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Sample records for infertility

  1. Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to become pregnant after a year of trying. If a woman can ... keeps having miscarriages or stillbirths, that's also called infertility. Infertility is fairly common. After one year of ...

  2. Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... or for women. Some involve both partners. Drugs, assisted reproductive technology, and surgery are common treatments. Happily, many couples treated for infertility go on to have babies. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  3. Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... heat for prolonged periods Heavy use of alcohol, marijuana, or cocaine Hormone imbalance Impotence Infection Medicines such ... to their provider. Infertility testing involves a medical history and physical exam for both partners. Blood and ...

  4. Defining Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Defining infertility What is infertility? Infertility is “the inability to conceive after 12 months ... to conceive after 6 months is generally considered infertility. How common is it? Infertility affects 10%-15% ...

  5. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  6. Infertility - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  7. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... might be infertile, see your doctor. There are tests that may tell if you have fertility problems. When it is possible to find the cause, treatments may include medicines, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies. Happily, many couples treated for infertility are able ...

  8. Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cause, treatments may include medicines, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology. Happily, many couples treated for infertility are able to have babies. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  9. Infertility and Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Infertility and Fertility: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is infertility? "Infertility" is a term that describes when a ...

  10. Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine Sexual dysfunction and infertility What is sexual dysfunction and how common is ... and 40% of women. For couples dealing with infertility, it is even more common. Often, people ignore ...

  11. Smoking and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Smoking and infertility Can smoking affect my ability to have a ... smoke do not conceive as efficiently as nonsmokers. Infertility rates in both male and female smokers are ...

  12. Stress and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Stress and infertility It is not clear how exactly stress impacts ... How can stress impact a fertility patient? Sometimes, infertility patients respond to the stress of being unable ...

  13. Primary infertility (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Primary infertility is a term used to describe a couple that has never been able to conceive a pregnancy ... to do so through unprotected intercourse. Causes of infertility include a wide range of physical as well ...

  14. Genetics of Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Neto, Filipe Tenorio Lira; Bach, Phil Vu; Najari, Bobby Baback; Li, Philip Shihua; Goldstein, Marc

    2016-10-01

    While 7 % of the men are infertile, currently, a genetic etiology is identified in less than 25 % of those men, and 30 % of the infertile men lack a definitive diagnosis, falling in the "idiopathic infertility" category. Advances in genetics and epigenetics have led to several proposed mechanisms for male infertility. These advances may result in new diagnostic tools, treatment approaches, and better counseling with regard to treatment options and prognosis. In this review, we focus on clinical aspects of male infertility and the role of genetics in elucidating etiologies and the potential of treatments. PMID:27502429

  15. Psychosocial Consequences of Infertility on Infertile Women.

    PubMed

    Fatima, P; Rahman, D; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N; Mughi, C R

    2015-10-01

    This study explores to find out the qualitative and quantitative psychosocial consequences of infertility in women coming for infertility treatment in tertiary infertility center. A total of 400 infertile couples who agreed to participate in the study were asked to fill up the questionnaires and later interviewed to access the psychosocial consequences of infertility on their personal life in a tertiary infertility clinic in Dhaka at Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARe Hospital), Dhaka from June 2011 to December 2011 and agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. The data was analyzed and the quantitative and qualitative psychosocial factors were evaluated. Four hundred infertile couple who filled the questionnaires was included in the study. Sixty three percent of the women belonged to age group >20 30 years at the time of interview. Regarding age at marriage 43.8% of the women were married by 20 years, 51.3% were married between 20 30 years. Mean±SD duration of present married life was 7.20±4.45 (range 1 to 28) years and 74.4% of the women were living with their husbands. Of them 75.5% women were housewife. When asked whether they knew what was the reason of infertility in the couple, 32.5% knew the cause was in the female partner, 14.5%, knew the cause was in the male partner, 10.3% knew the cause was in both partners, 21.5% knew cause of infertility was not in any of the partners, and 21.3% had no idea about the cause of infertility. The male partner's response about the issue of prognosis and outcome of couple's infertility revealed 37.3% believed their wives will conceive someday, 31.3% had no intention for a second marriage, 13% were indifferent, 11.3% blamed their wives for infertility and 4.8% threatened for a second marriage. Only 2.5% of the male partners were suggested on consulting and continuing treatment by specialist. The family pressure by in-laws and relatives towards their infertility was that 57.3% insisted on consulting

  16. What Infertility Treatments Are Available?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Males Fertility Treatments for Females Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Treatments for Diseases That Cause Infertility American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012) Quick facts about infertility . ...

  17. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed. PMID:26216827

  18. Parenthood after Primary Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances-Fischer, Jana E.; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the experience of parenting after primary infertility and describes construction and initial testing of an instrument for assessing characteristics of this understudied population. (Contains 52 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  19. STDs and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... literature review to support an infertility prevention social marketing campaign Male Chlamydia Screening Consultation - Review and guidance ( ... Health Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  20. Causes of Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... elements can lead to infertility. Frequent use of laptops near the testicles 4 as well as saunas ... D, Komaroff E. Increase in scrotal temperature in laptop computer users. Human Reproduction 2004. Available at http:// ...

  1. Diagnostic imaging of infertility

    SciTech Connect

    Winfield, A.C.; Wentz, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    This text presents a review of all the imaging modalities available in the diagnosis of infertility. This book integrates the perspectives of experts in ob/gyn, radiology, reproductive endocrinology, and urology. It's a one-of-a-kind ''how to'' guide to hysterosalpinography and infertility evaluation, providing complete clinical information on the techniques, pitfalls, problems encountered and differential diagnosis. Detailed descriptions accompany numerous high-quality illustrations to help correlate findings and give meaning to the radiographic and ultrasound images.

  2. Psychiatric aspects of infertility and infertility treatments.

    PubMed

    Burns, Linda Hammer

    2007-12-01

    Infertility counseling, whether provided by a psychiatrist or another health care professional, involves the treatment and care of patients, not simply when they are undergoing fertility treatment but also with their long-term emotional well-being, and that of their children and the reproductive helpers who may assist them in achieving biologic or reproductive parenthood. They can educate patients about the side effects of infertility treatment medications and the impact of hormone shifts on psychologic well-being. They are also helpful with differential diagnoses among grief, depressions, and stress; in assessing psychologic preparedness; and in determining the acceptability and suitability of gamete donation, a gestational carrier, or surrogacy as a family-building alternative for individuals, couples, and reproductive collaborators. PMID:17938041

  3. Infertility: Medical and Social Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report illustrates a range of options for Congressional action in nine principal areas of public policy related to infertility: (1) collecting data on reproductive health; (2) preventing infertility; (3) information to inform and protect consumers; (4) providing access to infertility services; (5) reproductive health of veterans; (6) transfer…

  4. Parenting after Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  5. Fertility and Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  6. Psychological Component of Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... that they have: a graduate degree in a mental health profession a license to practice and/or state registration clinical training in the psychological aspects of infertility experience in the medical and ... to a competent mental health professional, you can check the ASRM website ...

  7. Preconception interventions in infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Kazemi, Ashraf; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preconception interventions in infertile couples can increase the chance of pregnancy and lower its complications. The success in infertility treatment and achieving a successful pregnancy is of great importance among infertile couples compared to others. This study has tried to investigate necessary preconception interventions before beginning of infertility treatment cycle among infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 268 individuals presenting to fertility clinics (Moshtagh and Shahid beheshty) across the city of Isfahan, Iran. Simple sampling method was used. Questionnaire and patients’ medical records were used to collect data. Descriptive and analytic statistical methods and SPSS software were used for analysis. Results: The results showed that the interventions related to diseases treatment and prescription of folic acid before the beginning of infertility treatment were complete for most of the subject (47.06% and 79.9% respectively), but referral for genetics counseling had not been conducted in most of the cases (98.9%). Specific interventions in relation with the infertility treatment before beginning the treatment cycle had been conducted in 50% of the subjects. Conclusion: The results of this study showed a weakness concerning necessary preconception interventions before beginning of infertility treatment cycle in most of the studied subjects. With regard to the effect of preconception interventions on outcome of infertility treatment, and with consideration of high importance of pregnancy success in infertile couples, paying more attention to conduct this manner is necessary. PMID:25250367

  8. Fertility, infertility and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Amir; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Brenner, Benjamin

    2011-09-01

    Hypercoagulation has been reported in some studies to be associated with reproductive failures, such as unexplained infertility, IVF implantation failure and recurrent fetal losses. Many pregnancy-related disorders have been interpreted as consequences of impaired microvascular function and might be viewed as a mild form of venous thromboembolic disease. In the absence of clinical guidelines, there is a need for an evidence base regarding thrombophilic screening and antithrombotic therapy in cases of reproductive failure. This article will focus on the controversial effect of congenital and acquired thrombophilia on human fertility, and will review the English literature for relevant studies identified by searching PubMed(®) results between January 1966-November 2010 using the key words: 'thrombophilia', 'fertility' and 'infertility'. PMID:21879823

  9. Treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Gianpiero D; Kocent, Justin; Monahan, Devin; Neri, Queenie V; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Major difficulties exist in the accurate and meaningful diagnosis of male reproductive dysfunction, and our understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of male infertility has proven quite complex.The numerous spermatozoa produced in mammals and other species provides some degree of protection against adverse environmental conditions represented by physical and chemical factors that can reduce reproductive function and increase gonadal damage even resulting in testicular cancer or congenital malformations. The wide fluctuations of sperm production in men, both geographical and temporal, may reflect disparate environmental exposures, occurring on differing genetic backgrounds, in varying psychosocial conditions, and leading to the diversified observed outcomes.Sperm analysis is still the cornerstone in diagnosis of male factor infertility, indeed, individually compromised semen paramaters while adequately address therapeutic practices is progressively flanked by additional tests. Administration of drugs, IUI, correction of varicocele, and, to a certain extent, IVF although they may not be capable of restoring fertility itself often result in childbearing. PMID:24782020

  10. Immunology of infertility.

    PubMed

    Jones, W R

    1981-12-01

    Recent research on immunological infertility in men and women is reviewed and the possibilities for therapeutic success in this area are assessed. Surface antigens of the acrosome and main tail piece appear to provoke antibodies of special relevance to male and female infertility and are recognized by circulating sperm-immobilizing antibodies in women and by immobilizing and agglutinizing antibodies in men. Assessment methods have focused on the development of tests of local immunity to sperm. Antisperm antibodies have been tested via sperm microagglutination, the gelatin agglutination test, the sperm immobilization test, and immunofluorescence techniques. In addition, measurement has focused on antibodies in cervical mucus, antibodies in seminal plasma, and cell-mediated immunity. Methods involving both partners include postcoital test, the sperm-cervical mucus penetration test, and the sperm-cervical mucus contact test. There remains a need for the development of specific radioimmunoassys for the precise detection and quantitation of antibodies to sperm antigens, especially those of cell membrane origin. In males, autoimmunity to sperm antigens can be related to infertility by 2 main pathogenic mechanisms: 1) the adverse effects of antibodies directly on spermatozoa, and 2) the association with disordered spermatogenesis resulting in oligospermia and azoospermia. In women, the effector pathways of local immunization mediate both systemic and cell-mediated immune responses. Local antibodies can interfere with the reproductive process by arming macrophages and enhancing phagocytic clearance of spermatozoa from the genital tract, mediating cytotoxic effects on sperm, preventing sperm from adequately penetrating cervical mucus, intefering with sperm capacitation, and influencing sperm selection within the female genital tract. Between 5-10% of infertile men and women show evidence of anitbodies to sperm. Treatment has included occlusion therapy, intrauterine

  11. Endometriosis and infertility.

    PubMed

    Donnez, Jacques; Donnez, Olivier; Orellana, Renan; Binda, Maria M; Dolmans, Marie M

    2016-06-01

    Endometriosis remains a very enigmatic and perplexing disease. The exact mechanism by which endometriosis causes infertility is still unclear. In the present paper, we will review possible mechanisms leading to subfertility or infertility in women with endometriosis and examine them according to location. Endometriosis in the pelvic cavity is a pathology associated with a general inflammatory response and should therefore be considered an inflammatory disease. Inflammatory changes affect the peritoneal fluid and hence the intratubal milieu, since the ampulla (where fertilization takes place) is exposed to peritoneal fluid through the fimbria. Any inflammatory change at this level may therefore impact fertilization and natural conception. The relationship between ovarian endometriomas and infertility may, of course, be explained by the presence of periovarian endometriosis. In the ovary, fibrosis observed in some cortical areas is induced by the inflammatory reaction caused by the presence of endometriomas. The association between fibrosis and a reduced ovarian reserve was demonstrated. Upregulated recruitment and the subsequent demise of early follicles may result in focal exhaustion of primordial follicles. Burn-out of early follicles by a local pelvic inflammatory environment caused by endometriomas may therefore be suggested. However, intraovarian inflammation, subsequent fibrosis and depletion of the ovarian reserve constitute another reason that should also be given due consideration. In addition, surgery should not be ruled out as a possible cause of ovarian reserve depletion. In conclusion, potential mechanisms leading to infertility are numerous, and while some of them remain hypothetical for now, others are supported by clear evidence. These possible mechanisms were reviewed in the present paper. PMID:26837776

  12. Infertility, infertility treatment and behavioural problems in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Obel, Carsten; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine B; Bech, Bodil H; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-09-01

    Behavioural patterns in children of infertile couples may be influenced by both the underlying causes of infertility and stress in the couples. Treatment procedures, such as culture media and manipulation of gametes and embryos, may also result in developmental problems. We examined behavioural problems in children as a function of infertility and infertility treatment, using data from three population-based birth cohorts in Denmark (Aalborg-Odense Birth Cohort, Aarhus Birth Cohort and Danish National Birth Cohort). Information on time to pregnancy and infertility treatment was collected during pregnancy. Children aged between 7 and 21 years were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The SDQ was completed by mothers in all cohorts and, in addition, by teachers in the Aarhus cohort and by children themselves in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. Children born after a time to pregnancy of >12 months and no infertility treatment had a behavioural pattern similar to children of fertile parents. Teachers reported a higher total difficulties score for children born after infertility treatment, but no significant differences were seen on any subscales of the teachers' report, and neither the mothers nor the children reported any differences on the total difficulties score and the prosocial behaviour score. Our results are thus overall reassuring regarding behavioural problems in children born to infertile couples, regardless of infertility treatment. PMID:21819428

  13. Tarlov Cyst and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Conclusions: Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients. PMID:19569467

  14. Adolescent Varicoceles and Infertility.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jessica T; Misseri, Rosalia

    2015-12-01

    Varicoceles are associated with testicular atrophy and abnormal spermatogenesis. Varicocele-related testicular damage is thought to be progressive in nature. Adult varicoceles are common in men with infertility, and varicocele repair in this population has demonstrated improved semen parameters and paternity outcomes. However, without solid objective endpoints (reproducible semen analyses, paternity), the indications for adolescent varicocele repair remain controversial. Given the controversy surrounding adolescent varicocele management, it is not surprising that surveys of pediatric urologists have revealed a lack of consensus on diagnostic approaches, treatment decisions, and operative approaches. PMID:26568496

  15. A Biopsychosocial Theory of Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrity, Deborah A.

    2001-01-01

    Briefly reviews the literature on infertility and its emotional, physical, existential, and relational effects on individuals, couples, and families. Life crisis and biopsychosocial theories are discussed as they apply to persons struggling with infertility issues. In addition, stage models derived from a biopsychosocial perspective are presented.…

  16. Strategies for Counseling Infertile Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents specific intervention strategies that may serve to reinforce infertility experience as opportunity for personal and marital growth. Concludes through counseling clients may complete much of the emotional work required to reach a point of resolution and acceptance of their infertility. (Author/ABL)

  17. Oral Drugs for Unexplained Infertility.

    PubMed

    Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2016-02-01

    Of the infertile couples unable to conceive without any identifiable cause, 30 % are defined as having unexplained infertility. Management depends on duration of infertility and age of female partner. The treatment of unexplained infertility is empirical, and many different regimens have been used. Among these are expectant management, ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins and aromatase inhibitors, fallopian tube sperm perfusion, tubal flushing, intrauterine insemination, gamete intrafallopian transfer, and IVF. The first approach to treatment of unexplained infertility generally is the use of drugs that stimulate oocyte production. For over four decades, the first-line treatment for ovarian stimulation in unexplained infertility has been clomiphene citrate. Multiple reports suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be effective alternative agents for ovarian stimulation in couples with unexplained infertility. Their administration is reported to be associated with monofollicular development in most cases, which may result in enhanced fertility and a reduced risk of ovarian hyperstimulation and multiple births, as compared to current standard therapies such as gonadotropin and clomiphene. Despite world evidence to the contrary, letrozole has been banned for use for infertility management in India since 2011. PMID:26924899

  18. Sexual dysfunction in infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Zahra; Amirian, Malihe; Golmakani, Nahid; Mazlom, Reza; Laal Ahangar, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual problems have different effects on the life of people by influencing their interpersonal and marital relationships and satisfaction. Relationship between sexual dysfunctions and infertility can be mutual. Sexual dysfunction may cause difficulty conceiving but also attempts to conceive, may cause sexual dysfunction. Objective: This paper compares sexual dysfunction in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 110 infertile couples referring to Montasarieh Infertility Clinic and 110 fertile couples referring to five healthcare centers in Mashhad were selected by class cluster sampling method. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaire and Glombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction. Data were analyzed through descriptive and analytical statistical methods by SPSS. Results: There was no significant difference in total score of sexual problems and other dimensions of sexual problems (except infrequency) in fertile 28.9 (15.5) and infertile 29.0 (15.4) women. Fertile women had more infrequency than infertile women (p=0.002). Conclusion: There was no significant difference between fertile and infertile women in terms of sexual problems. Paying attention to sexual aspects of infertility and presence of programs for training of sexual skills seems necessary for couples. PMID:27200422

  19. Infertility in the male dog.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M S

    1992-09-01

    The diagnosis and characterization of infertility in the male dog depends largely on the initial history and semen evaluation and on following the course of infertility over time. The diagnostic testing described here is helpful for guiding therapy, but the prognosis in serious cases of infertility is usually poor. Cases of subfertility that are not progressive have a better prognosis with optimal breeding management. Finally, the clinician should remember that some insults to the testes are reversible with time so it is important not to administer therapy that will interfere with the dog's ability to recover. Client education is an important part of the management of male dog infertility because it is not uncommon for various drugs to be administered by the breeder, or at the breeder's request, without a sufficient diagnostic work-up. In addition, errors of breeding management may play a role in male dog infertility or limit the success of treatment. PMID:1421819

  20. [Comorbidity in infertile couples].

