unexplained infertility. Methods 2-D gel electrophoresis was performed to analyze the proteomic changes between early- (n?=?8) and mid-secretory (n?=?8) phase endometrium of women with unexplained infertility. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified by LC-MS analysis and validated by immunoblotting and immuno-histochemical analysis in early- (n?=?4) and mid-secretory (n?=?4) phase endometrium of infertile women. Validated proteins were also analyzed in early- (n?=?4) and mid-secretory (n?=?4) phase endometrium of fertile women. Results Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed between early- and mid- secretory phases of endometrium of infertile women. The expression of Ras-related protein Rap-1b, Protein disulfide isomerase A3, Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), Cofilin-1 and RAN GTP-binding nuclear protein (Ran) were found to be significantly increased, whereas, Tubulin polymerization promoting protein family member 3, Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], Sorcin, and Proteasome subunit alpha type-5 were significantly decreased in mid- secretory phase endometrium of infertile women as compared to early-secretory phase endometrium of infertile women. Validation of 4 proteins viz. Sorcin, Cofilin-1, Apo-A1 and Ran were performed in separate endometrial biopsy samples from infertile women. The up-regulated expression of Sorcin and down-regulated expression of Cofilin-1 and Apolipoprotein-A1, were observed in mid-secretory phase as compared to early-secretory phase in case of fertile women. Conclusions De-regulation of the expression of Sorcin, Cofilin-1, Apo-A1 and Ran, during early- to mid-secretory phase may have physiological significance and it may be one of the causes for altered differentiation and/or maturation of endometrium, in women with unexplained infertility. PMID:25405865

  12. MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism Increases the Male Infertility Risk: A Meta-Analysis Involving 26 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Mancheng; Dong, Wenjing; He, Tingyu; Shi, Zhirong; Huang, Guiying; Ren, Rui; Huang, Sichong; Qiu, Shaopeng; Yuan, Runqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism may be a risk factor for male infertility. However, the epidemiologic studies showed inconsistent results regarding MTHFR polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to re-examine the controversy. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were conducted to select eligible literatures for this meta-analysis (updated to June 19, 2014). According to our inclusion criteria and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), only high quality studies that observed the association between MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk were included. Crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of association between the MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk. Results Twenty-six studies involving 5,575 cases and 5,447 controls were recruited. Overall, MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism showed significant associations with male infertility risk in both fixed effects (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.23–1.46) and random effects models (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.19–1.62). Further, when stratified by ethnicity, sperm concentration and control sources, the similar results were observed in Asians, Caucasians, Azoo or OAT subgroup and both in population-based and hospital-based controls. Nevertheless, no significant association was only observed in oligo subgroup. Conclusions Our results indicated that the MTHFR polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of male infertility. Further well-designed analytical studies are necessary to confirm our conclusions and evaluate gene-environment interactions with male infertility risk. PMID:25793386

  13. Association of GSTM1 and GSTT1 Genes with the Susceptibility to Male Infertility: Result from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Hou-Qun; Qi, Yue; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Shuo-Ran

    2013-01-01

    The deletion polymorphisms of the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) genes were considered as candidates for genetic susceptibility factors of male infertility. Previous studies concerning the relationship between the null genotype of the two genes and male infertility have been reported in recent years. However, the results remain elusive. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the relationship between the deletion polymorphism of the GSTM1 or GSTT1 gene, and male infertility in this study. Sixteen studies concerning the GSTM1 gene, including 2174 cases and 1861 controls, and 13 case–control studies on the GSTT1 gene with a total number of 1992 cases and 1617 controls were processed. The results showed that the null genotype of the GSTM1 gene was associated with male infertility in the overall populations (P=0.003, OR=1.40, 95%CI=1.12–1.75), especially in Caucasian (P=0.012, OR=1.50, 95%CI=1.09–2.07) as well as Chinese (P=0.001, OR=1.55, 95%CI=1.19–2.03). The null genotype of the GSTT1 gene was strongly related to male infertility only in Chinese (P=0.000, OR=1.70, 95%CI=1.34–2.14). These results indicated that the null genotype of the GSTM1 gene might contribute to the susceptibility of male infertility, whereas the null genotype of the GSTT1 gene may be a genetic susceptibility factor of male infertility for the Chinese. PMID:23631429

  14. Prevalence and determinants of complementary and alternative medicine use among infertile patients in Lebanon: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used for the treatment of infertility. While the Middle East and North Africa region has been shown to house one of the fastest growing markets of CAM products in the world, research describing the use of CAM therapies among Middle-Eastern infertile patients is minimal. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, characteristics and determinants of CAM use among infertile patients in Lebanon. Methods A cross sectional survey design was used to carry out face-to-face interviews with 213 consecutive patients attending the Assisted Reproductive Unit at a major academic medical center in Beirut. The questionnaire comprised three sections: socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, infertility-related aspects and information on CAM use. The main outcome measure was the use of CAM modalities for infertility treatment. Determinants of CAM use were assessed through the logistic regression method. Results Overall, 41% of interviewed patients reported using a CAM modality at least once for their infertility. There was a differential by gender in the most commonly used CAM therapies; where males mostly used functional foods (e.g. honey & nuts) (82.9%) while females mostly relied on spiritual healing/prayer (56.5%). Factors associated with CAM use were higher household income (OR: 0.305, 95% CI: 0.132–0.703) and sex, with females using less CAM than males (OR: 0.12, 95% CI: 0.051–0.278). The older patients were diagnosed with infertility, the lower the odds of CAM use (p for trend <0.05). Almost half of the participants (48%) were advised on CAM use by their friends, and only 13% reported CAM use to their physician. Conclusions The considerably high use of CAM modalities among Lebanese infertile patients, added to a poor CAM use disclosure to physicians, underscore the need to integrate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as enhance infertile patients' awareness on safe use of CAM products. PMID:22901284

  15. The relationship between body mass index and sexual function in infertile women: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Zarei, Hossein; Rasekh Jahromi, Athar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infertility as the bitterest life experience can affect sexual function. Many studies have shown agitation, depression, marital dissatisfaction, and sexual dysfunction as the psychological outcomes resulting from infertility. Many factors, including body mass index, influence the female sexual function. Objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction and the relationship between sexual function and body mass index in the Iranian infertile women who had attended the infertility clinic. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 502 infertile women who had attended Honoree clinic, Jahrom in Iran between April 2012 and December 2012. The infertile cases were classified into three groups according to the body mass index: 20-24.9 (Group I), 25-29.9 (Group II), and >29.9 and above (Group III). In addition, Female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire was used in order to assess the sexual problems. Finally, the data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Student’s t-test. Results: The mean age of women was 30.95±6.80 years. The results showed that 430 subjects (87.1%) had sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, the rate of sexual dysfunction among the infertile women was reported as 23.30%, 31.47%, and 45.23% in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Considering body mass index, FSFI score was 21.65±1.70 in the women with normal weight, 18.08±1.52 in overweight women, and 12.21±3.62 in obese women and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was quite high in infertile women, which might be due to the lack of knowledge about marital issues and lack of training in the society. If body mass index is too high, it can have a great effect on fertility. In this study, being overweight and obese based on body mass index had a negative effect on the infertile woman’s sexual function. PMID:24799879

  16. PHYSIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Uterine infection: Linking infection and innate immunity with infertility in the high-producing dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Bromfield, J J; Santos, J E P; Block, J; Williams, R S; Sheldon, I M

    2015-05-01

    Uterine contamination with bacteria is ubiquitous in the postpartum dairy cow. Nearly one-half of all postpartum dairy cows develop clinical disease resulting in metritis and endometritis, which cause depressed milk production and infertility. The causative links between uterine infection and infertility include a hostile uterine environment, disrupted endocrine signaling, and perturbations in ovarian function and oocyte development. In this review we consider the various mechanisms linking uterine infection with infertility in the dairy cow, specifically 1) innate immune signaling in the endometrium, 2) alteration in endocrine signaling in response to infectious agents, and 3) impacts of infection on ovarian function, oocyte development, and follicular development. Normal ovarian follicular and oocyte development requires a series of temporally and spatially orchestrated events; however, several of the cellular pathways required for ovarian function are also used during the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. We propose that activation of cellular pathways during this immune response has a negative impact on ovarian physiology, which is manifest as infertility detected after the clearance of the bacteria. This review highlights how new insights into infection and immunity in cattle are linked to infertility. PMID:26020298

  17. Female dietary antioxidant intake and time to pregnancy among couples treated for unexplained infertility

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Reindollar, Richard H.; Goldman, Marlene B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether increased antioxidant intake in women is associated with shorter time to pregnancy (TTP) among a cohort of couples being treated for unexplained infertility. Design Secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Setting Academic medical center associated with a private infertility center. Patients Females with unexplained infertility. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure(s) The time it took to establish a pregnancy that led to a live birth. Results Mean nutrient intake exceeded the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins C and E. No differences in mean intake of any of the antioxidants were noted between women who delivered a live-born infant during the study period versus those who did not. In multivariable models, intake of ß-carotene from dietary supplements was associated with shorter TTP among women with BMI ? 25 kg/m2 (HR= 1.29, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.53) and women < 35 y (HR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.41). Intake of vitamin C from dietary supplements was associated with shorter TTP among women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (HR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.15) and women < 35 y (HR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.18). Intake of vitamin E from dietary supplements among women ? 35 y was also associated with shorter TTP (HR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.13). Conclusions Shorter TTP was observed among women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 with increasing vitamin C, women with BMI ? 25 kg/m2 with increasing ?-carotene, women < 35 y with increasing ?-carotene and vitamin C, and women ? 35y with increasing vitamin E. PMID:24355050

  18. Clinical Review#: State of the art for genetic testing of infertile men.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Robert I; O'Bryan, Moira K

    2010-03-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) now provides fertility in many cases of severe idiopathic spermatogenic failure and obstructive azoospermia. Genetic causes must be sought by systematic evaluation of infertile men and affected couples informed about the implications of such diagnoses for assisted reproductive technology outcome and their potential offspring. This review discusses established and emerging genetic disorders related to fertility practice. Chromosomal anomalies are found in about 7% men with idiopathic spermatogenic failure, predominantly numerical/structural in azoospermic men and translocations/inversions in oligospermic men. Routine karyotyping of men with sperm densities less than 10 million/ml, even in the absence of other clinical presentations, is recommended because infertility is associated with higher rates of aneuploidy in ejaculated or testicular sperm and increased chromosomal defects in ICSI offspring. The long arm of the Y chromosome microdeletions are the most common recognized genetic cause of infertility and are found in about 4% men with sperm densities less than 5 million/ml. Routine testing using strict quality assurance procedures is recommended. Azoospermia factor (AZF)-c deletions, the most common form of the long arm of the Y chromosome microdeletions, are usually associated with low levels of sperm in the ejaculate or in testis biopsies, whereas men with AZFa or AZFb+c deletions usually produce no testicular sperm. When AZF-deleted sperm are available and used for ICSI, fertility defects in male offspring seem inevitable. Bilateral congenital absence of the vas is associated with heterozygosity for cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor mutations making routine gene screening and genetic counseling of the couple essential. Testing for less common genetic associations/defects linked with different reproductive dysfunction may be applicable to specific patients but have not entered routine practice. PMID:20089613

  19. Metabolic syndrome and prostate abnormalities in male subjects of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Lotti, Francesco; Corona, Giovanni; Vignozzi, Linda; Rossi, Matteo; Maseroli, Elisa; Cipriani, Sarah; Gacci, Mauro; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    No previous study has evaluated systematically the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate-related symptoms and signs in young infertile men. We studied 171 (36.5 ± 8.3-years-old) males of infertile couples. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All men underwent hormonal (including total testosterone (TT) and insulin), seminal (including interleukin-8 (IL-8), seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8)), scrotal and transrectal ultrasound evaluations. Because we have previously assessed correlations between MetS and scrotal parameters in a larger cohort of infertile men, here, we focused on transrectal features. Prostate-related symptoms were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Twenty-two subjects fulfilled MetS criteria. In an age-adjusted logistic ordinal model, insulin levels increased as a function of MetS components (Wald = 29.5, P < 0.0001) and showed an inverse correlation with TT (adjusted r = -0.359, P< 0.0001). No association between MetS and NIH-CPSI or IPSS scores was observed. In an age-, TT-, insulin-adjusted logistic ordinal model, an increase in number of MetS components correlated negatively with normal sperm morphology (Wald = 5.59, P< 0.02) and positively with sIL-8 levels (Wald = 4.32, P < 0.05), which is a marker of prostate inflammation, with prostate total and transitional zone volume assessed using ultrasound (Wald = 17.6 and 12.5, both P < 0.0001), with arterial peak systolic velocity (Wald = 9.57, P = 0.002), with texture nonhomogeneity (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.87 (1.05–3.33), P < 0.05), with calcification size (Wald = 3.11, P < 0.05), but not with parameters of seminal vesicle size or function. In conclusion, in males of infertile couples, MetS is positively associated with prostate enlargement, biochemical (sIL8) and ultrasound-derived signs of prostate inflammation but not with prostate-related symptoms, which suggests that MetS is a trigger for a subclinical, early-onset form of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:24435050

  20. Oxidative DNA damage impairs global sperm DNA methylation in infertile men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozlem Tunc; Kelton Tremellen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  Methylation of sperm DNA is impaired in many infertile men potentially adversely effecting reproductive outcomes. In somatic\\u000a cells oxidative damage to DNA and hyperhomocysteinaemia are linked with DNA hypomethylation. The objective of this study was\\u000a to investigate if these pathologies also impair sperm DNA methylation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The relationship between sperm DNA quality, oxidative stress and serum homocysteine was analysed at study

  1. Metabolic syndrome and prostate abnormalities in male subjects of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Lotti, Francesco; Corona, Giovanni; Vignozzi, Linda; Rossi, Matteo; Maseroli, Elisa; Cipriani, Sarah; Gacci, Mauro; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    No previous study has evaluated systematically the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate-related symptoms and signs in young infertile men. We studied 171 (36.5 ± 8.3-years-old) males of infertile couples. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All men underwent hormonal (including total testosterone (TT) and insulin), seminal (including interleukin-8 (IL-8), seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8)), scrotal and transrectal ultrasound evaluations. Because we have previously assessed correlations between MetS and scrotal parameters in a larger cohort of infertile men, here, we focused on transrectal features. Prostate-related symptoms were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Twenty-two subjects fulfilled MetS criteria. In an age-adjusted logistic ordinal model, insulin levels increased as a function of MetS components (Wald = 29.5, P < 0.0001) and showed an inverse correlation with TT (adjusted r = -0.359, P< 0.0001). No association between MetS and NIH-CPSI or IPSS scores was observed. In an age-, TT-, insulin-adjusted logistic ordinal model, an increase in number of MetS components correlated negatively with normal sperm morphology (Wald = 5.59, P< 0.02) and positively with sIL-8 levels (Wald = 4.32, P < 0.05), which is a marker of prostate inflammation, with prostate total and transitional zone volume assessed using ultrasound (Wald = 17.6 and 12.5, both P < 0.0001), with arterial peak systolic velocity (Wald = 9.57, P = 0.002), with texture nonhomogeneity (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.87 (1.05-3.33), P < 0.05), with calcification size (Wald = 3.11, P< 0.05), but not with parameters of seminal vesicle size or function. In conclusion, in males of infertile couples, MetS is positively associated with prostate enlargement, biochemical (sIL8) and ultrasound-derived signs of prostate inflammation but not with prostate-related symptoms, which suggests that MetS is a trigger for a subclinical, early-onset form of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:24435050

  2. Evaluation of embryo collection and transfer as diagnostic tools for bovine infertility 

    E-print Network

    Barrios, Diego Ramon

    1981-01-01

    , '27, 15v). Four early fetal losses we, e also assumed in the con- nv trois, ranging from 40 to 60 days. The EC results in infertile cattle confirmed: a) ovulation, ovum transport, and fertilization in 18$ of heifers (2/11) and 50$ of cows (2.../4); and b) ovulation and ovum transport in 27$ of heifers (3/11) and 50/ of cows (2/4). Overall, 60$ of the RBS cattle (9/15) were diagnosed by EC. On the other hand, ET results confirmed that there was capacity to carry a fetus to term in 7$ of the RBS...

  3. Reversible infertility, pharmaceutical and spontaneous, in a male with late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia, due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kalachanis, I; Rousso, D; Kourtis, A; Goutzioulis, F; Makedos, G; Panidis, D

    2002-01-01

    The authors describe a case of a 35-year-old man with 5-year duration infertility. History, clinical examination, and laboratory tests have established the diagnosis of late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia, due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Treatment with dexamethasone resulted in improvement of sperm quality, and 4 months later a pregnancy was achieved. Two years after the patient fathered his first child, and while he had discontinued dexamethasone treatment, he succeeded at a second pregnancy. The authors conclude that (1) late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia presents with significant variation during the patient's lifetime; (2) glucocorticoid administration is necessary in infertile men with nonclassic form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency; and (3) in cases of male infertility of unknown origin, the patient must be scrutinized for congenital adrenal hyperplasia, especially the nonclassic form. PMID:11789681

  4. A missense mutation in the Capza3 gene and disruption of F-actin organization in spermatids of repro32 infertile male mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher B. Geyer; Amy L. Inselman; Jeffrey A. Sunman; Sheila Bornstein; Mary Ann Handel; Edward M. Eddy

    2009-01-01

    Males homozygous for the repro32 ENU-induced mutation produced by the Reproductive Genomics program at The Jackson Laboratory are infertile, have low epididymal sperm concentrations, and produce sperm with abnormally shaped heads and poor motility. The purpose of the present study was to identify the mutated gene in repro32 mice and to define the structural and functional changes causing infertility and

  5. Ten-year Retrospective Study on the Efficacy of a Manual Physical Therapy to Treat Female Infertility.

    PubMed

    Rice, Amanda D; Patterson, Kimberley; Wakefield, Leslie B; Reed, Evette D; Breder, Kelseanne P; Wurn, Belinda F; King Iii, Richard; Wurn, Lawrence J

    2015-05-01

    Background • Female infertility is a complex issue encompassing a wide variety of diagnoses, many of which are caused or affected by adhesions. Objectives • The study intended to examine the rates of successful treatment of infertile women using a protocol of manual physical therapy to address underlying adhesive disease leading to infertility. Methods • The research team designed a retrospective chart review. Setting • The study took place in a private physical therapy clinic. Participants • Participants were 1392 female patients who were treated at the clinic between the years of 2002 and 2011. They had varying diagnoses of infertility, including occluded fallopian tubes, hormonal dysfunction, and endometriosis, and some women were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Intervention • All patients underwent whole-body, patient-centered treatments that used a protocol of manual physical therapy, which focused on restoring mobility and motility to structures affecting reproductive function. Outcome Measures • Improvements demonstrated in the condition(s) causing infertility were measured by improvements in tubal patency and/or improved hormone levels or by pregnancy. Results • The results included a 60.85% rate of clearing occluded fallopian tubes, with a 56.64% rate of pregnancy in those patients. Patients with endometriosis experienced a 42.81% pregnancy rate. The success rate was 49.18% for lowering elevated levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), with a 39.34% pregnancy rate in that group, and 53.57% of the women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) achieved pregnancy. The reported pregnancy rate for patients who underwent IVF after the therapy was 56.16%. The results also suggested that the treatment was effective for patients with premature ovarian failure (POF). Conclusion • The manual physical therapy represented an effective, conservative treatment for women diagnosed as infertile due to mechanical causes, independent of the specific etiology. PMID:26026143

  6. Biomedical infertility care in sub-Saharan Africa: a social science review of current practices, experiences and view points

    PubMed Central

    Gerrits, T.; Shaw, M.

    2010-01-01

    Some sort of infertility treatments, including the use of advanced reproductive technologies (ARTs), is nowadays provided at several places in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, to date only a few studies have actually looked into the way these treatments are offered, used and experienced. In this review article the authors present and discuss empirical study findings that give insight into the way biomedical infertility care is provided, considered, experienced and/or used in sub-Saharan African countries. They concentrate on four themes that were often referred to in the reviewed studies and underline the importance of taking into account the local sociocultural context and notions when developing and implementing infertility care, namely: counselling, male involvement, acceptability of ARTs and the use of donor material (semen and embryos). In the conclusion the authors emphasize the importance of preventing infertility as part of integrated reproductive health programs and the need to improve the quality of (low tech) infertility care in the public health sector by means of standardized guidelines, training of health staff and improved counselling. In addition, from a reproductive rights perspective, they support initiatives to introduce low cost ARTs to treat tubal factor related infertility. They also point to potential unintended side effects of the introduction of ARTs and the use of donor material in the sub-Saharan African context, affecting gender inequity and inequity between citizens from different social classes, and argue that such effects should be acknowledged and avoided by all possible means. Finally, they present an agenda for future social science research on this topic in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25013712

  7. Infertility, Ovulation Induction Treatments and the Incidence of Breast Cancer—a Historical Prospective Cohort of Israeli Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lerner-Geva; L. Keinan-Boker; T. Blumstein; V. Boyko; L. Olmar; S. Mashiach; J. Rabinovici; G. Potashnik; E. Lunenfeld; J. G. Schenker; A. Shushan; A. Fishman; I. Cohen; I. Vagman; B. Lunenfeld

    2006-01-01

    Context  Ovulation induction drugs may be associated with increased breast cancer risk. Results so far have been inconclusive.Objective  To evaluate the association between infertility, exposure to ovulation induction drugs and the incidence of breast cancer.Design  Historical prospective cohort and nested case–control study.Setting  Institutional practicePatients  About 5,788 women attending five infertility centers in Israel between 1964 and 1984.Intention  Abstracting of medical records and telephone interviews.Main outcome measure  Breast

  8. FSHR gene Thr307Ala and Asn680Ser polymorphisms in infertile men: an association study in North China and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, X Q; Xu, S M; Wang, Y Q; Li, Q; Wang, Z Q; Zhang, C L; Shen, Y

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility is a complex multifactorial and polygenic disease, and genetic factors play an important role in its formation and development. Recently, the association between follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene polymorphisms and male infertility risk has attracted widespread attention due to the unique biological functions of FSH. The aim of this study was to further explore the associations between the Thr307Ala and Asn680Ser polymorphisms of the FSHR gene and male infertility. A case-control study of 212 infertile and 164 fertile men from North China was performed. FSHR polymorphism genotypes were obtained through direct DNA sequencing. A meta-analysis was also performed. In the single-site association analysis, no significant associations were identified between FSHR Thr307Ala and Asn680Ser polymorphisms and male infertility (P > 0.05). However, we found that the combined genotypic frequency of Thr/Ala + Asn/Asn was higher in infertile patients than in controls (6.6 vs 1.8%; odds ratio (OR) = 3.795; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.072-13.434, P = 0.027). In the meta-analysis, there was also no evidence of FSHR polymorphism (rs 6165 and rs 6168) association with male infertility (P > 0.05). However, we found that the combined genotypes Thr/Thr + Asn/Asn had an increased risk of male infertility (OR = 1.238; 95%CI: 1.001-1.537, P = 0.049). Our studies further confirmed reports that there were no significant associations between the FSHR Thr307Ala and Asn680Ser polymorphisms and male infertility risk. However, a combined FSHR genotype showed significant association with male infertility. PMID:26125757

  9. Benzo(A)pyrene (BaP) treatment results in complete infertility in female pigeons

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, J.L.; Darrow, D.; Eaton, J.; Baird, M.B. (Masonic Medical Research Lab., Utica, NY (United States))

    1991-03-11

    BaP is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and a common environmental pollutant. Show Racer and White Carneau female pigeons injected weekly with BaP for 3 for 5 months were completely infertile, with ovaries appearing necrotic or oxidized. Fertility in benzo(e)pyrene (BeP, a noncarcinogenic PAH) treated birds was the same as for corn oil treated controls, as was embryo development. Thus, infertility in BaP treated birds appears to be related to its structure-carcinogenic potential. There was no readily apparent affect of BaP treatment on testes from male birds. In order to determine whether BaP metabolites covalently bind to DNA in the ovaries of these birds, pigeons were injected with BaP or BeP, controls were injected with corn oil. Animals were sacrificed 24h later, the ovaries or testes removed, and the DNA isolated and analyzed for PAH-DNA adducts by {sup 32}P-post labeling assay. One major and one minor PAH-DNA adduct was found in ovaries and testes from BaP treated birds. However, no PAH adducts were found in BeP treated or control animals. Thus, problems with fertility may arise because of the alteration in DNA by BaP metabolite binding in ovaries where rapid cell growth occurs during egg production.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis heat shock protein-60 induced interferon-? and interleukin-10 production in infertile women

    PubMed Central

    KINNUNEN, A; SURCEL, H-M; HALTTUNEN, M; TIITINEN, A; MORRISON, R P; MORRISON, S G; KOSKELA, P; LEHTINEN, M; PAAVONEN, J

    2003-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis-associated tubal factor infertility (TFI) involves enhanced humoral and cell-mediated immune response to the chlamydial 60 kDa heat shock protein (CHSP60). We evaluated the role of CHSP60-induced immune response in TFI by studying lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine (interferon (IFN)-?, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-10) secretion in response to C. trachomatis elementary body (EB) and CHSP60 antigens in 57 women with TFI and in 76 women with other causes of infertility. Positive proliferative response of PBMC to CHSP60 was more common in the TFI group (20/57; 36%) than in the other groups (17/76; 22%) although the frequency or the median responses did not differ significantly (1·6, range 0·2–22·1 versus 1·4; 0·2–24·4). C. trachomatis EB induced significantly higher IFN-? and lower IL-10 secretion in the TFI group compared to the other groups. The EB and CHSP60 induced IL-12 secretion was similar in all study groups and correlated with IFN-? secretion in the other but not in the TFI group. The lack of correlation between EB-induced IL-12 and IFN-? production and simultaneously found prominent IL-10 secretion in response to CHSP60 in the TFI group suggests that the CHSP60 may have a specific role in regulating the immune reactions during chlamydial infection and may consequently contribute to the immunopathogenesis of TFI. PMID:12562392

  11. Insight into human sex ratio imbalance: the more boys born, the more infertile men.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hanhua; Shang, Xuan; He, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Rongjia

    2007-11-01

    This study investigated, through large-scale statistical analysis of the global population, whether the human sex ratio is skewing worldwide, and if so, why and how it shifts, and the impact of any shift on human reproduction. A significant imbalance of the sex ratio was observed in the whole human population, resulting in a vicious circle where the more boys born, the more infertile men occur as a consequence of the adjustment of the human sex ratio. It is proposed that both accelerated degeneration of the Y chromosome and dynamically differential fertilization of the egg by the X- and Y-bearing spermatozoa may contribute to the changing structure of the human population, suggesting a potential selection pressure favouring an alternative sex-determining/differentiation system for the human species: the DMRT1 gene on the autosome may tend to replace the SRY gene on the Y chromosome as a master sex-determining gene during evolution. These viewpoints may open a debate on the future of the human race, and assist in guiding diagnostic, prognostic and preventive treatments of human infertility and in defining population policy. PMID:18028737

  12. Corifollitropin alfa, a long-acting follicle-stimulating hormone agonist for the treatment of infertility.

    PubMed

    Loutradis, Dimitris; Drakakis, Petros; Vlismas, Antonis; Antsaklis, Aristidis

    2009-04-01

    Corifollitropin alfa is being developed by Schering-Plough Corp as an injectable, long-acting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) agonist for the treatment of infertility. A single dose of corifollitropin alfa could initiate and sustain multifollicular growth in patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation, such as during in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The agent comprises an alpha-subunit, which is identical to that of FSH, and a beta-subunit, which is produced by the fusion of the C-terminal peptide from the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin to the beta-subunit of FSH. Corifollitropin alfa has a longer half-life compared with FSH and thus requires less frequent dosing. The drug was well tolerated and does not appear to be associated with any serious adverse events or the formation of antibodies. The initial results from a large, phase III, double-blind clinical trial indicated that the ongoing pregnancy rate achieved with corifollitropin alfa treatment was high and similar to the rate established with daily treatment of recombinant FSH. The number of oocytes retrieved following the administration of corifollitropin alfa was slightly higher compared with the number observed with daily recombinant FSH treatment. Thus, corifollitropin alfa has the potential to serve as a viable fertility agent and to gain a place in the infertility market. PMID:19337959

  13. The indirect effect of contextual factors on the emotional distress of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Moura-Ramos, M; Gameiro, S; Canavarro, M C; Soares, I; Santos, T A

    2012-01-01

    Few studies were dedicated to study the role of contextual factors, such as the socioeconomic status and urban or rural residence in emotional distress of infertile couples. This study aimed to explore the impact of contextual factors on emotional distress, either directly or by affecting the importance of parenthood in one's life, which in turn affects emotional distress. In this cross-sectional study, 70 couples recruited during hormonal stimulation phase prior to in vitro fertilisation completed clinical and sociodemographic forms and self-report questionnaires assessing representations about the importance of parenthood and emotional distress. Path analysis using structural equation modelling was used to examine direct and indirect effects among variables. Results indicated that socioeconomic status and place of residence had an impact in emotional distress by affecting the representations about the importance of parenthood in one's life. Gender differences were found regarding model paths, suggesting that the social context may have a stronger influence on women's emotional distress than on their partners' distress. When delineating psychological interventions, health care providers should consider that cultural values about children and parenthood contribute to shape the infertility experience. PMID:21767233

  14. Increased levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Kullisaar, T; Türk, S; Kilk, K; Ausmees, K; Punab, M; Mändar, R

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the prevalence of oxidative stress in male partners of infertile couples displaying different inflammation patterns in their genital tract and/or oligospermia. The levels of acknowledged oxidative stress markers (8-isoprostanes [8-EPI], diene conjugates, reactive oxygen species-total antioxidant capacity [ROS-TAC] score) were elevated in both leukocytospermic men and subjects whose inflammation was limited only to expressed prostatic secretion and/or post-massage urine. Oligospermic men with severe inflammation were different from oligospermic men who had no inflammation at all - the former had elevated 8-EPI, diene conjugates and ROS-TAC score when compared to the latter indicating that inflammation has substantially more significant impact on oxidative stress markers than oligospermia status. At the same time nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) levels were significantly increased not only in the men with severe inflammation but also in men with borderline inflammation in their genital tact and in men having non-inflammatory oligospermia. NO, H2 O2 and 8-EPI were negatively correlated with per cent of normal sperms, and NO and H2 O2 showed negative correlation also with sperm count. We can conclude that in men presenting with couple infertility the acknowledged oxidative stress markers are substantially associated with markers of inflammation in genital tract while NO and H2 O2 display high levels also in patients with mild inflammation and non-inflammatory oligospermia. PMID:24106058

  15. [Psychosocial aspects of the direct path from infertility to the "instant family": are all risks known].

