Health Matters, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's online gateway to health issues, presents this in-depth feature on infertility. Readers will find a detailed introduction to "the different kinds of infertility, what can be done, the costs involved, and the tricky ethical and legal issues that can crop up." The feature also includes a number of useful links, recommended reading, and an indispensable glossary of terms.
... attached to the uterus where the sperm and egg usually meet. Blocked or damaged tubes can cause infertility or ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus). The chances of having blocked tubes are higher in women who have or have had endometriosis, surgery in ...
... Imaging (MRI) Male Infertility Male Infertility: Management Meatal Stenosis Megaureter N Neonatal Testicular Torsion Neurogenic Bladder Normal ... multiple sclerosis: A serious progressive disease of the central nervous system. needle aspiration: Removing fluid or contents ...
Diagnosis and treatment of infertility, once a purely empirical process, can now be based on rational exclusion of alternatives. The author reviews the drug treatment of infertility, emphasizing ovulation induction. He also discusses the endocrine treatment of men, drug treatment of endometriosis, and antibiotic treatment of infections. The author recommends referral to a specialist when more invasive drugs, such as gonadotrophins or gonadotrophin-releasing hormone or analogue, are indicated, if the couple continues to be infertile, or when the physician suspects endometriosis. PMID:21249096
Reviews the literature on the experience of parenting after primary infertility and describes construction and initial testing of an instrument for assessing characteristics of this understudied population. (Contains 52 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)
Frances-Fischer, Jana E.; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.
This article will consider varying societal responses to infertility over different periods of time. The role of religion, in particular, will be identified as a powerful influence on human behaviors surrounding fertility an 8\\
... ZIFT, reversal of elective sterilization, sex change procedures, cloning, and experimental procedures. Plans that include coverage for prescription drugs must include coverage of drugs approved by FDA for use in diagnosis and treatment of infertility. (New York Consolidated ...
This text presents a review of all the imaging modalities available in the diagnosis of infertility. This book integrates the perspectives of experts in ob/gyn, radiology, reproductive endocrinology, and urology. It's a one-of-a-kind ''how to'' guide to hysterosalpinography and infertility evaluation, providing complete clinical information on the techniques, pitfalls, problems encountered and differential diagnosis. Detailed descriptions accompany numerous high-quality illustrations to help correlate findings and give meaning to the radiographic and ultrasound images.
Winfield, A.C.; Wentz, A.C.
Whether antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) play a pathogenic role in infertility is highly controversial. aPL have been suggested to represent one potential etiology of infertility, specifically in patients with unexplained implantation failure following in vitro fertilization (IVF). The rationale is appealing, as it represents a logical extension of the demonstrated pathogenicity of aPL in contributing to recurrent spontaneous abortion, where mechanisms
Lisa R. Sammaritano
Infertility is common, a serious medical problem in both advanced and underdeveloped countries. At present, medical resources are often used very haphazardly and frequently extravagantly to combat fertility problems. Whilst it seems very unlikely that society will be able to prevent infertility effectively, there is no doubt that the resources available could be better organized for greater benefit. There is evidence of poor co-ordination of services, of inadequate financial planning by health managers, and squandering of limited resources by professionals. Better organization of in vitro fertilization (IVF), with the promotion of larger regional services, would be an effective use of finances. IVF is too often only available to the wealthy and the selection of patients for treatment is frequently arbitrary; many fertility treatments are of unproved value and are wasteful. It is argued, for example, that many patients receiving gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) for so-called 'unexplained infertility' would be better treated by other, less expensive, methods which are often more effective. Many useful treatments, such as tubal surgery, are being disregarded or misused and there is need for better education of specialists who treat infertile patients. Better primary care of infertile patients should include non-medical counselling, and investigation and firm diagnosis before treatment is commenced. The heavy accent on high technology in the treatment of infertility is often misplaced, and we need to strike a careful balance if resources are to be properly allocated. PMID:1954728
Winston, R M
Since the late 1980s some publications have proposed that antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) may have some relationship with infertility, considering reported deleterious effects that aPL exert on trophoblast proliferation and growth. Although not included in current classification criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome, many physicians investigate for aPL in patients with a history of infertility, including antibodies not listed in classification criteria, and most of those patients will receive anticoagulant therapy if any of those antibodies have a result considered positive. A review of literature was conducted searching for studies that investigated the association of aPL and infertility and if aPL positivity alters in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. The definition of infertility, routine work-up to exclude other causes of infertility, definition of IVF failure as inclusion criteria and control populations were heterogeneous among studies. Most of them enrolled women over 40 years of age, and exclusion of other confounding factors was also inconsistent. Of 29 studies that assessed aPL positivity rates in infertile women, the majority had small sample sizes, implying a lack of power, and 13 (44.8%) reported higher frequency of aPL in infertile patients compared to controls, but most of them investigated a panel of non-criteria aPL tests, whose clinical significance is highly controversial. Only two studies investigated all three criteria tests, and medium-high titer of anticardiolipin cut-off conforming to international guidelines was used in one study. Considering IVF outcome, there was also disparity in this definition: few studies assessed the live birth rate, others the implantation rate. Of 14 publications that addressed the relationship between aPL and IVF outcome, only two described a detrimental effect of these autoantibodies. In conclusion, available data do not support an association between aPL and infertility, and aPL positivity does not seem to influence IVF outcome. Well-designed clinical studies recruiting women with a clear diagnosis of infertility and a high-risk aPL profile should be performed to test whether clinically relevant aPL do-or not-exert an effect on human fertility. PMID:25228713
Chighizola, Cb; de Jesus, Gr
This report illustrates a range of options for Congressional action in nine principal areas of public policy related to infertility: (1) collecting data on reproductive health; (2) preventing infertility; (3) information to inform and protect consumers; (4) providing access to infertility services; (5) reproductive health of veterans; (6) transfer…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.
Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655
Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi
Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…
Hypercoagulation has been reported in some studies to be associated with reproductive failures, such as unexplained infertility, IVF implantation failure and recurrent fetal losses. Many pregnancy-related disorders have been interpreted as consequences of impaired microvascular function and might be viewed as a mild form of venous thromboembolic disease. In the absence of clinical guidelines, there is a need for an evidence base regarding thrombophilic screening and antithrombotic therapy in cases of reproductive failure. This article will focus on the controversial effect of congenital and acquired thrombophilia on human fertility, and will review the English literature for relevant studies identified by searching PubMed(®) results between January 1966-November 2010 using the key words: 'thrombophilia', 'fertility' and 'infertility'. PMID:21879823
Kuperman, Amir; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Brenner, Benjamin
Experimental, theoretical, psychological, and economic barriers have caused physicians to rely on biomedical treatments for\\u000a infertility at the exclusion of more environmentally oriented ones (e.g., psychosocial stress therapy). An evolutionary model\\u000a is described for the origin of reproductive failure, suggesting why mammals evolved to be reproductively responsive to the\\u000a environment and why psychosocial stress should have an especially strong impact
Samuel K. Wasser
Male factor infertility is a general term that describes a situation in which the inability to conceive is associated with an alteration identified in the male partner. This dysfunction may be associated with low sperm concentration (oligozoospermia), poor sperm motility (asthenozoospermia) or abnormal sperm morphology (teratozoospermia); however, generally, a disturbance of all these variables, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, is mostly frequent in male subfertility. For many andrological disorders, it is not possible to find a reasonable cause and various uncontrolled treatments have been applied to infertile men, often just on an empirical basis. More recently, after the explosive development of modern assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs), feasible with a single spermatozoon [intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)], the treatment of male infertility has received new meaning and andrologists are no longer expected to achieve a quantitative increase in sperm number but are instead asked to improve the fertility potential of the single sperm cell in order to achieve better results in both in vitro fertilization and ICSI. Additional prospective studies are needed to better understand the possible role of therapy in ART candidate patients. PMID:16181978
Isidori, Aldo; Latini, Maurizio; Romanelli, Francesco
Background/Objective: Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Conclusions: Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients. PMID:19569467
Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev
Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including in vitro fertilization, the use of danazol for endometriosis, and the availability of bromocriptine for the galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome, are described. The most common sequence for infertility work-up is: 1) evaluation of basal body temperature, 2) postcoital testing, 3) semen analysis, 4) endometrial biopsy, 5) hystersalpingography and Rubin's test, and 6) endoscopy. When this type of organized investigation reveals the causal factors responsible for infertility, therapy can be instituted. Treatment can focus around ovulatory disorders, cervical problems, male factors, luteal phase defects, tubal factors, uterine factors, or endometriosis. Objective comparison of the various treatments through the establishment of standardized classifications and organized regimens is important to future fertility investigation. A problem in comparing the pregnancy rates of treatments has been the variability in length of follow-up. This difficulty has been largely overcome by the method for calculating the "expectancy" of pregnancy with an assumption of indefinite follow-up. PMID:7402503
Katayama, K P
... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Y chromosome infertility On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed January 2009 What is Y chromosome infertility? Y chromosome infertility is a condition that ...
Background: This study assessed emotional adjustment of infertile couples and the psychological outcomes of infertility (depression, anxiety, relationship and sexual problems, and personality disorders) in different phases of treatment. References used include studies which have been performed within the last two decades. The articles were invested on data bases at Pub med, Scholar, Google, Scpous and Amazon and key words
Fatemeh Ramazanzadeh; Ahmad Ali Noorbala; Nasrin Abedinia; Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh
Briefly reviews the literature on infertility and its emotional, physical, existential, and relational effects on individuals, couples, and families. Life crisis and biopsychosocial theories are discussed as they apply to persons struggling with infertility issues. In addition, stage models derived from a biopsychosocial perspective are presented.…
Gerrity, Deborah A.
Presents specific intervention strategies that may serve to reinforce infertility experience as opportunity for personal and marital growth. Concludes through counseling clients may complete much of the emotional work required to reach a point of resolution and acceptance of their infertility. (Author/ABL)
Daniluk, Judith C.
The initial evaluation of the infertile man includes a diligent search for testicular factors, gonadotoxins, and coital factors so as to identify existing causes of impaired fertility and to prevent further dimunition in fertility. There are also prophylactic measures in the treatment of all men that can prevent future infertility, such as prompt correction of cryptorchidism, testicular torsion, genital infection,
S. T. Thompson
Mandated managed care of infertility, as for other branches of medicine, demands cost-effectiveness, appropriate use of proven clinical methods, and audit of the services provided. Proper standards, and protocols of clinical diagnosis and selection of treatment need to be agreed, although allowing for valid alternatives. A diagnostic process and classification staged for primary, secondary, and tertiary care as appropriate, which has been derived by consensus, is offered in this paper. It is assumed that all couples would be allowed access to diagnostic services. A national estimate has attributed one-quarter of the costs of full infertility services to diagnostic procedures and three-quarters to treatments. It is assumed that any constraints owing to funding would apply only to access to treatment. One model proposed would limit treatment to those couples and methods which could achieve a 50% birthrate target within a reasonable time limit or number of cycles. Although there is as yet no existing model of managed care on which to base exact costing, it should be possible by initial over-restrictiveness to leave room for annual adjustments of treatment provision and to allow for new developments. Other more equitable ways of sharing resources can be argued, and ethical standards should be agreed in any system of managed care for a population. PMID:8875044
Hull, M G
Abstract The objective of this paper was to describe methods to estimate infertility from secondary data collected in nationally representative demographic surveys, such as the World Fertility Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys. Primary infertility was approximated by the proportion childless after at least seven years of marriage. Secondary infertility was measured by the proportion subsequently infertile among parous women.
Infertility is experienced by 5 million U.S. couples, some of whom perceive it a stigmatizing condition. Recent technological innovations have created a multitude of medical interventions for those infertile individuals who can financially afford them. For some infertile women, those interventions also transform infertility from a private pain to a public, prolonged crisis. Our research focuses on 25 U.S. women
Linda M. Whiteford; Lois Gonzalez
Azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletions of the Y chromosome, which occur in 1 - 55% of infertile men, are closely associated with severe spermatogenic failure and represent the most frequent molecular genetic causes of azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia. Researches on AZF and its related genes, approaching the mechanisms of spermatogenic failure at the molecular level, are of great significance for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of male infertility. The detection of AZF microdeletions can provide scientific basis for correct diagnosis and reasonable therapy. This article outlines the structure and functional characteristics of AZF, as well as its relationship with male infertility, cryptorchidism, varicocele, Klinefelter syndrome, seminoma, and recurrent abortion. PMID:20369704
Zhang, Hua-Jun; Jin, Bao-Fang
Endometriosis is a debilitating condition characterized by high recurrence rates. The etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Typically, endometriosis causes pain and infertility, although 20–25% of patients are asymptomatic. The principal aims of therapy include relief of symptoms, resolution of existing endometriotic implants, and prevention of new foci of ectopic endometrial tissue. Current therapeutic approaches are far from being curative; they focus on managing the clinical symptoms of the disease rather than fighting the disease. Specific combinations of medical, surgical, and psychological treatments can ameliorate the quality of life of women with endometriosis. The benefits of these treatments have not been entirely demonstrated, particularly in terms of expectations that women hold for their own lives. Although theoretically advantageous, there is no evidence that a combination medical-surgical treatment significantly enhances fertility, and it may unnecessarily delay further fertility therapy. Randomized controlled trials are required to demonstrate the efficacy of different treatments. PMID:20574791
Coccia, Maria Elisabetta; Battistoni, Silvia; Borini, Andrea
Infertility is of public health importance in Nigeria and many other developing nations because of its high prevalence and especially due to its serious social implications. A review of the epidemiology of infertility in Nigeria and other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa is presented and socio-cultural issues including the social impact on couples are discussed. The major cause of infertility in Africa is infection--STDs, post-abortal and puerperal sepsis. Beliefs about causes, and failure of orthodox methods of treatment have led many couples to seek solution from traditional doctors and faith healers without success. Infertility causes marital disharmony, which often leads to divorce. Women are often blamed for the infertility and men engage in polygyny in an attempt to have children. The couple can also suffer stress from the management of the infertility. Adoption is not popular and assisted reproduction has medico-legal implications. Preventive measures are suggested, including counselling at every stage of the management. PMID:14529236
Araoye, Margaret O
Statistical Issues and Methods inStatistical Issues and Methods in Infertility ResearchInfertility. Schieve, E. Schisterman #12;Main statistical issues: overview Â· General structure in infertility data Â· Correlated data methods Â· Further methodology development #12;Structure in infertility data Hierarchical
Recently there has been enormous progress in couple infertility treatment and diagnostics. Some couples cannot conceive despite the fact that there seems to be no objective somatic or immunologic reasons. In such situations gynaecologists are helpless and couples may be overwhelmed by a sense of defeat and hopelessness. Thus, consulting a psychologist or therapist on how to cope better with the problem may be a good solution. The objective of the following paper is to discuss the dilemmas of couples undergoing infertility treatment, related psychological problems, and to determine the need for psychological and therapeutic support. The study demonstrates numerous infertility causes and concludes that there is no universal method of dealing with them. Very frequently psychological and somatic problems overlap. Psychological causes are often the primary factors, but sometimes they are secondary derivatives of the therapeutic process. A wide scope of factors must be considered to attempt psychological analysis of patients treated for infertility including the influence of the family and relations within, reaction to the diagnosis and suggested treatment, the influence of religion on the treatment, the evaluation of the relations in the family of procreation, sexual life assessment, the sense of a woman's self-esteem and self-acceptance. Basing on empirical analysis it was concluded that all women treated for infertility want to create a full family. They have problems in coping with emotional liability during treatment and a sense of fear and failure. Understanding the psychological mechanisms observed in patients treated for infertility might help to diagnose the causes of their problems with facing the new, extremely difficult situation. PMID:21469521
Podolska, Magdalena Z; Bidzan, Mariola
Early pregnancy complications are more common in women who conceive after infertility treatment. Most of these occur before 12 weeks of gestation and include miscarriage, vaginal bleeding, intrauterine hematoma, vanishing twin, and ectopic pregnancy (EP). The incidence of EPs following infertility treatment is much higher compared with that in spontaneous pregnancies. The occurrence of an EP is very distressing to an infertile couple, who has lots of hopes pinned on the treatment outcome, especially because of the cost incurred and the physical and mental trauma both have gone through during the treatment process. The association between infertility and EP is complex, as it can be a consequence of infertility as well as a cause. The two principal risk factors for an EP are genital tract infections and tubal surgeries. Though several etiologies are proposed, but patients with tubal factor infertility are at an increased risk of an EP. Earlier diagnosis of EP helps to improve prognosis and optimize subsequent fertility. It is pivotal to evaluate the likelihood of subsequent occurrence of an EP and be too vigilant when treating. The correct choice of the treatment modality should be made to prevent the recurrence. The early prediction of the pregnancy outcome therefore has great importance for both the couple and clinician. Today with the help of sensitive beta human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) assays and transvaginal sonography, one can diagnose an EP prior to symptoms, and conservative treatment for the preservation of the fallopian tube is possible. Conservative management in the form of expectant and medical management should be considered as a first-line treatment modality, provided that the overall clinical picture suggests that it is safe to do so. If not, laparoscopic management of EPs appears to be the favored approach of management as compared to laparotomy. PMID:23162353
Examines the coping strategies adopted by 50 infertile men and women. All interviewed had sought medical help, and many became knowledgeable about reproduction and infertility. Redefining the problem and managing negative concepts about infertility were other coping strategies. Seeking social support, positive identities, and other ways of meeting…
Reviews literature on infertility with a focus on myths and misunderstandings about the causes of infertility; a description of the crisis of infertility including common psychological responses; the additional psychological complexity introduced by medical procedures and reproductive technology; and suggestions for mental health counselors.…
Forrest, Linda; Gilbert, Mary S.
Infertility is a widespread health problem in the United States, affecting anywhere from 10 to 15 percent and perhaps even a greater percentage of U.S. couples. Infertility can have far-reaching effects on life satisfaction, well-being, and psychological adjustment. This paper presents an analysis of sex and intimacy among infertile couples based…
Greil, Arthur; And Others
Using data from a random sample of 580 midwestern women, the authors explore the association between lifetime infertility and life satisfaction. Past research shows lower life satisfaction among those seeking help for infertility. The authors find no direct effects of lifetime infertility, regardless of perception of a problem, on life…
McQuillan, Julia; Stone, Rosalie A. Torres; Greil, Arthur L.
Discusses helpful ways for mental health counselors to work with infertile clients, explaining nature of infertility, psychological crisis it provokes, common reactions of infertile clients, and strategies to help clients cope. Discusses specific strategies for assessing clients' potential for suicide or self-destructive acts and improving their…
Butler, Robert R.; Koraleski, Stephanie
Infertility is a worldwide problem that affects women across racial groups. Research has shown that infertility among black South African women is now a fundamental reproductive health problem. Their personal anguish is compounded by social ostracism and, in many cases, rejection by their husbands, in-laws and society at large. SIHLE HLATSHWAYO reports on the stigma and health issues surrounding infertility
Infertility affects many individuals and couples. This article begins with a case study of a couple who have experienced infertility yet do not identify infertility as their presenting problem. Clients and counselors alike often overlook infertility. This article offers an overview of the biology of infertility and its psychological and…
Watkins, Kathryn J.; Baldo, Tracy D.
\\u000a An infertility evaluation is designed to detect problems responsible for preventing pregnancy and is traditionally divided\\u000a into male and female evaluations. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the clinical evaluation of female infertility.\\u000a Causes of female infertility include failure to have or release oocytes, failure to possess a patent reproductive tract receptive\\u000a to an embryo, or a coexisting
Yulian Zhao; Lisa Kolp; Melissa Yates; Howard Zacur
Examines the social and social psychological implications of infertility and involuntary childlessness. Examines the clinical and popular literature on the correlates and causes of infertility and the social psychological consequences of infertility. Suggests ways that family practitioners and researchers might overcome some of the limitations.…
Matthews, Anne Martin; Matthews, Ralph
Male factor is a common cause of infertility and the male partner must be systematically evaluated in the workup of every infertile couple. Various Eastern medical strategies have been tried with variable success. This article describes the clinical effects of Eastern medicine approaches including acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong, which could improve the sperm parameters and motility, genital inflammatory conditions, as well as immune system disorders, sexual dysfunction, and varicocele. Acupuncture reduces inflammation, increases sperm motility, improves semen parameters, modulates the immune system, and improves sexual and ejaculatory dysfunction in male infertility. The clinical effects may be mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle. Chinese herbal medicines may also exert helpful effects in male infertility, and it is worth noting that some herbal drugs may result in male infertility. Massage also exerts positive effects in male infertility. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of clinical effects are unclear. Tai chi, qi gong, and yoga have not been investigated in male infertility, but it has been reported to regulate endocrine and central or autonomic nervous systems. In conclusion, Eastern medical approaches have beneficial on reproductive effects in male infertility. However, future well-designed, randomized, clinical control trials are needed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of Eastern medical approaches for male infertility. PMID:23775386
Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuehui; Ma, Hongli; Ng, Ernest H Y; Wu, Xiao-Ke
This manuscript reviews research from the past year on the ethical and psychosocial impact of infertility on women and men. We discuss several issues surrounding ovarian stimulation, particularly high-order multiple births, egg banking (especially for research purposes), and diminished ovarian reserve. We also present recent work on distress and counseling, which includes greater attention to subgroups of infertile women. More research on issues confronting men has emerged recently, and we outline these with regard to their relationships with infertile women, or as the infertility patient. Last, we outline some ethical issues posed by newer procedures of fertility preservation and uterine transplant. PMID:23336092
Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Temple, Jeff R.
Request for Infertility Treatment Expense Reimbursement Employee Name-mail #12;Information about the Infertility Treatment Reimbursement Benefit: Description of Benefit of infertility treatments and associated services. This benefit is available to regular benefits
Myers, Lawrence C.
Epigenetic modifications characterized by DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling are important regulators in a number of biological processes, including spermatogenesis. Several genes in the testes are regulated through epigenetic mechanisms, indicating a direct influence of epigenetic mechanisms on the process of spermatogenesis. In the present article, we have provided a comprehensive review of the epigenetic processes in the testes, correlation of epigenetic aberrations with male infertility, impact of environmental factors on the epigenome and male fertility, and significance of epigenetic changes/aberrations in assisted reproduction. The literature review suggested a significant impact of epigenetic aberrations (epimutations) on spermatogenesis, and this could lead to male infertility. Epimutations (often hypermethylation) in several genes, namely MTHFR, PAX8, NTF3, SFN, HRAS, JHM2DA, IGF2, H19, RASGRF1, GTL2, PLAG1, D1RAS3, MEST, KCNQ1, LIT1, and SNRPN, have been reported in association with poor semen parameters or male infertility. Environmental toxins/drugs may affect fertility via epigenetic modifications. For example, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, an anticancer agent, causes a decrease in global DNA methylation that leads to altered sperm morphology, decreased sperm motility, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased embryo survival. Similarly, Endocrine disruptors, such as methoxychlor (an estrogenic pesticide) and vinclozolin (an anti-androgenic fungicide) have been found by experiments on animals to affect epigenetic modifications that may cause spermatogenic defects in subsequent generations. Assisted reproduction procedures that have been considered rather safe, are now being implicated in inducing epigenetic changes that could affect fertility in subsequent generations. Techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and round spermatid injection (ROSI) may increase the incidence of imprinting disorders and adversely affect embryonic development by using immature spermatozoa that may not have established proper imprints or global methylation. Epigenetic changes, in contrast to genetic aberrations, may be less deleterious because they are potentially reversible. Further research could identify certain drugs capable of reversing epigenetic changes. PMID:21540125
Rajender, Singh; Avery, Kelsey; Agarwal, Ashok
Managed care schemes are replacing traditional fee-for-service reimbursement to physicians and hospitals in the United States. Managed care schemes take the form of discounted fee-for-service, utilization review, global fee reimbursement, and capitated reimbursement schemes with funds to be distributed among providers. Reimbursement for infertility services has been excluded from many managed care plans as infertility is viewed as a social condition, not a medical condition, and coverage for infertility diagnosis and treatment is viewed as unnecessary in the bundle of services offered by insurers and other managed care organizations. However, some states mandate infertility coverage and some managed care organizations realize that provision of care for infertile couples makes their product more attractive. Large managed care organizations such as Blue Cross/Blue Shield of illinois and some entrepreneurial organizations are developing managed care plans that incorporate infertility services. Comprehensive services--including in-vitro fertilization--can be offered at a lower cost than traditional fee-for-service care. Newer technologies such as in-vitro fertilization are replacing fallopian tube surgery and surgical treatment for male infertility. These can be implemented at a lower cost and with better outcome for infertile couples than traditional services. PMID:8875043
Bates, G W; Bates, S R
This paper examines the crisis of infertility in the context of the biological or instinctual, cultural, and religious root of parenting. A therapeutic approach to the problem of infertility suggests that pastoral care should make a thorough diagnosis of the correlation between the motivation for parenting, role expectations in the social and…
Louw, D. J.
Infertile couples' (N=131) consideration of options for dealing with infertility (medical help, adoption, fostering, alternative medicine, and focusing on other life goals) is studied. Options were related to specific motivations including altruistic motives for adoption or foster care. Results, timing of choices, and motivations are discussed.…
van Balen, Frank; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Ketting, Evert
Concerns persist about a possible link between infertility and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Interpretation of existing studies is limited by racial/ethnic homogeneity of study populations and other factors. Using a case-control design, we evaluated infertility history and treatment documented in medical records of members of Kaiser…
Grether, Judith K.; Qian, Yinge; Croughan, Mary S.; Wu, Yvonne W.; Schembri, Michael; Camarano, Loretta; Croen, Lisa A.
Infertility affects more than 10% of the world's population. In developing countries, there are severe social, psychological and economic consequences for infertile men and women. All of the cited references are compiled from primary peer-reviewed research articles that were conducted through one-to-one interviews or focus groups in countries of developing regions, such as Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The following paper seeks to raise awareness of the consequences of infertility in developing nations and identify infertility as an under-observed, but significant public health issue. It is proposed that education programmes tailored to each society's specific religious beliefs and grounded traditions must be implemented in order to reverse the social stigma, detrimental psychological effects, and loss of economic security that results from infertility. PMID:23327901
Original article Infertility of Varroa jacobsoni females after invasion into Apis mellifera worker brood were infertile, whereas in Euro- pean bees only 10-20% infertile Varroa females were found from the original host species, Apis cerana. Since host-dependent infertility evidently has a strong
This essay reviews the literature on the social psychological impact of infertility, paying special attention to the relationship between gender and the infertility experience. It is convenient to divide the literature into articles which explore the possibility that infertility may have psychological causes (Psychogenic Hypothesis) and those which examine the psychological consequences of infertility (Psychological Consequences Hypothesis). The psychogenic hypothesis
Arthur L. Greil
The sociocultural aspects of infertility among members of the matrilineal ethnic group Macua are studied. Strategies applied by infertile women, the use of traditional healers versus modern hospital, and explanations given for infertility are presented. Solutions attempted, social consequences of infertility, and recommendations for culturally…
The examination of 260 infertile males revealed that delay of sexual development (DSD) predisposes to male infertility. DSD is often characterized by autoimmune reactions pointing to DSD as one of the causes of autoimmune infertility. Spermatozoa in DSD have low viability. Hormonal changes in DSD in adult males did not significantly change from the group with normal sexual development. LH/testosterone and testosteron/estradiol differed significantly in DSD and hypogonadism. Calculation of these proportions may serve differential criteria of DSD and secondary hypogonadism. PMID:17915450
Kirpatovski?, I D; Kir'ianov, A V
Infertility currently affects over 6 million individuals in the United States. While most health insurance plans nationwide do not cover infertility diagnoses or treatments, to date fifteen states have enacted some form of infertility insurance mandate. In this paper, I use data from the Vital Statistics Detail Natality Data and Census population estimates to examine whether these state-level mandates were successful in increasing fertility rates. Using a difference-in-differences approach, I exploit variation in the enactment of mandates both across states and over time, and identify treatment and control groups that should have been differentially affected by infertility coverage. My results suggest that the mandates significantly increase first birth rates for women over 35, and these results are robust to a number of specification tests. PMID:17129624
Being a parent is deeply demanding and one of the most important events in life; parents experience the deepening of human relationships with their partner, within their families, and in society, and moreover the fundamental relationship between parent and child. Every medical, social, and political effort must be made to prevent infertility but also to offer infertile couples the best diagnostic and therapeutic paths. Understanding the suffering of the couple and their families prevents and helps ease the possible psychological and social complications of infertility. Therefore, infertility concerns not only biomedical sciences but also psychological and social ones-ethics and law-in their combined efforts to identify areas of understanding and of research for solutions while respecting the dignity of the couple and unborn child. The Catholic Church offers an ongoing contribution through dialogue in looking for ethical principles guiding scientific and medical research respectful of the true life of human beings. PMID:24156989
Ethical issues arising in the day-to-day practice of infertility treatment are important and sometimes difficult. A couple's infertility problem usually has affective and social dimensions, sometimes disrupting their lives. Responsible care involves dealing with these psychosocial factors, including counseling and striving for informed patient decision making. The ethical problem of whether to provide treatment when the probability of success is low is sometimes complicated by a couple's desperate desire for fertility. In such cases the physician weighs various factors, including the risks of the procedure, the harm that might result from continuing infertility and the degree of the couple's understanding of the pros and cons. Issues of truth telling are raised by a lack of third-party reimbursement for infertility workup and treatment. Also, questions about when to refer or terminate the workup and therapy involve ethical reflection about potential conflicts of interest. PMID:3806534
Schinfeld, J S; Elkins, T E; Strong, C M
Objective: To analyze the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of alternative treatments for unexplained infertility.Design: Retrospective analysis of 45 published reports.Setting: Clinical practices.Patient(s): Couples who met criteria for unexplained infertility. Women with Stage I or Stage II endometriosis were included.Intervention(s): Observation; clomiphene citrate (CC); gonadotropins (hMG); IUI; and GIFT and IVF.Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical pregnancy rate.Result(s): Combined pregnancy rates per initiated cycle,
DavidS Guzick; MichaelW Sullivan; G. David Adamson; MarcelleI Cedars; RichardJ Falk; EdwinP Peterson; MichaelP Steinkampf
BACKGROUND: Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women's viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. AIM: To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. SETTING AND DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9%) was positive. 36 (15.1%) women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4%) did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2%) said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1%) believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. CONCLUSION: Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed. PMID:22346081
Rahmani, Azad; Sattarzadeh, Nilofar; Gholizadeh, Leila; Sheikhalipour, Zahra; Allahbakhshian, Atefeh; Hassankhani, Hadi
Introduction Old men preparing themselves for marriage late in their lives might face infertility. Infertility in this group of men should be considered from a wider perspective, as they face any age–related health troubles that include, but are not limited to, androgen deficiency and psychological disorders that impede early conception. This review aims to shed light on the proper approach to this minority of secondarily infertile men. Material and methods A comprehensive electronic English literature search was conducted, using various medical websites and books, for the factors that cause infertility in senior fathers. The physiology of geriatric males, together with their common comorbidities, were discussed. Results Old men presenting with secondary infertility should be approached differently. Aging, itself, has a significant impact on male sexual function, sperm parameters, and fertility; all of which contribute to poor fecundability, decreased fertilizing capacity, increased time to pregnancy, increased rate of DNA damage, high abortion rates and increased prevalence of fetal developmental failures. The complexity and the unknowns of the aging male physiology, together with the interaction of obstinate diseases the patient might have, make the issue very difficult to tackle. Conclusions Management should include the conventional way of treating young sufferers and further target the underlying causes, if known, along with the provision of geriatric, psychologic, and andrologic support. PMID:25140235
Al-Hawsawi, Khalid; Motair, Wael; Bawa, Abdallah Makhloof
Male infertility is a relatively common condition caused by low sperm production, immobile sperm, or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm. This condition can be caused by a variety of illnesses, injuries, chronic health problems, lifestyle choices, other factors, or idiopathic, in which abnormal semen parameters occur without an identifiable cause. Medical management traditionally focuses on correcting endocrine abnormalities related to hormone deficiencies. Clomiphene citrate is an antiestrogen thought to increase sperm parameters in males attempting to conceive. The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clomiphene citrate in the treatment of male patients with infertility. A literature search of MEDLINE (1966-June 2012) and EMBASE (1980-June 2012) was conducted using the medical terms clomiphene and male infertility and 9 clinical studies were identified. Overall, only 1 study detected a statistically significant benefit on the pregnancy rate in the clomiphene group; however, the majority of the studies demonstrated a statistically significant increase in sperm concentrations. At doses used to treat male infertility, clomiphene was well tolerated with no identified serious adverse effects. Based on the reviewed studies there is insufficient evidence to indicate that clomiphene is effective for the treatment of male infertility. PMID:23202725
Willets, Amy E; Corbo, Jason M; Brown, Jamie N
BACKGROUND: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. SETTING AND DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: While 33.3% of men and 43.3% of women surveyed insisted on not using surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). CONCLUSION: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples. PMID:24829531
Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid
... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How common is male infertility, and what are its causes? ... female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse. The most common issues that lead to infertility in men are ...
A PROGESTOGEN (CHLORMADINONE ACETATE = CAP) FOR CYCLE CONTROL AND INFERTILITY TREATMENT IN THE MARE, CAP has been used for infertility treatments and cycle control in mares in Austria. In all indications
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de
Explores the experience of role conflict for women in infertile couples. Findings lead to an understanding of infertility as part of an interactional system for dealing with potentially intolerable sources of role conflict. (Author)
Allison, Janet R.
... and male infertility is unknown. What are the genetic changes related to sensorineural deafness and male infertility? ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...
BACKGROUND Worldwide more than 70 million couples suffer from infertility, the majority being residents of developing countries. Negative consequences of childlessness are experienced to a greater degree in developing countries when compared with Western societies. Bilateral tubal occlusion due to sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy-related infections is the most common cause of infertility in developing countries, a condition that is potentially treatable with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). New reproductive technologies are either unavailable or very costly in developing countries. This review provides a comprehensive survey of all important papers on the issue of infertility in developing countries. METHODS Medline, PubMed, Excerpta Medica and EMBASE searches identified relevant papers published between 1978 and 2007 and the keywords used were the combinations of ‘affordable, assisted reproduction, ART, developing countries, health services, infertility, IVF, simplified methods, traditional health care'. RESULTS The exact prevalence of infertility in developing countries is unknown due to a lack of registration and well-performed studies. On the other hand, the implementation of appropriate infertility treatment is currently not a main goal for most international non-profit organizations. Keystones in the successful implementation of infertility care in low-resource settings include simplification of diagnostic and ART procedures, minimizing the complication rate of interventions, providing training-courses for health-care workers and incorporating infertility treatment into sexual and reproductive health-care programmes. CONCLUSIONS Although recognizing the importance of education and prevention, we believe that for the reasons of social justice, infertility treatment in developing countries requires greater attention at National and International levels. PMID:18820005
Ombelet, Willem; Cooke, Ian; Dyer, Silke; Serour, Gamal; Devroey, Paul
Men with 47,XYY syndrome present with varying physical attributes and degrees of infertility. A retrospective chart review was performed on a male infertility and genetic anomaly database. Three patients with 47,XYY were found. Each presented with > 2 years of infertility. All were tall with elevated body mass indices. Scrotal findings ranged from normal to atrophic testicles. Semen analyses demonstrated oligospermia and varying endocrine profiles. Because of the diverse phenotype and potential lack of symptoms, identification and diagnosis of men with 47,XYY syndrome may be difficult. We recommend careful screening of 47,XYY patients and referral to primary physicians for long-term follow-up for increased incidence of health-related comorbidities. PMID:24659916
Kim, Ina W; Khadilkar, Arjun C; Ko, Edmund Y; Sabanegh, Edmund S
Men with 47,XYY syndrome present with varying physical attributes and degrees of infertility. A retrospective chart review was performed on a male infertility and genetic anomaly database. Three patients with 47,XYY were found. Each presented with > 2 years of infertility. All were tall with elevated body mass indices. Scrotal findings ranged from normal to atrophic testicles. Semen analyses demonstrated oligospermia and varying endocrine profiles. Because of the diverse phenotype and potential lack of symptoms, identification and diagnosis of men with 47,XYY syndrome may be difficult. We recommend careful screening of 47,XYY patients and referral to primary physicians for long-term follow-up for increased incidence of health-related comorbidities. PMID:24659916
Kim, Ina W; Khadilkar, Arjun C; Ko, Edmund Y; Sabanegh, Edmund S
This article discusses the new reproductive technology of egg freezing in the context of existing literature on gender, medicalization, and infertility. What is unique about this technology is its use by women who are not currently infertile but who may anticipate a future diagnosis. This circumstance gives rise to a new ontological category of “anticipated infertility.” The author draws on
Lauren Jade Martin
Tests the hypothesis that women who have experienced infertility report higher psychological distress. Examines whether roles or resources condition the effects of infertility or whether its effects are limited to childless women. Infertility combined with involuntary childlessness is associated with significantly greater distress. For women in…
McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; White, Lynn; Jacob, Mary Casey
Objective: To compare reproductive benefits of hysteroscopic myomectomy and polypectomy for infertility to outcomes in infertile couples with normal hysteroscopic findings.Methods: Women with diagnoses of infertility who had hysteroscopic evaluations by a single surgeon between 1975 and 1996 were sent a routine follow-up questionnaire regarding their reproductive histories. All 92 subjects who were located responded to the questionnaire, and 78
Nicole N Varasteh; Robert S Neuwirth; Bruce Levin; Martin D Keltz
Risk factors for infertility in nursing cows linked to calving C Ducrot I Cimarosti F Bugnard with 3 590 cows in order to study the risk factors for infertility linked to calving. Based upon an analy infertility, breed factors, parity, fattening, comfort, calf characteristics (number, sex, weight
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de
ABSTRACT Postpartum infertility is caused by four factors: general infertility, lack of uterine involution, short estrous cycles and anestrus. The general infertility component is common to any estrous cycle and reduces potential fertility by 20 to 30%. Incomplete uterine involution prevents fertilization during the first 20 d after calving but is not related to anestrus. Short estrous cycles prevent fertility
R. E. Short; R. A. Bellows; R. B. Staigmiller; J. G. Berardinelli; E. E. Custer; E. E. Custep
ARTICLE CATSPER2, a human autosomal nonsyndromic male infertility gene Nili Avidan1 , Hannah Tamary in spermatozoa) may explain the observed deafness and male infertility phenotypes. To the best of our knowledge associated with nonsyndromic male infertility. European Journal of Human Genetics (2003) 11, 497Â502. doi:10
The purpose of this study was to assess: (1) the risk of breast cancer associated with use of ovulation-inducing agents (such as clomiphene citrate) as treatment for infertility; and (2) the risk associated with ovulatory abnormalities that result in infertility. We performed a case-cohort study among 3837 women evaluated for infertility at clinics in Seattle, Washington, at some time during
Mary Anne Rossing; Janet R. Daling; Noel S. Weiss; Donald E. Moore; Steven G. Self
Women and men diagnosed with infertility experience a variety of infertility-related stressors, including changes to their family and social networks, strain on their sexual relationship, and difficulties and unexpected challenges in their relationship. Infertility stress is linked with depression and psychological distress, and can lead to premature dropout from medical treatments and unresolved feelings of loss and grief. The current
Brennan D. Peterson; Georg H. Eifert
Infertility is a stressor that affects both husbands and wives. The literature suggests that infertility is more stressful for women, although most studies have not included men\\/husbands. If the experience of infertility is different for women and men, the next question is whether women and men cope dif- ferently. Meta-analytic procedures were used to review the empirical evidence (1966± 1995)
Caren Jordan; Tracey A. Revenson
Women and men diagnosed with infertility experience a variety of infertility-related stressors, including changes to their family and social networks, strain on their sexual relationship, and difficulties and unexpected challenges in their relationship. Infertility stress is linked with depression and psychological distress, and can lead to…
Peterson, Brennan D.; Eifert, Georg H.