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Gideon A; Bürgin, Laila; Kaufmann, Fabrice; De Geyter, Christian

    2009-12-01

    Pregnancy is the result of a series of highly complex processes, which can be deranged by multiple disturbances on many different levels. Physicians are increasingly dealing with couples suffering from infertility. This rise in case numbers is mainly due to the fact that couples are more and more delaying childbearing until a later phase of their reproductive life, when their social and professional careers are established. The increasing mean age at the first birth has a negative impact on fertility by deteriorating quality and reducing the quantity of oocytes. With increasing age systemic diseases are becoming more coincidental, which in turn tend to exert negative effects on fecundity and fertility both in males and females. This review highlights some associations between infertility and various common systemic diseases. Both general practitioners and gynecologists should counsel young women about the finity of the reproductive phase of their life. Young couples are to be informed, that a "healthy lifestyle" without smoking, sexual transmitted diseases and without metabolic diseases as diabetes and obesity can have a positive effect not only on their general health but also on their fertility and the outcome of future pregnancies. PMID:19950056

  1. Leiomyomas and infertility.

    PubMed

    Siristatidis, Charalampos; Vaidakis, Dennis; Rigos, Ioannis; Chrelias, George; Papantoniou, Nikolaos

    2016-06-01

    Leiomyomas are the commonest benign tumor in the female reproductive tract. Even though their role on infertility is still questionable, evidence to date suggest that the anatomic location may be related to reproductive outcomes. Several possible mechanisms suggest that leiomyomas may affect fertility, especially in terms of the anatomical distortion of endometrial cavity, the abnormal uterine contractility, reduced blood supply to the endometrium and altered endometrial receptivity. The effect of leiomyomas on IVF outcomes has been the subject of many studies; however, a definitive direction is yet required to adjust clinical management accordingly. Management of leiomyomas is challenging in terms of clinical decision, especially among subfertile patients, since potential treatment complications and their consequences in endometrial dynamics should be also accounted. Expectant management is recommended for asymptomatic patients, whereas in symptomatic subfertile patients, medical and/ or surgical management is usually recommended. PMID:26824506

  2. Infertility, infertility treatment, and congenital malformations: Danish national birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Bille, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether infertile couples (with a time to pregnancy of > 12 months), who conceive naturally or after treatment, give birth to children with an increased prevalence of congenital malformations. Design Longitudinal study. Setting Danish national birth cohort. Participants Three groups of liveborn children and their mothers: 50 897 singletons and 1366 twins born of fertile couples (time to pregnancy ≤ 12 months), 5764 singletons and 100 twins born of infertile couples who conceived naturally (time to pregnancy > 12 months), and 4588 singletons and 1690 twins born after infertility treatment. Main outcome measures Prevalence of congenital malformations determined from hospital discharge diagnoses. Results Compared with singletons born of fertile couples, singletons born of infertile couples who conceived naturally or after treatment had a higher prevalence of congenital malformations—hazard ratios 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.35) and 1.39 (1.23 to 1.57). The overall prevalence of congenital malformations increased with increasing time to pregnancy. When the analysis was restricted to singletons born of infertile couples, babies born after treatment had an increased prevalence of genital organ malformations (hazard ratio 2.32, 1.24 to 4.35) compared with babies conceived naturally. No significant differences existed in the overall prevalence of congenital malformations among twins. Conclusions Hormonal treatment for infertility may be related to the occurrence of malformations of genital organs, but our results suggest that the reported increased prevalence of congenital malformations seen in singletons born after assisted reproductive technology is partly due to the underlying infertility or its determinants. The association between untreated infertility and congenital malformations warrants further examination. PMID:16893903

  3. MedlinePlus: Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Male Infertility? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Living With How a Man's Diet Affects Fertility Too (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) Related Issues Finasteride (Propecia/Proscar) and ...

  4. Uterine fibroids associated with infertility.

    PubMed

    Van Heertum, Kristin; Barmat, Larry

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the contributory role of uterine fibroids to infertility. The prevalence of these tumors increases with age, which becomes significant as more women are delaying childbearing. Therefore, fibroids and infertility frequently occur together. Treatment varies with fibroid location and size. The various methods of treatment include open myomectomy, laparoscopic or robot-assisted myomectomy, medical treatment, uterine artery embolization and magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery. While there is a general consensus on the treatment of submucosal fibroids, the management of intramural fibroids in the infertility patient remains controversial. This paper aims to review and summarize the current literature in regards to the approach to uterine fibroids in the infertile patient. PMID:25482490

  5. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was ... with The Society of Reproductive Surgeons What is endometriosis? When tissue like the tissue that normally lines ...

  6. Varicocele and Infertility in Men

    PubMed Central

    Freiha, Fuad; Mroueh, Adnan

    1976-01-01

    Varicocele is an important cause of infertility in men. The exact mechanism by which varicocele depresses spermatogenesis is unknown but probably the retrograde flow of blood rich in catecholamines into the testes plays a major role. Because subfertile semen qualities are present in a large percentage of men with varicocele and because the response to surgical procedures is very good, high ligation of the left internal spermatic vein is recommended in men with varicocele and infertility. PMID:1007247

  7. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Harton, Gary L; Tempest, Helen G

    2012-01-01

    Infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family. Despite this, the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered. Nevertheless, more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified. This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically: chromosomal aneuploidy, structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions. Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans. Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin, but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts. Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm. Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed, as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases. Clinical recommendations where possible will be made, as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility. PMID:22120929

  8. [Treatment of male infertility].

    PubMed

    Jardin, A

    1995-10-28

    Progress in medically assisted procreation has made it possible to obtain an embryon with a single spermatozoid or even a single spermatid. But such advanced technology must not overshadow the basic principles of patient management since there are many other medical or surgical possibilities for improving male fertility. Although the physiological mechanisms leading to azoospermia are relatively well understood, many questions remain as to the origin of oligo-asthenoteratospermia. Varicocela had been incriminated by many authors: in 25% of the cases, surgical care is followed by pregnancy. Other factors including autoimmunity, infection, environment and drugs also have an effect. Careful history taking can identify the main causes of male infertility before the problem of procreation occurs and in cases of definitive azoospermia the principles of management are relatively simple. The true problem is the fact that new techniques such as in vitro fertilization have acquired popularity in the general population but cannot be accepted as the gold standard by the medical community. It must not be forgotten that these artificial techniques cause a major psychological trauma to the couple and can lead to difficult situations (multiple pregnancies, extra embryos) with no totally satisfactory solution. PMID:8545356

  9. Infertility and uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Zepiridis, Leonidas I; Grimbizis, Grigoris F; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2016-07-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common tumors in women and their prevalence is higher in patients with infertility. At present, they are classified according to their anatomical location, as no classification system includes additional parameters such as their size or number. There is a general agreement that submucosal fibroids negatively affect fertility, when compared to women without fibroids. Intramural fibroids above a certain size (>4 cm), even without cavity distortion, may also negatively influence fertility. However, the presence of subserosal myomas has little or no effect on fertility. Many possible theories have been proposed to explain how fibroids impair fertility: mechanisms involving alteration of local anatomical location, others involving functional changes of the myometrium and endometrium, and finally endocrine and paracrine molecular mechanisms. Nevertheless, any of the above mentioned mechanisms can cause reduced reproductive potential, thereby leading to impaired gamete transport, reduced ability for embryo implantation, and creation of a hostile environment. The published experience defines the best practice strategy, as not many large, well-designed, and properly powered studies are available. Myomectomy appears to have an effect in fertility improvement in certain cases. Excision of submucosal myomas seems to restore fertility with pregnancy rates after surgery similar to normal controls. Removal of intramural myomas affecting pregnancy outcome seems to be associated with higher pregnancy rates when compared to non-operated controls, although evidence is still nοt sufficient. Treatment of subserosal myomas of reasonable size is not necessary for fertility reasons. The results of endoscopic and open myomectomy are similar; thus, endoscopic treatment is the recommended approach due to its advantages in patient's postoperative course. PMID:26856931

  10. Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... PATIENT FACT SHEET Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility When a couple has trouble having a baby, ... to find out what may be causing your infertility. Semen analysis Semen analysis is probably the first ...

  11. Infertility Patients' Mental Health Problems Often Unaddressed

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160382.html Infertility Patients' Mental Health Problems Often Unaddressed 'We're ... California, San Francisco. Many studies have found that infertility patients often feel distressed. And, Pasch said, professional ...

  12. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  13. Mendelian genetics of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kathleen; Yatsenko, Alexander N.; Jorgez, Carolina J.; Mukherjee, Sarmistha; Nalam, Roopa Lata; Matzuk, Martin M.; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is defined as the inability of a couple to conceive despite trying for a year, and it affects approximately 15% of the reproductive-age population. It is considered a genetically lethal factor, as the family lineage stops at that individual with no progeny produced. A genetic defect associated with an infertile individual cannot be transmitted to the offspring, ensuring the maintenance of reproductive fitness of the species. However, with the advent of assisted reproductive techniques (ART), we are now able to overcome sterility and bypass nature’s protective mechanisms that developed through evolution to prevent fertilization by defective or deficient sperm. PMID:21382200

  14. Childlessness: Strategies for Coping with Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollett, Anne

    1985-01-01

    Examines the coping strategies adopted by 50 infertile men and women. All interviewed had sought medical help, and many became knowledgeable about reproduction and infertility. Redefining the problem and managing negative concepts about infertility were other coping strategies. Seeking social support, positive identities, and other ways of meeting…

  15. Infertility: An Unanticipated and Prolonged Life Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Linda; Gilbert, Mary S.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on infertility with a focus on myths and misunderstandings about the causes of infertility; a description of the crisis of infertility including common psychological responses; the additional psychological complexity introduced by medical procedures and reproductive technology; and suggestions for mental health counselors.…

  16. Infertility and Life Satisfaction among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuillan, Julia; Stone, Rosalie A. Torres; Greil, Arthur L.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a random sample of 580 midwestern women, the authors explore the association between lifetime infertility and life satisfaction. Past research shows lower life satisfaction among those seeking help for infertility. The authors find no direct effects of lifetime infertility, regardless of perception of a problem, on life…

  17. Sex and Intimacy among Infertile Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greil, Arthur; And Others

    Infertility is a widespread health problem in the United States, affecting anywhere from 10 to 15 percent and perhaps even a greater percentage of U.S. couples. Infertility can have far-reaching effects on life satisfaction, well-being, and psychological adjustment. This paper presents an analysis of sex and intimacy among infertile couples based…

  18. Infertility: A Crisis with No Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Robert R.; Koraleski, Stephanie

    1990-01-01

    Discusses helpful ways for mental health counselors to work with infertile clients, explaining nature of infertility, psychological crisis it provokes, common reactions of infertile clients, and strategies to help clients cope. Discusses specific strategies for assessing clients' potential for suicide or self-destructive acts and improving their…

  19. Thyroid, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Rajender, Singh; Monica, Marie Gray; Walter, Lee; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Since the identification of thyroid hormone receptors on the testes, thyroid has been suggested to have a significant impact on the male reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. Several research articles on the role of thyroid in spermatogenesis or male infertility have been published in the last three decades. We conducted an exhaustive literature search was conducted in order to create an up-to-date review of literature. This review aims to discuss the impact of thyroid on testicular development, spermatogenesis, hypo- or hyper- thyroidism and male infertility, and the management of thyroid related abnormal semen profile. The literature revealed that thyroid significantly impacts testicular development and that abnormal thyroid profile affects semen quality and male fertility by compromising testicular size, sperm motility and ejaculate volume. A clear link exists between thyroid hormones, testicular development and spermatogenesis. Thyroid disease negatively affects spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. In such cases, infertility is reversible, but more studies need to be conducted, especially in post-pubertal males to cement the current findings. PMID:21622096

  20. Evaluation and treatment of infertility.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Tammy J; Vitrikas, Kristen R

    2015-03-01

    Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Evaluation may be initiated sooner in patients who have risk factors for infertility or if the female partner is older than 35 years. Causes of infertility include male factors, ovulatory dysfunction, uterine abnormalities, tubal obstruction, peritoneal factors, or cervical factors. A history and physical examination can help direct the evaluation. Men should undergo evaluation with a semen analysis. Abnormalities of sperm may be treated with gonadotropin therapy, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilization. Ovulation should be documented by serum progesterone level measurement at cycle day 21. Evaluation of the uterus and fallopian tubes can be performed by hysterosalpingography in women with no risk of obstruction. For patients with a history of endometriosis, pelvic infections, or ectopic pregnancy, evaluation with hysteroscopy or laparoscopy is recommended. Women with anovulation may be treated in the primary care setting with clomiphene to induce ovulation. Treatment of tubal obstruction generally requires referral for subspecialty care. Unexplained infertility in women or men may be managed with another year of unprotected intercourse, or may proceed to assisted reproductive technologies, such as intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization. PMID:25822387

  1. Barriers to Infertility Treatment: An Integrated Study

    PubMed Central

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Parandavar, Nehle; Abdollahifard, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infertility is one of the most important events in life. Despite the negative impact of infertility, a significant number of women struggling to conceive do not consult a physician and do not fallow up infertility treatment. This integrated study aimed to investigate a large amount of factors which influenced discontinuation of infertility treatment. Methods: This integrated study (qualitative – quantitative study) was done on infertile women who had referred to infertility center in Jahrom University of medical sciences using purposive sampling. In the first study, data were collected from a valid questionnaire with 22 questions in a 5-point likert scale about barriers to infertility treatments and in the second study, as a phenomenology approach, data collection was done using deep unstructured interviews and focused groups were aimed to identify deep individual experiences about it. Results: major barriers to infertility treatments included the probability of treatment failure (52.5%), couple’s age and possibility of high risk pregnancy (51.5%), Painfulness of some treatment methods such as laparoscopy (50.5%). Qualitative results led to the identification of three main themes: Nature of treatment, negative thinking, social and cultural factors. Conclusion: As a result, we suggest family education and enrichment of cultural context in the field of infertility; infertile people would be willing to pursue infertility treatments. PMID:24373278

  2. Hysterosalpingographic evaluation of primary and secondary infertility

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Muhammad Usman; Anwar, Saleha; Mahmood, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pathological patterns of fallopian tubes and uterus on hysterosalpingogrphy (HSG) examination in cases of infertility. Methods: Two years retrospective charts review of patients referred to our centre for HSG evaluation of infertility, from July 2008 to July 2010. Results: Four thousand one hundred eight hysterosalpingograms were carried out at our centre during the study period. Out of these, 1999 (48.6%) were primary infertility cases while the 2109 (51.3%) were of secondary infertility. Mean age of presentation for primary infertility was 30 years and 35 years for secondary infertility. Bilateral free peritoneal spill was noted in 60% of cases. Unilateral tubal blockage was present in 15% and bilateral tubal blockage in 10% of patients. Bilateral hydrosalpinx was present in 10% of patients and unilateral loculated spill was found in 5% of patients with primary infertility. Patients with uterine congenital anomalies were also evaluated and the frequency of bicornuate uterus was 4%, unicornuate uterus was 2% and uterine didelphys was 0.2%. Conclusions: Infertile patients who underwent HSG were mostly in older age group with secondary infertility being slightly more common emphasizing early work up and care. Most of the patients with primary infertility had normal HSG examination. To our knowledge this is the largest data for HSG to be presented from Pakistan. PMID:26649011

  3. [Circulating nucleic acids and infertility].

    PubMed

    Scalici, E; Mullet, T; Ferrières Hoa, A; Gala, A; Loup, V; Anahory, T; Belloc, S; Hamamah, S

    2015-09-01

    Circulating nucleic acids (cell-free DNA and microRNAs) have for particularity to be easily detectable in the biological fluids of the body. Therefore, they constitute biomarkers of interest in female and male infertility care. Indeed, in female, they can be used to detect ovarian reserve disorders (polycystic ovary syndrome and low functional ovarian reserve) as well as to assess follicular microenvironment quality. Moreover, in men, their expression levels can vary in case of spermatogenesis abnormalities. Finally, circulating nucleic acids have also the ability to predict successfully the quality of in vitro embryo development. Their multiple contributions during assisted reproductive technology (ART) make of them biomarkers of interest, for the development of new diagnostic and/or prognostic tests, applied to our specialty. Circulating nucleic acids would so offer the possibility of personalized medical care for infertile couples in ART. PMID:26298813

  4. Aromatase inhibitors for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Peter N

    2012-12-01

    Some men with severely defective sperm production commonly have excess aromatase activity, reflected by low serum testosterone and relatively elevated estradiol levels. Aromatase inhibitors can increase endogenous testosterone production and serum testosterone levels. Treatment of infertile males with the aromatase inhibitors testolactone, anastrazole, and letrozole has been associated with increased sperm production and return of sperm to the ejaculate in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Use of the aromatase inhibitors anastrazole (1 mg/day) and letrozole (2.5 mg/day) represent off-label use of these agents for impaired spermatogenesis in men with excess aromatase activity (abnormal testosterone/estradiol [T/E] ratios). Side effects have rarely been reported. Randomized controlled trials are needed to define the magnitude of benefit of aromatase inhibitor treatment for infertile men. PMID:23103016

  5. Hysterectomy: treatment for secondary infertility.

    PubMed

    Wani, Reena; Patra, Chinmayee; Dusane, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a distressing condition but extenuating circumstances sometimes make the choice of treatment seem paradoxical. Here is discussed a challenging case of a 30-year-old woman with no living child and secondary infertility who presented with a large abdominal mass and severe abdominal pain, sequelae of previous obstructed labour. There was complex management dilemma. She was young, had no living child, had undergone vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) repair and vaginoplasty yet was wanting fertility; however she was distressed with the abdominal pain and desired a complete cure. Both she and her spouse were counselled about the high possibility of failure if repeat attempt at vaginoplasty was made, and possible damage to the VVF repair. Finally, decision of exploratory laparotomy with total abdominal hysterectomy was taken after counselling the couple about adoption as an option for childbearing. PMID:25935952

  6. The Infertility Experience: Biopsychosocial Effects and Suggestions for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Kathryn J.; Baldo, Tracy D.

    2004-01-01

    Infertility affects many individuals and couples. This article begins with a case study of a couple who have experienced infertility yet do not identify infertility as their presenting problem. Clients and counselors alike often overlook infertility. This article offers an overview of the biology of infertility and its psychological and…

  7. Incidence of infertility of immune origin in a group of marriages with unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Bujas, M; Berić, B; Kapamadzija, A

    1988-04-01

    This study was designed to estimate the incidence of infertility of immune origin in a group of 102 married couples with unexplained infertility, out of a total of 1346 couples being treated for infertility. The tests included microagglutination of spermatozoa, microzone sera immunoelectrophoresis and sera immunodiffusion methods. In this group the sera of 23 (22.55%) women and 21 (20.58%) men contained antibodies, and these seemed to be the only cause of infertility. In relation to the total number of 1346 couples, infertility of immune origin was found in 1.70% of female and 1.56% of male partners. Conjugal immune-origin infertility was present in 0.56% of marriages. Out of 1346 treated infertile marriages, an immunologic factor was evidently the only cause of infertility in 2.57%. PMID:3259585

  8. [Sophrology: a different tool for infertile couples].

    PubMed

    Heymès, O; Forges, T; Guillet-May, F; Zaccabri, A; Dandachi, N; Monnier, P

    2006-12-01

    Because of the high degree of complexity of assisted reproduction techniques (ART), the human and conscious dimensions of infertility problems are often neglected. Different strategies may help infertile couples coping with infertility and related treatments; among these, Caycedian sophrology relies on the cognitive, emotional, and somatic aspects of consciousness. In the present article, the authors report on their experience with sophrologic support for infertile patients by a midwife qualified in caycedian sophrology. Overall, since 1988, 310 couples have benefied from this kind of support, with an average of 10 sophrologic trainings per patient. Whereas some couples consider sophrology as a short time training to better cope with any particular aspect of their infertility treatment, others want to undertake more profound work on their body scheme. The authors wish to call the attention of ART professionals to this kind of medical support for infertile couples, and also to the particular role of midwives with sophrologic competence in an ART center. PMID:17151535

  9. Eastern medicine approaches to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuehui; Ma, Hongli; Ng, Ernest H Y; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2013-07-01

    Male factor is a common cause of infertility and the male partner must be systematically evaluated in the workup of every infertile couple. Various Eastern medical strategies have been tried with variable success. This article describes the clinical effects of Eastern medicine approaches including acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong, which could improve the sperm parameters and motility, genital inflammatory conditions, as well as immune system disorders, sexual dysfunction, and varicocele. Acupuncture reduces inflammation, increases sperm motility, improves semen parameters, modulates the immune system, and improves sexual and ejaculatory dysfunction in male infertility. The clinical effects may be mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle. Chinese herbal medicines may also exert helpful effects in male infertility, and it is worth noting that some herbal drugs may result in male infertility. Massage also exerts positive effects in male infertility. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of clinical effects are unclear. Tai chi, qi gong, and yoga have not been investigated in male infertility, but it has been reported to regulate endocrine and central or autonomic nervous systems. In conclusion, Eastern medical approaches have beneficial on reproductive effects in male infertility. However, future well-designed, randomized, clinical control trials are needed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of Eastern medical approaches for male infertility. PMID:23775386

  10. SOCIAL CORRELATES OF FEMALE INFERTILITY IN UZBEKISTAN

    PubMed Central

    JUMAYEV, IZATULLA; HARUN-OR-RASHID, MD.; RUSTAMOV, OYBEK; ZAKIROVA, NODIRA; KASUYA, HIDEKI; SAKAMOTO, JUNICHI

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this matched case-control study was to investigate the social correlates of primary infertility among females aged 35 years or less. The study was conducted in the Clinics of Samarkand Medical Institute, Uzbekistan, among 120 infertile and 120 healthy women matched by age, residential area, and occupation from January to June 2009. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Median duration of infertility was 10.0 months (interquartile range = 6.0–13.0). The rate of remarriage was 3.5 times higher among infertile women compared with healthy subjects. Insufficient family income, poor quality of life, life stress, and discontentment with daily routines as well as ‘bad’ relationships with family members (husband, mother- and father-in-law) were significant correlates of female infertility. Infertile women were more likely to underestimate the importance of sexual intimacy, and a negative attitude to sex. Female infertility is associated with various social correlates leading to higher remarriage rates and to further complicating the problem of infertility. Thus, a correction of women’s basic attitudes and their relationships to their surrounding social habitat should be an essential component of any program of infertility management. PMID:23092100

  11. Ethical and Psychosocial Impact of Female Infertility.

    PubMed

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y

    2012-12-01

    This manuscript reviews research from the past year on the ethical and psychosocial impact of infertility on women and men. We discuss several issues surrounding ovarian stimulation, particularly high-order multiple births, egg banking (especially for research purposes), and diminished ovarian reserve. We also present recent work on distress and counseling, which includes greater attention to subgroups of infertile women. More research on issues confronting men has emerged recently, and we outline these with regard to their relationships with infertile women, or as the infertility patient. Last, we outline some ethical issues posed by newer procedures of fertility preservation and uterine transplant. PMID:23336092

  12. Treatments for Diseases That Cause Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Males Fertility Treatments for Females Assisted Reproductive Technology ... for Diseases That Cause Infertility Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Specific treatments for ...