    PubMed

    Baor, Liora; Blickstein, Isaac

    2005-05-01

    Infertility is invariably described as a crisis event. Couples who encounter infertility are further challenged with the accompanied sense of profound losses: loss of health, sexuality, status and prestige, relationship, self-confidence, self-esteem, security, and the fantasy for biological parenthood. Fertility treatments (ART) create hope and cure for the problem on one hand, but place a tremendous burden on the couple's resources on the other. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), carry potential risks for both the infant and for the mother, in addition to diverse negative psychosocial consequences for the couple. However, it seems that couples either ignore these risks or are unaware of them, and therefore, wish to accomplish the "instant family" (more than one child) via a shortcut (one pregnancy). Although it is impossible to ignore the numerous children born with the aid of ART, it is crucial that professionals inform the couple about the medical as well as the psychological consequences that accompany fertility treatments, to enable couples to make more realistic decisions. PMID:15931897

  16. Prenatal expectations in transition to parenthood: former infertility and family dynamic considerations.

    PubMed

    Flykt, Marjo; Lindblom, Jallu; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Poikkeus, Piia; Repokari, Leena; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Vilska, Sirpa; Sinkkonen, Jari; Tiitinen, Aila; Almqvist, Fredrik; Tulppala, Maija

    2009-12-01

    Prenatal expectations are important for the future parent-child relationship. The authors examined how maternal and paternal prenatal expectations of the relationship with the child predicted 1st-year parenting stress and whether these expectations were violated over the transition to parenthood. They further examined how former infertility affected these associations. The participants were 745 Finnish couples, 367 having undergone a successful assisted reproductive treatment and 378 conceiving spontaneously. Couples completed a questionnaire of family representations during pregnancy and when the child was 2 and 12 months old and Abidin's Parenting Stress Index at 2 and 12 months postpartum. The hypothesis of moderately high expectations predicting the lowest level of parenting stress was substantiated only concerning paternal expectations of own autonomy with the child. Generally, however, negative expectations of own and spouse's relationship with the child were linearly associated with higher parenting stress. Postnatal representations were more positive or equal to expectations, except for negative violation occurring in maternal expectation of the father-child relationship, especially among normative mothers. The results are discussed in relation to family dynamic considerations and special features of formerly infertile couples. PMID:20001136

  17. Radio-immunoassay of salivary progesterone for monitoring ovarian function in female infertility.

    PubMed

    Luisi, M; Franchi, F; Bianchi, S; Gravina, G; Podesta, A

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-two women, aged from 25 to 41 years, with infertility due to chronic anovulation were admitted to the study together with 36 age-matched controls with proven ovulatory cycles. Paired plasma (3 ml) and whole unstimulated saliva (10 ml) samples were collected over a 30 day period, starting from the first day of a menstrual bleeding, in patients, and throughout the menstrual cycle, in controls. Salivary progesterone levels, measured in women with infertility, ranged from undetectable values to 16 pmol/l during the first, and from 36 to 98 pmol/l during the second half of the monitoring period. In eugonadal women the steroid levels ranged from 34 to 46 pmol/l and from 96 to 780 pmol/l during the follicular and luteal phases, respectively. The saliva/plasma progesterone ratio ranged from 0.58 to 2.71 p. cent and a good correlation between salivary and plasma levels was found at each time of monitoring. Many (86 p. cent) of patients, which were randomly allocated to a low- or high-dose epimestrol administration schedule, appeared to be sensitive to the drug, achieving, after therapy, salivary progesterone levels which were within the range of controls. Since correct assessment of luteal function in basal conditions and during therapy requires multiple steroid measurements, and since saliva can be obtained by non-invasive techniques, salivary assays represent an attractive alternative to plasma ones for monitoring ovarian activity, also during specific treatment. PMID:3674548

  18. Treating Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lifestyle changes, medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology (ART) may be recommended. Several different treatments may be ... of intrauterine insemination? • What is assisted reproductive technology (ART)? • How can I find out ART success rates? • ...

  19. Male Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in both print and download format. View Products Urology Care Foundation 1000 Corporate Boulevard Linthicum, MD 21090 ... Conditions Financials & Annual Report Leadership Privacy Statement © 2015 Urology Care Foundation | All Rights Reserved.

  20. The attitudes of the Australian community to treatment of infertility by in vitro fertilization and associated procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabor T. Kovacs; Carl Wood; Gary Morgan; Margaret Brumby

    1985-01-01

    Sequential surveys of public opinion within the Australian community have consistently demonstrated very significant support for in vitro fertilization (IVF) to enable infertile couples to have children. Embryo freezing and the use of donor gametes have lower approval rates, but those who approve significantly outnumber those who disapprove. There was no community concensus about the use of surrogacy as an

  1. Have androgen receptor gene CAG and GGC repeat polymorphisms an effect on sperm motility in infertile men?

    PubMed

    Delli Muti, N; Agarwal, A; Buldreghini, E; Gioia, A; Lenzi, A; Boscaro, M; Balercia, G

    2014-06-01

    Androgens and a normal androgen receptor (AR) are required for normal spermatogenesis. We investigated polyglutamine (CAG) and a polyglycine (GGC) tract in Italian men with defective spermatogenesis. We studied a group of 40 infertile men with spermatogenesis failure without Y-chromosome microdeletions compared with 60 normozoospermic ones. The distributions of both polymorphisms, within the normal range of Caucasian populations, were similar among infertile men and controls. Nonetheless, we observed that the frequency comparison of each CAG allele showed a statistical difference in the allele CAG 22; GGC 17 was the more predominant allele in infertile men than in controls. Moreover, to investigate the hypothesis that semen characteristics are perturbed by androgen receptor allele variants, we tried to detect a link between triplets and sperm motility in all subjects (cases plus controls). Subjects were subdivided into three groups, based on calculated allele frequencies. A significantly decreased motility, related to a longer CAG and GGC tracts, and marked differences between the groups exist for both polymorphisms. Our data highlight a probable relationship between the allele CAG 22/GGC 17 and a defective spermatogenesis in infertile men, suggesting that these polymorphisms might have an important effect on AR function. PMID:23725463

  2. Correlation between Abortion and Infertility among Nonsmoking Women with a History of Passive Smoking in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhani, Jila; Yadollah-Damavandi, Soheila; Mirlohi, Seyed Mohammad-Javad; Nasiri, Seyede Mahnaz; Parsa, Yekta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation of exposing to the cigarette smoke in childhood and adolescence with infertility and abortion in women. This case-control study evaluated 178 women who had been attended to at the Amir-al-Momenin Hospital in Tehran in 2012-2013. Seventy-eight women with chief complaint of abortion, infertility, and missed abortion and 100 healthy women were considered as case and control groups, respectively. The tool was a questionnaire with two parts. In the first part demographic information was gathered and in the second part the information regarding the history of passive smoking in childhood and adolescence period, abortion, and infertility was gathered. The mean age in case and control groups was 26.24 ± 3.1 and 27.3 ± 4.2 years, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.74 ± 1.38?Kg/m2. Abortion rates among passive smoker and nonpassive smoker patients were statistically significant (P = 0.036). Based on findings of this study, the experience of being a passive smoker in childhood and adolescence in women will increase the risk of abortion and infertility in the future, which could be the reason to encourage the society to step back from smoking cigarettes. PMID:25763404

  3. Detection of oxidative DNA damage in human sperm and its association with sperm function and male infertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han-Ming Shen; Choon-Nam Ong

    2000-01-01

    The expanding research interest in the last two decades on reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, and male infertility has led to the development of various techniques for evaluating oxidative DNA damage in human spermatozoa. Measurement of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) offers a specific and quantitative biomarker on the extent of oxidative DNA damage caused by ROS in human sperm. The close

  4. Strategies for the use of insulin-sensitizing drugs to treat infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Nestler; Dale Stovall; Nausheen Akhter; Maria J. Iuorno; Daniela J. Jakubowicz

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Insulin resistance and its compensatory hyperinsulinemia play a key pathogenic role in the infertility of the polycystic ovary syndrome. Numerous studies indicate that insulin-sensitizing drugs can be used to enhance spontaneous ovulation and the induction of ovulation in the syndrome. The aim of this review is to summarize the studies in which insulin-sensitizing drugs were used to increase ovulation

  5. Chronic prostatitis and male accessory gland infection - is there an impact on male infertility (diagnosis and therapy)?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Everaert; A. Mahmoud; C. Depuydt; M. Maeyaert; F. Comhaire

    2003-01-01

    Summary. The aim of this article was to discuss by means of a review of the literature and own study material the multifactorial aetiology of male infer- tility, extrapolate this hypothesis to male accessory gland infection (MAGI) and relate it to chronic prostatitis and its treatment. Infertility is a multifac- torial disease and diagnosis and therapy must be oriented as

  6. Endometriosis-associated infertility: a decade's trend study of women from the Estrie region of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Paris, Krystel; Aris, Aziz

    2010-11-01

    Endometriosis (ENDO) has been believed to increase during the last years, but recent data supporting this trend are lacking. The aim of this study was to verify whether the incidence of ENDO, infertility (INF) and the both increased during the last 10 years among women living in the Estrie region of Quebec. This retrospective cross-sectional study was realised using data from the CIRESS (Centre Informatisé de Recherche Evaluative en Services et Soins de Santé) system, the database of the CHUS (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke), Sherbrooke, Canada. Among the 6845 studied patients, 2564 had ENDO, 4537 were infertile and 256 suffered from both. According to the last 10 years, a significant increase in the number of cases with ENDO (r2 = 0.717, p = 0.001) and endometriosis-associated infertility (r2 = 0.601, p = 0.003) was noted, while INF remained stable (r2 = 2813 e-005, p = 0.987). We showed a prevalence of ENDO of 10.91%. Women with ENDO were at increased risk for being infertile (OR = 2.30; 95% CI = 2.014-2.626, p <0.0001). An increase of ENDO in women 18-24 years of age has been shown (r2 = 0.418, p = 0.023), suggesting an earlier onset of the disease. PMID:20486880

  7. Exposure to Endocrine Disrupters and Nuclear Receptor Gene Expression in Infertile and Fertile Women from Different Italian Areas

    PubMed Central

    La Rocca, Cinzia; Tait, Sabrina; Guerranti, Cristiana; Busani, Luca; Ciardo, Francesca; Bergamasco, Bruno; Stecca, Laura; Perra, Guido; Mancini, Francesca Romana; Marci, Roberto; Bordi, Giulia; Caserta, Donatella; Focardi, Silvano; Moscarini, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Within the PREVIENI project, infertile and fertile women were enrolled from metropolitan, urban and rural Italian areas. Blood/serum levels of several endocrine disrupters (EDs) (perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS; perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA; di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate, DEHP; mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate, MEHP; bisphenol A, BPA) were evaluated concurrently with nuclear receptors (NRs) gene expression levels (ER?, ER?, AR, AhR, PPAR?, PXR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Infertile women from the metropolitan area displayed significantly higher levels of: BPA compared to fertile women (14.9 vs. 0.5 ng/mL serum); BPA and MEHP compared to infertile women from urban and rural areas; enhanced expression levels of NRs, except PPAR?. Infertile women from urban and rural areas had PFOA levels significantly higher than those from metropolitan areas. Our study indicates the relevance of the living environment when investigating the exposure to EDs and the modulation of the NR panel in PBMC as a suitable biomarker of the effect, to assess the EDs impact on reproductive health. PMID:25268510

  8. Exposure to endocrine disrupters and nuclear receptor gene expression in infertile and fertile women from different Italian areas.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Cinzia; Tait, Sabrina; Guerranti, Cristiana; Busani, Luca; Ciardo, Francesca; Bergamasco, Bruno; Stecca, Laura; Perra, Guido; Mancini, Francesca Romana; Marci, Roberto; Bordi, Giulia; Caserta, Donatella; Focardi, Silvano; Moscarini, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Within the PREVIENI project, infertile and fertile women were enrolled from metropolitan, urban and rural Italian areas. Blood/serum levels of several endocrine disrupters (EDs) (perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS; perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA; di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate, DEHP; mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate, MEHP; bisphenol A, BPA) were evaluated concurrently with nuclear receptors (NRs) gene expression levels (ERa, ERb, AR, AhR, PPARg, PXR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Infertile women from the metropolitan area displayed significantly higher levels of: BPA compared to fertile women (14.9 vs. 0.5 ng/mL serum); BPA and MEHP compared to infertile women from urban and rural areas; enhanced expression levels of NRs, except PPARg. Infertile women from urban and rural areas had PFOA levels significantly higher than those from metropolitan areas. Our study indicates the relevance of the living environment when investigating the exposure to EDs and the modulation of the NR panel in PBMC as a suitable biomarker of the effect, to assess the EDs impact on reproductive health. PMID:25268510

  9. Biosciences Undergraduate Research at Nottingham School of Biosciences, UoN, 2009. 1 Captive Elephant Infertility: Consequences for Conservation

    E-print Network

    Nottingham, University of

    reproductive tract. Elephants demonstrate the longest oestrous cycle which occurs over 13-17 weeks Captive Elephant Infertility: Consequences for Conservation By Kimberley Noon Supervisor Dr Martin Luck Elephants are a much studied species provoking affectionate interest from an enormous TV audience exposed

  10. CAG-repeat variant in the polymerase ? gene and male infertility in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu-Yuan; Zhang, Chang-Jun; Peng, Hai-Ying; Yao, Yu-Feng; Shi, Lei; Chen, Jin-Bao; Lin, Ke-Qin; Yu, Liang; Shi, Li; Huang, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Hao; Chu, Jia-You

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported a relationship between the length of the CAG-repeat in the polymerase ? (POLG) gene and male infertility. However, other studies have not reproduced this result. In our study, the POLG-CAG-repeat length was analyzed in 535 healthy individuals from six Chinese Han populations living in different provinces. The frequencies of 10-CAG alleles and genotypes were high (97.38 and 94.13%, respectively), with no significant difference among the six Chinese Han populations. Furthermore, we determined the distribution of the POLG-CAG-repeat in 150 infertile men and 126 fertile men. Our study suggested that the distributions of POLG-CAG-repeat alleles and genotypes were not significantly different between infertile (95.67 and 92.67%, respectively) and fertile men (97.22 and 94.44%, respectively). In a subsequent meta-analysis, combining our data with data from previous studies, a comparison of the CAG-repeat alleles in fertile versus infertile men showed no obvious risk for male infertility associated with any particular allele (pooled odds ratio (OR)=0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60–1.48). The significance level was not attained with any of the following genetic models: homozygote comparison (not 10/not 10 versus 10/10: OR=1.34; 95% CI: 0.66–2.72), heterozygote comparison (10/not 10 versus 10/10: OR=1.04; 95% CI: 0.78–1.38), dominant model comparison (not 10/not 10+10/not 10 versus 10/10: OR=1.08; 95% CI: 0.79–1.47) and recessive genetic comparison (not 10/not 10 versus 10/not 10+10/10: OR=1.31; 95% CI: 0.68–2.55). In conclusion, there is no significant difference of the frequencies of POLG-CAG-repeat variants among six Chinese Han populations, and this polymorphism may not be associated with Chinese male infertility. On the basis of a meta-analysis, there is no obvious association between CAG-repeat variants of the POLG gene and male infertility. PMID:21102476

  11. Differential Genes Expression between Fertile and Infertile Spermatozoa Revealed by Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Gupta, Nishi; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Rajender, Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background It was believed earlier that spermatozoa have no traces of RNA because of loss of most of the cytoplasm. Recent studies have revealed the presence of about 3000 different kinds of mRNAs in ejaculated spermatozoa. However, the correlation of transcriptome profile with infertility remains obscure. Methods Total RNA from sperm (after exclusion of somatic cells) of 60 men consisting of individuals with known fertility (n=20), idiopathic infertility (normozoospermic patients, n=20), and asthenozoospermia (n=20) was isolated. After RNA quality check on Bioanalyzer, AffymetrixGeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST Array was used for expression profiling, which consisted of >30,000 coding transcripts and >11,000 long intergenic non-coding transcripts. Results Comparison between all three groups revealed that two thousand and eighty one transcripts were differentially expressed. Analysis of these transcripts showed that some transcripts [ribosomal proteins (RPS25, RPS11, RPS13, RPL30, RPL34, RPL27, RPS5), HINT1, HSP90AB1, SRSF9, EIF4G2, ILF2] were up-regulated in the normozoospermic group, but down-regulated in the asthenozoospermic group in comparison to the control group. Some transcripts were specific to the normozoospermic group (up-regulated: CAPNS1, FAM153C, ARF1, CFL1, RPL19, USP22; down-regulated: ZNF90, SMNDC1, c14orf126, HNRNPK), while some were specific to the asthenozoospermic group (up-regulated: RPL24, HNRNPM, RPL4, PRPF8, HTN3, RPL11, RPL28, RPS16, SLC25A3, C2orf24, RHOA, GDI2, NONO, PARK7; down-regulated: HNRNPC, SMARCAD1, RPS24, RPS24, RPS27A, KIFAP3). A number of differentially expressed transcripts in spermatozoa were related to reproduction (n = 58) and development (n= 210). Some of these transcripts were related to heat shock proteins (DNAJB4, DNAJB14), testis specific genes (TCP11, TESK1, TSPYL1, ADAD1), and Y-chromosome genes (DAZ1, TSPYL1). Conclusion A complex RNA population in spermatozoa consisted of coding and non-coding RNAs. A number of transcripts that participate in a host of cellular processes, including reproduction and development were differentially expressed between fertile and infertile individuals. Differences between comparison groups suggest that sperm RNA has strong potential of acting as markers for fertility evaluation. PMID:25973848

  12. The “graying” of infertility services: an impending revolution nobody is ready for

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As demand for infertility services by older women continues to grow, because achievable in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes are widely underestimated, most fertility centers do not offer maximal treatment options with use of autologous oocytes. Limited data suggest that clinical IVF outcomes in excess of what the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) considers “futile” can, likely, be achieved up to at least age 45 years. Methods In an attempt to point out an evolving demographic trend in IVF, we here report our center’s IVF data for 2010-2012 and national U.S. data for 1997-2010. Though our center’s data are representative of only one IVF center’s patients, they, likely, are unique since they probably represent the most adversely selected IVF patient population ever reported and, thus, are predictive of future demographic trends. In addition we performed a systematic review of the literature on the subject based on PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar searches till year-end 2013. The literature search was performed using key words and phrases relevant to fertility treatments in older women. Results As demonstrated by our center’s patient demographics and national U.S. data, IVF centers are destined to treat increasingly adversely selected patients. Despite our center’s already extremely adversely selected patient population, age-specific IVF cycle outcomes in women above age 40 years, nevertheless, exceeded criteria for “futility” by the ASRM and widely quoted outcome expectations in the literature for patient ages. Age 43 discriminates between better and poorer clinical pregnancy and live birth rates. Conclusions “Graying” of the infertility populations in the developed world, a problem with potentially far-reaching medical and societal consequences, has so far been only insufficiently addressed in the literature. As women’s postmenopausal life spans already exceed postmenarcheal life spans at the start of the 20th century, the “graying” of infertility services can be expected to further accelerate, no longer as in recent decades bringing only women in their 40s into maternity wards but also women in their 50s and 60s. Medicine and society better get ready for this revolution. PMID:25012752

  13. Male infertility workup needs additional testing of expressed prostatic secretion and/or post-massage urine.

    PubMed

    Punab, Margus; Kullisaar, Tiiu; Mändar, Reet

    2013-01-01

    The male factor accounts for almost 50% of infertility cases. Inflammation may reduce semen quality via several pathways, including oxidative stress (OxS). As male infertility routinely is assessed using semen analysis only, the possible presence of non-leukocytospermic asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis may be overlooked. We compared local and systemic OxS levels in male partners of infertile couples with different inflammation patterns in their genital tract and/or oligospermia. Subjects (n=143) were grouped according to inflammation in their semen, expressed prostatic secretion (EPS), and/or post-massage urine (post-M). Systemic (8-isoprostanes in urine) and local (diene conjugates and total antioxidant capacity in seminal plasma) OxS was measured The levels of OxS markers were significantly elevated in both severe inflammation groups--leukocytospermic men and subjects whose inflammation was limited only to EPS and/or post-M. Comparison between oligospermic and non-oligospermic men with genital tract inflammation, and oligozoospermic men with or without inflammation in the genital tract indicated that inflammation but not oligospermia status had significant impact on the measured OxS markers. Hence, a high leukocyte count in prostate-specific materials (EPS, post-M), even in absence of clear leukocytopsermia, is an important source of local and systemic OxS that may be associated with male infertility and affect general health. We suggest including the tests for detection of inflammation of the prostate into the workup of infertile men as was suggested in the WHO 1993 recommendation. PMID:24349358

  14. Successful treatment of severe atopic dermatitis-complicated cataract and male infertility with a natural product antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Y; Tominaga, K; Yoshida, K

    1998-01-01

    There has been a recent dramatic change in the features of atopic dermatitis and male infertility, including a marked increased prevalence of severe and treatment-resistant atopic dermatitis; an increase in severe atopic dermatitis complicated by cataracts, especially in urban and industrial areas; and an increase in the number of infertile men with poor sperm motility. Previously we have attributed these changes to the increased free radicals produced by environmental toxicity. We have reported the increase in lipid peroxide levels and decrease in superoxide dismutase inducibility in severe atopic dermatitis patients, and shown that lipid peroxides attach to the stratum corneum, promoting loss of skin moisturization and resulting in the worsening of atopic dermatitis. Cataracts which occur with severe atopic dermatitis are also formed by the diffusing of lipid peroxides through the posterior lens. Regarding aspermia, the standard levels of sperm motility according to the World Health Organization Guidelines have been reduced to 50% from 60%, but nonetheless the prevalence of infertile men is increasing. It has been reported that antioxidants such as ascorbate, catalase and glutathione-Px can reverse the decrease in sperm motility in the seminal plasma of infertile men. We have developed an oral antioxidant, named AOA, which is produced from natural plants and seeds (e.g., soybean, sesame, wheat germ), treated by heating with far infrared rays (4-14 microns wavelength), brewed with Aspergillus oryzae, and lipophilized with similarly heated sesame oil. These procedures liberate low-molecular-weight antioxidants that exist naturally in an inactive form of repeating subunits of polymers, to produce free, activated forms of antioxidants. This natural medicinal product, AOA, has been applied to the treatment of both cataract complicated with atopic dermatitis and male infertility. Approximately half the patients tested have shown marked improvement. PMID:9638503

  15. Organizational and Functional Status of the Y-linked Genes and Loci in the Infertile Patients Having Normal Spermiogram

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Anju; Yadav, Sandeep Kumar; Ali, Sher

    2012-01-01

    Male fertility is an orchestrated interplay of loci on the Y chromosome with a number of genes from across the other chromosomes. In this context, micro-deletions in the Y chromosome have been correlated with spermatogenic failure often leading to infertility. However, causes of infertility in the patients with the normal spermiogram have remained unclear and therefore pose another level of challenge. In the present study, we analyzed 64 STSs, studied different Y-linked genes and loci and conducted single nucleotide variant (SNV) analyses in 31 infertile males with normal spermiogram along with 67 normal fertile males (NFMs) to gain an insight into the organization of their Y chromosome. Further, employing quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), we studied copy number variation of DYZ1 arrays and three genes and mutational status of SRY by direct sequence analyses. STS analyses of the AZFa, b and c regions in these patients showed known and new mutations. Further, copies of DAZ and BPY2 in the patients were found to be affected compared to those in NFMs. All the patients had normal copy number of the SRY however its sequence analysis (in silico) showed mutations in eight patients. In four of these eight patients, SRY mutations resulted into truncated proteins. Similarly, DYZ1 analysis showed micro-deletions and it's much reduced copy number as compared to those in NFMs. Present study in males with unexplained infertility revealed deletions similar to those observed in oligospermic and azoospermic patients. Thus, there are some common but still unknown factors underlying infertility in these patients irrespective of their spermatogenic status. This work is envisaged to augment DNA diagnosis, proving beneficial in the context of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and genetic counselling. PMID:22844483

  16. Psychological and social aspects of infertility in men: an overview of the evidence and implications for psychologically informed clinical care and future research

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jane RW; Hammarberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Research concerning the psychosocial aspects of infertility and infertility treatment focuses more often on women than men. The aim of this review was to synthesize the English-language evidence related to the psychological and social aspects of infertility in men and discuss the implications of these reports for clinical care and future research. A structured search identified 73 studies that reported data concerning the desire for fatherhood and the psychological and social aspects of diagnosis, assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and unsuccessful treatment among men with fertility difficulties. The studies are diverse in conceptualisation, design, setting and data collection, but the findings were reasonably consistent. These studies indicated that fertile and infertile childless men of reproductive age have desires to experience parenthood that are similar to those of their female counterparts; in addition, diagnosis and initiation of treatment are associated with elevated infertility-specific anxiety, and unsuccessful treatment can lead to a state of lasting sadness. However, rates of clinically significant mental health problems among this patient population are no higher than in the general population. Infertile men who are socially isolated, have an avoidant coping style and appraise stressful events as overwhelming, are more vulnerable to severe anxiety than men without these characteristics. Men prefer oral to written treatment information and prefer to receive emotional support from infertility clinicians rather than from mental health professionals, self-help support groups or friends. Nevertheless, structured, facilitated psycho-educational groups that are didactic but permit informal sharing of experiences might be beneficial. There are gaps in knowledge about factors governing seeking, persisting with and deciding to cease treatment; experiences of invasive procedures; parenting after assisted conception; adoption and infertility-related grief and shame among men. Few resource-constrained countries have any data concerning male experiences of infertility. PMID:22179515

  17. Infertility rates following POMB/ACE chemotherapy for male and female germ cell tumours - a retrospective long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Gaffan, J; Holden, L; Newlands, E S; Short, D; Fuller, S; Begent, R H J; Rustin, G J S; Seckl, M J

    2003-11-17

    The risk of chemotherapy-induced infertility in male and female germ cell tumour (GCT) survivors is unclear, but may correlate with cisplatin dose. Here, we examine a large series of GCT patients for the effect of chemotherapy on those attempting to have children. Our GCT database was screened for nonseminomatous GCT patients who had (1). received POMB/ACE chemotherapy (cisplatin, vincristine, methotrexate, bleomycin alternating with actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and etoposide) and (2). stage I male GCT patients who were untreated between 1977 and 1996. Fertility was assessed by questionnaire and medical records. A total of 64 of 153 treated and 35 of 115 untreated men attempted to have children. In all, 28% (18 out of 64) receiving POMB/ACE were unsuccessful. Radiotherapy (six), atrophic remaining testis (one) or prior infertility (three) were implicated in 10 cases, so chemotherapy-induced infertility may have occurred in only 11% (eight out of 64). Strikingly, 26% (nine out of 35) of untreated stage I patients also failed to have children (three had radiotherapy, three prior infertility). Moreover, in treated men, no association was seen between cisplatin dose and infertility. In contrast, radiotherapy significantly increased male infertility (P=0.001). Of 28 treated women who attempted to have children, 25% (seven out of 28) were unsuccessful. One previously had infertility and one subsequently had successful IVF so chemotherapy-induced infertility potentially occurred in only 18% (five out of 28) and was not related to cisplatin dose. In conclusion, the risk of chemotherapy-induced infertility is low in both male and female GCT patients and does not clearly correlate with the cumulative cisplatin dose. PMID:14612891

  18. An evaluation of the effect of infertility on marital, sexual satisfaction indices and health-related quality of life in women

    PubMed Central

    Valsangkar, Sameer; Bodhare, Trupti; Bele, Samir; Sai, Surendranath

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of infertility on marital and sexual functioning, health-related quality of life (QoL) and the acceptability of the treatment modalities is a poorly researched area in India. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To measure and compare the impact of infertility on marital adjustment, sexual functioning, QoL and the acceptability of various treatment modalities in infertility. DESIGN AND SETTING: Hospital-based cross-sectional controlled study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data regarding infertility, socio-demographic characteristics and treatment acceptability was obtained via a semi-structured questionnaire. validated, standardized scales were used to measure marital adjustment (abbreviated dyadic adjustment scale), sexual functioning (abbreviated sexual functioning questionnaire) in cases and controls, and quality of life (FertiQol) in cases. Data from 106 women attending tertiary infertility centers who met the definition of primary infertility and 212 controls attending the medical outpatient department in the same centers was obtained. RESULTS: Body mass index and socioeconomic status were significant (P < 0.006 and < 0.0001 respectively) for infertility. Fertility-enhancing regimens and adoption had the highest acceptability with a wide dispersion of range for adoption and least acceptance for sperm, egg, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant effect size of infertility on marital adjustment (Nagelkerke R2 0.725, Cohen's D 0.86) and sexual functioning (Nagelkerke R2 0.73, Cohen's D 0.815). QoL showed a decrease in mean scores on the FertiQol scale similar to normative data. CONCLUSIONS: Effective counseling, reassurance and measures to reduce the impact of the condition on marital and sexual life, overall QoL are needed to impart a holistic treatment in infertility. PMID:22065832

  19. Is aromatase expression in the endometrium the cause of endometriosis and related infertility?

    PubMed

    Maia, Hugo; Casoy, Julio; Valente Filho, Jorge

    2009-04-01

    Aromatase expression in the endometrium seems to play a pivotal role in the development of endometriotic lesions. Because inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 appear to activate aromatase in the cells of the endometrial stroma, it was hypothesised that the ensuing inflammation caused by the arrival of aromatase-positive cells in the peritoneal cavity would stimulate local estrogen production, which would in turn facilitate the development of endometriotic lesions by suppressing macrophage phagocytosis. Aromatase expression in the eutopic endometrium will also hamper ovum nidation, thus causing infertility. Progestins, such as gestodene and danazol, are potent inhibitors of aromatase expression in the endometrium, and the use of vaginal rings with danazol in doses that do not block ovulation is associated with the occurrence of pregnancy in patients with severe endometriosis without the need for surgery. A local effect on the endometrium suppressing aromatase expression has been suggested as a possible mechanism of action for the danazol ring. PMID:19340622

  20. Rare Case of Monozygotic Twins Diagnosed With Klinefelter Syndrome During Evaluation for Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Barazani, Yagil; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    Although neither Klinefelter syndrome nor monozygotic twins are particularly rare (1/667 male births and 3–4/1000 live births, respectively), the occurrence of both in the same pregnancy (ie, identical twins with Klinefelter syndrome) is exceedingly rare and has only been reported three times previously in the literature. This report describes the fourth ever reported case of monozygotic twins with Klinefelter syndrome (who presented to our male fertility clinic with failure to conceive) and sheds interesting light on the reproductive concordance observed with this rare clinical entity. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of monozygotic twins with Klinefelter syndrome that describes the infertility workup and outcomes of microsurgical testicular sperm extraction. PMID:26029003

  1. Cytokines in the male reproductive tract and their role in infertility disorders.

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Monika; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-04-01

    Cell integration between the immune and reproductive systems is the basis for normal male reproductive physiology. Cytokines are a part of the autocrine/paracrine network operating in the male reproductive tract. At the same time, immunological reactions occurring via cytokines appear to be both beneficial and/or risk factors for male fertility. As the cytokines are produced by a whole spectrum of cells in all compartments of the male genital tract, they can also be involved in a variety of andrological disorders. The monitoring of cytokines and other immune factors in seminal plasma may offer a chance to better understand the mechanisms leading to sub-/infertility. In this review, we present insights into cytokine interplay in some of the pathological conditions associated with male reproduction. PMID:25796532

  2. [Cost-effectiveness of IVF infertility treatment in different legislative settings].