Over the past decade, significant advances have occurred in the diagnosis and treatment of reproductive disorders. In this review, we discuss the routine testing performed to diagnose unexplained infertility. We also discuss additional testing, such as assessment of ovarian reserve, and the potential role of laparoscopy in the complete workup of unexplained infertility. Finally, we outline the available therapeutic options and discuss the efficacy and the cost-effectiveness of the existing treatment modalities. The optimal treatment strategy needs to be based on individual patient characteristics such as age, treatment efficacy, side-effect profile, and cost considerations. PMID:18769664
Quaas, Alexander; Dokras, Anuja
Yoga and meditation can help women experiencing the challenges of infertility. The practice of meditation and relaxation can help increase the clarity of the mind, maintain healthy body chemistry, and give patients the patience to undergo the rigors of infertility treatments. When one understands and can attain physical relaxation, one tends to feel better about the body itself, and begins to treat the body with more respect. This understanding can lead to healthier lifestyle habits as well as increased sensitivity regarding symptoms and body processes. This is beneficial to both doctor and patient as the patient can report with more clarity and sense cycles and physical issues more readily. PMID:14568288
Khalsa, Hari Kaur
In medicine the changes in therapies are the evidence of the progress in knowledge. But many examples concerning the treatment of early spontaneous abortion, late abortion, menopause, contraception and infertility show that gynaecologists and obstetricians change their treatments just as fashion designers change their styles. My 'Corner' on this occasion is an appeal for caution and humility. PMID:17425840
At present NHS services for infertile couples are under-developed compared with those available in the private sector. Health care planners should be aware that the demand for infertility treatment is likely to increase. The average age at first child birth has increased and presumably also the average age at the first attempt to conceive. The rise in divorce rates and second marriages has resulted in increasing numbers of couples wishing to start a second family at a comparatively advanced age. If, as it appears, the time taken to conceive increases with age, the higher average age of women attempting to conceive could cause an increase in the prevalence of infertility, and the demand for treatment. Divorce and remarriage of sterilised people has resulted in a demand for reversal of sterilisation and for in vitro fertilisation (IVF). The age of onset of sexual activity has fallen. This, combined with later marriage, has led to an increase in the number of sexually active single people, with an increase in the incidence of sexually transmitted disease of which infertility is a possible sequel. The opportunity to adopt is now available for very few couples because of the decreasing proportion of illegitimate babies available for adoption. Recent publicity given to developments such as gamete intra fallopian transfer (GIFT) and IVF may have increased the demand for treatment. PMID:10302956
This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be…
Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.
Presents a framework for understanding the crisis of infertility which is characterized by extensive anxiety, damaged self-esteem, grief, uncertainty about the future, and estranged relationships with each other and with family and friends. Proposes some interventions appropriate to helpers from a variety of disciplines. (ABB)
Cook, Ellen Piel
The current knowledge on the mechanisms of lactational infertility, discussed during a symposium of investigators in this subject, is reviewed. Three periods of lactation are examined: the first weeks postpartum, the period of extended lactational amenorrhea and the recovery of ovarian function. In the first postpartum weeks the inhibition of ovarian function is accounted by diminished pituitary response to GnRH,
S DIAZI; M SERON-FERRE; HB CROXATTO; J VELDHUIS
Infertile men are frequently affected by physical abnormalities that might be detected on routine general and genital examinations. These structural abnormalities might damage or block the testes, epididymis, seminal ducts or other reproductive structures and can ultimately decrease fertility. Physical deformities are variable in their pathological impact on male reproductive function; some render men totally sterile, such as bilateral absence
Rajender Singh; Alaa J. Hamada; Laura Bukavina; Ashok Agarwal
This paper illustrates key findings from a qualitative doctoral research project exploring women's experience of infertility. Six women maintained treatment diaries, reflecting on their experiences prior to, during and beyond infertility treatment. The following key themes are identified: hopefulness, adaptation, transitioning and shifting focus. The data suggest that treatment, clinic experience and living a life 'on hold' act as turning points within the individual life course. It is at the intersection between treatment and outcome that difficulties negotiating the expected and anticipated life course become illuminated, revealing limited connectivity and transitioning through and beyond the treatment process. This is a critical focus area and one that sets the scene for effective future adaptation. The data suggest that the accessibility of supportive care moving through and beyond treatment is limited. This paper argues that the infertility clinic is a critical space and place and one where effective supportive care may enable effective transitioning beyond the experience of infertility as an unanticipated life course disruption. PMID:25019683
The Guidelines for Counselling in Infertility describe the purpose, objectives, typical issues and communication skills involved in providing psychosocial care to individuals using fertility services. The Guidelines are presented in six sections. The first section describes how infertility consultations differ from other medical consultations in obstetrics and gynaecology, whereas the second section addresses fundamental issues in counselling, such as what is counselling in infertility, who should counsel and who is likely to need counselling. Section 3 focuses on how to integrate patient-centred care and counselling into routine medical treatment and section 4 highlights some of the special situations which can provoke the need for counselling (e.g. facing the end of treatment, sexual problems). Section 5 deals exclusively with third party reproduction and the psychosocial implications of gamete donation, surrogacy and adoption for heterosexual and gay couples and single women without partners. The final section of the Guidelines is concerned with psychosocial services that can be used to supplement counselling services in fertility clinics: written psychosocial information, telephone counselling, self-help groups and professionally facilitated group work. This paper summarizes the different sections of the Guidelines and describes how to obtain the complete text of the Guidelines for Counselling in Infertility. PMID:11387309
Boivin, J; Appleton, T C; Baetens, P; Baron, J; Bitzer, J; Corrigan, E; Daniels, K R; Darwish, J; Guerra-Diaz, D; Hammar, M; McWhinnie, A; Strauss, B; Thorn, P; Wischmann, T; Kentenich, H
eriodically the media treat us to a new case in the annals of reproductive technology. Remember the Buzzancas? In 1998 they resorted to surrogacy after many years of failed infertility treatments. Conception occurred in a petri dish, using the sperm and the egg of anonymous donors. The zygote was then placed into a woman with no genetic ties to any
Keith Graber Miller
Background Infertility is a global reproductive health issue that affects many individuals and couples. Despite the high prevalence of infertility in Ghana, no study has been done on the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana. This study therefore explored the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. Methods We interviewed fifteen childless couples, forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants using a semi-structured interview guide. We also carried out three focus group discussions; one for childless women, one for women with children and one for men with children. The data were transcribed, coded, arranged and analyzed for categories and themes. Results Infertile couples are socially stigmatised and excluded from leadership roles in their communities. Couples without children are denied membership in the ancestral world thereby losing the opportunity to live again. Both males and females are engaged in sex with multiple partners to prove their fertility. Conclusions Both men and women suffer from the social effects of childlessness. The desire to have biological children in a pronatalist society results in unhealthy practices. Health policy makers and gender advocates should be more concerned about infertility. PMID:23517021
Infertility is one of the major public health problems, affecting 15% of couples who attempt pregnancy; in 50% of these, the male partner is responsible. Chromosomal abnormalities and Y microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region are known to be associated with spermatogenetic failure. In the present study, 289 patients with primary male infertility because of spermatogenetic failure were studied in order to highlight the molecular background of male infertility in Kuwait, and to avoid the possibility of transmission of any microdeletions/chromosomal aberrations to offspring via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Of the 289 infertile men, 23 patients (8%) had chromosomal aberration in the form of Klinefelter syndrome/variant (16/23; 69.6%), XYY syndrome (3/23; 13%), XX male syndrome (2/23; 8.7%), 45,X/46X, i(Yp)(1/23; 4.4%) and 45,XY, t(9;22) (1/23;4.4%). Y-chromosome microdeletion in the AZFb and AZFc regions were detected in 7/266 cases (2.6%). Testicular biopsy was carried out in 31 azoospermic patients, of whom five men had Sertoli-cell only syndrome, while 26 patients had spermatogenic arrest. In conclusion, this study showed that the frequency of both chromosomal anomalies and Y microdeletions were found in 10.4% of the infertile men. The potential risk of transmitting these genetic disorders to offspring provides a rationale for screening infertile men prior to ICSI. PMID:17683468
Mohammed, F; Al-Yatama, F; Al-Bader, M; Tayel, S M; Gouda, S; Naguib, K K
Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable birth after at least 1 year of unprotected intercourse and were fully investigated. Results: Of the entire samples, 78.7% had primary infertility and 21.3% had secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility in couples was 5.7±4 years. The etiology of infertility in couples revealed; male factor in 38.9%, female factor in 34.7%, combined factors in 14.6% and undetermined cause in 11.8%. Conclusion: In this study, delayed attendance of infertile couples to the infertility clinic was found. Therefore, there is a need to revise public health program on infertility to focus on the education and prevention of infertility and its risk factors.
Karimpour Malekshah, Abbasali; Esmailnejad Moghaddam, Amir; Moslemizadeh, Narges; Peivandi, Sepideh; Barzegarnejad, Ayyub; Musanejad, Nadali; Jursarayee, Gholamali
Oxidative stress has been established as one of the main causes of male infertility and has been implicated in many diseases associated with infertile men. It results from high concentrations of free radicals and suppressed antioxidant potential, which may alter protein expression in seminal plasma and/or spermatozoa. In recent years, proteomic analyses have been performed to characterize the protein profiles of seminal ejaculate from men with different clinical conditions, such as high oxidative stress. The aim of the present review is to summarize current findings on proteomic studies performed in men with high oxidative stress compared with those with physiological concentrations of free radicals, to better understand the aetiology of oxidative stress-induced male infertility. Each of these studies has suggested candidate biomarkers of oxidative stress, among them are DJ-1, PIP, lactotransferrin and peroxiredoxin. Changes in protein concentrations in seminal plasma samples with oxidative stress conditions were related to stress responses and to regulatory pathways, while alterations in sperm proteins were mostly associated to metabolic responses (carbohydrate metabolism) and stress responses. Future studies should include assessment of post-translational modifications in the spermatozoa as well as in seminal plasma proteomes of men diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. Oxidative stress, which occurs due to a state of imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants, has been implicated in most cases of male infertility. Cells that are in a state of oxidative stress are more likely to have altered protein expression. The aim of this review is to better understand the causes of oxidative stress-induced male infertility. To achieve this, we assessed proteomic studies performed on the seminal plasma and spermatozoa of men with high levels of oxidative stress due to various clinical conditions and compared them with men who had physiological concentrations of free radicals. A variety of sperm and seminal plasma proteins were found to be expressed either in abundance (over-expressed) or in a lesser amount (underexpressed), while other proteins were found to be unique either to men with oxidative stress or to men with a balanced ratio of antioxidants/free radicals. Each study included in this review suggested several proteins that could possibly act as biomarkers of oxidative stress-induced male infertility, such as protein DJ-1, PIP, lactotransferrin and peroxiredoxin. Pathway analysis performed in these studies revealed that the changes in seminal plasma proteins in men with oxidative stress could be attributed to stress responses and regulatory pathways, while changes in sperm proteins were linked to stress responses and metabolic responses. Subsequent studies could look into post-translational modifications in the protein profile of men with idiopathic infertility. We hope that the information in this review will contribute to a better understanding of the main causes of idiopathic male infertility. PMID:24813754
Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Halabi, Jacques; Peng, Jason; Vazquez-Levin, Monica
BACKGROUND: Infertility is a major reproductive health problem in Africa. This paper presents the findings of two studies which focus on the knowledge that infertile women have about fertility and the causes of infertility, their treatment-seeking behaviour and their expectations of an infertility clinic. METHODS: A total of 150 infertile women from a culturally diverse, urban community in South Africa
S. J. Dyer; N. Abrahams; M. Hoffman; Z. M. van der Spuy
Homeopathy has been used in the past for treating a broad aspect of diseases. In gynecology, its use remains limited. Taking under consideration its clinical aspects, the authors attempted to use it for treating female sub fertility problems. With this study, the authors present five cases of female infertility treated successfully with the use of homeopathic treatment in a large obstetrics-gynecology Hospital in Athens. PMID:24779242
Kalampokas, T; Botis, S; Kedikgianni-Antoniou, A; Papamethodiou, D; Kivellos, S; Papadimitriou, V; Salvanos, G; Paparistidis, N; Gavaris, I; Sofoudis, C; Kalampokas, E; Farmakides, G; Vithoulkas, G
Ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD), the most prevalent male sexual disorder, is clearly different from erectile dysfunction (ED).\\u000a EjD is divided into 4 categories: premature ejaculation, delayed ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation and anejaculation. EjD-related\\u000a infertility is one of the most serious problems in young patients. If sexual intercourse is achieved successfully without\\u000a any ejaculate sexual partners\\/wives will not be able to conceive. Therefore,
Varicocele is the most common cause of male infertility and is generally correctable or at least improvable by various surgical and radiologic techniques. Therefore, it seems simple and reasonable that varicocele should be treated in infertile men with varicocele. However, the role of varicocele repair for the treatment of subfertile men has been questioned during the past decades. Although varicocele repair can induce improvement of semen quality, the obvious benefit of spontaneous pregnancy has not been shown through several meta-analyses. Recently, a well-designed randomized clinical trial was introduced, and, subsequently, a novel meta-analysis was published. The results of these studies advocate that varicocele repair be regarded as a standard treatment modality in infertile men with clinical varicocele and abnormal semen parameters, which is also supported by current clinical guidelines. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has been regarded as the gold standard compared to other surgical techniques and radiological management in terms of the recurrence rate and the pregnancy rate. However, none of the methods has been proven through well-designed clinical trials to be superior to the others in the ability to improve fertility. Accordingly, high-quality data from well-designed studies are needed to resolve unanswered questions and update current knowledge. Upcoming trials should be designed to define the best technique and also to define how to select the best candidates who will benefit from varicocele repair.
Cho, Kang Su
There has been very little documentation of the social meaning given to infertility in many developing countries, including Nigeria, where the prevalence of infertility is known to be high. We have conducted a number of qualitative studies aimed at exploring socio-cultural issues associated with infertility in Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Twenty-five focus-group discussions were held with knowledgeable persons in the rural
Friday E. Okonofua; Rachel C. Snow; Boston M
\\u000a The work up of the infertile couple should begin after 1 year of unprotected intercourse or sooner if infertility risk factors\\u000a are present. A thorough history and physical examination are key components of the evaluation and should not be underestimated,\\u000a as varicoceles and other causes of male factor infertility can easily be identified. The semen analysis is the only laboratory
Michael A. Poch; Mark Sigman
Purpose Androgen replacement therapy has been shown to be safe and effective for most patients with testosterone deficiency. Male partners of infertile couples often report significantly poorer sexual activity and complain androgen deficiency symptoms. We report herein an adverse effect on fertility caused by misusage of androgen replacement therapy in infertile men with hypogonadal symptoms. Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 8 male patients referred from a local clinic for azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia between January 2008 and July 2011. After detailed evaluation at our andrology clinic, all patients were diagnosed with iatrogenic hypogonadism associated with external androgen replacement. We evaluated changes in semen parameters and serum hormone level, and fertility status. Results All patients had received multiple testosterone undecanoate (NebidoR) injections at local clinic due to androgen deficiency symptoms combined with lower serum testosterone level. The median duration of androgen replacement therapy prior to the development of azoospermia was 8 months (range: 4-12 months). After withdrawal of androgen therapy, sperm concentration and serum follicle-stimulating hormone level returned to normal range at a median 8.5 months (range: 7-10 months). Conclusion Misusage of external androgen replacement therapy in infertile men with poor sexual function can cause temporary spermatogenic dysfunction, thus aggravating infertility. PMID:23549818
Bang, Jeong Kyoon; Lim, Jung Jin; Choi, Jin; Won, Hyung Jae; Yoon, Tae Ki; Hong, Jae Yup; Park, Dong Soo
The clinical efficacy and acceptance of L-arginina HCL was tested in 40 infertile men. All of these men had a normal number of spermatozoa (> 20 million/ml), but a decreased motility; this decreased motility was not due to infection or to immunological disorders. The treatment consisted of 80 ml of 10% L-arginine HCL administered daily per os for 6 months. L-arginine HCL showed to be able to improve the motility of spermatozoa without any side-effects. PMID:7701414
Scibona, M; Meschini, P; Capparelli, S; Pecori, C; Rossi, P; Menchini Fabris, G F
Male infertility is a serious diagnostic problem and in many cases the exact cause of failure to reproduce remains unknown. New diagnostic methods are being evaluated in search of more precise diagnosis and possibility of casual treatment. Measuring the level of cytokines, both in seminal plasma and serum, does not only expand the diagnostic options, but also, through the growing knowledge of immune processes, can give rise to new therapeutic methods of improving the quality of semen and increasing the chance to reproduce. The article reviews the role of proinflammatory cytokines in its pathogenesis. PMID:16958232
Celi?ska, Anna; Fracki, Stanis?aw; Sangidorj, Darikhuu; Barcz, Ewa
Specialist infertility practice was studied in a group of 708 couples within a population of residents of a single health district in England. They represented an annual incidence of 1.2 couples for every 1000 of the population. At least one in six couples needed specialist help at some time in their lives because of an average of infertility of 21\\/2
M G Hull; C M Glazener; N J Kelly; D I Conway; P A Foster; R A Hinton; C Coulson; P A Lambert; E M Watt; K M Desai
Infertility has always been defined with respect to a number of parameters prominent amongst which are time, causes, treatment cost and socio-cultural implications. The most widely accepted practical classifications distinguishes between primary and secondary infertilities with a further sub classification into 3 clearly defined groups that include ovulatory dysfunction, fallopian tube compromise , male factor ( sperm function and delivery
D. MAS; GYNAECOLOGICAL SPECIALIST; LAPAROSCOPIC SURGEON
Using qualitative approach, authors explored the experiences of becoming parents through adoption after unsuccessful infertility treatments. Analysis of data revealed three overarching themes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for counselors who work with infertile couples considering adoption, clients engaged in adoption…
Daniluk, Judith C.; Hurtig-Mitchell, Joss
Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…
Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others
A population survey was undertaken to study infertility in Gambia. All infertile women in 24 randomly selected enumeration areas were assessed. Problems faced, coping mechanisms employed, and types of health care available were examined. Patterns of consultation with traditional versus formal health care and rural/urban differences were uncovered…
Describes a cognitive-behavioral model for treating couples' negative reactions to infertility. After a discussion of why the cognitive-behavioral approach can competently address the goals of couples coping with infertility, three phases of treatment are outlined: assessment, therapy, and closure. Areas for assessment include spouses, marital…
Myers, Lisa B.; Wark, Linda
Psychological functioning was examined for a cross section of 104 couples in different stages of medical investigation for infertility. Couples were separated into three stages based upon the length of time they had been pursuing medical treatment for infertility: year 1, year 2, and year 3 and beyond. Emotional strain was moderately elevated during the first year, returned to more
Barbara J. Berg; John F. Wilson
This study investigated psychosocial factors thought to be associated with perceived stress over the course of infertility treatment. The research was based on secondary analysis of data from the Study of Marriage, Family, and Life Quality with a sample of 128 people who completed an infertility-related stress instrument at all three measurement…
Schneider, Myra G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.
Objective: To explore the experiences of social consequences among women suffering from secondary infertil- ity. Methods:Descriptive case series of 400 women with secondary infertility attending tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Results: More than two thirds (67.7%) of women stated that their inability to give live births or give birth to sons had resulted in marital dissonance. The respondents had
Neelofar Sami; Tazeen Saeed Ali
Objective: To determine current practice patterns of obtaining informed consent for infertility treatment by reproductive endocrinologists and to assess changes in response to reports of an association between ovulation induction and ovarian cancer.Methods: Board-certified reproductive endocrinologists (n = 575) were surveyed by mail regarding how they informed patients and obtained consent for infertility treatments and how their practices had been
Brenda S Houmard; David B Seifer
Infertility is a common condition. Because of traditional Chinese concepts that emphasize the importance of consanguinity, infertility has been a problem long recognized in Chinese history. The subject of infertility was addressed in the I-Jing, written some 3,000 years ago. The Nei-Jing, written during China's Warring States Period, described the mechanisms of infertility. Afterward, the library of knowledge on infertility steadily grew and became more sophisticated. The causes of female infertility in Chinese medicine include congenital deformity, menstruation abnormalities, organ dysfunctions, disturbances in the Qi or blood, malfunctions in the Chong or Ren meridians, emotional effects and the compression of concretions or conglomerations. Based on symptoms and mechanisms, female infertility can be classified into five patterns, including congenital deformity, kidney vacuity, liver depression, phlegm-damp and blood stasis. Chinese medicinal therapies for female infertility include Chinese herb drugs with pattern identification, artificial menstruation cycle therapy, single formula therapy, combined Chinese and Western medicine therapy, acupuncture and moxibustion. The relatively large range of therapies, while a hallmark of Chinese medicine, also points up instabilities in treatment outcomes. Thus, determining the most effective therapy is the most important point of clinical studies. PMID:19051171
This paper is about patients' accounts of the processes through which a medical diagnosis of infertility is made, in particular of the medico-technical procedures and practices of the definition of, and clinical intervention in, the 'fertility problem'. It uses data drawn from interviews with couples who were medically diagnosed with infertility and had achieved a non medically assisted conception after
Susana Silva; Helena Machado
Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential 'sex' genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given
Martin M Matzuk; Dolores J Lamb
Infertility is known to be associated with chromosomal aberrations. Here the author reviews hitherto yet published cases of infertility identified to be carriers of small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC). According to the sSMC web page (http://ssmc-tl. com/Start.html) there are now 225 cases of sSMC detected and characterized for their chromosomal origin and genetic content in infertile but otherwise health persons. In 54% of the cases, sSMC originated from chromosome 15 or 14, and was parentally transmitted in over 50% of the infertile sSMC-carriers. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the largest review of infertile sSMC-carriers ever done. PMID:25306802
Ovarian, endometrial and breast cancers are associated with several risk factors, such as low parity, infertility, early age at menarche, and late age at menopause. Frequently most of these risk factors coexist in infertile patients and some studies suggested that the different infertility causes can be involved in cancer risk development. In particular case-control and cohort studies investigated the possible role of ovulatory disorders, endometriosis and unexplained infertility in increasing the risk of this disease. Most studies have shown no overall increased risk in invasive ovarian cancer in subfertile patients, although nulliparity has been consistently associated with increased rates of ovarian tumor, in particular with borderline and endometrioid cancers in patients with a history of endometriosis. Different studies reported that infertile women are not at risk for breast cancer. However, women affected by infertility may be more at risk for endometrial cancer, particularly if affected by ovulatory disorders. Moreover, infertility is now often treated with medical devices that could by themselves modify the hormonal environment and be cofactors in the cellular changes towards cancer development. However, although early studies suggested that infertility medications were associated to increased risk in ovarian cancer, subsequent studies have been mainly reassuring, although suggesting that type and duration of medical treatment can increase the malignancy risk. An increased risk of endometrial cancer in patients undergoing infertility treatment has been reported, as expected by the similar structure shared by clomiphene and tamoxiphene. Since breast cancer is widely recognized as having a hormonal etiology, a possible role of fertility medications to promote cancer has been hypothesized. However, many large studies were not able to find an associated risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, nowadays, firm answers about the precise effects of infertility and its treatment on cancer risk are not available but findings are generally reassuring. Further studies about fertility drug treatments on larger populations may offer in the future longer follow-up and more precise data with better adjustments for confounding factors. PMID:18790330
Cetin, I; Cozzi, V; Antonazzo, P
Objective To examine the characteristics of women seeking infertility evaluation and treatment. Design Cross-sectional survey based on in-person interviews, followed by two-step hurdle analysis. Participants 4,558 married or cohabitating women ages 25–44 Setting U.S. household population of women based on the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth Intervention None Main Outcome Measure(s) Likelihood of seeking preliminary infertility evaluation. Likelihood of seeking infertility treatment once evaluated. Treatment type provided. Results 623 women (13.7%) reported seeking infertility evaluation, of which 328 reported undergoing subsequent infertility treatment. Age at marriage, marital status, education, health insurance status, race/ethnicity, and religion were associated with the likelihood of seeking infertility evaluation. For example, the predicted probability that a non-White woman who married at 25 will seek evaluation was 12%. This probability increased to 34% for White women with a graduate degree who married at age 30. Among women who are evaluated, income, employment status, and ethnicity correlated strongly with the likelihood of seeking infertility treatment. Infertility drug therapy was the most frequent treatment used. Reproductive surgery and in vitro fertilization (IVF) were used the least. Conclusions The use of infertility services is not random and understanding the socio-demographic factors correlated with use may assist new couples with family planning. Roughly 50% of the women evaluated for infertility progressed to treatment, and only a small proportion were treated with more advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as IVF therapy. Future research aimed at improving access to effective healthcare treatments within the boundaries of affordability is warranted. PMID:23849845
Kessler, Lawrence M.; Craig, Benjamin M.; Plosker, Shayne M.; Reed, Damon R.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.
Although common reproductive problems, such as male infertility and testicular cancer, present in adult life, strong evidence exists that these reproductive disorders might have a fetal origin. The evidence is derived not only from large epidemiological studies that show birth-cohort effects with regard to testicular cancer, levels of testosterone and semen quality, but also from histopathological observations. Many infertile men have histological signs of testicular dysgenesis, including Sertoli-cell-only tubules, immature undifferentiated Sertoli cells, microliths and Leydig cell nodules. The most severe gonadal symptoms occur in patients with disorders of sexual development (DSDs) who have genetic mutations, in whom even sex reversal of individuals with a 46,XY DSD can occur. However, patients with severe DSDs might represent only a small proportion of DSD cases, with milder forms of testicular dysgenesis potentially induced by exposure to environmental and lifestyle factors. Interestingly, maternal smoking during pregnancy has a stronger effect on spermatogenesis than a man's own smoking. Other lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption and obesity might also have a role. However, increasing indirect evidence exists that exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals, present at measurable concentrations in individuals, might affect development of human fetal testis. If confirmed, health policies to prevent male reproductive problems should not only target adult men, but also pregnant women and their children. PMID:24935122
Juul, Anders; Almstrup, Kristian; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina K; Jřrgensen, Niels; Main, Katharina M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Toppari, Jorma; Skakkebćk, Niels E
The spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are responsible for the transmission of genetic information from an individual to the next generation. SSCs play critical roles in understanding the basic reproductive biology of gametes and treatments of human infertility. SSCs not only maintain normal spermatogenesis, but also sustain fertility by critically balancing both SSC self-renewal and differentiation. This self-renewal and differentiation in turn is tightly regulated by a combination of intrinsic gene expression within the SSC as well as the extrinsic gene signals from the niche. Increased SSCs self-renewal at the expense of differentiation result in germ cell tumors, on the other hand, higher differentiation at the expense of self-renewal can result in male sterility. Testicular germ cell cancers are the most frequent cancers among young men in industrialized countries. However, understanding the pathogenesis of testis cancer has been difficult because it is formed during fetal development. Recent studies suggest that SSCs can be reprogrammed to become embryonic stem (ES)-like cells to acquire pluripotency. In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in SSCs biology and role of SSC in testicular cancer. We believe that studying the biology of SSCs will not only provide better understanding of stem cell regulation in the testis but eventually will also be a novel target for male infertility and testicular cancers. PMID:21155977
Singh, Shree Ram; Burnicka-Turek, Ozanna; Chauhan, Chhavi; Hou, Steven X.
Among the male partners of 1074 infertile couples the mean results of semen analysis were sperm count 78 X 10(6)/ml, seminal volume 4.0 ml, proportion of progressively motile sperm 54%, proportion of sperm with normal morphologic features 81.4% and total motile sperm count 152.3 X 10(6) per ejaculate. After excluding 65 couples who chose donor insemination and 300 with known female causes of infertility, the cumulative pregnancy rates in the remaining 709 couples were higher with increasing sperm density and motility and seminal volume, but the higher rates were significant only when these variables were combined into total motile sperm count per ejaculate. The cumulative pregnancy rates were 20% with a total motile sperm count of 9 X 10(6) or less, 37% with a count of 10 to 19 X 10(6) and 52% with a count of 20 X 10(6) or more (p = 0.001). Counts higher than 20 X 10(6) were not associated with a further improvement in pregnancy rates, but variability in the results was high, which suggests that the test should be repeated as necessary to determine the true range. Although standards for these and other seminal variables are ill defined, the total motile sperm count incorporates the most useful prognostic information from semen analysis, and the associated pregnancy rates can help guide clinical decisions. PMID:3567795
Small, D R; Collins, J A; Wilson, E H; Wrixon, W
Infertility counselling was placed in a unique position by the passage of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 and the requirement that couples being treated should be offered counselling. However professional counselling was, and largely still is, at a stage at which there was no universal agreement on the knowledge, standards or qualifications required for practice. Nevertheless, infertility counselling became the first example of counselling to be required by statute, beyond the more generalised requirement in adoption birth records access. Counselling is intended to describe skilled talking therapy offered by a professional with specific training and qualifications directed to helping individuals and couples to achieve goals they own themselves. The therapeutic intervention of counselling is primarily directed to helping clients in a stressful situation to deploy their own coping skills effectively and thus make the difficult choices inseparable from ART. Counselling outcome research consistently demonstrates the effectiveness of the sort of counselling delivered in assisted conception units with mild-moderate anxiety and depression delivered by skilled and experienced practitioners. This article reviews the role of counsellors as members of the assisted conception clinical team and the status of regulation and accreditation in this very new profession. PMID:23548094
Background Although there is little information available to quantify the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), growing evidence suggests that CAM prevalence among patients seeking infertility treatment is increasing worldwide. There are many products available on the market and many infertile patients demand information about CAM from their health care providers. This paper investigates the prevalence of CAM use among infertile couples in Jordan. Additionally, trends and factors contributing to CAM use for infertility treatment among these couples have been evaluated. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire inquiring demographic information, use of CAM for medical conditions, in general, and types of CAM used for infertility treatment, in specific, was completed by one thousand twenty one infertile patients attending at two types of facilities; in vitro Fertilization (IVF) centers at both public and private hospitals and infertility private clinics. Both types of facilities were distributed in different areas of Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between May and August 2012. Results Our results show that CAM therapies for infertility treatment were encountered in 44.7% of the study sample. The vast majority of CAM users were females. The most commonly used CAM therapies were herbs and spiritual healing. A clear correlation between the use of CAM for infertility versus the use of CAM for other chronic medical conditions has been found. Conclusions The prevalence of CAM use for infertility treatment in Jordan is relatively high, particularly among young females, well educated and with a low income, in consistence with the studies reported elsewhere. Herbs and spiritual healing are widely used among patients in adjunct to conventional medical interventions. As CAM use is prevalent among patients, there is a clear need for health providers to become more aware of this phenomenon and for further research in this field. PMID:23414246
Examined parenthood among 174 infertile couples and 74 presumed fertile couples. Infertile women who became parents experienced greater global well-being but diminished marital well-being, compared with infertile women who had not become parents. Infertile men who became parents experienced same negative effects that wives reported but did not…
Abbey, Antonia; And Others
Longitudinally examined effects of infertility on marital and global life quality with 174 infertile couples and 74 fertile couples. By third interview, 42% of infertile couples and 36% of fertile couples were parents. Psychosocial predictors of life quality were highly similar for members of infertile and fertile couples and for couples with and…
Abbey, Antonia; And Others
Infertility has traditionally been viewed as a female problem and women have been expected to suffer greater psychological distress due to infertility. This paper investigates the nature of gender differences and sex-role identification in the psychological sequelae associated with infertility treatment. The expectation that infertile women experience higher distress levels than men was not supported by these data. No gender
Barbara J. Berg; John F. Wilson; Paul J. Weingartner
Findings of an anthropological study of socio-cultural aspects of infertility among members of the matrilineal ethnic group Macua in the north of Mozambique are presented. Infertile women apply various strategies to have a child. Traditional healers are visited much more often than the modern hospital, and the explanations the infertile women themselves give for their infertility more often originated from the traditional healers than from the hospital staff. Almost all of the interviewed women commit adultery in the hope to conceive. Some of them apply fostering as a partial solution for childlessness. The Macua infertile women experience various consequences due to their infertility, of which exclusion from certain social activities and traditional ceremonies is perceived as a very problematic one. The matrilineal kinship system means that the husband and his family do not mistreat and repudiate her. Infertility must be considered as a serious reproductive health problem in Mozambique. For the long term preventive measures may be more influential than curative one. The findings of this study can be used to elaborate culturally sensitive health education programmes. PMID:9197801
Using data from Wave 1 (2004-2006) of the National Survey of Fertility Barriers (NSFB), a national probability sample of women ages 25-45, we examine online information-seeking among ever-infertile women. Of the 1352 women who met criteria for infertility, 459 (34%) neither talked to a doctor nor went online for information, 9% went online only for information, 32% talked to a doctor but did not go online, and 25% did both. Guided by Chrisman's Health-Seeking Model and previous research on Internet use to obtain health information, we employ multinomial logistic regression to compare these four groups of ever-infertile women. Findings generally support Chrisman's model. Infertile women tend to seek information online as a complement to, rather than as a substitute for, in-person health-seeking. Greater faith in the ability of medical science to treat infertility and greater perceived stigma were associated with higher odds of using the Internet to obtain information about infertility. In general, women who perceived the symptoms of infertility as more salient had higher odds of using both online and in-person or only in-person health-seeking compared to online health-seeking. Women with greater resources had higher odds of using online sources of information. Strong network encouragement to seek treatment was associated with higher odds of in-person health-seeking and combining in-person and online health-seeking compared to only going online or doing nothing. PMID:24355477
Slauson-Blevins, Kathleen S; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L
Acupuncture has been used to treat infertility extensively, including ovulatory dysfunction, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), and male infertility. This review summarizes the recent studies which investigated the role of acupuncture in infertility. In conclusion, most of the existing studies suggest a positive effect of acupuncture in infertility treatment. Firstly, acupuncture may improve ovulation by modulating the central and peripheral nervous systems, the neuroendocrine and endocrine systems, the ovarian blood flow, and metabolism. Secondly, acupuncture can improve the outcome of IVF-ET, and the mechanisms may be related to the increased uterine blood flow, inhibited uterine motility, and the anesis of depression, anxiety and stress. Its effect on modulating immune function also suggests helpfulness in improving the outcome of IVF-ET. Finally, the studies suggest that acupuncture plays a positive role in male infertility, the mechanism of which is not yet clear. Even though a positive effect of acupuncture in infertility has been found, well-designed multi-center, prospective randomized controlled studies are still needed to provide more reliable and valid scientific evidence. Furthermore, it is urgent and necessary to clarify the mechanism of acupuncture for infertility. PMID:21611904
Huang, Dong-mei; Huang, Guang-ying; Lu, Fu-er; Stefan, Dieterle; Andreas, Neuer; Robert, Greb
About 10 years ago Greil published a review and critique of the literature on the socio-psychological impact of infertility. He found at the time that most scholars treated infertility as a medical condition with psychological consequences rather than as a socially constructed reality. This article examines research published since the last review. More studies now place infertility within larger social contexts and social scientific frameworks although clinical emphases persist. Methodological problems remain but important improvements are also evident. We identify two vigorous research traditions in the social scientific study of infertility. One tradition uses primarily quantitative techniques to study clinic patients in order to improve service delivery and to assess the need for psychological counseling. The other tradition uses primarily qualitative research to capture the experiences of infertile people in a sociocultural context. We conclude that more attention is now being paid to the ways in which the experience of infertility is shaped by social context. We call for continued progress in the development of a distinctly sociological approach to infertility and for the continued integration of the two research traditions identified here. PMID:20003036
Greil, Arthur L.; Slauson-Blevins, Kathleen; McQuillan, Julia
A lipiodol hysterosalpingogram was the routine test for tubal patency as recently as the 1970s. Observational studies, then randomised controlled trials, provided evidence of a fertility enhancing effect of lipiodol. It has been found to improve fertility for women with normal tubal patency, particularly where the woman has a history of endometriosis. Previous successful treatment for infertility with lipiodol is a marker of further successful treatment for infertility in a repeat procedure. Whilst lipiodol is probably effective at flushing debris that could hinder fertility from fallopian tubes, it also exerts immunobiological effects in pelvic peritoneum and on the endometrium that could be responsible for fertility enhancement. Effects of lipiodol on the endometrium that might be important at the time of the implantation window are a reduced expression of osteopontin and an increased number of uterine natural killer cells postlipiodol. The effect of lipiodol uterine bathing for women with endometriosis, repeat in vitro fertilisation (IVF) implantation failure and other reproductive disorders merits further investigation. Lipiodol presents a new, simple, low invasive, inexpensive treatment option for endometriosis-related infertility and might have wider applications. PMID:24138402
Johnson, Neil P
Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments.Design: Retrospective cohort study.Setting: Academic medical center infertility practice.Patient(s): All patients treated for infertility in a 1-year time span.Intervention(s): Intrauterine inseminations, clomiphene citrate and IUI (CC-IUI), hMG and IUI (hMG-IUI), assisted reproductive techniques (ART), and neosalpingostomy by laparotomy.Main Outcome Measure(s): All medical charges and pregnancy outcomes associated with the treatments were obtained. Cost-effectiveness
Bradley J. Van Voorhis; Amy E. T. Sparks; Brian D. Allen; Dale W. Stovall; Craig H. Syrop; F. K. Chapler
Summary The human zona pellucida is composed of four glycoproteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4) and has an important role in reproduction. Here we describe a form of infertility with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, characterized by abnormal eggs that lack a zona pellucida. We identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in ZP1 in six family members. In vitro studies showed that defective ZP1 proteins and normal ZP3 proteins colocalized throughout the cells and were not expressed at the cell surface, suggesting that the aberrant ZP1 results in the sequestration of ZP3 in the cytoplasm, thereby preventing the formation of the zona pellucida around the oocyte. PMID:24670168
Huang, Hua-Lin; Lv, Chao; Zhao, Ying-Chun; Li, Wen; He, Xue-Mei; Li, Ping; Sha, Ai-Guo; Tian, Xiao; Papasian, Christopher J.; Deng, Hong-Wen; Lu, Guang-Xiu; Xiao, Hong-Mei
An important part of male infertility of unknown etiology may be attributed to various environmental and occupational exposures to toxic substances, such as lead. The reproductive effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. It is still unclear, for example, if male reproductive issues in lead-exposed persons are mostly related to the disruption of reproductive hormones, whether the problems are due to the lead’s direct effects on the gonads, or both? This question has been difficult to answer, because lead, especially at high levels, may adversely affect many human organs. Although lead can potentially reduce male fertility by decreasing sperm count and motility, inducing abnormal morphology and affecting functional parameters; not all studies have been able to clearly demonstrate such findings. In addition, research has shown that the blood-testis barrier can protect testicular cells from direct exposure to high levels of blood lead. For these reasons and considering the wide spectrum of lead toxicity on reproductive hormones, the present review suggests that lead’s main influence on male reproduction probably occurs by altering the reproductive hormonal axis and the hormonal control on spermatogenesis, rather than by a direct toxic effect on the seminiferous tubules of the testes. As blood lead concentrations below the currently accepted worker protection standard may still adversely affect male fertility, future studies should aim to establish more concrete links between lead exposure (especially at low levels) and subsequent male infertility. Research should also pay more attention to lead’s effects on reducing male fertility rates based on not only hormonal axis alteration, but also on the changes in sperm characteristic among exposed subjects.