  13. Beyond the Mechanics of Infertility: Perspectives on the Social Psychology of Infertility and Involuntary Childlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Anne Martin; Matthews, Ralph

    1986-01-01

    Examines the social and social psychological implications of infertility and involuntary childlessness. Examines the clinical and popular literature on the correlates and causes of infertility and the social psychological consequences of infertility. Suggests ways that family practitioners and researchers might overcome some of the limitations.…

  14. Age-related infertility and unexplained infertility: an intricate clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Somigliana, Edgardo; Paffoni, Alessio; Busnelli, Andrea; Filippi, Francesca; Pagliardini, Luca; Vigano, Paola; Vercellini, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    A diagnosis of unexplained infertility is commonly made when clinical investigations fail to identify any obvious barriers to conception. As a consequence, unexplained infertility includes several heterogeneous conditions, one being women with age-related infertility. However, the latter represent a peculiar and different situation. Women with age-related infertility may have a different prognosis and may benefit from different treatments. Unfortunately, since fecundity declines with age, discerning between unexplained infertility and age-related infertility becomes more and more difficult as the woman's age increases. In this opinion, with the use of a mathematical model we show that the rate of false positive diagnoses of unexplained infertility increases rapidly after 35 years of age. Using a threshold of 2 years of unfruitful, regular unprotected intercourse, this rate exceeds 50% in women starting pregnancy seeking after 37 years. The scenario is much worse using a threshold of 1 year. From a clinical perspective, extrapolating results obtained in a population of young women with unexplained infertility to those with age-related infertility is not justified. It is noteworthy that, if Assisted Reproductive Technologies are unable to overcome age-related infertility, the older women erroneously labeled with unexplained infertility may receive inappropriate therapies. These may expose women to unjustified risks and waste financial resources. Unfortunately, the available literature about older women is scanty and does not provide valid evidence. Randomized controlled trials aimed at identifying the most suitable clinical management of older women with a normal infertility work-up are pressingly needed. PMID:27060173

  15. Genetics Home Reference: sensorineural deafness and male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... deafness and male infertility sensorineural deafness and male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Sensorineural deafness and male infertility is a condition characterized by hearing loss and ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... related nonsyndromic male infertility CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description CATSPER1 -related nonsyndromic male infertility is a condition that affects the function of ...

  17. Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods: This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman’s test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Many of the current problems in this society, particularly in families are due to the transition of the society from a traditional model to a modern one. The majority of the infertile women experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing

  18. Male reproductive health and infertility.

    PubMed

    Frey, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Primary care physicians have an essential role and opportunity in positively impacting the reproductive health of men. Although men are less likely than women to consistently seek preventive services, an office visit for any reason should be seen as an opportunity to introduce the idea of reproductive health. Additionally, primary care physicians can and should initiate the diagnostic workup for infertile couples in their practices. The initial assessment for the male partner consists of a thorough history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests, including a semen analysis. PMID:20705204

  19. Trends of male factor infertility, an important cause of infertility: A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naina; Singh, Amit Kant

    2015-01-01

    Infertility and problems of impaired fecundity have been a concern through ages and is also a significant clinical problem today, which affects 8–12% of couples worldwide. Of all infertility cases, approximately 40–50% is due to “male factor” infertility and as many as 2% of all men will exhibit suboptimal sperm parameters. It may be one or a combination of low sperm concentration, poor sperm motility, or abnormal morphology. The rates of infertility in less industrialized nations are markedly higher and infectious diseases are responsible for a greater proportion of infertility. The present literature will help in knowing the trends of male factor infertility in developing nations like India and to find out in future, various factors that may be responsible for male infertility. PMID:26752853

  20. Pastoral Care to the Infertile Couple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, D. J.

    This paper examines the crisis of infertility in the context of the biological or instinctual, cultural, and religious root of parenting. A therapeutic approach to the problem of infertility suggests that pastoral care should make a thorough diagnosis of the correlation between the motivation for parenting, role expectations in the social and…

  1. Is Infertility Associated with Childhood Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grether, Judith K.; Qian, Yinge; Croughan, Mary S.; Wu, Yvonne W.; Schembri, Michael; Camarano, Loretta; Croen, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns persist about a possible link between infertility and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Interpretation of existing studies is limited by racial/ethnic homogeneity of study populations and other factors. Using a case-control design, we evaluated infertility history and treatment documented in medical records of members of Kaiser…

  2. Choices and Motivations of Infertile Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Balen, Frank; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Ketting, Evert

    1997-01-01

    Infertile couples' (N=131) consideration of options for dealing with infertility (medical help, adoption, fostering, alternative medicine, and focusing on other life goals) is studied. Options were related to specific motivations including altruistic motives for adoption or foster care. Results, timing of choices, and motivations are discussed.…

  3. Psychoanalysis and infertility. Myths and realities.

    PubMed

    Apfel, Roberta J; Keylor, Rheta G

    2002-02-01

    Psychoanalysis, long interested in infertility, and a valuable treatment for men and women suffering with this affliction, has also helped to create and support a myth of psychogenic infertility. Multiple causes of infertility exist across the physiological-psychological spectrum. There is no simple psychodynamic causality. Advances in assisted reproductive technologies provide treatments that create emotional stress and outpace psychological preparedness of patients and analysts. This paper is based on the experience of a unique study group in Boston. An analytic case illustrates some of the ways analysis can be a treatment of choice for people using assisted reproduction. In fact, analysis offers a unique opportunity to elaborate fully the complex realities and dilemmas faced by people and their therapists throughout the infertility experience. More generally, this study of the concept of psychogenic infertility explores a valuable role for psychoanalysis in the treatment of medical conditions. PMID:11915150

  4. [Cervix factors as a cause of infertility].

    PubMed

    Helm, P; Westergaard, L

    1990-04-23

    The uterine cervix plays an important role in the natural fertilization process and, consequently, it is also a significant factor in infertility. In about 6% of infertile couples, the infertility is caused by the cervical factor. The post coital test (PCT) is the most essential diagnostic procedure. A good PCT result excludes the cervical factor as the cause of infertility. A poor or negative PCT result, on the other hand, only indicates that the cervical tract is the cause in the case of women with verified ovulation and in whom other causes have been excluded. Treatment of the cervical factor has always been difficult. Intrauterine insemination is the best documented treatment method with a pregnancy rate of about 30%. In future, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be alternatives in the treatment of infertility owing to the cervical factor. PMID:2184560

  5. Genetic evaluation of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Men with severe oligospermia (<5 million sperm/mL ejaculate fluid) or azoospermia should receive genetic testing to clarify etiology of male infertility prior to treatment. Categorization by obstructive azoospermia (OA) or non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is critical since genetic testing differs for the former with normal testicular function, testicular volume (~20 mL), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (1-8 IU/mL) when compared to the latter with small, soft testes and increased FSH. History and physician examination along with laboratory testing (following appropriate genetic counseling) is critical to accurate selection of genetic testing appropriate for azoospermia due to primary testicular failure as compared with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Genetic testing options include cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) testing for men with congenital absence of the vas, while karyotype, Y chromosome microdeletions (YCMD), and other specific genetic tests may be warranted depending on the clinical context of severe oligospermia or NOA. The results of genetic testing guide management options. The most recent techniques for genetic analysis, including sperm microRNA (miRNA) and epigenetics, are forming the foundation for future genetic diagnosis and therapeutic targets in male infertility. PMID:26813518

  6. Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) Medicines to treat infections and clotting disorders ... not include advanced techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

  7. Social and Cultural Aspects of Infertility in Mozambique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrits, Trudie

    1997-01-01

    The sociocultural aspects of infertility among members of the matrilineal ethnic group Macua are studied. Strategies applied by infertile women, the use of traditional healers versus modern hospital, and explanations given for infertility are presented. Solutions attempted, social consequences of infertility, and recommendations for culturally…

  8. Infertility in women and moderate alcohol use.

    PubMed Central

    Grodstein, F; Goldman, M B; Cramer, D W

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between moderate alcohol intake and fertility. METHODS. Interviews were conducted with 3833 women who recently gave birth and 1050 women from seven infertility clinics. The case subjects were categorized based on the infertility specialist's assignment of the most likely cause of infertility: ovulatory factor, tubal disease, cervical factor, endometriosis, or idiopathy. Separate logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between alcohol use and each type of infertility, adjusted for age, infertility center, cigarette smoking, caffeine use, number of sexual partners, use of an intrauterine device (for tubal disease), and body mass index and exercise (for ovulatory factor). RESULTS. We found an increase in infertility, due to ovulatory factor or endometriosis, with alcohol use. The odds ratio for ovulatory factor was 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 1.7) for moderate drinkers and 1.6 (95% CI = 1.1, 2.3) for heavier drinkers, compared with nondrinkers. The risk of endometriosis was roughly 50% higher in case subjects with any alcohol intake than in control subjects (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.3, at moderate levels; OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 2.7, at heavier levels). CONCLUSIONS. Moderate alcohol use may contribute to the risk of specific types of infertility. PMID:8092366

  9. Variations in Antioxidant Genes and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bolan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from both endogenous and environmental resources, which in turn may cause defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Antioxidant genes, which include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), play important roles in spermatogenesis and normal sperm function. In this review, we discuss the association between variations in major antioxidant genes and male infertility. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic disruption or functional polymorphisms in these antioxidant genes are associated with a higher risk for male infertility, which include low sperm quality, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and subfertility. The synergistic effects of environmental ROS and functional polymorphisms on antioxidant genes that result in male infertility have also been reported. Therefore, variants in antioxidant genes, which independently or synergistically occur with environmental ROS, affect spermatogenesis and contribute to the occurrence of male infertility. Large cohort and multiple center-based population studies to identify new antioxidant genetic variants that increase susceptibility to male infertility as well as validate its potential as genetic markers for diagnosis and risk assessment for male infertility for precise clinical approaches are warranted. PMID:26618172

  10. Male infertility: an obstacle to sexuality?

    PubMed

    Bechoua, S; Hamamah, S; Scalici, E

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between infertility and sexuality are numerous and complex. Infertile men may suffer from sexual dysfunction (SD) when undergoing an assisted reproductive technology programme. We undertook a review both in French and English of the available data on male SD when being diagnosed with a fertility problem with a specific focus on azoospermic men. The review was performed over a 30-year time period using PubMed/Medline. The sexual concerns and needs of infertile/sterile men for whom potential parenting can be compromised were evaluated. When diagnosed with infertility, men usually go through a crisis that can have a deleterious effect on their sexuality with sometimes a feeling of sexual inadequacy. Infertile men will feel stigmatized because they are perceived as being deficient in a specific component of their masculinity. Hence, subsequent SD may occur that can impact the couple sexuality and the infertility management. However, little is known on how the announcement of azoospermia may affect male on a sexual and psychological point of view. The present review suggests that a global management through a healthcare network (biologist, andrologist, sexologist and psychologist) is required which will allow to consider infertility and its subsequent sexual disorders as a whole and not as dichotomized issues. PMID:27061770

  11. Selecting barrenness: the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis by congenitally infertile women to select for infertility.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kavita R

    2010-01-01

    Congenitally infertile women such as those with Turner syndrome or Mayer Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome have available the technologies of oocyte harvesting, cryropreservation, in-vitro fertilization, and gestational surrogacy in order to have genetically related offspring. Since congenital infertility results in a variety of experiences that impacts on nearly every aspect of a person's life, in the future it is possible that these women might desire a congenitally infertile child through the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis so as to share this common bond. While infertility results in a relatively normal quality of life, it is morally wrong to necessitate the future use of infertility services with its variable success rate on a child. Also, whereas the woman has fundamental reproductive autonomy, she lacks the substantive autonomy regarding the specific characteristics of her child. Finally, the infertile community does exhibit a strong presence, but it lacks characteristics that define it as a culture. PMID:21644427

  12. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world. PMID:18456385

  13. Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility SREI Members-only Forum Home About Us About SREI Vision and Mission ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SREI is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Y chromosome infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... chromosome infertility is a condition that affects the production of sperm , making it difficult or impossible for ... several genes. The missing genetic material likely prevents production of a number of proteins needed for normal ...

  15. Perspective in infertility: the ovarian stem cells.

    PubMed

    Silvestris, Erica; D'Oronzo, Stella; Cafforio, Paola; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Loverro, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is a medical and social condition that affects millions of women worldwide and is today considered so far as a new disease. A considerable progress has been recently pursued in the field of the reproductive medicine and the infertility treatment may account for novel and modern procedures such as in vitro oocyte fertilization, egg donation, pregnancy surrogacy and preimplantation diagnosis. However, great interest has lately been reserved to the ovarian stem cells (OSCs) whose existence in woman ovaries has been proven. OSCs are thus suitable for developmental studies in infertility and in other clinical applications as endocrine derangements due to premature ovarian failure, or for infertility treatment after cancer chemotherapies, as well as in restoring the hormonal balance in postmenopausal age. PMID:26250560

  16. Psychological and ethical implications related to infertility.

    PubMed

    Minucci, Daria

    2013-12-01

    Being a parent is deeply demanding and one of the most important events in life; parents experience the deepening of human relationships with their partner, within their families, and in society, and moreover the fundamental relationship between parent and child. Every medical, social, and political effort must be made to prevent infertility but also to offer infertile couples the best diagnostic and therapeutic paths. Understanding the suffering of the couple and their families prevents and helps ease the possible psychological and social complications of infertility. Therefore, infertility concerns not only biomedical sciences but also psychological and social ones-ethics and law-in their combined efforts to identify areas of understanding and of research for solutions while respecting the dignity of the couple and unborn child. The Catholic Church offers an ongoing contribution through dialogue in looking for ethical principles guiding scientific and medical research respectful of the true life of human beings. PMID:24156989

  17. [The multiple interactions between infertility and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Mimoun, S

    1993-03-01

    After investigating into literature and clinical experience, we shall line out in this study 4 types of interactions between sexuality and infertility: sexual causes to feminine (vaginism, with and without heavy dyspareunia) or masculine (impotency, ante-portas ejaculation, anejaculation, dysejaculation), infertility; influence of tests and of treatments for infertility on sexual life; influence of infertility on sexuality focusing on the various ambiguous feelings (of culpability, inferiority, aggressivity, passivity); and last, the psychological and sexual interactions with medical assisted procreation, reinforcing the sexual separation of man and woman if the body is considered a machine. Psychosomatic guidance of the couple during these steps (with reassurance as the being helped conception) will allow maintaining on removing sexual attraction. PMID:7951622

  18. Endometriosis and Infertility: Can Surgery Help?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis and Infertility: Can Surgery Help? This fact sheet ... with The Society of Reproductive Surgeons What is endometriosis? When tissue like the tissue that that normally ...

  19. Helping patients through the pain of infertility.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan

    2012-02-12

    While males and combined couple factors play a large part in infertility cases, women often carry the physical, social, and emotional burden of these diagnoses. Nurse practitioners are in a prime position to assess women at risk for infertility, initiate an investigation to identify potential etiologies, refer women to specialized centers, and provide them with ongoing care and support through this difficult period in their lives. PMID:22252029

  20. Use of Diagnostic Testing to Detect Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kathleen; Lipshultz, Larry I.; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of the infertile male continues to be a clinical challenge of increasing significance with considerable emotional and financial burdens. Many physiological, environmental and genetic factors are implicated; however, the etiology of suboptimal semen quality is poorly understood. This review focuses on the diagnostic testing currently available, as well as future directions that will be helpful for the practicing urologist and other clinicians to fully evaluate the infertile male. PMID:21088937

  1. Infertility, Fertility Treatment, and Risk of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Farland, Leslie V; Grodstein, Francine; Srouji, Serene S; Forman, John P; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Chavarro, Jorge E; Missmer, Stacey A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between infertility and fertility treatments on subsequent risk of hypertension. Design Cohort Study Setting Nurses’ Health Study II Patients 116,430 female nurses followed from 1993 to June 2011 as part of the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Intervention None Main Outcome Measures Self-reported, physician diagnosed hypertension Results Compared to women who never reported infertility, infertile women were at no greater risk of hypertension (multi-variable adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.01 95% confidence interval [0.94–1.07]). Infertility due to tubal disease was associated with a higher risk of hypertension (RR=1.15 [1.01–1.31]) but all other diagnoses were not associated with hypertension risk compared to women who did not report infertility (ovulatory disorder: RR=1.03 [0.94–1.13], cervical: RR=0.88 [0.70–1.10], male factor: RR= 1.05 [0.95–1.15], other reason: RR=1.02 [0.94–1.11], reason not found: RR=1.02 [0.95–1.10]). Among infertile women there were 5,070 cases of hypertension. No clear pattern between use of fertility treatment and hypertension was found among infertile women (Clomiphene: RR =0.97 [0.90–1.04], Gonadotropin alone: RR=0.97 [0.87–1.08], IUI: RR=0.86 [0.71–1.03], IVF: RR=0.86 [0.73–1.01]). Conclusion Among this relatively young cohort of women, there was no apparent increase in hypertension risk among infertile women or among women who underwent fertility treatment in the past. PMID:26049054

  2. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws. PMID:27030084

  3. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws. PMID:27030084

  4. Root traits for infertile soils

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued. PMID:23781228

  5. Cytokine profile in Nigerians with tubal infertility

    PubMed Central

    Charles-Davies, Mabel A.; Bello, Folashade A.; Taiwo, Victor O.; Bin, Li; Oni, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Immune response to genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is involved in both immunity and pathology. The cytokine profile during infection has been implicated in the disease outcome, either resolution or severe sequelae. Serum cytokines of Chlamydia positive Nigerian women with tubal infertility were assessed to determine their possible relationship with tubal occlusion. Material and methods One hundred and fifty age-matched consenting women (100 fertile and 50 with tubal infertility) were recruited based on C. trachomatis antibody positivity and grouped into infertile Chlamydia positive (CTpos) women (n = 50), fertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50) and fertile Chlamydia negative (CTneg) women as controls (n = 50). High vaginal swabs and endo-cervical swabs were collected for microscopy, culture and gram staining. Cytokines [transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), interferon γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IL-17A] were estimated by ELISA in sera. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, χ 2 and Spearman's correlation at p = 0.05. Results Lower IFN-γ levels were observed in infertile women compared to fertile women. Fertile CTneg women had significantly higher TNF-α, and TGF-β1 compared to fertile and infertile CTpos women, respectively. Lower IL-10 levels were seen in fertile CTpos women compared to the infertile CTpos group. Vaginal discharge was negatively correlated with TNF-α and IFN-γ and positively with IL-4 in Chlamydia positive women. Conclusions Chlamydia positive women with tubal infertility have higher IL-10 and lower IFN-γ levels than controls, which may contribute to their development of tubal pathology. PMID:27095929

  6. Association between infertility factors and non-physical partner abuse in infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Taebi, Mahboubeh; Gandomani, Sedighe Jamali; Nilforoushan, Parisa; GholamiDehaghi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility predisposes the couples to mental and psychological problems such as anxiety, depression, anger, and partner abuse. This study aimed to investigate the association between infertility factors and the non-physical abuse between infertile spouses. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted on 262 infertile couples (131 female and 131 male), selected through convenient sampling, who referred to infertility centers in Isfahan. Data were collected by Partner Abuse Scale: Non-physical (PASNP), designed to measure the non-physical abuse experienced in relationship with partner and Non-physical Abuse of Partner Scale (NPAPS), designed to measure the non-physical abuse delivered upon the partner. All data were analyzed through SPSS version 16. Results: Mean scores of NPAPS were 23.1% and 21.3% in men and women, respectively. Mean scores of PASNP were 13.8% and 20.3% among men and women, respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean scores of perceived non-physical partner abuse between men and women (P < 0.001). There was also a significant difference in the mean scores of perceived non-physical partner abuse and factor of infertility (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Perceived non-physical abuse and delivered non-physical abuse upon the partner were low among infertile couples. Women had a higher perception of abuse when the cause of infertility was female factor, compared to men. However, special attention should be paid to infertile couples. Marital counseling, besides infertility counseling, should be conducted for these couples. PMID:27563319