    PubMed

    Kurzawa, Rafa?; Kuczy?ski, Waldemar; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Wo?czy?ski, S?awomir

    2010-02-01

    Over three decades of experience enabled contemporary medicine to develop an advanced and highly efficient assisted reproductive technology (ART). Currently we are witnesses to a nationwide debate in Poland concerning recommendation and law regulations for ART. This article expresses an opinion of medicine doctors who are specialists in the field of reproductive medicine in Poland. The authors explain why infertility is a wide and important socio-economic problem and why legislative proposals of the consevative members of the Polish Parliament expose patients to lower pregnancy rate, higher procedure cost and higher risk of complications. Authors also make analysis of different law regulations in Europe, concluding that the efficient ART model should limit the number of transferred embryos, allow cryopreservation of the embryos and impose the obligation to use the frozen embryos. PMID:20232711

  3. Targeted disruption of the spermatid-specific gene Spata31 causes male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Yi; Yang, Yong; Xu, Yong-De; Yu, Hua-Liang

    2015-06-01

    Spata31, a novel testis-specific gene, was first isolated from the testis of a vitamin A-deficient rat model. To gain insight into its physiological function, Spata31-targeted knockout mice were generated by homologous recombination. Spata31-deficient (Spata31(flox/flox) ; Vasa-Cre) male mice exhibited low sperm count and premature shedding of germ cells into the lumen, ultimately causing azoospermia and male sterility. Mechanistically, the Spata31 deficiency resulted in reduced expression of the adhesion protein nectin-3 and cytoskeletal protein ?-actin at the apical ectoplasmic specialization. Our findings demonstrate that the disruptions to the SPATA31 ortholog could be linked to human male infertility. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 432-440, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25930072

  4. Pathophysiology of varicocele in male infertility in the era of assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Koji; Matsuyama, Hideyasu; Takihara, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Varicocele is the most common and treatable cause of male infertility. Studies of a rat experimental left varicocele model and human testicular biopsy samples have shown the involvement of various factors in its pathophysiology. Among them, oxidative stress plays a major role in impairing spermatogenesis and sperm function. Therefore, in addition to palpation, scrotal ultrasonography and color Doppler ultrasound, evaluation of testicular oxidative stress (e.g. scrotal temperature is a surrogate parameter) is recommended to enable diagnosis and suitable treatment of varicocele. Varicocelectomy increases the fertilization, pregnancy and live birth rates, indicating improved sperm function; it is therefore important even in couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Routine sperm-function tests are warranted to monitor the sperm quality after varicocelectomy and consequent improvement in the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology. Furthermore, the indications of varicocelectomy in assisted reproductive technology should be widened. PMID:22417329

  5. The understanding and acceptability of assisted reproductive technology (ART) among infertile women in urban Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fabamwo, A O; Akinola, O I

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive study was carried out to assess the awareness and acceptability of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) among infertile women in Lagos, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaires on the knowledge of ART in the women were used. After a brief exposé on ART, questions relating to their attitude were answered. A total of 166 women were studied. Only 51.8% had any knowledge of ART and most of these had poor knowledge. A total of 137 women would embrace ART if offered but 29 would not, for reasons such as religion, fear of side-effects, failure and unaffordable costs. There is a paucity of good knowledge of ART. A significant number of the women would consider ART if offered. There is thus a need to create more awareness about the possibilities offered by ART, as well as instituting low cost ART strategies in developing world countries. PMID:23259884

  6. Decline of semen quality and increase of leukocytes with cigarette smoking in infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi Hong; Zhu, Hai Bo; Li, Lei Lei; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Hong Guo; Liu, Rui Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous researches about the effect of smoking on semen quality are contradictory, and the mechanism behind the harmful effect of smoking on semen quality still remains unclear until today. Objective: The objectives of this study are evaluation of the relationship between smoking and fertility, investigation of the effects of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters and detection of presence of leukocytes within the semen of idiopathic infertile men from Northeastern China. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 1512 infertile patients who visited affiliated hospitals of Jilin University from 2007-2010 were enrolled in this study. Patients were assigned into one non-smoking and one smoking group which was divided into mild, moderate and heavy subgroups. Sperm parameters (including leukocytes) and sperm morphology analysis were performed using standard techniques. Results: Compared with non-smokers, smokers had a significant decrease in semen volumes (p=0.006), rapid progressive motility (p=0.002) and sperm viability (p=0.019); moreover, smokers had a significant increase in the levels of immotile sperms (p=0.005) and semen leukocytes (p=0.002); pH and sperm concentration were not statistically significant (p=0.789 and p=0.297 respectively). Sperm motion parameters were all lower in the smokers except for beat-cross frequency (Hz) (BCF). Further, the percentage of normal morphology sperm was decreased significantly in smokers (p=0.003), the sperm morphology was worse with increasing degree of smoking. Conclusion: These findings suggest that smoking leads to a significant decline in semen quality and higher levels of leukocytes, thus smoking may affects the fertilization efficiency. PMID:24639795

  7. High Resolution X Chromosome-Specific Array-CGH Detects New CNVs in Infertile Males

    PubMed Central

    Krausz, Csilla; Giachini, Claudia; Lo Giacco, Deborah; Daguin, Fabrice; Chianese, Chiara; Ars, Elisabet; Ruiz-Castane, Eduard; Forti, Gianni; Rossi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Context The role of CNVs in male infertility is poorly defined, and only those linked to the Y chromosome have been the object of extensive research. Although it has been predicted that the X chromosome is also enriched in spermatogenesis genes, no clinically relevant gene mutations have been identified so far. Objectives In order to advance our understanding of the role of X-linked genetic factors in male infertility, we applied high resolution X chromosome specific array-CGH in 199 men with different sperm count followed by the analysis of selected, patient-specific deletions in large groups of cases and normozoospermic controls. Results We identified 73 CNVs, among which 55 are novel, providing the largest collection of X-linked CNVs in relation to spermatogenesis. We found 12 patient-specific deletions with potential clinical implication. Cancer Testis Antigen gene family members were the most frequently affected genes, and represent new genetic targets in relationship with altered spermatogenesis. One of the most relevant findings of our study is the significantly higher global burden of deletions in patients compared to controls due to an excessive rate of deletions/person (0.57 versus 0.21, respectively; p?=?8.785×10?6) and to a higher mean sequence loss/person (11.79 Kb and 8.13 Kb, respectively; p?=?3.435×10?4). Conclusions By the analysis of the X chromosome at the highest resolution available to date, in a large group of subjects with known sperm count we observed a deletion burden in relation to spermatogenic impairment and the lack of highly recurrent deletions on the X chromosome. We identified a number of potentially important patient-specific CNVs and candidate spermatogenesis genes, which represent novel targets for future investigations. PMID:23056185

  8. Microscopic Varicocelectomy Significantly Decreases the Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index in Patients with Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kadioglu, Teoman Cem; Aliyev, Emin; Celtik, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Background. Varicocele is associated with high levels of DNA damage in spermatozoa due to oxidative stress and elevated levels of sperm DNA fragmentation, which has been currently proposed to be an essential additional diagnostic test to be recommended for patients with clinical varicocele. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parameters of semen and the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in patients with varicocele before and after varicocelectomy. Methods. The details of 92 consecutive patients were retrospectively analyzed from January 2010 to December 2012. The sperm samples were evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines. Sperm DNA damage, characterized as DFI, was evaluated by sperm chromatin structure assay using flow cytometry. Results. There was a statistically significant improvement in the semen concentration, the total motile count, the total normal sperm count, and the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI; the percentage of sperm with denatured DNA) after varicocelectomy. There was a large decrease in DFI from a preoperative mean of 42.6% to a postoperative mean of 20.5% (P < 0.001). A higher preoperative DFI was associated with a larger decrease in postoperative DFI, and significant negative correlations were observed between the DFI and sperm motility (r = ?0.42, P < 0.01). Conclusion. Our data suggest that varicocelectomy can improve multiple semen parameters and sperm DNA damage in infertile men with varicocele. The patients with preoperative defects in those parameters showed greater improvement postoperatively. Further research in this area is needed to understand the exact mechanisms of DNA damage in infertile men with varicocele. PMID:24712000

  9. Psychological factors in male partners of infertile couples: relationship with semen quality and early miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Zorn, B; Auger, J; Velikonja, V; Kolbezen, M; Meden-Vrtovec, H

    2008-12-01

    In this study we sought to evaluate whether psychological factors in males affect semen quality and pregnancy. In 1076 men of infertile couples, psychological factors, i.e. exposure to acute stress, coping with stress, the WHO (five) Well-Being Index and the Zung's Anxiety Scale Inventory scores were assessed by a questionnaire at the time of semen analysis. Relationships between psychological factors and semen quality (sperm concentration, rapid and progressive motility and normal morphology) were assessed. In 353 men with infertility duration of < or =1.5 years, sperm concentration > or =5 x 10(6) sperm/mL and a female partner with a laparoscopically confirmed tubal patency, we looked prospectively for relations between psychological factors and the occurrence of a natural pregnancy at a 6-month follow-up (n = 124), and first-trimester loss (n = 18). Anxiety trait, found in 19% of men, was related to previous in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection attempts (p = 0.014), cigarette intake (p = 0.006), alcohol intake (p = 0.026) and sexual difficulties (p < 0.001). Regression analyses indicated a significant positive relationship between the level of sperm concentration and the WHO (five) Well-Being Index score, each successive score number accounting for a 7.3% increase in sperm concentration (p = 0.039), whereas no correlation was found between psychological factors and sperm rapid progressive motility and normal morphology. Poorer coping with stress was related to the occurrence of a first-trimester miscarriage (p = 0.016) in the female partner. Possible depression in males is related to decreased sperm concentration, and poor coping with stress is associated with increased occurrence of early miscarriage. PMID:17651396

  10. Understanding the impact of gendered roles on the experiences of infertility amongst men and women in Punjab.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Shahid, Umber; Levay, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    While infertility is a global challenge for millions of couples, low income countries have particularly high rates, of up to 30%. Infertility in these contexts is not limited to its clinical definition but is a socially constructed notion with varying definitions. In highly pronatalistic and patriarchal societies like Pakistan, women bear the brunt of the social, emotional and physical consequences of childlessness. While the often harsh consequences of childlessness for Pakistani women have been widely documented, there is a dearth of exploration into the ways in which prescribed gender roles inform the experiences of childlessness among Pakistani women and men. The aim of this study was to explore and compare how gender ideologies, values and expectations shape women's and men's experiences of infertility in Pakistan. Using an interpretive descriptive approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 women and 8 men experiencing childlessness in Punjab, Pakistan from April to May 2008. Data analysis was thematic and inductive based on the principles of content analysis. The experience of infertility for men and women is largely determined by their prescribed gender roles. Childlessness weakened marital bonds with gendered consequences. For women, motherhood is not only a source of status and power, it is the only avenue for women to ensure their marital security. Weak marital ties did not affect men's social identity, security or power. Women also face harsher psychosocial, social, emotional and physical consequences of childlessness than men. They experienced abuse, exclusion and stigmatization at the couple, household and societal level, while men only experienced minor taunting from friends. Women unceasingly sought invasive infertility treatments, while most men assumed there was nothing wrong with themselves. This study highlights the ways in which gender roles and norms shape the experiences associated with involuntary childlessness for men and women in Punjab, Pakistan. The insight obtained into the range of experiences can potentially contribute to deeper understanding of the social construction of infertility and childlessness in pronatalistic and patriarchal societies as well as the ways in which gender ideologies operationalise to marginalise women. PMID:23317173

  11. Understanding the impact of gendered roles on the experiences of infertility amongst men and women in Punjab

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    While infertility is a global challenge for millions of couples, low income countries have particularly high rates, of up to 30%. Infertility in these contexts is not limited to its clinical definition but is a socially constructed notion with varying definitions. In highly pronatalistic and patriarchal societies like Pakistan, women bear the brunt of the social, emotional and physical consequences of childlessness. While the often harsh consequences of childlessness for Pakistani women have been widely documented, there is a dearth of exploration into the ways in which prescribed gender roles inform the experiences of childlessness among Pakistani women and men. The aim of this study was to explore and compare how gender ideologies, values and expectations shape women’s and men’s experiences of infertility in Pakistan. Using an interpretive descriptive approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 women and 8 men experiencing childlessness in Punjab, Pakistan from April to May 2008. Data analysis was thematic and inductive based on the principles of content analysis. The experience of infertility for men and women is largely determined by their prescribed gender roles. Childlessness weakened marital bonds with gendered consequences. For women, motherhood is not only a source of status and power, it is the only avenue for women to ensure their marital security. Weak marital ties did not affect men’s social identity, security or power. Women also face harsher psychosocial, social, emotional and physical consequences of childlessness than men. They experienced abuse, exclusion and stigmatization at the couple, household and societal level, while men only experienced minor taunting from friends. Women unceasingly sought invasive infertility treatments, while most men assumed there was nothing wrong with themselves. This study highlights the ways in which gender roles and norms shape the experiences associated with involuntary childlessness for men and women in Punjab, Pakistan. The insight obtained into the range of experiences can potentially contribute to deeper understanding of the social construction of infertility and childlessness in pronatalistic and patriarchal societies as well as the ways in which gender ideologies operationalise to marginalise women. PMID:23317173

  12. Evaluation of the relationship between semen parameters, pregnancy rate of wives of infertile men with varicocele, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone test before and after varicocelectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ephraim Segenreich; Solomon Israilov; Joseph Shmuele; Eva Niv; Jack Baniel; Pinhas Livne

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. To determine whether the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test can serve as an indicator for the need and timing of surgery in infertile men with varicocele.Methods. The GnRH test was performed in 121 infertile men with varicocele before surgical correction and 4 to 6, 9 to 12, and 16 to 18 months after. Levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing

  13. Sperm FISH analysis in two healthy infertile brothers with t(15;18) unbalanced translocation: Implications for genetic counselling and reproductive management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandrine Leclercq; Jacques Auger; Céline Dupont; Dominique Le Tessier; Aziza Lebbar; Françoise Baverel; Jean Michel Dupont; Florence Eustache

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that balanced reciprocal or Robertsonian translocations and inversions are associated with reduced or absent sperm production. In contrast, a similar association has been rarely reported for unbalanced translocations. An unbalanced translocation, 45,XY,-15,der(18)t(15;18)(q11.2;q23), was found in two healthy infertile brothers who were referred to our hospital together with their partners for infertility. At least two routine semen

  14. Relationship of seminal reactive nitrogen and oxygen species and total antioxidant capacity with sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile couples with normal and abnormal sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, F; Valojerdi, M R; Amanlou, M; Karimian, L; Abolhassani, F

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the amount of superoxide anion, peroxynitrite as oxidative stress (OS) markers and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile men with abnormal semen parameters. Semen samples were obtained from 102 infertile couples and divided into groups with normal and abnormal semen parameters according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Peroxynitrite and superoxide anions were detected using spectrofluorometric assays combined with 2,7 dicholorofluorescein (DCF)-DA and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa -1, 3-diazole (NBD-CL). Colorimetric assay was used for evaluation of TAC, while DNA fragmentation was studied by using sperm chromatin dispersion test. Superoxide anion, peroxynitrite and DNA fragmentation were significantly higher in infertile couples with abnormal semen parameters as compared to infertile couples with normal semen (P < 0.01). TAC was significantly lower in infertile men with abnormal semen parameters (P < 0.01). There was also a significant positive correlation between OS markers with sperm DNA fragmentation (r = 0.59, P < 0.01 and r = 0.67, P < 0.01, respectively). We have found that imbalance between superoxide anion and peroxynitrite with antioxidant capacity in infertile men with abnormal sperm parameters is associated with higher sperm DNA fragmentation. PMID:23126684

  15. Multiple determinations of sperm DNA fragmentation show that varicocelectomy is not indicated for infertile patients with subclinical varicocele.

    PubMed

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Checa, Miguel A; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Amengual, María J; Abad, Carlos; Benet, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient's fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA) were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment). TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele. PMID:24967335

  16. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    PubMed Central

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Checa, Miguel A.; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Amengual, María J.; Abad, Carlos; Benet, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient's fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA) were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment). TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele. PMID:24967335

  17. PI3K/PTEN/Akt and TSC/mTOR signaling pathways, ovarian dysfunction, and infertility: an update.

    PubMed

    Makker, Annu; Goel, Madhu Mati; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-12-01

    Abnormalities in ovarian function, including defective oogenesis and folliculogenesis, represent a key female reproductive deficiency. Accumulating evidence in the literature has shown that the PI3K/PTEN/Akt and TSC/mTOR signaling pathways are critical regulators of ovarian function including quiescence, activation, and survival of primordial follicles, granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation, and meiotic maturation of oocytes. Dysregulation of these signaling pathways may contribute to infertility caused by impaired follicular development, intrafollicular oocyte development, and ovulation. This article reviews the current state of knowledge of the functional role of the PI3K/PTEN/Akt and TSC/mTOR pathways during mammalian oogenesis and folliculogenesis and their association with female infertility. PMID:25312969

  18. The attitudes of the Australian community to treatment of infertility by in vitro fertilization and associated procedures.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, G T; Wood, C; Morgan, G; Brumby, M

    1985-12-01

    Sequential surveys of public opinion within the Australian community have consistently demonstrated very significant support for in vitro fertilization (IVF) to enable infertile couples to have children. Embryo freezing and the use of donor gametes have lower approval rates, but those who approve significantly outnumber those who disapprove. There was no community concensus about the use of surrogacy as an extension of IVF treatment. PMID:4093704

  19. Polycystic ovaries and associated clinical and biochemical features among women with infertility in a tertiary hospital in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pembe, A B; Abeid, M S

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of polycystic ovaries (PCO) and associated clinical and biochemical features among women with infertility attending gynaecological outpatient department (GOPD) at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. All women with infertility attending the GOPD from 11th September 2006 to 15th February 2007 were recruited to the study. Information on socio-demographic, obstetric and menstrual characteristics was collected. Anthropometric measurement, clinical examination of acne and hirsutism, vaginal ultrasonography for PCO and biochemical analysis of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone were performed. All 102 women who attended the GOPD during the study period due to infertility were recruited. Two women were excluded after diagnosis of pregnancy made by hormonal assay and ultrasonography thus remaining with 100 women for analysis. Oligomenorrhoea and acne were significantly higher in a group of women with PCO than among women with normal ovaries. The mean hirsutism score though was not significant, was higher in women with PCO than in women with normal ovaries (5.1 +/- 2.7 vs. 4 +/- 2.4, P < 0.057). Using the Rotterdam criteria 32 (32%) women were diagnosed to have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Among these women 25 (78.1%) had PCO, 24 (75%) had signs of oligoanovulation, and 18 (56.3%) had hirsutism. Among 68 women with no PCOS, 7 (10.3%) had polycystic ovaries, 15 (22.1%) had signs of oligoanovulation and 6 (8.8%) had hirsutism. In conclusion, polycystic ovaries are common among women with infertility, however are not necessarily associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Doctors should investigate their clients for PCOS and offer appropriate treatment. PMID:20734696

  20. Genetic polymorphism in an inflammasome component, cervical mycoplasma detection and female infertility in women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven S. Witkin; Katrin Bierhals; Iara Linhares; Neil Normand; Stefan Dieterle; Andreas Neuer

    2010-01-01

    The inflammasome is an inducible cytoplasmic structure that is responsible for production and release of biologically active interleukin-1 (IL-1). A polymorphism in the inflammasome component NALP3 has been associated with decreased IL-1 levels and increased occurrence of vaginal Candida infection. We hypothesized that this polymorphism-induced variation would influence susceptibility to infertility. DNA was obtained from 243 women who were undergoing

  1. Can Hyaluronan Binding Assay Predict the Outcome of Intrauterine Insemination in Couples with Unexplained or Mild Male Factor Infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Melahat; Duvan, Candan Iltemir; Pekel, Aslihan; Ayrim, Aylin; Kafali, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic effect of Hyaluronan Binding Assay (HBA) which has been used as a method of sperm selection for intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure, on the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI) in couples with unexplained or mild male factor infertility. Methods 77 infertile couples were enrolled in our study. On the day of IUI procedure, HBA test was performed by using fresh semen samples, and the rates of sperm binding to HBA were calculated. HBA values and semen parameters were compared. Fisher exact test was used to evaluate the relationship between HBA ratio and pregnancy status. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare quantitative variables between pregnant and non-pregnant groups. The p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results In this study, HBA ratio was 69(29.25%) and pregnancy rate was 14.29%. A significant positive correlation between HBA and total motile sperm count, inseminating sperm count, progressive motility, morphology, and sperm concentration (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p:0.007, p < 0.003, p:0.003 respectively) was observed. Although HBA values in pregnant group were higher than those in non-pregnant group, this result did not reach the statistically significant level (HBA: 67(20%) for non-pregnant group, 80.5(21.3%) for pregnant group). Also, no relationship between HBA values and pregnancy status was found. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between pregnancy status and HBA ratios based on the suggested cut-off value of 60 in literature (p = 0.425). Conclusion HBA does not predict the IUI outcome in couples with unexplained infertility or mild male factor infertility, but it can be used together with semen parameters to verify sperm quality. PMID:25717431

  2. The decision-making process for the fate of frozen embryos by Japanese infertile women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found that the decision-making process for stored unused frozen embryos involves much emotional burden influenced by socio-cultural factors. This study aims to ascertain how Japanese patients make a decision on the fate of their frozen embryos: whether to continue storage discard or donate to research. Methods Ten Japanese women who continued storage, 5 who discarded and 16 who donated to research were recruited from our infertility clinic. Tape-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed for emergent themes. Results A model of patients’ decision-making processes for the fate of frozen embryos was developed, with a common emergent theme, “coming to terms with infertility” resulting in either acceptance or postponing acceptance of their infertility. The model consisted of 5 steps: 1) the embryo-transfer moratorium was sustained, 2) the “Mottainai”- embryo and having another child were considered; 3) cost reasonability was taken into account; 4) partner’s opinion was confirmed to finally decide whether to continue or discontinue storage. Those discontinuing, then contemplated 5): the effect of donation. Great emotional conflict was expressed in the theme, steps 2, 4, and 5. Conclusions Patients’ 5 step decision-making process for the fate of frozen embryos was profoundly affected by various Japanese cultural values and moral standards. At the end of their decision, patients used culturally inherent values and standards to come to terms with their infertility. While there is much philosophical discussion on the moral status of the embryo worldwide, this study, with actual views of patients who own them, will make a significant contribution to empirical ethics from the practical viewpoint. PMID:22607034

  3. Combined effect of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms on human male infertility in north Indian population.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Deepika; Sah, Ravindra; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Dwivedi, U S; Trivedi, Sameer; Singh, Kiran

    2012-03-01

    Genes of different pathways regulate spermatogenesis, and complexity of spermatogenic process indicates that polymorphisms or mutations in these genes could cause male infertility. Detoxification pathway is involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis by reducing oxidative stress and contributes to the maintenance of global methylation in concert with other pathways. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) belong to the family of phase II antioxidant enzymes involved in the cellular detoxification of various physiological substances. Glutathione S-transferases act as an antioxidant and protect spermatozoa from oxidative stress. Increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with reduced activity of GSTs may result in sperm membrane damage and DNA fragmentation. A case-control study was done to elucidate the role of deletion polymorphism of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes from GSTs family on idiopathic human male infertility. The study comprises 2 groups: 113 nonobstructive azoospermia patients and 91 healthy fertile controls. Genomic DNA was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes. The study showed statistically significant protective association of GSTT1 null genotype with human male infertility (odds ratio [OR]: 0.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.143-0.9966, P = .048) but not with GSTM1 null genotype (OR: 0.66, 95% CI 0.3653-1.2234, P = .19). Also, combination of null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 confers protective effect (OR: 0.28, CI 0.0801-0.948; P = .04). Probably, individuals bearing GSTM1 and GSTT1 (-/-) genotypes may have protective effect by gene-gene interaction mechanism. In summary, our study underscores the significance of combined effect of GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotypes in modulating the risk of male infertility. PMID:22383780

  4. Novel association between sperm deformity index and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in infertile male patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamer M. Said; Nabil Aziz; Rakesh K. Sharma; Iwan Lewis-Jones; Anthony J. Thomas Jr; Ashok Agarwal; Ashok Agarwal

    2005-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the impact of abnormal sperm morphology using the sperm deformity index (SDI) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and its correlation with sperm DNA damage.Methods:Semen samples were collected from men undergoing infertility screening (n = 7) and healthy donors (n = 6). Mature spermatozoa were isolated and incubated with 5 mmol\\/L ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for up

  5. Glutathione-S-transferase-oxidative stress relationship in the internal spermatic vein blood of infertile men with varicocele.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, T; Rashed, L A; Zeidan, A S; Hosni, A

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to assess glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzyme- oxidative stress (OS) relationship in the internal spermatic vein (ISV) of infertile men associated with varicocele (Vx). Ninety five infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospemic (OAT) men associated with Vx were subjected to history taking, clinical examination and semen analysis. During inguinal varicocelectomy, GST, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated in the blood samples drawn from ISV and median cubital veins. The mean levels of GST, GPx were significantly decreased and the mean level of GPx was significantly increased in the ISV compared with the peripheral blood. The mean level of GST and GPx in the ISV was significantly decreased, and the mean level of MDA was significantly increased in Vx grade III compared with Vx grade II cases. There was nonsignificant difference in the mean level of GST in the ISV in unilateral Vx cases compared with bilateral Vx cases. There was significant positive correlation of GST with sperm count, sperm motility, GPx and significant negative correlation with sperm abnormal forms, MDA. It is concluded that ISV of infertile men associated with Vx has decreased levels of GST compared with peripheral venous circulation that is correlated with both OS and Vx grade. PMID:24472021

  6. Obesity-Induced Infertility and Hyperandrogenism Are Corrected by Deletion of the Insulin Receptor in the Ovarian Theca Cell

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng; Divall, Sara; Nwaopara, Amanda; Radovick, Sally; Wondisford, Fredric; Ko, CheMyong; Wolfe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) exhibit elevated androgen levels, oligoanovulation, infertility, and insulin resistance in metabolic tissues. The aims of these studies were to determine the role of insulin signaling in the development and function of ovarian theca cells and the pathophysiologic effects of hyperinsulinism on ovarian function in obesity. We disrupted the insulin receptor (IR) gene specifically in the theca-interstitial (TI) cells of the ovaries (Cyp17IRKO). No changes in reproductive development or function were observed in lean Cyp17IRKO female mice, suggesting that insulin signaling in TI cell is not essential for reproduction. However, when females were fed a high-fat diet, diet-induced obesity (DIO) wild-type (DIO-WT) mice were infertile and experienced increased circulating testosterone levels, whereas DIO-Cyp17IRKO mice exhibited improved fertility and testosterone levels comparable to those found in lean mice. The levels of phosphorylated IRS1 and CYP17 protein were higher in the ovary of DIO-WT compared with DIO-Cyp17IRKO or lean mice. Ex vivo studies using a whole ovary culture model demonstrated that insulin acts independently or additively with human chorionic gonadotropin to enhance androstenedione secretion. These studies reveal the causal pathway linking hyperinsulinism with ovarian hyperandrogenism and the infertility of obesity. PMID:24379345

  7. The genetic variation in Monocarboxylic acid transporter 2 (MCT2) has functional and clinical relevance with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinu; Lee, Dong Ryul; Lee, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Monocarboxylic acid transporter 2 (MCT2) transports pyruvate and lactate outside and inside of sperms, mainly as energy sources and plays roles in the regulation of spermatogenesis. We investigated the association among genetic variations in the MCT2 gene, male infertility and MCT2 expression levels in sperm. The functional and genetic significance of the intron 2 (+28201A > G, rs10506398) and 3’ untranslated region (UTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (+2626G > A, rs10506399) of MCT2 variants were investigated. Two MCT2 polymorphisms were associated with male infertility (n = 471, P < 0.05). In particular, the MCT2-3’ UTR SNP (+2626 G > A) had a strong association with the oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) group. The +2626GG type had an almost 2.4-fold higher sperm count than that of the +2626AA type (+2626GG; 66 × 106 vs +2626AA; 27 × 106, P < 0.0001). The MCT2-3’ UTR SNP may be important for expression, as it is located at the MCT2 3’ UTR. The average MCT2 protein amount in sperm of the +2626GG type was about two times higher than that of the +2626AA type. The results suggest that genetic variation in MCT2 has functional and clinical relevance with male infertility. PMID:24799634

  8. Possible Effect of Extended Use of Hormonal Contraception on Increased Levels of Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Ulcova-Gallova, Z.; Bibkova, K.; Micanova, Z.; Losan, P.; Babcova, K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Increased levels of antiphosholipid antibodies (aPLs) are associated with the autoimmune disorder antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and are known to play a role in infertility. We investigated the possible effect of prolonged use of hormonal contraception (HC) on autoimmunity after discontinuing HC in women with infertility problems. Material and Methods: We analyzed hormonal status including ovulation and the humoral autoimmune response to eight phospholipids detected by ELISA in 1190 infertile women aged 21–46 (mean age: 29.3) years. Results: Long-term HC did not affect ovulation, but in the absence of ovulation HC masked the hormonal disorders. The majority of patients taking HC for more than 10 years with fertility failure had significantly higher levels of aPLs of the IgG isotype against phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine (p?>?0.001) than against ?2-glycoprotein I and annexin V. Discussion: Thus, high levels of aPLs are significant for the anticoagulant treatment before and during pregnancy to prevent pregnancy loss. PMID:25914418

  9. Six polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair and chromosome synapsis: association with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Ding, Min; Ding, Xianping; Li, Tianjun; Chen, Honghan

    2015-08-01

    Four genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair and chromosome synapsis, i.e., testis expressed gene 11 (TEX11), testis expressed gene 15 (TEX15), mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), and homolog 3 (MLH3), play critical roles in genome integrity, meiotic recombination, and gametogenesis. We explored the possible association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes and idiopathic male infertility involving azoospermia or oligozoospermia. A total of 614 fertile control and infertile men were recruited to this study in Sichuan, China. The latter group included 244 men with azoospermia and 72 men with oligozoospermia. Six SNPs in the TEX11, TEX15, MLH1, and MLH3 genes were investigated in both patients and controls by sequencing. The frequency distributions of SNPs rs6525433, rs175080, rs6525433-rs4844247, and rs1800734-rs175080 were found to be significantly different between patients and control groups (p?infertility. PMID:26086992

  10. Differences in caspase-8 and -9 activity and sperm motility in infertile males of Li nationality in China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaobin; Li, Qixing; Han, Zhouxin; Lin, Danqin; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study’s objectives are to assess the efficacy of detecting apoptotic caspase-3, -8, and -9 in human sperm and plasma using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and to compare these levels between fertile and infertile patient groups of Li nationality in China. This study offers a non-invasive, alternative strategy to analyzing sperm parameters in infertile males. Fifty-six infertile males were investigated; asthenospermia (n = 19), oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (n = 20), azoospermia (n = 17) compared with 20 healthy fertile controls. They were subjected to semen analysis by computer-assisted sperm assay (CASA). We found that caspase-3, -8, -9 existed in all specimens in both sperms and plasma. The level of caspase-3 and caspase-8 in plasma were both significantly higher than in sperm. Levels of caspase-8 and caspase-9 in sperm and plasma were significantly negatively correlated with sperm concentration, motility and A % (motility grade A). The level of caspase-8 in plasma was significantly negatively correlated with sperm concentration. However, only in healthy fertile controls sperm concentration was significantly negatively correlated with caspase-9 in sperm. Compared with the healthy fertile controls, only the OAT group exhibited significantly increased level of caspase-8 in sperm (P < 0.05). It is concluded that caspase-8 and caspase-9 in sperm and plasma are correlated with sperm motility, and can reflect the quality of sperm in vitro.