Vigeh, Mohsen; Smith, Derek R.; Hsu, Ping-Chi
Women's fertility potential is declining with age because of multiples intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as life style, oxidative stress and/or endocrine disruptors and is affecting the ability of these women to conceive naturally. This declining fertility potential and the late age of motherhood is increasing significantly the number of patients consulting infertility specialists. Different strategies of investigation and management are proposed to patients over 40 in order to overcome their infertility and improve the live birth rate in these patients. Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI) in women over 40 is associated with a low rate of ongoing pregnancy and IUI should not therefore be offered always as the first line of treatment. When the predictive factors are positive IVF/ICSI seem to be good alternatives until 43 years of age. Customized ovarian stimulation and flexible laboratory methods such as in vitro maturation (IVM), preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), embryo vitrification and transfer after thawing in subsequent natural or artificial cycles can improve the success rate of ART in patients over 40. Meanwhile, oocyte and embryos donation remain good options for patient over 40 with a bad prognosis and can lead to successful ongoing pregnancies until 45 years of age. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation, oocyte vitrification at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage or metaphase II stage present a breakthrough for fertility preservation but the ideal age for starting fertility preservation is still debated as well as the minimum number of oocytes to be vitrified in order to optimize the chances of pregnancy when needed at an older age. This manuscript reports the results of our own experience from patients older than 40 in the light of the published data and discusses the different therapeutic alternatives which can be proposed to patients over 40 consulting ART centres. PMID:24679892
Cabry, Rosalie; Merviel, Philippe; Hazout, Andre; Belloc, Stephanie; Dalleac, Alain; Copin, Henri; Benkhalifa, Moncef
The aim of the study was to determine if certain occupations pose an increased risk for infertility (of no known cause) among a group of infertile men compared with a group of fertile men. A total of 640 consecutive men whose spouses were unable to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. Of these, 218 men (cases) were found to have no known cause for their infertility. A total of 227 men whose spouses were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. The Singapore Standard Occupational Classification was used to code the subjects' occupations. Semen parameters (density, total sperm counts, motility, viability, and normal morphology) in all of the cases were significantly poorer than those in the controls. The risk for infertility is associated with smoking adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.85 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91 to 4.24. Work, independently, is not a risk factor for infertility. Engineering technicians (adjusted OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.36 to 5.54), finance analysts (adjusted OR, 4.66; 95% CI, 1.90 to 11.40), corporate and computing managers (adjusted OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.98), and teachers (adjusted OR, 7.72; 95% CI, 1.86 to 32.10) were at a greater risk of infertility compared with "services and clerical workers." Using services and clerical workers as a reference group, certain occupations are at a higher risk for infertility. Higher work demands and possible electromagnetic field exposure could be contributory factors for infertility. PMID:11725334
Chia, S E; Tay, S K
Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady) PMID:24799871
Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali
Management of male infertility is always a difficult task, and the pathologic process is often poorly understood. Even though modern assisted reproduction techniques (ART) can help overcome severe male factor infertility, the application of these methods in all infertile couples would definitely represent over-treatment. Several conditions can interfere with spermatogenesis and reduce sperm quality and production. A careful diagnostic work-up is necessary before any andrological treatment can be initiated so that adequate treatment options can be selected for individual patients. Most hormonal imbalances can be readily identified and successfully treated nonsurgically. However, the treatment of men with unexplained idiopathic infertility remains a challenge. In the absence of a correctable etiology, patients are managed with either empirical medical therapy or ART. Empiric medical therapy continues as a viable option. However, physicians and patients must understand that the success rates with any of the pharmacological therapies remain suboptimal. PMID:19707335
Cocuzza, Marcello; Agarwal, Ashok
... Publications En Espańol Treatments for Infertility Resulting from PCOS Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... In most cases, fertility problems in women with PCOS result from the absence of ovulation (anovulation), but ...
Introduction Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1) to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2) to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic. Methods and materials We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results A generally poor level of knowledge (59%) and a neutral attitude (76%) toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%), black magic (67.5%), intrauterine devices (71.3%), and contraceptive pills (42.9%). The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001) or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001), if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003) and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001). Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6%) and fertile outpatients (71.5%). Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%), using alternative medicine (42%), engaging in physical exercise (39%), eating certain foods (22%), and quitting smoking (12%). Conclusion These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. PMID:23874117
Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Alabdrabalnabi, Abdullah A; Albacker, Rehab B; Al-Jughaiman, Umar A; Hassan, Samar N
Introduction Endometriosis is defined as overgrowth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis may be asymptomatic or associated with dysmenorrheal symptoms, dyspareunia, pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding and infertility. The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors related to endometriosis among infertile Iranian women. Material and methods In this case control study, infertile women referred for laparoscopy and infertility workup to two referral infertility clinics in Tehran, Iran were studied. According to the laparoscopy findings, women were divided into case (women who had pelvic endometriosis) and control (women with normal pelvis) groups. The case group was divided into two subgroups: stage I and II of endometriosis were considered as mild while stage III and IV were categorized as severe endometriosis. A questionnaire was completed for each patient. Results Logistic regression showed that age, duration of infertility, body mass index (BMI), duration of menstrual cycle, abortion history, dyspareunia, pelvic pain and family history of endometriosis are independent predictive factors for any type of endometriosis. In addition, it was shown that education, duration of infertility, BMI, amount and duration of menstrual bleeding, menstrual pattern, dyspareunia, pelvic pain and family history of endometriosis are independent predictive factors of severe endometriosis. The AUCs for these models were 0.781 (0.735-0.827) and 0.855 (0.810-0.901) for any type of endometriosis and severe endometriosis, respectively. Conclusions It seems that any type of endometriosis and severe ones could be predicted according to demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of infertile women. PMID:23847674
Malekzadeh, Farideh; Amirchaghmaghi, Elham; Kashfi, Fahimeh; Akhoond, Mohammad Reza; Saei, Maryam; Mirbolok, Mohammad Hossein
Infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) are heterogeneous conditions that have been frequently explained with\\u000a an immunological pathomechanism. A deeper insight into apparently unexplained infertility and RSA shows increasing evidences\\u000a supporting both alloimmune and autoimmune mechanisms, in which natural killer (NK) cells and autoantibodies seem to play a\\u000a relevant role. Successful pregnancy is considered as Th1–Th2 cooperation phenomenon, with a
Caterina De Carolis; Carlo Perricone; Roberto Perricone
Male infertility accounts for almost half of infertility cases worldwide. A subset of infertile men exhibit reduced testosterone and enhanced levels of estradiol (E2), though it is unclear how increased E2 promotes deterioration of male fertility. Here, we utilized a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses human CYP19, which encodes aromatase (AROM+ mice), and mice with knockout of Esr1, encoding estrogen receptor ? (ER?KO mice), to analyze interactions between viable Leydig cells (LCs) and testicular macrophages that may lead to male infertility. In AROM+ males, enhanced E2 promoted LC hyperplasia and macrophage activation via ER? signaling. E2 stimulated LCs to produce growth arrest–specific 6 (GAS6), which mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by bridging cells with surface exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) to macrophage receptors, including the tyrosine kinases TYRO3, AXL, and MER. Overproduction of E2 increased apoptosis-independent extrusion of PS on LCs, which in turn promoted engulfment by E2/ER?-activated macrophages that was mediated by AXL-GAS6-PS interaction. We further confirmed E2-dependant engulfment of LCs by real-time 3D imaging. Furthermore, evaluation of molecular markers in the testes of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) revealed enhanced expression of CYP19, GAS6, and AXL, which suggests that the AROM+ mouse model reflects human infertility. Together, these results suggest that GAS6 has a potential as a clinical biomarker and therapeutic target for male infertility. PMID:24762434
Yu, Wanpeng; Zheng, Han; Lin, Wei; Tajima, Astushi; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwen; Wu, Jihua; Han, Daishu; Rahman, Nafis A.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Gao, George Fu; Inoue, Ituro; Li, Xiangdong
This article reviews the research related to parenting after assisted reproduction and uses that research to discuss clinical implications for nurses who work to support these families and the development of their children. The worldwide diagnosis of infertility continues to rise and now hovers near 20%. The increased availability and success of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) provides a potential option for infertile families to conceive and begin a family, but as nurses know, infertility treatments are not easy to tolerate, are time-consuming, physically taxing, and expensive. In addition, a positive outcome is far from guaranteed. Even when infertile couples successfully give birth, they can continue to struggle with the psychological aspects of infertility and the ongoing care of a child who may be premature, low birth weight, or afflicted with another high-risk condition such as long-term developmental or behavioral problems. Unfortunately, the psychological needs of the couple and the family may not be addressed during ART treatment or after the birth of a child. Parenting is a challenging life task; parenting when the partners may have to work through the psychological aspects of infertility and the care of a high-risk child is even more complex and may have long-lasting effects on the partners as well as their children. PMID:20453593
McGrath, Jacqueline M; Samra, Haifa A; Zukowsky, Ksenia; Baker, Brenda
Although media coverage of infertility treatments has increased markedly over the past decade, there is a dearth of empirical information about public perceptions of the ethics of infertility procedures (e.g. artificial insemination, in-vitro fertilization, donor eggs, surrogate mothering, gestational carriers) and about the factors that shape them. Two representative telephone survey samples (930 adults in a Midwestern state, and 580 adult women aged 25 to 50 in the North Central region) are analyzed to gauge public views on the ethics of infertility treatments and estimate the effects of social structure and exposure on these views. Ethical concerns were viewed as more serious for techniques that could result in a child who may not be biologically related to the woman or her partner than for those yielding a child biologically related to both parents. Social structural factors such as age and education were the strongest predictors of attitudes towards the ethics of infertility treatments. Neither parenthood nor experiencing infertility was related to ethical concerns, although women reporting the use of infertility services had fewer ethical concerns than their counterparts. PMID:25210214
Shreffler, Karina M.; Johnson, David R.; Scheuble, Laurie K.
Background: Male infertility accounts for 30-50% of all infertilities among couples. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) stressed the importance of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of male infertility. Many Iranian traditional physicians have described the traits of specific foods for prevention and treatment of male infertility. Objective: To explore the principles and roles of foods recommended by ITM scientists in prevention and treatment of male infertility as well as enlisting all the recommended foods for treating this problem addressed through the ITM original resources written between 815 and 1901. Materials and Methods: In this review study specific data related to the subject among all referral ITM texts was extracted firstly, and then the collected data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Results: The analysis of data revealed that foods that enhance sexual performance must have 3 properties; they should be warm in nature, very nutritious, and flatulent. Foods that are warm in nature and nutritious affect the quality and quantity of semen. A food having the third trait of being flatulent is required to complete sexual performance by creating an erection. Foods with only one of these traits must be consumed with another food that has the other trait. This study also provided a list of foods that can enhance the quality and increase the quantity of semen. Conclusion: Foods that can enhance sexual performance and the quality and quantity of semen can be recommended to male patients who suffer from infertility in medical centers.
Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh; Nazem, Esmaeil; Goushegir, Ashrafeddin; Isfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Baygom Siahpoosh, Marzieh
therapy for infertility. NORTHWESTERN CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING TISSUE ENGINEERING Principal) Objective: The in vitro maturation of ovarian follicles is a potential therapy for female infertility
Shull, Kenneth R.
Objective: To explore potential causes of male infertility by determining the composition and structure of commensal bacterial communities in seminal fluids. Design: Microscopy of gram stained semen samples and classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences to determine the species composition of semen bacterial communities. Setting(s): Clinical andrology laboratory and academic research laboratories. Patient(s): 19 sperm donors and 58 infertility patients. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustering of seminal microbial communities, and multiple statistical tests. Result(s): High numbers of diverse kinds of bacteria were present in most samples of both sperm donors and infertility patients. The bacterial communities varied widely between subjects, but they could be clustered into six groups based on similarities in composition and the rank abundances of taxa. Overall there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients. However, multiple statistical tests showed a significant negative association between sperm quality and the presence of Anaerococcus. The results also indicated that many of the bacterial taxa identified in semen also occur in the vaginal communities of some women, especially those with bacterial vaginosis, which suggests heterosexual sex partners may share bacteria. Conclusion(s): Diverse kinds of bacteria were present in the human semen, there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients, The presence of Anaerococcus might be a biomarker for low sperm quality. PMID:23993888
Hou, Dongsheng; Zhou, Xia; Zhong, Xue; Settles, Matt; Herring, Jessica; Wang, Li; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Xu, Chen
Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility and in 25% of cases, the etiology of male infertility is unknown. Effective treatments are well-established for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, male accessory gland infection, retrograde ejaculation, and positive antisperm antibody. However, the appropriate treatment for idiopathic male infertility is unclear. Empirical medical treatment (EMT) has been used in men with idiopathic infertility and can be divided into two categories based on the mode of action: hormonal treatment and antioxidant supplementation. Hormonal medications consist of gonadotropins, androgens, estrogen receptor blockers, and aromatase inhibitors. Antioxidants such as vitamins, zinc, and carnitines have also been widely used to reduce oxidative stress-induced spermatozoa damage. Although scientifically acceptable evidence of EMT is limited because of the lack of large, randomized, controlled studies, recent systematic reviews with meta-analyses have shown that the administration of gonadotropins, anti-estrogens, and oral antioxidants results in a significant increase in the live birth rate compared with control treatments. Therefore, all physicians who treat infertility should bear in mind that EMT can improve semen parameters and subsequent fertility potential through natural intercourse. PMID:25309854
Jung, Jae Hung
The relationship between ovarian cysts and infertility is a subject of debate, mainly because it is difficult to determine the real impact of the cyst and its treatment on later fertility. For a long time it was hoped that surgical treatment could prevent potential complications (such as rupture or malignancy). For presumed benign ovarian tumors, fertility sparing should be the main concern. The goal of this survey of current knowledge on the subject is to thoroughly explore the potential relationship between cysts, their treatment, and infertility. Our study is based on a review of the literature dealing with the epidemiology of ovarian cysts and the effects of their surgical management in relation to infertility. Analysis of the epidemiologic data, drawn mainly from comparative studies and cohorts, shows that the role of cysts in infertility is controversial and that the effects of surgical treatment are often more harmful than the cyst itself to the ovarian reserve. Surgery does not seem to improve pregnancy rates. When a surgical option is nonetheless chosen, a conservative laparoscopic approach is more suitable. Besides excision, sclerotherapy and plasma vaporization are promising, offering a greater preservation of the ovarian parenchyma, especially in endometriomas. These techniques must be better defined. The context of the infertility is essential, and surgeons and specialists in reproductive medicine should decide management jointly. PMID:24559614
Legendre, Guillaume; Catala, Laurent; Moriničre, Catherine; Lacoeuille, Céline; Boussion, Françoise; Sentilhes, Loďc; Descamps, Philippe
From precocious puberty to infertility: metabolic control of the reproductive function Jennifer W and reproductive dysfunction. Indeed, leptin-deficient patients become hyperphagic, massively obese, and infertile advances in understanding the complex physiologic interaction between metabolism and reproduction
Toledo, University of
Resilience in couples experiencing infertility is critical to decrease the impact of infertility-related stress and sustain\\u000a positive interactions and collective perceptions in couples. The Infertility Resilience Model (IRM) presented in this article\\u000a provides a framework within which various individual, couple, and external factors that influence resilience can be understood.\\u000a Although numerous approaches have been applied to infertility, few of them
Aaron F. Ridenour; Jeremy B. Yorgason; Brennan Peterson
The investigation of male infertility is assuming greater importance, with male factors implicated as a causal factor in up to half of infertile couples. Following routine history, examination and blood tests, imaging is frequently utilised in order to assess the scrotal contents for testicular volume and morphology. Additionally, this may give indirect evidence of the presence of possible reversible pathology in the form of obstructive azoospermia. Further imaging in the form of transrectal ultrasound and MRI is then often able to categorise the level of obstruction and facilitate treatment planning without resort to more invasive imaging such as vasography. Ultrasound guidance of therapy such as sperm or cyst aspiration and vasal cannulation may also be performed. This article reviews the imaging modalities used in the investigation of male infertility, and illustrates normal and abnormal findings that may be demonstrated. PMID:22763036
Ammar, T; Sidhu, P S; Wilkins, C J
In Turkey, as in many other countries, infertility is generally regarded as a negative phenomenon in a woman's life and is associated with a lot of stigma by society. In other words, female infertility and having a baby using Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) have to be taken into consideration with respect to gender motherhood, social factors, religion and law. Yet if a woman chooses to use ART she has to deal with the consequences of her decision, such as being ostracized by society. Other types of procedures in this area, such as sperm and ova donation or surrogate motherhood, are not permitted in law. However; both before and after the development of this techonology, society has been finding its own solutions which are rarely questioned and are still performed This article will discuss what these practices are and try to reach some pragmatic conclusions concerning female infertility, the concept of motherhood and some traditional practices in Turkey. PMID:22533036
Sahinoglu, Serap; Buken, Nuket Ornek
Predicting infertility is central to reproductive biology, medicine and evolutionary biology. In-vitro studies suggest that oxidative sperm damage causes infertility. Oxidative sperm damage can be reduced via two fundamental pathways: the removal of oxygen radicals by antioxidants, or the interference with cell metabolism to reduce the formation of oxygen radicals. Oxidative damage protection of spermatozoa should evolve frequently, especially during female sperm storage. However, in-vivo evidence linking oxidative protection and fertility is rare. We show that the intra-sperm production rate of oxygen radicals and the sperm metabolic rate were reduced in female bedbugs, Cimex lectularius, compared to males, and females laid fertile eggs. Females became infertile when sperm oxygen radicals and sperm metabolic rate increased to male levels. Our results link female fitness to sublethal sperm damage, imply adaptive benefits of interfering with sperm metabolism and offer the hypothesis that polyandry may serve to replace low-quality sperm.
Reinhardt, Klaus; Ribou, Anne-Cecile
It is often presumed that infertility is not a problem in resource-poor areas where fertility rates are high. This is challenged by consistent evidence that the consequences of childlessness are very severe in low-income countries, particularly for women. In these settings, childless women are frequently stigmatized, isolated, ostracized, disinherited and neglected by the family and local community. This may result in physical and psychological abuse, polygamy and even suicide. Attitudes among people in high-income countries towards provision of infertility care in low-income countries have mostly been either dismissive or indifferent as it is argued that scarce healthcare resources should be directed towards reducing fertility and restricting population growth. However, recognition of the plight of infertile couples in low-income settings is growing. One of the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals was for universal access to reproductive health care by 2015, and WHO has recommended that infertility be considered a global health problem and stated the need for adaptation of assisted reproductive technology in low-resource countries. This paper challenges the construct that infertility is not a serious problem in resource-constrained settings and argues that there is a need for infertility care, including affordable assisted reproduction treatment, in these settings. It is often presumed that infertility is not a problem in densely populated, resource-poor areas where fertility rates are high. This presumption is challenged by consistent evidence that the consequences of childlessness are very severe in low-income countries, particularly for women. In these settings, childless women are frequently stigmatized, isolated, ostracized, disinherited and neglected by the family and local community. This may result in physical and psychological abuse, polygamy and even suicide. Because many families in low-income countries depend on children for economic survival, childlessness and having fewer children than the number identified as appropriate are social and public health matters, not only medical problems. Attitudes among people in high-income countries towards provision of infertility care in low-income countries have mostly been either dismissive or indifferent as it is argued that scarce healthcare resources and family planning activities should be directed towards reducing fertility and restricting population growth. However, recognition of the plight of infertile couples in low-income settings is growing. One of the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals was for universal access to reproductive health care by 2015, and WHO has recommended that infertility be considered a global health problem and stated the need for adaptation of assisted reproduction technology in low-resource countries. In this paper, we challenge the construct that infertility is not a serious problem in resource-constrained settings and argue that there is a need for infertility care, including affordable assisted reproduction treatment, in these settings. PMID:23260034
Hammarberg, Karin; Kirkman, Maggie
Background Infertility is a severely distressing experience for many couples. Depression is considered as one of the main psychological disorders associated with infertility and it may significantly affect the life of infertile individuals, their treatment, and follow-up. Objective The objective of the study was to determining the prevalence and predisposing factors of depressive disorders among the infertile compared to fertile women. Methodology Rate of depression was explored by this cross-sectional study carried out among women attending In-Vitro Fertilization Clinic (91 infertile women) and Well Baby Clinic (94 fertile women) at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh, KSA. Self administrated questionnaire including Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used. Mean BDI score was measured and its relation with different variables was explored, such as age, educational level, duration of infertility, pressure from family members, miscarriages and support from husband. Results This study showed that 49 (53.8%) of the infertile women and 35 (37.2%) of the fertile women had depression. Mean BDI score between infertile and fertile women was significantly different (p <0.001). Infertile women were found to be more severely depressed (p =0.014). Among the infertile women, those who had pressure from family members for not getting pregnant were more depressed than those with no such pressure (P=0.001). Conclusion Depression is more common and severe in infertile women than fertile women. Pressure from family to get pregnant is a significant contributor to depression. Caregivers should routinely screen infertile women for depression during and after treatment for infertility and manage concomitantly. PMID:23267288
Al-Homaidan, Homaidan Turki
Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages, limitations, outcomes, implications and safety of using IVF/ICSI for male factor infertility to enable a more judicious use of these techniques and maximize their potential benefits while minimizing foreseen complications. PMID:21716935
Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N.
Objective: Sperm analysis is an important step to evaluate and diagnose male’s infertility. The present study aimed to determine associated factors with males’ infertility by using semen analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study 96 men were evaluated who attended to the infertility clinics of Ilam province, western Iran between May 2010 to May 2011. Semen analysis was done using the Weili Dynamic Sperm Analysis software adapted to the WHO classification. Based on movement and speed characters, sperms were classified to either A, B, C or D classes. Participants were stratified into two groups that called “Oligospermia (OS)” with sperm counts of less than 20 million in mL (n=48) and “Non-Oligospermia (NOS)” with values more than determined cutoff point (n=48). Results: The Mean age ±SD for OS and NOS group were 29.9 ±5.1 y and 31.17 ±5.24 y, respectively (p>0.05). Overall, 62.5% of OS and 31.2% of NOS were clinically infertile (OR=3.6, CI, 1.5-8.5, p=0.01). A significant difference was found between job and live ratio(A+B+C) in NOS group (F=2.8, p<0.05). Conclusion: Prevalence of infertility was higher in the OS men compared to the NOS group. The main risk factors in the OS group were History of Varicocele surgery and residence site of patients that are totally similar to the NOS men. Further case-control studies and clinical trials are recommended to recognize infertility causes in men. PMID:25386439
Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi; Yasemi, Masood; Peyman, Hadi; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Yaghoubi, Monireh; Bimanand, Lida
Objective: To determine whether particular semen characteristics in various clinical diagnoses of infertility are associated with high oxidative stress and whether any group of infertile men is more likely to have high seminal oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in sperm physiological functions, but elevated levels of ROS or oxidative stress are related to male infertility.Design:
Fabio F Pasqualotto; Rakesh K Sharma; David R Nelson; Anthony J Thomas; Ashok Agarwal
Revised 6/1/2011 Request for Infertility Treatment Expense Reimbursement Employee Name/Explanation: ______________________________________________________ #12;Revised 6/1/2011 Information about the Infertility Treatment Reimbursement Benefit: Description for fees incurred as a result of infertility treatments or services as follows: Â· Maximum reimbursement per
Myers, Lawrence C.
Discusses emotional problems related to infertility investigation and treatment. Reviews causes and treatment of infertility, coping patterns, and the role of counselors and family life educators in easing the crises of infertility and facilitating successful resolution of associated emotional problems. (JAC)
Porter, Nancy L.; Christopher, F. Scott
Prolactin secretion in infertile men before and after treatment with bromocriptine D. BOUCHER J. This report studies prolactin secretion in infertile men and the effect of bro- mocriptine treatment. Twelve normal and 90 infertile men are studied. Prolactin, LH, FSH and testosterone are specifically
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de
XX/XY chromosomal chimerism in infertile sheep of the Cambridge breed JJB Gill1 DAR Davies2 of Domestic Animals; Toulouse-Auzeville, 10-13 July 1990) sheep / chimerism / XX/XY / infertility-type external genitalia. Apart from this animal, all the ultimately infertile females showed no sign
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de
The experience of infertility often results in multiple stresses and needs for coping in these women. Study examines the relationship between the uses of social coping resources, growth-fostering relationships, and infertility stress. Results support the use of social coping resources for coping with infertility stress. (Contains 62 references and…
Gibson, Donna M.; Myers, Jane E.
Ikbkap/Elp1 Deficiency Causes Male Infertility by Disrupting Meiotic Progression Fu-Jung Lin1 Deficiency Causes Male Infertility by Disrupting Meiotic Progression. PLoS Genet 9(5): e1003516. doi:10 in developmental defects, including mental retardation in Trisomy 21, infertility, to name two . During
BabyZone Getting Pregnant Infertility Late Fertility Fertile Future: Women May Become More Fertile Over Age 40 | BabyZone 14/05/2012http://www.babyzone.com/getting-pregnant/infertility/05/2012http://www.babyzone.com/getting-pregnant/infertility/peak-fertility-rate_67460 #12;Content provided
1 Estimation of the frequency of involuntary infertility on a nation-1 wide basis2 3 Running title remain infertile is challenging. Our aim was to describe the couple4 fecundity (in terms of frequency of involuntary infertility) among the general population living5 in France. METHODS: We used a current
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de
Increased egg infertility associated with translocating inbred takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri infertility than birds that have remained within their natural habitat range. For takahe, whether breeders had success. The coecient of inbreeding was high for island takahe but high infertility and low juvenile
Natural levels of infertility in many taxa are often remarkably high, amounting to a considerable fitness cost which one expects to be minimized by natural selection. Several mechanisms have been proposed as potential causes of infertility, including inbreeding depression, genetic incompatibilities and selfish genetic elements. Infertility may also be an inherent result of conflict over fertilization between the sexes in
E. H. MORROW; G. ARNQVIST; T. E. PITCHER
Infertility is a stressful experience, yet little is known about the specific issues confronting infertile women. In the present study, researchers sought to identify themes important to infertile women and examine possible associations with mental health levels. Using qualitative content analysis, researchers analyzed the email messages of 57…
Hammerli, Katja; Znoj, Hansjorg; Berger, Thomas
The association between varicoceles and male infertility has been known since the 1950s; however, the pathophysiology of the process remains uncertain. The primary proposed hypotheses involve hyperthermia, venous pressure, testicular blood flow, hormonal imbalance, toxic substances, and reactive oxygen species. It is difficult to identify a single or dominant factor, and it is likely that many of these factors contribute to the infertile phenotype seen in clinical practice. Moreover, patient lifestyle and genetic factors likely affect patient susceptibilities to the varicocele insult. While the current studies have weaknesses, they provide building blocks for futures studies into the pathophysiology of the varicocele. PMID:21716891
Eisenberg, Michael L.; Lipshultz, Larry I.
The inability to conceive a child is most often viewed as a private matter, but public health perspectives and skills can contribute greatly to our knowledge about infertility, and the development of effective and rational public policy for prevention, access to health care, and regulation of new technologies. We offer a primer of public health aspects of infertility in an effort to encourage the broad spectrum of public health professionals to become more knowledgeable about these topics and join in the national debate about preventive strategies, cost-benefit assessment, resource allocation, and ethics. Images p494-a p495-a p499-a p506-a PMID:10670617
Fidler, A T; Bernstein, J
Background: There are many reasons why some couples do not become parents. Some are infertile, some do not want kids, children can be in a social context unacceptable and for others different life goals are more important. Objective: This study was designed to determine barriers of child adoption in infertile couples in Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Iran from April 2010 to June 2011. The research program was comprised consecutively in 240 infertile couples. Experts in Guidance and Counseling vetted the instrument and set that it has content validity. Test re-test reliability was conducted by the investigators using a sample of 20 couples who have filled questionnaire. Results: Although 230 (96%) of the respondents heard of child adoption, only 89 (37.3%) of couples knew correct meaning of child adoption. Fifty four women (24%) knew how to adopt a baby while the rest did not; 196 (82%) respondents expressed their unwillingness to adopt a baby. Hoping of childbearing (78%) was the main barrier to adopt a child. Conclusion: The barriers mentioned were cultural practices, stigmatization, financial implications, and technical problems. Most of the infertile Iranian couples prefer to stay even so without children or think about new treatment.
Bokaie, Mahshid; Farajkhoda, Tahmineh; Enjezab, Behnaz; Heidari, Pooran; Karimi Zarchi, Mojgan
Explores the marital happiness, state/trait anxiety, coping techniques, and types of support received for a national sample of men and women experiencing the infertility medical process. Suggests that counselors should be aware that medical treatment affects the distress level of the individual and couple and the types of coping used. Further…
Gerrity, Deborah A.
The Relational Model (J. V. Jordan, 1995) of women's development is a theory that explains women's development in a context of relationships, specifically relationships that promote growth for self and others. This model is applied to counseling women who are experiencing infertility, and a case presentation is provided to illustrate the approach.…
Gibson, Donna M.; Myers, Jane E.
This article describes the influence of ideological values on couples' experience of infertility. Contextual issues are considered in terms of how they influence medical decision making as well as emotional factors. Strength-based counseling interventions that attend to couples' diverse values are described. Last, implications for counselors,…
Burnett, Judith A.; Panchal, Krishna
There has been a tremendous increase in the use of mobile phones in the past decade and concerns are growing about the possible hazardous effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic waves (EMW) emitted by these devices on human health. Preliminary studies, though with limitations in study design, suggest a possible link between cell phone use and infertility. A recent study found that
Fnu Deepinder; Kartikeya Makker; Ashok Agarwal
Infertility creates challenges affecting various aspects of couples' intimate lives. Practices regarding reproduction are often shaped by cultural messages. Culturally sensitive treatment methods help counselors provide effective therapy to couples with fertility problems. This article describes cultural influences, challenges, and counseling…
Burnett, Judith A.
groups to people with problems of infertility and education and assistance to associated professionals join us for support, information, and informal discussions led by your peers. Meet others facing Hartford offers a telephone HelpLine, physician referrals, counselor referrals, monthly discussion groups
Kim, Duck O.
OBJECTIVES—To test the hypothesis that leatherwork is associated with male infertility mediated through the development of oligozoospermia. The basis of any association was postulated, at the outset, to be with exposure to the solvents used in leatherwork.?METHODS—All new referrals with infertility presenting in Leicestershire hospital clinics between November 1988 and September 1992 and Kettering District General Hospital from August 1990 were eligible to participate; 88.5% agreed to be interviewed. Exposure to leatherwork and work with solvents was defined by job title. Comparisons were made with fertile controls and in an analysis within men from infertile couples with oligozoospermia as the primary outcome. Effects on sperm motility and deformity were investigated secondarily. Analyses used logistic regression for binary outcomes and multilevel modelling for continuous outcomes.?RESULTS—1906 men were interviewed. Compared with the fertile controls the men from infertile couples were 1.10 times (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.46 to 2.63; p=0.99) more likely to be leatherworkers and 1.73 times (95% CI 1.26 to 2.38; p<0.001) more likely to work with solvents. Compared with other men, leatherworkers were 1.20 times (95% CI 0.43 to 3.33; p=0.73) more likely to present with oligozoospermia and 1.65 times (95% CI 0.37 to 7.30; p=0.51) more likely to present with teratozoospermia. Being a leatherworker was associated with only a 6% reduction in sperm concentration; motility and deformity were similarly unaffected by this exposure. Work with solvents did not statistically, nor clinically, increase the risk of oligozoospermia, teratozoospermia, or asthenozoospermia.?CONCLUSIONS—There was little evidence to support the hypothesis that leatherwork is associated with an increased risk of presenting with infertility or oligozoospermia. There was limited evidence that leatherwork is a risk factor for teratozoospermia. Workers with solvents were at an increased risk of presenting with infertility, although this was not mediated through effects on standard measures of semen quality; this finding merits further investigation.???Keywords: leatherwork; solvents; male infertility PMID:11245737
Kurinczuk, J; Clarke, M
Postpartum infertility is caused by four factors: general infertility, lack of uterine involution, short estrous cycles and anestrus. The general infertility component is common to any estrous cycle and reduces potential fertility by 20 to 30%. Incomplete uterine involution prevents fertilization during the first 20 d after calving but is not related to anestrus. Short estrous cycles prevent fertility during the first 40 d after calving by causing the cow to return to estrus before pregnancy recognition occurs. Anestrus is the major component of postpartum infertility and is affected by several minor factors: season, breed, parity, dystocia, presence of a bull, uterine palpation and carryover effects from the previous pregnancy as well as two major factors: suckling and nutrition. These major factors have direct effects on anestrus but also interact with one or more other factors to control postpartum anestrus. Physiological mechanisms associated with anestrus involve blockage of the GnRH "pulse generator" in the hypothalamus, but other pathways also must be involved because bypassing the pulse generator is not an effective treatment for all cows. The primary cause of anestrus probably is different for different stages of anestrus. The mediating mechanisms for anestrus are not involved with prolactin, oxytocin, the adrenal or direct neural input from the mammary gland but are at least partially involved with blood glucose and the endogenous opioid peptide system. Management options to decrease the impact of anestrus and infertility include: 1) restrict breeding season to less than or equal to 45 d; 2) manage nutrition so body condition score is 5 to 7 before calving; 3) minimize effects of dystocia and stimulate estrous activity with a sterile bull and estrous synchronization; and 4) judicious use of complete, partial or short-term weaning. PMID:2180877
Short, R E; Bellows, R A; Staigmiller, R B; Berardinelli, J G; Custer, E E
Folic acid supplements are commonly used by infertile women which leads to a positive folate status. However, the effect of folic acid supplements on pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility has not been well investigated. This study evaluated folic acid supplement use and folate status in women with unexplained infertility in relation to IVF pregnancy outcome. In addition, use of folic acid supplements and folate status were compared between women with unexplained infertility and fertile, nonpregnant control women. Women with unexplained infertility used significantly more folic acid supplements and had higher median total folic acid intake from supplements compared with fertile control women (both P < 0.001). Women with unexplained infertility also had significantly higher median plasma folate and lower median plasma homocysteine concentrations than fertile women (both P < 0.001), but folic acid supplementation or folate status were not related to pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility. In conclusion, folic acid supplementation or good folate status did not have a positive effect on pregnancy outcome following infertility treatment in women with unexplained infertility. Folate is one of the B vitamins which has been suggested to be related to infertility. Folic acid is an artificial form of folate which is commonly used in dietary supplements. Folic acid supplementation has been shown to increase folate concentrations and decrease concentrations of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood. Folic acid supplementation is commonly used by infertile women, but the effect on pregnancy outcome in women with a diagnosis of unexplained infertility has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, folic acid supplement use and folate status (concentrations of folate and homocysteine) in women with unexplained infertility were evaluated in relation to pregnancy outcome. In addition, the use of folic acid supplements and folate status were compared between women with unexplained infertility and fertile control women. Our results showed that women with unexplained infertility used considerably more folic acid supplements and had higher total folic acid intake from supplements compared with fertile control women. Women with unexplained infertility had better blood folate and homocysteine concentrations than fertile women, but folic acid supplementation or folate status were not related to pregnancy outcome following the infertility treatment. In conclusion, high folic acid intake or good folate status did not increase the possibility of a birth of a healthy baby after infertility treatment in women with unexplained infertility. PMID:24745837
Murto, T; Skoog Svanberg, A; Yngve, A; Nilsson, T K; Altmäe, S; Wĺnggren, K; Salumets, A; Stavreus-Evers, A
Background Awareness of infertility risk factors is an essential first step to safeguard future fertility. Whereas several studies have examined university students’ awareness of female fertility and related risk factors, the topic of male infertility has not been well examined. The objective of this study was to assess young men and women’s awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, male and female infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2008 with a multi-ethnic sample of sixteen male and twenty-three female Ottawa university students, followed by qualitative data analysis to identify major themes. Interview topics included awareness of male and female infertility risk factors, infertility diagnosis/treatments and personal options in the event of future infertility. Results Participants were generally familiar with infertility as a biomedical health problem, could identify sex-specific risk factors but overestimated fertility of women in their thirties and ART success rates. Reproductive health knowledge gaps and confusion of the physiological life-stage of menopause with infertility were apparent. Most participants would pursue in vitro fertilization or international adoption in the event of personal infertility. Some participants wished to use a ‘natural’ approach and were concerned with potential side effects of ART-related medications. Conclusions The general awareness of infertility in young adults is promising and supports the potential uptake for health promotion of fertility preservation. This study underscores the continued need for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education and promotion for adolescents and young adults. PMID:23962162
Background A cross sectional study was designed to survey the relationship between anxiety/depression and duration/cause of infertility, in Vali-e-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center, Tehran, Iran. Methods After obtaining their consents, 370 female patients with different infertility causes participated in, and data gathered by Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) and Cattle questionnaires for surveying anxiety and depression due to the duration of infertility. This was studied in relation to patients' age, educational level, socio-economic status and job (patients and their husbands). Results Age range was 17–45 years and duration and cause of infertility was 1–20 years. This survey showed that 151 women (40.8%) had depression and 321 women (86.8%) had anxiety. Depression had a significant relation with cause of infertility, duration of infertility, educational level, and job of women. Anxiety had a significant relationship with duration of infertility and educational level, but not with cause of infertility, or job. Findings showed that anxiety and depression were most common after 4–6 years of infertility and especially severe depression could be found in those who had infertility for 7–9 years. Conclusions Adequate attention to these patients psychologically and treating them properly, is of great importance for their mental health and will improve quality of their lives. PMID:15530170
Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Aghssa, Malek Mansour; Abedinia, Nasrin; Zayeri, Farid; Khanafshar, Navid; Shariat, Mamak; Jafarabadi, Mina
Background: The present study investigated the effect of emotionally focused therapy (EFT) on factors contributing to emotional distress among infertile couples. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, the subjects consisted of 12 Iranian couples: six infertile men and six infertile women. They were assessed as depressed, anxious and stressful individuals using depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS). The subjects were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group with six couples (i.e. three infertile men and three infertile women) received EFT, while the control group with similar number of couples (i.e. three infertile men and three infertile women) was deprived of the treatment. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding job, educational level, income, age, marriage and infertility duration. The pre- and post-test comparisons of DASS subscales showed that level of depression, anxiety and stress among couples with EFT instruction was significantly less than those without such in- structions (p<0.0001). Conclusion Emotionally focused therapy could reduce the rate of depression, anxiety and stress in infertile couples, regardless of the man or woman as the cause of infertility. PMID:24520504
Soltani, Marzieh; Shairi, Mohammad Reza; Roshan, Rasoul; Rahimi, Changiz Rahimi
In this study, we describe nine patients with 47,XYY presenting with male infertility. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, duplex ultrasonographic examination of the scrotum, endocrinological investigations and cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes. Two patients tried intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Our results showed that seven patients were oligospermic and two patients were azoospermic. Bilateral varicocele was detected in seven patients. The hormonal levels in the majority of the patients were within normal range. Two patients showed improvement after varicocelectomy. The wife of one of the oligospermic patients became successfully pregnant after the first trial of ICSI. In conclusion, this report suggests that patients with XYY may present with primary infertility and may show oligospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia. Careful clinical, ultrasonographic, endocrinological and cytogenetic examinations should be a part of their diagnostic work-up for the proper management of these patients. In addition, ICSI may be a hope for some of these patients. PMID:21671976
Abdel-Razic, M M; Abdel-Hamid, I A; ElSobky, E S
The paradigm in prairie ecology is that fire is one of the key factors determining vegetation composition. Fire can impact grassland ecosystems in various ways, including changing plant species composition and inducing nitrogen loss. I found that 17 years of different burning frequencies in infertile grassland had only a minor impact on the vegetation composition and diversity. The only major impact from increasing the frequency of fires was a decrease of Poa pratensis abundance. However, other plant species did not respond to the change in Poa abundance. This result contrasts with previous studies in savannas and more productive grasslands, where the balance between trees, grasses, and the elimination of the litter layer can result in large vegetation changes. However, in this system primary productivity was low, litter did not accumulate and no major vegetation shifts occurred. Thus, the long-term vegetation impacts of burning in an infertile, low-productivity prairie were minimal. PMID:16941181
Knops, Johannes M H
Infertility has been associated with stigma and negative psychosocial functioning. However, only a small proportion of this\\u000a population actually receives care. Fertility patients predominantly use the Internet for information gathering, social support,\\u000a and assistance with decision-making; yet, available web resources are unreliable sources of mental health care. Web-based\\u000a alternatives also have the potential to assist with intervention access difficulties and
Minden B. Sexton; Michelle R. Byrd; William T. O’Donohue; Negar Nicole Jacobs
The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in treatment of anovulation and infertility in women. Eight (8) databases were extensively retrieved. The Chinese electronic databases included VIP Information, CMCC, and CNKI. The English electronic databases included AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, and MEDLINE(®). Randomized controlled trials using CHM as intervention were included in the study selection. The quality of studies was assessed by the Jadad scale and the criteria referred to Cochrane reviewers' handbook. The efficacy of CHM treatment for infertility with anovulation was evaluated by meta-analysis. There were 692 articles retrieved according to the search strategy, and 1659 participants were involved in the 15 studies that satisfied the selection criteria. All the included trials were done in China. Meta-analysis indicated that CHM significantly increased the pregnancy rate (odds ratio [OR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.50-3.88) and reduced the miscarriage rate (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.10-0.41) compared to clomiphene. In addition, CHM also increased the ovulation rate (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.06-2.25) and improved the cervical mucus score (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.78-8.21) compared to clomiphene, while there were no significant difference between CHM and clomiphene combined with other medicine. CHM is effective in treating infertility with anovulation. Also, no significant adverse effects were identified for the use of CHM from the studies included in this review. However, owing to the low quality of the studies investigated, more randomized controlled trials are needed before evidence-based recommendation regarding the effectiveness and safety of CHM in the management of infertility with anovulation can be provided. PMID:23198826
Tan, Li; Tong, Yao; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Xu, Mei; Shi, Yang; Song, Xin-yang; Zhang, Ting-ting
Background. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 22% with primary infertility at 4% and secondary infertility at 18%. This study explored perceptions and experiences of women in Karachi, Pakistan regarding the causes, treatment-seeking behavior for and consequences of secondary infertility. Methods. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with married women explored their perceptions and experiences for issues related to secondary infertility. Results. The knowledge of women about the causes and scientific treatment options for infertility was limited resulting in inclination for traditional unsafe health care. Infertility was stated to result in marital instability, stigmatization and abuse specially for women with no live child. Conclusions. Since infertility can have a serious effect on both the psychological well-being and the social status of women in Pakistan, effective interventions are the need of the day. There is a dire need for health education and counseling to be integrated into infertility management plans. PMID:22474450
Sami, Neelofar; Saeed Ali, Tazeen
Infertility in men is a common condition. At the core of the medical evaluation of the male partner in a couple who are unable to conceive is the history and physical examination. Special attention should be directed to the patient’s developmental history and any use of testosterone products. The physical examination focuses on the genitals, and includes assessments of the size and consistency of the testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, and presence of varicoceles. Although many sophisticated tests are available, semen analysis is still the most important diagnostic tool used to assess fertility, and includes parameters such as sperm count, motility and viability. Treatment of male factor infertility can involve targeted agents, in the case of specific conditions such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, or it can be empirical—using medical therapy or assisted conception techniques—for patients in whom no underlying cause has been identified. Although an all-encompassing treatment for male factor infertility has not yet been developed, the field offers many promising avenues of research. PMID:21243017
Hwang, Kathleen; Walters, R. Chanc; Lipshultz, Larry I.