  7. Women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a reproductive health problem and its prevalence is increasing in developing countries. This problem has some significant effects on the sexual behaviors of infertile women, especially during infertility treatment periods. Discovering the existing beliefs in the field of sexual and reproductive health and also determining the misconceptions would define the educational needs for providing sexual health programs for infertile women. Women should be able to distinguish risky behaviors from healthy behaviors that falsely have been marked as infertility-related behaviors. This qualitative study was conducted to determine women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors among Iranian infertile women. Materials and Methods: The present study was a qualitative conventional content analysis study conducted on 15 infertile women and 8 key informants until reaching data saturation. Guba and Lincoln evaluative criteria were used for ensuring rigor of the study. Results: Data analysis defined three classes of beliefs that directly or indirectly affected sexual behaviors in infertile women: 1) Cultural, religious, or ethnic beliefs, 2) believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and 3) effect of the type of intercourse on getting pregnant. Conclusions: Three themes of religious, cultural, and ethnic beliefs, believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and the effect of the type of intercourse were the most important factors indicating sexual behaviors among infertile women. It seems that cultural and social matters are the most effective factors on sexual behaviors of infertile Iranian women. PMID:27563321

  8. Features of premature ejaculation in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, K; Yavari-kia, P; Ahmadi-Asrbadr, Y; Nematzadeh-Pakdel, A; Alikhah, H

    2010-09-15

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common form of sexual dysfunction and is one of the causes of male factor infertility. The aim of this study was assay of frequency and features of PE in a group of infertile men. This cross-sectional study was carried out since December 2006 to January 2008 on a sequential sample of 300 male patients complaining of infertility referring to the only infertility research center of Tabriz al-Zahra hospital. Data were collected by a designed questionnaire in which there were questions about age, age of marriage, history of sexual transmitted disease, drug use, previous sexual contacts, systemic diseases, masturbation, erectile dysfunction and frequency of intercourse. The mean age of studied patients was 30.39 +/- 5.76 and 43% of patients had PE, that in 74.4% primary PE and in 25.6% secondary PE seen. The most common form of ejaculation latency time was about less than 1 min that was seen in 51.2% of patients with PE. Mean of masturbation times was 5.13 +/- 3.19 times per month, and there is significant relation between the age of patients and type of PE, (p = 0.001) and ejaculation latency time and type of PE (p = 0.035). The high frequency rate of PE in Iranian men with complaint of infertility and also relatively lower age of these patients reflects the necessity of attention and management of this imperative psycho-organic disorder. PMID:23350165

  9. The prevalence of coeliac disease in infertility.

    PubMed

    Meloni, G F; Dessole, S; Vargiu, N; Tomasi, P A; Musumeci, S

    1999-11-01

    An increased incidence of reproductive problems, including infertility, miscarriage, low birth weight newborns, and shorter duration of breast-feeding, are known to exist in women with coeliac disease; some of these conditions are improved by a gluten-free diet. We have tried to ascertain the prevalence of coeliac disease in 99 couples who were being evaluated for infertility, compared with the known prevalence of silent disease in the population of Northern Sardinia, in which it is endemic. Of all women, four tested positive for at least two out of three markers: immunoglobulin A (IgA) antigliadin, immunoglobulin (IgG) antigliadin, and anti-endomysium antibodies, and underwent a jejunal biopsy; three had histological evidence of coeliac disease. One male partner was positive for two markers, and had a diagnostic jejunal biopsy. The prevalence of coeliac disease in infertile women seems higher (three out of 99, 3. 03%) in the study group than in the general population (17 out of 1607, 1.06%), and particularly in the subgroup with unexplained infertility (two out of 25, 8%, P < 0.03). Screening for coeliac disease should be part of the diagnostic work-up of infertile women, particularly when no apparent cause can be ascertained after standard evaluation. PMID:10548618

  10. Attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy

    PubMed Central

    Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. SETTING AND DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: While 33.3% of men and 43.3% of women surveyed insisted on not using surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). CONCLUSION: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples. PMID:24829531

  11. Secondary infertility and the aging male, overview

    PubMed Central

    Al–Hawsawi, Khalid; Motair, Wael; Bawa, Abdallah Makhloof

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Old men preparing themselves for marriage late in their lives might face infertility. Infertility in this group of men should be considered from a wider perspective, as they face any age–related health troubles that include, but are not limited to, androgen deficiency and psychological disorders that impede early conception. This review aims to shed light on the proper approach to this minority of secondarily infertile men. Material and methods A comprehensive electronic English literature search was conducted, using various medical websites and books, for the factors that cause infertility in senior fathers. The physiology of geriatric males, together with their common comorbidities, were discussed. Results Old men presenting with secondary infertility should be approached differently. Aging, itself, has a significant impact on male sexual function, sperm parameters, and fertility; all of which contribute to poor fecundability, decreased fertilizing capacity, increased time to pregnancy, increased rate of DNA damage, high abortion rates and increased prevalence of fetal developmental failures. The complexity and the unknowns of the aging male physiology, together with the interaction of obstinate diseases the patient might have, make the issue very difficult to tackle. Conclusions Management should include the conventional way of treating young sufferers and further target the underlying causes, if known, along with the provision of geriatric, psychologic, and andrologic support. PMID:25140235

  12. [Cyclic impotence in male infertility].

    PubMed

    Lew-Starowicz, Z

    1988-11-01

    23 men were treated during 1977-87 in a special hospital in Warsaw for infertility by administering the Mell-Krat scale, the Rorschach test, and a test consisting of drawing figures. Most of them were in the 26-35 age group and had secondary and higher level education. 15 of them had a domineering mother, and 13 were only children. 14 had been married for 5 years and had used a biological method of contraception for 5-8 years. The personality tests indicated that 16 were immature and 5 were neurotic; in 13, the marital roles were reversed; the need for fatherhood was lacking in 7, and it was deficient in 9; 17 had disorders of erection, 4 had premature ejaculation, and 2 half diminished libido; the partners of 9 were tolerant and passive concerning the sexual dysfunction, 7 were critical and castrating, and 4 were understanding and helpful. The causative factors and the effectiveness of treatment were: partner-related in 13 cases (9 treated), stereotypical transformation of cohabitation in 23 cases (14 treated), burdensome sexual activity in 3 cases (1 treated), and 4 unknown factors (1 treated). Various therapeutic methods were used: hypnosis, psychotherapy of married couple, and training. 14 patients were successfully treated and rehabilitated; however, 9 patients did not improve. Although the small number of this sample does not permit the drawing of sweeping conclusions, some inferences could be made on forms of impotence of psychogenic origin. Implicated factors were: having a domineering mother, being an only child, and immature personality. Other causes had to do with the partner, sexual duty, and stereotypical sexual cohabitation of many years' duration during a nonfertile period of the woman using a natural method of contraception. PMID:3253157

  13. Roles and Role Conflict of Women in Infertile Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Janet R.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the experience of role conflict for women in infertile couples. Findings lead to an understanding of infertility as part of an interactional system for dealing with potentially intolerable sources of role conflict. (Author)

  14. Treatments for Infertility Resulting from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Treatments for Infertility Resulting from PCOS Skip sharing on social media ... reason for these problems. Before beginning treatment for infertility possibly related to PCOS, be sure that your ...

  15. Genetic Cause of Infertility Associated with Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advances Supported Networks, Programs & Initiatives Genetic Cause of Infertility Associated with Uterine Fibroids Skip sharing on social ... To determine whether TSC genes were involved in infertility related to fibroids, scientists funded by the Fertility ...

  16. What Treatment Options Are Available for Male Infertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications What treatment options are available for male infertility? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... deliver a live-born infant, in most cases, infertility has no other outward symptoms. The evaluation of ...

  17. Impact of obesity on infertility in women

    PubMed Central

    Dağ, Zeynep Özcan; Dilbaz, Berna

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight are increasing and have become an epidemic worldwide. Obesity has detrimental influences on all systems, including reproductive health. The prevalence of obesity in infertile women is high, and it is well known that there is an association between obesity and infertility. The relationship between obesity and reproductive functions is still being explored. Overweight women have a higher incidence of menstrual dysfunction and anovulation. Overweight and obese women are at a high risk for reproductive health. The risk of subfecundity and infertility, conception rates, miscarriage rates, and pregnancy complications are increased in these women. They have poor reproductive outcomes in natural as well as assisted conception. These poor reproductive outcomes include assisted reproduction such as ovulation induction, in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), and ovum donation cycles. Weight loss has beneficial effects on the reproductive outcomes in these patients. PMID:26097395

  18. Examining PTSD as a Complication of Infertility.

    PubMed

    Bartlik; Greene; Graf; Sharma; Melnick

    1997-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that may develop following exposure to threatened or actual injury or death. While commonly associated with war or natural disaster, symptoms of PTSD have been described in patients who are undergoing or who have completed infertility treatment or high-risk pregnancies. Three case studies of patients who developed PTSD following such pregnancies are discussed, demonstrating the variety of symptoms and presentations of these patients. The clinician must be vigilant in monitoring infertility patients with PTSD. These women, as the result of infertility, may be at increased risk of developing PTSD, one of the recognized postpartum psychiatric disorders. It is important to distinguish PTSD from postpartum depression, because treatment guidelines vary. PMID:9746683

  19. Intrauterine insemination for treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Keck, C; Gerber-Schäfer, C; Wilhelm, C; Vogelgesang, D; Breckwoldt, M

    1997-01-01

    Intrauterine inseminations (IUI) have been performed since the beginning of this century for treatment of infertility. Despite its widespread use the clinical value of this technique remains unclear. Today, indications for IUI include male factor, cervical factor, immunological and unexplained infertility and infertility due to ejaculatory disorders. IUI is superior to intravaginal (IVI) or intracervical insemination (ICI). Before insemination, semen has to be processed using one of the established sperm preparation techniques. Different techniques seem to be equally effective in preparing a highly concentrated sperm fraction with progressively motile, morphologically normal sperm. Ovarian stimulation further improves pregnancy rates achieved by insemination. Human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) stimulation seems to be superior to clomiphene citrate stimulation. Among other factors, timing and number of inseminations are crucial when influencing the outcome of IUI treatment. PMID:9466187

  20. Infertility and the provision of infertility medical services in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Ombelet, Willem; Cooke, Ian; Dyer, Silke; Serour, Gamal; Devroey, Paul

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Worldwide more than 70 million couples suffer from infertility, the majority being residents of developing countries. Negative consequences of childlessness are experienced to a greater degree in developing countries when compared with Western societies. Bilateral tubal occlusion due to sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy-related infections is the most common cause of infertility in developing countries, a condition that is potentially treatable with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). New reproductive technologies are either unavailable or very costly in developing countries. This review provides a comprehensive survey of all important papers on the issue of infertility in developing countries. METHODS Medline, PubMed, Excerpta Medica and EMBASE searches identified relevant papers published between 1978 and 2007 and the keywords used were the combinations of ‘affordable, assisted reproduction, ART, developing countries, health services, infertility, IVF, simplified methods, traditional health care'. RESULTS The exact prevalence of infertility in developing countries is unknown due to a lack of registration and well-performed studies. On the other hand, the implementation of appropriate infertility treatment is currently not a main goal for most international non-profit organizations. Keystones in the successful implementation of infertility care in low-resource settings include simplification of diagnostic and ART procedures, minimizing the complication rate of interventions, providing training-courses for health-care workers and incorporating infertility treatment into sexual and reproductive health-care programmes. CONCLUSIONS Although recognizing the importance of education and prevention, we believe that for the reasons of social justice, infertility treatment in developing countries requires greater attention at National and International levels. PMID:18820005

  1. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertile women might get pregnant sometime after fertility treatment, but today, there is no prediction model on who will eventually have children. The objective of the present study was to characterize hormone levels in an arbitrary menstrual cycle in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility, and to determine the predictive value for long-term possibility of live birth. Methods In this cross-sectional study, with 71 infertile women with diagnosis unexplained infertility and male infertility, blood samples were obtained during the proliferative and secretory phases of an arbitrary menstrual cycle. Serum concentrations of FSH, LH, AMH, inhibin B, estradiol, progesterone, PRL and TSH were determined. The predictive value of ovulation and hormonal analysis was determined by identifying the proportion of women with at least one live birth. Mann Whitney U test, chi2 test and Spearman’s correlation were used for statistical analysis. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results There were no differences in hormone values and live birth rates between women with unexplained infertility and male infertility. The best sole predictors of live birth were age of the women, followed by ovulatory cycle, defined as serum progesterone concentration of greater than or equal to 32 nmol/L, and a serum TSH concentration of less than or equal to 2.5 mIU/L. Combining the age with the ovulatory cycle and serum TSH less than or equal to 2.5 mIU/L or serum AMH greater than or equal to 10 pmol/L the predictive value was close to 90%. Conclusions Age in combination with the presence of an ovulatory cycle and serum TSH or serum AMH is predictive for long-term live birth. The advantage of serum AMH compared with serum TSH is the very little variation throughout the menstrual cycle, which makes it a useful tool in infertility diagnosis. PMID:23844631

  2. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari, Fatemeh; Ghahiri, Ataollah; Habibi, Mojtaba; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis ap- proach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women) and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives) as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their medical treatments as

  3. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Treat Infertility Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Eifert, Georg H.

    2011-01-01

    Women and men diagnosed with infertility experience a variety of infertility-related stressors, including changes to their family and social networks, strain on their sexual relationship, and difficulties and unexpected challenges in their relationship. Infertility stress is linked with depression and psychological distress, and can lead to…

  4. Aspects of Psychosocial Development in Infertile Versus Fertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Binaafar, Sima; Ardakani, Zohreh Behjati; Kamali, Kourosh; Kosari, Haleh; Ghorbani, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility is one of the most difficult life experiences that a couple might encounter. Infertility as a bio-psycho-social phenomenon, could influence all aspects of life. While paying special attention to the psychological aspects of infertility in couples; many studies have investigated the non-clinical aspects of infertility, however, they rarely have evaluated the psychosocial development of infertile versus fertile men. We aimed to study the effects of infertility on psychosocial development in men. Methods In fact, we designed the study based on “Erikson's theory of psychosocial development”. We focused on the relationship between psychosocial development and some self-conceived indices. For this purpose, we divided the participants volunteers into two groups of cases (80 infertile men) and controls (40 fertile men) and asked them to complete a 112 (questions questionnaire based on “self description”). The statistical analysis was performed by SPSS (version 13) using independent t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and analysis of covariance. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results Data analysis showed significant inter and intra group differences. Infertile and fertile groups showed significant differences in trust, autonomy, generativity and integrity stages (p < 0.05). Infertile intergroup analysis represents us to higher scores in positive than negative stages. Conclusion Infertility as a phenomenon had its own effects on the psychosocial development of infertile men. However, good coping skills are powerful tools to manage these myriad of feelings surrounding infertile men. PMID:23926571

  5. Frustrated Fertility: Infertility and Psychological Distress among Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; White, Lynn; Jacob, Mary Casey

    2003-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that women who have experienced infertility report higher psychological distress. Examines whether roles or resources condition the effects of infertility or whether its effects are limited to childless women. Infertility combined with involuntary childlessness is associated with significantly greater distress. For women in…

  6. Prevalence and predictors of infertility-specific stress in women diagnosed with primary infertility: A clinic-based study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ansha; Sharma, P. S. V. N.; Narayan, Pratapkumar; Binu, V. S.; Dinesh, N.; Pai, Praveena Joglekar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to the existing literature on infertility, stress appears to be inevitably associated with infertility diagnosis and treatment in sub-fertile individuals. The epidemiological data on the prevalence and predictors of infertility-specific stress in cultural specific scenario are scarce. The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of infertility-specific stress and identify predictors of infertility-specific stress in women diagnosed with primary infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 infertile married women, diagnosed with primary infertility. The tools used for the assessment were “semi-structured questionnaire” compiled by the authors, “ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders (Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines),” and “Psychological Evaluation Test for infertility.” STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 15). Chi-square test was used for univariate analysis followed by multiple logistic regressions between stress and the predictor variables. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The prevalence of stress among women was 80%. Univariate analysis revealed that predictors of stress were years of marital life, duration of infertility, infertility type, history of gynecological surgery, cycles of ovulation induction with timed intercourse and intra-uterine inseminations, present and past psychiatric morbidity, coping difficulties, gynecological diagnosis, and severity of premenstrual dysphoria. Multivariate analysis showed leading associations of stress with infertility type and coping difficulties. PMID:27110075

  7. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life. PMID:26644793

  8. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms "IBD AND male infertility", "Crohn's disease AND male infertility", "ulcerative colitis AND male infertility". References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options. PMID:27602237

  9. Characteristics of the Biopsychosocial Crisis of Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1987-01-01

    Presents a framework for understanding the crisis of infertility which is characterized by extensive anxiety, damaged self-esteem, grief, uncertainty about the future, and estranged relationships with each other and with family and friends. Proposes some interventions appropriate to helpers from a variety of disciplines. (ABB)

  10. Coping Processes of Couples Experiencing Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be…

  11. Guidelines for counselling in infertility: outline version.

    PubMed

    Boivin, J; Appleton, T C; Baetens, P; Baron, J; Bitzer, J; Corrigan, E; Daniels, K R; Darwish, J; Guerra-Diaz, D; Hammar, M; McWhinnie, A; Strauss, B; Thorn, P; Wischmann, T; Kentenich, H

    2001-06-01

    The Guidelines for Counselling in Infertility describe the purpose, objectives, typical issues and communication skills involved in providing psychosocial care to individuals using fertility services. The Guidelines are presented in six sections. The first section describes how infertility consultations differ from other medical consultations in obstetrics and gynaecology, whereas the second section addresses fundamental issues in counselling, such as what is counselling in infertility, who should counsel and who is likely to need counselling. Section 3 focuses on how to integrate patient-centred care and counselling into routine medical treatment and section 4 highlights some of the special situations which can provoke the need for counselling (e.g. facing the end of treatment, sexual problems). Section 5 deals exclusively with third party reproduction and the psychosocial implications of gamete donation, surrogacy and adoption for heterosexual and gay couples and single women without partners. The final section of the Guidelines is concerned with psychosocial services that can be used to supplement counselling services in fertility clinics: written psychosocial information, telephone counselling, self-help groups and professionally facilitated group work. This paper summarizes the different sections of the Guidelines and describes how to obtain the complete text of the Guidelines for Counselling in Infertility. PMID:11387309

  12. ACR appropriateness Criteria® infertility.

    PubMed

    Wall, Darci J; Javitt, Marcia C; Glanc, Phyllis; Bhosale, Priyadarshani R; Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Harris, Robert D; Khati, Nadia J; Mitchell, Donald G; Nyberg, David A; Pandharipande, Pari V; Pannu, Harpreet K; Shipp, Thomas D; Siegel, Cary Lynn; Simpson, Lynn; Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J; Zelop, Carolyn M

    2015-03-01

    Appropriate imaging for women undergoing infertility workup depends upon the clinician's suspicion for potential causes of infertility. Transvaginal US is the preferred modality to assess the ovaries for features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. For women who have a history or clinical suspicion of endometriosis, which affects at least one third of women with infertility, both MRI and pelvic US can provide valuable information. If tubal occlusion is suspected, whether due to endometriosis, previous pelvic inflammatory disease, or other cause, hysterosalpingogram (HSG) is the preferred method of evaluation. To assess for anatomic causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) such as Müllerian anomalies, synechiae, and leiomyomas, saline infusion sonohysterography, MRI and 3-D US are most appropriate. Up to 10% of women suffering recurrent pregnancy loss have a congenital Müllerian anomaly. When assessment of the pituitary gland is indicated, MRI is the imaging exam of choice.The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:25706363