  11. Sperm DNA damage caused by oxidative stress: modifiable clinical, lifestyle and nutritional factors in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wright, C; Milne, S; Leeson, H

    2014-06-01

    DNA fragmentation is an important factor in the aetiology of male infertility. However, it is still underevaluated and its inclusion in routine semen analysis is debated. DNA fragmentation has been shown to be a robust indicator of fertility potential, more so than conventional semen parameters. Men with high DNA fragmentation levels have significantly lower odds of conceiving, naturally or through procedures such as intrauterine insemination and IVF. Couples may be counselled to proceed directly to intracytoplasmic sperm injection as it is more successful in this group, avoiding costly procedures, recurrent failures or pregnancy losses; however, this treatment is not without limitations or risks. Ideally DNA fragmentation should be minimized where possible. Oxidative stress is the major cause of DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa. Endogenous and exogenous factors that contribute to oxidative stress are discussed, and in many cases are shown to be easily modifiable. Antioxidants play a protective role, although a delicate balance of reduction and oxidation is required for essential functions, including fertilization. Reducing oxidative stress may improve a couple's chances of conception either naturally or via assisted reproduction. Sources of oxidative stress therefore should be thoroughly examined in men with high levels of DNA fragmentation and modified where possible. DNA fragmentation is an important factor in the aetiology of male infertility. However it is still underevaluated and its inclusion in routine semen analysis is still debated. DNA fragmentation has been shown to be a robust indicator of fertility potential, more so than conventional semen parameters. Men with high levels of DNA fragmentation will have significantly lower odds of conceiving naturally or through procedures such as intrauterine insemination and IVF. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be much more successful in this group, and couples may be counselled to proceed directly to ICSI, avoiding costly procedures, recurrent failures or pregnancy losses. However, ICSI is not without its limitations or risks. Ideally, DNA fragmentation should be investigated and minimized where possible in men trying to conceive naturally or through assisted reproduction technology. Oxidative stress is the major cause of DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa. Endogenous and exogenous factors that contribute to oxidative stress are discussed and in many cases are easily modifiable. Antioxidants play a protective role, although a delicate balance of reduction and oxidation is required for essential sperm function, including fertilization. Reducing oxidative stress may improve a couple's chances of conception either naturally or via assisted reproduction treatment. Sources of oxidative stress therefore should be thoroughly examined in men with high levels of DNA fragmentation and modified where possible. PMID:24745838

  12. Seipin deficiency increases chromocenter fragmentation and disrupts acrosome formation leading to male infertility.

    PubMed

    El Zowalaty, A E; Baumann, C; Li, R; Chen, W; De La Fuente, R; Ye, X

    2015-01-01

    The Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (Bscl2, seipin) gene is involved in adipogenesis. Bscl2(-/-) males were infertile but had normal mating behavior. Both Bscl2(-/-) cauda epididymis sperm count and sperm motility were ~20 × less than control. Bscl2(-/-) seminiferous tubules had relatively normal presence of spermatogonia and spermatocytes but had reduced spermatids and sperm. Spatiotemporal expression analyses in Bscl2(+/+) testes demonstrated prominent Bscl2 transcriptional activity in spermatocytes with a plateau reached around postnatal day 28. Seipin protein localization was most abundant in postmeiotic spermatids, suggesting translational repression of Bscl2 mRNA in spermatocytes. In situ end-labeling plus detected increased spermatid apoptosis in Bscl2(-/-) testis and annexin V detected increased percentage of positive Bscl2(-/-) round spermatids compared with control. Immunofluorescence of marker proteins synaptonemal complex proteins 3 and 1 (SYCP3 and SYCP1), and H3K9me3 (histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9) in germ cell spreads detected normal meiotic chromosome pairing and homologous chromosome synapsis in Bscl2(-/-) spermatocytes, but significantly increased percentages of round spermatids with chromocenter fragmentation and late spermatids and sperm with chromatin vacuoles, indicating defective chromatin condensation in Bscl2(-/-) spermatids. Bscl2(-/-) late spermatids were disorganized within the seminiferous epithelium, despite normal appearance of Sertoli cells detected by vimentin immunofluorescence. Peanut agglutinin staining revealed various abnormalities of acrosomes in Bscl2(-/-) late spermatids, including the absence, irregular-shaped, and fragmented acrosomes, indicating defective acrosome formation in Bscl2(-/-) late spermatids, which may affect late spermatid orientation in the seminiferous epithelium. Mitotracker strongly stained the midpiece of control sperm but only very weakly labeled the midpiece of Bscl2(-/-) sperm, indicating defective mitochondrial activity that most likely contributed to reduced Bscl2(-/-) sperm motility. These data demonstrate novel roles of seipin in spermatid chromatin integrity, acrosome formation, and mitochondrial activity. Increased spermatid apoptosis, increased chromocenter fragmentation, defective chromatin condensation, abnormal acrosome formation, and defective mitochondrial activity contributed to decreased sperm production and defective sperm that resulted in Bscl2(-/-) male infertility. PMID:26181198

  13. Phospholipase C zeta (PLC?): oocyte activation and clinical links to male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    Mounting scientific and clinical evidence supports the key role played by phospholipase C zeta (PLC?), a sperm-specific protein, in the activation of oocytes following fertilisation. Lacking a pleckstrin homology domain, PLC? remains the smallest known mammalian PLC and was first identified in 2002. Since then, PLC? has been the target for a multitude of studies in both mammalian and non-mammalian species focused upon its fundamental biochemical activity and crucial role as the mediator of oocyte activation. The earliest event subsequent to gamete fusion is the onset of a series of intracellular calcium oscillations within the oocyte, which are known to modulate cortical granule exocytosis, release meiotic arrest, regulate gene expression, recruit maternal mRNA, and initiate embryogenesis. Collectively these processes are known as 'oocyte activation' and together, represent a fundamental mechanism for early embryonic development. Evidence suggests that these processes are initiated and controlled by calcium release from ooplasmic sources in response to PLC? activity via the inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) pathway. While the biochemical action of PLC? has been extensively studied, especially in relation to the EF-hands, X-Y linker, and C2 domain, all of which play critical roles for in vivo activity, there are still key gaps in our knowledge, particularly in terms of regulation and interaction with other proteins within the oocyte. Moreover, increasing clinical evidence has revealed a strong correlation between certain types of male infertility and the aberrant expression, localisation, structure and function of PLC? in human sperm, particularly in cases of recurrent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) failure, globozoospermia, and oocyte activation deficiency (OAD). In addition, two heterozygous substitution mutations have been identified in the coding sequence of PLC? in one particular patient causing disruption to the catalytic X and Y domains and resulting in infertility. Although, such cases can be treated via the use of artificial oocyte activators (AOAs) such as calcium ionophores, significant concern remains over the use of such chemical agents, largely due to the fact that calcium release manifests as a single transient, rather than a series of oscillations as observed during normal fertilisation. Current interest in PLC? is thus to develop a series of prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches which could first identify male patients that are deficient in PLC? and then rescue oocyte activation ability via assisted reproductive technology (ART) and a pure, functionally-active, recombinant human PLC? protein. While significant progress has been made in such areas over recent years, there is a clear need to translate scientific findings to clinical settings in order to maximise successful outcome for patients. PMID:23916605

  14. Women with epilepsy and infertility have different reproductive hormone profile than others

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sanjeev V.; Sarma, P. S.; Nirmala, C.; Mathai, Annamma; Thomas, Sara E.; Thomas, Asha C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: One-third of women with epilepsy (WWE) may experience infertility (failure to conceive after 12 months of regular unprotected intercourse). We aimed to compare the hormone profile of WWE and infertility (WWE-I) with that of WWE who had conceived earlier (WWE-F). Materials and Methods: In the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy, we compared the clinical and hormone profile of 50 WWE-I and 40 age-matched WWE-F. Subjects were examined and blood samples were drawn in follicular phase (1-14 days) for 21 WWE-I and 18 WWE-F, in luteal phase (15-30 days) for 23 WWE-I and 15 WWE-F and beyond 30 days for 6 WWE-I and WWE-F who had irregular cycles. Results: The two groups were comparable regarding physical, epilepsy syndrome, duration of epilepsy, body mass index, and serum cholesterol levels. Menstrual periods were irregular for 6 WWE-I and 5 WWE-F. The WWE-I group (compared to the WWE-F group) had significantly (P < 0.01) higher levels of dehydroepiandrostenedione (2.0 ± 1.7 ug/mL vs. 1.0 ± 0.7 ug/mL) and luteinizing hormone-LH (26.4 ± 37.3 mIU/mL vs. 9.9 ± 14.5 mIU/mL) and lower levels of progesterone (5.2 ± 9.2 ng/mL vs. 10.4 ± 13.4 ng/mL). There was no significant difference in the levels of FT3, FT4, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone, testosterone, or androstenedione levels. The WWE-I had 8.5 times higher risk (95% confidence interval 1.2-59.9) of abnormal LH/FSH ratio. WWE who were on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (compared to WWE who were not on AEDs) had higher risk of elevated LH/FSH ratio. Conclusion: The hormone profile of WWE-I is significantly different from that of WWE-F. These variations need to be interpreted with caution as a causal relationship to epilepsy or use of antiepileptic drugs need to be established through further studies. PMID:24339576

  15. Ovarian stem cells--potential roles in infertility treatment and fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Cheryl E; Telfer, Evelyn E; Anderson, Richard A

    2013-11-01

    One of the principal beliefs in reproductive biology is that women have a finite ovarian reserve, which is fixed from the time they are born. This theory has been questioned recently by the discovery of ovarian stem cells which are purported to have the ability to form new oocytes under specific conditions post-natally. Almost a decade after their discovery, ovarian, or oogonial, stem cells (OSCs) have been isolated in mice and humans but remain the subject of much debate. Studies in mice have shown that these cells can be cultured to a mature oocyte stage in vitro, and when injected into germ-cell depleted ovary they can form follicles and have resulted in the birth of healthy offspring. There are few data from human OSCs but this finding would open the door to novel fertility preservation strategies for women with both age-related and premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). As the number of girls and young women surviving cancer increases worldwide, POI secondary to gonadotoxic treatments, such as chemotherapy, is becoming more common. The ideal fertility preservation approach would prevent delays in commencing life-saving treatment and avoid transplanting malignant cells back into a woman after treatment: OSCs may offer one route to achieving this. This review summarises our current understanding of OSCs and discusses their potential clinical application in infertility treatment and fertility preservation. PMID:23693139

  16. TAp73 knockout shows genomic instability with infertility and tumor suppressor functions

    PubMed Central

    Tomasini, Richard; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Wilhelm, Margareta; Fujitani, Masashi; Rufini, Alessandro; Cheung, Carol C.; Khan, Fatima; Itie-Youten, Annick; Wakeham, Andrew; Tsao, Ming-sound; Iovanna, Juan L.; Squire, Jeremy; Jurisica, Igor; Kaplan, David; Melino, Gerry; Jurisicova, Andrea; Mak, Tak W.

    2008-01-01

    The Trp53 gene family member Trp73 encodes two major groups of protein isoforms, TAp73 and ?Np73, with opposing pro- and anti-apoptotic functions; consequently, their relative ratio regulates cell fate. However, the precise roles of p73 isoforms in cellular events such as tumor initiation, embryonic development, and cell death remain unclear. To determine which aspects of p73 function are attributable to the TAp73 isoforms, we generated and characterized mice in which exons encoding the TAp73 isoforms were specifically deleted to create a TAp73-deficient (TAp73?/?) mouse. Here we show that mice specifically lacking in TAp73 isoforms develop a phenotype intermediate between the phenotypes of Trp73?/? and Trp53?/? mice with respect to incidence of spontaneous and carcinogen-induced tumors, infertility, and aging, as well as hippocampal dysgenesis. In addition, cells from TAp73?/? mice exhibit genomic instability associated with enhanced aneuploidy, which may account for the increased incidence of spontaneous tumors observed in these mutants. Hence, TAp73 isoforms exert tumor-suppressive functions and indicate an emerging role for Trp73 in the maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:18805989

  17. Efficacy of aphrodisiac plants towards improvement in semen quality and motility in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Arun Yashwant; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. In the present study, herbal composition prepared by using medicinal plants having aphrodisiac potentials was administered orally to the albino rats for 40 days and to the oligospermic patients for 90 days in order to prove the efficacy of herbal composition. Herbal composition was the mixture (powder form) of the medicinal plants namely, Mucuna pruriens (Linn), Chlorophytum borivillianum (Sant and Fernand), and Eulophia campestris (Wall). In the neem oil treated albino rats, there was significant reduction in almost all the parameters viz. body weight, testes and epididymes weight, sperm density and motility, serum levels of testosterone, FSH, and LH compared with control rats. Treatment with said herbal composition for 40 days results significant increased in the body weight, testis, and epididymes weight in rats. Concomitantly the sperm motility and the sperm density were significantly increased. After 90 days of treatment with this herbal composition, sperm density vis-a-vis motility was increased in oligozoospermic patients as a result of elevation in serum testosterone levels. No side effects were noticed during the entire duration of the trial. PMID:22499723

  18. Effects of medical therapy, alcohol, smoking, and endocrine disruptors on male infertility.

    PubMed

    Pasqualotto, Fábio Firmbach; Lucon, Antônio Marmo; Sobreiro, Bernardo Passos; Pasqualotto, Eleonora Bedin; Arap, Sami

    2004-12-01

    Infertility affects up to 15% of the sexually active population, and in 50% of cases, a male factor is involved, either as a primary problem or in combination with a problem in the female partner. Because many commonly encountered drugs and medications can have a detrimental effect on male fertility, the medical evaluation should include a discussion regarding the use of recreational and illicit drugs, medications, and other substances that may impair fertility. With the knowledge of which drugs and medications may be detrimental to fertility, it may be possible to modify medication regimens or convince a patient to modify habits to decrease adverse effects on fertility and improve the chances of achieving a successful pregnancy. Concern is growing that male sexual development and reproduction have changed for the worse over the past 30 to 50 years. Although some reports find no changes, others suggest that sperm counts appear to be decreasing and that the incidence of developmental abnormalities such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism appears to be increasing, as is the incidence of testicular cancer. These concerns center around the possibility that our environment is contaminated with chemicals--both natural and synthetic--that can interact with the endocrine system. PMID:15654492

  19. Relation between male obesity and male infertility in a Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Hadjkacem Loukil, L; Hadjkacem, H; Bahloul, A; Ayadi, H

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is associated with significant disturbance in the hormonal milieu that can affect the reproductive system. Male infertility affects approximately 6% of reproductive-aged men. It has been suggested that overweight men or men with obese body mass index (BMI) experience prolonged time to pregnancy, although the influence of male BMI on fertility remains understudied. We hypothesised that BMI is inversely correlated with fertility, manifested by reduced sperm concentration and varicocele. Males of mean age 32.74 ± 6.96 years with semen analyses and self-reported BMI were included (n = 98). Patient parameters analysed included age, BMI, pubertal timing, the development of varicocele, and leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone (n = 18). The mean age of the study population was 32.74 ± 6.96 years. The incidence of azospermia, oligozoospermia, normospermia and the development of varicocele did not vary across BMI categories. Male obesity is not associated with the incidence of sperm concentration and the development of varicocele. PMID:24720635

  20. Predictive factors of successful redo varicocelectomy in infertile patients with recurrent varicocele.

    PubMed

    Chen, S-S

    2014-09-01

    To examine the predictive factors of successful redo varicocelectomy in infertile patients with recurrent varicocele, we made a retrospective study. Twenty-one patients who had improved quality of spermatozoon 6 months after RV were designated as group 1, those with no improvement as group 2 (17 subjects) and those who received close surveillance as group 3 (10 patients) were recruited. The predictive factors included were time to recurrent varicocele; semen quality; testicular volume; number of ligated veins; body mass index; serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone and testosterone; scrotal temperature; and peak retrograde flow (PRF) and maximal vein diameter (MVD) by colour Doppler ultrasound. The quality of spermatozoon improved significantly 6 months after RV in group 1 patients (21, 55.3%), and no improvement in group 2 and 3 patients. Patients in group 1 also had significantly lower FSH and PRF, longer time to recurrent varicocele, higher number of ligated veins and larger testicular volume than the group 2 (17, 44.7%) and group 3 patients. The significant predictive factors of successful RV were lower FSH and PRF; longer time to recurrent varicocele; and larger testicular volume preoperatively and a higher number of ligated veins during redo varicocelectomy. PMID:23889601

  1. Human infertility, reproductive cloning and nuclear transfer: a confusion of meanings.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, J Z; Johnson, M H

    2001-04-01

    The Chief Medical Officer of Health of the United Kingdom has recommended that the 1990 Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act should be amended to allow cloning in humans for research purposes only. He also recommended that: "The transfer of an embryo created by cell nuclear replacement into the uterus of a woman (so called 'reproductive cloning') should remain a criminal offence" (recommendation 7, Ref. 1). This recommendation implies that nuclear replacement and cloning are the same. They are not. Nuclear transfer constitutes reproductive cloning only when the individual created is genetically identical to the nuclear donor. In this paper, we describe a possible future use of nuclear transfer for the treatment of infertile individuals. The treatment yields an individual that receives approximately equal genetic contributions from each parent. We use this example to illustrate how semantic confusion might lead to plausibly moral and justifiable treatments being legally banned. In doing so, we hope to encourage a more accurate and informed use of language in science, law and politics, so that legislation is properly informed by science and achieves what it intends. BioEssays 23:359-364, 2001. PMID:11268042

  2. Clinical Effectiveness of Modified Laparoscopic Fimbrioplasty for the Treatment of Minimal Endometriosis and Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Franjoine, Sarah E.; Bedaiwy, Mohamed A.; AbdelHafez, Faten F.; Geng, Cuiyu; Liu, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To study the reproductive outcomes of modified laparoscopic fimbrioplasty (MLF), a surgical technique designed to increase the working surface area of the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube. We postulated that an improvement in fimbrial function through MLF will improve reproductive outcomes. Design. Retrospective cohort study. Setting. Academic tertiary-care medical center. Patients. Women with minimal endometriosis or unexplained infertility, who underwent MLF during diagnostic laparoscopy (n = 50) or diagnostic laparoscopy alone (n = 87). Intervention. MLF involved gentle, circumferential dilatation of the fimbria and lysis of fimbrial adhesions bridging the fimbrial folds. Main Outcome Measures. The primary outcome was pregnancy rate and the secondary outcome was time to pregnancy. Results. The pregnancy rate for the MLF group was 40.0%, compared to 28.7% for the control group. The average time to pregnancy for the MLF group was 13 weeks, compared to 18 weeks for the control group. The pregnancy rate in the MLF group was significantly higher for patients ?35?ys (51.5% versus 28.8%), but not for those >35?ys (17.6% versus 28.6%). Conclusion. MLF was associated with a significant increase in pregnancy rate for patients ?35?ys.

  3. Characterization of swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) virus (isolate ATCC VR-2332).

    PubMed

    Benfield, D A; Nelson, E; Collins, J E; Harris, L; Goyal, S M; Robison, D; Christianson, W T; Morrison, R B; Gorcyca, D; Chladek, D

    1992-04-01

    The characterization of an isolate of swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) virus (ATCC VR-2332) is reported. A commercial cell line (CL2621) was used for the propagation of the virus for all assays. Laboratory studies indicate that this isolate is a fastidious, nonhemagglutinating, enveloped RNA virus. Cesium chloride-purified virions visualized by electron microscopy were spherical particles with an average diameter of 62 nm (range: 48-83 nm) and a 25-30 nm core surrounded by an envelope. Virus replication was restricted to the cytoplasm, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. The virus did not react serologically with antisera to several common porcine viruses or with antisera to known viruses in the alphavirus, rubivirus, pestivirus, and ungrouped lactic dehydrogenase virus genera of the Togaviridae. However, convalescent sow sera and rabbit hyperimmune sera neutralized the SIRS virus at titers of 1:256 and 1:512, respectively. The virus was stable at 4 and -70 C, but was labile at 37 and 56 C. The properties of this isolate of SIRS virus resemble those of the family Togaviridae but do not match the described genera. PMID:1616976

  4. Training in reproductive endocrinology and infertility and assisted reproductive technologies: options and worldwide needs.

    PubMed

    de Ziegler, Dominique; de Ziegler, Nathalie; Sean, Sokteang; Bajouh, Osama; Meldrum, David R

    2015-07-01

    Standardized, high-quality training in reproductive endocrinology, infertility, and assisted reproductive technologies (REI-ART) faces challenges owing to the high-tech nature of ART and the important country-to-country differences in clinical practice and regulations overseeing training. Moreover, while the training capacity of the classical by-fellowship training platforms is shrinking, an increasing demand for REI-ART specialists is coming from emerging countries. To meet this expanding need for REI-ART specialists, we propose a novel by-network model linking a reference training center to satellite practical training sites. Simulation should be used more extensively to achieve competency before initiating live clinical experience, analogous to the highly effective training systems that have been used in aviation for decades. Large ART databases that exist because of obligations to report ART activity and results constitute unique yet so far untapped sources for developing by-scenario simulation training models. Online training materials incorporating these state-of-the-art information technology tools could be developed as a means of fulfilling training needs worldwide. PMID:25999260

  5. [A case of adult-onset idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism presenting with infertility].

    PubMed

    Terao, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Takehiko; Yanagisawa, Masahiro; Miyake, Miki; Sano, Futoshi; Kita, Kaoru; Murakami, Takayuki; Makiyama, Kazuhide; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Uemura, Hiroji; Yao, Masahiro; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2009-07-01

    A 28-year-old man with adult-onset idiopathic male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (MHH) is reported. He had been delivered normally and had normal puberty. He was referred to our hospital with a chief complaint of infertility. Serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were low. Semen analysis demonstrated azoospermia. Pituitary hypofunction was suggested by gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) loading test. Magnetic resonance images did not detect any abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary region. After a diagnosis of adult-onset hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was established, the patient received human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and recombinant FSH treatment. After 5 months, his sperm count reached 6.9 x 10(6) per ml and his wife became pregnant. Adult-onset HH in most cases is caused by tumors and trauma. To our knowledge 17 cases of adult-onset idiopathic HH have been reported, and there were only 3 cases that were caused by pituitary dysfunction. This report showed that r-FSH and hCG therapy was effective in promoting fertility in a patient with adult-onset idiopathic MHH. PMID:19673435

  6. Fusion failure of dense-cored proacrosomal vesicles in an inducible mouse model of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Oko, Richard; Donald, Andrew; Xu, Wei; van der Spoel, Aarnoud C

    2011-10-01

    The acrosome is a specialized secretory vesicle located in the head of spermatozoa and has an essential role during fertilization. This organelle and the sperm nucleus have aberrant morphologies in forms of male infertility in humans (teratozoospermia), often associated with poor motility (asthenoteratozoospermia). To further our understanding of the aetiology of these conditions, we have performed a pathological investigation of a model of asthenoteratozoospermia that can be induced in mice by N-butyldeoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ). We have found that, in mice treated with NB-DNJ, instead of an acrosome forming over the round spermatid nucleus, multivesicular bodies (MVB) accumulate in the vicinity of this nucleus. Electron microscopy has revealed that proacrosomic vesicles or granules (PAG) secreted during the Golgi phase of spermiogenesis do not fuse together to form an acrosomic vesicle, but rather attach transiently to the spermatid nucleus. Immunocytochemistry has shown that acrosomal membrane proteins and cytosolic acrosome-associated proteins are redirected to MVB in affected testes, whereas glycoproteins originating in the dense core of the PAG are degraded. Thus, the major effect of NB-DNJ is to inhibit membrane fusion of Golgi-derived secretory vesicles destined for acrosome formation, raising the possibility that these vesicles are critically affected in forms of (astheno)teratozoospermia. PMID:21987219

  7. The association between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Nadjarzadeh, Azadeh; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Mostafavi, Ebrahim; Gohari, Mahmood Reza; Shidfar, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress is detrimental to semen quality and has a significant role in the etiology of malesubfertility. Methods Dietary intake of antioxidants were compared between thirty two men with oligolastheno/ teratazoospermic(cases) and 32 normospermic volunteers (controls) attending fertility clinic in Mirza Koochak-khanHospital in Tehran, Iran. All participants were nonsmokers and matched according their age and Body MassIndex (BMI). Nutrient consumption was calculated using a semi- quantitative food frequency questionnaire.Semen samples were collected and were assessed by measuring volume, concentration, motility and morphology. Results infertile subjects had a significantly lower intake of zinc and folate compare to control ones(p<0.001). Dietary intake of vitamin C and E was lower than recommended values in 59.4% of case group thatwas significantly different from control ones (p<0.05). In control group, 36.4 and 40.9% of participants had insufficientdietary intake of vitamin C and E, respectively. Significant correlations were found between folate(r=0.5, p<0.001), zinc (r=0.6, p<0.001) and percentage of motility and also between vitamin E and morphology(r=0.3, p=0.03), zinc and concentration (r=0.4, p=0.004) in all participants. Conclusion summary, a low intake of folate, zinc, and vitamin E were related to poor sperm concentrationand motility. PMID:24926181

  8. Altered protein prenylation in Sertoli cells is associated with adult infertility resulting from childhood mumps infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu-Xing; Ying, Pu; Diao, Fan; Wang, Qiang; Ye, Dan; Jiang, Chen; Shen, Ning; Xu, Na; Chen, Wei-Bo; Lai, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Shan; Miao, Xiao-Li; Feng, Jin; Tao, Wei-Wei; Zhao, Ning-Wei; Yao, Bing; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Sha, Jia-Hao; Huang, Xing-Xu; Shi, Qing-Hua; Tang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Mumps commonly affects children 5–9 yr of age, and can lead to permanent adult sterility in certain cases. However, the etiology of this long-term effect remains unclear. Mumps infection results in progressive degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium and, occasionally, Sertoli cell–only syndrome. Thus, the remaining Sertoli cells may be critical to spermatogenesis recovery after orchitis healing. Here, we report that the protein farnesylation/geranylgeranylation balance is critical for patients’ fertility. The expression of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (GGPPS) was decreased due to elevated promoter methylation in the testes of infertile patients with mumps infection history. When we deleted GGPPS in mouse Sertoli cells, these cells remained intact, whereas the adjacent spermatogonia significantly decreased after the fifth postnatal day. The proinflammatory MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways were constitutively activated in GGPPS?/? Sertoli cells due to the enhanced farnesylation of H-Ras. GGPPS?/? Sertoli cells secreted an array of cytokines to stimulate spermatogonia apoptosis, and chemokines to induce macrophage invasion into the seminiferous tubules. Invaded macrophages further blocked spermatogonia development, resulting in a long-term effect through to adulthood. Notably, this defect could be rescued by GGPP administration in EMCV-challenged mice. Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which mumps infection during childhood results in adult sterility. PMID:23825187

  9. Molecular analysis of mutations and polymorphisms in the CFTR gene in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Tamburino, L; Guglielmino, A; Venti, E; Chamayou, S