Infertile men have higher levels of semen reactive oxygen species (ROS) than do fertile men. High levels of semen ROS can cause sperm dysfunction, sperm DNA damage and reduced male reproductive potential. This observation has led clinicians to treat infertile men with antioxidant supplements. The purpose of this article is to discuss the rationale for antioxidant therapy in infertile men and to evaluate the data on the efficacy of dietary and in vitro antioxidant preparations on sperm function and DNA damage. To date, most clinical studies suggest that dietary antioxidant supplements are beneficial in terms of improving sperm function and DNA integrity. However, the exact mechanism of action of dietary antioxidants and the optimal dietary supplement have not been established. Moreover, most of the clinical studies are small and few have evaluated pregnancy rates. A beneficial effect of in vitro antioxidant supplements in protecting spermatozoa from exogenous oxidants has been demonstrated in most studies; however, the effect of these antioxidants in protecting sperm from endogenous ROS, gentle sperm processing and cryopreservation has not been established conclusively. PMID:21516118
Zini, Armand; Al-Hathal, Naif
Determinants of infertility were studied in 340 women in Eastern Gabon, an area situated in the "infertility belt" of Central Africa. Fallopian tube occlusion was diagnosed in 82.8% of cases, showing the importance of infection-related causes. Women with tubal occlusion did not differ significantly from women with normal tubes in obstetrical history or prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis on endocervical culture. Antecedents of pelvic inflammatory disease or a pelvic mass were significantly more common in the group with tubal occlusion. This group also had a significantly higher prevalence of serum chlamydial antibodies at a titer of 1/64 or higher. Hormonal factors were found in 31.7% of women, a cervical factor in 29.0% and mechanical factors in 5.6%. No diagnosis could be made in 12.2% of cases. During the investigation, 4.4% of women became pregnant. The predominance of infectious related causes of infertility makes it imperative to focus resources on prevention programs of upper genital tract infections in women. PMID:2900173
Collet, M; Reniers, J; Frost, E; Gass, R; Yvert, F; Leclerc, A; Roth-Meyer, C; Ivanoff, B; Meheus, A
Introduction Intrauterine fetal bone retention is a rare complication and the bony fragments probably work like an intrauterine contraceptive device resulting in secondary infertility. Among the scarcely reported cases in the literature, there was no report described the retention of a large number of fetal bones with nearly intact morphology. Case presentation The present report described an unusual case of fetal bone retention in a 30-year-old infertile Chinese woman who had a surgical termination of a 15-week pregnancy 9 years ago. The routine B-ultrasound diagnosed intrauterine foreign bodies. A hysteroscopy was performed which showed a large number of intrauterine bony fragments, with clear fetal skeletal outline and intact morphology. The detected residual fetal bones were removed under hysteroscopy, assisted by B-ultrasound scanning. The patient was pregnant 5 months later. The present case confirms the importance of routine examination of the intactness of the fetus after abortion, particularly when it happens in pregnancies of more than 12 weeks. Once diagnosed, the detected residual fetal bones should be removed by surgery, mainly under hysteroscopy. Conclusions The retention of fetal bone may cause infertility, and removal of the residual bone may restore fertility. The improvement in hysteroscopy made it feasible to diagnose and remove the bones. The present case highlights the importance of examining the intactness of the removed fetus. PMID:24898732
The major cause of infertility among black Africans is traditionally attributed to a female factor and few reports are available on the male factor. This study analyzed the clinical and seminal data obtained from a population of 1726 suspected infertile African men evaluated from July 1985 to June 1991. The possible cause of infertility was judged on the results of first semen analysis. Of these men, 49% were secondarily infertile and 36% had previously received treatment for a urethral discharge. Varicocoeles were present in 183 cases (11%) and 11% had serological evidence of previous exposure to syphilis. Azoospermia was present in 152 patients (9%), 5% had polizoospermia, 45% had hypospermia (< 2 mL) and 9% (> 6 mL) had hyperspermia. In 70% of patients a possible contributing male factor for infertility was found. It would appear that the male factor contributed significantly to infertility, and evaluation of the black African male can therefore be regarded as a rewarding venture. PMID:7818367
Bornman, M S; Schulenburg, G W; Boomker, D; Chauke, T R; Reif, S
The study reported in this paper explores how infertile women cope with infertility using their religious and spiritual beliefs. In total, 30 infertile women affiliated to different denominations of Christianity and Islam were interviewed in the UK and Iranian fertility clinics using grounded theory. The categories which emerged included governing ones' 'Self' through gaining control of emotions, adopting religious coping strategies, and handling the burden of infertility peacefully, which all related to the core category of 'relying on a higher being'. We argue that infertile women employ a variety of religious and spiritual coping strategies which are associated with adaptive health outcomes. Further scientific inquiry is required to investigate how religion and spirituality promote adaptation to infertility. PMID:24869428
Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Allan, Helen T; Smith, Pam A
We investigated the effects of induced increase in prolactin levels on spermatogenesis in 20 infertile men with hypoprolactinemia using exogenous human prolactin (hPRL) and metoclopramide. The subjects were selected from a population of 175 infertile men in whom the prevalence of hypoprolactinemia was 33.14%. Mean basal plasma prolactin was 2.79 ± 0.62 ng · ml?1 in the infertile men and
C. S. Ufearo; O. E. Orisakwe
To describe the characteristics of women seeking infertility treatment and the types of fertility treatment sought within\\u000a a population-based sample. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) of\\u000a women with a live birth using data from seven states. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with infertility\\u000a treatment utilization. Infertility treatment was reported by
Sara E. Simonsen; Laurie Baksh; Joseph B. Stanford
BACKGROUND: A cross sectional study was designed to survey the relationship between anxiety\\/depression and duration\\/cause of infertility, in Vali-e-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: After obtaining their consents, 370 female patients with different infertility causes participated in, and data gathered by Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) and Cattle questionnaires for surveying anxiety and depression due to the duration of infertility.
Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh; Malek Mansour Aghssa; Nasrin Abedinia; Farid Zayeri; Navid Khanafshar; Mamak Shariat; Mina Jafarabadi
BACKGROUND: Infertile couples might experience psychological distress and suffer from impaired health-related quality of life. This study aimed to examine health-related quality of life in infertile couples receiving either in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of quality of life in infertile couples attending to Vali-e-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center or Royan
Batool Rashidi; Ali Montazeri; Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh; Mamak Shariat; Nasrin Abedinia; Mahnaz Ashrafi
Background Infertile couples might experience psychological distress and suffer from impaired health-related quality of life. This study aimed to examine health-related quality of life in infertile couples receiving either in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of quality of life in infertile couples attending to Vali-e-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center or Royan Institute for either IVF or ICSI treatment in Tehran, Iran. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics were also recorded. Data were analyzed to compare quality of life in infertile women and men and to indicate what variables predict quality of life in infertile couples. Results In all 514 women and 514 men (n = 1028) were studied. There were significant differences between women and men indicating that male patients had a better health-related quality of life. Also health-related quality of life was found to be better in infertility due to male factor. Performing logistic regression analysis it was found that female gender, and lower educational level were significant predictors of poorer physical health-related quality of life. For mental health-related quality of life in addition to female gender and lower educational level, younger age also was found to be a significant predictor of poorer condition. No significant results were observed for infertility duration or causes of infertility either for physical or mental health-related quality of life. Conclusion The findings suggest that infertility duration or causes of infertility do not have significant effects on health-related quality of life in infertile couples. However, infertile couples, especially less educated younger women, are at risk of a sub-optimal health-related quality of life and they should be provided help and support in order to improve their health-related quality of life. PMID:18803838
Rashidi, Batool; Montazeri, Ali; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Shariat, Mamak; Abedinia, Nasrin; Ashrafi, Mahnaz
Statistically significant socio-hygienic and biomedical factors have a far greater impact on miscarriages than on primary and secondary infertility. A conclusion is made that during gestation the organism reacts to a variety of exposures, whereas infertility is a grave disorder of reproductive health which develops as a result of combined exposure to the most potent endogenous and exogenous risk factors. Miscarriages in the workers occupationally exposed to hazardous factors later often transform into stable infertility. PMID:9511385
Konovalov, O E
Disability is a complex phenomenon. It reflects an interaction between features of a person's body and features of the society in which he or she lives. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), lays stress on the functional as well as the structural problem of a person. All the definitions of disability also include the disorders of the reproductive and endocrine system. So infertility and impotency should also be included in the category of disability. It affects the participation in areas of life and can have a disabling affect on an individual. Like any other disability the couple has to adapt and integrate infertility in their sense of self thus infertility comes as a major life crisis. Medically, infertility, in most cases, is considered to be the result of a physical impairment or a genetic abnormality. Socially, couples are incapable of their reproductive or parental roles. On social level, infertility in most cultures remains associated with social stigma and taboo just like the social model of disability. Couples who are unable to reproduce may be looked down upon due to social stigmatisation. Infertility can lead to divorces and separation leading to a broken family life. Without labelling infertility as a disability, it is difficult for the people to access services and welfare benefits offered by the government. Infertility treatments are highly sophisticated so they are very expensive and are even not covered by insurance and government aid. In the light of all this it becomes imperative to categorise infertility as disability. PMID:22848333
Khetarpal, Abha; Singh, Satendra
Objectives: To evaluate the effects and safeness of combined hysterolaparoscopy on evaluation the causes of infertility. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Gynecology (The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) from January 2011 to April 2014. Patients aged 21–43 years with infertility were included in this study. The prevalence of different lesions was collected to analyze. Results: 132 infertile patients were included, 71 (53.8%) women had primary infertility and the rest 61 (46.2%) had secondary infertility. Laparoscopic abnormalites were more common than hysteroscopy abnormalites both in primary infertility group and secondary infertility group. Pelvic inflammatory disease (59.09 %) and endometriosis (29.55%) were the most common abnormalities in two groups. The most common intrauterine pathology was uterine polyps and the most common uterine malformation was uterine septum in two groups. Out of 12 patients having malformation uterus, only one was double uterus and double cervical with double vagina. There was no major surgical or anesthetic complication in any of our patients, other than mild abdominal pain. Conclusion: Hysterolaparoscopy is an effective and safe tool in comprehensive evaluation of infertility to diagnosis and treat the lesions of pelvic and uterus in the same time. Hysterolaparoscopy may be recommended as the first and final procedure for evaluation of female infertility. PMID:25126006
Zhang, Erhong; Zhang, Yanan; Fang, Li; Li, Qingdong; Gu, Jian
Background Infertility is highly prevalent in Nigeria and most infertile couples in southeast Nigeria are offered conventional forms of treatment, which consist mainly of ovulation induction and tubal surgery, due to limited availability and high cost of endoscopic and assisted reproductive technologies like laparoscopy and in vitro fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infertility, outcome of infertility investigation, and the treatment outcome of infertile couples following therapeutic interventions in southeast Nigeria over a 12-month period. Methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study of 218 consecutive infertile couples presenting for infertility management at the infertility clinics of two tertiary health institutions in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Infertility investigations were carried out on these couples using the available conventional diagnostic facilities. Following the results of the investigations/diagnosis, conventional treatment was offered to the couples as appropriate. Data analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. Results The mean age of the women was 33.5±4.62 (range: 15–49) years. Most (58.3% [n=127]) were nulliparous. The prevalence of infertility was 12.1%. Infertility was primary in 28.4% (n=62) and secondary in 71.6% (n=156). Female etiologic factors were responsible in 32.1% (n=70), male factors in 26.1% (n=57), and a combination of male/female factors in 29.4% (n=64). The etiology was unknown in 12.4% (n=27). Tubal factors 23.8 % (n=52) and ovulation failures 26.1% (n=57) are common female factors implicated. Pregnancy rate following treatment was 16.7% (n=28). Multivariate regression analysis indicates that younger age of ?30 years, duration of infertility ?5 years, and female factor infertility were associated with higher pregnancy outcome following treatment. Conclusion The prevalence of infertility is high and pregnancy rate following conventional treatment is poor. There is a need to improve facilities for managing infertility as well as making artificial reproductive techniques readily available, accessible, and affordable. PMID:25328391
Menuba, Ifeanyi E; Ugwu, Emmanuel O; Obi, Samuel N; Lawani, Lucky O; Onwuka, Chidinma I
Spermatogenesis involves the aggregated action of up to 2300 genes, any of which, could, potentially, provide targets for diagnostic tests of male factor infertility. Contrary to the previously proposed common variant hypothesis for common diseases such as male infertility, genome-wide association studies and targeted gene sequencing in cohorts of infertile men have identified only a few gene polymorphisms that are associated with male infertility. Unfortunately, the search for genetic variants associated with male infertility is further hampered by the lack of viable animal models of human spermatogenesis, difficulty in robustly phenotyping infertile men and the complexity of pedigree studies in male factor infertility. In this review, we describe basic genetic principles involved in understanding the genetic basis of male infertility and examine the utility and proper clinical use of the proven genetic assays of male factor infertility, specifically Y chromosome microdeletions, chromosomal translocations, karyotype, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutation analysis and sperm genetic tests. Unfortunately, these tests are only able to diagnose the cause of about 20% of male factor infertility. The remainder of the review will be devoted to examining novel tests and diagnostic tools that have the potential to explain the other 80% of male factor infertility that is currently classified as idiopathic. Those tests include epigenetic analysis of the spermatozoa and the evaluation of rare genetic variants and copy number variations in patients. Success in advancing to the implementation of such areas is not only dependent on technological advances in the laboratory, but also improved phenotyping in the clinic. PMID:24711280
Hotaling, J; Carrell, D T
Impaired E-cadherin expression in human spermatozoa in a male factor infertility subset signifies E in a human male infertility disorder points towards genetic defects causing failure in gamete interactions. Ă?
Abraham, Nader G.
The Jewish religion is family orientated, and life is guided by 'Halacha', a code of conduct based on biblical and rabbinic law. There is a duty to have children, in view of the first biblical commandment 'be fruitful and multiply', which sanctions most treatments for infertility. Interpretations vary among Orthodox, Conservative and Progressive rabbis, but it is only rabbis who have authority to advise infertile couples on which procedures concur with Jewish law, and their appraisals tend towards leniency in the interests of domestic happiness. Prohibitions against 'wasting seed', and against marriage to a man with 'wounded testes or severed membrum', may be waived to allow semen collection for analysis and treatment for male infertility. All types of assisted conception are approved, including in vitro and micro-assisted fertilization, provided the gametes are from married couples. In short cycles, artificial insemination can be permitted in the post-menstrual week of 'niddah' when coitus is forbidden. Jewish descent from the mother is automatic but, for Orthodox couples, a technical violation of the law against adultery or incest can spoil the marriage prospects of a child or interrupt the paternal priestly line of Cohen or Levi. Donor gametes are largely unacceptable to Orthodox rabbis, since egg donation confuses the definition of the mother, and because sperm donation creates subterfuge in a child's genealogy and a risk of consanguinity. However, Progressive and Conservative rabbis place more emphasis on the social attributes of parents and frequently approve of gamete donation. The Jewish status of children resulting from surrogacy or adoption can be settled by religious conversion. Objections to treating unmarried couples, single or lesbian women, and to posthumous conception, arise because such households are not traditional families. PMID:11844302
Hirsh, Anthony V.
Concern is growing about exposure to electromagnetic fields and male reproductive health. The authors performed a cross-sectional study among military men employed in the Royal Norwegian Navy, including information about work close to equipment emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, one-year infertility, children and sex of the offspring. Among 10,497 respondents, 22% had worked close to high-frequency aerials to a "high" or "very high" degree. Infertility increased significantly along with increasing self-reported exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. In a logistic regression, odds ratio (OR) for infertility among those who had worked closer than 10 m from high-frequency aerials to a "very high" degree relative to those who reported no work near high-frequency aerials was 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46-2.37), adjusted for age, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and exposure to organic solvents, welding and lead. Similar adjusted OR for those exposed to a "high", "some" and "low" degree were 1.93 (95% CI: 1.55-2.40), 1.52 (95% CI: 1.25-1.84), and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.15-1.68), respectively. In all age groups there were significant linear trends with higher prevalence of involuntary childlessness with higher self-reported exposure to radiofrequency fields. However, the degree of exposure to radiofrequency radiation and the number of children were not associated. For self-reported exposure both to high-frequency aerials and communication equipment there were significant linear trends with lower ratio of boys to girls at birth when the father reported a higher degree of radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure. PMID:18415687
Baste, Valborg; Riise, Trond; Moen, Bente E
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The negative impact of AAS abuse on male fertility is well known by urologists. The secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is often highlighted when AAS and fertility are being discussed. On the other hand, the patterns of use, mechanisms of action and direct effects over the testicle are usually overseen. The present study reviews the vast formal and "underground" culture of AAS, as well as their overall implications. Specific considerations about their impact on the male reproductive system are made, with special attention to the recent data on direct damage to the testicle. To our knowledge this kind of overview is absolutely unique, offering a distinguished set of information to the day-by-day urologists. For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. Initially, these substances were restricted to professional bodybuilders, becoming gradually more popular among recreational power athletes. Currently, as many as 3 million anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States, and considering its increasing prevalence, it has become an issue of major concern. Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse, with male factor being present in up to 50% of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS, specially oriented to urologists, is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient axial inhibition, and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage. PMID:21682835
de Souza, Guilherme Leme; Hallak, Jorge
Studies on infertility in the Netherlands have little information on migrant Ghanaian women, even though Ghanaians are the third largestmigrant group in Amsterdam. An exploratory study on the unmet needs, attitudes, and beliefs of migrant Ghanaian women with infertility problems living in the Netherlands, and the kinds of treatment they sought was undertaken in 1999. Qualitative data were collected from
Violet Naanyu Yebei
Objective: To compare resilience, positive/negative effect, and psychological vulnerability between fertile and infertile men. Methods: The research sample consisted of 40 fertile and 40 infertile men who were selected among men who presented to an infertility clinic. To collect data, Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Positive/Negative Affect Schedule, and Brief Symptoms Inventory were used. Results: The MANOVA results showed that infertile men had higher mean (SD) score for negative affect (46.15±8.31 vs. 23.10±8.50) and psychological vulnerability (37.90±12.39 vs. 23.30±6.40) than fertile men (P= 0.001); while infertile men had lower resilience (59.35±14.25 vs. 82.17±13.03) and positive affect (43.01±10.46 vs. 61.85±8.14) than fertile men (P= 0.001).The results of multiple regressions showed that resilience and negative affect had the highest significant contribution in prediction of psychological vulnerability in the infertile. Conclusion: Resilience and negative effects are the best predicators for mental vulnerability of infertile men. These factors may be addressed in future studies in infertile men. Declaration of Interest: None. PMID:24644494
Abolghasemi, Abbas; Rajabi, Saied; Sheikhi, Moslem; Kiamarsi, Azar; Sadrolmamaleki, Vida
Etiology of infertility varies from region to region and from one population to another and even from one locality to another within the same population. Childlessness has serious demographic, social and health implications. Hence an attempt has been made to get some approximation about levels and patterns of infertility and childlessness in India by using National Family Health Survey-2 (1998-1999) and National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-2006) data. The study population consists of women aged 20-49 years married for ??5 years. Age of women, age at first marriage, place of residence, standard of living, working status of women, and region are some of the variables related with the rate of infertility and childlessness. Infertility rate is high among women in urban areas. This may be due to lifestyle or a later age at first marriage. Considering religion, Muslims show the lowest infertility rate. Scheduled tribes have high infertility rate. With increasing levels of educational attainment among women, infertility rate increases. This can be related to the fact that with aspirations for attaining higher educational level, marriage is delayed as a result of which in confirmation with aforementioned causation factors (higher age at marriage, urban living style etc.), infertility rate is high among this sub group of population. PMID:25300753
Ganguly, S.; Unisa, S.
Research on genetic causes of male and female infertility rapidly expanded in the last years, following the development of in vitro fertilising techniques. Genetic tests are now available to explore the cause of the infertility and assess the risk of a given couple to transmit its genetic characteristics. This allows at-risk couples to take an informed decision when electing for
Carlo Foresta; Alberto Ferlin; Luca Gianaroli; Bruno Dallapiccola
Background. In previous studies, people's knowledge of reproductive health and infertile women's psychological states was surveyed in several countries. However, there has been limited information concerning the psychological states of infertile women seeking treatment and the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in China. Methods. Infertile women were asked to complete short questionnaires on the day that their oocytes were retrieved; these questionnaires covered the durations of their infertility, levels of education, sources of pressure, and psychological states. Data concerning IVF outcomes were provided by embryologists and clinicians. The correlations between the duration of infertility and educational level, psychological state and education level, and psychological state and outcome of IVF were analyzed in the cohort study. Results. The duration of infertility in more than half of the females was longer than 5 years. Compared with less-educated women, women with higher levels of education sought treatment earlier and their rates of depressive symptoms were lower. There is an association between negative emotions and outcome of IVF. Conclusions. The survey of the situations of infertile women seeking IVF treatment in China indicates the importance of popularizing knowledge concerning reproductive health. Improving medical conditions, reducing the costs of treatment, and developing social culture will aid in relieving the stress of infertile women and improving assisted reproductive treatment. PMID:24369006
Jin, Xuan; Wang, Gongxian; Liu, Sisun; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Fang; Qiu, Yun; Huang, Xiaojin
For millions of couples, the inability to have a child is a personal tragedy and a large proportion of childless people are confronted with social stigmatization (blame) and personal frustration. Formerly assigned to women, infertility of a couple is nowadays equitably distributed between the two sexes. Among the methods used to treat male infertility problems, medicinal plants have been used
E. A. Nantia; P. F. Moundipa; T. K. Monsees; S. Carreau
& This study was conducted to evaluate the preimplantation embryonic potential of adult somatic cells from an infertile man using an interspecies bioassay for quality control and also to create human embryos via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Skin tissue was biopsied from infertile man to obtain fibroblast cells. These cells were fused with both enucleated bovine oocytes obtained commercially
P. M. Zavos; K. Illmensee
Investigated effect of various factors related to infertility on women's (N=31) self-esteem and concomitant incidence of depression. Results support positive relationship between infertile women's self-esteem and their internal locus of control, self-esteem and subjective satisfaction with their social support, and general satisfaction with social…
Fouad, Nadya A.; Fahje, Kristin Kons
Discusses the importance of assessing the impact infertility has on couples/individuals and understanding the relevance of this impact in the context of psychological treatment. Infertility's negative impact can be minimized by therapeutic intervention. Three psychological-behavioral categories for couples are posited, with case studies. (Author)
Bresnick, Ellen R.
We introduce a new instrument for family size, infertility, to investigate the causal relationship between children and female labor force participation. Infertility mimics an experiment where nature assigns an upper bound for family size, independent of a woman's background. This new instrument allows us to investigate the differential labor…
Aguero, Jorge M.; Marks, Mindy S.
ABSTARCT Objectives: To determine the demographic pattern and clinical presentation of 23 infertile women with intraoperative diagnosis of adenomyosis followed by histopathologic confirmation. Methodology: A review of 23 consecutive infertile women that underwent surgery due to preoperative misdiagnosis for uterine fibroids over a period of 5 years. Results: The patients mean age was 37.3 years with age range of 26
Adebiyi Gbadebo Adesiyun; Modupeola Omotara Samaila; Abimbola Kolawole
Introduction: Infertility is considered a traumatic stressor for infertile couples, and it becomes a psychosocial crisis for that person. Considering the importance of fertility and based on the cultural and social aspects of it in Iran, the present study aimed to determine mental health and its individual and social predictors in infertile women referring to the infertility center of Al-Zahra hospital in Tabriz, Iran, during 2012-2013. Methods: This was a descriptive-correlational study on 345 infertile women referring to Al-Zahra hospital in Tabriz, Iran, via convenient sampling. Data was gathered by the perceived social support questionnaire and mental health questionnaire. To determine the relationship between social support and personal and social characteristics, and mental health, multivariate linear regression was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The mean (SD) total score of mental health of women was 29.70 (11.50), the score ranged from 0 to 84. The best condition was below the depression scale, and the worst condition was below the social dysfunction scale. Social support from the family was also a predictor of the mental health of infertile women. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that infertile women, in terms of mental health and its subscales, have unfavorable conditions. Moreover, social support from the family is an important factor influencing mental health. Therefore, strengthening the social support of the family to improve the mental health of infertile women seems necessary.
Hasanpour, Shirin; Bani, Soheila; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Yahyavi Kochaksarayie, Fatemeh
BACKGROUND: 47,XYY syndrome is a sex chromosomal abnormality observed in humans, with a prevalence of 0.1% of male births. Sex chromosome anomalies are more frequently associated with male infertility. CASE REPORT: We present here four cases of infertile men with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia attending a genetic and fertility clinic. Chromosomal analysis of the peripheral blood lymphocytes demonstrated the constitutional
Faeza El-Dahtory; Hany M Elsheikha
Infertility has been neglected as both a health and a social problem in India generally and among tribes specifically. Infertility is considered a curse for women, especially in India where the female partner is blamed in almost all cases. This study is based on the Chenchu tribe of the Nallamalai forest area, India. The main objective of this study is
A. Meera Guntupalli; P. Chenchelgudem
Background Male factor infertility presents one of the greatest challenges with respect to infertility treatment in Africa. Artificial insemination by donor semen (AID) is a cost-effective option for infertile couples, but its practice may be influenced by sociocultural considerations. The purpose of this study was to determine the awareness and acceptability of AID among infertile couples in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, and identify the sociocultural factors associated with its practices. Methods Questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of 200 consecutive infertile couples accessing care at the infertility clinics of two tertiary health institutions in Enugu, Nigeria, between April 1, 2012 and January 31, 2013. Results Among the 384 respondents, the level of awareness and acceptability of AID were 46.6% (179/384) and 43% (77/179), respectively. The acceptability rate was significantly higher among female respondents, women with primary infertility, and those whose infertility had lasted for 5 years and beyond (P<0.05). The major reasons for nonacceptance of AID were religious conviction (34.7%, n=33), cultural concern (17.9%, n=17), fear of contracting an infection (17.9%, n=17), and fear of possibility of failure of the procedure (12.6%, n=12). Conclusion Health education and public enlightenment are advocated to increase awareness and dispel the current misconceptions about AID in our environment. PMID:24611022
Ugwu, Emmanuel O; Odoh, Godwin U; Obi, Samuel N; Ezugwu, Frank O
Background: It is the responsibility of health systems to provide quality health care and to protect consumers against impoverishing health costs. In the case of infertility in developing countries, quality care is often lacking and treatment costs are usually covered by patients. Additional financial hardship may be caused by various social consequences. The economic implications of infertility and its treatment have not been systematically explored. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE search was conducted to identify English language publications providing original data from developing countries on out-of-pocket payment (OoPP) for infertility treatment and on other economic consequences of involuntary childlessness. Findings: Twenty one publications were included in this review. Information on OoPP was scant but suggests that infertility treatment is associated with a significant risk of catastrophic expenditure, even for basic or ineffective interventions. Other economic disadvantages, which may be profound, are caused by loss of access to child labour and support, divorce, as well as customary laws or negative attitudes which discriminate against infertile individuals. Women in particular are affected. Conclusion: Pertinent data on OoPP and other economic disadvantages of infertility in developing countries are limited. According to the evidence available, infertility may cause impoverishing health costs as well as economic instability or deprivation secondary to social consequences. Health systems in developing countries do not appear to meet their responsibilities vis-ŕ-vis infertile patients. PMID:24753897
Dyer, S.J.; Patel, M.
Tubal disease constitutes a major factor in infertility especially in developing countries. This study was undertaken to assess the hysterosalpingographic patterns seen in infertile patients in an urban centre in Lagos. Two hundred and twenty patients who reported from the gynaecology clinic to the radiology department of Lagos State University…
Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Fabamwo, A. O.
REPORT Mutations in DNAH1, which Encodes an Inner Arm Heavy Chain Dynein, Lead to Male Infertility with infertility and a male factor is involved in approximately half the cases. A genetic etiology is likely in most cases yet only few genes have been formally correlated with male infertility. Homozygosity mapping
Appendix Tables and Data Appendices, Effects of Increased Access to Infertility Treatment on Infant cover/offer to cover infertility treatment and its interaction with the mother being 30, those in column 2 for indicators for infertility treatment mandates for insurers that exclude IVF treatment
BACKGROUND: Recent data emphasized the implication of polymerase g (POLG) CAG repeats in infertility, making it a very attractive gene for study. A comparison of POLG CAG repeats in infertile and fertile men showed a clear association between the absence of the usual 10-CAG allele and male infertility, excluding azoospermia. It has also been suggested that the POLG gene polymorphism
I. E. Aknin-Seifer; R. L. Touraine; H. Lejeune; C. Jimenez; J. Chouteau; J. P. Siffroi; K. McElreavey; T. Bienvenu; C. Patrat; R. Levy
Infertility is a worldwide reproductive health problem which affects approximately 15% of couples, with male factor infertility dominating nearly 50% of the affected population. The nature of the phenomenon is underscored by a complex array of transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic differences which interact in unknown ways. Many causes of male factor infertility are still defined as idiopathic, and most diagnosis tends to be more descriptive rather than specific. As such, the emergence of novel transcriptomic and metabolomic studies may hold the key to more accurately diagnose and treat male factor infertility. This paper provides the most recent evidence underlying the role of transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis in the management of male infertility. A summary of the current knowledge and new discovery of noninvasive, highly sensitive and specific biomarkers which allow the expansion of this area is outlined. PMID:24875852
Lee, L K; Foo, K Y
Researchers studying infertility from the perspective of anthropology and other the social sciences seldom examine the assumptions embedded in the biomedical definition of infertility. Implicit in the biomedical definition is the assumption that people can be divided straightforwardly into those who are trying to conceive and those who are not trying to conceive. If being infertile implies “intent to conceive,” we must recognize that there are various degrees of intent and that the line between the fertile and the infertile is not as sharp as is usually imagined. Drawing on structured interview data collected from a random sample of Midwestern U.S. women and from qualitative interviews, we demonstrate that that there is a wide range of intent among those classified as infertile according to the biomedical definition. We explore the implications of this for research. PMID:20550090
Greil, Arthur L.; McQuillan, Julia
Background Religion and spirituality are a fundamental part of culture and influence how individuals experience and interpret infertility counselling. Thus far, little research has examined the influence of religiosity on the experience of infertility, and to our knowledge no study exists investigating the responses of religious infertile women to counselling. In this study we explored Muslim and Christian women’s experiences and preferences with regard to infertility counselling. Materials and Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 30 infertile women affiliated to different denominations of Islam (Shiite and Sunni) and Christianity (Protestantism, Catholicism, Orthodoxies) were interviewed. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews at fertility clinics in the UK and Iran, and analyzed using the Straussian mode of grounded theory. Results Emerging categories included: Appraising the meaning of infertility religiously, applying religious coping strategies, and gaining a faith-based strength. These were encompassed in the core category of ‘relying on a higher being’. Religious infertile women experienced infertility as an enriching experience for spiritual growth. This perspective helped them to acquire a feeling of self- confidence and strength to manage their emotions. Hence, they relied more on their own religious coping strategies and less on formal support resources like counselling services. However, they expected counsellors to be open to taking time to discuss their spiritual concerns in counselling sessions. Conclusion In addition to focusing on clients’ psychosocial needs, infertility counsellors should also consider religious and spiritual issues. Establishing a sympathetic and accepting relationship with infertile women will allow them to discuss their religious perspectives, which consequently may enhance their usage of counselling services. PMID:25101160
Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Allan, Helen T.
Context Perceived infertility is an individual's belief that she or he is unable to conceive or impregnate, regardless of whether this belief is medically accurate. This perception may lead to contraceptive nonuse, which may, in turn, lead to unintended pregnancy. Little research has examined perceived infertility among young adults, including potential associations with contraceptive behaviors. Methods The frequency of perceived infertility among young adults was assessed using 2009 data from a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,800 unmarried men and women aged 18–29. Multinomial regression analyses assessed associations between respondents' perceived infertility and selected background, reproductive knowledge, sexual experience and contraceptive use characteristics. Results Overall, 19% of women and 13% of men believed that they were very likely to be infertile. Hispanic women and women who had received public assistance in the past year had elevated odds of perceived infertility (odds ratios, 3.4 and 3.0, respectively), as did Hispanic men and men of other racial or ethnic minorities, except blacks (2.5 and 6.1, respectively). Men who had some college education, had received sex education or were not in a current relationship had decreased odds of thinking they were very likely to be infertile (0.3–0.4). Among men, perceived infertility was associated with the belief that they were likely to have sex without using a contraceptive in the next three months (2.6). Conclusions A substantial proportion of young adults believe they are infertile. Improved provider counseling and sex education may be useful in helping them to better understand their actual probability of infertility, and this knowledge may lead to improved contraceptive use. PMID:22405149
Polis, Chelsea Bernhardt; Zabin, Laurie Schwab
Abstract Paraoxonase1 (PON1) is a glycoprotein associated with high density lipoprotein and has antioxidant activity. The impact of PON1 in various stages of spermatogenesis has also been suggested. This study was aimed to investigate frequencies of phenotypes and Q192R genotypes of PON1 in fertile and infertile males. Q192R variants of PON1 were determined in 150 fertile and 150 infertile men using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Plasma arylesterase and paraoxonase activities were detected by spectrophotometry and malondialdehyde (MDA) level was measured using thiobarbituric acid. Our results showed no significant difference in the distribution of PON1 genotypes and alleles between fertile and infertile groups. However morphology and motility of sperm were associated with various genotypes of PON1. The number of fertile males with the BB phenotype (high activity) was significantly higher than that of infertile males, whereas the number of individuals with the AB phenotype (moderate activity) was statistically higher in infertile men compared with the fertile group. Additionally, MDA and arylesterase activity levels were significantly higher in infertile subjects compared with fertile men. We speculate that the low activity of PON1 can be a risk factor for male infertility probably due to a decrease in antioxidant activity of PON1 and increase in lipid peroxidation. PMID:25264968
Tavilani, Heidar; Fattahi, Amir; Esfahani, Maryam; Khodadadi, Iraj; Karimi, Jamshid; Bahrayni, Elham; Vatannejad, Akram; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Ghorbani, Marzyeh; Latifi, Zeinab
Purpose The causes of male infertility are heterogeneous but more than 50% of cases have a genetic basis. Specific genetic defects have been identified in less than 20% of infertile males and, thus, most causes remain to be elucidated. The most common cytogenetic defects associated with nonobstructive azoospermia are numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities, including Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) and Y chromosome microdeletions. To refine the incidence and nature of chromosomal aberrations in males with infertility we reviewed cytogenetic results in 668 infertile men with oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Materials and Methods High resolution Giemsa banding chromosome analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization were done in 668 infertile males referred for routine cytogenetic analysis between January 2004 and March 2009. Results The overall incidence of chromosomal abnormalities was about 8.2%. Of the 55 patients with abnormal cytogenetic findings sex chromosome aneuploidies were observed in 29 (53%), including Klinefelter syndrome in 27 (49%). Structural chromosome abnormalities involving autosomes (29%) and sex chromosomes (18%) were detected in 26 infertile men. Abnormal cytogenetic findings were observed in 35 of 264 patients (13.3%) with azoospermia and 19 of 365 (5.2%) with oligozoospermia. Conclusions Structural chromosomal defects and low level sex chromosome mosaicism are common in oligozoospermia cases. Extensive cytogenetic assessment and fluorescence in situ hybridization may improve the detection rate in males with oligozoospermia. These findings highlight the need for efficient genetic testing in infertile men so that couples may make informed decisions on assisted reproductive technologies to achieve parenthood. PMID:20172548
Yatsenko, Alexander N.; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Weedin, John W.; Lawrence, Amy E.; Patel, Ankita; Peacock, Sandra; Matzuk, Martin M.; Lamb, Dolores J.; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lipshultz, Larry I.