  13. Infertility and childlessness: a qualitative study of the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility is a global reproductive health issue that affects many individuals and couples. Despite the high prevalence of infertility in Ghana, no study has been done on the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana. This study therefore explored the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. Methods We interviewed fifteen childless couples, forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants using a semi-structured interview guide. We also carried out three focus group discussions; one for childless women, one for women with children and one for men with children. The data were transcribed, coded, arranged and analyzed for categories and themes. Results Infertile couples are socially stigmatised and excluded from leadership roles in their communities. Couples without children are denied membership in the ancestral world thereby losing the opportunity to live again. Both males and females are engaged in sex with multiple partners to prove their fertility. Conclusions Both men and women suffer from the social effects of childlessness. The desire to have biological children in a pronatalist society results in unhealthy practices. Health policy makers and gender advocates should be more concerned about infertility. PMID:23517021

  14. Anti-GAPDHS antibodies: a biomarker of immune infertility.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jun; Yao, Rongyan; Luo, Yanyun; Yang, Dantong; Cao, Yang; Qiu, Yi; Song, Wei; Miao, Shiying; Gu, Yiqun; Wang, Linfang

    2016-04-01

    Numerous investigations have focused on the detection of antisperm antibodies, which have a naturally occurring impact on male and female fertility. In this study, spermatogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHS) was considered to be a candidate biomarker of immune infertility. The concentrations of anti-GAPDHS antibodies in the sera of sterile individuals and fertile couples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sera were collected from immune infertile (n = 175) and fertile (n = 237) individuals and were screened by tray agglutination tests (TAT). Infertile sera were further divided into two groups according to the serum titers obtained by TAT (titers ≤ 1:8, n = 58; titers > 1:8, n = 117). The concentrations of anti-GAPDHS antibodies were significantly higher in the immune infertile group than in the fertile group and were much higher with regard to the increased degrees of sperm agglutination (titers > 1:8). Surprisingly, we found statistically significantly higher concentrations of antibodies in the sera of infertile men than in those of infertile women, and a similar statistical result was obtained in the sera when primary infertility was compared with secondary infertility. Thus, anti-GAPDHS antibodies seem to be a sensitive parameter in immune infertile detection and might be one of the main factors causing immune infertility. This factor might be valuable as an indicator in the clinical diagnosis and monitoring treatment of infertility. PMID:26846113

  15. Unexplained infertility: an update and review of practice.

    PubMed

    Ray, Arpita; Shah, Amit; Gudi, Anil; Homburg, Roy

    2012-06-01

    Of the couples unable to conceive without any identifiable cause, 30% are defined as having unexplained infertility. Management depends on duration of infertility and age of female partner. This review describes and comments on the definition and evidence for the management of unexplained infertility. A literature search was conducted in EMBASE, Medline, Ovid and Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews using the terms 'infertility', 'unexplained infertility', 'idiopathic infertility', 'definition of infertility', 'treatment options', 'intrauterine insemination', 'ovulation induction', 'Fallopian tube sperm', 'GIFT' and 'IVF'. There is no uniform definition for unexplained infertility. This varies in the literature depending on the duration of infertility and the age of the female partner. The treatment of unexplained infertility is empirical and many different regimens have been used. Among these are expectant management, ovulation stimulation with clomiphene citrate, gonadotrophins and aromatase inhibitors, Fallopian tube sperm perfusion, tubal flushing, intrauterine insemination, gamete intra-Fallopian transfer and IVF. The standard protocol is to progress from low-technology to high-technology treatment options. On the best available evidence, an algorithm for management is suggested. There is a definite need for multicentre randomized controlled trials to identify the best treatment option in unexplained infertility using a standard definition. PMID:22503948

  16. New insights into the genetic basis of infertility

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Thejaswini; Suresh, Padmanaban S; Tsutsumi, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system characterized by inability to achieve pregnancy after 12 or more months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. A variety of factors, including ovulation defects, spermatogenic failure, parental age, obesity, and infections have been linked with infertility, in addition to specific karyotypes and genotypes. The study of genes associated with infertility in rodent models has expanded the field of translational genetics in identifying the underlying cause of human infertility problems. Many intriguing aspects of the molecular basis of infertility in humans remain poorly understood; however, application of genetic knowledge in this field looks promising. The growing literature on the genetics of human infertility disorders deserves attention and a critical concise summary is required. This paper provides information obtained from a systematic analysis of the literature related to current research into the genetics of infertility affecting both sexes. PMID:25506236

  17. Social Consequences of Infertility on Families in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad; Khosravi, Ahmad; Chaman, Reza; Sadeghi, Zakieh; Raei, Mehdi; Jahanitiji, Mohammad Ali; Mehrabian, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Social reactions to infertility are one of the concerns infertile people. This study aimed to investigate the social consequences of infertility among urban and rural population of Shahroud in northeast of Iran. Method: This study is a comparative study that was conducted in 2013. In this study, 1,528 women (511 infertile and 1017 fertile ones) were randomly selected. The 36-item questionnaire included 18 items about women’s attitude towards infertility and 18 questions about the consequences of infertility was used. Data were analyzed using chi-square test, one-way analysis of variance and t test. Findings: The prevalence of infertility in rural areas was estimated to be 2.23 percent. 42.2% of the participants were living the city (n= 645) and 57.8 % were living in the village (n=883). 49.2% of the participants had education below high school diploma (n=751), 31.7% had high school diploma (n=484) and 19.2% had university degrees (n=293). 51.9% of the people referred to the infertility problem among distant relatives, 24.9% referred to infertility among the close relatives and 9% reported the infertility among their family members. The mean score of attitude of the fertile was 56.6±7.0 and that of the infertile was 56.8± 6.6 and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). There was a significant association between fertility status and encouraging divorce, encouraging remarriage and encouraging adoption (P=0.001). Conclusion: Infertility causes a negative attitude toward infertile people. But the interference of others leads to further encouragement of divorce and remarriage among the infertile people. PMID:26652089

  18. Infertility and psychological distress: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Greil, A L

    1997-12-01

    This essay reviews the literature on the social psychological impact of infertility, paying special attention to the relationship between gender and the infertility experience. It is convenient to divide the literature into articles which explore the possibility that infertility may have psychological causes (Psychogenic Hypothesis) and those which examine the psychological consequences of infertility (Psychological Consequences Hypothesis). The psychogenic hypothesis is now rejected by most researchers, but a related hypothesis, which states that stress may be a causal factor in infertility, is worthy of exploration. The descriptive literature on the psychological consequences of infertility presents infertility as a devastating experience, especially for women. Attempts to test the psychological consequences hypothesis have produced more equivocal results. In general, studies which look for psychopathology have not found significant differences between the infertile and others. Studies which employ measures of stress and self-esteem have found significant differences. The psychological consequences literature is characterized by a number of flaws, including over sampling of women, small sample size, non-representative samples, failure to study those who have not sought treatment, primitive statistical techniques, and an over-reliance on self-reports. Studies on infertility and psychological distress need to take into consideration both the duration of infertility and the duration of treatment. Finding an appropriate set of "controls" is a particularly intractable problem for this area of research. In general, the psychological distress literature shows little regard for the social construction of infertility. By taking what should be understood as a characteristic of a social situation and transforming it into an individual trait, the literature presents what is essentially a medical model of the psycho-social impact of infertility. Most researchers conclude that

  19. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi

    2014-01-01

    Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life. PMID:25788801

  20. The dark mink: a model of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Tung, K S; Ellis, L E; Childs, G V; Dufau, M

    1984-03-01

    Breeding mink for a fine dark fur has coselected male infertility, which may be manifest at the onset of breeding (primary infertility) or after one or more fertile breeding seasons (secondary infertility). Mink with primary infertility have low LH and testosterone levels. However, they respond to exogenous GnRH with increases in LH production and in the number and size of LH and FSH positive gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary. Exogenous human CG also induces testosterone secretion. Thus, mink with primary infertility are probably defective in GnRH secretion, which is due either to abnormal hypothalamic function or its control mechanisms. Autoimmune orchitis with testicular immune complexes are frequent in mink with secondary infertility, suggesting an autoimmune etiology. In contrast, fertile dark mink and fertile mink with the opaline and pastel fur have normal serum LH and testosterone levels; their testes are also normal. In mink with secondary infertility, the frequency and degree of orchitis and testicular immune complexes increased from March (peak sexual activity) to April (onset of testicular regression). Thus, testicular autoimmunity most likely develops during testicular regression. Antisperm antibodies also increased in frequency during testicular regression in the fertile dark mink and in dark mink with primary and secondary infertility. Thus, antisperm antibody per se is insufficient to induce autoimmune orchitis. It is concluded that the infertile mink is a useful model of human male infertility, involving both endocrinological and immunological mechanisms. PMID:6421566

  1. Emoting infertility online: A qualitative analysis of men's forum posts.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Esmée; Gough, Brendan

    2016-07-01

    Relatively little research on infertility focuses exclusively or significantly on men's experiences, particularly in relation to emotional aspects. Evidence that does exist around male infertility suggests that it is a distressing experience for men, due to stigma, threats to masculinity and the perceived need to suppress emotions, and that men and women experience infertility differently. Using thematic analysis, this article examines the online emoting of men in relation to infertility via forum posts from a men-only infertility discussion board. It was noted that men 'talked' to each other about the emotional burdens of infertility, personal coping strategies and relationships with others. Three major themes were identified following in-depth analysis: 'the emotional rollercoaster', 'the tyranny of infertility' and 'infertility paranoia'. This article then offers insights into how men experience infertility emotionally, negotiate the emotional challenges involved (especially pertaining to diagnosis, treatment outcomes and their intimate relationships) and how they share (and find value in doing so) with other men the lived experience of infertility. PMID:27246813

  2. ICSI Outcome in Infertile Couples with Different Causes of Infertility: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Jahanian Sadatmahalleh, Shahideh; Akhoond, Mohammad Reza; Ghaffari, Firouzeh; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different success rate of Intracytoplasmic Sperm injection (ICSI) has been observed in various causes of infertility. In this study, we evaluated the relation between ICSI outcome and different causes of infertility. We also aimed to examine parameters that might predict the pregnancy success rate following ICSI. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study included1492 infertile women referred to Infertility Center of Royan Institute between 2010 and 2011. We assigned two groups including pregnant (n=504) and non-pregnant (n=988), while all participants underwent ICSI cycles. All statistics were performed by SPSS program. Statistical Analysis was carried out using Chi-square and t test. Logistic regression was done to build a prediction model in ICSI cycles. Results: The overall clinical pregnancy rate in our study was 33.9% (n=1492). There was a statistically significant difference in mean serum concentration on day 3 after application of luteinizing hormone (LH) between the pregnant and the non-pregnant groups (p<0.05). However, There were no significant differences between two groups in the serum concentrations on day 3 after application of the following hormones: folliclestimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and metoclopramidestimulated prolactin (PRL) . We found no association between different causes of infertility and clinical outcomes . The number of metaphase II (MII) oocytes, embryo transfer, number of good embryo (grade A, B, AB), total dose of gonadotropin, endometrial thickness, maternal age, number of previous cycle were statistically significant between two groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate that ICSI in an effective option in couples with different causes of infertility. These variables were integrated into a statistical model to allow the prediction for the chance of pregnancy following ICSI cycles. It is required that each infertility center gather enough information about the causes of

  3. Advances in the management of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Haidl, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Male infertility can be treated by surgical procedures (e.g., varicocelectomy) or by administration of drugs if causal factors (e.g., seminal tract infections) are detected. In more severe cases, methods of assisted fertilization often have to be applied, but even these have only a limited success rate. Recent studies have demonstrated that disturbances of sperm DNA integrity (determined by the acridine orange test) can explain certain cases of fertilization failure and failure to achieve pregnancy following in vitro fertilisation with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The evaluation of DNA integrity should be considered when diagnosing male infertility as it has been shown to be an independent factor and can be used as a supplement to standard semen analysis. Analysis of DNA integrity may, therefore, provide further information about altered male fertility and lead to administration of more appropriate therapy. PMID:20948685

  4. Human infertility: are endocrine disruptors to blame?

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Pinto, André; Carvalho, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Over recent decades, epidemiological studies have been reporting worrisome trends in the incidence of human infertility rates. Extensive detection of industrial chemicals in human serum, seminal plasma and follicular fluid has led the scientific community to hypothesise that these compounds may disrupt hormonal homoeostasis, leading to a vast array of physiological impairments. Numerous synthetic and natural substances have endocrine-disruptive effects, acting through several mechanisms. The main route of exposure to these chemicals is the ingestion of contaminated food and water. They may disturb intrauterine development, resulting in irreversible effects and may also induce transgenerational effects. This review aims to summarise the major scientific developments on the topic of human infertility associated with exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs), integrating epidemiological and experimental evidence. Current data suggest that environmental levels of EDs may affect the development and functioning of the reproductive system in both sexes, particularly in foetuses, causing developmental and reproductive disorders, including infertility. EDs may be blamed for the rising incidence of human reproductive disorders. This constitutes a serious public health issue that should not be overlooked. The exposure of pregnant women and infants to EDs is of great concern. Therefore, precautionary avoidance of exposure to EDs is a prudent attitude in order to protect humans and wildlife from permanent harmful effects on fertility. PMID:23985363

  5. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    PubMed

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage. PMID:26855782

  6. Protective emotional regulation processes towards adjustment in infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Gouveia, José; Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, Marina; Matos, Marcela

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about emotional regulation processes of psychological flexibility/acceptance, self-compassion, and coping styles in infertility and the way they may exert a protective function towards depression. The aim of the current study was to explore how these emotion regulation processes are related to depression and to the sense of self-efficacy to deal with infertility in infertile patients. Gender differences were also considered. One hundred couples without known fertility problems and 100 couples with an infertility diagnosis completed the instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, Coping Styles Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Self-Compassion Scale and Infertility Self-efficacy Scale. Infertile couples presented statistically significantly higher scores on depression and lower scores in psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion than the control group. This pattern was particularly identified in women who also tended to use less an emotional/detached coping style and to perceive themselves as less confident to deal with infertility than men. Multiple regression analysis showed that psychological flexibility/acceptance was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in men and women with infertility. Emotional regulation processes, such as psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion, seem to be relevant to the understanding of depressive symptoms and psychological adjustment to infertility, suggesting that these issues should be addressed in a therapeutic context with these couples. PMID:22309792

  7. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility.

    PubMed

    Ring, Joshua D; Lwin, Aye A; Köhler, Tobias S

    2016-01-01

    Male factor contributes to 50%-60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene), estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole), and hormone replacement. PMID:27098657

  8. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Joshua D; Lwin, Aye A; Köhler, Tobias S

    2016-01-01

    Male factor contributes to 50%–60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene), estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole), and hormone replacement. PMID:27098657

  9. Frequency and outcome of treatment in polycystic ovaries related infertility

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Farzana; Arif, Nesreen; Halepota, Hafeez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility is defined as inability of couple to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 21.9%. The most common cause of medically treatable infertility is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO). This study was conducted to see the frequency and outcome of treatment in PCOs related infertility in infertile couples coming to Mohammad Medical College Hospital, Mirpurkhas, Sindh. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted at Muhammad Medical College for three years from 2005 to 2008. Total 1289 infertile couples were included in this study. Result: The frequency of PCOs in female related infertility was 38.5%. Other causes of female infertility were in the frequency of 44% pelvic inflammatory disease, 12.3% endometriosis, 2.9% hyperprolactenemia, and 1.35% hypothyroidism. Patients with PCOS were given different treatment modalities. One hundred fifty patients with PCO were given ovulation induction with clomephene citrate and out of them 109 (72%) conceived. Sixty three women were given combination of clomephene citrate and Metformin. Out of them 50 (79%) conceived. Five patients were given gonadotrophins, Out of them 2 (40%) patients conceived. Five patients had laparoscopic drilling out of them 3 (60%) conceived. Conclusion: In contrast to the literature review Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome turned out to be the second most common cause of female related infertility. But as the international literature shows it had very good out come after medical and /or surgical treatment. PMID:26150870

  10. Threefold increased risk of infertility: a meta‐analysis of infertility after ileal pouch anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, A; Waljee, J; Morris, A M; Higgins, P D R

    2006-01-01

    Background Increased infertility in women has been reported after ileal pouch‐anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis but reported infertility rates vary substantially. Aims (1) To perform a systematic review and meta‐analysis of the relative risk of infertility post‐IPAA compared with medical management; (2) to estimate the rate of infertility post‐IPAA; and (3) to identify modifiable risk factors which contribute to infertility. Methods Medline, EMBASE, Current Contents, meeting abstracts, and bibliographies were searched independently by two investigators. The titles and abstracts of 189 potentially relevant studies were reviewed; eight met the criteria and all data were extracted independently. Consensus was achieved on each data point, and fixed effects meta‐analyses, a funnel plot, and sensitivity analyses were performed. Results The initial meta‐analysis of eight studies had significant heterogeneity (p = 0.004) due to one study with very high preoperative infertility (38%). When this study was omitted, the relative risk of infertility after IPAA was 3.17 (2.41–4.18), with non‐significant heterogeneity. The weighted average infertility rate in medically treated ulcerative colitis was 15% for all seven studies, and the weighted average infertility rate was 48% after IPAA (50% if all eight studies are included). We were unable to identify any procedural factors that consistently affected the risk of infertility. Conclusions IPAA increases the risk of infertility in women with ulcerative colitis by approximately threefold. Infertility, defined as achieving pregnancy in 12 months of attempting conception, increased from 15% to 48% in women post‐IPAA for ulcerative colitis. This provides a basis for counselling patients considering colectomy with IPAA. Further studies of modifiable risk factors are needed. PMID:16772310

  11. Letrozole, Gonadotropin, or Clomiphene for Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, M.P.; Legro, R.S.; Coutifaris, C.; Alvero, R.; Robinson, R.D.; Casson, P.; Christman, G.M.; Ager, J.; Huang, H.; Hansen, K.R.; Baker, V.; Usadi, R.; Seungdamrong, A.; Bates, G.W.; Rosen, R.M.; Haisenleder, D.; Krawetz, S.A.; Barnhart, K.; Trussell, J.C.; Ohl, D.; Jin, Y.; Santoro, N.; Eisenberg, E.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The standard therapy for women with unexplained infertility is gonadotropin or clomiphene citrate. Ovarian stimulation with letrozole has been proposed to reduce multiple gestations while maintaining live birth rates. METHODS We enrolled couples with unexplained infertility in a multicenter, randomized trial. Ovulatory women 18 to 40 years of age with at least one patent fallopian tube were randomly assigned to ovarian stimulation (up to four cycles) with gonadotropin (301 women), clomiphene (300), or letrozole (299). The primary outcome was the rate of multiple gestations among women with clinical pregnancies. RESULTS After treatment with gonadotropin, clomiphene, or letrozole, clinical pregnancies occurred in 35.5%, 28.3%, and 22.4% of cycles, and live birth in 32.2%, 23.3%, and 18.7%, respectively; pregnancy rates with letrozole were significantly lower than the rates with standard therapy (gonadotropin or clomiphene) (P = 0.003) or gonadotropin alone (P<0.001) but not with clomiphene alone (P = 0.10). Among ongoing pregnancies with fetal heart activity, the multiple gestation rate with letrozole (9 of 67 pregnancies, 13%) did not differ significantly from the rate with gonadotropin or clomiphene (42 of 192, 22%; P = 0.15) or clomiphene alone (8 of 85, 9%; P = 0.44) but was lower than the rate with gonadotropin alone (34 of 107, 32%; P = 0.006). All multiple gestations in the clomiphene and letrozole groups were twins, whereas gonadotropin treatment resulted in 24 twin and 10 triplet gestations. There were no significant differences among groups in the frequencies of congenital anomalies or major fetal and neonatal complications. CONCLUSIONS In women with unexplained infertility, ovarian stimulation with letrozole resulted in a significantly lower frequency of multiple gestation but also a lower frequency of live birth, as compared with gonadotropin but not as compared with clomiphene. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; Clinical

  12. Psychosocial impacts of infertility on Greek couples.

    PubMed

    Tarlatzis, I; Tarlatzis, B C; Diakogiannis, I; Bontis, J; Lagos, S; Gavriilidou, D; Mantalenakis, S

    1993-03-01

    Psychosocial impacts of infertility were investigated in couples undergoing different treatment procedures in our clinic. Couples were interviewed in a semi-structured way by a psychologist or a psychiatrist and responded to three specially structured questionnaires: the Life Events Scale, the Marlowe-Crowne/Taylor Scale and the Side Effect Checklist. The data were analysed in terms of demographic characteristics as well as treatment procedure. The psychosocial, psychosexual and emotional outcomes of their infertility problem and Greek traditional culture laws are discussed. Stress has been identified in both sexes, depression mostly in women, while men showed a tendency towards repressed anxiety and thus a greater risk of psychosomatic illness, a finding supported by their response to the Side Effect Checklist. Women showed a high defensive anxiety and also reported numerous psychosomatic symptoms. These couples seem to have special needs and fears, both general and treatment specific. Very few of our couples would be considered as severely emotionally disturbed. Women seem to have more difficulties in social adjustment. Sexual dysfunction was reported by almost half of our subjects, although this was associated with a degree of deterioration in their marriage. Guilt feelings, particularly connected with previous abortions, seem to be torturing most women. Finally, both partners seem to have psychological problems irrespective of the one in whom the aetiological problem was found. Moreover, traditional rules seem to impose a special burden on people coming from rural areas. Our results strongly support the belief that infertile couples undergoing different treatments need psychological counselling and supportive psychotherapy. PMID:8473455

  13. [Relationship of MTHFR gene polymorphisms with infertility].