    2008-07-01

    Mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene and polymorphisms, such as the (TG)m and Tn polymorphic loci in intron 8 at the splice acceptor site of exon 9, can cause male infertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of the most prevalent cystic-fibrosis-causing mutations, the IVS8-Tn alleles and IVS8-TG12 variant in the presence of IVS8-5T in patients with altered semen parameters (group I with obstructive azoospermia, group II with secretory azoospermia and group III with severe oligozoospermia) compared with a control group with normozoospermia. CFTR mutations were found in 26.5% and 14.3% of chromosomes of patients of group I and II respectively (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). The frequency of the 5T allele was 23.5% in patients in group I (P < 0.01), and was linked exclusively with TG12 allele. The present study reports for the first time a high proportion of the 5T allele in patients in group III (9.2%, P < 0.05). These results underline the importance of performing molecular analysis of mutations and IVS8-Tn polymorphism in the CFTR gene and appropriate genetic counselling to all couples undergoing assisted reproductive technologies when the partner has azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. PMID:18616886

  10. Mitochondria: participation to infertility as source of energy and cause of senescence.

    PubMed

    Benkhalifa, Moncef; Ferreira, Yannick J; Chahine, Hikmat; Louanjli, Noureddine; Miron, Pierre; Merviel, Philippe; Copin, Henri

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria is a powerhouse organelle involved in ATP synthesis, calcium signaling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) by oxidative stress production, cell cycle arrest via apoptosis and sex steroid hormones biosynthesis. Improvement of sperm parameters such as motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and oocyte interaction, involve regulation of ROS levels by the mitochondria. In human, the relation between the quantitative level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), oocyte cytoplasm maturation and fertilization potential, is not clear. It has been hypothesized that oocytes without sufficient wild type mtDNA and therefore able to generate ATP, would not normally be ovulated. This is reflected in the low numbers of mtDNA observed in degenerate oocytes obtained through super ovulation protocols during assisted reproductive technology programs. Different theories place mitochondria in a central role of oxidative damage to cells and tissues related to infertility declining and aging. Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis seems to be responsible for the pre and post-natal decline in germ cells, embryo development, implantation failure, and miscarriages. PMID:25150832

  11. Sequence family variant loss from the AZFc interval of the human Y chromosome, but not gene copy loss, is strongly associated with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Machev, N; Saut, N; Longepied, G; Terriou, P; Navarro, A; Levy, N; Guichaoua, M; Metzler-Guillemai..., C; Collignon, P; Frances, A; Belougne, J; Clemente, E; Chiaroni, J; Chevillard, C; Durand, C; Ducourneau, A; Pech, N; McElreavey, K; Mattei, M; Mitchell, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: Complete deletion of the complete AZFc interval of the Y chromosome is the most common known genetic cause of human male infertility. Two partial AZFc deletions (gr/gr and b1/b3) that remove some copies of all AZFc genes have recently been identified in infertile and fertile populations, and an association study indicates that the resulting gene dose reduction represents a risk factor for spermatogenic failure. Methods: To determine the incidence of various partial AZFc deletions and their effect on fertility, we combined quantitative and qualitative analyses of the AZFc interval at the DAZ and CDY1 loci in 300 infertile men and 399 control men. Results: We detected 34 partial AZFc deletions (32 gr/gr deletions), arising from at least 19 independent deletion events, and found gr/gr deletion in 6% of infertile and 3.5% of control men (p>0.05). Our data provide evidence for two large AZFc inversion polymorphisms, and for relative hot and cold spots of unequal crossing over within the blocks of homology that mediate gr/gr deletion. Using SFVs (sequence family variants), we discriminate DAZ1/2, DAZ3/4, CDY1a (proximal), and CDY1b (distal) and define four types of DAZ-CDY1 gr/gr deletion. Conclusions: The only deletion type to show an association with infertility was DAZ3/4-CDY1a (p = 0.042), suggesting that most gr/gr deletions are neutral variants. We see a stronger association, however, between loss of the CDY1a SFV and infertility (p = 0.002). Thus, loss of this SFV through deletion or gene conversion could be a major risk factor for male infertility. PMID:15520406

  12. Looking Out for The Secret Wound: The Effect of E-Cognitive Group Therapy with Emotional Disclosure on The Status of Mental Health in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Morshed Behbahani, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considering the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among infertile women, it seems that gynecologists, psychiatrists, and psychologists should be more attentive to identify and treat these disorders. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of E-cognitive group therapy with emotional disclosure on mentwal health status of infertile women who are receiving assisted reproduction. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 80 infertile women who were receiving hormonal therapy or other assisted reproductive technologies (ART) were randomly allocated to the cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) group or the control group. The CBT group had a weekly 12-hour meeting for a period of three months. They also participated in some painting sessions (art therapy) and written and verbal emotional disclosure (both individually and in group presentation). The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) test and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) were used for data gathering. Results: Results showed the level of psychological distress decreased in the control group, but not significantly. Psychological intervention in the treatment group significantly lowered the level of psychological distress; the mean score of DASS in all aspects was significant. The difference between the mean score of the two groups after intervention was significant (p=0.001) and also according to ANCOVA (p=0.002). Differences were significant between the mean scores of both groups in the PSWQ (p=0.001), Inventory Test (p=0.001), which was confirmed by ANCOVA (p=0.009). Conclusion: These finding suggest that CBT with emotional self-disclosure promotes coping strategies among infertile women. Results also show that these approaches develop mental health and decrease stress in infertile women. Using a psychiatric approach in medical settings could help infertile women to promote their adjustment with mental health problems due to of in infertility. (Registration Number: IRCT201108247407N2). PMID:25493164

  13. Myoinositol improves sperm parameters and serum reproductive hormones in patients with idiopathic infertility: a prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Calogero, A E; Gullo, G; La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Vaiarelli, A

    2015-05-01

    Male infertility is a multifactorial disorder that affects a significant percentage of couples. Its etiology and pathogenesis remain elusive in about one-third of the cases; this is referred to as idiopathic infertility. Inositols mediate the sperm processes involved into oocyte fertilization, such as penetration of the ovum cumulus oophorus, binding with the zona pellucida and the acrosome reaction. The aim of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of myoinositol (the most abundant form of inositols present in nature) treatment in men with idiopathic infertility. To accomplish this, we evaluated the effects of myoinositol on sperm parameters and reproductive hormones at baseline and after 3 months of treatment in men with idiopathic infertility. No adverse reaction was observed. Myoinositol significantly increased the percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa, sperm concentration, and total count and progressive motility compared to placebo. In addition, myoinositol rebalanced serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and inhibin B concentrations. The clinical improvement of idiopathic infertile patients should encourage myoinositol use for the treatment of this disorder, even though its detailed mechanisms at the testicular level remain still unclear. PMID:25854593

  14. Seminal insulin-like growth factor-I may be involved in the pathophysiology of infertility among patients with clinical varicocele.

    PubMed

    Naderi, GholamHossein; Mohseni Rad, Hamed; Tabassomi, Firouzeh; Latif, AmirHossein

    2014-10-24

    Varicocele, the most common cause of male infertility, is defined as abnormal dilation of the pampiniform plexus. Although different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of infertility caused by varicocele, it is still open to debate. Previous studies have demonstrated the effect of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on semen quality in animals and humans, but there are no studies on the probable role of seminal IGF-I in the pathophysiology of infertility among patients with clinical varicocele. We therefore aimed to examine the seminal IGF-I concentration in 49 patients with varicocele and primary infertility before and after varicocelectomy and compare the results with those of 50 healthy fertile men (in the control group). Mean seminal IGF-I level of patients before varicocelectomy (93.7 ± 67.2 ng/mL) was significantly different (P < 0.001) from that following varicocelectomy (58 ± 35.1 ng/mL) and from that of the controls (57.6 ± 22.1 ng/mL). However, mean seminal IGF-I levels of patients after varicocelectomy and the controls were not significantly different. Seminal IGF-I level was not correlated with grade and side of varicocele, and semen quality. We conclude that locally secreted IGF-I in the semen may be involved in the pathophysiology of infertility in patients with varicocele or semen. PMID:25343526

  15. Time-dependent recovery of Mycoplasma lipofaciens (strain ML64) from incubated infertile chicken eggs and dead in shell chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Lierz, Michael; Hafez, Hafez M

    2008-09-01

    Mycoplasmas are pathogens of different avian species, and they are able to be vertically transmitted. Even detected, Mycoplasma prevalence in raptor eggs is very low. In contrast to poultry, raptor eggs submitted for investigations are usually incubated. To investigate the influence of incubation length on the recovery of mycoplasmas from eggs, infertile specific-pathogen-free chicken eggs and embryos were infected with Mycoplasma lipofaciens (strain ML64), which had previously been isolated from an egg of a northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), in two different dosages. The eggs were investigated up to 12 days after infection (infertile eggs) or embryonic death. Mycoplasmas were recovered over the entire period after embryonic death by isolation. It was possible to re-isolate M. lipofaciens (strain ML64) from infertile eggs infected with 10(6) colony-forming units (CFUs) up to 12 days, but only up to 7 days if infected with 10(2) CFUs, which may be closer to the situation after natural infection. This study demonstrates that incubation of infertile eggs does have an influence on the recovery rate of mycoplasmas. This influence must be considered if interpreting results of Mycoplasma investigations in eggs of nonpoultry species. Additionally, it is recommended to use dead in shell embryos rather than infertile eggs for Mycoplasma detection. PMID:18939632

  16. Understanding the Social Meaning of Infertility and Childbearing: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Childbearing and Childlessness in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Adongo, Philip Baba

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility is a major medical condition that affects many married couples in sub-Saharan African and as such associated with several social meanings. This study therefore explored community's perception of childbearing and childlessness in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. Methods The study was exploratory and qualitative using in-depth and key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Fifteen marriage unions with infertility (childless), forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants were purposively sampled and interviewed using a semi-structured interview guides. Three focus group discussions were also carried out, one for childless women, one for women with children and one with men with children. The data collected were transcribed, coded, arranged, and analyzed for categories and themes and finally triangulated. Results The study revealed that infertility was caused by both social and biological factors. Socially couples could become infertile through supernatural causes such as bewitchment, and disobediences of social norms. Abortion, masturbation and use of contraceptives were also identified as causes of infertility. Most childless couples seek treatment from spiritualist, traditional healers and hospital. These sources of treatment are used simultaneously. Conclusion Childbearing is highly valued in the community and Childlessness is highly engendered, and stigmatised in this community with manifold social consequences. In such a community therefore, the concept of reproductive choice must encompass policies that make it possible for couples to aspire to have the number of children they wish. PMID:23342158

  17. Uterine transplantation: a future possibility to treat women with uterus factor infertility?

    PubMed

    Brännström, M

    2007-06-01

    Uterine transplantation is developed as a possible future treatment for patients with absolute uterus factor infertility. Patients with the Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, patients having had hysterectomy for benign or malignant uterine/cervical diseases and patients with intrauterine adhesions are the major groups of patients, who could benefit from this procedure. There has been one attempt to transplant a human uterus, which however failed. Since then, several uterine transplantation animal models have been developed to examine various aspects of the uterus transplantation procedure and to optimize it for human use. In a mouse model, normal pregnancy rate and offspring were seen after syngeneic uterus transplantation. The tolerance for cold ischemia from the time the uterus is taken out from the donor until placed in the recipient is around 24 h, as shown in a mouse uterine transplantation model and on human uterine tissue. The rejection pattern of the transplanted uterus was tested in an allogeneic mouse model with signs of rejection after 5 to 10 days. High doses of cyclosporin A (CyA) could partly suppress rejection but pregnancies have not yet been achieved in allogeneic uterus transplants in any species. In the sheep and pig models, the vascular anastomosis technique and the tolerability to cold ischemia have been evaluated. Normal offspring have been delivered in the sheep model after autotransplantation and presently allogeneic uterine transplants in sheep treated with corticosteroids and CyA are tested. Initial studies on uterus transplantation is also now conducted in primates. It is predicted that uterus transplantation may reach a clinical stage within 2-3 years, in the event of a continuous high research activity within this field. PMID:17592442

  18. Prognostic factors for successful varicocelectomy to treat varicocele-associated male infertility.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Shih-Tsung; Chen, Yu; Hsu, Yu-Chao; Chang, Po-Chih; Hsieh, Ming-Li

    2014-03-01

    The present study identified prognostic factors for successful varicocelectomy for the treatment of varicocele-induced male infertility. All varicoceles were diagnosed and graded by physical examination and ultrasound. Pre- and postoperative analysis of semen specimens measured sperm density, morphology and motility. 'Responder' and 'non-responder' status was determined by semen analyses at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Varicocele Grades 1, 2 and 3 were found in 16, 36 and 28 patients, respectively; 49 patients (61.3%) were responders based on improved seminograms. Significant postoperative increases were noted in sperm density (from 18.20 ± 14.76 × 10(6) to 32.36 ± 24.81 × 10(6)mL(-1); P<0.001), sperm morphology (from 57.21 ± 17.35% to 62.66 ± 15.18%; P=0.006) and percentage motility (from 29.89 ± 14.71% to 50.92 ± 19.30%; P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that age (odds ratio (OR) 0.56; P<0.001) and preoperative sperm density (OR 1.22; P=0.001) had significant unfavourable and favourable associations, respectively, with the likelihood of successful varicocelectomy. Furthermore, a preoperative sperm density of 12 × 10(6)mL(-1) as a cut-off point was able to predict successful varicocelectomy with a sensitivity of 77.6% and specificity of 77.4% (area under the curve=0.85; P<0.001; 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.92). Age and preoperative sperm density are prognostic factors for successful varicocelectomy. The results of the present study may allow clinicians to predict surgical improvement in fertility in patients with varicocele. PMID:23582753

  19. Humoral immunity status if infertile men antisperm antibodies and various pathologies of reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Tchiokadze, Sh; Galdava, G

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the research was to study humoral immunity status of infertile men with high concentration of antisperm antibodies in blood plasma, sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and various pathologies of reproductive system. Analysis of 496 outpatient cards has been conducted. It was found, that patients with high levels of ASA >150 mg/l, or average 100-150 mg/l, had statistically significant (p=0,001) high content of Ig A and Ig G relative to the control group. Men with serum ASA concentration >100 mg/l, had statistically insignificant increased levels of all 3 types of immunoglobulins relative to the control group. Patients infected with Chlamydia trachomatis proved to have decreased IgA and IgG, 0,95±0,12 and 6,64±0,5 respectively (p<0,001). As for the patients infected with Ureaplasma urealyticum, decreased levels in Ig A and Ig M have been reported as 0,75±0,29 and 1,08±0,08 respectively (p<0,05). In the course of prostate gland inflammation statistically significant deficiency of Ig A and IgG was evident relative to the control group, 0,75±0,10 g/l and 5,94±0,54 g/l respectively (p<0,001). As for the males with varicocele, Ig A and Ig M decrease is noticeable relative to the control group, 1,06±0,21 g/l and 0,61±0,19 g/l respectively (p<0,05). PMID:25953941

  20. Maldi-tof fingerprinting of seminal plasma lipids in the study of human male infertility.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Mariana; Intasqui, Paula; de Lima, Camila Bruna; Montani, Daniela Antunes; Nichi, Marcílio; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarăes; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta

    2014-09-01

    This study proposed lipid fingerprinting of human seminal plasma by mass spectrometry as an analytical method to differentiate biological conditions. For this purpose, we chose infertile men as a model to study specific conditions, namely: high and low seminal plasma lipid peroxidation levels (sub-study 1.1), high and low sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation (sub-study 1.2), and intervention status: before and after subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (study 2). Study 1 included 133 patients, of which 113 were utilized for sub-study 1.1 and 89 for sub-study 1.2. Study 2 included 17 adult men submitted to subinguinal varicocelectomy, before and 90 days after varicocelectomy. Lipids were extracted from seminal plasma and submitted to Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in the positive ionization mode. Spectra were processed using Waters(®) MassLynx, and MetaboAnalyst online software was used for statistical analyses. For sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, univariate analysis revealed 8, 87 and 34 significant ions, respectively. Multivariate analysis was performed through PCA and PLS-DA. PCA generated 56, 32 and 34 components respectively for each study and these were submitted to logistic regression. A ROC curve was plotted and the area under the curve was equal to 97.4, 92.5 and 96.5%. PLS-DA generated a list of 19, 24 and 23 VIP ions for sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, respectively. Therefore, this study established the lipid profile and comparison of patterns altered in response to specific biological conditions. PMID:24934590

  1. Alterations in the steroid hormone receptor co-chaperone FKBPL are associated with male infertility: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Male infertility is a common cause of reproductive failure in humans. In mice, targeted deletions of the genes coding for FKBP6 or FKBP52, members of the FK506 binding protein family, can result in male infertility. In the case of FKBP52, this reflects an important role in potentiating Androgen Receptor (AR) signalling in the prostate and accessory glands, but not the testis. In infertile men, no mutations of FKBP52 or FKBP6 have been found so far, but the gene for FKBP-like (FKBPL) maps to chromosome 6p21.3, an area linked to azoospermia in a group of Japanese patients. Methods To determine whether mutations in FKBPL could contribute to the azoospermic phenotype, we examined expression in mouse and human tissues by RNA array blot, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and sequenced the complete gene from two azoospermic patient cohorts and matching control groups. FKBPL-AR interaction was assayed using reporter constructs in vitro. Results FKBPL is strongly expressed in mouse testis, with expression upregulated at puberty. The protein is expressed in human testis in a pattern similar to FKBP52 and also enhanced AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays. We examined sixty patients from the Japanese patient group and found one inactivating mutation and one coding change, as well as a number of non-coding changes, all absent in fifty-six controls. A second, Irish patient cohort of thirty showed another two coding changes not present in thirty proven fertile controls. Conclusions Our results describe the first alterations in the gene for FKBPL in azoospermic patients and indicate a potential role in AR-mediated signalling in the testis. PMID:20210997

  2. The Attitudes of Infertile Male Patients Toward the Use of Artificial Insemination by Donor: A Korean Regional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Dae Sung; Jeon, Tae Gyeong; Park, Nam Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Infertile couples interested in nonspouse artificial insemination by donor (AID) not only require a thorough understanding of the medical procedure but also must scrutinize the effects it will have on family relationships, including those on the infant to be born. We conducted a series of surveys in couples with male infertility to collect information necessary for AID counseling. Materials and Methods A total of 384 cases with noncurable male infertility were enrolled in this inquiry survey. The questionnaire consisted of 18 items that assessed demographic characteristics, background information concerning the choice to use AID, subjective experiences, long-term effects, and an overall evaluation. Results A total of 126 surveys were returned (32.8%). AID was first suggested by the husband in about half of the cases. The major reason for considering the procedure was to form a complete family. Two-thirds of the couples were anxious about the procedure, most often about possible congenital or acquired deformities in the infant. After the birth of the child, most couples were positive about their decision to have used AID. About half of the couples felt that the child was their own and expected not to tell the child about AID. Overall, about 50% of the couples were satisfied with the procedure. Conclusions Those who underwent AID experienced various psychological effects, including anxiety about the child to be born. To overcome these problems, sufficient medical information and consultation about the process of selecting the donor and about AID procedures should be provided before the procedure is used. PMID:24578811

  3. Pregnancy outcome in pre-operative danazol treatment followed by laparoscopic correction in infertility associated with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Dey, Sandip; Chowdhury, Rajib Gon; Ganguly, Debi Das

    2012-10-01

    Probably, more has been written and less has been agreed upon, regarding the pathogenesis of the enigmatic disorder--endometriosis, which is the leading cause of disability in women of reproductive age group, resulting in infertility and pelvic pain. It is an accepted fact that the medical treatment of endometriosis does not help in infertility management, except certain situations like pain, limiting the attempt of pregnancy, or endometriosis presenting with cornual block, due to endosalpingiosis. The usual treatment of infertility being either surgical correction, or assisted reproductive technology procedures. In our patient population, the acceptance of In-vitro fertilisation or embryo transfer is much less, because of its high cost and social taboo. In this series, the improved pregnancy outcome is observed with medical treatment of endometriosis with danazol before and after the laparoscopic correction of the tubo-ovarian relation due to endometriosis or in certain cases of minimal to mild endometriosis, not requiring correction. Out of 722 suspected cases of endometriosis, 576 cases were subjected to prelaparoscopic treatment with danazol, and the result was compared with 424 cases of only laparoscopic treatment, and 216 cases of postlaparoscopic danazol treatment, during the years 2004 to 2008. A total of 1216 cases were included in the study. The initiation of medical treatment in the pre-operative period gives better pregnancy outcome, as compared to only surgical or postsurgical medical treatment. The experience proves that the adjuvant medical treatment with danazol, initiated before laparoscopy in suspected endometriosis cases is useful treatment procedure, to increase the pregnancy rate. PMID:23738401

  4. X-autosome translocation with a breakpoint in Xq22 in a fertile woman and her 47,XXX infertile daughter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Madan; P. G. A. Hompes; J. Schoemaker; C. E. Ford

    1981-01-01

    An unusual case is presented of a fertile woman heterozygous for a balanced X-autosome translocation t(X;12) (q22;p12) with a break-point (Xq22) in the critical region of the X chromosome. The karyotypes of her daughter, who is infertile, and one of her two sons are 47,XXX,t(X;12)(q22;p12) and 46,XY,t(X;12)(q22;p12) respectively. The literature on balanced X-autosome translocations in males and females involving both

  5. Effect of pentoxifylline on semen parameters, reproductive hormones, and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in men with idiopathic infertility: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Reza Safarinejad

    2011-01-01

    Objective  To determine the safety and efficacy of oral pentoxifylline (PTX) administration in improving semen parameters in infertile\\u000a men with idiopathic OAT.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  The study included 254 infertile men who underwent double-blind therapy with 400 mg PTX (Apotex Inc., Toronto, Canada) twice\\u000a daily (group 1, n = 127), or similar regimen of placebo (group 2, n = 127). The study consisted of a 4-week screening

  6. Successful pregnancy by direct intraperitoneal insemination in an infertile patient with failure of recanalization of isthmic stenosis after laparoscopic radical trachelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun-Young; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Suk, Hye-Jin; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2014-01-01

    Radical trachelectomy is a promising fertility-sparing treatment for patients with early stage cervical cancer who want to preserve their fertility. However, isthmic stenosis occurs frequently in patients who received radical trachelectomy and it is one of the causes of infertility following radical trachelectomy. Moreover, despite the treatment for recanalization of isthmic stenosis, recanalization can fail or isthmic stenosis can recur. Herein we report a successful pregnancy and birth by direct intraperitoneal insemination in an infertile woman with failure of recanalization of isthmic stenosis after laparoscopic radical trachelectomy. PMID:24596824

  7. The transcriptome of follicular cells: biological insights and clinical implications for the treatment of infertility

    PubMed Central

    Fragouli, Elpida; Lalioti, Maria D.; Wells, Dagan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Oocyte maturation is under strict regulatory control, not only from intrinsic cellular processes, but also extrinsic influences. While the oocyte is directly connected to the surrounding cumulus cells (CCs) via a network of gap junctions facilitating communication and exchange of molecules, it is also influenced by the greater follicular environment. In order to produce an oocyte capable of successfully transmitting the female genetic material and able to support the earliest stages of preimplantation development, cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation must be achieved. Granulosa and CCs play an essential role in the maturation and competence acquisition of the developing oocyte. The fact that these cells are closely associated with the oocyte, share the same microenvironment and can be easily collected during IVF procedures makes them attractive targets for basic research and the development of clinically relevant assays. Analysis of follicular cells is likely to reveal important information concerning the viability and genetic constitution of their associated oocyte, as well as increase our understanding of normal follicular processes and the impact of disorders or of medical interventions such as controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). This review summarizes results obtained during the investigation of granulosa and CCs, and considers the possibilities of using follicular cells as surrogate markers of stimulation response during IVF, oocyte/embryo competence and clinical outcome. METHODS In order to summarize the current knowledge obtained from the analysis of follicular cells, a thorough literature search was carried out. Relevant research articles published in English up to March 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS Multiple groups of genes expressed in follicular cells have been identified as possible indicators of ovulation, oocyte maturity, fertilization, chromosome status, ability to generate embryos capable of reaching the blastocyst stage of development, embryo morphology and the establishment of a pregnancy. However, there is a general lack of uniformity concerning groups of gene biomarkers among different studies. CONCLUSIONS Extensive investigation of genes and proteins of granulosa and CCs has provided a detailed insight into the follicular microenvironment surrounding oocytes. It was evident from the data reviewed that the gene expression of follicular cells influences and is influenced by the oocyte, affecting factors such as maturity, chromosomal constitution, viability and competence. However, a general lack of overlap among genes identified as potentially useful biomarkers suggests that the transcriptome of follicular cells could be affected by multiple intrinsic factors, having to do with the patient and possibly the aetiology of infertility, as well as extrinsic factors, such as hormonal stimulation. Further work is required in order to establish a universally applicable, non-invasive test for the determination of oocyte competence based upon follicular cell assessment. PMID:24082041

  8. The role of the antisperm antibodies in male infertility assessment after microsurgical varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Bozhedomov, V A; Lipatova, N A; Alexeev, R A; Alexandrova, L M; Nikolaeva, M A; Sukhikh, G T

    2014-11-01

    Antisperm antibodies (ASA) are a cause of male infertility. ASA are often found in varicocele patients. The study objective was to assess the ASA role in fertility recovery after varicocelectomy. The longitudinal study involved 99 patients with varicocele. Patients were examined according to the WHO recommendations; ASA level was measured using the direct method of Sperm MAR test: 66 patients were ASA-negative, 33 had MAR-IgG ? 10%. All patients underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy. Student's t-test, Wilcoxon test, Chi-squared test and signed rank test were used for data analysis. The retrospective analysis of all operated patients data showed that the patients without spermiogram improvement after varicocelectomy had higher ASA levels. 3 months after the surgery, the initially ASA-negative varicocele patients demonstrated 2.5 times increase in number of progressive motile spermatozoa in the ejaculate (p < 0.001), accompanied by 6% decrease in abnormal sperm count (p < 0.05); the spermiogram parameters improved in 77% of cases (p < 0.01). After the surgery, ASA developed in 16% of cases (Max--MAR-IgG = 12%). The patients who were initially ASA-positive demonstrated ASA decrease only in half of the cases (16 of 33; p > 0.05). The main outcome in this group was a favourable response to the surgery (ASA level decrease) vs. no reduction in autoimmune process. The improvement in the ASA-positive group was demonstrated in the patients with higher varicocele grade (median--2 vs. 1; p < 0.05) and lower ASA level (MAR-IgG = 48% vs. 92%; p < 0.01). The pregnancy rate within a year after surgery was 2.8 times more frequent in couples with ASA-negative men: 39% (25 of 65) in the ASA-negative group compared to 14% (4 of 28) in the ASA-positive group (p < 0.05). Thus, antisperm immune response decreases the varicocelectomy efficacy for reproductive function recovery: the higher percentage of ASA and lower grade of varicocele are associated with an unfavourable prognosis. PMID:25225061

  9. The Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome and Glaucoma in a Sex – Determining Region Y (SRY) Positive XX Infertile Male

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manish; V, Veeramohan; Chaudhary, Isha; Halder, Ashutosh

    2013-01-01

    The XX male syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. The phenotype is variable; it ranges from a severe impairment of the external genitalia to a normal male phenotype with infertility. It generally results from an unequal crossing over between the short arms of the sex chromosomes (X and Y). We are reporting a case of a 38-year-old man who presented with infertility and the features of hypogonadism and glaucoma. The examinations revealed normal external male genitalia, soft small testes, gynaecomastia and glaucoma. The semen analysis showed azoospermia. The serum gonadotropins were high, with low Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) and Inhibin B levels. The chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 46, XX karyotype. Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) revealed the presence of a Sex-determining Region Y (SRY). Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) revealed the Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome (SCOS). The presence of only Sertoli Cells in the testes, with glaucoma in the XX male syndrome, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature. PMID:23998093

  10. What Is the Role of Hysteroscopic Surgery in the Management of Female Infertility? A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Márcia Mendonça

    2014-01-01

    The position of hysteroscopy in current fertility practice is under debate. There are many randomized controlled trials on technical feasibility and patient compliance demonstrating that the procedure is well tolerated and effective in the treatment of intrauterine pathologies. However, no consensus on the effectiveness of hysteroscopic surgery in improving the prognosis of subfertile women is available. A literature review was performed to explore the available information regarding the role of hysteroscopy in the evaluation and management of female infertility as well as to ascertain evidence that treatment of these uterine abnormalities improves fertility. The debate regarding the role of hysteroscopic surgery in the management of female infertility remains as the published studies did not reach a consensus on the benefit of such an intervention in this setting. The randomized trials do not clearly demonstrate that surgical correction of all intrauterine abnormalities improves IVF outcome. However, published observational studies suggest a benefit for resection of submucosal leiomyomas, adhesions, and endometrial polyps in increasing pregnancy rates. More randomised controlled studies are needed to substantiate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic removal of suspected intrauterine pathology in women with unexplained subfertility or prior to assisted reproductive technology. PMID:25374944

  11. What is the role of hysteroscopic surgery in the management of female infertility? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Márcia Mendonça

    2014-01-01

    The position of hysteroscopy in current fertility practice is under debate. There are many randomized controlled trials on technical feasibility and patient compliance demonstrating that the procedure is well tolerated and effective in the treatment of intrauterine pathologies. However, no consensus on the effectiveness of hysteroscopic surgery in improving the prognosis of subfertile women is available. A literature review was performed to explore the available information regarding the role of hysteroscopy in the evaluation and management of female infertility as well as to ascertain evidence that treatment of these uterine abnormalities improves fertility. The debate regarding the role of hysteroscopic surgery in the management of female infertility remains as the published studies did not reach a consensus on the benefit of such an intervention in this setting. The randomized trials do not clearly demonstrate that surgical correction of all intrauterine abnormalities improves IVF outcome. However, published observational studies suggest a benefit for resection of submucosal leiomyomas, adhesions, and endometrial polyps in increasing pregnancy rates. More randomised controlled studies are needed to substantiate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic removal of suspected intrauterine pathology in women with unexplained subfertility or prior to assisted reproductive technology. PMID:25374944