Folate pathway is expected to play an important role in spermatogenesis since it is involved in DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and MTRR (A66G) polymorphisms. A group of 300 males was recruited in this study from different Jordanian infertility clinics. Of these, 150 cases of infertile men that included oligozoospermia cases (n=45), severe oligozoospermia (n=71) and azoospermia (n=34) were studied. The other 150 males were age matched fertile controls. Genotyping of MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP technique. The results showed an association between MTHFR 677TT genotype and male infertility (P<0.05). However, the distribution of MTHFR A1298C and MTRR A66G genotypes were not different between the fertile and infertile groups (P>0.05). In addition, none of the examined polymorphisms was related to any of the semen parameters in the infertile group. In conclusion, this study showed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with male infertility in Jordanians. PMID:24334125
Mfady, Doaa S; Sadiq, May F; Khabour, Omar F; Fararjeh, Abdulfattah S; Abu-Awad, Aymen; Khader, Yousef
Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). Conclusion The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. PMID:23785247
Kamel, Remah M
Objective To identify C. trachomatis antigens that can be used to differentially diagnose tubal factor infertility in comparison to previously reported Heat Shock Protein 60 (HSP60). Design In Vitro Study Patients Infertile women with and without tubal pathology diagnosed laparoscopically. Setting Academic medical center. Main Outcome Measures Antibody responses to C. trachomatis in infertile women with or without tubal pathologies using a C. trachomatis genome-wide proteome array. Results Comparison of the antibody profiles revealed 30 C. trachomatis antigens that were preferentially recognized by tubal factor infertility women with a detection sensitivity and specificity of 80.6% and 56.5%, respectively, 10 of which showed 100% specificity. A combination of CT443 and CT381 antigens yielded the highest detection sensitivity (67.7%) while maintaining 100% specificity. Conclusion These findings have demonstrated that antibodies to CT443 and CT381, when used in combination, have higher sensitivity and specificity in predicting tubal factor infertility than other indicators for tubal factor infertility such as HSP60 antibodies (35.5%, 100%) or hysterosalpingogram (65%, 83%). Using a panel of C. trachomatis antigens to serologically diagnose tubal factor infertility can save the patients from undertaking expensive and invasive procedures for determining tubal pathology and choosing treatment plans. PMID:21742324
Rodgers, Allison K.; Budrys, Nicole M.; Gong, Siqi; Wang, Jie; Holden, Alan; Schenken, Robert S.; Zhong, Guangming
This paper explores the experiences of infertile women who occupy a liminal space in society, and argues that the fertility clinic served as a space to tolerate women's experiences of liminality. It provided not only rituals aimed at transition to pregnancy, but also a space where women's liminal experiences, which are caused by the existential chaos of infertility, could be tolerated. The British experience seemed to differ from the American one identified in the literature, where self-management and peer group support are described as strategies used by infertile women to manage infertility. The British women in this study did not appear to draw so much on self-management or peer group support to deal with their experiences of infertility. They appeared to be isolated in their experience. The clinic thus provided a space in which recognition was given to their intensely private experiences of difference from those in the outside fertile world and allowed them to manage these socially unacceptable, culturally taboo and invisible experiences. However, because of its very limited success rate in enabling women to become pregnant, rather than facilitating the transition of status from infertile to fertile woman, the clinic also served to reinforce the liminal experiences of those women who remained infertile. Inadvertently, the clinic offered a way of being in limbo while at the same time reinforcing the liminal experiences of women. PMID:17518825
Of the systemic autoimmune diseases that lead to sterility/infertility, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has an outstanding importance; it may be associated with abortion and premature birth which are included in its diagnostic criteria, as well as preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, foetal retardation, miscarriage, stillbirth and sterility. Between 2004 and 2009, on the Department of Immunology in the Zala County Hospital, 100 female patients with sterility (st)/infertility (if) (33/67), (mean age: 34.08 years) underwent, in addition to history taking and physical examination, an assessment by immune-serologic tests (ANA, anti-dsDNA, ENA-Profile, anti-TPO, a-sperm, aCL, aPS, a?2GP1, aANX, and aPT). Positive aCL on two occasions could be demonstrated in 27/100 cases (27%) (st/if: 7/20). Among them 4 cases of primary APS have been diagnosed respectively. In the remaining 17 patients the clinical picture did not fulfil criteria. In addition to the twofold positive aCL, unusual antiphospholipid antibodies including a?2GP1, aPS or both were present in 1/27, 2/27 and 1/27 patients, as well as aANX and aPT in 3/26 and 1/27 patients respectively. One-time positive aCL occurred in 16/100 women (16%) (st/if: 5/11); among them aPT and a?2GP1 could be detected in 1/16 patient each. Based on the clinical picture, we raised the possibility of primary APS in 2/16 patients. Among the aCL-negative women, we found the unusual antibodies of APS in 8/57 patients (14%) including positivity of a?2GP1, aPS, aPT and aANX in 4/57, 4/57, 2/57 and 3/57 patients respectively; taking the clinical criteria of APS into consideration, primary APS could be stated in 2/57 patients of them. The 32 pregnancies developed in the follow-up period upon administration of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and maintenance dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), together with prednisolone in patients with secondary APS, resulted in 23 deliveries and 5 miscarriages; 4 pregnancies are currently in progress. The results of our investigations highlight the significance of demonstrating latent autoimmune diseases in female patients with sterility/infertility, as barrenness can be terminated by the appropriate treatment of these conditions. PMID:22548718
Kovács, Mónika; Hartwig, Marianna; Aleksza, Magdolna; Tihanyi, Marianna; Nagy, Tatjána; Vajda, Gyorgy; Daru, József; Gasztonyi, Beáta
Introduction: The present study aimed to determine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its predictive factors among infertile women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on infertile women referring to Majidi Infertility Center (Tabriz, Iran). The data was collected through self-administered questionnaires including clinical and demographic characteristics and the Persian version of 36-item short form health survey (SF-36). One-sample t-test, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Overall, 1012 infertile women were studied. The quality of life scores of infertile women in all eight subscales were significantly lower than normative data for Iranian women. Low physical component summary was more frequent in younger [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.45; 95% CI: 1.07-1.96], less educated (AOR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.27-2.41), and low income (AOR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.06-2.16) participants. It was less frequent in individuals whose infertility duration was 3-9 years (AOR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48-0.86), had male (AOR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.43-0.78) or female and male factors infertility (AOR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.30-0.78), or had a history of 1-2 in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Low mental component summary was associated with low income (AOR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.11-2.18) and unexplained cause of infertility (AOR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.32-0.56). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated low quality of life among infertile women. The findings suggested the need for providing this group, especially those at higher risk such as low educated or low income females, with necessary support.
Mohammad Alizadeh Charandabi, Sekineh; Kamalifard, Mahin; Mahzad Sedaghiani, Mehrzad; Montazeri, Ali; Dehghanpour Mohammadian, Elham
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 139 married women diagnosed as primary infertile who applied to an in vitro fertilization (IVF) center in Turkey, between September and December 2009. A descriptive information questionnaire developed by the researcher was used for data collection. In addition, an infertility distress scale (IDS) for determining the severity effect of infertility and the scale for marital violence against women (SDVW) for determining level of marital violence against the women were used. Results: The total IDS score of the study sample was 37.76 ± 10.53. There was no significant relationship between the age and education level of the women and the total IDS score. The total IDS score was higher in women who did not work and those being treated for infertility for more than three years. The total SDVW score of the study sample was 67.0 ± 8.26. The total SDVW score was higher in women who had been trying to have a child for more than six years and had received infertility treatment for longer than three years. The employment status of the women and physical, emotional, and sexual violence scores had a statistically significant relationship with the IDS scores. The emotional violence score was found to have the highest significance among the variables affecting total IDS score. Conclusion: Marital violence is a factor increasing the distress of infertile women. Healthcare staff serving infertile couples should consider the possibility of domestic violence against women as a factor affecting the psychological infertility distress level. PMID:24696770
Akyuz, Aygul; Sahiner, Gonul; Seven, Memnun; Bak?r, Bilal
Introduction: Infertility is the problem of 15% of young couples in different societies. One of the factors that could affect fertility is oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the level of Melatonin, a free radical scavenger, and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in infertile men. Methods: For this purpose, fertile and infertile men in 2 groups, 30 people in each group, were studied. The fertile men were selected from husbands of patients admitted to Alzahra obstetric and gynecology hospital, according to WHO standards. The infertile men were selected from patients referred to infertility ward. Blood sampling from the participants carried out at a specific time, sera collected and the levels of malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity and Melatonin were detected in the sera. The data were analyzed using t-test and Sperman's correlation method. Results: Melatonin level in the sera from fertile men were 522 (39.32) ng/L and in infertile men were 511.78 (34.6) ng/L. MDA level in fertile and infertile men were 2.26 (0.34) vs 2.99 (0.44) nmol/ml which was significantly different. The level of TAC in the sera from fertile men were significantly higher than in infertile men. The result obtained for correlation coefficient Spearman's test revealed a significant, strong and direct correlation between Melatonin and TAC and a significant and reverse correlation between melatonin and MDA. Conclusion: It is concluded that melatonin could be involved in infertility. In other word, melatonin treatment and antioxidant-rich nutrition could help fertility by combating oxidative stress.
Soleimani Rad, Sara; Abbasalizadeh, Shamsi; Ghorbani Haghjo, Amir; Sadagheyani, Mehzad; Montaseri, Azadeh; Soleimani Rad, Jafar
In the work, the efficiency of treating endometriosis by hormonal as well as combined methods, and employing the operative laparoscopy was evaluated. The study involved 89 infertile women with endometriosis being of various grade of advancement. Sixty women underwent combined treatment according to Samm, the remaining 29 were given hormonal therapy with Danazol and Orgametril preparations. After combined treatment full recovery was obtained in 26.7% of cases, improvement in 40%, but after the use of preparations Orgametril, Organon or Danazol, Winthrop, complete cure was reached in 12.8% of cases, improvement in 31%. Only 8 women became pregnant after combined therapy. Complete recovery concerned mainly less advanced endometriosis, particularly following the combined treatment according to Semm. Early laparoscopic diagnosis increases the chance of curing endometriosis and fertility associated with it. PMID:1305578
Starczewski, A; Iwanicki, M; Niedzielski, A; Biernacki, R
It has to be suspected that some environmentally hazardous substances have genotoxic properties, revealing their reproductive toxicity at a later stage only. Cancer, including childhood cancer, is more common than usually expected. Undesirable side effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation can be premature ovarian failure or even premature menopause. In cases of autoimmune disease, autoantibodies can directly affect maturation of oocytes in the follicle, fertilization, and implantation. Spontaneous abortions are more common in patients with autoimmune disease. Thrombophilia is known to display a higher rate of spontaneous abortions as well as pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. Infections are a common threat to pregnancy. Metabolic syndrome is increasingly frequent in western countries and often associated with hyperandrogenemia and polycystic disease. Women with inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis usually have no problems conceiving. In conclusion, even though infertility is a multifactorial disease, various medical and non-medical conditions can be attributed to it. PMID:24140222
Tinneberg, Hans-Rudolf; Gasbarrini, Antonio
In this study, we aimed to compare the level of zinc, selenium, glutathione peroxidase activity and antioxidant status in following populations of men: severe inflammation in prostate (>10(6) white blood cells in prostate secretion; n=29), severe leukocytospermia, (>10(6) white blood cells in semen; n=31), mild inflammation, (0.2-1M white blood cells in semen or prostate secretion; n=24), non-inflammatory oligozoospermia (n=32) and healthy controls (n=27). Male partners of infertile couples had reduced level of antioxidative activity, selenium and zinc in their seminal plasma. Most importantly, reduced selenium levels were evident in all patient groups regardless of inflammation status. Therefore, these patients might gain some benefit from selenium supplementation. PMID:24462254
Türk, Silver; Mändar, Reet; Mahlapuu, Riina; Viitak, Anu; Punab, Margus; Kullisaar, Tiiu
Summary The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when “infertility,” understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented. PMID:24362276
BACKGROUND Recent advances in our understanding of the causes of infertility and of assisted reproductive technology (ART) have led to the development of complex diagnostic tools, prognostic models and treatment options. The Third Evian Annual Reproduction (EVAR) Workshop Meeting was held on 26–27 April 2008 to evaluate evidence supporting current approaches to the diagnosis and management of infertility and to identify areas for future research efforts. METHODS Specialist reproductive medicine clinicians and scientists delivered presentations based on published literature and ongoing research on patient work-up, ovarian stimulation and embryo quality assessment during ART. This report is based on the expert presentations and subsequent group discussions and was supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. RESULTS It was agreed that single embryo transfer (SET) should be used with increasing frequency in cycles of ART. Continued improvements in cryopreservation techniques, which improve pregnancy rates using supernumerary frozen embryos, are expected to augment the global uptake of SET. Adaptation and personalization of fertility therapy may help to optimize efficacy and safety outcomes for individual patients. Prognostic modelling and personalized management strategies based on individual patient characteristics may prove to represent real progress towards improved treatment. However, at present, there is limited good-quality evidence to support the use of these individualized approaches. CONCLUSIONS Greater quality control and standardization of clinical and laboratory evaluations are required to optimize ART practices and improve individual patient outcomes. Well-designed, good-quality studies are required to drive improvements to the diagnosis and management of ART processes. PMID:19380415
Devroey, P.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Diedrich, K.
Gonadotrophin-regulated testicular RNA helicase (GRTH) plays an important role in RNA functions including nuclear transcription, pre-mRNA splicing and it regulates the translation of specific genes required for the progression of spermatogenesis. In this study, we analysed the association of GRTH gene IVS6+55G/T and c.852C/T polymorphisms with human male infertility. The study showed c.852 T allele was associated with an increased risk of male infertility (OR: 3.16, P = 0.008), whereas IVS6+55G/T allele conferred no risk. In Indian population, this is the first report on association of GRTH gene SNP polymorphism and male infertility and it underscores the significance of GRTH genotypes in modulating the risk of male infertility. PMID:24168058
Jaiswal, D; Trivedi, S; Agrawal, N K; Singh, K
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility.
Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona
The seminal plasma levels of soluble Fas (sFas) and interleukins IL-6 and IL-8 were measured and their relationship with semen qualities was examined. The seminal plasma sFas level in fertile males was significantly higher than that in the infertile group. On the other hand, seminal plasma level of IL-6 was significantly lower in fertile males than in the infertile group. In the infertile group, patients with oligozoospermia had a lower seminal plasma sFas and a higher IL-6 level than those with normal sperm concentration. There was an inverse correlation between IL-6 and sperm concentration in infertile patients. Seminal plasma IL-8 was not correlated with sperm parameters. It would appear that certain kinds of cytokine in the seminal plasma might play an important role in improving semen quality. PMID:14555327
Furuya, Y; Akashi, T; Fuse, H
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of the bacterial agents Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae), Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum) and the conditions which may play a role in the development of female infertility, in the county of Ia?i in North-Eastern Romania. Cervical and blood samples were collected from 176 infertile women and 45 pregnant women in the third trimester. Classical methods and real time PCR were applied to each cervical sample to detect the presence of these sexually transmitted microorganisms; the ELISA method was applied to blood samples to detect C. trachomatis antibodies (IgA, IgM and IgG). The proportion of C. trachomatis IgG was significantly higher in the infertile group (23.8%) than in the pregnant group (4.4%), p < 0.05. For C. trachomatis antigen (Ag) and N. gonorrhoeae Ag no differences were observed between the two groups. The prevalence of mycoplasma genital infections was higher in the pregnant group (U. urealyticum - 53.3% and M. hominis - 20%) than in the infertile group (U. urealyticum - 39.7% and M. hominis - 7.3%). Higher rate of co-infection with C. trachomatis and mycoplasma were observed among the infertile women (25.7%) than among the pregnant women (7.7%). This combination could be involved in the appearance of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and its sequela, including infertility. C. trachomatis IgG determination still remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of PID and should be used as a screening test for the prediction of tubal damage in infertile women. In view of the large number of cases involving the co-existence of genital infections with C. trachomatis, M. hominis and U. urealyticum, it is clearly necessary to perform screening for all three microorganisms among all women of reproductive age but especially those who are infertile. PMID:23529298
Miron, Nora Dumitriu; Socolov, Demetra; Mare?, Mihai; Anton, Gabriela; Nastasa, Valentin; Moraru, Ramona Florina; Virág, Katalin; Anghelache-Lupa?cu, Ivona; Deák, Judit
We investigated the effects of induced increase in prolactin levels on spermatogenesis in 20 infertile men with hypoprolactinemia using exogenous human prolactin (hPRL) and metoclopramide. The subjects were selected from a population of 175 infertile men in whom the prevalence of hypoprolactinemia was 33.14%. Mean basal plasma prolactin was 2.79 +/- 0.62 ng.ml-1 in the infertile men and 9.57 +/- 2.14 ng.ml-1 in the normal control subjects. At the sixteenth week, mean plasma prolactin was 9.41 +/- 1.3 ng.ml-1 in subjects treated with exogenous hPRL and 5.2 +/- 0.7 ng.ml-1 in subjects treated with metoclopramide. Mean basal sperm concentration was approximately 8.8 million per milliliter in the infertile men and 41.5 million per milliliter in the normal control subjects. Mean sperm concentration was approximately 37 million per milliliter in subjects treated with exogenous hPRL, whereas the peak mean value was 23 million per milliliter in subjects treated with metoclopramide for 16 weeks. At basal conditions, the mean percentages of abnormal sperm were 66.75% +/- 14.93% and 21.36% +/- 4.78% in infertile and normal subjects, respectively. In subjects treated with exogenous hPRL and metoclopramide, the mean percentage of abnormal sperm were 24.7% and 31%, respectively, at week 16. Mean plasma prolactin, mean sperm concentration and the mean percentage of abnormal sperm were 3.3 +/- 1.4 ng.ml-1, 7 million per milliliter, and 60.5, respectively, in the infertile subjects after drug withdrawal at week 14. In normal control subjects, there was no significant difference (p = 0.01) in the plecebo effect. We therefore conclude that the low prolactin levels in this group of infertile men may be one of the primary causes of their infertility. PMID:7554710
Ufearo, C S; Orisakwe, O E
Objective: To gather information about demographic characteristics, medical status, mode of Internet participation, and psychological well-being of participants whose only outlets (OOs) for talking about infertility are Internet medical and support forums and to compare them with persons who have additional outlets (AOs).Design: Prospective Internet-based survey.Setting: Website of a nonprofit international infertility organization.Patient(s): Five hundred eighty-nine persons submitting fully completed
Yakov M Epstein; Helane S Rosenberg; Theresa Venet Grant; Nancy Hemenway B. A
The association between infertility and a number of occupations and occupational exposures was examined in a case-control study utilizing data collected from medical records and mailed questionnaires. The results suggest that male exposure to heat and female exposure to noise, textile dyes and lead, mercury, and cadmium are associated with infertility. Further research is needed to examine the entire spectrum of abnormal reproductive and developmental outcomes of exposure to these agents and to identify their full effects.
Rachootin, P.; Olsen, J.
Objective: To investigate whether a high level of oxidative DNA damage in spermatozoa occurs in infertile male patients and to examine the influence of antioxidant treatments on the levels of this damage.Design: Controlled clinical study and uncontrolled pilot study.Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Akita University School of Medicine.Patient(s): Nineteen infertile male and 17 control patients.Intervention(s): The levels of oxidative
Hideya Kodama; Raizo Yamaguchi; Jun Fukuda; Hiroshi Kasai; Toshinobu Tanaka
Background. A 25-year-old South Asian woman presented at an infertility unit with a 2-year history of anovulatory infertility. She had experienced irregular and infrequent periods for over a decade.Investigations. Endocrine profile (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-function test, prolactin, testosterone), oral glucose tolerance test and pelvic ultrasonography were performed.Diagnosis. Polycystic ovary syndrome, in accordance with the recent Rotterdam consensus (2004) criteria.Management.
Thomas Tang; Adam H. Balen
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine whether induced abortions could increase the risk of secondary infertility. DESIGN--This was a case-control study; cases were women with secondary infertility, individually matched to two controls who were currently pregnant. Each participant was interviewed by one of two medical doctors using a questionnaire that sought information on their demographic, socioeconomic, medical, and reproductive status.
A Tzonou; C C Hsieh; D Trichopoulos; D Aravandinos; A Kalandidi; D Margaris; M Goldman; N Toupadaki
Summary The significance of the performance of conventionalin vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmie sperm injection (IVF\\/ICSI) using sibling oocytes from couples with subfertile male or\\u000a unexplained infertility was evaluated. A total of 410 sibling oocyte cumulus-corona complexes (OCCC) from 21 couples with\\u000a subfertile male (group A) and 11 unexplained infertile couples (group B) were randomly divided, in order of retrieval, into\\u000a two
Li Zhiling; Lin Hong; Xiao Wanfen; Wang Yulian
The presence of various cytokines, namely the tumor necrosisfactor(TNF-cr), interferon (IFN-y), and interleukins (IL-1 and lL-6), was investigated in seminal plasma of fertile, infertile, and immunoinfertile men using specific immunoradiometric assays. TNF-a and IL-i were not detected. IFN-y was detected, but the differences between the levels of fertile and infertile\\/immunoinfertile were not significant (P> 0.05). lL-6 was detected in seminal
RAJESH K. NAZ; PAUL KAPLANt
BACKGROUND: Infertility in Africa is commonly associated with negative psycho-social consequences. To date, most studies from African countries addressing these consequences have been qualitative in nature. The aim of this study was to assess psychological distress quantitatively among women suffering from couple infertility in an urban community in South Africa. METHODS: The Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), a standardized instru- ment for
S. J. Dyer; N. Abrahams; N. E. Mokoena; C. J. Lombard; Z. M. van der Spuy
Introduction: Improving the lifestyle of infertile couples led to the preservation of their performance, increase their quality of life, and reduce health cost. So, the aims of this study were to determine the health-promoting lifestyle and its predictors among infertile couples. Methods: In a cross-sectional, analytical study 322 infertile couples referred to an infertility clinic in Tabriz was participated with convenience sampling method. The demographic and the standard Health Promoting Lifestyle-II (HPLP II) questionnaires were completed by all couples individually. For determining the demographic predictors of health-promoting lifestyle, the multivariate linear regression was used. Results: The mean (standard deviation) score of health-promoting lifestyle in couples was 2.4 (0.4) of the achievable score ranged from 1 to 4. The highest mean score was for nutrition subscale 2.6 (0.5) in both men and women and the lowest mean score was for physical activity subscale in women 2.1(0.5) and men 2.3(0.5) and health responsibility subscale (2.3(0.5) in both men and women. Educational level, cause of infertility, adequacy of income for living expense, and living situation were predictors of health-promoting lifestyle. Conclusion: The results showed that participants do not carry out all health-promoting behaviors, especially physical activity and health responsibility, in an acceptable level. These behaviors have an important role in improving the quality of life, health maintenance, and fertility. Thus, the provision of strategies, including those in accordance with predictors of health-promoting behaviors, is important for improving the health status of infertile couples. PMID:25276761
Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Sehhati, Fahimeh; Rahimi, Mareieh
In Africa, infertility constitutes a major gynaecological complaint and causes enormous socio-psychological stress to the patients. This study examined retrospective data at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, over a 5-year period to determine the factors associated with tubal infertility. Tubal infertility was confirmed in 13.5% of the 1181 new cases of infertility over the study period. The mean age of the patients was 33.2+/-9.5 years. Over 65% were nulliparous and all socioeconomic classes were affected. Major associated factors included infections such as post-abortal sepsis, puerperal sepsis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Infertility is largely preventable. Attention should be focused on reducing the incidence of unsafe abortion and its consequences, providing clean and safe delivery as well as reducing the incidence of and ensuring proper treatment of any cases of PID. Infertility is largely preventable. Attention should be focused on reducing the incidence of unsafe abortion and its consequences, providing clean and safe delivery as well as reducing the incidence of and ensuring proper treatment of any cases of PID. PMID:17540089
Umeora, O U J; Mbazor, J O; Okpere, E E
Background Male-factor infertility underlies approximately 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment; of which 10% is due to azoospermia. The development of assisted reproductive technology (ART), enabling the use of epididymal or testicular sperm for fertilization of the partner's oocytes, has made biological fatherhood possible for men with obstructive azoospermia. There is limited knowledge of men's experience of their own infertility. The aim of this study was to describe men's experiences of obstructive azoospermia infertility. Methods Eight men with obstructive azoospermia, who had terminated Swedish public health system ART treatment two years previously without subsequent childbirth, were interviewed using a descriptive phenomenological method. Results The essence of the phenomenon is expressed with a metaphor: climbing a mountain step by step with the aim of reaching the top, i.e. having a child and thus a family with a child. Four constituents are included (1) inadequacy followed by a feeling of redress (2) marginalisation, (3) chivalry (4) extension of life and starting a family as driving forces. Conclusions Knowledge of men's experiences of their own infertility is important as a supporting measure to increase the quality of care of infertile couples. By adopting this facet of gender perspective in fertility treatment guidelines, care can hopefully be optimized. PMID:21294868
Estrogen receptor alpha has a central role in human fertility by regulating estrogen action in all human reproductive tissues. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expression, a cytokine critical for blastocyst implantation, is mediated by estrogen signaling, so we hypothesized that ESR1 gene polymorphisms might be candidate risk markers for endometriosis-related infertility and in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. We included 98 infertile women with endometriosis, 115 infertile women with at least one IVF failure and also 134 fertile women as controls. TaqMan SNP assays were used for genotyping LIF (rs929271), MDM2 (rs2279744), MDM4 (rs1563828), USP7 (rs1529916), and ESR1 (rs9340799 and rs2234693) polymorphisms. The SNP ESR1 rs9340799 was associated with endometriosis-related infertility (P < 0.001) and also with IVF failure (P = 0.018). After controlling for age, infertile women with ESR1 rs9340799 GG genotype presented 4-fold increased risk of endometriosis (OR 4.67, 95% CI 1.84–11.83, P = 0.001) and 3-fold increased risk of IVF failure (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.38–8.03, P = 0.007). Our results demonstrate an association between ESR1 rs9340799 polymorphism and infertile women with endometriosis and also with women who were submitted to IVF procedures and had no blastocyst implantation. PMID:24427778
Paskulin, Diego Davila; Cunha-Filho, Joăo Sabino; Paskulin, Livia Davila; Souza, Carlos Augusto Bastos; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia
Zinc has antioxidative properties and plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that in the absence of Zn, the possibility of increased oxidative damage exists that would contribute to poor sperm quality. Therefore, measurement of seminal Zn in the seminal plasma of males with a history of subfertility or idiopathic infertility is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between Zn levels in seminal plasma with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Semen samples were provided by fertile (smoker [n = 17], nonsmoker [n = 19]) and infertile men (smoker [n = 15], nonsmoker [n = 21]). After semen analysis, concentrations of Zn, Mg, Ca, Na, and K in the seminal plasma of all groups were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Element concentrations in seminal plasma of all groups were in the order Na > K > Ca > Zn > Mg. Fertile subjects, smoker or not, demonstrated significantly higher seminal Zn levels than any infertile group (P < .001). A trend was observed for a lower Zn levels in seminal plasma of smokers compared with nonsmokers. Seminal Zn in fertile and infertile (smokers or nonsmokers) males correlated significantly with sperm count (P < .01) and normal morphology of sperm (P < .001). There was a significantly positive correlation between seminal Zn with Ca (P < .01) and K (P < .01) levels in all specimens. In conclusion, poor Zn nutrition may be an important risk factor for low quality of sperm and idiopathic male infertility. PMID:19285597
Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad
Estrogen receptor alpha has a central role in human fertility by regulating estrogen action in all human reproductive tissues. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expression, a cytokine critical for blastocyst implantation, is mediated by estrogen signaling, so we hypothesized that ESR1 gene polymorphisms might be candidate risk markers for endometriosis-related infertility and in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. We included 98 infertile women with endometriosis, 115 infertile women with at least one IVF failure and also 134 fertile women as controls. TaqMan SNP assays were used for genotyping LIF (rs929271), MDM2 (rs2279744), MDM4 (rs1563828), USP7 (rs1529916), and ESR1 (rs9340799 and rs2234693) polymorphisms. The SNP ESR1 rs9340799 was associated with endometriosis-related infertility (P < 0.001) and also with IVF failure (P = 0.018). After controlling for age, infertile women with ESR1 rs9340799 GG genotype presented 4-fold increased risk of endometriosis (OR 4.67, 95% CI 1.84-11.83, P = 0.001) and 3-fold increased risk of IVF failure (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.38-8.03, P = 0.007). Our results demonstrate an association between ESR1 rs9340799 polymorphism and infertile women with endometriosis and also with women who were submitted to IVF procedures and had no blastocyst implantation. PMID:24427778
Paskulin, Diego Davila; Cunha-Filho, Joăo Sabino; Paskulin, Livia Davila; Souza, Carlos Augusto Bastos; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia
The objective of this study is to investigate gender differences regarding the mediator role of self-compassion and self-judgment on the effects of external shame, internal shame, dyadic adjustment, on infertility-related stress. One hundred and sixty-two women and 147 men with a primary infertility diagnosis completed the following set of self-report measures: Others as Shamer, Experience of Shame Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Self-Compassion Scale, and Fertility Problem Inventory. Path analyses results revealed that in women self-compassion fully mediated the effect of internal shame on infertility-related stress and partially mediated the effect of dyadic adjustment on this variable, while external shame had only a direct effect. In men self-judgment fully mediated the effect of external and internal shame on infertility-related stress. Dyadic adjustment had only a direct effect on infertility-related stress. In conclusion, there is a distinct role of self-compassion and self-judgment on the relationship between shame and infertility-related stress in men and women. Such differences should be taken into account in psychological interventions with these patients. Future research is warranted to further support our results. PMID:23821009
Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, M; Pinto-Gouveia, J; Matos, M
Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) is the most common CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) that explains about 1–2% of the male infertility cases. Controversial data have been published regarding the involvement of CFTR mutations in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Here, we describe single base extension (SNaPshot) assay for detection of 11 common CFTR mutations: F508del, G542X, N1303K, 621+1G->T, G551D, R553X, R1162X, W1282X, R117H, 2184insA and 1717-1G->A and IVS8polyT variants. The assay was validated on 50 previously genotyped samples and was used to screen a total of 369 infertile men with different impairment of spermatogenesis and 136 fertile controls. Our results show that double heterozygosity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) mutations are found in a high percentage (22.7%) of infertile men with obstructive azoospermia, but not in other studied groups of infertile men. The SNaPshot assay described here is an inexpensive, fast and robust method for primary screening of the most common CFTR mutations both in patients with classical CF and CFTR-RD. It can contribute to better understanding of the role of CFTR mutations in impaired spermatogenesis, ultimately leading to improved management of infertile men. PMID:25386751
Mircevska, Marija; Plaseski, Toso; Filipovski, Vanja; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana
Background: Genital tuberculosis is a common entity in gynecological practice particularly among infertile patients. It is rare in developed countries but is an important cause of infertility in developing countries. Objective: The present study has investigated the prevalence of female genital tract tuberculosis (FGT) among infertile patients, which was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit-I, Allied Hospital, affiliated with Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: 150 infertile women who were referred to infertility clinic were selected randomly and enrolled in our study. Patients were scanned for possible presence of FGT by examination and relevant investigation. We evaluated various aspects (age, symptoms, signs, and socio-economic factors) of the patients having tuberculosis. Results: Very high frequency of FGT (20%) was found among infertile patients. While, a total of 25 patients out of 30 (83.33%) showed primary infertility and the remaining 5 cases (16.67%) had secondary infertility. Among secondary infertility patients, the parity ranged between 1 and 2. A total of 40% of patients (12 cases) were asymptomatic but infertile. Evidence of family history was found in 4 out of a total of 30 patients (13.3%), respectively. According to histopathological and bacteriological examination of endometrial biopsy and laparotomy, tuberculous endometritis was found in 20 out of a total of 25 (80%) cases, while tuberculous salpingitis and tuberculous oophoritis were found both in 2 (8%) of the cases, respectively. Only one case (4%) of tuberculosis cervicitis was found in the present study. Conclusion: Although infertility is not a disease in classical sense, but it is an extremely important personal concern for many couples and a significant health problem for our profession. So, it is worthwhile to identify and evaluate the factors contributing to infertility.
Mycoplasma bovigenitalium (M. bovigenitalium, strain AL) was inoculated by insemination during estrous into the uterus or the cervix of 12 heifers. The inoculum consisted of a mixture of M. bovigenitalium (strain AL) and diluted semen taken from a highly fertile bull free of mycoplasma infection. Mycoplasma organisms were recovered 3 days postinoculation (PI) from the vaginal mucous of eight of 12 inoculated heifers, and at weekly intervals thereafter until the time of necropsy. All inoculated heifers had granular vulvovaginitis; some also had mucopurulent vaginal discharges. Six of the 12 infected heifers were inseminated more than once, yet none became pregnant. Macroscopic changes observed at necropsy in the genital tracts, in addition to granular vulvovaginitis, consisted of mucopurulent discharges emananting from the uterus, cervix, and vagina. All ovaries had corpora lutea. Mycoplasmas were recovered at necropsy from eight of the 12 heifers. Isolations were made from the vaginal wall, cervix, uterus, right and left oviducts, and the ovaries. All recovered mycoplasms were identified as M. bovigenitalium. It was concluded that M. bovigenitalium (strain AL) can cause inflammatory changes and infertility in heifers. PMID:6839781
Saed, O M; Al-Aubaidi, J M
Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs most often to young men. Following SCI, most men are infertile due to a combination of erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Erectile dysfunction may be treated by the same therapies that are used in the general population. Similarly, the same treatments that are effective to assist conception in couples with non-SCI male factor patients are effective in assisting conception in SCI male-factor patients. The most apparent differences in male-factor symptoms between SCI and non-SCI patients are the high occurrences of anejaculation and atypical semen profiles in men with SCI. Methods available to assist ejaculation in men with SCI include penile vibratory stimulation and EEJ. Use of surgical sperm retrieval as the first line of treatment for anejaculation in men with SCI is controversial. Most men with SCI have a unique semen profile characterized by normal sperm concentration, but abnormally low sperm motility. Toxic substances in the semen contribute to this problem. Despite impaired sperm parameters, pregnancy outcomes using sperm from men with SCI are similar to pregnancy outcomes using sperm from non-SCI men. Future studies should focus on improving natural ejaculation and improving semen quality in these men. PMID:24278717
Brackett, Nancy L.