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai-min; Tian, Run-hui; Wang, Hong-liang

    2016-02-01

    The folate metabolic pathway plays important roles in cellular physiology by participating in nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair and methylation, and maintenance and stability of the genome. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key regulatory enzyme involved in folate metabolism. Polymorphisms of MTHFR may change the level of homocysteine and affect DNA synthesis and methylation, leading to an increased oxidative stress and disturbed methylation reactions and consequently affecting reproductive function. This article presents an overview on MTHFR gene polymorphisms, proposing that multicentered, large-sample and long-term prospective studies are needed to reveal the relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and infertility. PMID:26939404

  14. A Comparative Study of Serum and Follicular Fluid Leptin Concentrations among Explained Infertile, Unexplained Infertile and Fertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Kamyabi, Zahra; Gholamalizade, Tayebe

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between metabolism and reproduction has been always considered as an important topic in female endocrinology. It seems that leptin is one of the involved factors in infertility. Leptin, in addition to regulating body weight plays an important role in regulation of endocrine, reproductive and immune systems. The aim of this stduy is to compare serum and follicular fluid leptin concentrations in order to find the role of leptin level in infertility. Materials and Methods This case-control study was performed from September 2010 to March 2013. A total of 90 women referred to the Infertility Center of Afzalipour Hos- pital, Kerman, Iran, and divided into three equal groups (n=30/per group) of explained infertile (including 4 subgroups), unexplained infertile and normal fertile (control group). The three groups were matched in regard to demographic features [age: 20-40 years and body mass index (BMI): 20-25]. In order to determine leptin level, blood sample and fol- licular fluid were taken one hour prior and at the time of follicular puncture, respectively. Serum and follicular fluid leptin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed using descriptive-analytic tests, like Mann- Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests, through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Results In explained infertile and fertile groups, as opposed to unexplained infertile group, mean leptin level was lower in follicular fluid than in serum. Mean follicular fluid leptin concentration in women with unexplained infertility was higher com- pared to the other two groups. Women with unexplained infertility had lower level of serum leptin in comparison to the other two groups. Follicular fluid leptin level in all subgroups of explained infertile group was lower as compared to unexplained and fertile women. Conclusion The results suggested that high leptin level of follicular fluid is one of the main factors

  15. A Study of Couple Burnout in Infertile Couples

    PubMed Central

    Ghavi, Fatemeh; Jamale, Safieh; Mosalanejad, Leili; Mosallanezhad, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility is a major crisis that can cause psychological problems and emotionally distressing experiences, and eventually affect a couples’ relationship. The objective of this study is to investigate couple burnout in infertile couples who were undergoing treatmentat the Infertility Clinic of Yazd, Iran. Method: The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive one on 98 infertile couples referringto the Infertility Centerof Yazd, Iran, who were chosen on a simple random sampling basis. The measuring tools consisted of the Couple Burnout Measure (CBM) and a demographic questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 16 and the statistical tests of ANOVA and t-test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: The results show that infertile women experience higher levels of couple burnout than their husbands (p<0.001). Also, a comparison of the scales of couple burnout—psychological burnout (p<0.01), somatic burnout (p<0.01), and emotional burnout (p<0.001)—between wives and husbands show that women are at greater risk. Conclusion: Infertile couples’ emotional, mental, and sexual problems need to be addressed as part of the infertility treatment programs, and psychotherapists should be included in the medical team. PMID:26573033

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism in the infertile female population: a guideline.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    There is controversy regarding whether to treat subtle abnormalities of thyroid dysfunction in the infertile female patient. This guideline document reviews the risks and benefits of treating subclinical hypothyroidism in female patients with a history of infertility and miscarriage, as well as obstetrical and neonatal outcomes in this population. PMID:26239023

  17. Infertility: A Review of Physical and Emotional Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kredentser, Jeremy V.

    1986-01-01

    Infertility affects 15% of couples. The primary causes are poor sperm production, ovulation defects, and fallopian tube obstruction, which can be detected by a simple, logical investigation. Infertility and its investigation precipitate characteristic emotional responses that require care by an informed, sensitive physician. PMID:21267117

  18. Associations of Psychosocial Factors with the Stress of Infertility Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Myra G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial factors thought to be associated with perceived stress over the course of infertility treatment. The research was based on secondary analysis of data from the Study of Marriage, Family, and Life Quality with a sample of 128 people who completed an infertility-related stress instrument at all three measurement…

  19. Themes of Hope and Healing: Infertile Couples' Experiences of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith C.; Hurtig-Mitchell, Joss

    2003-01-01

    Using qualitative approach, authors explored the experiences of becoming parents through adoption after unsuccessful infertility treatments. Analysis of data revealed three overarching themes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for counselors who work with infertile couples considering adoption, clients engaged in adoption…

  20. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  1. Psychotherapy for Infertility: A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach for Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Lisa B.; Wark, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Describes a cognitive-behavioral model for treating couples' negative reactions to infertility. After a discussion of why the cognitive-behavioral approach can competently address the goals of couples coping with infertility, three phases of treatment are outlined: assessment, therapy, and closure. Areas for assessment include spouses, marital…

  2. Infertility in the Gambia: Traditional and Modern Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundby, Johanne

    1997-01-01

    A population survey was undertaken to study infertility in Gambia. All infertile women in 24 randomly selected enumeration areas were assessed. Problems faced, coping mechanisms employed, and types of health care available were examined. Patterns of consultation with traditional versus formal health care and rural/urban differences were uncovered…

  3. [Genetic variants associated to male infertility in Mexican patients].

    PubMed

    Piña-Aguilar, Raúl Eduardo; Chima-Galán, María del Carmen; Yerena-de-vega, María de la Concepción A; Regalado-Hernández, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Guerrero, Cecilia; García-Ortiz, Liliana; Santillán-Hernández, Yuritzi; Moreno-García, Jesús Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Recently Mexican Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Colleges (Federación Mexicana de Colegios de Obstetricia y Ginecologia, FEMECOG) published the Mexican guideline forthe management of male infertility, which suggests performing genetic laboratory tests as part of diagnosis and management of infertile patients and states that these should receive genetic counseling. This paper reviews the genetic approach proposed by Mexican guideline. A systematic review of medical literature was performed in Pubmed and Web of Knowledge from 1980 to 2012 in order to find reports of genetic variants associated to male infertility in Mexican patients. Also it is discussed the current knowledge of these variants, their clinical implications and finally the guidelines and recommendations for their molecular diagnosis. Most genetic variants in Mexican infertile patients are chromosome abnormalities. In relation to other variants there is only a report of Y chromosome microdeletions, repeated CAG in androgen receptor and more common mutations in CFTR, and other article reporting mutations in CFTR in patients with congenital absence of vas deferens. Little is known about the genetics of Mexican infertile patients apart from chromosome abnormalities. However, the contribution of genetics as etiology of male infertility is taking more relevance and currently the consensual management of infertile male should include the screening of genetic background. This review pretends to be a quick guide for clinicians who want to know about reports of genetic variants related to male infertility in Mexican population and how to approach their diagnosis. PMID:23819425

  4. An employer's experience with infertility coverage: a case study.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Kaylen; Meletiche, Dennis; Del Rosario, Gina

    2009-12-01

    A case study of Southwest Airlines, a Fortune 500 company, demonstrates that a well-designed infertility coverage plan can control resource use. This successful model could be used by employers who wish to ensure that their employees have access to high-quality, cost-effective infertility services in a managed-care environment. PMID:19631318

  5. Definition of a seasonal infertility problem in pigs.

    PubMed

    Love, R J

    1978-11-11

    A summer infertility problem was investigated on a large intensive piggery in a warm temperate climatic zone in Eastern Australia. The period of infertility correlates with the period of summer heat stress. The infertility problem was manifest as a delayed return of sows to oestrus after mating and an increase in the number of sows found non-pregnant when due to farrow. Litter size was apparently not adversely affected. Gilts and first parity sows were most frequently involved. The subsequent breeding performance of sows affected by this infertility problem was quite normal. There was no apparent effect of heat stress on the boars. It is proposed that the infertility is caused by heat stress imposed more than seven days after mating causing whole litter loss and the return of the sow to oestrus. PMID:749312

  6. [Infertility, fertility treatment and breast cancer risk].

    PubMed

    Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Israel and throughout the world. It is the leading cause of death from cancer in women. The cause of breast cancer is unknown; however gynecological history and hormonal factors have a major impact on the risk to develop breast cancer. Infertility affects 15-20% of couples in developed countries and most of them will need fertility treatment. The variety of fertility treatments and their use has been widespread during the last 50 years and especially since the introduction of in vitro fertilization. During fertility treatment, and depending on the type of treatment, there is ovarian hyperstimulation with maturation of several follicles and higher than normal estradiol levels. This article reviews the leading studies that evaluated the possible link between fertility treatment and the development of breast cancer. Most studies showed no association between fertility drugs and breast cancer. Whereas other researchers demonstrated a possible link between some fertility drugs and increased risk for breast cancer in certain subgroups. Therefore, larger studies with longer follow-up periods and better control for all possible confounding factors are needed in order to confirm the safety of fertility treatments in the long run. The combination of infertility and fertility treatment might cause harm, such as an increased risk for breast cancer Therefore, one has to consider carefully, together with the woman, the need for fertility treatment and give the lowest possible dosage for the shortest duration in order to minimize the risk. PMID:24450034

  7. Spermatogonial stem cells, infertility and testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shree Ram; Burnicka-Turek, Ozanna; Chauhan, Chhavi; Hou, Steven X

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are responsible for the transmission of genetic information from an individual to the next generation. SSCs play critical roles in understanding the basic reproductive biology of gametes and treatments of human infertility. SSCs not only maintain normal spermatogenesis, but also sustain fertility by critically balancing both SSC self-renewal and differentiation. This self-renewal and differentiation in turn is tightly regulated by a combination of intrinsic gene expression within the SSC as well as the extrinsic gene signals from the niche. Increased SSCs self-renewal at the expense of differentiation result in germ cell tumours, on the other hand, higher differentiation at the expense of self-renewal can result in male sterility. Testicular germ cell cancers are the most frequent cancers among young men in industrialized countries. However, understanding the pathogenesis of testis cancer has been difficult because it is formed during foetal development. Recent studies suggest that SSCs can be reprogrammed to become embryonic stem (ES)-like cells to acquire pluripotency. In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in SSCs biology and role of SSC in testicular cancer. We believe that studying the biology of SSCs will not only provide better understanding of stem cell regulation in the testis, but eventually will also be a novel target for male infertility and testicular cancers. PMID:21155977

  8. Selenium status of idiopathic infertile Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2005-04-01

    Selenium concentration in the sera and seminal plasma of 60 infertile males (40 oligospermia and 20 azoospermia) and 40 males with proven evidence of fertility (normospermia; control group) were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were correlated with spermatogram and hormonal levels in order to determine their relationship and significance in male infertility. The mean serum concentrations of selenium was found to be significantly increased in oligospermic compared to azoospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.01), whereas the seminal plasma level was significantly higher in azoospermic compared to oligospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.001). Thus, the ratio of serum selenium to seminal plasma selenium was 1: 1 in controls, 4: 1 in oligospermia, and 1: 2 in azoospermic subject.A significant inverse correlation was observed between serum selenium level and sperm count (p < 0.01). Similarly, seminal plasma selenium correlated with spermatozoa motility, viability, and morphology. Serum selenium level shows positive correlation with the serum testosterone level (p < 0.01). In conclusion, there appears to be a physiological balance in the distribution of selenium in serum and seminal plasma compartment of control males. A disturbance in this balance has a significant influence on spermatogenesis. Selenium appears to have a positive influence on Leydig cells, thus influencing the secretion of testosterone. PMID:15851828

  9. Effect of fertility and infertility on longevity.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Shelley

    2015-05-01

    Changing demographic trends and projections of the survival and fertility rates of each generation have been a topic of great interest to not only demographers and epidemiologists but also to evolutionary biologists and reproductive endocrinologists. Compelling evolutionary theories suggest that there is an inverse association between fertility and longevity. Multiple historic, demographic, and current studies have since been conducted to test this theory, but the results have been inconclusive. The average number of children born to each woman has been declining progressively in developed countries during recent decades. This is in part due to changes in the behavior of couples but also to environmental factors. While improved accessibility to assisted reproductive technology can relieve some of the burden of infertility on these couples and lessen the problem of low total fertility rates in many developed countries, it is not enough to overcome the overall decrease in total fertility rates that we have witnessed in recent decades. This article critically reviews some important studies and provides an overview of this ongoing debate, while highlighting the relevance of trying to understand the possible mechanisms that may link fertility and infertility to longevity. PMID:25934598

  10. One consequence of infertility treatment: multifetal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Little, Cindy M

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of multifetal pregnancy as a result of fertility treatments. Pregnancies with multiple gestations are associated with serious infant and maternal health risks as well as psychological distress and significant financial consequences, and are a far too common consequence of infertility treatments such as assisted reproductive technology (ART) and ovulation induction drugs. Women with multifetal pregnancies are at a higher risk for multiple pregnancy complications and maternal morbidity/mortality as well as stress, depression, and anxiety disorders, especially when there is the threat of a loss of one or more fetuses. The rise in rates of multifetal gestation and the accompanying increased risk to both mother and fetuses have led the American Society for Reproductive Medicine and the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology to develop guidelines to limit the number of transferred embryos during in vitro fertilization. Nurses who work with infertile women are in a position to educate them about the risks, benefits, and alternatives associated with ARTs and multifetal pregnancies, and should endeavor to learn as much as possible about this topic. PMID:20453592

  11. Possible fetal determinants of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Juul, Anders; Almstrup, Kristian; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina K; Jørgensen, Niels; Main, Katharina M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Toppari, Jorma; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2014-09-01

    Although common reproductive problems, such as male infertility and testicular cancer, present in adult life, strong evidence exists that these reproductive disorders might have a fetal origin. The evidence is derived not only from large epidemiological studies that show birth-cohort effects with regard to testicular cancer, levels of testosterone and semen quality, but also from histopathological observations. Many infertile men have histological signs of testicular dysgenesis, including Sertoli-cell-only tubules, immature undifferentiated Sertoli cells, microliths and Leydig cell nodules. The most severe gonadal symptoms occur in patients with disorders of sexual development (DSDs) who have genetic mutations, in whom even sex reversal of individuals with a 46,XY DSD can occur. However, patients with severe DSDs might represent only a small proportion of DSD cases, with milder forms of testicular dysgenesis potentially induced by exposure to environmental and lifestyle factors. Interestingly, maternal smoking during pregnancy has a stronger effect on spermatogenesis than a man's own smoking. Other lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption and obesity might also have a role. However, increasing indirect evidence exists that exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals, present at measurable concentrations in individuals, might affect development of human fetal testis. If confirmed, health policies to prevent male reproductive problems should not only target adult men, but also pregnant women and their children. PMID:24935122

  12. Cytokines in the blood and semen of infertile patients

    PubMed Central

    Havrylyuk, Anna; Chopyak, Valentyna; Boyko, Yaryna; Kril, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines have been important mediators of the immunity and can be involved in numerous processes in the male genital tract including acting as immunomodulatory elements within the male gonad. The aims of this study were: 1) to detect pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in the control group and subgroups of infertile men; and 2) to set up the practical recommendations concerning determination of cytokine levels for the male infertility diagnosis. Observations were performed in a group of 82 men: healthy controls (n = 27) and infertile patients (n = 55). The male infertility group was further subdivided into patients with: varicocele (n = 22), idiopathic infertility (n = 13) and partners of couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA; n = 20). Semen analysis was determined following WHO criteria. The cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, IL-18; tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interferon g (IFN-g) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) contents in serum and seminal plasma were determined by quantitative ELISA. An interesting marker of male infertility appears to be TGF-β1 (blood) significantly elevated in idiopathically infertile males and in the RSA group. Besides elevated TGF-β1 in a group of idiopathic infertility significantly elevated IL-10, IL-18, IFN-g (blood) and statistically decreased IL-1β while increased IFN-g were revealed in seminal plasma compared to healthy controls. We may postulate novel cytokine micropatterns for patients with different background of infertility. Therefore, circulating cytokines: IL-1β, IL-10, IL-18, TGF-β1, IFN-g and IL-1β, IFN-g and TGF-β1 in seminal plasma should be extended in evaluation of specific types of male infertility. PMID:26648778

  13. [Infertility: psychological-psychopathological consequences and cognitive-behavioural interventions].