  12. A Rare De novo Complex Chromosomal Rearrangement (CCR) Involving Four Chromosomes in An Oligo-asthenosperm Infertile Man

    PubMed Central

    Asia, Saba; Vaziri Nasab, Hamed; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Kalantari, Hamid; Zari Moradi, Shabnam; Gourabi, Hamid; Mohseni Meybodi, Anahita

    2014-01-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are rare events involving more than two chromosomes and over two breakpoints. They are usually associated with infertility or sub fertility in male carriers. Here we report a novel case of a CCR in a 30-year-old oligoasthenosperm man with a history of varicocelectomy, normal testes size and normal endocrinology profile referred for chromosome analysis to the Genetics unit of Royan Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center. Chromosomal analysis was performed using peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures and analyzed by GTG banding. Additional tests such as C-banding and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure for each of the involved chromosomes were performed to determine the patterns of the segregations. Y chromosome microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region were analyzed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction. To identify the history and origin of this CCR, all the family members were analyzed. No micro deletion in Y chromosome was detected. The same de novo reciprocal exchange was also found in his monozygous twin brother. The other siblings and parents were normal. CCRs are associated with male infertility as a result of spermatogenic disruption due to complex meiotic configurations and the production of chromosomally abnormal sperms. These chromosomal rearrangements might have an influence on decreasing the number of sperms. PMID:24611143

  13. Toxic metals signature in the human seminal plasma of Pakistani population and their potential role in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Ambreen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Bostan, Nazish; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Tahir, Faheem; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas; Hussain, Alamdar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Huang, Qingyu; Peng, Siyuan; Shen, Heqing

    2015-06-01

    Aims of this study were to provide firsthand data on the incidence of trace metals in human seminal plasma and find possible correlations between levels of toxic metals and semen quality of Pakistani population. Human semen samples were collected from male partners of couples undergoing infertility assessment at the National Institute of Health Islamabad (Pakistan). We investigated seventy-five seminal plasma samples, which were further categorized into three groups (normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia) according to WHO guidelines. The concentration of 17 different toxic metals in human seminal plasma was determined simultaneously by using Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Out of 17 trace metals, Cd and Ni showed significant difference (p < 0.05) among three monitored groups. Ni and Cd concentrations in the seminal plasma were negatively correlated with sperm concentration (r = -0.26, -0.29) and motility (r = -0.33, -0.37), respectively. This study suggested that exposure of Ni and Cd is mainly related with the consumption of contaminated dietary items, including ghee (cooking oil), flour and other agri-products. In some semen samples, the concentrations of Sn, V, Cu, Pb, Cr and Hg exhibited high levels suggesting a recent human exposure to surrounding sources. In Pakistani human semen samples, the levels of trace metals were lower and/or comparable to that found in populations of other countries. The results show the first evidence of the effect of toxic metals on semen quality and male infertility in Pakistan. PMID:25471479

  14. Stereological study of the effect of ginger's alcoholic extract on the testis in busulfan-induced infertility in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Hossein; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh; Dehghani, Farzaneh; Panjehshahin, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: In traditional medicine zingiber officinale used to regulate female menstural cycle and treat male infertility. Recent studies have suggested the possible role of ginger extract in improving the testicular damage of busulfan. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zingiber officinale on the sperm parameters, testosterone level and the volume of the testes and seminiferous tubules by stereological methods. Materials and Methods: Fifty rats were divided into four groups. All the rats were given a single intraperitoneally injection of 5mg/kg busulfan solution. The first group was kept as busulfan control, while the other groups were orally administrated ginger extract in graded doses of 50, 100 and 150mg/kg b.wt, for 48 consecutive days. At the end, all animals were anesthetized and their testes and vas deference were removed, fixed, embedded, and stained. The volume of testes and seminiferous tubules were estimated by cavalieri methods. Results: The result showed, that zingiber officinale increased the volumes of seminiferous tubule in 100mg/kg treated group compared to control group. Sperm count (706×105 and 682×105) and the level of testosterone (50.90 ng/mL and 54.10 ng/mL) enhanced in 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg treated groups compared to control group (p=0.00). Conclusion: It seems that zingiber officinale stimulate male reproductive system in induce busulfan infertility. PMID:24639780

  15. Traditional Chinese Herb Combined with Surgery versus Surgery for Varicocele Infertility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dun, Rong-Liang; Yao, Min; Yang, Long; Cui, Xue-Jun; Mao, Jian-Min; Peng, Yu; Qi, Guang-Chong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery for male varicocele infertility compared to surgery. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) data of traditional Chinese herbs combined with surgery for male varicocele fertility versus surgery were collected by searching the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, and Chinese databases. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane Handbook. Study outcomes were presented as risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data. Results. Seventeen of 72 potentially relevant trials met the inclusion criteria. The methodological qualities of the RCTs were low. Compared with the surgery group, the traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery group had superiority in pregnancy rate at 3-month (RR = 1.76, and P = 0.008), 6-month (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005), and 2-year (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005) follow-ups. No RCT was found to describe the side effects. Conclusion. On considering the low methodological quality of RCTs, there was no enough evidence on traditional Chinese herb with surgery for male varicocele infertility, and more high-quality RCTs of large sample sizes are required. PMID:25705240

  16. Traditional Chinese Herb Combined with Surgery versus Surgery for Varicocele Infertility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dun, Rong-liang; Yao, Min; Cui, Xue-jun; Mao, Jian-min; Peng, Yu; Qi, Guang-chong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery for male varicocele infertility compared to surgery. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) data of traditional Chinese herbs combined with surgery for male varicocele fertility versus surgery were collected by searching the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, and Chinese databases. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane Handbook. Study outcomes were presented as risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data. Results. Seventeen of 72 potentially relevant trials met the inclusion criteria. The methodological qualities of the RCTs were low. Compared with the surgery group, the traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery group had superiority in pregnancy rate at 3-month (RR = 1.76, and P = 0.008), 6-month (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005), and 2-year (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005) follow-ups. No RCT was found to describe the side effects. Conclusion. On considering the low methodological quality of RCTs, there was no enough evidence on traditional Chinese herb with surgery for male varicocele infertility, and more high-quality RCTs of large sample sizes are required. PMID:25705240

  17. A Rare De novo Complex Chromosomal Rearrangement (CCR) Involving Four Chromosomes in An Oligo-asthenosperm Infertile Man.

    PubMed

    Asia, Saba; Vaziri Nasab, Hamed; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Kalantari, Hamid; Zari Moradi, Shabnam; Gourabi, Hamid; Mohseni Meybodi, Anahita

    2014-01-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are rare events involving more than two chromosomes and over two breakpoints. They are usually associated with infertility or sub fertility in male carriers. Here we report a novel case of a CCR in a 30-year-old oligoasthenosperm man with a history of varicocelectomy, normal testes size and normal endocrinology profile referred for chromosome analysis to the Genetics unit of Royan Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center. Chromosomal analysis was performed using peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures and analyzed by GTG banding. Additional tests such as C-banding and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure for each of the involved chromosomes were performed to determine the patterns of the segregations. Y chromosome microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region were analyzed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction. To identify the history and origin of this CCR, all the family members were analyzed. No micro deletion in Y chromosome was detected. The same de novo reciprocal exchange was also found in his monozygous twin brother. The other siblings and parents were normal. CCRs are associated with male infertility as a result of spermatogenic disruption due to complex meiotic configurations and the production of chromosomally abnormal sperms. These chromosomal rearrangements might have an influence on decreasing the number of sperms. PMID:24611143

  18. Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and Infertility in Mice Deficient for miR-34b/c and miR-449 Loci

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Kasper Dindler; Much, Christian; Azzi, Chiara; Perlas, Emerald; Morgan, Marcos; O'Carroll, Dónal

    2014-01-01

    Male fertility requires the continuous production of high quality motile spermatozoa in abundance. Alterations in all three metrics cause oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, the leading cause of human sub/infertility. Post-mitotic spermatogenesis inclusive of several meiotic stages and spermiogenesis (terminal spermatozoa differentiation) are transcriptionally inert, indicating the potential importance for the post-transcriptional microRNA (miRNA) gene-silencing pathway therein. We found the expression of miRNA generating enzyme Dicer within spermatogenesis peaks in meiosis with critical functions in spermatogenesis. In an expression screen we identified two miRNA loci of the miR-34 family (miR-34b/c and miR-449) that are specifically and highly expressed in post-mitotic male germ cells. A reduction in several miRNAs inclusive of miR-34b/c in spermatozoa has been causally associated with reduced fertility in humans. We found that deletion of both miR34b/c and miR-449 loci resulted in oligoasthenoteratozoospermia in mice. MiR-34bc/449-deficiency impairs both meiosis and the final stages of spermatozoa maturation. Analysis of miR-34bc?/?;449?/? pachytene spermatocytes revealed a small cohort of genes deregulated that were highly enriched for miR-34 family target genes. Our results identify the miR-34 family as the first functionally important miRNAs for spermatogenesis whose deregulation is causal to oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and infertility. PMID:25329700

  19. The Nuclear Status of Human Sperm Cells by TEM Image Cytometry: Nuclear Shape and Chromatin Texture in Semen Samples from Fertile and Infertile Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. AUGER; D. SCHOEVAERT; I. NEGULESCO; J. P. DADOUNE

    Changes in nuclear size, shape, and chromatin texture during spermiogenesis and epididymal transport of human sperm were recently analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image cytometry followed by multivariate statistical analysis of data. In the present study, this same methodology was used to investigate the nuclear morphology of spermatozoa in semen samples from fertile and infertile men. Analysis was carried

  20. Infertility rates following POMB\\/ACE chemotherapy for male and female germ cell tumours – a retrospective long-term follow-up study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Gaffan; L Holden; E S Newlands; D Short; S Fuller; R H J Begent; G J S Rustin; M J Seckl

    2003-01-01

    The risk of chemotherapy-induced infertility in male and female germ cell tumour (GCT) survivors is unclear, but may correlate with cisplatin dose. Here, we examine a large series of GCT patients for the effect of chemotherapy on those attempting to have children. Our GCT database was screened for nonseminomatous GCT patients who had (1) received POMB\\/ACE chemotherapy (cisplatin, vincristine, methotrexate,

  1. [Frequency of detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in cervical canal and the Douglas pouch of infertile and fertile women].

    PubMed

    Grze?ko, Joanna; Elias, Marek; Maczy?ska, Beata; Kasprzykowska, Urszula; T?acza?a, Magdalena; Goluda, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The group of organisms commonly referred to as genital mycoplasmas comprise species most often found in genitourinary tract of sexually active adults as common commensal inhabitants, or pathogens which can possibly cause many different pathologies like: non-gonococcal urethritis, bacterial vaginosis, cervicitis, endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease. The problem of their morbidity and the possible influence they have on human fertility is still not clear. The aim of this study was to find out whether two investigated species- Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis can be detect more often in a group of infertile women. 74 women participated in the study and were assigned to one of 2 groups of patients: infertile women and fertile women without any sign of genital tract infection. Swabs from the cervical canal of the uterus and the fluid from the Douglas pouch were taken during the gynecological examination and laparoscopic procedure. Two diagnostic methods were used: biochemical method- commercial diagnostic kit- Mycoplasma IST 2 and PCR method. The results showed that Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis were detected among both fertile and infertile women with nearly the same frequency, much more often in cervical canal than in the Douglas pouch. Ureaplasma urealyticum was more common pathogen than Mycoplasma hominis in both groups and locations. The achieved results point out that the role of genital mycoplasmas in human infertility is still unclear and require further investigations. PMID:17929414

  2. A common protamine 1 promoter polymorphism (-190 C->A) correlates with abnormal sperm morphology and increased protamine P1/P2 ratio in infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Gázquez, Cristina; Oriola, Josep; de Mateo, Sara; Vidal-Taboada, José M; Ballescŕ, José Luis; Oliva, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    It is known that targeting the protamine 1 gene in mice leads to infertility, abnormal chromatin packaging, and abnormal sperm morphology. Because many infertile patients also have an abnormal sperm morphology and chromatin packaging, the human protamine 1 gene (PRM1) is an important candidate to screen for potential mutations. In this work, we have screened the PRM1 gene in search of potential mutations and determined the sperm morphology and the ratio between protamine 1 and protamine 2 (P1/P2 ratio). Direct sequencing of the PRM1 promoter led to the identification of a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; -190 C-->A). The -190 AA genotype was detected at a higher frequency (13.8%) in patients with markedly altered sperm morphology (A change was also consistently higher (.331) in infertile patients with a markedly altered morphology compared with population controls (.178; P < .01). Additionally, we have determined that the P1/P2 ratio is significantly increased in patients with the PRM1 -190 AA genotype compared with patients with the CA or CC genotypes (P = .006, Mann-Whitney). These findings indicate that the common PRM1 -190 C-->A polymorphism identified is associated with abnormal sperm head morphology and abnormal P1/P2 ratio in infertile patients. PMID:18390561

  3. Correlation of endocrine disrupting chemicals serum levels and white blood cells gene expression of nuclear receptors in a population of infertile women.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Donatella; Ciardo, Francesca; Bordi, Giulia; Guerranti, Cristiana; Fanello, Emiliano; Perra, Guido; Borghini, Francesca; La Rocca, Cinzia; Tait, Sabrina; Bergamasco, Bruno; Stecca, Laura; Marci, Roberto; Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Soave, Ilaria; Focardi, Silvano; Mantovani, Alberto; Moscarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Significant evidence supports that many endocrine disrupting chemicals could affect female reproductive health. Aim of this study was to compare the internal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in serum samples of 111 infertile women and 44 fertile women. Levels of gene expression of nuclear receptors (ER ? , ER ? , AR, AhR, PXR, and PPAR ? ) were also analyzed as biomarkers of effective dose. The percentage of women with BPA concentrations above the limit of detection was significantly higher in infertile women than in controls. No statistically significant difference was found with regard to PFOS, PFOA, MEHP and DEHP. Infertile patients showed gene expression levels of ER ? , ER ? , AR, and PXR significantly higher than controls. In infertile women, a positive association was found between BPA and MEHP levels and ER ? , ER ? , AR, AhR, and PXR expression. PFOS concentration positively correlated with AR and PXR expression. PFOA levels negatively correlated with AhR expression. No correlation was found between DEHP levels and all evaluated nuclear receptors. This study underlines the need to provide special attention to substances that are still widely present in the environment and to integrate exposure measurements with relevant indicators of biological effects. PMID:23710174

  4. Correlation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Serum Levels and White Blood Cells Gene Expression of Nuclear Receptors in a Population of Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Caserta, Donatella; Ciardo, Francesca; Bordi, Giulia; Guerranti, Cristiana; Fanello, Emiliano; Perra, Guido; Borghini, Francesca; La Rocca, Cinzia; Tait, Sabrina; Bergamasco, Bruno; Stecca, Laura; Marci, Roberto; Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Soave, Ilaria; Focardi, Silvano; Mantovani, Alberto; Moscarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Significant evidence supports that many endocrine disrupting chemicals could affect female reproductive health. Aim of this study was to compare the internal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in serum samples of 111 infertile women and 44 fertile women. Levels of gene expression of nuclear receptors (ER?, ER?, AR, AhR, PXR, and PPAR?) were also analyzed as biomarkers of effective dose. The percentage of women with BPA concentrations above the limit of detection was significantly higher in infertile women than in controls. No statistically significant difference was found with regard to PFOS, PFOA, MEHP and DEHP. Infertile patients showed gene expression levels of ER?, ER?, AR, and PXR significantly higher than controls. In infertile women, a positive association was found between BPA and MEHP levels and ER?, ER?, AR, AhR, and PXR expression. PFOS concentration positively correlated with AR and PXR expression. PFOA levels negatively correlated with AhR expression. No correlation was found between DEHP levels and all evaluated nuclear receptors. This study underlines the need to provide special attention to substances that are still widely present in the environment and to integrate exposure measurements with relevant indicators of biological effects. PMID:23710174

  5. Genetic Variants in Nitric Oxide Synthase Genes and the Risk of Male Infertility in a Chinese Population: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lifeng; Guo, Wenhui; Wu, Shengmin; Liu, Jining; Zhang, Shenghu; Shi, Lili; Ji, Guixiang; Gu, Aihua

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, oxidative stress has been studied extensively as a main contributing factor to male infertility. Nitric Oxide, a highly reactive free radical gas, is potentially detrimental to sperm function and sperm DNA integrity at high levels. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the associations between five polymorphisms in nitric oxide synthase genes (NOSs) and the risk of male infertility and sperm DNA damage as well. Methods Genotypes were determined by the OpenArray platform. Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected using the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in sperm DNA was measured using immunofluorescence. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Results Our results revealed a statistically significant difference between the cases and controls in both genotypic distribution (P<0.001) and allelic frequency (P?=?0.021) only for the NOS3 rs1799983 SNP. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that rs1799983 was associated with a borderline significantly increased risk of male infertility (GT vs. GG: adjusted OR?=?1.30, 95% CI: 1.00–1.70; GT+TT vs. GG: adjusted OR?=?1.34, 95% CI: 1.03–1.74; Ptrend?=?0.020). Moreover, NOS3 rs1799983 was positively associated with higher levels of sperm DNA fragmentation (??=?0.223, P?=?0.044). However, the other 4 polymorphisms (NOS1 rs2682826, NOS1 rs1047735, NOS2 rs2297518, and NOS2 rs10459953) were not found to have any apparent relationships with male infertility risk. Conclusions Of five NOS gene polymorphisms investigated in the present study, we found NOS3 rs1799983 might cause oxidative sperm DNA damage, thereby contributing to male infertility. PMID:25517965

  6. Assessment of fertility and infertility in boron-exposed Turkish subpopulations: 3. Evaluation of fertility among sibs and in "borate families".

    PubMed

    Sayli, B S

    2001-09-01

    As a part of a work to reveal the health effects of boron and its compounds, fertility and infertility states of sibs of probands, contacted and interviewed in the field, and of their spouses were given. The purposes were to prevent duplications seemingly inevitable in a relatively small community with prevailing consanguinity while analyzing marriages over respective generations and to reveal if there occurred an aggregation of infertile couples. Any family without offspring after about the second year of marriage was considered primary infertile as adopted throughout the study and such families were ascertained through the individual pedigree charts set up according to the instructions of the proband, he (she) himself (herself) being excluded. The rates of childless families of this type were 0.0-3.4% among male and 0.9-3.8% among female sibs of the participant, and 2.3-10.0% among male and 0.0-5.6% among female sibs of his (her) spouse with averages of 2.3% of 1589, 2.6% of 1589, 4.0% of 1314, and 3.3% of 1436 instances, respectively. The differences were insignificant and the rates were not different from those concerning probands themselves and that of a comparable segment of the Turkish population. "Borate families/kindreds" with two or more members engaged in the borate industry were also assessed in order to detect if there was a significant clustering of infertiles within the kindred. Although it was difficult to compare with a matched group, few couples were examples of familial concentration of infertility. These results provided further support that boron exposure does not affect human reproduction primarily and most probably secondarily. PMID:11575682

  7. No association of TP53 codon 72 SNP with male infertility: a study in a Chinese population and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ying; Jiang, Hongguo; Ma, Lan; Chen, Jinbao; Li, Dongya; Meng, Yushi; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wenru

    2015-08-01

    Genetic polymorphisms may affect human male fertility. Even though TP53 plays a role in spermatogenesis we know little about the association of the functional polymorphism at codon 72 of TP53 with respect to susceptibility to male infertility. We conducted a case-control study to investigate this association in a Chinese population and performed a meta-analysis in different populations to clarify this association. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of TP53 codon 72 (rs1042522 G>C) was genotyped by PCR-RFLP in 83 Chinese male infertility patients and 401 healthy controls. Meta-analysis was performed using the data from four currently available studies. The data from our study were overlayed using the v.9.0 STATA software package. We observed no association between the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and male infertility (p?=?0.84, OR?=?1.04, 95% CI, 0.74-1.45). Meta-analysis confirmed the case-control result that there was no significant association between the codon 72 polymorphism of TP53 and male infertility (Pro vs. Arg; p?=?0.31, OR?=?0.86, 95% CI, 0.65-1.15; Pro/Pro vs. Arg-carriers; p?=?0.65, OR?=?0.91, 95% CI, 0.61-1.36; Pro-carriers vs. Arg/Arg: p?=?0.15, OR?=?0.75, 95% CI, 0.51-1.11). The data presented in this communication supports the view that the codon 72 polymorphism of TP53 may not contribute to male infertility susceptibility in the Chinese population. PMID:25747431

  8. Evidence from enzymatic and meta-analyses does not support a direct association between USP26 gene variants and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Liu, T; Mi, Y-J; Yue, L-D; Wang, J-M; Liu, D-W; Yan, J; Tian, Q B

    2015-03-01

    Do men who carry mutations in USP26 have an increased risk of infertility? The association between mutations in USP26 gene and male infertility has been studied intensively. However, the results from different groups are controversial. In particular, biological function of the mutant proteins remains to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted a USP cleavage assay and a meta-analysis of the published literature (up to 31 May 2013) to evaluate the impact of five frequent mutations (NM_031907.1: c.363_364insACA, c.494T>C, c.1423C>T, c.1090C>T, c.1737G>A) on enzymatic activity of the USP26 and to assess the strength of the association between those mutations and male infertility. The USP cleavage assay showed that those mutations do not affect USP26 enzymatic activity. Moreover, the results of meta-analysis of ten case-control studies (in total 1716 patients and 2597 controls) revealed no significant association (P > 0.05) between USP26 mutations and male infertility. The pooled ORs were 1.58 (95% CI: 0.81, 3.10) for cluster mutations (c.363_364insACA, c.494T>C, c.1423C>T), 1.60 (95% CI: 0.93, 2.74) for c.1090 C>T and 2.64 (95% CI: 0.97, 7.20) for c.1737 G>A. Evidence from both enzymatic and meta-analyses does not support a direct association between USP26 variants and male infertility. Further research is necessary to study the biological function of USP26, which may provide clues as to the regulation of androgen receptor signalling. PMID:25755145

  9. A new method for sperm characterization for infertility treatment: hypothesis testing by using combination of watershed segmentation and graph theory.

    PubMed

    Shojaedini, Seyed Vahab; Heydari, Masoud

    2014-10-01

    Shape and movement features of sperms are important parameters for infertility study and treatment. In this article, a new method is introduced for characterization sperms in microscopic videos. In this method, first a hypothesis framework is defined to distinguish sperms from other particles in captured video. Then decision about each hypothesis is done in following steps: Selecting some primary regions as candidates for sperms by watershed-based segmentation, pruning of some false candidates during successive frames using graph theory concept and finally confirming correct sperms by using their movement trajectories. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated on real captured images belongs to semen with high density of sperms. The obtained results show the proposed method may detect 97% of sperms in presence of 5% false detections and track 91% of moving sperms. Furthermore, it can be shown that better characterization of sperms in proposed algorithm doesn't lead to extracting more false sperms compared to some present approaches. PMID:25426431

  10. Antiphospholipid antibodies in infertile couples with two consecutive miscarriages after in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Egbase, P E; Al Sharhan, M; Diejomaoh, M; Grudzinskas, J G

    1999-06-01

    Of 682 women who had undergone in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with embryo transfer, 84 were successful on two occasions, with 16 of these resulting in miscarriage before 20 completed weeks. Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in these women (group 1) and compared to two control groups: 42 fertile women with three or more miscarriages (group 2) and 60 women with primary infertility undergoing IVF or ICSI (group 3). An apparently higher prevalence of seropositivity was seen in group 1 women (25%) compared to the group 3 women (6.6%) and it was similar to that seen in group 2 women (21.4%). Therefore the recommendation that women with two consecutive miscarriages after IVF or ICSI should have APA estimations performed routinely may be justified. PMID:10357964

  11. Sexual intercourse with leukocytospermic men may be a possible booster of oxidative stress in female partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Mändar, R; Kullisaar, T; Borovkova, N; Punab, M

    2013-05-01

    Human semen has undoubtedly significant influence on the organism of the female counterpart. At the same time there are no studies in English literature investigating the influence of sexual intercourse on oxidative stress level in women's organism. Seventeen infertile couples where male partners were with (n = 5) or without (n = 12) leukocytospermia were enrolled in the study. Systemic oxidative stress levels were measured, whereby twice in female partners - before and 8-12 h after sexual intercourse. The men with leukocytospermia were characterized by oxidative stress that was substantially transferred to their partners during sexual intercourse as revealed by increase in 8-isoprostanes level (median 32.7 vs. 70.4 ng/mmol creatinine, p = 0.006). Sexual intercourse with male partner having leukocytospermia increases the oxidative stress level in the women's organism that may interfere with fertilization. PMID:23316004

  12. Cultural and ethical challenges of assisted reproductive technologies in the management of infertility among the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jegede, Ayodele S; Fayemiwo, Adetona S

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses the cultural and ethical issues arising from the use of Assisted Reproductive Health Technologies. Twenty-five In-depth interviews were conducted with 5 couples of reproductive age who have never conceived or brought pregnancy to term after one year of unprotected intercourse, 4 adult males, 4 adult females, a gyneacologist, a nurse, a herbalist and 2 religious leaders in Ibadan, Nigeria. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Legitimacy of children born through ART, religious obligation, patriarchy, polygamy and value of children are cultural issues surrounding ARTs while decision making about it, discrimination against children born through ART, psychological problems and loss of self esteem, side effects of the technologies and the cost of accessing them are the ethical challenges. The findings have methodological implications for conducting infertility research in non-western societies. PMID:21243924

  13. Follicular growth and corpus luteum function in women with unexplained infertility, monitored by ultrasonography and measurement of daily salivary progesterone.

    PubMed

    Finn, M M; Gosling, J P; Tallon, D F; Joyce, L A; Meehan, F P; Fottrell, P F

    1989-12-01

    Ovarian function was evaluated over a minimum of 3 consecutive menstrual cycles from each of 41 women with unexplained infertility. Follicular development and ovulation were monitored using real time ultrasonography and luteal function was evaluated by daily salivary progesterone measurement. In 129 spontaneous cycles, normal single ovulations were detected in 121 (93.8%). Luteal phase insufficiency was identified in 21 (17.4%) of these 121 cycles and this was a recurrent phenomenon in the cycles of 5 of the 41 women (12.2%). A successful pregnancy was seen only in association with consistently normal salivary progesterone profiles or where the empirical use of clomiphene citrate therapy had corrected previously diagnosed luteal phase insufficiency. Basal body temperature records or mid-luteal serum progesterone measurements were less satisfactory indices of luteal function than a salivary progesterone profile. PMID:2626978

  14. Preconception stress increases the risk of infertility: results from a couple-based prospective cohort study—the LIFE study

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, C.D.; Sundaram, R.; Maisog, J.M.; Sweeney, A.M.; Buck Louis, G.M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are women's stress levels prospectively associated with fecundity and infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER Higher levels of stress as measured by salivary alpha-amylase are associated with a longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP) and an increased risk of infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Data suggest that stress and reproduction are interrelated; however, the directionality of that association is unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION In 2005–2009, we enrolled 501 couples in a prospective cohort study with preconception enrollment at two research sites (Michigan and Texas, USA). Couples were followed for up to 12 months as they tried to conceive and through pregnancy if it occurred. A total of 401 (80%) couples completed the study protocol and 373 (93%) had complete data available for this analysis. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Enrolled women collected saliva the morning following enrollment and then the morning following their first observed study menses for the measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase, which are biomarkers of stress. TTP was measured in cycles. Covariate data were captured on both a baseline questionnaire and daily journals. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Among the 401 (80%) women who completed the protocol, 347 (87%) became pregnant and 54 (13%) did not. After adjustment for female age, race, income, and use of alcohol, caffeine and cigarettes while trying to conceive, women in the highest tertile of alpha-amylase exhibited a 29% reduction in fecundity (longer TTP) compared with women in the lowest tertile [fecundability odds ratios (FORs) = 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.51, 1.00); P < 0.05]. This reduction in fecundity translated into a >2-fold increased risk of infertility among these women [relative risk (RR) = 2.07; 95% CI = (1.04, 4.11)]. In contrast, we found no association between salivary cortisol and fecundability. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Due to fiscal and logistical concerns, we were unable to collect repeated saliva samples and perceived stress questionnaire data throughout the duration of follow-up. Therefore, we were unable to examine whether stress levels increased as women continued to fail to get pregnant. Our ability to control for potential confounders using time-varying data from the daily journals, however, minimizes residual confounding. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS This is the first US study to demonstrate a prospective association between salivary stress biomarkers and TTP, and the first in the world to observe an association with infertility. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (contracts #N01-HD-3-3355, N01-HD-3-3356, N01-HD-3358). There are no conflicts of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER Not applicable. PMID:24664130

  15. Reproductive outcome after IVF following hysteroscopic division of incomplete uterine septum/arcuate uterine anomaly in women with primary infertility

    PubMed Central

    Abuzeid, M.; Ghourab, G.; Abuzeid, O.; Mitwally, M.; Ashraf, M.; Diamond, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine reproductive outcome after in-vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in women with primary infertility following hysteroscopic septoplasty of incomplete uterine septum or arcuate uterine anomaly. Methods: This is a historical cohort study. The study group consisted of 156 consecutive patients who underwent a total of 221 cycles of IVF/ET following hysteroscopic septoplasty of an incomplete uterine septum or arcuate anomaly (Group 1). The control group included 196 consecutive patients with normal endometrial cavity on hysteroscopy who underwent a total of 369 cycles of IVF/ET (Group 2). The reproductive outcome after the first cycle of IVF-ET and the best reproductive outcome of all the cycles the patient underwent were calculated. In addition, we compared the reproductive outcome in the study group based on the type of the anomalies (septum versus arcuate). Results: In the first fresh cycle, following septoplasty, there were significantly higher clinical pregnancy and delivery rates in Group 1 (60.3% and 51.3% respectively) compared to Group 2 (38.8% and 33.2% respectively). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the clinical pregnancy (74.4% vs. 67.3%) or in the delivery (65.4% vs. 60.2%) rates per patient, respectively. There was no significant difference in the reproductive outcome after IVF-ET between patients who previously had arcuate uterine anomaly versus incomplete uterine septum. Conclusion: Reproductive outcome of IVF-ET after hysteroscopic correction of incomplete uterine septum/arcuate uterine anomaly in women with primary infertility is no different from women with normal uterine cavity. PMID:25593694

  16. Male infertility and copy number variants (CNVs) in the dog: a two-pronged approach using Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility affects ~10-15% of couples trying to have children, in which the rate of male fertility problems is approximately at 30-50%. Copy number variations (CNVs) are DNA sequences greater than or equal to 1 kb in length sharing a high level of similarity, and present at a variable number of copies in the genome; in our study, we used the canine species as an animal model to detect CNVs responsible for male infertility. We aim to identify CNVs associated with male infertility in the dog genome with a two-pronged approach: we performed a sperm analysis using the CASA system and a cytogenetic-targeted analysis on genes involved in male gonad development and spermatogenesis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using dog-specific clones. This analysis was carried out to evaluate possible correlations between CNVs on targeted genes and spermatogenesis impairments or infertility factors. Results We identified two genomic regions hybridized by BACs CH82-321J09 and CH82-509B23 showing duplication patterns in all samples except for an azoospermic dog. These two regions harbor two important genes for spermatogenesis: DNM2 and TEKT1. The genomic region encompassed by the BAC clone CH82-324I01 showed a single-copy pattern in all samples except for one dog, assessed with low-quality sperm, displaying a marked duplication pattern. This genomic region harbors SOX8, a key gene for testis development. Conclusion We present the first study involving functional and genetic analyses in male infertility. We set up an extremely reliable analysis on dog sperm cells with a highly consistent statistical significance, and we succeeded in conducting FISH experiments on sperm cells using BAC clones as probes. We found copy number differences in infertile compared with fertile dogs for genomic regions encompassing TEKT1, DNM2, and SOX8, suggesting those genes could have a role if deleted or duplicated with respect to the reference copy number in fertility biology. This method is of particular interest in the dog due to the recognized role of this species as an animal model for the study of human genetic diseases and could be useful for other species of economic interest and for endangered animal species. PMID:24373333

  17. Expression profiling of endometrium from women with endometriosis reveals candidate genes for disease-based implantation failure and infertility.