Balanced diet is the natural source of micronutrients, such as folate and vitamins, vital for proper functioning of the body. One-carbon metabolic pathway along with folate and other vitamins plays an important role in DNA synthesis and in the establishment of epigenetic modifications like DNA/histone methylation. Spermatogenesis involves distinct cellular, genetic, and chromatin changes during the course of production of male gamete sperm. Folate and normal activity of 1-carbon metabolic pathway enzymes are central to nucleotide synthesis, methylation, and maintenance of genomic integrity as well as protection from DNA damage. As a result, polymorphisms in 1-carbon metabolic pathway genes affecting several physiological processes also have an impact on spermatogenesis and may affect directly or indirectly quality of sperm. Alterations in these processes may be a consequence of additive effect resulting from altered expression of 1-carbon metabolic pathway genes and/or inadequate folate/micronutrients supplementation. The present review provides an overview of different cellular and molecular events regulated by 1-carbon metabolic pathway enzymes and their impact on male reproductive health. It also summarizes the different studies where polymorphisms in the enzymes of 1-carbon metabolic pathway or folate deficiency are associated with male infertility and future prospects. PMID:23138010
Singh, Kiran; Jaiswal, Deepika
Infertility is secondary to pelvic adhesions in 15-20% of cases. Pelvic adhesions result from pelvic inflammatory disease, previous pelvic surgery, foreign bodies and previous appendicitis with pelvic abscess. As a result of the insult to the peritoneal surfaces of the pelvic organs, the concentrations of peritoneal fluid leukotriene, B4 and prostaglandin E2 are increased. Also, there is a decrease in plasminogen activity. The end result will be the formation of fibrin deposits, which will end in the formation of pelvic adhesions. The diagnosis of adhesions can be achieved by a high index of suspicion in patients with a history of pelvic infections or surgery. A pelvic examination with fixation of the uterus and/or adnexa is also highly suggestive. A hysterosalpingogram might lead to a suspicion of the presence of pelvic adhesions; however, there is some degree of false-positive and -negative results. The definitive diagnosis depends on laparoscopy. The use of an internationally accepted classification, such as that of the American Fertility Society, allows investigators to compare the results of treatment. Various adjuvants have been used following lysis of adhesions to prevent their recurrence; they yield various results. The most significant recommendation is to prevent the occurrence of adhesions by following the principles of microsurgical technique during every surgical procedure. PMID:1371547
Drollette, C M; Badawy, S Z
The possible association between employment in horticulture with potential exposure to pesticides and female infertility was examined by identification of women with hospital contact due to infertility and working in horticulture through the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register. This follow-up study gave a standardized incidence ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.32) for treatment of infertility in women working in horticulture compared with the standard population and did not confirm that women working in the horticultural industry are at increased risk for infertility. PMID:18675960
Hougaard, Karin Sřrig; Hannerz, Harald; Feveile, Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Burr, Hermann
Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used in the Middle East, especially to treat chronic diseases such as infertility. We aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics, and determinants of CAM use, particularly herbs and antioxidant therapies, among infertile males presenting for infertility evaluation in Jordan. Methods Demographic information, use of alternative and antioxidant therapies for infertility treatment, and patients’ belief in efficacy and safety of the therapies used were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. Data were collected from 428 infertile male patients presenting at infertility clinics in Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between April 2013 and September 2013. Results Of the 428 men who completed the questionnaire, 184 (43%) used at least one of the alternative and antioxidant therapies specified in the questionnaire. Nutritional regime; vitamins, such as vitamins C and E; and medicinal herbs, such as ginger, saw palmetto, and ginseng were the most commonly used therapies reported. A correlation between the use of alternative and antioxidant therapies versus infertility duration was found. Additionally, the majority of males using CAM did not inform their health care providers about their usage. Conclusions The high prevalence of CAM use among infertile male patients underscores the urge to assimilate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as to improve infertile patients’ knowledge of the safe use of CAM modalities. PMID:25026980
Background There are various treatment options for infertility, and new techniques are also being developed as it is an important healthcare problem affecting approximately 15-20% of married couples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of infor- mation of fertile and infertile Turkish women on oocyte donation in order to understand their awareness of the legal, ethical, social and religious issues regarding this technique and to compare these two groups in terms of these variables. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included infertile women being treated at the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) program of a university hos- pital and women who had presented at the gynecology outpatients department of the same university for routine check-ups and who had no previous history of infertility. After consulting with specialists in the field and searching the related literature, a data collection form having 22 questions for infertile women and 18 questions for fertile women was prepared. Results The women were asked whether they would use the oocytes of another woman if necessary. The results showed that 67.6% of the fertile women said they would never want to use this method, while 63.9% of the infertile women stated they may accept to use this method under certain conditions (two distinct answers appeared in the answers, some women stated they would prefer donated oocytes from close relatives, while others stated they would prefer oocytes from total strangers), such as from a close relative or from someone they do not know at all. Conclusion Infertile women mentioned that they could use illegal routes if necessary to have a child at much higher rates than stated by fertile women. This shows that desire to have a child is a strong source of motivation in Turkey. PMID:25379158
Akyuz, Aygul; Sever, Nese; Karasahin, Emre; Guvenc, Gulten; Cek, Suzan
The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05) and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment. PMID:25184788
Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri
The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05) and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that "women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment. PMID:25184788
Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri
Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on average 8-12 percent of couples worldwide. In some societies, however-particularly those in the "infertility belt" of sub-Saharan Africa-as many as one-third of all couples are unable to conceive. Factors causing high rates of tubal infertility in parts of the developing world include sexually transmitted, postpartum, and postabortion infections; however, male infertility, which is rarely acknowledged, contributes to more than half of all cases. Unfortunately, the new reproductive technologies (NRTs) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), which are prohibitively expensive and difficult to implement in many parts of the developing world, represent the only solution to most cases of tubal and male infertility. Not surprisingly, these technologies are rapidly globalizing to pronatalist developing societies, where children are highly desired, parenthood is culturally mandatory, and childlessness socially unacceptable. Using Egypt as an illustrative case study, this paper examines five of the major forces fueling the global demand for NRTs; these include demographic and epidemiological factors, the fertility-infertility dialectic, problems in health care seeking, gendered suffering, and adoption restrictions. Following this overview, a detailed examination of the implications of the rapid global spread of NRTs to the developing world will be offered. By focusing on Egypt, where nearly 40 IVF centers are in operation, this article will demonstrate the considerable constraints on the practice and utilization of NRTs in a developing country on the "receiving end" of global reproductive technology transfer. The article concludes by stressing the need for primary prevention of infections leading to infertility, thereby reducing global reliance on NRTs. PMID:12650724
Inhorn, Marcia C
AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ketotifen on sperm motility of asthenospermic infertile men. SETTING AND DESIGN: It is a prospective study designed in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this interventional experimental study, a total of 40 infertile couples with asthenospermic infertility factor undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles were enrolled. The couples were randomly assigned to one of two groups at the starting of the cycle. In control group (n = 20), the men did not receive Ketotifen, while in experiment group (n = 20), the men received oraly ketotifen (1 mg Bid) for 2 months. Semen analysis, under optimal circumferences, was obtained prior to initiation of treatment. The second semen analysis was done 2-3 weeks after stopped ketotifen treatment and sperm motility was defined. Clinical pregnancy was identified as the presence of a fetal sac by vaginal ultrasound examination. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: All data are expressed as the mean ± standard error of mean (SEM). t test was used for comparing the data of the control and treated groups. RESULTS: The mean sperm motility increased significantly (from 16.7% to 21.4%) after ketotifen treatment (P < 0.001). This sperm motility improvement was more pronounced in the primary infertility cases (P < 0.003). The rate of pregnancy was 12.5% in infertile couples that their men receiving 1 mg/twice a day ketotifen. In 52% of infertile men's semen, the percentage of sperm motility was increased from 5% to 35% and this sperm motility improvement was also observed in 33% of necrospermia (0% motility) cases. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that ketotifen may represent as a novel therapeutic approach to improve sperm motility in the infertile men with cause of asthenospermia or necrospermia. PMID:23869145
Saharkhiz, Nasrin; Nikbakht, Roshan; Hemadi, Masoud
Background To develop a scale to evaluate violence experienced among infertile women. Method Three steps were followed in the development of the scale: Literature review and deep interviews to generate item pool, content validity testing, and administration of draft. Content validity was evaluated by experts. The draft scale was pilot-tested with a convenience sample of 30 women during their treatment. After the pilot-test, 166 infertile females filled the scale in the infertility clinic of a university hospital in Istanbul. Results For evaluation of construct validity, Kaiser-Mayer Olkin was 0.91. Bartlett test was statistically significant (p?=?0.00). According to the results of analysis, 5 domains were determined: “domestic violence”, “social pressure”, “punishment”, “exposure to traditional practices” and “exclusion”. The values of correlation of item were between 0.50 and 0.82. Item-total and subscale-total correlation varied between 0.57-0.91. The scale had good internal reliability, with Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient of 0.96. The other coefficients of subscales varied between 0.80-0.94. Conclusions The scale called “Infertile Women’s Exposure to Violence Determination Scale” indicates high reliability, good content and construct validity. Routine screening for domestic violence in infertility clinics is necessary to give affected women an opportunity to access appropriate health care and support services. On the other hand, common use of Infertile Women’s Exposure to Violence Determination Scale in infertility clinics provides increased sensitivity and awareness by caregivers. PMID:24576353
Background: Infertility has been described as creating a form of stress leading to a variety of psychological problems. Both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are effective treatments for infertility stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy along with fluoxetine for improvement infertility stress in infertile women. Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 89 infertile women with mild to moderate depression (Beck scores 10-47) were recruited into the following three groups: i. cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), ii. antidepressant therapy, and iii. control group. Twenty-nine participants in the CBT method received gradual relaxation training, restructuring, and eliminating of negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes to infertility for 10 sessions. Thirty participants in the pharmacotherapy group took 20 mg fluoxetine daily for 90 days. Thirty individuals in control group did not receive any intervention. All participants completed fertility problem inventory (FPI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at the beginning and end of the study. We applied Chi-square paired t test, ANOVA and Turkey’s test to analyze the data. Results: The mean of the infertility stress scores in CBT, fluoxetine, and control groups at the beginning and end of the study were as follows, respectively: 3.5 ± 0.62 vs.2.7 ± 0.62 (p<0.05), 3.5 ± 0.53 vs.3.2 ± 4.4 (p<0.05), and 3.4 ± 0.55 vs. 3.5 ± 0.48. In CBT group, the mean scores of social concern, sexual concern, marital concern, rejection of child-free lifestyle, and need for parenthood decreased meaningfully compared to those before starting the therapy. But in fluoxetine group, mean score of women sexual concern out of those five main problems of infertility reduced significantly. Also, fluoxetine and CBT reduced depression compared to the control group. Conclusion: CBT improved the social concerns, sexual concerns, marital concerns, rejection of child-free lifestyle, and need for parenthood more than floxitine group. Thus, CBT was not only a reliable alternative to pharmacotherapy, but also superior to fluoxetine in resolving and reducing of infertility stress (Registration Number: IRCT2012061710048N1). PMID:24520487
Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Pasha, Hajar; Esmailzadeh, Seddigheh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Heidary, Shima; Afshar, Zohreh
Background This article analyzes several key issues in the debate: the acceptability of in vitro fertilization; regulation of assisted reproduction and the possibilities of reimbursement for assisted reproduction treatment in Lithuania. Method Two groups of respondents participated in the survey: fertile women and women with fertility disorders. 93 completed questionnaires from women with fertility problems and 146 from women with no fertility problems were analysed. Results Fertile respondents more frequently perceived the embryo as a human being (Fertile Individuals – 68.5%; Infertile Individuals – 35.5%; p < 0.05) and more frequently maintained that assisted reproduction treatment should be only partly reimbursed (Fertile Individuals – 71.3%; Infertile Individuals – 39.8%; p < 0.05). Respondents with fertility disorders more frequently thought that artificial insemination procedure could also be applied to unmarried couples (Fertile Individuals – 51.4%; Infertile Individuals – 76.3%; p < 0.05), and more frequently agreed that there should be no age limit for artificial insemination procedures (Fertile Individuals – 36.3%; Infertile Individuals – 67.7%; p < 0.05). The majority of respondents in both groups (Fertile Individuals – 77.4%; Infertile Individuals – 82.8%; p < 0.05) believed that donation of reproductive cells should be regulated by law. Fertile respondents more frequently considered that strict legal regulation was necessary in case of the number of transferred embryos (Fertile Individuals – 69.2%; Infertile Individuals – 39.8%; p < 0.05) and freezing of embryos (Fertile Individuals – 69.9%; Infertile Individuals – 57.0%; p < 0.05). Conclusion Fertile respondents were statistically more likely to believe that the IVF procedure should be applied only to married couples or women who had a regular partner, the age limit should be defined and the psychological assessment of the couple’s relationship and their readiness for the IVF procedure was necessary. In contrast, infertile couples were statistically more likely than fertile respondents to maintain that the IVF procedure should be fully reimbursed by the state. Fertile respondents were statistically more likely to be categorical with respect to the number of embryos and the freezing of embryos. Meanwhile there is a statistically significant difference in opinions of infertile respondents who were in favour of stricter regulation on donation of reproductive cells. PMID:24684746
Until very recently, the problem of infertility in developing countries has been ignored at all levels of healthcare management. Because many preventable or treatable diseases still claim millions of lives, and due to limited resources, provision of infertility care is not on the resource allocation agenda at all, prevention of sexually transmitted diseases remaining the number one priority. Tubal infertility due to sexually transmitted diseases, unsafe abortion and post-partum pelvic infections is the main cause of infertility. Most cases are only treatable with assisted reproduction technology, which are either unavailable or too costly. In December 2007, an expert meeting was organized in Arusha, Tanzania by the Walking Egg non-profit organization in co-operation with ESHRE. The meeting was the start of a global project aimed at increasing diagnostic and therapeutic options for childless couples in resource-poor countries. From the start, the Walking Egg Project has approached this problem in a multidisciplinary and global manner. It gathers medical, social, ethical, epidemiological, juridical and economic scientists to discuss and work together towards its goal. The final objective of the Walking Egg Project is the implementation of infertility services in many developing countries, preferably integrated in existing family planning and mother care services. PMID:24444813
Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomplete without consideration of the sociocultural and environmental factors. The most cost-effective approach to solving the infertility problems in Africa is prevention and education. In Mexico, problems of reproductive health are associated with pregnancy in adolescents, sexually transmitted diseases and genitourinary neoplasms. Infertility affects 10% of couples, usually as a result of asymptomatic infection. Education, poverty, nutrition, and pollution are problems that must be tackled. The government has taken positive action in the State of Săo Paulo in Brazil, where gender discrimination is a major factor affecting women's health and reproductive outcomes. The implementation of new policies with adequate funding has resulted in marked improvements. PMID:8243409
Leke, R J; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K M
Background: Infertility affects various aspects of personality and psychology, familial and career performances, and relationships. Studies show that stress, anxiety, life dissatisfaction, and other psychological problems follow infertility. Infertility issue, its tests and remedy are stressful and may lead to anxiety and depression and have destructive effects on couple relationships. Objective: The present study was done in order to comparison general health and coping strategies in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: This is an analytic cross-sectional study and was done through random sampling on 70 fertile women and 70 infertile women who visited Yazd’s clinics. The age range of participants was between 20-40 years. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Ways of coping questionnaire (WOCQ) were filled by women who were agreed to participate in the study, following some explanations about aims and ways of doing the study. In the next step, data were analyzed through statistic methods and independent t-test. We considered a significant level p<0.05 in all tests. Results: The results indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) with respect to general health in two groups, but no significant difference was found in problem-centered and emotion centered coping strategies and depression anxiety. Conclusion: This study shows that general health in both groups is below average which means women are not sensitive about their general health. So planning on improving women’s general health by providing consultation and training courses is suggested.
Bakhshayesh, Ali Reza; Kazeraninejad, Mahsa; Dehghan Mongabadi, Mahsa; Raghebian, Malihe
Twenty-two buffalo bulls suffering from three different types of infertility were slaughtered and used for this study. Except for the reproductive system, no signs of localised or generalised disease were observed. Microbiological investigations were negative for brucellosis, vibriosis, mycoplasma and other non-specific microorganisms. Nine bulls with type 1 infertility had low bodyweights and underdevelopment of testes, accessory sex glands and endocrine glands. This picture suggests a total dysfunction of the pituitary-growth-gonadal axis. One bull of this type also showed bilateral epididymitis. Four out of 11 bulls with type 2 infertility had low bodyweights and most suffered from underdevelopment of testes, accessory sex glands and endocrine glands. Six bulls of this type had lesions of either epididymitis or orchitis or both. Two of these animals showed adhesions of periorchitis. One also showed seminal vesiculitis. In two bulls with type 3 infertility, bodyweights, reproductive organs and endocrine glands were normal. In later life, they yielded poor quality semen. Semen samples collected a few months before slaughter from nine bulls with type 2 and type 3 infertility were of poor quality and had higher percentages of abnormal spermatozoa in most cases. PMID:4049694
Ahmad, M; Latif, M; Ahmad, M; Khan, I H; Ahmad, N; Anzar, M
The problem of infertility, with particular reference to Africa south of the Sahara, is reviewed. In many areas, up to 40% of women are reported to have completed their reproductive years without bearing a child. The condition is widely distributed, but also often localized in pockets corresponding to geographical or tribal units. Most available demographic data provide estimates of childlessness but it is not sufficient to define the problem in terms of primary and secondary infertility, pregnancy wastage, and infant and child mortality. The major underlying cause for the high levels of infertility appears to be the sequelae of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in both men and women, manifested as obstructive azoospermia and tubal occlusion. Other infections, such as those that may follow abortion or delivery, or systemic infections, may be important in some areas. The available data suggest that different patterns of infertility and pregnancy wastage, and different etiological agents and processes, contribute to the problem of infertility in the different areas. The need for a systematic, standardized research approach in several areas is clearly indicated. PMID:798639
Belsey, Mark A.
Out of 85 fertile and 1014 infertile men, two (2.4%) and 95 (9.4%) respectively had a history of cryptorchidism. Thus cryptorchidism appears to be a risk factor for fertility since this difference was significant. Further comparisons showed that the volume of a former cryptorchid testis was smaller than the contralateral normally descended one and that sperm output/concentration was more impaired in bilateral than in unilateral cryptorchidism. A retractile testis, defined as a testis reported by the patient to be spontaneously and regularly, i.e. at least once a week, ascending up into a supra-scrotal position, was more frequent in infertile men with a history of cryptorchidism than in fertile men. Retractility was more frequent on the cryptorchid side, and was found more frequently after hormonal than after surgical treatment. Independently of all epidemiological and clinical parameters studied, retractility was associated with a lower sperm output. Among the infertile men with a history of cryptorchidism, 45% had an abnormally high scrotal temperature. This abnormal temperature represented a pejorative risk factor for fertility in this group, since it was associated with a more severely impaired spermatogenesis and a higher incidence of primary infertility than in infertile men with a history of cryptorchidism but normal scrotal temperatures. PMID:7782441
Mieusset, R; Bujan, L; Massat, G; Mansat, A; Pontonnier, F
Infertility is one of the most prevalent public health problems facing young adult males in today’s society. A clear, treatable cause of infertility cannot be determined in a large number of these patients, and a growing body of evidence suggests that infertility in many of these men may be due to genetic causes. Studies utilizing animal models, and most importantly, mouse knockout technology, have been integral not only for the study of normal spermatogenesis but also for identifying proteins essential for this process, which in turn are candidate genes for causing human male infertility. Successful spermatogenesis depends on a delicate balance of local signaling factors, and this review focuses specifically on the genes that encode these factors. Normal functioning of all testicular cell types is not only essential for normal fertility but, as recently hypothesized, may also be crucial to prevent germ cell oncogenesis. Analysis of these processes using mouse models in vivo has provided investigators with an invaluable tool to effectively translate basic science research to the research of human disease and infertility. PMID:20456819
Nalam, Roopa L.; Matzuk, Martin M.
The influences of culture are present in different areas of human health, as is the case with reproductive behaviors. To have a child means to have made a responsible decision. If conception takes longer to happen, these patients require the help of doctors to stimulate the refractory body. In light of data suggesting that psychosexual symptoms may interfere with fertility, successful infertility treatment and the ability to tolerate ongoing treatment rely on paying attention to these symptoms. Infertility is not only a fault of nature, but it is also something that does not respect the established order, a fact that casts doubt on the truth of the femininity and masculinity representations prevailing in a culture. Infertility is always a disease of the couple, and it is the couple that must be treated. The same is true when it comes to addressing sexual dysfunction. The dominant values and cultural practices indelibly affect the sexuality of infertile couples. In order to be credible, humanization of the treatment protocols for infertile couples must take into account the problems of intimacy as well as the sexual health of these couples. PMID:22005211
Pacheco Palha, Antonio; Lourenço, Mário F
This study aimed to assess the association of oestrogen receptor alpha (ER-?) gene polymorphisms and semen variables in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men. In all, 141 men were grouped into fertile men (n = 60) and infertile OAT men (n = 81). They were subjected to assessment of semen analysis, acrosin activity, serum reproductive hormones and genotyping of ER-? gene. Frequencies of p and x alleles in ER-? gene PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms were more prevalent among fertile men compared with infertile OAT men. Presence of P and X alleles was associated with increased incidence of male infertility for genotypes PP, XX compared with genotypes pp and xx (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 2.36-6.97; P = 0.001 and OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.49-11.39; P = 0.001, respectively). The mean of semen variables and sperm acrosin activity were significantly higher in cases associated with pp than PP and in xx than XX genotypes of ER-? gene. Mean levels of all serum reproductive hormones demonstrated nonsignificant differences in different ER-? genotypes except oestrogen that was elevated in PP and XX ER-? gene genotypes. It is concluded that as oestrogen is concerned in male gamete maturation, ER-? gene polymorphisms might play a role in the pathophysiology of male infertility. PMID:23822672
Zalata, A; Abdalla, H A; El-Bayoumy, Y; Mostafa, T
Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) is a phenotype frequently observed in infertile men, and is defined by low spermatozoa number, abnormal spermatozoa morphology and poor motility. We previously showed that a mutation in the Katnb1 gene in mice causes infertility because of OAT. The KATNB1 gene encodes an accessory subunit of the katanin microtubule-severing enzyme complex; this accessory subunit is thought to modulate microtubule-severing location and activity. We hypothesized that KATNB1 may play a role in human spermatogenesis and that genetic variants in KATNB1 could be associated with OAT in humans. Using immunostaining, we defined the localization of the KATNB1 protein in human testes. KATNB1 was present during spermatid development, and in particular localized to the microtubules of the manchette, a structure required for sperm head shaping. To assess a potential association between genetic variants in the KATNB1 gene and infertile men with OAT, we performed direct sequencing of genomic DNA samples from 100 OAT infertile and 100 proven fertile men. Thirty-seven KATNB1 variants were observed, five of which had not previously been described. Ten variants were present only in OAT men, however, statistical analysis did not reveal a significant association with fertility status. Our results suggest that variants in the KATNB1 gene are not commonly associated with OAT infertility in Australian men. PMID:25280067
O'Donnell, L; McLachlan, R I; Merriner, D Jo; O'Bryan, M K; Jamsai, D
To generate a zebrafish model of inducible male sterility, we expressed an Escherichia coli nitroreductase (Ntr) gene in the male germ line of zebrafish. The Ntr gene encodes an enzyme that can convert prodrugs such as metronidazole (Met) to cytotoxins. A fusion protein eGFP:Ntr (fusing Ntr to eGFP) under control of approximately 2 kb putative promoters of the zebrafish testis-specific genes, A-kinase anchoring protein-associated protein (Asp), outer dense fibers (Odf), and sperm acrosomal membrane-associated protein (Sam) was expressed in the male germ line. Three independent and four compound transgenic zebrafish lines expressing eGFP:Ntr were established. Female carriers were fertile, while males exhibited different levels of sterility and appeared normal, otherwise. Developmental analysis shows that germ cells survived and testes were normal before Met treatment, but that the testes of all male transgenic zebrafish exhibited variously depleted prospermatogonia after Met treatment. Particularly in a triple-transgenic line, Tg(AOS-eGFP:Ntr)[Tg(Asp-eGFP:Ntr; Odf-eGFP:Ntr; Sam-eGFP:Ntr)], the transgenic males had very small testes that were virtually devoid of germ cells, and the residual germ cells had almost completely disappeared after 2 weeks of Met treatment. These zebrafish transgenic lines show the complete testis specificity of inducible male sterility after Met treatment and reveal a period of the Ntr/Met ablation activity just prior to formation of the definitive adult spermatogonial cell population. This study demonstrates that combined genetic and pharmacological methods for developing an "infertile breeding technology" have practical application in controlling genetically modified (GM) fish breeding and meet the standards of biological and environment safety for other GM species. PMID:19936986
Hsu, Chia-Chun; Hou, Min-Fon; Hong, Jiann-Ruey; Wu, Jen-Leih; Her, Guor Mour
There are now convincing data showing that cystectomy of the endometrioma is not only no cure of infertility, but may harm follicle reserve. The question arises why is cystectomy for an endometrioma, in contrast with other benign cysts, a risk for follicle reserve and how can ovarian damage be prevented. Surgical specimens of ovaries with endometrioma in situ show in the majority of cases manifestly a combined extra-ovarian and intra-ovarian pathology with the cortex invaginated to form a pseudocyst. The extra-ovarian pathology includes endometrial lining of the cortex, bleeding and adhesions with surrounding tissues. The intra-ovarian pathology is characterized by microscopic stromal implants, fibrosis, smooth muscle metaplasia and arteriosclerosis, all affecting follicle reserve in the endometrioma bed. Clinically, ovarioscopy allows differential diagnosis (e.g. luteal cyst) and evaluation of the degree of fibrosis and darkening of the cortical wall. Transvaginal colour Doppler sonography can demonstrate the presence and extent of devascularisation in the endometrioma bed. Given this reality, surgery should be based on evaluation of the pathology of the endometrioma bed, but not on the mere size of the chocolate cyst. The main clinical problem is indeed the delayed diagnosis and consequently advanced irreversible cortical damage. Therefore, the sooner endometriomas are diagnosed, the better, because it increases the chances that vascularisation of the endometrioma bed is preserved. Finally, ablation, but not excision is the treatment of choice. The diagnosis of endometriosis is traditionally based on laparoscopy, but in a sexually active adolescent transvaginal endoscopy can be proposed. PMID:24753958
Brosens, I.; Puttemans, P.; Gordts, Sy.; Campo, R.; Gordts, S.; Benagiano, G.
The specific radioimmunoassay system was developed for the titration of the antibodies to porcine zona pellucida (ZP) in human sera by using /sup 125/I-labeled purified porcine ZP as antigen, which is known to have cross-reactivity with human ZP. The antibodies in human sera were detected in 3 of 11 (27%) women with unexplained infertility, in 16 of 48 (33%) amenorrheic patients, in 4 of 12 (33%) fertile women, and in 3 of 10 (30%) men. Moreover, antibody titers in infertile women were no higher than those in fertile women and in men. These results seem to suggest that the antibodies in human sera that cross-react with porcine ZP may not be an important factor in causing infertility in women.
Kurachi, H.; Wakimoto, H.; Sakumoto, T.; Aono, T.; Kurachi, K.
Previous findings on relationships between infertility, infertility therapies, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been inconsistent. The goals of this study are first, to briefly review this evidence and second, to examine infertility and its treatments in association with having a child with ASD in newly analyzed data. In review, we identified 14 studies published as of May 2013 investigating infertility and/or its treatments and ASD. Overall, prior results showed little support for a strong association, though some increases in risk with specific treatments were found; many limitations were noted. In new analyses of the CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) population-based study, cases with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 513) and controls confirmed to have typical development (n = 388) were compared with regard to frequencies of infertility diagnoses and treatments overall and by type. Infertility diagnoses and treatments were also grouped to explore potential underlying pathways. Logistic regression was used to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios overall and, in secondary analyses, stratified by maternal age (?35 years) and diagnostic subgroups. No differences in infertility, infertility treatments, or hypothesized underlying pathways were found between cases and controls in crude or adjusted analyses. Numbers were small for rarer therapies and in subgroup analyses; thus the potential for modest associations in specific subsets cannot be ruled out. However, converging evidence from this and other studies suggests that assisted reproductive technology is not a strong independent risk factor for ASD. Recommendations for future studies of this topic are provided. PMID:23965925
Lyall, Kristen; Baker, Alice; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Walker, Cheryl K.
Endometriosis is clinically associated with pelvic pain and infertility, with implantation failure strongly suggested as an underlying cause for the observed infertility. Eutopic endo- metrium of women with endometriosis provides a unique ex- perimental paradigm for investigation into molecular mech- anisms of reproductive dysfunction and an opportunity to identify specific markers for this disease. We applied paral- leled gene expression
L. C. Kao; A. GERMEYER; S. TULAC; S. LOBO; J. P. YANG; R. N. TAYLOR; K. OSTEEN; B. A. LESSEY; L. C. GIUDICE
Examined immediate and long-term effects of infertility treatment on the marital and sexual relationship, as perceived by women (n=40) who failed to become pregnant during treatment. Results indicated infertility treatment significantly affected both marital and sexual satisfaction after treatment was terminated, as well as during treatment. (ABL)
Pepe, Margaret V.; Byrne, T. Jean
Abstract Background Male infertility is a common cause of reproductive failure in humans. In mice, targeted deletions of the genes coding for FKBP6 or FKBP52, members of the FK506 binding protein family, can result in male infertility. In the case...
Sunnotel, Olaf; Hiripi, Laszlo; Lagan, Kevin; McDaid, Jennifer R; De Leon, Johanny M; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Crowe, Hannah; Kaluskar, Soniya; Ward, Michael; Scullion, Catherine; Campbell, Alan; Downes, C S; Hirst, David; Barton, David; Mocanu, Edgar; Tsujimura, Akira; Cox, Marc B; Robson, Tracy; Walsh, Colum P
Examined relationship between self-esteem, perceived control, interpersonal conflict between spouses, global and intimacy life quality, and stress produced by infertility in 185 married infertile couples. Found that fertility problem stress had indirect negative effects on life quality via its mediating effects on self-esteem, internal control,…
Abbey, Antonia; And Others
BACKGROUND: Evidence about the effects of infertility and assisted reproduction technique (ART) on marital relationships is discrepant. Here, we examined the impact of ART on marital relationships. The roles of life stressors, infertility and treatment characteristics in predicting marital relations were also evaluated. METHODS: Subjects: 367 couples with singleton IVF\\/ICSI pregnancies. Controls: 379 couples with spontaneous singleton pregnancies. Women and
L. Repokari; R.-L. Punamaki; L. Unkila-Kallio; S. Vilska; P. Poikkeus; J. Sinkkonen; F. Almqvist; A. Tiitinen; M. Tulppala
Infertility is a social onus for women in Iran, who are expected to produce children early within marriage. With its estimated 1.5 million infertile couples, Iran is the only Muslim country in which assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) using donor gametes and embryos have been legitimized by religious authorities and passed into law. This has placed Iran, a Shia-dominant country, in
Marcia C. Inhorn; Ghasem Toloo
Background: The aim of this study was to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyti- cum from semen samples of infertile men by Multiplex PCR and investigation of influence of bacteriospermia on semen parameters. Methods: Semen samples of 200 infertile men were evaluated by Multiplex PCR. In addition, analysis of semen parameters was performed according to the WHO guidelines.
M Golshani; G Eslami; Sh Mohhammadzadeh Ghobadloo; F Fallah; H Goudarzi; AA Soleimani Rahbar; F Fayaz
Male infertility is a major cause of problems for many couples in conceiving a child. Recently, lifestyle pastimes such as alcohol, tobacco and marijuana have been shown to have further negative effects on male reproduction. The endocannabinoid system (ECS), mainly through the action of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) at cannabinoid (CB1, CB2) and vanilloid (TRPV1) receptors, plays a crucial role in controlling functionality of sperm, with a clear impact on male reproductive potential. Here, sperm from fertile and infertile men were used to investigate content (through LC-ESI-MS), mRNA (through quantitative RT-PCR), protein (through Western Blotting and ELISA) expression, and functionality (through activity and binding assays) of the main metabolic enzymes of AEA and 2-AG (NAPE-PLD and FAAH, for AEA; DAGL and MAGL for 2-AG), as well as of their binding receptors CB1, CB2 and TRPV1. Our findings show a marked reduction of AEA and 2-AG content in infertile seminal plasma, paralleled by increased degradation: biosynthesis ratios of both substances in sperm from infertile versus fertile men. In addition, TRPV1 binding was detected in fertile sperm but was undetectable in infertile sperm, whereas that of CB1 and CB2 receptors was not statistically different in the two groups. In conclusion, this study identified unprecedented alterations of the ECS in infertile sperm, that might impact on capacitation and acrosome reaction, and hence fertilization outcomes. These alterations might also point to new biomarkers to determine male reproductive defects, and identify distinct ECS elements as novel targets for therapeutic exploitation of ECS-oriented drugs to treat male fertility problems. PMID:23082196
Di Tommaso, Monia; Pucci, Mariangela; Battista, Natalia; Paro, Rita; Simon, Luke; Lutton, Deborah; Maccarrone, Mauro
Childlessness and infertility care are neglected aspects of family planning in resource-poor countries, although the consequences of involuntary childlessness are much more dramatic and can create more wide ranging societal problems compared to Western societies, particularly for women. Because many families in developing countries completely depend on children for economic survival, childlessness has to be regarded as a social and public health issue and not only as an individual medical problem. In the Walking Egg Project we strive to raise awareness surrounding childlessness in resource-poor countries and to make infertility care in all its aspects, including assisted reproductive technologies, available and accessible for a much larger part of the world population. We hope to achieve this goal through innovation and research, advocacy and networking, training and capacity building and service delivery. The Walking Egg non-profit organization has chosen a holistic approach of reproductive health and therefore strengthening infertility care should go together with strengthening other aspects of family planning and mother care. Right from the start The Walking Project has approached the problem of infertility in a multidisciplinary and global manner. It gathers medical, social, ethical, epidemiological, juridical and economical scientists and experts along with artists and philosophers to discuss and work together towards its goal. We recently developed a simplified tWE lab IVF culture system with excellent results. According to our first cost calculation, the price of a single IVF cycle using the methodologies and protocols we described, seems to be less than 200 Euros. We realize that universal access to infertility care can only be achieved when good quality but affordable infertility care is linked to effective family planning and safe motherhood programmes. Only a global project with respect to sociocultural, ethical, economical and political differences can be successful. PMID:24753941
Male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience infertility because the disease affects negatively many aspects of reproduction, including seminal vesicle (SV) function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characteristics of the SVs of infertile patients with DM because no such data are available in these patients. To accomplish this, 25 infertile patients with type 2 DM and no other known causes of sperm parameter abnormalities were selected. Two different control groups were also enrolled: healthy men with idiopathic infertility (n=25) and infertile patients with male accessory gland infections (MAGI) (n=25), a well-studied clinical model of SV inflammation. Patients and controls underwent prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasonography after 1 day of sexual abstinence before and 1h after ejaculation. The following SV ultrasound parameters were recorded: (1) body antero-posterior diameter (ADP); (2) fundus APD; (3) parietal thickness of the right and left SVs; (4) number of polycyclic areas within both SVs; (5) fundus/body ratio; (6) difference of the parietal thickness between the right and the left SV; and (7) pre- and post-ejaculatory APD difference. Patients with DM had a significantly (p<0.05) higher F/B ratio compared to controls and patients with MAGI. Only patients with MAGI had a significantly (p<0.05) higher number of polycyclic areas. Controls and MAGI patients have a similar pre- and post-ejaculatory difference of the body SV APD, whereas this difference was significantly (p<0.05) lower in patients with DM. In conclusion, this study showed that infertile patients with DM have peculiar SV ultrasound features suggestive of functional atony. PMID:20800402
La Vignera, Sandro; Vicari, Enzo; Condorelli, Rosita; D'Agata, Rosario; Calogero, Aldo E
An aromatase encoded by the CYP19 gene catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of estrogens, which is related to endometriosis development. To assess the association of CYP19 gene polymorphisms with the risks of endometriosis, chocolate cysts and endometriosis-related infertility, a case–control study was conducted in Chinese Han women by recruiting 225 healthy control females, 146 patients with endometriosis, 94 endometriosis women with chocolate cyst and 65 women with infertility resulting from endometriosis, as diagnosed by both pathological and laparoscopic findings. Individual genotypes at rs2236722:T>C, rs700518:A>G, rs10046:T>C and [TTTA]n polymorphisms were identified. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between the control group and case groups by chi-square analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were determined by logistic regression analysis to predict the association of CYP19 gene polymorphisms with the risk of endometriosis, the related chocolate cysts and infertility. The genotype distributions of the tested CYP19 gene polymorphisms were not significantly different between the healthy control group and the endometriosis/endometriosis with the chocolate cyst group. However, the CYP19 rs700518AA genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of endometriosis-related infertility (55.4% in the infertility group vs 25.3% in the control group, P<0.001; OR (95% CI): 3.66 (2.06–6.50)) under the recessive form of the A allele. Therefore, we concluded that in Chinese Han females CYP19 gene polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to endometriosis or chocolate cysts, whereas CYP19 rs700518AA genotype confers genetic susceptibility to endometriosis-related infertility. PMID:24968701
Wang, Ledan; Lu, Xiaosheng; Wang, Danhan; Qu, Wanglei; Li, Wenju; Xu, Xiaowen; Huang, Qiusui; Han, Xueying; Lv, Jieqiang
Objective. There is an asymmetric allocation of technology and other resources for infertility services. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a process of placing washed spermatozoa transcervically into the uterine cavity for treatment of infertility. This is a review of literature for the potential use of IUI as a basic infertility treatment in technology-limited settings. Study design. Review of articles on treatment of infertility using IUI. Results. Aspects regarding the use of IUI are reviewed, including ovarian stimulation, semen parameters associated with good outcomes, methods of sperm preparation, timing of IUI, and number of inseminations. Implications of the finding in light of the needs of low-technology medical settings are summarized. Conclusion. The reviewed evidence suggests that IUI is less expensive, less invasive, and comparably effective for selected patients as a first-line treatment for couples with unexplained or male factor infertility. Those couples may be offered three to six IUI cycles in technology-limited settings. PMID:20011061
Abdelkader, Abdelrahman M.; Yeh, John
Infertility is a condition loaded with meaning spanning across biomedical, psychological, social, economic, cultural and religious spheres. Given its disruptive power over women's lives, it provides a unique lens through which issues of kinship, gender, sexuality, cosmology and religion can be examined. The paper presents the results of an ethnographic study of infertility in Central Nigeria. Explanatory models of infertility were variegated, encompassing biomedical, folk and religious elements. Like other ethnographic studies of help seeking for infertility in Nigeria, among this group resort was made to biomedical treatments, traditional healers and religious healing with no one system being hegemonic. The findings of this study accord with studies of infertility in other cultural groups indicating the disruptive influence of missing motherhood. PMID:24069756
Dimka, Ritgak A; Dein, Simon L
Background: Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Results: According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001). Conclusion: We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA on serum. PMID:25031577
Amirjannati, Nasser; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sehhat, Zahra
An adequate semen volume of ejaculate fluid is required to transport sperm into the female reproductive tract and allow for fertilization of the oocyte. Thus, seminal fluid volume is an important part of the semen analysis done to investigate male infertility. In this article, we review the anatomy and physiology of ejaculation, the various etiologies of low-volume ejaculation (artifactual, structural, functional). We then present a comprehensive algorithm for the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of the infertile man presenting with low semen volume. PMID:20019978
Roberts, Matthew; Jarvi, Keith
Assisted reproductive technology (ART), developed in the end of last century, has been playing an irreplaceable role in the treatment of male infertility, though it does have its potential risks, including the induction of monozygotic twins, premature delivery, high incidence of birth defects, etc. How to avoid these risks has posed a challenge and demands earnest attention from andrologists. This article summarizes the main potential risks of ART and proposes some tactics concerning patient evaluation, health education and treatment standardization, so as to optimize the outcomes and minimize the risks. Meanwhile, emphasis is placed on the importance of etiological and anti-oxidant strategies in the treatment of male infertility. PMID:21837944
Infertility is a couple based fecundity impairment, though population level research is largely based upon information reported by female partners. Of the few studies focusing on male partners, most focus on the utilization of infertility services rather than efforts to estimate the prevalence and determinants of infertility as reported by male partners. Data from a nationally-representative sample of men aged 15–44 years who participated in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to estimate the prevalence of infertility and determinants of longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP) using the novel current duration approach. Using backward recurrence time parametric survival methods, we estimated infertility prevalence (TTP > 12 months) and time ratios (TR) associated with TTP as derived from males’ reported current duration of their pregnancy attempt. The estimated prevalence of infertility was 12.0% (95% CI: 7.0, 23.2). Longer TTP was associated with older male age (35–45 vs. 17–24 years) (TR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.03, 6.03), biological childlessness (TR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.19), and lack of health insurance (TR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.94) after controlling for the differences in couples’ age and other socioeconomic factors. The prevalence of infertility based on male reporting is consistent with estimates of infertility in the United States found in prospective cohort studies and current duration studies based on female reporting. Our findings suggest that males can reliably inform about couple infertility. Interventions and services aimed at reducing couple infertility should include attention to male factors associated with longer TTP identified in this study. PMID:23843214
Louis, Jean Fredo; Thoma, Marie E.; S?rensen, Ditte N?rbo; McLain, Alexander C.; King, Rosalind B.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Keiding, Niels; Buck Louis, Germaine M.
This paper examines how socio-economic contexts shape local meanings of infertility, how the prevalence of infertility affects these meanings, and how the above affect community responses, life experiences and infertility treatment-seeking behaviors in two African communities. The paper is based on interdisciplinary research conducted among the Ijo and the Yakurr people of southern Nigeria that included a survey of approximately 100 infertile women and a matching sample of 100 fertile women, as well as in-depth ethnographic interviews with infertile and fertile women in two communities: Amakiri in Delta State and Lopon in Cross River State. In-depth interview results show that female infertility is more problematic among the Ijo in Amakiri, where kinship is patrilineal (traced through the father's side), than among the Yakurr in Lopon, where kinship is double unilineal (traced through both parents). Childless women in Ijo society are not only disadvantaged economically but are prevented from attaining full adult womanhood. They therefore leave the community more often than other members. In Lopon there is also a strong preoccupation with fertility as a central fact of life, but infertile women receive support from maternal kin as well as voluntary associations serving as support groups. Our survey data confirm that there are significant differences between the life experiences of infertile and fertile women and between the infertile women of the two communities. The overall findings indicate that while there are variations in the extent to which infertility is considered problematic, the necessity for a woman to have a child remains basic in this region. Motherhood continues to define an individual woman's treatment in the community, her self-respect and her understanding of womanhood. PMID:19356835
Hollos, Marida; Larsen, Ulla; Obono, Oka; Whitehouse, Bruce
Psychological morbidity concurrent with fertility problems has been the focus of substantial scientific inquiry. However, researchers have largely overlooked psychological resilience within this population. This study explored the associations between resilience, infertility-related and general distress, and coping behaviors in forty women from nine fertility clinics throughout the United States. Participants completed the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), Beck-Depression
Minden B. Sexton; Michelle R. Byrd; Silvia von Kluge
This review considers some recent human rights cases in the field of assisted reproduction and explores how the UK courts are seeking to weave their way through the complex legal and ethical issues in this sensitive field to balance the competing rights of those seeking infertility treatment, gamete donors and their offspring. PMID:16192077
USING DNA MICROARRAYS TO CHARACTERIZE GENE EXPRESSION IN TESTES OF FERTILE AND INFERTILE HUMANS AND MICE John C. Rockett1, J. Christopher Luft1, J. Brian Garges1, M. Stacey Ricci2, Pasquale Patrizio2, Norman B. Hecht2 and David J. Dix1 Reproductive Toxicology Divisio...