    PubMed

    Mitsi, C; Efthimiou, K

    2014-01-01

    Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman who is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term, however other causes can be found in both sexes. The diagnosis of infertility and the concurrent medical treatment are rather stressful events for the couple and can provoke a number of negative symptoms such as depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms which may interfere with the medical therapeutic procedures especially with the in-vitro fertilisation technique. The relationship between infertility and psychological factors has not been explored fully and are still under research. However current findings can be summarized in three basic hypotheses; namely, the effect of psychological factors on the appearance of infertility, the psychological consequences of infertility at the couple, and the reciprocal relation of psychological factors and infertility. Stress and anxiety activate the hypothalamic-adrenal axis (HPA), and this activation can disturb the hormones of fertility. The presence of depressive/anxiety symptoms seems to have a negative impact on the treatment of infertility and sometimes can be a risk factor for lower pregnancy rate. There is a possibility that psychological complaints could develop, prior, during and after the diagnosis of infertility and may interfere with the fertilisation therapy. Should such psychological complaints develop it is suggested that psychotherapeutic treatment is used in conjunction with the treatment approach of infertility, e.g. IVF. The above mentioned suggestion is supported by a large number of researchers and current research efforts focus on different psychotherapeutic interventions such as Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has shown during research its superiority compared to other psychotherapeutic interventions and that could be an effective way to decrease the depressive

  14. Evaluation of urinary metal concentrations and sperm DNA damage in infertile men from an infertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Fu, Xiao-Ming; He, Dong-Liang; Zou, Xue-Min; Wu, Cheng-Qiu; Guo, Wei-Zhen; Feng, Wei

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between urinary metal concentrations and sperm DNA damage. Thirteen metals [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn)] were detected in urine samples of 207 infertile men from an infertility clinic using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and also, sperm DNA damage (tail length, percent DNA tail, and tail distributed moment) were assessed using neutral comet assay. We found that urinary Hg and Ni were associated with increasing trends for tail length (both p for trend<0.05), and that urinary Mn was associated with increasing trend for tail distributed moment (p for trend=0.02). These associations did persist even when considering multiple metals. Our results suggest that environmental exposure to Hg, Mn, and Ni may be associated with increased sperm DNA damage. PMID:27262988

  15. Infertility and Parenthood: Does Becoming a Parent Increase Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined parenthood among 174 infertile couples and 74 presumed fertile couples. Infertile women who became parents experienced greater global well-being but diminished marital well-being, compared with infertile women who had not become parents. Infertile men who became parents experienced same negative effects that wives reported but did not…

  16. Psychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How Are They Affected by Infertility, Gender, and Parenthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Longitudinally examined effects of infertility on marital and global life quality with 174 infertile couples and 74 fertile couples. By third interview, 42% of infertile couples and 36% of fertile couples were parents. Psychosocial predictors of life quality were highly similar for members of infertile and fertile couples and for couples with and…

  17. Association of exposure to phenols and idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjian; Tang, Rong; Fu, Guangbo; Xu, Bin; Zhu, Pengfei; Qiao, Shanlei; Chen, Xiaojiao; Xu, Bo; Qin, Yufeng; Lu, Chuncheng; Hang, Bo; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2013-04-15

    Widespread human exposure to phenols has been documented recently, and some phenols which are potential endocrine disruptors have demonstrated adverse effects on male reproduction in animal and in vitro studies. However, implications about exposure to phenols and male infertility are scarce in humans. Case-control study of 877 idiopathic infertile men and 713 fertile controls was conducted. Urinary levels of bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, pentachlorophenol, triclosan, 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-n-octylphenol (4-n-OP) and 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) and semen parameters were measured. After multivariate adjustment, we found 4-t-OP, 4-n-OP and 4-n-NP exposure was associated with idiopathic male infertility (p-value for trend: <0.0001, 0.014 and 0.001, respectively). Aside from these associations, 4-t-OP and 4-n-NP exposure was also associated with idiopathic male infertility with abnormal semen parameters. Moreover, we observed significant associations between sum alkylphenols (APs) exposure and idiopathic male infertility. There were no relationships between exposure to other phenols and idiopathic male infertility in the present study. Our study provides the first evidence that exposure to APs (4-t-OP, 4-n-OP and 4-n-NP) is associated with idiopathic male infertility. PMID:23435201

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in women with unexplained infertility

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Maryam; Pourmasumi, Soheila; Sabeti, Parvin; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genital tuberculosis (GTB) is an important cause of female infertility, especially in developing countries. The positive results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in endometrial GTB in the absence of tubal damage raise the possibility of the detection of sub-clinical or latent disease, with doubtful benefits of treatment. Objective: To evaluate the mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in endometrial biopsy samples collected from unexplained infertile women attending Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility by using PCR techniques. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 144 infertile women with unexplained infertility aged 20-35 years old and normal Histro-saplango graphy findings were enrolled. Endometrial biopsy samples from each participant were tested for mycobacterium tuberculosis detecting by PCR. In 93 patients, peritoneal fluid was also taken for culture and PCR. Results: The PCR results of endometrial specimens were negative in all cases, demonstrating that there was no GTB infection among our patients. Conclusion: Our results showed that GTB could not be considered as a major problem in women with unexplained infertility. Although, studies have indicated that PCR is a useful method in diagnosing early GTB disease in infertile women with no demonstrable evidence of tubal or endometrial involvement. PMID:27141534

  19. The experience of infertility: A review of recent literature

    PubMed Central

    Greil, Arthur L.; Slauson-Blevins, Kathleen; McQuillan, Julia

    2011-01-01

    About 10 years ago Greil published a review and critique of the literature on the socio-psychological impact of infertility. He found at the time that most scholars treated infertility as a medical condition with psychological consequences rather than as a socially constructed reality. This article examines research published since the last review. More studies now place infertility within larger social contexts and social scientific frameworks although clinical emphases persist. Methodological problems remain but important improvements are also evident. We identify two vigorous research traditions in the social scientific study of infertility. One tradition uses primarily quantitative techniques to study clinic patients in order to improve service delivery and to assess the need for psychological counseling. The other tradition uses primarily qualitative research to capture the experiences of infertile people in a sociocultural context. We conclude that more attention is now being paid to the ways in which the experience of infertility is shaped by social context. We call for continued progress in the development of a distinctly sociological approach to infertility and for the continued integration of the two research traditions identified here. PMID:20003036

  20. Association of Mycoplasma genitalium with infertility in North Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumari, Nonika; Kaur, Harsimran; Roy, Amit; Gupta, Nalini; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir Kaur; Sethi, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Data regarding the association of Mycoplasma genitalium with infertility is scarce. This study was planned to look for the presence and association of M. genitalium in women with infertility. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted on 100 cases of infertile women. The control group included 100 healthy fertile women. Samples of first void urine (FVU), endocervical swabs (ECS), and endometrial biopsies were subjected to polymerase chain reaction targeting MgPa gene to look for the presence of M. genitalium DNA. All endometrial biopsy samples were subjected to histopathological examination. A detailed clinical history of patients was taken, and all relevant investigations were recorded. Results: M. genitalium was found in 16% of women with infertility from either of the samples that is, FVU and/or ECS and/or endometrium biopsy, and none from controls. ECS and biopsy could detect the highest number of cases (27%). Asymptomatic cases predominated in the study and M. genitalium positivity (73.3%) was seen more in primary infertility. Tubal occlusion and disordered proliferative endometrium were demonstrated in 33% and 26.66% of M. genitalium positive cases respectively. Conclusions: The study shows an association of M. genitalium infection and infertility and suggests routine screening of this pathogen in patients with infertility. PMID:26692605

  1. A study on Trichomoniasis vaginalis and female infertility.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, A M; El-Naggar, H M; Soliman, M; El-Negeri, M; El-Nemr, H E; Handousa, A E; Morsy, T A

    2001-08-01

    A total of 280 patients, 240 infertile and 40 pregnant were subjected to thorough history taking, general and local examination for exclusion of organic lesion, laboratory investigations to exclude parasitic, bacterial and fungal infections. Sterile vaginal swab from the posterior fornix was taken, and examined by wet smear preparation, Giemsa staining and cultivation on C.P.L.M. medium for trichomoniasis infection. The mean age of the infertile group was 25.75+/-3.92, and of the control group was 21.6+/-2.38 (in years). The mean duration of infertility was 2.81+/-1.51 (years). Out of 240 infertile women, 18.75% complained of discharge, 17.5% itching, 15.42% dysuria, 14.58% dyspareunia, and 10% had cervical lesion. Of the 40 controls, 5% complained of discharge, 2.5% complained of itching, dysuria, dyspareunia, but none had cervical lesion. Of the total cases (280), 36 (12.9%) had T. vaginalis. The clinical data observed were significantly higher among the infertile group than the control group. Cultures were positive in 14.58% of the infertile group and 2.5% in the control group. The difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant. No doubt, T. vaginalis plays an important role in female infertility. PMID:11478453

  2. Models Predicting Success of Infertility Treatment: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zarinara, Alireza; Zeraati, Hojjat; Kamali, Koorosh; Mohammad, Kazem; Shahnazari, Parisa; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertile couples are faced with problems that affect their marital life. Infertility treatment is expensive and time consuming and occasionally isn’t simply possible. Prediction models for infertility treatment have been proposed and prediction of treatment success is a new field in infertility treatment. Because prediction of treatment success is a new need for infertile couples, this paper reviewed previous studies for catching a general concept in applicability of the models. Methods: This study was conducted as a systematic review at Avicenna Research Institute in 2015. Six data bases were searched based on WHO definitions and MESH key words. Papers about prediction models in infertility were evaluated. Results: Eighty one papers were eligible for the study. Papers covered years after 1986 and studies were designed retrospectively and prospectively. IVF prediction models have more shares in papers. Most common predictors were age, duration of infertility, ovarian and tubal problems. Conclusion: Prediction model can be clinically applied if the model can be statistically evaluated and has a good validation for treatment success. To achieve better results, the physician and the couples’ needs estimation for treatment success rate were based on history, the examination and clinical tests. Models must be checked for theoretical approach and appropriate validation. The privileges for applying the prediction models are the decrease in the cost and time, avoiding painful treatment of patients, assessment of treatment approach for physicians and decision making for health managers. The selection of the approach for designing and using these models is inevitable. PMID:27141461

  3. TGFβ3 (TGFB3) polymorphism is associated with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Droździk, Marek; Kaczmarek, Maciej; Malinowski, Damian; Broś, Urszula; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafał; Kurzawski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Factors affecting the blood-testis barrier function may be involved in testicular damage and male infertility. Two cytokines play an important role in the barrier regulation, namely transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between TGF-β3 (TGFB3) and TNF-α (TNF) gene polymorphisms and male infertility. A total of 846 subjects, 423 diagnosed with male infertility and 423 fertile men were enrolled. TGFB3 (rs2268626:T > C, rs3917158:C > T, rs2284792:A > G, rs2268625:T > C, rs3917187:C > T) and TNF (rs1800629:-308G > A) gene polymorphisms were genotyped. No association between TNF genotype and infertility was observed. As for TGFB3, the genotypes distribution was similar in infertile and fertile men. However, rs2284792 minor allele frequency was significantly higher among infertile subjects. Heterozygous rs2284792 AG genotype was associated with increased odds for infertility [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.05-1.86), p = 0.021] and similar results were observed for G allele carrier status [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.06-1.84), p = 0.017]. Heterozygosity in TGFB3 rs3917158 was also associated with the infertility [OR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.01-1.87), p = 0.041]. The TGFB3 variant genotypes were associated with lower spermatozoa motility parameters in fertile men. The results indicate that variants in TGFB3 gene may be associated with male infertility. However, the findings require further replication and validation. PMID:26612435

  4. TGFβ3 (TGFB3) polymorphism is associated with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Droździk, Marek; Kaczmarek, Maciej; Malinowski, Damian; Broś, Urszula; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafał; Kurzawski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Factors affecting the blood-testis barrier function may be involved in testicular damage and male infertility. Two cytokines play an important role in the barrier regulation, namely transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between TGF-β3 (TGFB3) and TNF-α (TNF) gene polymorphisms and male infertility. A total of 846 subjects, 423 diagnosed with male infertility and 423 fertile men were enrolled. TGFB3 (rs2268626:T > C, rs3917158:C > T, rs2284792:A > G, rs2268625:T > C, rs3917187:C > T) and TNF (rs1800629:-308G > A) gene polymorphisms were genotyped. No association between TNF genotype and infertility was observed. As for TGFB3, the genotypes distribution was similar in infertile and fertile men. However, rs2284792 minor allele frequency was significantly higher among infertile subjects. Heterozygous rs2284792 AG genotype was associated with increased odds for infertility [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.05–1.86), p = 0.021] and similar results were observed for G allele carrier status [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.06–1.84), p = 0.017]. Heterozygosity in TGFB3 rs3917158 was also associated with the infertility [OR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.01–1.87), p = 0.041]. The TGFB3 variant genotypes were associated with lower spermatozoa motility parameters in fertile men. The results indicate that variants in TGFB3 gene may be associated with male infertility. However, the findings require further replication and validation. PMID:26612435

  5. Tubal Factor Infertility and Perinatal Risk After Assisted Reproductive Technology

    PubMed Central

    Kawwass, Jennifer F.; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Session, Donna R.; Boulet, Sheree; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess trends of tubal factor infertility and to evaluate risk of miscarriage and delivery of preterm or low birth weight (LBW) neonates among women with tubal factor infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS We assessed trends of tubal factor infertility among all fresh and frozen, donor, and nondonor ART cycles performed annually in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (N=1,418,774) using the National ART Surveillance System. The data set was then limited to fresh, nondonor in vitro fertilization cycles resulting in pregnancy to compare perinatal outcomes for cycles associated with tubal compared with male factor infertility. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses controlling for maternal characteristics and calculated adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The percentage of ART cycles associated with tubal factor infertility diagnoses decreased from 2000 to 2010 (26.02–14.81%). Compared with male factor infertility, tubal factor portended an increased risk of miscarriage (14.0% compared with 12.7%, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.12); risk was increased for both early and late miscarriage. Singleton neonates born to women with tubal factor infertility had an increased risk of pre-term birth (15.8% compared with 11.6%, adjusted RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20–1.34) and LBW (10.9% compared with 8.5%, adjusted RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36). Significant increases in risk persisted for early and late preterm delivery and very low and moderately LBW delivery. A significantly elevated risk was also detected for twin, but not triplet, pregnancies. CONCLUSION Tubal factor infertility, which is decreasing in prevalence in the United States, is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and LBW delivery as compared with couples with male factor infertility using ART. PMID:23812461

  6. Transplantation of male germ line stem cells restores fertility in infertile mice

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Takehiko; Dobrinski, Ina; Avarbock, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    Azoospermia or oligozoospermia due to disruption of spermatogenesis are common causes of human male infertility. We used the technique of spermatogonial transplantation in two infertile mouse strains, Steel (Sl) and dominant white spotting (W), to determine if stem cells from an infertile male were capable of generating spermatogenesis. Transplantation of germ cells from infertile Sl/Sld mutant male mice to infertile W/Wv or Wv/W54 mutant male mice restored fertility to the recipient mice. Thus, transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells from an infertile donor to a permissive testicular environment can restore fertility and result in progeny with the genetic makeup of the infertile donor male. PMID:10613820

  7. How does lead induce male infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Vigeh, Mohsen; Smith, Derek R.; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2011-01-01

    An important part of male infertility of unknown etiology may be attributed to various environmental and occupational exposures to toxic substances, such as lead. The reproductive effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. It is still unclear, for example, if male reproductive issues in lead-exposed persons are mostly related to the disruption of reproductive hormones, whether the problems are due to the lead’s direct effects on the gonads, or both? This question has been difficult to answer, because lead, especially at high levels, may adversely affect many human organs. Although lead can potentially reduce male fertility by decreasing sperm count and motility, inducing abnormal morphology and affecting functional parameters; not all studies have been able to clearly demonstrate such findings. In addition, research has shown that the blood-testis barrier can protect testicular cells from direct exposure to high levels of blood lead. For these reasons and considering the wide spectrum of lead toxicity on reproductive hormones, the present review suggests that lead’s main influence on male reproduction probably occurs by altering the reproductive hormonal axis and the hormonal control on spermatogenesis, rather than by a direct toxic effect on the seminiferous tubules of the testes. As blood lead concentrations below the currently accepted worker protection standard may still adversely affect male fertility, future studies should aim to establish more concrete links between lead exposure (especially at low levels) and subsequent male infertility. Research should also pay more attention to lead’s effects on reducing male fertility rates based on not only hormonal axis alteration, but also on the changes in sperm characteristic among exposed subjects. PMID:25356074

  8. Increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment: A phenomenology study

    PubMed Central

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Parandavar, Nehle; Gholami, Morteza; Abdollahifard, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) provide the hope of pregnancy for infertile women, but do not always turn this hope into reality. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of infertile women from increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment. Materials and Methods: Using a qualitative research design (Phenomenology study), 23 subjects were selected who had experienced infertility failure visited by gynecologist (Rasekh Infertility center) in 2012. The data were collected through semi structured interviews and analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology by Collizi's seven-stage method. Results: Totally 96 codes were identified. The data arranged in two categories. The factors decreasing and increasing hope in infertility treatments. Totally 5 themes and 20 sub themes were extracted. The increasing factors which emerged from the data contain "spiritual source", "family interaction and support" and "information through the media", and decreasing factors contain "nature of treatments" and "negatively oriented mind". PMID:24799869

  9. The emotional-psychological consequences of infertility among infertile women seeking treatment: Results of a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady) PMID:24799871

  10. Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218 infertile and 227 fertile men.

    PubMed

    Chia, S E; Tay, S K

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if certain occupations pose an increased risk for infertility (of no known cause) among a group of infertile men compared with a group of fertile men. A total of 640 consecutive men whose spouses were unable to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. Of these, 218 men (cases) were found to have no known cause for their infertility. A total of 227 men whose spouses were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. The Singapore Standard Occupational Classification was used to code the subjects' occupations. Semen parameters (density, total sperm counts, motility, viability, and normal morphology) in all of the cases were significantly poorer than those in the controls. The risk for infertility is associated with smoking adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.85 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91 to 4.24. Work, independently, is not a risk factor for infertility. Engineering technicians (adjusted OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.36 to 5.54), finance analysts (adjusted OR, 4.66; 95% CI, 1.90 to 11.40), corporate and computing managers (adjusted OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.98), and teachers (adjusted OR, 7.72; 95% CI, 1.86 to 32.10) were at a greater risk of infertility compared with "services and clerical workers." Using services and clerical workers as a reference group, certain occupations are at a higher risk for infertility. Higher work demands and possible electromagnetic field exposure could be contributory factors for infertility. PMID:11725334

  11. Bacterial agents as a cause of infertility in humans.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Melania; Cannas, Sara; Cubeddu, Marina; Molicotti, Paola; Piras, Gennarina Laura; Dessole, Salvatore; Zanetti, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    Infertility is a problem affecting almost 15% of couples. There are many causes for this condition, among which urogenital bacterial infections seem to play an important role. Many studies have explained the mechanisms by which bacteria cause infertility both in men and women. Therefore we undertook this study to evaluate the presence of genito-urinary infections in infertile couples who sought counselling to investigate their condition. Microbiological analysis was performed on semen and vaginal/cervical samples of both partners of each couple. The percentage of individuals affected by a urogenital bacterial infection was between 14 and 20%. More significantly, most of the species isolated both in men and women have been described in the literature as potential causes of infertility. PMID:27602419

  12. Infertility Counseling and Support: When and Where to Find It

    MedlinePlus

    ... and support families during struggles with infertility and adoption, TheAFA.org • Choice Moms: An organization to help ... to become the best mother they can, through adoption or conception, choicemoms.org • Fertile Hope: A national ...

  13. Analysis of PAEs in semen of infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Yuan; Wang, Yu; Xie, Fang-Qin; Li, Yan-Xing; Wan, Xue-Lian; Ma, Wei-Wei; Wang, De-Cai; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Phthalates are environmental chemicals with reproductive toxicity and estrogenic effects in animals. They are of increasing concern to human health. Aim: To determine whether phthalate levels in semen were associated with infertility. Methods: Using semen samples from 107 infertile and 94 fertile men, the presence and quantity of five phthalate esters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using data collected from questionnaires and clinical examinations, the correlation between phthalate exposure and semen quality was analyzed. Results: The cumulative levels of the measured phthalate esters were significantly higher in the infertility group compared to the control group (P<0·05). Concentrations of the five phthalate esters in men varied by age with older men showing higher cumulative levels. Conclusions: The presence of phthalates may contribute to male infertility in our study population. PMID:25384258

  14. Homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize Nelore bull.

    PubMed

    Lobreiro, J

    2007-01-01

    Treatments for infertility in bulls are not described in homeopathic literature. A few treatments, such as changing the protein content of the diet, giving extra minerals, etc have been proposed. This case report describes homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize bull. A Nelore bull, considered infertile for 3 years, was treated with homeopathic Pulsatilla nigricans 200 CH. Decreased total sperm defects, increased sperm motility and a very impressive increased number of doses of semen produced were observed. The bull relapsed after treatment was withdrawn, but again responded when it was resumed. Since only one animal was observed one cannot assume that the observed changes were due only to this treatment. Further studies may establish the real benefits of a homeopathic medicine in bull infertility. PMID:17227749

  15. Surgical techniques for the management of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Lopushnyan, Natalya A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation and surgical treatment of male infertility has evolved and expanded, now leading to more precise diagnoses and tailored treatments with diminished morbidity and greater success. Surgeries for male infertility are divided into four major categories: (i) diagnostic surgery; (ii) surgery to improve sperm production; (iii) surgery to improve sperm delivery; and (iv) surgery to retrieve sperm for use with in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF–ICSI). While today we are more successful than ever in treating male infertility, pregnancy is still not always achieved likely due to factors that remain poorly understood. Clinicians treating infertility should advocate for couple-based therapy, and require that both partners have a thorough evaluation and an informed discussion before undergoing specific surgical therapies. PMID:22120932

  16. Special antigens on sperm from autoimmune infertile men.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Chao, L; Goust, J M; Milroy, G T; Woodley-Miller, C; Caldwell, J Z; Daru, J; Williamson, H O

    1988-05-01

    Sera from three fertile men and four infertile men without sperm antibodies, 17 infertile men with sperm antibodies in serum and seminal plasma (S.P.), and 25 infertile men with sperm antibodies in S.P. were tested by Western Blot analysis against sperm membrane extracts and S.P. from fertile nonautoimmune men and infertile autoimmune men. Sera from fertile men reacted against common antigens with molecular weights (MW) of 28, 38, 48, 60, and 68 kD present on sperm from autoimmune and nonautoimmune men and special antigen of MW 76 kD on the sperm of fertile men. Sera from 15 of 17 (88%) autoimmune infertile men with sperm antibodies in serum and S.P. detected special antigens with MW of 58 kD (sera reactivity in 47% of these men), 43kD (in 29%), 30 kD (in 24%), 35 kD (in 18%), 52 kD (in 12%), 41 kD (in 6%), and 71 kD (in 6%) on the sperm of autoimmune men in addition to the common antigens. Sera from 15 of 25 (60%) men with sperm antibodies in their S.P. showed reactivity to special antigens with MW 52 kD (in 20%), 35 kD (in 16%), 41 kD (in 16%), 58 kD (in 8%), 70/71 kD (in 8%), 30 kD (in 8%), and 56 kD (in 4%). Sera from 18 of 42 (43%) infertile men with sperm antibodies also detected special antigens of MW 26, 46, and 76 kD present only in fertile men's sperm. Sera from only 15 of 42 (36%) autoimmune infertile men reacted against special antigens with MW 17, 20, 23, 30, 43, and 58 kD in the seminal plasma of autoimmune infertile men.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3189647

  17. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile couples in romania.