    PubMed

    Kao, L C; Germeyer, A; Tulac, S; Lobo, S; Yang, J P; Taylor, R N; Osteen, K; Lessey, B A; Giudice, L C

    2003-07-01

    Endometriosis is clinically associated with pelvic pain and infertility, with implantation failure strongly suggested as an underlying cause for the observed infertility. Eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis provides a unique experimental paradigm for investigation into molecular mechanisms of reproductive dysfunction and an opportunity to identify specific markers for this disease. We applied paralleled gene expression profiling using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate differentially regulated genes in endometrium from women with vs. without endometriosis. Fifteen endometrial biopsy samples (obtained during the window of implantation from eight subjects with and seven subjects without endometriosis) were processed for expression profiling on Affymetrix Hu95A microarrays. Data analysis was conducted with GeneChip Analysis Suite, version 4.01, and GeneSpring version 4.0.4. Nonparametric testing was applied, using a P value of 0.05, to assess statistical significance. Of the 12,686 genes analyzed, 91 genes were significantly increased more than 2-fold in their expression, and 115 genes were decreased more than 2-fold. Unsupervised clustering demonstrated down-regulation of several known cell adhesion molecules, endometrial epithelial secreted proteins, and proteins not previously known to be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, as well as up-regulated genes. Selected dysregulated genes were randomly chosen and validated with RT-PCR and/or Northern/dot-blot analyses, and confirmed up-regulation of collagen alpha2 type I, 2.6-fold; bile salt export pump, 2.0-fold; and down-regulation of N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase (important in synthesis of L-selectin ligands), 1.7-fold; glycodelin, 51.5-fold; integrin alpha2, 1.8-fold; and B61 (Ephrin A1), 4.5-fold. Two-way overlapping layer analysis used to compare endometrial genes in the window of implantation from women with and without endometriosis further identified three unique groups of target genes, which differ with respect to the implantation window and the presence of disease. Group 1 target genes are up-regulated during the normal window of implantation but significantly decreased in women with endometriosis: IL-15, proline-rich protein, B61, Dickkopf-1, glycodelin, N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase, G0S2 protein, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Group 2 genes are normally down-regulated during the window of implantation but are significantly increased with endometriosis: semaphorin E, neuronal olfactomedin-related endoplasmic reticulum localized protein mRNA and Sam68-like phosphotyrosine protein alpha. Group 3 consists of a single gene, neuronal pentraxin II, normally down-regulated during the window of implantation and further decreased in endometrium from women with endometriosis. The data support dysregulation of select genes leading to an inhospitable environment for implantation, including genes involved in embryonic attachment, embryo toxicity, immune dysfunction, and apoptotic responses, as well as genes likely contributing to the pathogenesis of endometriosis, including aromatase, progesterone receptor, angiogenic factors, and others. Identification and validation of selected genes and their functions will contribute to uncovering previously unknown mechanism(s) underlying implantation failure in women with endometriosis and infertility, mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of endometriosis and providing potential new targets for diagnostic screening and intervention. PMID:12810542

  18. Blockage of the Rete Testis and Efferent Ductules by Ectopic Sertoli and Leydig Cells Causes Infertility in Dax1Deficient Male Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BAXTER JEFFS; JOSHUA J. MEEKS; MASAFUMI ITO; FRED A. MARTINSON; MARTIN M. MATZUK; J. LARRY JAMESON; LONNIE D. RUSSELL

    2001-01-01

    DAX-1, an X-linked member of the orphan nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors, plays a key role in sex determination and gonadal differentiation. Dax1-deficient male mice are infertile and have small testes despite normal serum levels of T and gonadotropins. Examination of Dax1- deficient testes reveals dilated seminiferous tubules and ab- normal parameters of sperm fertilizing capability consistent with a

  19. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6*10 and the effectiveness of combined tamoxifen citrate and testosterone undecanoate treatment in infertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia*

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kai-fa; Zhao, Yi-li; Ding, Shang-shu; Wu, Qi-fei; Wang, Xing-yang; Shi, Jia-qi; Sun, Fa; Xing, Jun-ping

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen citrate, as the first line of treatment for infertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia, was proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), and testosterone undecanoate has shown benefits in semen values. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of treatment with tamoxifen citrate and testosterone undecanoate in infertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia, and whether the results would be affected by polymorphisms of CYP2D6*10. A total of 230 infertile men and 147 controls were included in the study. Patients were treated with tamoxifen citrate and testosterone undecanoate. Sex hormone, sperm parameters, and incidence of spontaneous pregnancy were detected. There were no significant differences between the control and patient groups with respect to CYP2D6*10 genotype frequencies (P>0.05). The follicle-stimulation hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (T) levels were raised, and sperm concentration and motility were increased at 3 months and became significant at 6 months, and they were higher in the wild-type allele (C/C) than in the heterozygous variant allele (C/T) or homozygous variant allele (T/T) subgroups (P<0.05). In addition, the percentage of normal morphology was raised at 6 months, and represented the highest percentage in the C/C subgroup (P<0.05). The incidence of spontaneous pregnancy in the C/C subgroup was higher than that in the C/T or T/T subgroups (P<0.01). This study showed that the CYP2D6*10 variant genotype demonstrated worse clinical effects in infertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia. PMID:25743120

  20. [Salivary LH as an ovulation indicator: on the value of autopalpation of the cervix uteri for the detection of fertile and infertile days of the cycle].

    PubMed

    Loewit, K; Wolfram, G; Ortlieb, A; Widhalm, R

    1987-11-01

    The validity of autopalpation of the cervix as an indicator of fertility has been studied in 115 cycles of 13 nulliparous and 13 parous women, aged 22 to 35 years and experienced in self-observation methods (SOM) of family planning. For this purpose, the reported cyclic changes of the cervix uteri (hard, closed and low positioned; soft, open and higher positioned or intermediate stages) have been compared with the salivary LH-peak as indicator of ovulation, the BBT-readings and cervical mucus quality. The study has confirmed that in principle it is possible to collect sufficiently reliable self observation data for family planning purposes by autopalpation of the cervix. Parous women detect the first preovulatory changes of the cervix earlier and more frequently than nulliparous. Nevertheless it is not possible for either group to determine the beginning of the fertile days in this way. The beginning of the postovulatory infertile phase, however, can be detected: if, in accordance with rising BBT, the cervix has returned to a hard and closed appearance for 4 days, this symptom signals infertility with the same high degree of accuracy as the third measurement of elevated BBT (BBT3). Thus a "rule of thumb" can be established, linking the beginning of postovulatory infertility to either the fourth day of the hard and closed cervix or to the evening of the day of BBT3, "whatever comes first". In this way, the beginning of the infertile phase could be recognized one to three days earlier by referring to the cervix in about 20% of the cycles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3692114

  1. Exposure and effective dose biomarkers for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in infertile subjects: preliminary results of the PREVIENI project.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Cinzia; Alessi, Eva; Bergamasco, Bruno; Caserta, Donatella; Ciardo, Francesca; Fanello, Emiliano; Focardi, Silvano; Guerranti, Cristiana; Stecca, Laura; Moscarini, Massimo; Perra, Guido; Tait, Sabrina; Zaghi, Carlo; Mantovani, Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been used as surfactants in various industry and consumer products. PFOS/PFOA are very persistent in the environment and bioaccumulate in humans. They are potential reproductive and developmental toxicants and are considered to be emerging endocrine disrupters (EDs). The Italian project PREVIENI, funded by the Italian Environment Ministry, aims to link environment and human health through the investigation of selected endocrine disrupters (EDs) exposure and associated biomarkers related to human infertility conditions. In the early PREVIENI phase, PFOS and PFOA were determined in 53 couples affected by an infertility status, enrolled in a metropolitan area, according to established inclusion criteria and informed consensus. Nuclear receptors related to chemical compounds interactions were selected as biomarkers of effect and their gene expression modulations were analyzed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). Among couples, subjects not presenting infertility factors (IF--) were separated from affected subjects (IF++). Most IF-- serum samples showed PFOS and PFOA concentrations overlapping the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 ng/g wet weight (ww). A substantial percentage of IF++ serum samples showed PFOS concentrations >20-fold the LOD, i.e. from 3 to 50 ng/g ww. In male (50%, n=26) and from 3 to 144 ng/g ww in female (37%, n=30) samples. PFOA values were below the LOD levels in 90% of the total samples. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR?) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) showed a low level of expression in PBMC of both IF++ and IF-- groups. Whereas alpha and beta estrogen receptors (ER? and ER?), androgen receptor (AR), and pregnane X receptor (PXR) were all upregulated in IF++ of both sexes with respect to IF-- group. Our preliminary results related to the metropolitan area indicate that subjects affected by infertility factors tend to have both higher PFOS levels and higher gene expression of specific nuclear receptors. PMID:22197512

  2. Effect of L-carnitine and/or L-acetyl-carnitine in nutrition treatment for male infertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Liu, Fang; Zhai, Suodi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the efficacy of L-carnitine (LC) and/or L-acetyl-carnitine (LAC) in nutrition treatment for male infertility according to present clinical evidence. Biomedical databases were searched to collect related clinical trials and nine relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. The quality of the RCTs was assessed based on their performance in randomization, blinding, and allocation concealment. The meta-analysis compared LC and /or LAC therapy to placebo treatment found significant improvement in pregnancy rate (OR = 4.10, 95% CI (2.08, 8.08), p< 0.0001), total sperm motility (WMD = 7.43, 95% CI (1.72, 13.14), p = 0.04, forward sperm motility (WMD = 11.83, 95% CI (0.49, 23.16), p = 0.04) and atypical sperm cell (WMD = -5.72, 95% CI (-7.89, -3.56), p< 0.00001). However, no significant difference was found in the sperm concentration (WMD = 5.69, 95% CI (-4.47, 15.84), p = 0.27) and semen volume (WMD = 0.28, 95% CI (-0.02, 0.58), p = 0.07). In conclusion, the administration of LC and/or LAC may be effective in improving pregnancy rate and sperm kinetic features in patients affected by male infertility. However, the exact efficacy of carnitines on male infertility needs to be confirmed by further investigations. PMID:17392136

  3. Genome-wide analysis identifies changes in histone retention and epigenetic modifications at developmental and imprinted gene loci in the sperm of infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Saher Sue; Nix, David A.; Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Gibson, Mark; Cairns, Bradley R.; Carrell, Douglas T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The sperm chromatin of fertile men retains a small number of nucleosomes that are enriched at developmental gene promoters and imprinted gene loci. This unique chromatin packaging at certain gene promoters provides these genomic loci the ability to convey instructive epigenetic information to the zygote, potentially expanding the role and significance of the sperm epigenome in embryogenesis. We hypothesize that changes in chromatin packaging may be associated with poor reproductive outcome. METHODS Seven patients with reproductive dysfunction were recruited: three had unexplained poor embryogenesis during IVF and four were diagnosed with male infertility and previously shown to have altered protamination. Genome-wide analysis of the location of histones and histone modifications was analyzed by isolation and purification of DNA bound to histones and protamines. The histone-bound fraction of DNA was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, both initially and following chromatin immunoprecipitation. The protamine-bound fraction was hybridized to agilent arrays. DNA methylation was examined using bisulfite sequencing. RESULTS Unlike fertile men, five of seven infertile men had non-programmatic (randomly distributed) histone retention genome-wide. Interestingly, in contrast to the total histone pool, the localization of H3 Lysine 4 methylation (H3K4me) or H3 Lysine 27 methylation (H3K27me) was highly similar in the gametes of infertile men compared with fertile men. However, there was a reduction in the amount of H3K4me or H3K27me retained at developmental transcription factors and certain imprinted genes. Finally, the methylation status of candidate developmental promoters and imprinted loci were altered in a subset of the infertile men. CONCLUSIONS This initial genome-wide analysis of epigenetic markings in the sperm of infertile men demonstrates differences in composition and epigenetic markings compared with fertile men, especially at certain imprinted and developmental loci. Although no single locus displays a complete change in chromatin packaging or DNA modification, the data suggest that moderate changes throughout the genome exist and may have a cumulative detrimental effect on fecundity. PMID:21685136

  4. Decline of semen quality among 10 932 males consulting for couple infertility over a 20-year period in Marseille, France

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy-Siraudin, Cendrine; Dieudonné Loundou, Anderson; Romain, Fanny; Achard, Vincent; Courbičre, Blandine; Perrard, Marie-Hélčne; Durand, Philippe; Guichaoua, Marie-Roberte

    2012-01-01

    Semen from 10 932 male partners of infertile couples was analysed and sperm parameter trends were evaluated at the Reproduction Biology Laboratory of the University Hospital of Marseille (France) between 1988 and 2007. After 3–6 days of abstinence, semen samples were collected. Measurements of seminal fluid volume, pH, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility and detailed morphology of spermatozoa were performed. Sperm parameters were analysed on the entire population and in men with normal total numeration (?40 million per ejaculate). The whole population demonstrated declining trends in sperm concentration (1.5% per year), total sperm count (1.6% per year), total motility (0.4% per year), rapid motility (5.5% per year) and normal morphology (2.2% per year). In the group of selected samples with total normal sperm count, the same trends of sperm quality deterioration with time were observed. Our results clearly indicate that the quality of semen decreased in this population over the study period. PMID:22522503

  5. Hydrological setting of infertile species-rich wetland--a case study in the warm temperate Japan.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, A; Nakagoshi, N; Onda, Y

    2003-03-01

    The detailed groundwater flow and water chemistry to illustrate landscape structure of the infertile peatless mire by using piezometers and groundwater wells were measured. The instruments were installed in lines through a small spring-fed wetland underlying little peat from the hillslope to the valley bottom in southwestern Japan. Flow net and EC data clearly indicated that the wetland was situated in a high-EC groundwater upspring area. The low-productivity graminous vegetation was related with four hydrological factors such as: (1) high water level; (2) low-EC (< 25 micro S/cm) groundwater; (3) weakly upward hydraulic gradient; and (4) overflowing of negatively pressured groundwater. In other words, the "old or deep groundwater" constructed the foundation of slope-wetland, and maintained the high groundwater level. In contrast, overflowing "youthful groundwater" is supplied from head of slope-wetland preferentially through the shallow substratum. The plant communities of the peatless mire in southwestern Japan are similar to those of raised bog in northern cool temperate Japan. There have been some reports verifying that the underlying mineral substrata of such wetlands were quartzile rocks such as granite, rhyolite, chart and well-leached sand. Results showed (1) low cation availability affect the water acidity; (2) upward seepage of high-EC groundwater composed the foundation of the investigated peatless mire; and (3) the poor mineral condition seems to play a similar role to northern ombrotrophic (rain-fed) condition. PMID:12765272

  6. Exploring the Human Seminal Plasma Proteome: An Unexplored Gold Mine of Biomarker for Male Infertility and Male Reproduction Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gilany, Kambiz; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Savadi-Shiraz, Elham; Rezadoost, Hassan; Lakpour, Niknam

    2015-01-01

    Background The human seminal fluid is a complex body fluid. It is not known how many proteins are expressed in the seminal plasma; however in analog with the blood it is possible up to 10,000 proteins are expressed in the seminal plasma. The human seminal fluid is a rich source of potential biomarkers for male infertility and reproduction disorder. Methods In this review, the ongoing list of proteins identified from the human seminal fluid was collected. To date, 4188 redundant proteins of the seminal fluid are identified using different proteomics technology, including 2-DE, SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS, MudPIT. However, this was reduced to a database of 2168 non-redundant protein using UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot reviewed database. Results The core concept of proteome were analyzed including pI, MW, Amino Acids, Chromosome and PTM distribution in the human seminal plasma proteome. Additionally, the biological process, molecular function and KEGG pathway were investigated using DAVID software. Finally, the biomarker identified in different male reproductive system disorder was investigated using proteomics platforms so far. Conclusion In this study, an attempt was made to update the human seminal plasma proteome database. Our finding showed that human seminal plasma studies used to date seem to have converged on a set of proteins that are repeatedly identified in many studies and that represent only a small fraction of the entire human seminal plasma proteome. PMID:25927022

  7. Suppression of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminases induces prominent GABA accumulation, dwarfism and infertility in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Koike, Satoshi; Matsukura, Chiaki; Takayama, Mariko; Asamizu, Erika; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Tomatoes accumulate ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at high levels in the immature fruits. GABA is rapidly converted to succinate during fruit ripening through the activities of GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). Although three genes encoding GABA-T and both pyruvate- and ?-ketoglutarate-dependent GABA-T activities have been detected in tomato fruits, the mechanism underlying the GABA-T-mediated conversion of GABA has not been fully understood. In this work, we conducted loss-of-function analyses utilizing RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic plants with suppressed pyruvate- and glyoxylate-dependent GABA-T gene expression to clarify which GABA-T isoforms are essential for its function. The RNAi plants with suppressed SlGABA-T gene expression, particularly SlGABA-T1, showed severe dwarfism and infertility. SlGABA-T1 expression was inversely associated with GABA levels in the fruit at the red ripe stage. The GABA contents in 35S::SlGABA-T1(RNAi) lines were 1.3-2.0 times and 6.8-9.2 times higher in mature green and red ripe fruits, respectively, than the contents in wild-type fruits. In addition, SlGABA-T1 expression was strongly suppressed in the GABA-accumulating lines. These results indicate that pyruvate- and glyoxylate-dependent GABA-T is the essential isoform for GABA metabolism in tomato plants and that GABA-T1 primarily contributes to GABA reduction in the ripening fruits. PMID:23435575

  8. The effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for poor semen quality in infertile males: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jerng, Ui Min; Jo, Jun-Young; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Jin-Moo; Kwon, Ohmin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for poor semen quality in infertile men. We searched for relevant trials registered up to May 2013 in 14 databases. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared acupuncture, with or without additional treatment, against placebo, sham, no treatment, or the same additional treatment. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, data extraction, risk of bias and reporting quality appraisal. Risk of bias and reporting quality were appraised by the Cochrane risk of bias tool, the consolidated standards of reporting trials and Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture. The outcomes were sperm motility, sperm concentration, pregnancy rate, and adverse events. Pregnancy was defined as a positive pregnancy test. Four RCTs met the eligibility criteria. Acupuncture increased the percentage of sperm with rapid progression (mean difference - 6.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.38–8.32, P< 0.00001) and sperm concentration (mean difference - 6.42, 95% CI: 4.91–7.92, P< 0.00001), but these two outcomes were substantially heterogeneous among the studies (I2 = 72% and 58%, respectively). No differences in pregnancy rate were found between acupuncture and control groups (odds ratio 1.60, 95% CI: 0.70–3.69, P= 0.27, I2 = 0%). No participants experienced adverse events. The current evidence showing that acupuncture might improve poor semen quality is insufficient because of the small number of studies, inadequacy of procedures and/or insufficient information for semen analysis, high levels of heterogeneity, high risk of bias, and poor quality of reporting. Further large, well-designed RCTs are required. PMID:25038176

  9. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for repeated IVF/ICSI failure and unexplained infertility: a systematic review and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Yang; Liu, Chengjun; Hu, Yanling; Li, Liuming

    2013-12-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been introduced empirically into IVF/ICSI programs with the hopes of improving in vitro fertilization (IVF) success. However, the effects of IVIG have been inconsistent. We investigated the effects of IVIG on hard outcomes, including implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate, miscarriage rate, and live birth rate per embryo transferred. The PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI databases were searched up to June of 2013 and 10 studies were included. Case-controlled studies comparing IVIG with placebo in IVF/ICSI women and/or unexplained infertility were included. Using fixed and random effects models, the pooled risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The use of IVIG was significantly associated with a higher implantation rate and RR was 2.708 (95%CI: 1.302-5.629) compared with the placebo. The clinical pregnancy rate and the live birth rate were significantly increased in patients randomized to IVIG; RR was 1.475 (95%CI: 1.191-1.825) for the clinical pregnancy rate and RR was 1.616 (95%CI: 1.243-2.101) for the live birth rate. Moreover, the miscarriage rate was significantly less in patients randomized to IVIG (0.352, 95%CI: 0.168-0.738), but the live birthrate per embryo transferred was not (2.893; 95%CI: 0.810-10.331) less. Our results strongly support that IVIG is a useful treatment option for women undergoing repeated IVF failure. PMID:24238107

  10. The effect of adjuvant vitamin C after varicocele surgery on sperm quality and quantity in infertile men: a double blind placebo controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cyrus, Ali; Kabir, Ali; Goodarzi, Davood; Moghimi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility and spontaneous pregnancy rate after varicocelectomy is only about 30%. The most important seminal antioxidant is vitamin C but recent studies about the effects of vitamin C on spermatogenesis are controversial; therefore, we decided to evaluate its role after varicocelectomy. In a double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 115 men with infertility and clinical varicocele with abnormal semen analyses were recruited. After surgery, the intervention group received vitamin C (250 mg bid) and the control group received placebo for three months. Mean sperm count, motility, and morphology index of two semen analyses (before and after surgery) were compared between the two groups. Univariate general linear model and stepwise linear regression were used in analysis. The mean age (±SD) of participants was 27.6±5.3 years. Vitamin C group had statistically significant better normal motility (20.8 vs. 12.6, P=0.041) and morphology (23.2 vs. 10.5, P<0.001) than placebo group. Considering the values prior to surgery as covariate, vitamin C was not effective on sperm count (P=0.091); but it improved sperm motility (P=0.016) and morphology (P<0.001) even after excluding the confounding effect of age (P=0.044 and P=0.001, respectively). Vitamin C was also an independent factor in predicting motility and normal morphology after surgery. Ascorbic acid can play a role as adjuvant treatment after varicocelectomy in infertile men. PMID:26005963

  11. Sperm FISH analysis in two healthy infertile brothers with t(15;18) unbalanced translocation: Implications for genetic counselling and reproductive management.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Sandrine; Auger, Jacques; Dupont, Céline; Le Tessier, Dominique; Lebbar, Aziza; Baverel, Françoise; Dupont, Jean Michel; Eustache, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that balanced reciprocal or Robertsonian translocations and inversions are associated with reduced or absent sperm production. In contrast, a similar association has been rarely reported for unbalanced translocations. An unbalanced translocation, 45,XY,-15,der(18)t(15;18)(q11.2;q23), was found in two healthy infertile brothers who were referred to our hospital together with their partners for infertility. At least two routine semen analyses and karyotyping were done for each of the brothers. Sperm meiotic segregation was studied for both with a three-color FISH assay using locus-specific probes. Semen analyses showed a severe oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia with remarkably similar profiles in the two brothers. The unbalanced translocation had a deletion of 15pter-15q11.2 as well as a deletion of 18q23-18qter. The meiotic segregation was similar in the two brothers with a prevalence of alternate segregation mode. However, no phenotypic effect in the offspring can be expected only if the normal chromosomes 15 and 18 are transmitted to progeny. According to the sperm FISH results, the theoretical probability of this happening is about 25%. Based on the overall results, genetic and reproductive counselling was offered to both couples. Finally, both couples chose the alternative of donor insemination rather than preimplantation genetic diagnosis. The present study helps delineating a phenotypically silent CNV at the distal part of chromosome 18 long arm and illustrates the advantages of an integrated multidisciplinary genetic, reproductive and psychological approach to give the best possible assistance to couples who are faced with a complex and distressing genetic cause of infertility. PMID:20302980

  12. Investigation of Toll-Like Receptor-2 (2258G/A) and Interferon Gamma (+874T/A) Gene Polymorphisms among Infertile Women with Female Genital Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhanothu, Venkanna; Lakshmi, Vemu; Theophilus, Jane P.; Rozati, Roya; Badhini, Prabhakar; Vijayalaxmi, Boda

    2015-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) coordinate with a diverse array of cellular programs through the transcriptional regulation of immunologically relevant genes and play an important role in immune system, reproductive physiology and basic pathology. Alterations in the functions of TLR2 2258G (guanine)/ A, IFN-? (+874T/A) and signalling molecules that result from polymorphisms are often associated with susceptibility or resistance, which may, in turn, establish the innate host response to various infectious diseases. Presently, we proposed to investigate the risk of common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of TLR2 and IFN-? genes, for their effect on infertility in women with female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) and healthy women as controls. Methodology/Principal Findings Genotyping of TLR2 and IFN-? gene polymorphisms was performed by amplification refractory mutation system multi-gene/multi-primer polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism in 175 FGTB patients and 100 healthy control women (HCW). The TLR2 polymorphism [adenine (A) allele] was observed in 57.7 and 58.0% of FGTB patients and HCW, respectively. The IFN-? (+874T/A) polymorphism (A allele) was significant in 74.3 and 71.0% of FGTB patients and HCW, respectively, while the odds ratios for the AA and TA genotypes for predisposition of FGTB were found to be 0.304 and 1.650 in HCW, respectively. The SNP of TLR2 was not associated with FGTB but the SNP of IFN-? was found to be associated with mycobacteria infections and to induce infertility. Conclusions/Significance At present, we hypothesize that infertile women with FGTB and HCW without tuberculosis (TB) have identical frequency of TLR variants, which may be adequate in the production of IFN-? in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Thus, the study appears to be the first of its kind reporting a mutation in the IFN-? gene [+874 T (thymine) to A] responsible for susceptibility to TB infections and further inducing infertility. PMID:26114934

  13. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the endocervical swab specimens of symptomatic, asymptomatic and infertile women in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fahriye Eksi; Ebru Dikensoy; Efgan Dogan Gayyurhan; Iclal Balci; Ozcan Balat; Tekin Karsligil; Aysen Bayram; Ozge Komurcu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  To investigate C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence in three different female populations in Turkey.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 370 women, 170 symptomatic, 100 asymptomatic, and 100 infertile, were included. Of the endocervical specimens collected\\u000a from all women using a Dacron swab, the first one was taken to Stuart’s transport medium to culture, while the second one\\u000a was transferred onto slides

  14. Molecular Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Other Sexually Transmitted Bacteria in Semen of Male Partners of Infertile Couples in Tunisia: The Effect on Semen Parameters and Spermatozoa Apoptosis Markers

    PubMed Central

    Sellami, Hanen; Znazen, Abir; Sellami, Afifa; Mnif, Hela; Louati, Nour; Zarrouk, Soumaya Ben; Keskes, Leila; Rebai, Tarek; Gdoura, Radhouane; Hammami, Adnene

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasmas, and Ureaplasmas in semen samples of the male partners of infertile couples and to investigate whether Chlamydia trachomatis could initiate apoptosis in human spermatozoa. A total of 85 males partners of infertile couples undergoing routine semen analysis according to World Health Organization guidelines were included. Specimens were examined for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum by Real time PCR (qPCR). Semen specimens were analysed for the appearance of apoptotic markers (sperm DNA fragmentation, activated caspase 3 levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (??m)) using flow cytometry. C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, U. urealyticum, M genitalium were detected in semen samples of 13 (15.2%), 5 (5.8%), 5 (5.8%) and 3 (3.5%) male partners of infertile couples, respectively. M. hominis and U. parvum were detected in semen sample of only one patient (1.1%). The semen of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis showed lower mean of semen count and lower rapid progressive motility (category [a]) of spermatozoa compared to uninfected men with statistically significances (p?=?0.02 and p?=?0.04, respectively). Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated a significant increase of the mean rate of semen with low ??m and caspase 3 activation of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men (p?=?0.006 and p?=?0.001, respectively). DNA fragmentation was also increased in sperm of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men but without statistical significances (p?=?0.62). Chlamydial infection was associated to loss of ??m and caspase 3activation. Thus, C. trachomatis infection could be incriminated in apoptosis induction of spermatozoa. These effects may explain the negative direct impact of C. trachomatis infection on sperm fertilizing ability. PMID:25019616

  15. Meiotic abnormalities in metaphase I human spermatocytes from infertile males: frequencies, chromosomes involved, and the relationships with polymorphic karyotype and seminal parameters.