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a regulatory cytokine that plays an important role in the maintenance of the immune environment of the testis, regulation of junction dynamics and cell differentiation during spermatogenesis. Members of the IL-1 family are pleiotropic cytokines that are involved in inflammation, immunoregulation and other homeostatic functions in the body. IL-1?, IL-1?, and the IL-1 receptor antagonistic molecule (IL-1 Ra) are expressed in the testis under normal homeostasis and they further increase upon infection/inflammation. In the present study we have examined the association of Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1RN) with human male infertility. The case-control study comprised of two groups: 331 idiopathic infertile patients and 358 fertile healthy men. The study indicates risk of IL1RN2 variant with male infertility (OR: 1.43, CI: 1.1546 to 1.7804, P?=?0.001). To our best knowledge, this is the first report that links IL1RN VNTR polymorphism with human male infertility. PMID:23251650
Jaiswal, Deepika; Trivedi, Sameer; Singh, Rajendra; Dada, Rima; Singh, Kiran
BACKGROUND: Fractalkine is a relatively newly discovered CX3C chemokine, which is a chemoattractant for T cells, monocytes and natural killer cells. Several reports have demonstrated the association between chemokine levels in seminal plasma and semen quality. The fractalkine levels in ejaculates from normal donors and infertile male patients with or without asthenozoospermia, were examined and correlated with sperm motility and
Qing Zhang; Koichiro Shimoya; Yukinibu Ohta; Rika Chin; Kumiko Tenma; Shigeyuki Isaka; Hitomi Nakamura; Masayasu Koyama; Chihiro Azuma; Yuji Murat
This study explores how lesbian and heterosexual pre-adoptive couples experience and construct the transition from infertil- ity to adoption as a means to becoming parents. Thirty lesbian couples and 30 heterosexual couples were interviewed about the challenges and benefits they perceived in attempting con- ception and then later choosing adoption. Although similarities in perspectives emerged between heterosexual and lesbian participants
Abbie E. Goldberg; Jordan B. Downing; Hannah B. Richardson
This paper examines men's experiences of fertility/infertility against a backdrop of changing understandings of men's role in society and medical possibilities. It presents findings from two qualitative research projects on men's experiences of engagement with reproductive health services as they sought to become fathers and anticipate impending fatherhood. The findings from both projects provide insights into men's experiences of (in)fertility and their engagement with services set against cultural ideals of masculinity. Discussions of reproduction have historically focused most centrally upon women's bodies and maternal processes, leaving little space for consideration of men's experiences and perspectives. While women's experiences of infertility/fertility have been characterized in relation to productive or faulty biological processes, male infertility has been largely invisible and male fertility typically assumed. This context provides a difficult terrain for men in which to contemplate the potential of not being able to father a child. The findings discussed in this paper illuminate the ways in which men talk about and make sense of their reproductive journeys. In doing so, it challenges current understandings of masculinity and reproductive bodies and highlights the need to rethink how men are treated in reproductive spheres and how services to men are delivered. PMID:23871363
Hinton, Lisa; Miller, Tina
create wide-ranging societal problems, especially for women. Because many families in developing study is part of the Walking Egg Project (www.thewalkingegg.com), an international project that aims Egg Project of "universal access to infertility care". !The research papers presenting the results
Objectives To study the association between copper, magnesium and malondialdehyde levels in seminal plasma of oligozoospermic, azoospermic in relation to normozoospermic men. Methods The present study was conducted at the Chemistry and Biochemistry department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq during September 2007 to February 2008 after obtaining approval from the research and ethics committee and obtaining written consent, 78 infertile men (age range 33.01±4.20 years) were recruited at the institute of embryo research and infertility treatment, Al-Kadhimiya teaching hospital, Iraq and were categorized according to their seminal fluid parameters to oligozoospermia (n=43) and azoospermia (n=35). 41 fertile men (age range 30.29±2.30 years) were selected as controls. Seminal plasma copper and magnesium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde was measured calorimetrically using thiobarbituric acid assay which detects thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results Seminal plasma copper level was decreased significantly (p=0.000) in the azoospermic group compared to the control group. Whereas, the level decreased non-significantly in the oligozoospermic group. Seminal plasma magnesium levels were decreased significantly (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. On the other hand, malondialdehyde levels which is an end product of lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. Conclusion Copper and magnesium work in different ways in order to maintain normal environment for spermatozoa for normal fertilization to occur. PMID:22043332
Abdul-Rasheed, Omar F.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the role of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in inducing DNA damage in ejaculated spermatozoa. METHODS: We examined ejaculated spermatozoa from 31 patients examined for infertility and 19 healthy donors for apoptosis, production of ROS and DNA damage using annexin V binding, chemiluminescence assay and sperm chromatin structure assay. RESULTS:
Mohamed H. Moustafa; Rakesh K. Sharma; Julie Thornton; Edward Mascha; Mohammed A. Abdel-Hafez; Anthony J. Thomas; Ashok Agarwal
Women are turning to online health groups to deal with the stresses and complications of infertility. Online groups may provide a resource that is potentially absent in their face-to-face communities. This study examines how the sense of virtual community (SOVC) that develops in these groups serves as a buffer between perceived stress and physical health symptoms. A sample of 122
Jennifer L. Welbourne; Anita L. Blanchard; Marla D. Boughton
Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) is an intracellular antioxidant enzyme that directly reduces peroxidized phospholipids. GPx4 is strongly expressed in the mitochondria of testis and spermatozoa. We previously found a significant decrease in the expression of GPx4 in spermatozoa from 30% of infertile human males diagnosed with oligoasthenozoospermia (Imai, H., Suzuki, K., Ishizaka, K., Ichinose, S., Oshima, H., Okayasu, I., Emoto, K., Umeda, M., and Nakagawa, Y. (2001) Biol. Reprod. 64, 674–683). To clarify whether defective GPx4 in spermatocytes causes male infertility, we established spermatocyte-specific GPx4 knock-out mice using a Cre-loxP system. All the spermatocyte-specific GPx4 knock-out male mice were found to be infertile despite normal plug formation after mating and displayed a significant decrease in the number of spermatozoa. Isolated epididymal GPx4-null spermatozoa could not fertilize oocytes in vitro. These spermatozoa showed significant reductions of forward motility and the mitochondrial membrane potential. These impairments were accompanied by the structural abnormality, such as a hairpin-like flagella bend at the midpiece and swelling of mitochondria in the spermatozoa. These results demonstrate that the depletion of GPx4 in spermatocytes causes severe abnormalities in spermatozoa. This may be one of the causes of male infertility in mice and humans. PMID:19783653
Imai, Hirotaka; Hakkaku, Nao; Iwamoto, Ryo; Suzuki, Jyunko; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Tajima, Yoko; Konishi, Kumiko; Minami, Shintaro; Ichinose, Shizuko; Ishizaka, Kazuhiro; Shioda, Seiji; Arata, Satoru; Nishimura, Masuhiro; Naito, Shinsaku; Nakagawa, Yasuhito
We examined male partners' influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using the National Study of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we…
Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.
Meiotic studies have been carried out in a series of 1100 infertile and sterile males. Of these, 599 cases have been studies in testicular biopsy, and 501, in semen samples. This is the largest meiotic series published so far. The incidence of meiotic anomalies was 4.3%. The most frequent chromosome abnormality was desynapsis (3.7%). However, the number of cases with
J. Egozcue; C. Templado; F. Vidal; J. Navarro; F. Morer-Fargas; S. Marina
Summary Protamines were extracted from the sperm of fertile and infertile human males and the relative proportion of protamines 1, 2, and 3 were determined by scanning microdensitometry following electrophoresis of total protamine in polyacrylamide gels. The proportion of the three protamines was found to be similar in sperm obtained from different normal males. The distribution of protamines in sperm
R. Balhorn; S. Reed; N. Tanphaichitr
Offers a personal narrative on how the author's own poetry helped her cope with the crisis of infertility, serving as a tool for self-discovery and healing. Suggests that specific advantages of poetry writing within the context of psychotherapy include problem solving; expression of feelings; insight; couple communication; and individual and…
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between the levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-6 soluble receptor, and tumor necrosis factor-? in peritoneal fluid and the size and number of active red endometriotic lesions.STUDY DESIGN: In a university hospital 39 women of reproductive age underwent either laparoscopy for infertility workup or laparoscopic surgery for ovarian chocolate cysts. Peritoneal fluid was collected
Tasuku Harada; Hiroki Yoshioka; Souichi Yoshida; Tomio Iwabe; Yoshimasa Onohara; Masahiro Tanikawa; Naoki Terakawa
Presents Close-Relationship Model as comprehensive framework in which to examine interrelated nature of causes and effects of infertility on marital relationship. Includes these factors: physical and psychological characteristics of both partners; joint, couple characteristics; physical and social environment; and relationship itself. Discusses…
Higgins, Barbara S.
PurposeThe presence of ipsilateral testicular growth retardation (hypotrophy) is the most common indication for prophylactic varicocele repair in adolescents in an effort to prevent future infertility. We examined the relationship between semen parameters and ipsilateral versus contralateral testicular size in men with unilateral varicoceles to determine whether testicular size is an appropriate parameter for predicting future fertility.
Mark Sigman; Jonathan P. Jarow
Background: Varicocele is associated with the failure of ipsilateral testicular growth and development, and the symptoms of pain and reduced fertility. The highly condensed structure of the sperm nuclear chromatin is provided by proper expression of Transition Nuclear Protein (TNP) genes, so any dysregulational expression of these genes results in abnormal spermatogenesis and infertility. Objective: The aim of present study was to assess the association between TNP1 mutations and varicocele in Iranian infertile men. Materials and Methods: Analysis of association between TNP1 gene mutation and varicocele phenotype was performed using PCR and Single-Stranded Conformational Polymorphism technique and DNA sequencing in 82 varicocele infertile men and 80 control subjects. Results: Sequence analysis was identified one variant in this gene that found in 15 infertile men and was absent in control group. This variant was a single nucleotide polymorphism that were identified in the intron region of this gene at position g.IVS1+75T>C. Conclusion: The effect of this nucleotide substitution in intronic region of the TNP1 gene and their role on expression remains to be determined. PMID:24976820
Heidari, Mohammad Mehdi; Khatami, Mehri; Talebi, Ali Reza; Moezzi, Fahime
Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) and polycystic ovarian syndrome are ovarian diseases causing infertility. Although there is no effective treatment for POI, therapies for polycystic ovarian syndrome include ovarian wedge resection or laser drilling to induce follicle growth. Underlying mechanisms for these disruptive procedures are unclear. Here, we explored the role of the conserved Hippo signaling pathway that serves to maintain optimal size across organs and species. We found that fragmentation of murine ovaries promoted actin polymerization and disrupted ovarian Hippo signaling, leading to increased expression of downstream growth factors, promotion of follicle growth, and the generation of mature oocytes. In addition to elucidating mechanisms underlying follicle growth elicited by ovarian damage, we further demonstrated additive follicle growth when ovarian fragmentation was combined with Akt stimulator treatments. We then extended results to treatment of infertility in POI patients via disruption of Hippo signaling by fragmenting ovaries followed by Akt stimulator treatment and autografting. We successfully promoted follicle growth, retrieved mature oocytes, and performed in vitro fertilization. Following embryo transfer, a healthy baby was delivered. The ovarian fragmentation–in vitro activation approach is not only valuable for treating infertility of POI patients but could also be useful for middle-aged infertile women, cancer patients undergoing sterilizing treatments, and other conditions of diminished ovarian reserve. PMID:24082083
Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Cheng, Yuan; Suzuki, Nao; Deguchi, Masashi; Sato, Yorino; Takae, Seido; Ho, Chi-hong; Kawamura, Nanami; Tamura, Midori; Hashimoto, Shu; Sugishita, Yodo; Morimoto, Yoshiharu; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Yoshioka, Nobuhito; Ishizuka, Bunpei; Hsueh, Aaron J.
There is an increasing body evidence suggesting that a broad range of pollutants have the potential to alter human endocrine systems. One disturbing consequence of exposures to these endocrine disruptors is that they may significantly increase the incidence of infertility in exp...
Background This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relation- ship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. Materials and Methods In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78), who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Ques- tionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Results Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (p<0.05) and happiness was directly related to mental health, (p<0.05). Also, indirect relation between marital relationship status and mental health was significant (p<0.05). These results were confirmed in women participants but in men participants only the direct relation between happiness and mental health was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion Based on goodness of model fit in fitness indexes, happiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individu- als disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health. PMID:25379161
Ahmadi Forooshany, Seyed Habiballah; Yazdkhasti, Fariba; Safari Hajataghaie, Saiede; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein
The hypothesis that more plant species with vertebrate-dispersed fruits occur on fertile soils because there is a greater probability of fruit removal from the parent plant was tested at 16 sites around Sydney, Australia. Removal rates from artificial fruit spikes were two and a half times greater on fertile than infertile soil sites, although this was not quite statistically significant.
Kristine French; Mark Westoby
Background: Male are involved in near 50% of cases of infertility and reactive oxygen species (ROS) playing an important role in decreasing fertility potential. Accurate measurement of ROS seems to be important in evaluation of infertile male patients. Objective: To compare ROS measurement in neat and washed semen samples of infertile men and define the best method for evaluation of ROS in these patients. Materials and Methods: We measured the level of ROS in semen samples of thirty five non-azoospermic men with infertility. The semen samples were divided into two parts and the semen parameters and ROS levels in neat and washed samples were evaluated. We also evaluated the presence of pyospermia using peroxidase test. Results: The differences regarding sperm count and quick motility were significant in neat and washed semen samples. The mean ROS level was significantly higher in neat samples compared with washed spermatozoa (7.50 RLU vs. 1.20 RLU respectively). Difference in ROS levels was more significant in patients with pyospermia compared to whom with no pyospermia (378.67 RLU vs. 9.48 RLU respectively). Conclusion: Our study confirmed that neat or unprocessed samples are better index of normal oxidative status of semen samples. Because we do not artificially add or remove factors that may play an important role in oxidative equilibrium status. PMID:25031573
Moein, Mohammad Reza; Vahidi, Serajedin; Ghasemzadeh, Jalal; Tabibnejad, Nasim
The HDL receptor scavenger receptor, class B type I (SR-BI) controls the structure and fate of plasma HDL. Female SR-BI KO mice are infertile, apparently because of their abnormal cholesterol-enriched HDL particles. We examined the growth and meiotic progression of SR-BI KO oocytes and found that they underwent normal germinal vesicle breakdown; however, SR-BI KO eggs, which had accumulated excess cholesterol in vivo, spontaneously activated, and they escaped metaphase II (MII) arrest and progressed to pronuclear, MIII, and anaphase/telophase III stages. Eggs from fertile WT mice were activated when loaded in vitro with excess cholesterol by a cholesterol/methyl-?-cyclodextrin complex, phenocopying SR-BI KO oocytes. In vitro cholesterol loading of eggs induced reduction in maturation promoting factor and MAPK activities, elevation of intracellular calcium, extrusion of a second polar body, and progression to meiotic stages beyond MII. These results suggest that the infertility of SR-BI KO females is caused, at least in part, by excess cholesterol in eggs inducing premature activation and that cholesterol can activate WT mouse eggs to escape from MII arrest. Analysis of SR-BI KO female infertility raises the possibility that abnormalities in cholesterol metabolism might underlie some cases of human female infertility of unknown etiology. PMID:25368174
Yesilaltay, Ayce; Dokshin, Gregoriy A; Busso, Dolores; Wang, Li; Galiani, Dalia; Chavarria, Tony; Vasile, Eliza; Quilaqueo, Linda; Orellana, Juan Andrés; Walzer, Dalia; Shalgi, Ruth; Dekel, Nava; Albertini, David F; Rigotti, Attilio; Page, David C; Krieger, Monty
Background The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of ovulation detection by the DuoFertility® monitor compared with transvaginal ultrasound in infertile women with regular menstrual cycles. Methods Eight infertile patients, aged 27–40 years, with a body mass index of 19–29, regular menses, normal ovaries on pelvic ultrasound scan, and normal early follicular luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin were recruited from infertility clinics in primary and secondary care for this pilot, prospective, observational study. The patients were asked to use the DuoFertility monitor for the whole cycle, with investigators and patients blind to DuoFertility data. Daily urine LH monitoring commenced on cycle day 8, with daily transvaginal ultrasound following the first positive LH until ovulation was observed. Ovulation was further confirmed by serum progesterone. The main outcome measure was detection of ovulation by the DuoFertility monitor, and correlation between day of ovulation assessed by DuoFertility and ultrasound. Results DuoFertility identified ovulation as having occurred within one day of that determined via ultrasound in all cycles. The sensitivity of ovulation detection was 100% (95% confidence interval 82–100). The specificity could not be concluded from the data. Conclusion In infertile women with regular cycles, the DuoFertility monitor appears to accurately identify ovulatory cycles and the day of ovulation. PMID:25075200
Rollason, Jennie CB; Outtrim, Joanne G; Mathur, Raj S
INTRODUCTION: Unwanted contraception through prolonged retention of fetal bone is a rare cause of secondary infertility. It is usually associated with a history of abortion, either spontaneous or induced. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of intrauterine retention of fetal bone diagnosed 8 years after the termination of a pregnancy. The patient had no complaints of pain, irregular vaginal bleeding
Hannah MC Kramer; Johann PT Rhemrev
Background The circadian system has a major role in maintaining homeostasis and proper body functions including reproductive capacity. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between genetic variability in the primary clock genes CLOCK and ARNTL and male infertility in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a case-control study, where we searched for an association between polymorphisms of CLOCK and ARNTL genes and male infertility in 961 Slovenian and Serbian Caucasian men. The study group consisted of 517 patients with idiopathic infertility and a control group of 444 fertile men. A statistically significant difference was found in genotype distribution between the two groups in the CLOCK gene: rs11932595 (p?=?6·10?5, q?=?4·10?4, OR equaled 1.9 with 95% CI 1.4–2.7), rs6811520 (p?=?2·10?3, q?=?8·10?3, OR?=?1.7 with 95% CI 1.2–2.2) and rs6850524 (p?=?0.01, q?=?0.02, OR?=?1.4 with 95% CI 1.1–1.9). Further analyses of haplotypes were consistent with genotyping results. Conclusions/Significance We provide evidence that genetic variability in the CLOCK gene might be associated with male infertility warranting further confirmation and mechanistic investigations. PMID:23527142
Hodzic, Alenka; Ristanovic, Momcilo; Zorn, Branko; Tulic, Cane; Maver, Ales; Novakovic, Ivana; Peterlin, Borut
North Americans who suffer infertility often reach an end to treatment options at home, whether it is due to a lack of egg donors in Canada or the high cost of treatment in the USA. Patients navigate their way onto the internet, seeking support and other options. As women and couples ‘do the research’ online, they conduct endless Google searches,
Amy R. Speier
Metformin Treatment for Improving Outcomes Related to Infertility in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Â A Bayesian Analysis Prasadini N. Perera, BS Pharmacy, Daniel C. Malone, PhD Metformin TreatmentD AbstractAbstract OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the usefulness of metformin therapy
Arizona, University of
OBJECTIVE To examine the history of superovulation for ovulation induction, its contributions to reproductive medicine and its impact on multiple births. DESIGN A search of the relevant literature using Pubmed and other online tools. RESULT(S) Infertility has been a condition known and studied for thousands of years. However, it was not until this past century that effective treatments were developed. With the advancement of our knowledge of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, therapies utilizing gonadotropins were developed to stimulate ovulation. Not only were we now able to treat anovulatory infertility, but also induce superovulation for in vitro fertilization. With these successes came consequences, including increased multiple pregnancies. Several countries recognized the high costs associated with multiple births and implemented regulations on the infertility industry. The rate of triplet and higher-order multiples has declined over the past decade. This is largely attributed to a decreased number of embryos transferred. Nonetheless, the twin rate has remained consistently high. CONCLUSION(S) Superovulation has become a routine medical therapy used for ovulation induction and in vitro fertilization. With the development of this technology have come effective therapies for infertility and new ethical and medical challenges. Since the advent of gonadotropin therapy we have already developed technologies to improve monitoring and decrease hyperstimulation and high order multiple pregnancies. In the future, we anticipate new tools devised to optimize one embryo for one singleton live birth. PMID:22463773
Beall, Stephanie A.; Decherney, Alan
The program for in vitro fertilization at Bourn Hall began in October 1980. Various types of infertility have been treated during this time using the natural menstrual cycle or stimulation of follicular growth with antiestrogens and gonadotrophins. Follicular growth and maturation are assayed by urinary estrogens and LH, monitored regularly during the later follicular stage. Many patients had an endogenous
R. G. Edwards; S. B. Fishel; J. Cohen; C. B. Fehilly; J. M. Purdy; J. M. Slater; P. C. Steptoe; J. M. Webster
This paper examines the labor market effects of state health insurance mandates that increase the cost of employing a demographically identifiable group. State mandates requiring that health insurance plans cover infertility treatment raise the relative cost of insuring older women of child-bearing age. Empirically, wages in this group are…
Lahey, Joanna N.
Background: Cryptorchidism is a common malformation in neonates; surgery or medical treatments are applied during childhood. Untreated cryptorchid testes are in the risk of intratubular germ cell neoplasia (IGCN) and consequently invasive testicular tumors which could be shown by immunohistochemistry staining for placental like acid phosphatase (PLAP) marker. Objective: We designed this study to know the prevalence of IGCN in untreated cryptorchid testes of infertile men, in our infertility center as a refferal center. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study we assessed H&E slides of testicular samples of 13 adult infertile patients with impalpable intra-abdominal testes seeking infertility treatment; then we stained them by PLAP marker. Results: Three (23.08%) samples were positive for PLAP marker means presence of IGCN in testis. One of them showed seminoma besides IGCN. Conclusion: According to the results of this study and the fact that there are adult untreated cryptorchid patients in our country yet, it is suggested to pay more attention in clinical examination, assessment and follow up of such patients for malignancy screening. PMID:24639765
Pourkeramati, Fatemeh; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Amirjannati, Naser; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Reza Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza
According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well. PMID:24753875
BACKGROUND Functional male gametes are produced through complex processes that take place within the testis, epididymis and female reproductive tract. A breakdown at any of these phases can result in male infertility. The production of mutant mouse models often yields an unexpected male infertility phenotype. It is with this in mind that the current review has been written. The review aims to act as a guide to the ‘non-reproductive biologist’ to facilitate a systematic analysis of sterile or subfertile mice and to assist in extracting the maximum amount of information from each model. METHODS This is a review of the original literature on defects in the processes that take a mouse spermatogonial stem cell through to a fully functional spermatozoon, which result in male infertility. Based on literature searches and personal experience, we have outlined a step-by-step strategy for the analysis of an infertile male mouse line. RESULTS A wide range of methods can be used to define the phenotype of an infertile male mouse. These methods range from histological methods such as electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, to hormone analyses and methods to assess sperm maturation status and functional competence. CONCLUSION With the increased rate of genetically modified mouse production, the generation of mouse models with unexpected male infertility is increasing. This manuscript will help to ensure that the maximum amount of information is obtained from each mouse model and, by extension, will facilitate the knowledge of both normal fertility processes and the causes of human infertility. PMID:19758979
Borg, Claire L.; Wolski, Katja M.; Gibbs, Gerard M.; O'Bryan, Moira K.
Background: Infertility has a varied impact on multiple dimensions of health and functioning of women. Objective: We aimed to identify the burden of infertility and its influencing factors based on a population based study conducted in four provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: A sample of 1126 women, aged 18-45 years, was selected using the multi stage, stratified probability sampling procedure; those met the eligibility criteria were invited for further comprehensive interview. This study used the definition of infertility proposed by World Health Organization “the woman has never conceived despite cohabitation and exposure to pregnancy for a period of 1 year”. Results : The overall prevalence of lifetime infertility and current primary infertility were 21.1% (95% CI: 18.4- 23.8) and 6.4% (95% CI: 4.8-8) respectively. The probability of first pregnancy at the end of 2 years of marriage was 94% for all ever-married women. Infertility were observed as significantly higher among women age 31-35 (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.9-11.5; p=0.001) and women with more than 9 years of education (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5-3.3; p<0.0001). Conclusion: The necessities of modern living have compelled many women to postpone childbearing to their late reproductive years; however they must be informed of being at risk of infertility with ageing.
Rostami Dovom, Marzieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amirshekari, Golshan; Hashemi, Somayeh; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa
According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well. PMID:24753875
Background: Complete deletions of the AZFc region in distal Yq are the most frequent molecular genetic cause of severe male infertility. They are caused by intrachromosomal homologous recombination between amplicons—large, nearly identical repeats—and are found in 5–10% of cases of azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia. Homologous recombination may also generate different partial deletions of AZFc, but their contribution to spermatogenic impairment has not been confirmed. Methods: In this study we analysed the prevalence and characteristics of different partial AZFc deletions and their association with spermatogenic failure. We studied 337 infertile men with different spermatogenic impairment and 263 normozoospermic fertile men using AZFc specific sequence tagged site markers and DAZ specific single nucleotide variants. Results: We identified 18 cases of partial AZFc deletions in the infertile group (5.3%) and one case in the control group (0.4%). Seventeen deletions had the "gr/gr" pattern, one the "b2/b3" pattern, and one represented a novel deletion with breakpoints in b3 and b4 amplicons. Partial AZFc deletions were associated with different spermatogenic phenotypes ranging from complete azoospermia to only moderate oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Together with published data, our analysis of DAZ gene copy suggested that the contribution of the different deletions to male infertility varies: only partial AZFc deletions removing DAZ1/DAZ2 seem to be associated with spermatogenic impairment, whereas those removing DAZ3/DAZ4 may have no or little effect on fertility. These data show that, beside complete AZFc deletions, specific partial deletions represent a risk factor for male infertility, even if with different effect on spermatogenesis. PMID:15744033
Ferlin, A; Tessari, A; Ganz, F; Marchina, E; Barlati, S; Garolla, A; Engl, B; Foresta, C
Testosterone replacement is strictly contraindicated for the treatment of male infertility’ was the advanced view from the ‘2013 European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on male infertility’, and this view brings extensive concern and questions. Although sufficient numbers of well-performed and controlled clinical trials that provide evidence supporting drug treatment of male infertility are not available at present, the opportunity to prove that these drugs are effective should not be prevented, and rigorous examination of drug therapy should be encouraged and strengthened. Therefore, I believe the above conclusion in the EAU guidelines is poorly conceived. PMID:24435051
Objective: Evaluate the cause of infertility and impairment of tubal reproductive functions in infertility patients, who suffered tubal pregnancy after conservative treatment, using laparoscopy, hysteroscopic tubal catheterization, and hydrotubation. Methods: Seventy-five infertility patients treated for tubal pregnancies were divided into two groups based on past treatment methods of their tubal pregnancies, conservative-medical group and conservative-surgical group. The severity of pelvic adhesions, tubal morphology, tubal fimbria, and other infertility factors were observed via laparoscopy. Additionally, hysteroscopic tubal catheterization and hydrotubation was used to diagnose tubal patency and evaluate the intrauterine cavity. Results: There were one or more factors associated with infertility in the 75 patients, among which abnormal tubal was an absolutely important factor. In conservative-medical group, 92.11% (35/38) of the patients were with bilateral or unilateral oviduct exceptions, such as adhesion around or distorted tubal, closure or adhesion in umbrella end, lumen block. In conservative-surgical group, all of the patients were with bilateral or unilateral fallopian tube lesions. As two fallopian tubes per patient, 80.26% (61/76) of the tubes in conservative-medical group was damaged, 95.95% (71/74) in conservative-surgical group. The differences between the two groups was significant (P < 0.05). However, differences between these two groups in morphology of damaged tubes, anomaly of umbrella end and occlusion of lumen were not significant (P > 0.05). Incidence of pelvic adhesions in conservative-medical group was 76.32% (29/38), which was lower than 100% (37/37) of conservative-surgical group. The difference was significant (P < 0.05), which suggested that conservative-medical treatment was more effective than surgical treatment in preventing pelvic adhesion. Conclusion: Factors associated with tubal infertility affect patients who accepted conservative treatment for tubal pregnancy. In patients with a history of a tubal pregnancy, it may be less likely to compromise future reproductive function for conservative-medical treated patients than that for conservative-surgery treated patients.
Hu, Chunxiu; Chen, Ziru; Hou, Haiyan; Xiao, Chen; Kong, Xiangling; Chen, Yaqiong
PurposeWe attempted to determine reactive oxygen species production by the spermatozoa of patients with idiopathic infertility and healthy donors, and observe whether increased production was due to decreased seminal plasma reactive oxygen species scavengers.
Ilter Alkan; Ferruh Simsek; Goncagul Haklar; Ertan Kervancioglu; Hakan Ozveri; Suha Yalcin; Atif Akdas
Gene arrays for elucidating mechanistic data from models of male infertility and chemical exposure in mice, rats and humans John C. Rockett and David J. Dix Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects ...
Background To determine the correlates and the prevalence of infertility in a group of women. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 subjects aged 18-49 years in a town of western Turkey between July and August 2012. Women who have inability to become pregnant despite regular sexual intercourse during the last year were considered to be infertile. UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess the severity of loneliness. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results The mean age of the participants was 35.48 ± 8.39 years. The frequency of the infertility in our study was 12.8% (n=73). The prevalence of infertility was higher in those with a history of gynecological disease or gynecologic surgery and in those with menstrual irregularity (p<0.05; for each). The mean score on the UCLA Loneliness Scale was 32.16 ± 9.49 (from 20 to 70). In this study, no difference was found between the level of loneliness and who is responsible for infertility among infertile/fertile women (p?0.05). Level of loneliness among the women with primary infertility was higher compared to the women with secondary infertility (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of infertility among the women was relatively high. It was concluded that prospective studies are needed in order to expose the relationship between the infertility and the level of loneliness in women. PMID:25083180
Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Unsal, Alaettin; Arslantas, Didem
Objective: To evaluate two different assays of human sperm DNA integrity, DNA denaturation (DD) and DNA fragmentation (DF), and to correlate these with standard semen parameters.Design: Prospective, observational study.Setting: University infertility clinic.Patient(s): Forty consecutive semen samples from 33 nonazoospermic men presenting for infertility evaluation and 7 fertile men presenting for vasectomy.Intervention(s): Assessment of sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DD and DF.Main
Armand Zini; Ryszard Bielecki; Donna Phang; Maria Teresa Zenzes
In this first prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study, 28 infertile patients with severe oligoasthenozoospermia received acupuncture according to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 29 infertile patients received placebo acupuncture. A significantly higher percentage of motile sperm (World Health Organization categories A-C), but no effect on sperm concentration, was found after acupuncture compared with placebo acupuncture. PMID:19394002
Dieterle, Stefan; Li, Chunfang; Greb, Robert; Bartzsch, Felix; Hatzmann, Wolfgang; Huang, Dongmei
Failure or severe difficulty in conceiving a child is surprisingly common, worldwide problem. Half of these cases are due to male factors with defects in sperm (1 in 15 men) being the single most common cause. Also about 60-75 % of male infertility cases are idiopathic, since the molecular mechanisms underlying the defects remain unknown. DNA methylation is crucial for spermatogenesis and high methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) activity in adult testis than other organs in mouse, signifies its critical role in spermatogenesis. According to recent findings there is a correlation of epigenetic regulation of several imprinted genes with disturbed spermatogenesis and fertility. Consequently any change in the MTHFR gene sequence can modify the spermatogenesis including transmission of infertility to the carriers. The aim of the study is to analyze the distribution of the single nucleotide polymorphism C677T in the MTHFR gene in 637 North Indian infertile patients and 364 fertile North Indian men as controls by using PCR-RFLP technique and Chi Square test for statistical analysis. The average MTHFR 677CC, 677CT, 677TT genotype frequencies of total infertile men were 70.17, 24.17, 5.65 % in infertile men and 75.27, 21.7, 2.74 % in controls, respectively. The average frequency of the MTHFR 677T allele was 17.73 % in infertile men as compared to 13.59 % in controls. The statistical difference was significant. Disease risk was found 2.27-folds increased in patients who were carrying T allele. We found an association of C677T polymorphism with male infertility and that it may be a genetic risk factor for male infertility in North Indian population. PMID:24366618
Naqvi, Hena; Hussain, Syed Rizwan; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Mahdi, Farzana; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari; Shankhwar, Satya Narayain; Mahdi, Abbas Ali
Leverment J, Turner R, Bowman M, Cooke CJ. Case report on the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) in an unusual case of secondary infertility. Undersea Hyperb Med 2004; 31(2):245-250. We report the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) in the treatment of an unusual case of secondary infertility. The patient had failed to conceive after a 1-year period of
J. LEVERMENT; R. TURNER; M. BOWMAN; C. J. COOKE
Background Infertility patients are a vulnerable group that often seeks a non-medical solution for their failure to conceive. World-wide, women use CAM for productive health, but only a limited number of studies report on CAM use to enhance fertility. Little is known about traditional and religious forms of therapies that are used in relation to conventional medicine in Turkey. We investigated the prevalence and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used by infertile Turkish women for fertility enhancement. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire inquiring demographic information and types of CAM used for fertility enhancement were completed by hundred infertility patients admitted to a primary care family planning centre in Van, Turkey between January and July 2009. Results The vast majority of infertile women had used CAM at least once for infertility. CAM use included religious interventions, herbal products and recommendations of traditional "hodja's" (faith healers). Of these women, 87.8% were abused in the last 12 months, 36.6% felt not being supported by her partner and 80.5% had never spoken with a physician about CAM. Conclusions Infertile Turkish women use complementary medicine frequently for fertility enhancement and are in need of information about CAM. Religious and traditional therapies are used as an adjunct to, rather than a substitute for, conventional medical therapy. Physicians need to approach fertility patients with sensitivity and should be able to council their patients about CAM accordingly. PMID:20307291
Infertility Accepted treatment is replete with bioethical dilemmas regarding the limits of available medical therapies. Poland has no legal acts regulating the ethical problems associated with infertility treatment and work on such legislation has been in progress for a long time, arousing very intense emotions in Polish society. The purpose of the present study was to find out what Polish women undergoing infertility treatment think about the most disputable and controversial bioethical problems of assisted reproduction. An Attitudes towards Bioethical Problems of Infertility Scale was constructed specifically for this study. Items were taken from the Bioethics Bills currently under discussion in Polish Parliament (Seym). 312 women were enrolled in the study. Women experiencing infertility favoured more liberal legislation. Participants disagreed, for example, with the following regulations: prohibition of embryo freezing, prohibition of preimplantation genetic diagnosis of embryos, age limits for women using in vitro fertilisation and prohibition of in vitro fertilisation for single women. The opinions of patients undergoing infertility treatment are an important voice in the Polish debate on the Bioethics Bills. PMID:22977062
Traditional healers have been an established source of health care delivery in Africa for centuries while Christian religious healers (193 traditional healers and 99 Christian religious healers) with respect to infertility and some other fertility-related issues. The findings show that both types of healers believe that infertility is most commonly due to the past life of the woman, physical problems related to the womb or to male potency, and imcompatibity between the man and the woman. Traditional healers also believed that being bewitched or being cursed can lead to infertility. Both groups of healers threat infertility by sacrifices, prayer and fasting, and timing of intercourse to coincide with the fertile period. Also 61% of traditional healers and 87% of religious healers advice their-clients with infertility to do nothing at least initially. To those clients seeking advice on preventing pregnancy, traditional healers tend to recommend herbal concoctions, beads and rings while Christian healers tended to recommend condoms, withdrawal method and the safe period. Both groups are consulted on premarital sex, premarital conception, sex during pregnancy and influencing the sex of an unborn baby. It was concluded that both traditional healers and Christian faith healers are involved with infertility and other fertility-related issues in their practices. There is an overlap in beliefs about causes and treatment of such conditions among both groups although areas of differences in beliefs and practices are clearly identifiable. PMID:10456130
Obisesan, K A; Adeyemo, A A
Objective To detect Mycoplasma genitalium in urine samples of infertile men and men without any signs of infection in order to investigate whether M. genitalium and other genital mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp) are found more often in urine samples of infertile men than in asymptomatic controls and to determine resistance to macrolides. Methods The study included first void urine samples taken from 145 infertile men and 49 men with no symptoms of urethritis. M. genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were detected by commercial PCR. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected by microscopy and culture. M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp were detected by culture. M. genitalium was detected by in-house conventional and real-time PCR. Results Two M. genitalium positive samples were found among samples obtained from infertile men. All asymptomatic men were M. genitalium negative. Macrolide resistance was not found in either of the two positive samples. Conclusions In comparison with reported data, an unusually low prevalence of M. genitalium was found in infertile men. The reasons for this unexpected result are not known; possibly, local demographic and social characteristics of the population influenced the result. Further studies to investigate M. genitalium in infertile and other groups of patients are needed. PMID:25157184
Plecko, Vanda; Zele-Starcevic, Lidija; Tripkovic, Vesna; Skerlev, Mihael; Ljubojevic, Suzana; Plesko, Sanja; Marekovic, Ivana; Jensen, Jorgen Skov
This study of infertile women prior in vitro fertilization (IVF) is focused at the genetic and acquired thrombophilia before the IVF program, the identification of the frequency of occurrence of thrombophilia in them, the impact of thrombophilia of the offensive, the course and outcome of pregnancies, to improve the quality of cycles in terms of a pregnancy and childbirth. Forty-five women with infertility were examined. Thirty-two (71%) were identified thrombophilia: genetic thrombophilia in 32 cases (100%), among them a combination of several forms of genetic thrombophilia - 21 (63%) of them, other forms of thrombophilia (genetic and acquired) - in 5 of them (16%). In IVF 23 (72%) women became pregnant. In 87% of pregnancies ended in spontaneous birth, in 13% of cases of preterm birth. PMID:25200826
Petukhova, N L; Tsaturova, K A; Vartanian, E V; Schigoleva, A V; Markin, A V
Several studies have suggested the association of disturbed genital tract microbiota with infertility. Our aim was to clarify the influence of sexual intercourse on partner's genital tract microbiota in infertile couples. Seventeen couples were studied, and in 5 men inflammatory prostatitis (IP) was diagnosed. Semen samples were collected during menstruation of the female counterpart, two self-collected vaginal samples were taken 3-5 days later - before intercourse and 8-12 h after intercourse. Ureaplasma parvum was found in 59% of women, its prevalence was higher in women whose partner had IP, as well as in half of their male partners. Sexual intercourse caused significant shifts in vaginal microbiota - increase of Nugent score and shifts in cultured microbiota (emergence and disappearance of several species). These changes were less expressed in the presence of normal vaginal microbiota but more prominent in the partners of IP men. These changes may interfere with fertilization. PMID:21549210
Borovkova, Natalja; Korrovits, Paul; Ausmees, Kristo; Türk, Silver; Jőers, Kai; Punab, Margus; Mändar, Reet
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are present in the embryonic, fetal, and adult stages of life and give rise to differentiated cells that make up the building blocks of tissue and organs. Due to their unlimited source and high differentiation potential, stem cells are considered as potentially new therapeutic agents for the treatment of infertility. Stem cells could be stimulated in vitro to develop various numbers of specialized cells including male and female gametes suggesting their potential use in reproductive medicine. During past few years a considerable progress in the derivation of male germ cells from pluripotent stem cells has been made. In addition, stem cell-based strategies for ovarian regeneration and oocyte production have been proposed as future clinical therapies for treating infertility in women. In this review, we summarized current knowledge and present future perspectives and challenges regarding the use of stem cells in reproductive medicine. PMID:24826378
Volarevic, Vladislav; Nurkovic, Jasmin; Volarevic, Ana; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag
In recent times there has been a decline in the semen quality of young healthy men worldwide, with similar findings being reported in Nigeria. Although little is known about what is responsible for the decline in male sperm count worldwide, significant associations have been reported between impaired semen quality including sperm count, motility as well as morphology and exposures to heavy metals such as cadmium and lead, mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, pesticides, industrial chemicals and endocrine factors. In Nigeria, the problem is further compounded by a variety of factors such as sexually transmitted infections, genito-urinary tract infections/inflammations and deficiencies of dietary antioxidant nutrients, thereby increasing male-factor contribution to infertility in the population. In this article, we analyze data from different sources and present evidence of the possible etiology and risk factors for male-factor infertility in Nigeria. PMID:24558791
Abarikwu, Sunny O
This paper examines the labor market effects of state health insurance mandates that increase the cost of employing a demographically identifiable group. State mandates requiring that health insurance plans cover infertility treatment raise the relative cost of insuring older women of child-bearing age. Empirically, wages in this group are unaffected, but their total labor input decreases. Workers do not value infertility mandates at cost, and so will not take wage cuts in exchange, leading employers to decrease their demand for this affected and identifiable group. Differences in the empirical effects of mandates found in the literature are explained by a model including variations in the elasticity of demand, moral hazard, ability to identify a group, and adverse selection. PMID:22180892
Lahey, Joanna N
BACKGROUND Breast cancer development involves a series of mutations in a heterogeneous group of proto-oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes that alter mammary cells to create a microenvironment permissive to tumorigenesis. Exposure to hormones during infertility treatment may have a mutagenic effect on normal mammary epithelial cells, high-risk breast lesions and early-stage breast cancers. Our goal was to understand the association between infertility treatment and normal and cancerous breast cell proliferation. METHODS MCF-10A normal mammary cells and the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 [estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, well differentiated] and HCC 1937 (ER-negative, aggressive, BRCA1 mutation) were treated with the weak ER activator clomiphene citrate and hormones that are increased during infertility treatment. Direct effects of treatment on cell proliferation and colony growth were determined. RESULTS While clomiphene citrate had no effect on MCF-10A cells or MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it decreased proliferation of HCC 1937 versus untreated cells (P= 0.003). Estrogen had no effect on either MCF-10A or HCC 1937 cells but, as expected, increased cell proliferation (20–100 nM; P?0.002) and colony growth (10–30 nM; P< 0.0001) of MCF-7 cells versus control. Conversely, progesterone decreased both proliferation (P= 0.001) and colony growth (P= 0.01) of MCF-10A cells, inhibited colony size of MCF-7 cells (P= 0.01) and decreased proliferation of HCC 1937 cells (P= 0.008) versus control. hCG (100 mIU/ml) decreased both proliferation (P ? 0.01) and colony growth (P ? 0.002) of all three cell lines. CONCLUSIONS Although these data are preclinical, they support possible indirect estrogenic effects of infertility regimens on ER-positive breast cancer cells and validate the potential protective effect of pregnancy-related exposure to hCG. PMID:22081245
Cooley, Anne; Matthews, Laura; Zelivianski, Stanislav; Hardy, Ashley; Jeruss, Jacqueline S.
BACKGROUND: To examine glutathione S-transferase M1 (GST M1) gene polymorphism and male infertility in Taiwanese patients with varicocele, 80 young male patients with varicocele (group 1), 62 young male patients with subclinical varicocele (group 2) and 60 normal young males (group 3) were recruited in this study. METHODS: GST M1 null homozygous genotype (GST M1 (-)) and the occurrence of
Shiou-Sheng Chen; Luke S. Chang; Haw-Wen Chen; Yau-Huei Wei
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with single-color chromosome-specific probes was used to study the rates of disomy for chromosome 1, 16, X, and Y in sperm of fertile and infertile subjects. Diploidy rates were studied using a two-color cocktail of probes for chromosomes 17 and 18 in the same sperm samples. Two-color methodology was not available at the outset of
Norio Miharu; Robert G. Best; S. Robert Young
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of emotional intelligence, social support and contextual factors on the general health of infertile women. A sample of involuntarily childless women aged 25-45 living in the UK (n?=?148) and Pakistan (n?=?164) completed a self-administered questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences in total scores on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), British women reported greater anxiety, insomnia and social dysfunction, and Pakistani women reported greater depression and somatic symptoms. Important differences in putative correlates of GHQ scores were found between the samples. British women reported significantly greater emotional satisfaction, greater satisfaction with medical information, greater satisfaction with medical care, and greater actual received support Pakistani women reported greater emotional intelligence. Regression analysis to identify correlates of higher GHQ scores revealed that greater received social support was a common correlate of better GHQ scores among British and Pakistani women. Additional correlates of better GHQ scores among British women were greater emotional intelligence and more emotional satisfaction in their relationships (overall R(2) = 0.41). Additional correlates among Pakistani women were greater education, greater perceived available social support and a nuclear family system rather than an extended family (overall R(2) =0. 40). Results suggest that psychological facets of infertility should be addressed as part of a holistic approach to the care of infertile women. They highlight a need to improve social support and to incorporate emotional intelligence training in therapeutic interventions to improve the psychological well-being of infertile women. PMID:24479424
Batool, Shahida Syeda; de Visser, Richard Oliver
Spermatogenesis is an essential stage in human male gamete development, which is regulated by many Y chromosome specific genes. Most of these genes are centred in a specific region located on the long arm of the human Y chromosome known as the azoospermia factor region (AZF). Deletion events are common in Y chromosome because of its peculiar structural organization. Astonishingly, among the several known genetic causes of male infertility, Y chromosomal microdeletions emerged as the most frequent structural chromosome anomaly associated with the quantitative reduction of sperm. The development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) like intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) helps to bypass the natural barriers of fertilization, but it increases the concern about the transmission of genetic defects. Experimental evidence suggested that the men with Y chromosomal microdeletions vertically transmitted their deletion as well as related fertility disorders to their offspring via these ART techniques. In India, infertility is on alarming rise. ART centres have opened up in virtually every state but still most of the infertility centres in India do not choose to perform Y chromosomal microdeletion diagnosis because of some advanced theoretical reasons. Moreover, there is no consensus among the clinicians about the diagnosis and management of Y chromosomal microdeletion defects. The current review discusses thoroughly the role of Y chromosome microdeletion screening in the workup of male infertility, its significance as a diagnostic test, novel approaches for screening Y deletions and finally a systematic review on the current status of Y chromosome microdeletion deletion screening in India. PMID:24520494
Suganthi, Ramaswamy; Vijesh, Vijayabhavanath Vijayakumaran; Vandana, Nambiar; Fathima Ali Benazir, Jahangir
The significance of the performance of conventional in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) using sibling oocytes from couples with subfertile male or unexplained infertility was evaluated. A total of 410 sibling oocyte cumulus-corona complexes (OCCC) from 21 couples with subfertile male (group A) and 11 unexplained infertile couples (group B) were randomly divided, in order of retrieval, into two groups inseminated either by conventional IVF or by ICSI. The treatment outcomes and the influence of infertility factors on fertilization in each group were compared. The results showed that although the two pronuclear (2PN) fertilization rate per injected sibling oocytes was significantly higher after ICSI (group A: 68.2% +/- 28.8%; group B: 66.2% +/- 24.9%) than after conventional IVF (group A: 41.8% +/- 32.7%; group B: 40.1% +/- 22.1%), the other variables studied included: the fertilization rates of per allocated sibling oocytes IVF/ICSI, the fertilization rates of sibling oocytes IVF/ICSI after excluding failed IVF fertilization cycles, as well as the cleavage rates of normal fertilization were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Similarly, though the total fertilization failure rate in the IVF group (group A: 42.9%; group B: 36.4%) was significantly higher than in the ICSI group (group A: 4.8%; group B: 0), we did not cancel cycles due to the normal fertilization of sibling oocytes. Embryo transfer was possible in all 32 couples. There were 10 clinical pregnancies in the two groups. We also discovered a possible association between some semen parameters and sperm functions of group A, and women age and duration of infertility of group B and fertilization. It is suggested that adoption of the split IVF/ICSI technology in the above cases may help eliminate fertilization failures. This is also a useful method to investigate the effect of single factor on the employment of assisted reproductive technology. PMID:15587400
Li, Zhiling; Lin, Hong; Xiao, Wanfen; Wang, Yulian
Retention of intrauterine fetal bone is a rare cause of secondary infertility that should be considered when ultrasound demonstrates strongly shadowing echodensities in the endometrial space. It seems that the bone acts as an intrauterine contraceptive device as long as it is present in the cavity. Hysteroscopy is both diagnostic and therapeutic, with a generally good prognosis for future fertility in the absence of coexisting factors. PMID:20070730
Lanzarone, Valeria F; Pardey, John M
Gene targeting was used to create mice lacking sperm-associated antigen 6 (Spag6), the murine orthologue of Chlamydomonas PF16, an axonemal protein containing eight armadillo repeats predicted to be important for flagellar motility and stability of the axoneme central apparatus. Within 8 weeks of birth, approximately 50% of Spag6-deficient animals died with hydrocephalus. Spag6-deficient males surviving to maturity were infertile. Their
Rossana Sapiro; Igor Kostetskii; Patricia Olds-Clarke; George L. Gerton; Glenn L. Radice; Jerome F. Strauss III
Background: Tubal occlusion is one of the most frequent causes of infertility in women. The evaluation of the fallopian tube is necessary to determine the management plan for infertility. The two most important diagnostic procedures which are used for the evaluation of tubal patency are hysterosalpingography (HSG) and laparoscopy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare HSG and laparoscopic findings in the diagnosis of tubal patency. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study sixty two infertile cases were examined by HSG as part of their routine infertility evaluation, three months after HSG, tubs status were assessed by laparoscopy as a gold standard method. The findings of HSG and laparoscopy were compared. The Laparoscopy findings were used as reference standard to calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for unilateral and bilateral no tubal patency. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of HSG on bilateral tubal patency or no bilateral tubal patency were 92.1% and 85.7% respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 97.2% and 66.7%, and the accuracy was 91.1%. The sensitivity and specificity of HSG for evaluation of the bilateral tubal patency and unilateral or bilateral no tubal patency were 77.8% and 52.94%, the positive and negative predictive values were 81.4% and 47.4% respectively, and the accuracy was 71%. Conclusion: HSG is considered to have a high sensitivity and specificity. HSG and laparoscopy are not alternative, but are the complementary methods in the examination of no tubal patency.
Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Sadat, Zohreh
The study of nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ultrastructure may contribute to the understanding of pathognomonic cases of male infertility associated with defects in sperm motility. This study was designed to report a particular case of male infertility, characterized by the association of two respiratory autosomal recessive genetic diseases (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency [AAT-D] and primary ciliary dyskinesia [PCD]). A 39-year-old patient with complete sperm immotility, AAT-D, and bronchiectasis was studied in the Laboratory of Male Fertility, the Department of Urology, the Respiratory Center of a Pediatric Hospital, and in the Department of Clinical Medicine of a Rehabilitation Respiratory Hospital. Family history, physical examination, hormonal analysis, microbial assays, semen analysis, nasal ciliary function, and structure study by digital high-speed video photography and transmission electron microscopy are described. A noninvasive nasal biopsy to retrieve ciliated epithelium lining the inferior surface of the inferior nasal turbinates was performed and CBF was determined. Beat pattern was slightly curved and rigid, not wide, and metacronic in all the observed fields analyzed. CBF was 8.2 Hz in average (reference value, 10–15 Hz) Ultrastructural assay revealed absence of the inner dynein arms in 97% of the cilia observed. The final infertility accurate diagnosis was achieved by the study of nasal CBF and ultrastructure contributing to the patient health management and genetic counseling while deciding fatherhood. Beyond this particular case, the present report may open a new field of studies in male infertility, mainly in cases of asthenozoospermia. PMID:23772318
Costa, Sergio López; Scigliano, Sergio; Menga, Guillermo; Demiceu, Sergio; Palaoro, Luis Alberto
Nephronophthisis is the most common genetic cause of renal failure in children and young adults. It is genetically heterogeneous and can be seen in isolation or in combination with other ciliopathy phenotypes. Here we report an index case where nephronophthisis is associated with oculomotor apraxia and cerebellar abnormalities, consistent with the clinical diagnosis of cerebello-oculo-renal syndrome. Prompted by a family history of an uncle with early onset end stage renal failure and infertility, we performed semen analysis on the index. This revealed marked reduction in the count of motile sperms as well as multiple abnormalities in the head and tail. Autozygome-guided mutation analysis followed by exome sequencing and segregation analysis revealed a homozygous truncating mutation in NPHP4, indicating that mutations of this gene can on rare occasions cause cerebello-oculo-renal syndrome. Our finding of severe male infertility in a family with NPHP4 truncation is strongly supported by the mouse model and, to our knowledge, is the first reported male infertility phenotype in association with NPHP4 or any other nephrocystin in humans. PMID:23574405
Alazami, A M; Alshammari, M J; Baig, M; Salih, M A; Hassan, H H; Alkuraya, F S
The presence of naturally occurring anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) is a well-known cause of infertility in men and women, but the antigens for these antibodies are poorly characterized. We have previously shown that prostasomes adhere to sperm cells and that prostasomes are major targets for ASA associated with infertility. These autoantigens have not been characterized. We used 2-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and mass-spectrometry to identify the prostasome antigens for these autoantibodies. By these techniques, we revealed that prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) and clusterin were dominant prostasome immunogens for sperm-agglutinating autoantibodies of 20 patients with immunological infertility. PIP was identified by 19 of 20 (95%) patient sera and clusterin by 17 of 20 (85%). In addition, 10 sporadically occurring prostasomal antigens were identified in this context, viz alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP+], annexin I, annexin III, BRCA1-associated ring domain protein 1, heat shock 27-kd protein, isocitrate dehydrogenase, lactoylglutathione lyase, NG,NG-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1, peroxiredoxin 2, and syntenin 1. PMID:15292099
Carlsson, Lena; Ronquist, Gunnar; Nilsson, B Ove; Larsson, Anders
This paper examines how men's reproductive bodies are problematised in rural northern Malawi as access to biomedically defined diagnoses of the health of men's sperm contribute to the visibility of male infertility. Ethnographic research with infertile and fertile men explored pathways into the sexual health and fertility services offered in district hospitals, men's clinical engagements and masculine imaginaries. The research suggested that men's willingness to be referred for semen analysis is an extension of intensive and persistent help-seeking for childlessness instigated by couples and encouraged by families. Within the laboratory, acceptable social arrangements for semen sample collection are negotiated between male clients and laboratory staff, which emphasise heterosexual and marital virility. Following diagnosis, counselling by clinical officers, without any significant therapeutic interventions, focuses on compassion in marriage. This paper considers: what is the role of semen analysis within public health facilities and why do men participate? How do men experience an infertility diagnosis and what do they and their partners do with this knowledge? In addition, how do these practices shape gendered relationships in families and communities? The analysis builds on Inhorn's (2012) concept of ‘emergent masculinities’ to better understand the connections between male subjectivities, medical technologies and the globalisation of male reproductive health, as they relate to men's lives in rural Malawi. PMID:25175293
Parrott, Fiona R.
Infertility is a devastating problem around the world, particularly in the high fertility context of sub-Saharan Africa. Regardless of its medical origins, infertility causes African women personal grief and economic deprivation.This research was conducted among the Ijo who are organized into exogamous patrilineal descent groups. Women who marry into a patrilineage are perceived as bearers of sons who will eventually take their place in the lineage's genealogy. Women only figure in the lineage structure as mothers.In addition to extensive ethnographic research in this community, the paper is based on a combination of surveys of 246 women and interviews of 25 fertile and 25 infertile women.Women who have never given birth were characterized as “useless”. Some managed to accumulate wealth or attained education but most feared a marginal old age. Respect was given to women who have had even one child, even if that child died. The biological process of gestation confers an adult status on women allowing them to undergo initiation and to function as mature individuals. In the life course the most prominent periods of suffering are the transition from the stages of ereso (girl) to erera (mature woman), and in the period of old age. PMID:25116234
Hollos, Marida; Whitehouse, Bruce
Objective To determine the effect of infertility-linked sperm phospholipase C? (PLC?) mutations on their ability to trigger oocyte Ca2+ oscillations and development, and also to evaluate the potential therapeutic utility of wild-type, recombinant PLC? protein for rescuing failed oocyte activation and embryo development. Design Test of a novel therapeutic approach to male factor infertility. Setting University medical school research laboratory. Patient(s) Donated unfertilized human oocytes from follicle reduction. Intervention(s) Microinjection of oocytes with recombinant human PLC? protein or PLC? cRNA and a Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye. Main Outcome Measure(s) Measurement of the efficacy of mutant and wild-type PLC?-mediated enzyme activity, oocyte Ca2+ oscillations, activation, and early embryo development. Result(s) In contrast to the wild-type protein, mutant forms of human sperm PLC? display aberrant enzyme activity and a total failure to activate unfertilized oocytes. Subsequent microinjection of recombinant human PLC? protein reliably triggers the characteristic pattern of cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations at fertilization, which are required for normal oocyte activation and successful embryo development to the blastocyst stage. Conclusion(s) Dysfunctional sperm PLC? cannot trigger oocyte activation and results in male factor infertility, so a potential therapeutic approach is oocyte microinjection of active, wild-type PLC? protein. We have demonstrated that recombinant human PLC? can phenotypically rescue failed activation in oocytes that express dysfunctional PLC?, and that this intervention culminates in efficient blastocyst formation. PMID:22999959
Nomikos, Michail; Yu, Yuansong; Elgmati, Khalil; Theodoridou, Maria; Campbell, Karen; Vassilakopoulou, Vyronia; Zikos, Christos; Livaniou, Evangelia; Amso, Nazar; Nounesis, George; Swann, Karl; Lai, F. Anthony
Ex-fissiparous planarians produce infertile cocoons or, in very rare cases, cocoons with very low fertility. Here, we describe the features of programmed cell death (PCD) occurring in the hyperplasic ovary of the ex-fissiparous freshwater planarian Dugesia arabica that may explain this infertility. Based on TEM results, we demonstrate a novel extensive co-clustering of cytoplasmic organelles, such as lysosomes and microtubules, and their fusion with autophagosomes during the early stage of oocyte cell death occurring through an autophagic pattern. During a later stage of cell death, the generation of apoptotic vesicles in the cytoplasm can be observed. The immunohistochemical labeling supports the ultrastructural results because it has been shown that the proapoptotic protein bax was more highly expressed in the hyperplasic ovary than in the normal one, whereas the anti-apoptotic protein bcl2 was slightly more highly expressed in the normal ovary compared to the hyperplasic one. TUNEL analysis of the hyperplasic ovary confirmed that the nuclei of the majority of differentiating oocytes were TUNEL-positive, whereas the nuclei of oogonia and young oocytes were TUNEL-negative; in the normal ovary, oocytes are TUNEL-negative. Considering all of these data, we suggest that the cell death mechanism of differentiating oocytes in the hyperplasic ovary of freshwater planarians is one of the most important factors that cause ex-fissiparous planarian infertility. We propose that autophagy precedes apoptosis during oogenesis, whereas apoptotic features can be observed later. PMID:25107610
Harrath, Abdel Halim; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Mansour, Lamjed; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Arfah, Maha; Al Anazi, Mohamed S; Alhazza, Ibrahim M; Nyengaard, Jens R; Alwasel, Saleh
To study central genesis of disfunctional menstrual disorders was based particulary on electroencephalography and find out efficacy of pathogenetic management in infertile women with central forms of oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea compared to generally accepted hormone therapy. Depending on received management, all 159 patients were divided into two groups. Group I included 93 women with infertility and menstrual disorders treated by taking into account the found cerebral dysfunction. Group II included 66 women received generally accepted hormone therapy. 26 women belonged to group I were found to have regulated menstrual cyclicity (28%) after neuro-mediatorical management with tegretol, finlepsin, cinnarizin, phenazepam,- received during 3-6 months. In group II, in 3 women (4.5%) was obtained improvement and period became regular by using hormone treatment, included Diane-35, Tri-Regol, Marvelon subsequently by generally accepted way during long lasting courses (12 months- more than 1 year). Pregnancy occurred in 17 cases in group I (18.3%). The difference was significantly higher in this group in comparison with group II, where pregnancy was attained only in 3 women (4.5%). Our findings indicate that in the basis of menstrual disorders observed in 159 infertile women were stood dysfunctional changes of central regular mechanisms. Pathogenetic therapy showed that we have taken into consideration neuro-mediatorical correction of found central nervous system level dysfunction. By this way our study reveals significant success of management with neuro-mediatorical purpose compared to the generally accepted hormone therapy. PMID:23221134
Purpose This study was conducted to find the relative risk of semen abnormality with respect to smoking history and obesity. Materials and Methods Subfertile or infertile men were enrolled in this study from July 2010 to June 2011. All participants provided their cigarette use information, self-reported weight, height, semen analysis, physical examination, and sexually transmitted disease status. None of the enrolled patients had any specific pathological reason for infertility. Semen abnormality was defined as a condition in which one or more parameters did not satisfy the World Health Organization's criteria. Results A total of 1,073 male patients were considered for this study. After the application of the inclusion criteria, 193 patients were finally analyzed. These patients were divided into two groups according to semen abnormality: the normal semen group (n=72) and the abnormal semen group (n=121). Baseline characteristics, except age and smoking history, were not significantly different between the two groups. Smoking history and age were risk factors for the semen abnormality of idiopathic infertile male patients. Conclusions Smoking and old age were risk factors for semen abnormality. However, obesity did not affect the semen abnormality. Smoking affected semen quality and is therefore expected to play a negative role in conception.
Lee, Hui Dai; Lee, Hyo Serk; Lee, Joong Shik; Park, Yong-Seog
Assisted reproductive technology is an evolving area, and several adjuvant procedures have been created to increase a couple's chance of conceiving. For male infertility, the current challenges are to properly accommodate old and new techniques that are both cost-effective and evidence-based. In this context, urologists are expected to diagnose, counsel, provide medical or surgical treatment whenever possible and/or correctly refer male patients for assisted conception. Urologists are sometimes part of a multiprofessional team in an assisted reproduction unit and are responsible for the above-cited tasks as well as the surgical retrieval of sperm from either the epididymides or testicles. We present a comprehensive review of the surgical treatment options for infertile males, including the perioperative planning and prognostic aspects, with an emphasis on the role of microsurgery in the optimization of treatment results. This review also discusses current techniques for sperm retrieval that are used in association with assisted reproductive technology and includes sperm retrieval success rates according to the technique and the type of azoospermia. New insights are provided with regard to each surgical treatment option in view of the availability of assisted conception to overcome male infertility. PMID:21915501
Esteves, Sandro C.; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Agarwal, Ashok
Hybrid sterility is one of the earliest postzygotic isolating mechanisms to evolve between two recently diverged species. Here we identify causes underlying hybrid infertility of two recently diverged fission yeast species Schizosaccharomyces pombe and S. kambucha, which mate to form viable hybrid diploids that efficiently complete meiosis, but generate few viable gametes. We find that chromosomal rearrangements and related recombination defects are major but not sole causes of hybrid infertility. At least three distinct meiotic drive alleles, one on each S. kambucha chromosome, independently contribute to hybrid infertility by causing nonrandom spore death. Two of these driving loci are linked by a chromosomal translocation and thus constitute a novel type of paired meiotic drive complex. Our study reveals how quickly multiple barriers to fertility can arise. In addition, it provides further support for models in which genetic conflicts, such as those caused by meiotic drive alleles, can drive speciation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02630.001 PMID:24963140
Zanders, Sarah E; Eickbush, Michael T; Yu, Jonathan S; Kang, Ji-Won; Fowler, Kyle R; Smith, Gerald R; Malik, Harmit Singh
This study analyses the prevalence of karyotype aberrations and Yq microdeletions in infertile couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Before undergoing ICSI, each partner of 470 infertile couples was screened for karyotype aberrations by QFQ-banding technique on peripheral blood lymphocytes; male partners were also screened for Yq microdeletions. In 2.55% of the couples karyotype aberrations were found including numerical and structural alterations of autosomes and sex chromosomes. The female group had a high prevalence of low-level sex chromosome mosaicism (1.28%) and 5 cases of structural autosomal abnormalities (1.06%). The male group had 7 structural abnormalities of the autosomes (1.49%), 2 supernumerary marker chromosomes (0.42%), one case of low level gonosomal mosaicism (0.21%), and 2 cases of Y chromosome inversion (0.42%). Eight cases of Yq microdeletions (1.70%) were also found. Screening for genetic factors, chromosomal abnormalities and Yq microdeletions is indicated for couples undergoing assisted reproductive techniques due to the higher prevalence of these factors in infertile couples compared to the population as a whole although different chromosome aberrations have been reported elsewhere. PMID:18391546
Marchina, E; Imperadori, L; Speziani, M; Omodei, U; Tombesi, S; Barlati, S
Background Compromised receptivity of the endometrium is a major cause of unexplained infertility, implantation failure and subclinical pregnancy loss. In order to investigate the changes in endometrial protein profile as a cause of unexplained infertility, the current study was undertaken to analyze the differentially expressed proteins of endometrium from early-secretory (LH+2) to mid-secretory phase (LH+7), in women with unexplained infertility. Methods 2-D gel electrophoresis was performed to analyze the proteomic changes between early- (n?=?8) and mid-secretory (n?=?8) phase endometrium of women with unexplained infertility. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified by LC-MS analysis and validated by immunoblotting and immuno-histochemical analysis in early- (n?=?4) and mid-secretory (n?=?4) phase endometrium of infertile women. Validated proteins were also analyzed in early- (n?=?4) and mid-secretory (n?=?4) phase endometrium of fertile women. Results Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed between early- and mid- secretory phases of endometrium of infertile women. The expression of Ras-related protein Rap-1b, Protein disulfide isomerase A3, Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), Cofilin-1 and RAN GTP-binding nuclear protein (Ran) were found to be significantly increased, whereas, Tubulin polymerization promoting protein family member 3, Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], Sorcin, and Proteasome subunit alpha type-5 were significantly decreased in mid- secretory phase endometrium of infertile women as compared to early-secretory phase endometrium of infertile women. Validation of 4 proteins viz. Sorcin, Cofilin-1, Apo-A1 and Ran were performed in separate endometrial biopsy samples from infertile women. The up-regulated expression of Sorcin and down-regulated expression of Cofilin-1 and Apolipoprotein-A1, were observed in mid-secretory phase as compared to early-secretory phase in case of fertile women. Conclusions De-regulation of the expression of Sorcin, Cofilin-1, Apo-A1 and Ran, during early- to mid-secretory phase may have physiological significance and it may be one of the causes for altered differentiation and/or maturation of endometrium, in women with unexplained infertility. PMID:25405865
Manohar, Murli; Khan, Huma; Sirohi, Vijay Kumar; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad; Dwivedi, Anila
Background Studies conducted on infertile women in the literature investigated some features such as depression, anxiety, loneliness, and social support. However, there has been no study examining the relationship between levels of perceived social support and depression in infertile women. Considering this deficiency, the study was conducted to determine the relationship between perceived social support and depression in infertile women. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between perceived social support and depression in infertile women. Materials and Methods This descriptive and sectional study was conducted between 16 April and 31 October 2012 in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) Centre of F?rat University Re- search Hospital. Sampling formula was used in cases when the number of elements in the population was not known to calculate minimum sample size required to be included in the study. A total of 238 women who applied to the relevant centre between the specified dates constituted the sample group of the study. A Questionnaire Form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) were used to collect the data. A pilot study was carried out on nine infertile women. As a result of the pilot study, we formed the final version of the Questionnaire Form. The data of these nine women were not involved in the research. The data obtained from the study was assessed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) version 15.0. Percentage distribution, mean, t test, one-way analysis of variance (One-Way ANOVA), and Pearson correlation analysis were used to evaluate the data. Results The women’s total mean score on the BDI was 12.55 ± 8.07. Scores obtained by women on the MSPSS was 15.75 ± 8.53 for the subscale of friend, 21.52 ± 8.20 for the subscale of family, and 15.62 ± 8.45 for the subscale of significant others. The women’s total MSPSS score was 52.89 ± 21.75. Conclusion A significant, negative relationship was found between total BDI score with subscale and total mean scores of MSPSS (r= -0.596, p<0.01). Symptoms of depression decreased as the women’s perceived social support increased. PMID:25379160
Erdem, Kubra; Ejder Apay, Serap
Previous studies have described racial and socioeconomic disparities in the treatment of infertility. Patient factors such as attitudes and awareness may be contributing factors. Since primary care is often the setting that serves as an entry into other areas of medicine, we sought to evaluate men's attitudes and awareness of male infertility in the primary care setting. To do this, we performed a cross-sectional survey of men's attitudes toward men's health issues in 210 men from two primary care clinic waiting rooms in Atlanta, Georgia. The survey was self-administered with closed-ended question items and was approximately 20 min in length. Of the 310 men approached, 210 agreed to participate and returned completed surveys. Overall, 52% of men said they were “very” or “somewhat” familiar with infertility and 25% were familiar with treatments for infertility. Some men had heard of surgery (21%) and medication (35%) as treatments for male infertility. Awareness and familiarity with the condition was greater in high socioeconomic status men (i.e. college graduates or those with income >$100 k per year) but did not differ by race on multivariate analysis. Attitudes toward infertility varied by race with non-Caucasian men being more likely to indicate that infertility is a serious condition, to be concerned about infertility, and to believe it decreases a man's quality-of-life. Therefore, a lack of awareness, but not negative attitudes, may contribute to previously-described disparities in the treatment of infertility. PMID:24994785
Gerhard, Robert S; Ritenour, Chad WM; Goodman, Michael; Vashi, Dipak; Hsiao, Wayland
Introduction: Fibroids are very common tumors affecting women for centuries, however surprising that no significant data is still available as to what could be the cause of fibroid? What could be the predisposing or risk factors? Does it has any impact on fertility? Outcomes of Laparoscopic myomectomy in infertility? Setting: Advanced Tertiary Gynecologic endoscopic unit. Aims and Objectives: 1) What are the predisposing factors to develop fibroids? 2) Do fibroids lead to infertility? 3) What are the indications for removal of fibroids in infertility? 4) Is laparoscopic surgery better than open surgery? 5) Is the risk of rupture uterus more after laparoscopic myomectomy? 6) What is the success in terms of pregnancy rate after myomectomy? 7) What are the chances of abortions with or without myomectomy? Materials and Methods: A retrospective research study was carried out on 2540 women at the National Institute of Laser and Endoscopic Surgery and Aakar IVF Centre, Mumbai, a referral centre in India. This study was done over a period of 14 years. Women varied in age from 23 to 51 years and infertility of at least more than three years. The woman had fibroids from one to seventeen in number and two centimeters to eighteen centimeters in size which were either submucous, intramural, serosal, cervical or broad ligament. The women requiring hysteroscopic myoma resection were excluded in this study and Laparoscopic myomectomy done in woman other than infertility are also excluded from the study. Results: During the course of our study we found that the diet, weight, hypertension, habits had a bearing on incidence of fibroid. In one of the most promising research fact we found that fibroids itself produce prolactin and due to three times high level of aromatase had higher level of estradiol locally compared to normal myometrium. This was detrimental to fertility. A mild elevation of blood levels of prolactin usually in the range of 40 – 60 ng/ml was noticed in nearly 42% of the cases. Fibroids with infertility as a major complaint along with excessive vaginal bleeding in 33%, pain abdomen and dysmenorhea 10%, pressure symptoms in 3%, accidental finding of a large mass in 5% were the major indications for laparoscopic myomectomy. The pregnancy rate after removal of fibroids with active fertility treatment was 42 % and in donor oocyte IVF was 50%, abortion rate was 5%, 64% LSCS, 31% vaginal deliveries. There was no scar rupture in all pregnancies post laparoscopic myomectomy. Conclusion: Presence of fibroids in first degree female relative, predominantly red meat eating women, excess weight and high Blood pressure increased incidence of fibroids. Pregnancies & oral contraceptives decreased chances of fibroids. In infertile patient fibroids of significant size, multiple, had high local prolactin & aromatase level affecting fertility. Laparoscopic removal of fibroids increased pregnancy rate to 37.2% & 50% in donor oocyte IVF. PMID:22442511
Trivedi, Prakash; Abreo, Mohini
Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used for the treatment of infertility. While the Middle East and North Africa region has been shown to house one of the fastest growing markets of CAM products in the world, research describing the use of CAM therapies among Middle-Eastern infertile patients is minimal. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, characteristics and determinants of CAM use among infertile patients in Lebanon. Methods A cross sectional survey design was used to carry out face-to-face interviews with 213 consecutive patients attending the Assisted Reproductive Unit at a major academic medical center in Beirut. The questionnaire comprised three sections: socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, infertility-related aspects and information on CAM use. The main outcome measure was the use of CAM modalities for infertility treatment. Determinants of CAM use were assessed through the logistic regression method. Results Overall, 41% of interviewed patients reported using a CAM modality at least once for their infertility. There was a differential by gender in the most commonly used CAM therapies; where males mostly used functional foods (e.g. honey & nuts) (82.9%) while females mostly relied on spiritual healing/prayer (56.5%). Factors associated with CAM use were higher household income (OR: 0.305, 95% CI: 0.132–0.703) and sex, with females using less CAM than males (OR: 0.12, 95% CI: 0.051–0.278). The older patients were diagnosed with infertility, the lower the odds of CAM use (p for trend <0.05). Almost half of the participants (48%) were advised on CAM use by their friends, and only 13% reported CAM use to their physician. Conclusions The considerably high use of CAM modalities among Lebanese infertile patients, added to a poor CAM use disclosure to physicians, underscore the need to integrate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as enhance infertile patients' awareness on safe use of CAM products. PMID:22901284
Several studies have investigated the association between polymorphisms in the Deleted in AZoospermia-Like (DAZL) gene and male infertility risk, but with inconsistent results. We aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, therefore a meta-analysis was performed. A total of 13 case-control studies, including 2556 cases and 1997 controls, were selected. Two polymorphisms in DAZL were investigated, namely T12A (Thr12 ? Ala) and T54A (Thr54 ? Ala). Our meta-analysis showed that A > G is a risk factor for male infertility (P = 0.047, OR = 1.262, 95%CI = 1.003-1.587). However, when using trial sequential analysis (TSA) to confirm, we found that A > G risk effect turned out to be false positive. In addition, significant association was found between the T54A polymorphism and male infertility under co-dominant model (AG vs. AA: OR = 4.364, 95%CI = 2.207-8.630, P < 0.001) and dominant model (OR = 4.584, 95%CI = 2.320-9.058, P < 0.001). Stratified analysis showed that significantly strong association between T54A polymorphism and male infertility was present only in Asians, but not in Caucasians. Further studies of T12A and T54A with their biological functions are needed to understand the role of these polymorphisms in the development of male infertility. PMID:24717865
Zhang, Simin; Tang, Qiuqin; Wu, Wei; Yuan, Beilei; Lu, Chuncheng; Xia, Yankai; Ding, Hongjuan; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru
Background and Aims Anti-sperm antibodies in can markedly reduce the likelihood of natural conception. The etiology of this anti-sperm immunity in human females is unknown. We compared the cytokine response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from infertile patients with or without anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) and fertile women. Methodology/Principal Findings We cultivated the PBMCs together with sperm antigens (whole cells or cell lysate), and screened the supernatants for 40 cytokines by antibody array. When stimulated with whole sperm cells, the PBMCs from patients with ASA produce less IL-3, IL-11, IL-13, ICAM-1, GCSF and more IL-2, IL-4 and IL-12p70 as compared to healthy women. PBMCs from patients with ASA produce typically less IL-13, IL-7, IL-17 and MIG, and more MIP-1? and IL-8, as compared to PBMCs from patients without ASA. In response to sperm cell lysate, PBMCs from infertile women without ASA respond initially by increase in production of growth factors (GCSF, GM-CSF and PDGF-BB) followed by increase in chemokines (e.g. IL-8, MCP-1 and MIP-1?). Conclusions Cellular immune responses to sperm antigens, measured by production of cytokines, differ among infertile women with ASA, infertile women without ASA and healthy women. This difference could play an important role in the initial steps of the infertility pathogenesis. PMID:22952917
Kverka, Miloslav; Ulcova-Gallova, Zdenka; Bartova, Jirina; Cibulka, Jan; Bibkova, Katarina; Micanova, Zdenka; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena
Context Clomiphene citrate (CC) is the first line drug for ovulation induction but because of its peripheral antiestrogenic effect, letrozole was introduced as the 2nd line drug. It lacks the peripheral antiestrogenic effect and is associated with similar or even higher pregnancy rates. Since letrozole is a drug for breast cancer, its use for the purpose of ovulation induction became controversial in the light of studies indicating an increased incidence of congenital malformations. Aims To evaluate and compare the incidence of congenital malformations among offsprings of infertile couples who conceived naturally or with clomiphene citrate or letrozole treatment. Settings and Design A retrospective cohort study done at a tertiary infertility centre. Methods and Material A total of 623 children born to infertile women who conceived naturally or following clomiphene citrate or letrozole treatment were included in this study. Subjects were sorted out from medical files of both mother and newborn and follow up study was done based on the information provided by parents through telephonic conversations. Babies with suspected anomaly were called and examined by specialists for the presence of major and minor congenital malformations. Other outcomes like multiple pregnancy rate and birth weight were also studied. Results Overall, congenital malformations, chromosomal abnormalities were found in 5 out of 171 (2.9%) babies in natural conception group and 5 out of 201 babies in the letrozole group (2.5%) and in 10 of 251 babies in the CC group (3.9%). Conclusions There was no significant difference in the overall rate of congenital malformations among children born to mothers who conceived naturally or after letrozole or CC treatment. Key Messages Congenital malformations have been found to be comparable following natural conception, letrozole and clomiphene citrate. Thus, the undue fear against letrozole may be uncalled for. PMID:25272289
Sharma, Sunita; Ghosh, Sanghamitra; Singh, Soma; Chakravarty, Astha; Ganesh, Ashalatha; Rajani, Shweta; Chakravarty, B. N.
Male infertility is a serious global medical and social issue demanding more specific and effective treatments. In this study, we generated a male infertility rat model using adenine induction to study the effects of certain micronutrients on reproduction. Fifty male SD rats were used in the study, and thirty of them received daily intra-gastric administration of 300 mg/kg adenine for four weeks. The thirty adenine treated mice were evenly divided into 3 groups to receive intra-gastric administration of micronutrient mixture of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, Zinc, and selenium (micronutrient group), normal saline (model control group), and methyl testosterone solution (androgen group). The other twenty rats used were normal male SD rats that were evenly divided into two groups to receive intra-gastric administration of normal saline (normal control group) and micronutrient mixture first then adenine 40 min later (micronutrient prevention group). After four weeks of micronutrient and other treatments, all rats were sacrificed for analyses. Compared with those in the model control group, the rats in the micronutrient group showed significantly improved physical signs, significantly increased body weights, significantly increased testis index, significantly increased sperm counts and motility, significantly decreased sperm malformation, and significantly repaired testis tissue. Compared with those in the model control group, the rats in the micronutrient group showed significantly decreased FSH levels and recovered LH and testosterone levels. The rats in the micronutrient prevention group did not show significant differences in sperm counts, sperm motility, sperm malformation, and hormonal levels from those in the normal control group. The findings from this study provide evidence for the potential application of micronutrients in male infertility treatments. PMID:25356136
Yu, Zheng-Zheng; Chen, Jing; Shou, Pei-Qin; Feng, Lei
The authors have investigated the psychodynamic background of possible psychogenic infertility in twenty couples. Four levels were studied: 1. Functioning of the relationship was measured with the Consensus Rorschach Test, following communication patterns in the couples. 2. Individual psychological functioning was investigated with the Individual Rorschach Test, positive and negative choices were asked, and titles were given to the figures. 3. Positive and negative reactions to particular image stimuli were also recorded, thus the joint psychological functioning of the couple was analysed. 4. Content analysis of Rorschach responses was also performed, and associations of the infertile couples were compared with associations of twenty couples expecting a child (matched by education level, SES and age). Results have provided evidence for the "phallic collusion" originally conceptualised by Jürg Willi. Starting from Willi's model, we can identify fixation at the Oedipal stage of development (3-6 years) in these partners living in a dysfunctional relationship. They have the same Achilles heel, a common grievance, a common "history pattern". Their common life is built on the hope that by living together, they could solve the problems originating from the childhood trauma. Generally, they have common fears of authority, and fears of adopting mature gender roles. According to maturity of communication content, their personality is in a transitional stage between childhood and adulthood. At a manifest level however, they hope to achieve fulfillment (birth of a child). The interactions are very ambivalent, strong mutual confirmation is present as well as criticism, devaluation and ignoration of the partner. Results of the study provide various new possibilities for promoting personality development through therapy in infertile couples with a possible psychogenic background. PMID:16389781
Bakó, Tihamér; Kulcsár, Eva
Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of childbearing age (6.8%–18%), is among the most common causes of infertility due to ovulation factors, and accounts for 55%–70% of infertility cases caused by chronic anovulation. In this study, we used a combination of letrozole and clomiphene in patients resistant to both drugs individually, and studied the effects of this combination in ovulation and pregnancy in resistant PCOS patients. Methods The study population included infertile couples diagnosed as PCOS in the wife. The women used clomiphene for at least six cycles in order to ovulate after failure to form the dominant follicle, and were then put on letrozole for four cycles. Patients who were unable to form the dominant follicle were enrolled on letrozole and clomiphene combination therapy. Results One hundred enrolled patients underwent 257 cycles of a combination of letrozole and clomiphene, in which 213 were able to form the dominant follicle (82.9%) and 44 were unable to do so (17.1%). The number of mature follicles was 2.3±1.1. The mean endometrial thickness in patients on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration was 8.17±1.3 mm. The pregnancy rate was 42%. Conclusion According to the results of this study, it can be proposed that in PCOS patients resistant to clomiphene and letrozole used as single agents, a combination of the two drugs can be administered before using more aggressive treatment that may have severe complications or surgery. This combination may also be used as a first-line therapy to induce ovulation in severe cases of PCOS in order to save time and expense. PMID:24348019
Hajishafiha, Masomeh; Dehghan, Meisam; Kiarang, Nazila; Sadegh-Asadi, Nahideh; Shayegh, Seyed Navid; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad
Plants have played significant roles as medicine during pregnancy, birth, and postpartum care in many rural areas of the world. In addition to this, plants have been used for centuries to treat infertility and related reproduction problems. The aim of this paper was to review the current status of plant species used in maternal healthcare, including infertility, in South Africa, in terms of scientific evaluation for efficacy and safety. In addition to this, the role of medicinal plants as a tool in achieving the MDG5 of reducing maternal mortality by 2015 was evaluated. A search was done with the aid of Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, peer-reviewed papers, and books, using keywords such as child birth, labour pain, maternal health, maternal mortality, menstrual pains, and postpartum. The plants listed in the different research articles were classified according to their use and the target effect of a plant extract or compound on reproductive function. Eighty-four plant species were found to be used to treat infertility and related problems. Twenty plant species are used during pregnancy, while 26 plant species are used to ease childbirth. For postpartum healing and any problems after childbirth, nine plant species were recorded. Unhealthy pregnancy and birth complications are among the factors that contribute to the loss of cognitive potential in the developing world's children, condemning them to impoverished lives. The best way to keep a country poor is to rob its children of their full developmental potential. In this respect, medicinal plants play a significant role in reducing maternal mortality and ensuring the birth of healthy children. PMID:23609109
Abdillahi, Halima S; Van Staden, Johannes