    PubMed

    Sarrate, Zaida; Vidal, Francesca; Blanco, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look in depth at the relationship between meiotic anomalies and male infertility, such as the determination of the chromosomes involved or the correlation with patient features. For this purpose, a total of 31 testicular tissue samples from individuals consulting for fertility problems were analyzed. Metaphase I cells were evaluated using a sequential methodology combining Leishman stained procedures and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization protocols. The number of chromosomal units and chiasmata count per bivalent were established and a hierarchical cluster analysis of the individuals was performed. The relationship of the seminogram and the karyotype over recombination were evaluated using Poisson regression models. Results obtained in this study show a significant percentage of infertile individuals with altered meiotic behavior, mostly specified as a reduction in chiasmata count in medium and large chromosomes, the presence of univalents, and the observation of tetraploid metaphases. Moreover, the number and the type of anomalies were found to be different between cells of the same individual, suggesting the coexistence of cell lines with normal meiotic behavior and cell lines with abnormalities. In addition, chromosomal abnormalities in metaphase I are significantly associated with oligozoospermia and/or polymorphic karyotype variants. PMID:25080930

  16. The Association of Bisphenol-A Urinary Concentrations with Antral Follicle Counts and Other Measures of Ovarian Reserve in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatments.?

    PubMed Central

    Souter, Irene; Smith, Kristen W; Dimitriadis, Irene; Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2015-01-01

    In this prospective cohort of women undergoing infertility treatments, we measured specific-gravity adjusted urinary BPA (SG-BPA) concentrations and used regression models to evaluate the association of BPA with antral follicle count (AFC), day-3 serum follicle stimulating hormone levels (FSH), and ovarian volume (OV). BPA, detected in >80% of women, had a geometric mean (±GSD) of 1.6±2.0, 1.7±2.1, and 1.5±1.8µg/L for the women contributing to the AFC (n=154), day-3 FSH (n=120), and OV (n=1 14) analyses, respectively. There was an average decrease in AFC of 12% (95% CI: ?23%, ?0.6%), 22% (95% CI: ?31%, ?11%), and 17% (95% CI: ?27%, ?6%), in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th SG-BPA quartile compared to the 1st quartile, respectively (p-trend: <0.001). No association of SG-BPA with FSH or OV was observed. Among women from an infertility clinic, higher urinary BPA concentrations were associated with lower AFC, raising concern for possible accelerated follicle loss and reproductive aging. PMID:24100206

  17. Management of primary ciliary dyskinesia/Kartagener's syndrome in infertile male patients and current progress in defining the underlying genetic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Yan-Wei; Ding, Lu; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Kartagener's syndrome (KS) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease accounting for approximately 50% of the cases of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). As it is accompanied by many complications, PCD/KS severely affects the patient's quality of life. Therapeutic approaches for PCD/KS aim to enhance prevention, facilitate rapid definitive diagnosis, avoid misdiagnosis, maintain active treatment, control infection and postpone the development of lesions. In male patients, sperm flagella may show impairment in or complete absence of the ability to swing, which ultimately results in male infertility. Assisted reproductive technology will certainly benefit such patients. For PCD/KS patients with completely immotile sperm, intracytoplasmic sperm injection may be very important and even indispensable. Considering the number of PCD/KS susceptibility genes and mutations that are being identified, more extensive genetic screening is indispensable in patients with these diseases. Moreover, further studies into the potential molecular mechanisms of these diseases are required. In this review, we summarize the available information on various aspects of this disease in order to delineate the therapeutic objectives more clearly, and clarify the efficacy of assisted reproductive technology as a means of treatment for patients with PCD/KS-associated infertility. PMID:24369140

  18. A missense mutation in the Capza3 gene and disruption of F-actin organization in spermatids of repro32 infertile male mice.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Christopher B; Inselman, Amy L; Sunman, Jeffrey A; Bornstein, Sheila; Handel, Mary Ann; Eddy, Edward M

    2009-06-01

    Males homozygous for the repro32 ENU-induced mutation produced by the Reproductive Genomics program at The Jackson Laboratory are infertile, have low epididymal sperm concentrations, and produce sperm with abnormally shaped heads and poor motility. The purpose of the present study was to identify the mutated gene in repro32 mice and to define the structural and functional changes causing infertility and the aberrant sperm phenotype. In repro32/repro32 mice, we discovered a failure to shed excess cytoplasm and disorganization of the middle piece of the flagellum at spermiation, resulting in the outer dense fibers being wrapped around the sperm head within a bag of cytoplasm. Using a candidate-gene approach, a mutation was identified in the spermatid-specific "capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 3" gene (Capza3). CAPZA3 protein localization was altered in spermatids concurrent with altered localization of a unique CAPZB variant isoform and disruption of the filamentous actin (F-actin) network. These observations strongly suggest the missense mutation in Capza3 is responsible for the mutant phenotype of repro32/repro32 sperm and regulation of F-actin dynamics by a spermatogenic cell-specific CAPZ heterodimer is essential for removal of the cytoplasm and maintenance of midpiece integrity during spermiation in the mouse. PMID:19341723

  19. Meiotic abnormalities in metaphase I human spermatocytes from infertile males: frequencies, chromosomes involved, and relationship with polymorphic karyotype and seminal parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sarrate, Zaida; Vidal, Francesca; Blanco, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look in depth at the relationship between meiotic anomalies and male infertility, such as the determination of the chromosomes involved or the correlation with patient features. For this purpose, a total of 31 testicular tissue samples from individuals consulting for fertility problems were analyzed. Metaphase I cells were evaluated using a sequential methodology combining Leishman stained procedures and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization protocols. The number of chromosomal units and chiasmata count per bivalent were established and a hierarchical cluster analysis of the individuals was performed. The relationship of the seminogram and the karyotype over recombination were evaluated using Poisson regression models. Results obtained in this study show a significant percentage of infertile individuals with altered meiotic behavior, mostly specified as a reduction in chiasmata count in medium and large chromosomes, the presence of univalents, and the observation of tetraploid metaphases. Moreover, the number and the type of anomalies were found to be different between cells of the same individual, suggesting the coexistence of cell lines with normal meiotic behavior and cell lines with abnormalities. In addition, chromosomal abnormalities in metaphase I are significantly associated with oligozoospermia and/or polymorphic karyotype variants. PMID:25080930

  20. Management of primary ciliary dyskinesia/Kartagener's syndrome in infertile male patients and current progress in defining the underlying genetic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sha, Yan-Wei; Ding, Lu; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Kartagener's syndrome (KS) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease accounting for approximately 50% of the cases of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). As it is accompanied by many complications, PCD/KS severely affects the patient's quality of life. Therapeutic approaches for PCD/KS aim to enhance prevention, facilitate rapid definitive diagnosis, avoid misdiagnosis, maintain active treatment, control infection and postpone the development of lesions. In male patients, sperm flagella may show impairment in or complete absence of the ability to swing, which ultimately results in male infertility. Assisted reproductive technology will certainly benefit such patients. For PCD/KS patients with completely immotile sperm, intracytoplasmic sperm injection may be very important and even indispensable. Considering the number of PCD/KS susceptibility genes and mutations that are being identified, more extensive genetic screening is indispensable in patients with these diseases. Moreover, further studies into the potential molecular mechanisms of these diseases are required. In this review, we summarize the available information on various aspects of this disease in order to delineate the therapeutic objectives more clearly, and clarify the efficacy of assisted reproductive technology as a means of treatment for patients with PCD/KS-associated infertility. PMID:24369140

  1. How Is Infertility Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... into the peritoneal cavity at the same time. Health care providers may test a woman older than age 35 to determine ... on the man's activities and stress level. Other tests may include 1 , 3 ... Biopsy of the testicle . A health care provider uses a needle to extract sperm from ...

  2. Male Infertility: After Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in both print and download format. View Products Urology Care Foundation 1000 Corporate Boulevard Linthicum, MD 21090 ... Conditions Financials & Annual Report Leadership Privacy Statement © 2015 Urology Care Foundation | All Rights Reserved.

  3. State Infertility Insurance Laws

    MedlinePLUS

    ... click on the state below: Arkansas | California | Connecticut | Hawaii | Illinois | Louisiana | Maryland | Massachusetts | Montana | New Jersey | New ... 1989 X X(2) Connecticut 1989 X X Hawaii 1987 X X(3) Illinois 1991 X X( ...

  4. FastStats: Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  5. Phenotypic plasticity in response to nitrate supply of an inherently fast-growing species from a fertile habitat and an inherently slow-growing species from an infertile habitat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. D. M. Van de Vijver; R. G. A. Boot; H. Poorter; H. Lambers

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in plasticity between a potentially fast-growing and a potentially slow-growing grass species. To this end, Holcus lanatus (L.) and Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin., associated with fertile and infertile habitats, respectively, were grown in sand at eight nitrate concentrations. When plants obtained a fresh weight of approximately 5 g, biomass

  6. Effect of varicocelectomy on sperm creatine kinase, HspA2 chaperone protein (creatine kinase-M type), LDH, LDH-X, and lipid peroxidation product levels in infertile men with varicocele

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Çetin Ye?illi; Görkem Mungan; Ilker Seçkiner; Bülent Akduman; ?erefden Açikgöz; Korhan Altan; Aydin Mungan

    2005-01-01

    ObjectivesTo determine the total sperm creatine kinase, HspA2 chaperone protein (creatine kinase-M isoform), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), LDH-X activities, and lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde [MDA]) levels in infertile men with varicocele and to examine the possible effect of varicocelectomy on these parameters.

  7. LÖKOSPERM?L? VE ?D?YOPAT?K OL?GOASTENOSPERM?K ?NFERT?L HASTALARDA S?TOK?NLER?N ROLÜ THE ROLE OF CYTOKINES IN INFERTILE PATIENTS WITH LEUCOSPERMIA AND IDIOPATIC OLIGOASTHENOSPERMIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahmi ONUR; Mehmet Nuri; Aslan ARDIÇO?LU

    Introduction: Oxidative stress has previously been shown to be related to increase in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in seminal plasma of infertile patients. All of the measured cytokines seem to be produced locally as well as by white blood cells (WBC) and that, due to the presence of higher numbers of WBC, it was suggested that accessory gland infection

  8. Effects of Chinese Medicines for Tonifying the Kidney on DNMT1 Protein Expression in Endometrium of Infertile Women During Implantation Period

    PubMed Central

    Rui-Xia, Wang; Feng-Mei, Ma; Zhen-Gao, Sun; Li-Hong, Wang; Lei, Shi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of Erzhi Tiangui Granule (ETG) on DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) 1 protein expression in endometrium of infertile women with Kidney-yin Deficiency syndrome. Methods A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. Sixty-six (66) infertile patients who had Kidney-yin Deficiency syndrome and who were to undergo in vitro fertilization–embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were randomly assigned to either a treatment group or a control group according to a random table. Besides gonadotropin (Gn) therapy in both groups, the treatment group received ETG for 3 menstrual cycles before IVF, and the control group received placebo granules. The ETG and the placebo granules were made with similar color and shape, as well as in the same packaging. The scores of the Kidney-yin Deficiency syndrome were assessed. Other outcome measures included the dosage and duration of Gn, the number of retrieved oocytes, the rate of high-quality oocytes, the rate of high-quality embryos, the fertilization rate, and the clinical pregnancy rate. DNMT1 protein expression in the endometrium was measured in the midluteal phase. Results The difference in the syndrome score change before and after treatment between the two groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). The dosage and duration of Gn were significantly lower in the treatment group than those in the control group (p<0.05). The high-quality oocyte and embryo rates, and clinical pregnancy rate were all higher in the treatment group than those in the control group (p<0.05). The fertilization rate was not significant when compared to the placebo group. No difference was found in the number of retrieved oocytes between the two groups. The DNMT1 protein expression in the endometrium was much more abundant in the treatment group than that in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusions For the infertile patients undergoing IVF, the Chinese recipe for tonifying the Kidney as an adjunct treatment could reduce Gn dosage and treatment duration, alleviate clinical symptoms, and improve the clinical pregnancy rate. The increased level of DNMT1 protein expression after treatment may lead to enhanced endometrial receptivity. This finding may explain the improvement in clinical pregnancy rate. PMID:23075413

  9. Ante- and perinatal factors and child characteristics predicting parenting experience among formerly infertile couples during the child's first year: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Repokari, Leena; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Poikkeus, Piia; Tiitinen, Aila; Vilska, Sirpa; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Sinkkonen, Jari; Almqvist, Frederick; Tulppala, Maija

    2006-12-01

    In this prospective controlled study, the authors examined (a) parenting experiences among couples with successful assisted reproduction treatment (ART; n = 367) and fertile spontaneously conceiving controls (n = 371) and (b) the impact of ante- and perinatal factors and child characteristics on parenting experiences. The results show that positive mothering experiences increased more during the 1st year of parenting and were generally higher among ART mothers than control mothers. No differences were found between ART fathers and controls in their fathering experience. Unpleasant birth experiences, low birth weight, and difficulty soothing the child were associated with high levels of parental stress in the control group, but this was not so among the ART parents. Psychosocial interventions in maternal care should take into account the various meanings that couples give to the history of infertility and conception and ante- and perinatal experiences. PMID:17176203

  10. Beneficial effect of adding pentoxifylline to processed semen samples on ICSI outcome in infertile males with mild and moderate asthenozoospermia: A randomized controlled prospective crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Medhat; Metawae, Bahgat; Hosny, Hossam; Raef, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: No extensive studies were done that included the use of pentoxifylline or verify its effect on the outcome of ICSI in cases of mild and moderate asthenozoospermia. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pentoxifylline used in preparation of semen samples which doesn't need motility enhancement prior to ICSI. Materials and Methods: The study was carried on 30 infertile patients where pentoxifylline was used for semen processing (group I), another 30 patients without pentoxifylline (group II) in addition to 60 infertile patients where crossing over of the semen sample was done further subdividing it into 2 subgroups in which the first half of the semen sample was incubated with pentoxifylline (group IIIA) and the second half of the sample without pentoxifylline (group IIIB). Results: The numbers of oocytes injected, numbers of oocytes fertilized, fertilization rate, the total numbers of embryos, numbers of good embryos and the numbers of embryos transferred of group IIIA were found significantly higher than that of Group IIIB (p=0.00). The overall 6 month pregnancy rate of group I was significantly higher than that of group II (73.3% vs. 60% respectively, p=0.04). The abortion rate of (Group I) and that of (Group II) was found non – significantly different (20% vs. 27.8% respectively, p=0.53). Conclusion: Pentoxifylline can be used as a useful compound for improving ICSI outcome in semen samples preparation prior to oocytes injection regardless of the state of sperm motility or the degree of asthenozoospermia. Registration ID in Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01793272 PMID:24639720

  11. Melatonin in testes of infertile men: evidence for anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant effects on local macrophage and mast cell populations.

    PubMed

    Rossi, S P; Windschuettl, S; Matzkin, M E; Terradas, C; Ponzio, R; Puigdomenech, E; Levalle, O; Calandra, R S; Mayerhofer, A; Frungieri, M B

    2014-05-01

    Melatonin acting through the hypothalamus and pituitary regulates testicular function. In addition, direct actions of melatonin at the testicular level have been recently suggested. We have described that melatonin inhibits androgen production in hamster Leydig cells via melatonin subtype 1a (mel1a) receptors and the local corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) system. The initial events of the melatonin/CRH signalling pathway have also been established. Melatonin and all components of the melatonergic/CRH system were also detected in Leydig cells of infertile men. This study attempted to search for additional targets of melatonin in the human testis, and to investigate the effects of melatonin on proliferation and the oxidative state in these novel target cells. To this aim, evaluation of human testicular biopsies of patients suffering from hypospermatogenesis or Sertoli cell only syndrome and cell culture studies were performed. Melatonergic receptors were found in macrophages (MACs) and mast cells (MCs) of the human testis. In biopsies of patients suffering idiopathic infertility, melatonin testicular concentrations were negatively correlated with MAC number per mm(2) and TNF?, IL1? and COX2 expression, but positively correlated with the expression of the anti-oxidant enzymes SOD1, peroxiredoxin 1 and catalase. Melatonin inhibited proliferation and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in both the human non-testicular THP-1 MAC cell line and primary cell cultures of hamster testicular MACs. In the human HMC-1 MC line, melatonin increased the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The results reveal new testicular targets of melatonin and describe anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of this hormone on testicular MACs. Furthermore, melatonin might provide protective effects against oxidative stress in testicular MCs. PMID:24659586

  12. The Outcomes of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection and Laser Assisted Hatching in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Are Affected by The Cause of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsin-Fen; Peng, Fu-Shiang; Chen, Shee-Uan; Chiu, Bao-Chu; Yeh, Szu-Hsing; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the association between factors that affected clini- cal pregnancy and live birth rates in patients who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and received intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and/or laser assisted hatching (LAH), or neither. Materials and Methods In this retrospective cohort study, the records of women who underwent IVF with or without ICSI and/or LAH at the Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan between January 2007 and December 2010 were reviewed. We divided patients into four groups: 1. those that did not receive ICSI or LAH, 2. those that received ICSI only, 3. those that received LAH only and 4. those that received both ICSI and LAH. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine factors associated with clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in each group. Results A total of 375 women were included in the analysis. Oocyte number (OR=1.07) affected the live birth rate in patients that did not receive either ICSI or LAH. Mater- nal age (OR=0.89) and embryo transfer (ET) number (OR=1.59) affected the rate in those that received ICSI only. Female infertility factors other than tubal affected the rate (OR=5.92) in patients that received both ICSI and LAH. No factors were found to affect the live birth rate in patients that received LAH only. Conclusion Oocyte number, maternal age and ET number and female infertility fac- tors other than tubal affected the live birth rate in patients that did not receive ICSI or LAH, those that received ICSI only, and those that received both ICSI and LAH, respectively. No factors affected the live birth rate in patients that received LAH only. These data might assist in advising patients on the appropriateness of ICSI and LAH after failed IVF. PMID:25918590

  13. Genetic Deficiency of Mtdh Gene in Mice Causes Male Infertility via Impaired Spermatogenesis and Alterations in the Expression of Small Non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangbing; Yang, Shujie; Zhang, Yuping; Wang, Xinjun; Goodfellow, Renee X; Jia, Yichen; Thiel, Kristina W; Reyes, Henry D; Yang, Baoli; Leslie, Kimberly K

    2015-05-01

    Increased expression of metadherin (MTDH, also known as AEG-1 and 3D3/LYRIC) has been associated with drug resistance, metastasis, and angiogenesis in a variety of cancers. However, the specific mechanisms through which MTDH is involved in these processes remain unclear. To uncover these mechanisms, we generated Mtdh knock-out mice via a targeted disruption of exon 3. Homozygous Mtdh knock-out mice are viable, but males are infertile. The homozygous male mice present with massive loss of spermatozoa as a consequence of meiotic failure. Accumulation of ?-H2AX in spermatocytes of homozygous Mtdh knock-out mice confirms an increase in unrepaired DNA breaks. We also examined expression of the DNA repair protein Rad18, which is regulated by MTDH at the post-transcriptional level. In testes from Mtdh exon 3-deficient mice, Rad18 foci were increased in the lumina of the seminiferous tubules. The Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA)-interacting protein Mili was expressed at high levels in testes from Mtdh knock-out mice. Accordingly, genome-wide small RNA deep sequencing demonstrated altered expression of piRNAs in the testes of Mtdh knock-out mice as compared with wild type mice. In addition, we observed significantly reduced expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR-16 and miR-19b, which are known to be significantly reduced in the semen of infertile men. In sum, our observations indicate a crucial role for MTDH in male fertility and the DNA repair mechanisms required for normal spermatogenesis. PMID:25787082

  14. THE PREGNANCY IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME II (PPCOS II) TRIAL: RATIONALE AND DESIGN OF A DOUBLE-BLIND RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF CLOMIPHENE CITRATE AND LETROZOLE FOR THE TREATMENT OF INFERTILITY IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Legro, Richard S.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Brzyski, Robert G.; Casson, Peter R.; Diamond, Michael P.; Schlaff, William D.; Christman, Gregory M.; Coutifaris, Christos; Taylor, Hugh S.; Eisenberg, Esther; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of female infertility and first line treatment is currently oral clomiphene citrate, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, which results in both a high nonresponse rate and multiple pregnancy rate. Aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole may have more favorable ovarian and endometrial effects. The goal of the Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II (PPCOSII) study is to determine the safety and efficacy of clomiphene citrate (CC) compared to letrozole, in achieving live birth in infertile women with PCOS. The population will consist of 750 infertile women with PCOS. Additionally, the couple will have no other major infertility factor. This will be a multi-center, prospective, double-blind clinical trial of CC vs. letrozole for 5 treatment cycles (or approximately up to 25 weeks). The randomization scheme will be coordinated through the central data coordinating center (DCC) and the randomization is stratified by each participating site. After progestin withdrawal as needed, 750 women will be equally randomized to two different treatment arms: A) CC 50 mg every day for 5 days (day 3–7 of cycle), or B) letrozole 2.5 mg every day for 5 days (day 3–7 of cycle), for a total of 5 cycles or 25 weeks. The dose will be increased in subsequent cycles in both treatment groups for non-response or poor ovulatory response up to a maximum of 150 mg of CC a day (× 5 days) or 7.5 mg of letrozole a day (× 5 days). The primary analysis will use an intent-to-treat approach to examine differences in the live birth rate in the two treatment arms. PMID:22265923

  15. Association of 370-371insACA, 494T>C, and 1423C>T haplotype in ubiquitin-specific protease 26 gene and male infertility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jia-Dong; Chen, Jie; Han, You-Feng; Chen, Hai; Yu, Wen; Chen, Yun; Dai, Yu-Tian

    2014-01-01

    Whether the 370-371insACA, 494T>C, and 1423C>T haplotype in ubiquitin-specific protease 26 (USP26) gene is associated with male infertility is controversial. To clarify this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis based on the most recent studies. Eligible studies were screened by using PubMed and Embase. Pooled odd ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated with fixed effect models. Ten studies with 1603 patients and 2505 controls were included. Overall, the results indicated that there was an association between the haplotype and male infertile risk (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.09–2.77). The OR calculated based on the five studies in Asia and three in Europe was 1.96 (95% CI: 1.05–3.67) and 1.54 (95% CI: 0.75–3.16) respectively, however, the OR was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.05–15.29) based on the two investigations in America. In addition, the data from the patients with azoospermia (AZO) showed an increased pooled OR of 2.35 (95% CI: 1.22–4.50). In contrast, the studies with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) exhibited that the pooled OR was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.43–2.16). Our analyses indicate that there is an association of alteration in USP26 with male infertility, especially in AZO and Asian population. PMID:24875820

  16. In vitro Effect of Lead, Silver, Tin, Mercury, Indium and Bismuth on Human Sperm Creatine Kinase Activity: a Presumable Mechanism for Men Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Motlagh, Behrooz

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of mercury (Hg+2), lead (Pb+2), silver (Ag+2), tin (Sn+2), bismuth (Bi+3) and indium (In+3) ions on sperm creatine kinase. Methods: creatine kinase was isolated from human sperm homogenates after chromatography on a DEAE cellulose column. Results: At 60 µg ml-1 metal concentration, 70% of the creatine kinase activity was inhibited by Hg+2, while at the same concentration, Pb+2, Ag+2, Sn+2, Bi+3 and In+3 caused 68%, 66.5%, 65.7%, 64.7% and 62.7% inhibition, respectively. All six metal ions displayed a competitive type of inhibition mechanism for the isolated creatine kinase as analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plot. Ki values of Hg+2, Pb+2, Ag+2, Sn+2, Bi+3 and In+3 were calculated and 8.34 mM, 5 mM, 4.54 mM, 3.45 mM, 3.12 mM and 2.63 mM values were obtained, respectively. Conclusion: All the studied metal ions, at levels of 60 µg ml-1, may reduce normal sperm metabolism by inhibition of sperm creatine kinase, which probably is an important cause of infertility in men. However, further investigations, as in vitro and in vivo, are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of heavy metals on male reproductive functioning at the molecular level. PMID:21725498

  17. Human sperm molecular anatomy: the enzyme 5?-reductase (SRD5A) is present in the sperm and may be involved in the varicocele-related infertility.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Saveria; Montanaro, Daniela; Guido, Carmela; Santoro, Marta; Perrotta, Ida; Gervasi, Serena; De Amicis, Francesca; Lanzino, Marilena

    2015-07-01

    The most common cause of male infertility is the testicular varicocele, a condition that impairs production and decreases quality of sperm. Male fertility also strictly depends on androgens acting through their own receptor. The enzyme 5?-reductase (SRD5A) is involved in the conversion of testosterone to 5?-dihydrotestosterone, both required for the development and maintenance of male reproductive function. Here, we evaluated, by western blotting analysis, the presence of SRD5A in human ejaculated spermatozoa and evidenced differences in sperm SRD5A content between healthy donors and varicocele-affected patients. Additionally, SRD5A sperm ultrastructural localization was also assessed by transmission electron microscopy and immunogold assay. We evidenced that SRD5A enzyme is present in the human spermatozoa and that its cellular content is lowered in sperm samples from varicocele patients compared to healthy subjects. The presence of SRD5A in human ejaculated spermatozoa highlights the potential role of this enzyme in sperm physiopathology suggesting that the decrease in its content, by affecting the conversion of testosterone into 5?-dihydrotestosterone, may be an important additional mechanism involved in the harmful effect of varicocele in male fertility. PMID:25850410

  18. Loss-of-Function Mutations in TBC1D20 Cause Cataracts and Male Infertility in blind sterile Mice and Warburg Micro Syndrome in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Liegel, Ryan P.; Handley, Mark T.; Ronchetti, Adam; Brown, Stephen; Langemeyer, Lars; Linford, Andrea; Chang, Bo; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J.; Carpanini, Sarah; Posmyk, Renata; Harthill, Verity; Sheridan, Eamonn; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M.H.; Terhal, Paulien A.; Faravelli, Francesca; Accorsi, Patrizia; Giordano, Lucio; Pinelli, Lorenzo; Hartmann, Britta; Ebert, Allison D.; Barr, Francis A.; Aligianis, Irene A.; Sidjanin, Duska J.

    2013-01-01

    blind sterile (bs) is a spontaneous autosomal-recessive mouse mutation discovered more than 30 years ago. Phenotypically, bs mice exhibit nuclear cataracts and male infertility; genetic analyses assigned the bs locus to mouse chromosome 2. In this study, we first positionally cloned the bs locus and identified a putative causative mutation in the Tbc1d20 gene. Functional analysis established the mouse TBC1D20 protein as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for RAB1 and RAB2, and bs as a TBC1D20 loss-of-function mutation. Evaluation of bs mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs) identified enlarged Golgi morphology and aberrant lipid droplet (LD) formation. Based on the function of TBC1D20 as a RABGAP and the bs cataract and testicular phenotypes, we hypothesized that mutations in TBC1D20 may contribute to Warburg micro syndrome (WARBM); WARBM constitutes a spectrum of disorders characterized by eye, brain, and endocrine abnormalities caused by mutations in RAB3GAP1, RAB3GAP2, and RAB18. Sequence analysis of a cohort of 77 families affected by WARBM identified five distinct TBC1D20 loss-of-function mutations, thereby establishing these mutations as causative of WARBM. Evaluation of human fibroblasts deficient in TBC1D20 function identified aberrant LDs similar to those identified in the bs mEFs. Additionally, our results show that human fibroblasts deficient in RAB18 and RAB3GAP1 function also exhibit aberrant LD formation. These findings collectively indicate that a defect in LD formation/metabolism may be a common cellular abnormality associated with WARBM, although it remains unclear whether abnormalities in LD metabolism are contributing to WARBM disease pathology. PMID:24239381

  19. Validation of the German version of the 'Hypogonadism Related Symptom Scale' (HRS) in andrological patients with infertility, HIV infection and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alidjanov, J; Wolf, J; Schuppe, H-C; Weidner, W; Diemer, T; Linn, T; Halefeldt, I; Wagenlehner, F; Wiltink, J; Pilatz, A

    2014-12-01

    As commonly used self-reported screening instruments for male hypogonadism demonstrated lack of specificity, a Hypogonadism Related Symptom Scale (HRS) was developed in 2009 as a novel self-rating screening tool. As the questionnaire has not been validated, the purpose of our study was to perform a validation in patients presenting with different disorders (e.g. infertility, HIV infection or metabolic syndrome) and disease-related risk to develop hypogonadism. Two hundred and eighteen patients aged 19-71 years (40.1 ± 9.5) who completed the HRS and other common questionnaires [International Index Of Erectile Function (IIEF), National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), short form (SF)-12] were included. In all patients, blood levels of total testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined and free testosterone was calculated. Cronbach's ? for the scale was 0.896, split-half 0.871 for the 1st half and 0.807 for the 2nd half. Spearman-Brown coefficient was 0.767, and Guttman split-half coefficient was 0.759. Consistent correlations were found between HRS and IIEF5 (? = 0.57, P < 0.001), and HADS (? = -0.6, P < 0.001). In addition, HRS was significantly correlated with total testosterone (? = 0.135, P < 0.05), free testosterone (? = 0.148, P < 0.05) and oestradiol (? = -0.134, P < 0.05). Our validation study confirms the data from the initial development of the HRS questionnaire. Clinicians might have an additional advantage from the HRS when investigating males with suspected hypogonadism. PMID:24387031

  20. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses of de novo translocation dic(9;13)(p11.2;p12) in an infertile male

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Whole arm t(9;13)(p11;p12) translocations are rare and have been described only a few times; all of the previously reported cases were familial. Results We present here an infertile male carrier with a whole-arm reciprocal translocation dic(9;13)(p11.2;p12) revealed by GTG-, C-, and NOR-banding karyotypes with no mature sperm cells in his ejaculate. FISH and genome-wide 400 K CGH microarray (Agilent) analyses demonstrated a balanced chromosome complement and further characterised the abnormality as a dicentric chromosome (9;13): dic(9;13)(pter?p11.2::p12?qter),neo(9)(pter?p12?neo?p11.2). An analysis of the patient’s ejaculated cells identified immature germ cells at different phases of spermatogenesis but no mature spermatozoa. Most (82.5%) of the germ cells were recognised as spermatocytes at stage I, and the cell nuclei were most frequently found in pachytene I (41.8%). We have also undertaken FISH analysis and documented an increased rate of aneuploidy of chromosomes 15, 18, X and Y in the peripheral blood leukocytes of our patient. To study the aneuploidy risk in leukocytes, we have additionally included 9 patients with non-obstructive azoospermia with normal karyotypes. Conclusions We propose that the azoospermia observed in the patient with the dic(9;13)(p11.2;p12) translocation was most likely a consequence of a very high proportion (90%) of association between XY bivalents and quadrivalent formations in prophase I. PMID:24559467