    PubMed

    Mierla, D; Malageanu, M; Tulin, R; Albu, D

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a correlation between the presence of chromosomal abnormalities in one of the partners and infertility. This retrospective study was performed at the Department of Reproductive Medicine, Life Memorial Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, between August 2007 to December 2011. Two thousand, one hundred and ninety-five patients with reproductive problems were investigated, and the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was calculated. The control group consisting of 87 fertile persons who had two or more children, was investigated in this retrospective study. All the patients of this study were investigated by cytogenetic techniques and the results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. In this study, 94.99% patients had a normal karyotype and 5.01% had chromosomal abnormalities (numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities). In the study group, numerical chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.14% of infertile men and 0.62% of infertile women, and structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.38% of infertile men and 1.87% of infertile women, respectively. The correlation between the incidence of chromosomal anomalies in the two sexes in couple with reproductive problems was not statistically significant. Recently, a possible association between infertility and chromosomal abnormalities with a significant statistical association has been reported. Our study shows that there is no association between chromosomal abnormalities and infertility, but this study needs to be confirmed with further investigations and a larger control group to establish the role of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of infertility. PMID:26929902

  18. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile couples in romania

    PubMed Central

    Mierla, D; Malageanu, M; Tulin, R; Albu, D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a correlation between the presence of chromosomal abnormalities in one of the partners and infertility. This retrospective study was performed at the Department of Reproductive Medicine, Life Memorial Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, between August 2007 to December 2011. Two thousand, one hundred and ninety-five patients with reproductive problems were investigated, and the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was calculated. The control group consisting of 87 fertile persons who had two or more children, was investigated in this retrospective study. All the patients of this study were investigated by cytogenetic techniques and the results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. In this study, 94.99% patients had a normal karyotype and 5.01% had chromosomal abnormalities (numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities). In the study group, numerical chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.14% of infertile men and 0.62% of infertile women, and structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.38% of infertile men and 1.87% of infertile women, respectively. The correlation between the incidence of chromosomal anomalies in the two sexes in couple with reproductive problems was not statistically significant. Recently, a possible association between infertility and chromosomal abnormalities with a significant statistical association has been reported. Our study shows that there is no association between chromosomal abnormalities and infertility, but this study needs to be confirmed with further investigations and a larger control group to establish the role of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of infertility. PMID:26929902

  19. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility. PMID:26986137

  20. H19 gene methylation status is associated with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIAO-PING; HAO, CHAO-LIANG; WANG, QIAN; YI, XIAO-MEI; JIANG, ZHI-SHENG

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the H19 gene methylation status in male infertility. Between March 2013 and June 2014, semen samples were collected from 15 normal fertile males and 15 males experiencing infertility, and routine analysis and sperm morphological assessment were performed. The semen samples were subjected to density gradient centrifugation to separate the sperm fraction, and genomic DNA from the sperms was extracted and treated for bisulfite modification. Following in vitro amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the purified PCR products were cloned into pMD®18-T vectors and successful cloning was confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion. Positive clones were sequenced and the DNA methylation status was analyzed. The overall methylation rate in the normal fertile group was 100% (270/270), whereas in the infertile group the methylation rate was lower at 94.1% (525/558), revealing a statistically significant decrease in overall methylation rate in the infertile patients compared with the control group (χ2=15.12; P<0.001). The average methylation rates of CpG 1, 3 and 6 in the infertile group were statistically different from those in the normal control group (all P<0.05). The abnormal methylation of imprinted gene H19 is associated with male infertility, suggesting that H19 may serve as a biomarker for the detection of defects in human spermiogenesis. PMID:27347077

  1. Ethical Problems with Infertility Treatments: Attitudes and Explanations.

    PubMed

    Shreffler, Karina M; Johnson, David R; Scheuble, Laurie K

    2010-12-01

    Although media coverage of infertility treatments has increased markedly over the past decade, there is a dearth of empirical information about public perceptions of the ethics of infertility procedures (e.g. artificial insemination, in-vitro fertilization, donor eggs, surrogate mothering, gestational carriers) and about the factors that shape them. Two representative telephone survey samples (930 adults in a Midwestern state, and 580 adult women aged 25 to 50 in the North Central region) are analyzed to gauge public views on the ethics of infertility treatments and estimate the effects of social structure and exposure on these views. Ethical concerns were viewed as more serious for techniques that could result in a child who may not be biologically related to the woman or her partner than for those yielding a child biologically related to both parents. Social structural factors such as age and education were the strongest predictors of attitudes towards the ethics of infertility treatments. Neither parenthood nor experiencing infertility was related to ethical concerns, although women reporting the use of infertility services had fewer ethical concerns than their counterparts. PMID:25210214

  2. Absence of Sperm Rna Elements Correlates With Idopathic Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Jodar, Meritxell; Sendler, Edward; Moskovtsev, Sergey I.; Librach, Clifford L.; Goodrich, Robert; Swanson, Sonja; Hauser, Russ; Diamond, Michael P.; Krawetz, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Semen parameters have been used to diagnose male infertility and specify clinical interventions.. In idiopathic infertile couples, an unknown male factor could be the cause of infertility even when the semen parameters are normal. Next Generation Sequencing of spermatozoal RNAs has provided an objective measure of the paternal contribution that may be able to help guide the care of these couples. Spermatozoal RNAs from 96 couples presenting with idiopathic infertility were assessed in the context of fertility treatment and final reproductive outcome and sperm RNA elements (SREs) reflective of fecundity status were identified. The absence of required SREs reduced the probability to achieve live birth by Timed Intercourse (TIC) or Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) from 73% to 27%. However, the absence of these same sperm RNA elements does not appear to be critical when assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) with or without Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) are employed. Approximately 30% of the idiopathic infertile couples presented an incomplete set of required SREs suggesting a male component as the cause of their infertility. Similarly, analysis of couples that failed to achieve a live birth when presented with a complete set of SREs suggested that a female factor was perhaps involved as confirmed by their diagnosis. The data presented from this study suggests that SRE analysis has the potential to inform on the individual success rate of different fertility treatments to reduce the time to achieve live birth. PMID:26157032

  3. Counselling, care in infertility: the ethic of care.

    PubMed

    Appleton, T

    1990-07-01

    Infertility is a health-care problem which has very definite physiological, psychological and social implications. Infertile couples are continually reminded of their plight--the structure of society is based on the family unit; simple activities such as shopping are a constant reminder, the shops being geared to the family; the neighbours fill their cars with all the paraphernalia which accompanies children--the stigma of infertility often leads to mental disharmony, marital difficulties, divorce, and in some cultures to ostracism. The suffering experienced by infertile people is very real. We need to remind ourselves that we are treating 'people who are infertile' rather than 'infertility'. Our care goes beyond their physical treatment--their stresses and strains are our concern and we must be careful not to add additional stress to their existing problems. Successful treatment can transform their lives: 'They are bright, healthy, beautiful children--a dream come true. Our lives are transformed and complete. Thank you a million times.' Failure after years of trying is all the more painful. The availability of effective, informed, independent and involved counselling is essential. PMID:2207611

  4. Estrogen promotes Leydig cell engulfment by macrophages in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wanpeng; Zheng, Han; Lin, Wei; Tajima, Astushi; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwen; Wu, Jihua; Han, Daishu; Rahman, Nafis A.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Gao, George Fu; Inoue, Ituro; Li, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Male infertility accounts for almost half of infertility cases worldwide. A subset of infertile men exhibit reduced testosterone and enhanced levels of estradiol (E2), though it is unclear how increased E2 promotes deterioration of male fertility. Here, we utilized a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses human CYP19, which encodes aromatase (AROM+ mice), and mice with knockout of Esr1, encoding estrogen receptor α (ERαKO mice), to analyze interactions between viable Leydig cells (LCs) and testicular macrophages that may lead to male infertility. In AROM+ males, enhanced E2 promoted LC hyperplasia and macrophage activation via ERα signaling. E2 stimulated LCs to produce growth arrest–specific 6 (GAS6), which mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by bridging cells with surface exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) to macrophage receptors, including the tyrosine kinases TYRO3, AXL, and MER. Overproduction of E2 increased apoptosis-independent extrusion of PS on LCs, which in turn promoted engulfment by E2/ERα-activated macrophages that was mediated by AXL-GAS6-PS interaction. We further confirmed E2-dependant engulfment of LCs by real-time 3D imaging. Furthermore, evaluation of molecular markers in the testes of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) revealed enhanced expression of CYP19, GAS6, and AXL, which suggests that the AROM+ mouse model reflects human infertility. Together, these results suggest that GAS6 has a potential as a clinical biomarker and therapeutic target for male infertility. PMID:24762434

  5. Coping with infertility: Comparison of coping mechanisms and psychological immune competence in fertile and infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Erika; Nagy, Beáta Erika

    2016-08-01

    This study compared coping strategies and psychological immunity of parents with a child conceived with assisted reproductive technology (n = 84) and parents with a naturally conceived child (n = 84) in a Hungarian fertility-age population. Results showed that in vitro fertilization parents are able to control their emotions in a better way than comparison couples. They interpret trials as challenges and consider themselves more worthy than the members of the control group. Our research confirms that consideration and management of psychological factors in treating infertility have an important preventive role to play. PMID:25616427

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging structured reporting in infertility.

    PubMed

    Montoliu-Fornas, Guillermina; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Our objective was to define and propose a standardized magnetic resonance (MR) imaging structured report in patients with infertility to have clinical completeness on possible diagnosis and severity. Patients should be studied preferable on 3T equipment with a surface coil. Standard MR protocol should include high-resolution fast spin-echo T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted images and gradient-echo T1-weighted fat suppression images. The report should include ovaries (polycystic, endometrioma, tumor), oviduct (hydrosalpinx, hematosalpinx, pyosalpinx, peritubal anomalies), uterus (agenesia, hypoplasia, unicornuate, uterus didelphys, bicornuate, septate uterus), myometrium (leiomyomas, adenomyosis), endometrium (polyps, synechia, atrophy, neoplasia), cervix and vagina (isthmoceles, mucosal-parietal irregularity, stenosis, neoplasia), peritoneum (deep endometriosis), and urinary system-associated abnormalities. To be clinically useful, radiology reports must be structured, use standardized terminology, and convey actionable information. The structured report must comprise complete, comprehensive, and accurate information, allowing radiologists to continuously interact with patients and referring physicians to confirm that the information is used properly to affect the decision making process. PMID:27105717

  7. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms “IBD AND male infertility”, “Crohn’s disease AND male infertility”, “ulcerative colitis AND male infertility”. References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options. PMID:27602237

  8. Management of male neurologic patients with infertility.

    PubMed

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Many aspects of fertility rely on intact neurologic function and thus neurologic diseases can result in infertility. While research into general female fertility and alterations in male semen quality is limited, we have an abundance of knowledge regarding ejaculatory dysfunction following nerve injury. Normal ejaculation is the result of coordinated reflex activity involving both the sympathetic and somatic nervous systems. Nerve injury can result in retrograde ejaculation, and anejaculation. With retrograde ejaculation, the ejaculate is propelled into the bladder instead of out through the urethra. In mild cases this condition can be reversed by sympathomimetic medications and, in more severe cases, sperm cells can be extracted from the bladder following ejaculation. With anejaculation, the ejaculatory reflex is not activated by normal sexual stimulation. In such cases, the first choice of treatment is assisted ejaculation, preferably by penile vibratory stimulation. If vibratory stimulation is unsuccessful, then ejaculation can almost always be induced by electroejaculation. In cases where assisted ejaculation fails, sperm can be retrieved surgically from either the epididymis or from the testis. Once viable sperm cells have been obtained, these are used in assisted reproductive techniques, including intravaginal insemination, intrauterine insemination, and in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:26003259

  9. Mental health status of infertile couples based on treatment outcome

    PubMed Central

    Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hosein; Aminian, Amir Hossein; Baghianimoghadam, Behnam; Ghasemi, Nasrin; Abdoli, Ali Mohammad; Seighal Ardakani, Najmeh; Fallahzadeh, Hosein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infertility is accompanied by numerous psychological and social problems. Infertile couples are more anxious and emotionally distressed than other fertile people. Previous studies suggested that infertility is more stressful for women than men. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the status of general health of infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated general health of 150 infertile couples attending to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility that were selected consequently. The data were gathered by the researchers, based on face to face interview before and after three months of treatment by two questionnaires. The first questionnaire had questions on demographic information and the second one was the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). This questionnaire has four sub- scales areas. All data were transferred directly to SPSS 15 and analyzed. Results: The mean age of women was 28.3 and men were 32.4 years. The scores for all sub- scales of GHQ in women were more than men. There was significant difference between age and general health at physical symptoms scales (p=0.002), anxiety and sleep disorders (p=0.003). The age group 25-29 years had higher scores (more than 7) than other age groups. There was significant difference between the scale of social dysfunction and results of treatment. Conclusion: Our results, similar to the previous studies have revealed negetive social and mental effects of infertility on women is more than men, so there is need that they be educated specially. PMID:24639785

  10. Cost-effective treatment for the couple with infertility.

    PubMed

    Van Voorhis, B J; Syrop, C H

    2000-12-01

    Although the evaluation of cost-effective approaches to infertility treatment remains in its infancy, several important principles have emerged from the initial studies in this field. Currently, in treating couples with infertility without tubal disease or severe male-factor infertility, the most cost-effective approach is to start with IUI or superovulation-IUI treatments before resorting to IVF procedures. The woman's age and number of sperm present for insemination are significant factors influencing cost-effectiveness. The influence of certain diagnoses on the cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments requires further study. Even when accounting for the costs associated with multiple gestations and premature deliveries, the cost of IVF decreases within the range of other cost-effective medical procedures and decreases to less than the willingness to pay for these procedures. Indeed, for patients with severe tubal disease, IVF has been found to be more cost-effective than surgical repair. The cost-effectiveness of IVF will likely improve as success rates show continued improvements over the course of time. In addition, usefulness of embryo selection and practices to reduce the likelihood of high-order multiple pregnancies, without reductions in pregnancy rates, will significantly impact cost-effectiveness. The exclusion of infertility treatments from insurance plans is unfortunate and accentuates the importance of physicians understanding the economics of infertility treatment with costs that are often passed directly to the patient. The erroneous economic policies and judgments that have led to inequities in access to infertility health care should not be tolerated. PMID:11100309

  11. Nanobacteria may be linked to testicular microlithiasis in infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Hua; Lu, Gen-Sheng; Shen, Xue-Cheng; Zhou, Zhan-Song; Fang, Qiang; Zhang, Xin; Li, Long-Kun; Jin, Xi-Yu; Song, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Testicular microlithiasis (TM) in infertility is an uncommon pathologic condition of unclear etiology that is characterized by calcium deposits within the seminiferous tubules. Nanobacteria (NB), as novel microorganisms mediating tissue calcification, have been discovered in some diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that NB may participate in the pathogenesis of TM, particularly in infertility. Seventeen infertility patients with TM detected by scrotal color Doppler ultrasonography and 17 infertility patients without TM as controls were enrolled in the study. The NB were isolated and cultured from semen samples and urine samples. After 3 to 6 weeks of culture, 10 of 17 (58.8%) semen samples and 2 urine samples from infertile patients with TM showed the growth of white granular microbes that firmly attached to the bottom of the culture flask and were visible to the naked eye. In the control group, only 1 of 17 (5.9%) semen samples from infertile patients without TM showed the growth of white granular microbes. The cultured microbes were identified by indirect immunofluorescent staining (IIFS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 16s rRNA gene expression. IIFS and TEM revealed NB to be coccoid and 100 to 500 nm in diameter. The BLAST result revealed that the 16s rRNA gene sequence from the cultured microbes was 97% the same as that of the known NB. Our results showed that NB may be linked to the development of TM, which may provide a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility with TM. PMID:19779212

  12. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic

  13. A comparative analysis of arterial blood flow in unexplained infertility, tubal infertility and fertile groups.

    PubMed

    Zebitay, A G; Tutumlu, M; Verit, F F; Ilhan, G K; Gungor, E S; Cetin, O; Vuruşkan, E

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to compare ovarian (O), uterine (U) and spiral (S) artery (A) resistance of patients diagnosed as fertile, unexplained infertility (UI) and tubal factor infertility (TFI) in the peri-implantation period and independent from the impact of the treatment. UI (n = 70), TFI (n = 75) and fertile (n = 72) patients' ovarian, uterine and spiral artery pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI) and the endometrial thickness, serum estradiol and progesterone levels were compared. The specificity and sensitivity values were calculated according to determined cutoff values. Both TFI and control groups' UA PI values were significantly lower than the UI group's PI values. The highest UA RI values were found in UI group and the lowest values were in the control group. UI and TFI groups' OA PI/RI values were significantly higher than the control group. Both the control and TFI groups' SA PI/RI values were significantly lower than UI group's PI/RI values. UI patients' uterine and spiral arteries PI values >1.86 and >0.85, RI values >0.80 and >0.53 can be used as a valuable test showing reduced uterine perfusion. Ovarian artery PI values  >0.96 and RI values  >0.58 can be used as tests showing decreased ovarian perfusion in patients with TFI. In these patients, embryo cryopreservation can be considered. PMID:26699267

  14. SUFFERING INFERTILITY: THE IMPACT OF INFERTILITY ON WOMEN’S LIFE EXPERIENCES IN TWO NIGERIAN COMMUNITIES

    PubMed Central

    LARSEN, ULLA; HOLLOS, MARIDA; OBONO, OKA; WHITEHOUSE, BRUCE

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the experiences of women with infertility in two Nigerian communities with different systems of descent and historically different levels of infertility. First, the paper focuses on the life experiences of individual women across the two communities and second, it compares these experiences with those of their fertile counterparts, in each community. In doing this, women who are childless are distinguished from those with subfertility and compared with high-fertility women. The research is based on interdisciplinary research conducted among the Ijo and Yakurr people of southern Nigeria, which included a survey of approximately 100 childless and subfertile women and a matching sample of 100 fertile women as well as in-depth ethnographic interviews with childless and subfertile women in two communities: Amakiri in Delta State and Lopon in Cross River State. The findings indicate that while there are variations in the extent to which childlessness is considered to be problematic, the necessity for a woman to have a child remains basic in this region. PMID:20561392

  15. Infertility Education: Experiences and Preferences of Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Cherven, Brooke O; Mertens, Ann; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Williamson, Rebecca; Meacham, Lillian R

    2016-07-01

    The majority of children diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors; however, many will suffer late effects of treatment, including infertility. Educating patients about potential risk for infertility is important, yet little is known regarding when patients would like to hear this information. The purpose of this study was to assess young adult survivors' previous experience in receiving education about their risk for infertility and determine their preferences for infertility education at various time points during and after treatment. Only 36% of survivors report receiving education about risk for infertility at diagnosis, 39% at end of therapy, and 72% in long-term follow-up/survivor clinic visits. Survivors consistently identified their oncologist as a preferred educator at each time point. Although almost all participants identified wanting education at diagnosis, this time point alone may not be sufficient. End of therapy and survivorship may be times this message should be repeated and adapted for the survivor's needs and developmental stage: conversations about the impact of cancer treatment on future fertility should be ongoing. PMID:26582171

  16. Clinical Outcomes of Varicocele Repair in Infertile Men: A Review.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Koji; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-08-01

    Varicoceles are a major cause of impaired spermatogenesis and the most common correctable cause of male infertility. They are found in approximately 40% of men with primary infertility and 80% of men with secondary infertility, although they also occur in 12% of men with normal semen parameters. The presence of a varicocele does not always affect spermatogenesis, as it has been reported that only 20% of men with documented varicoceles suffer fertility problems. However, varicocele repair appears to have beneficial effects in men with impaired semen parameters and palpable varicoceles. Currently, the main procedures employed for varicocele repair are microsurgical subinguinal or inguinal varicocelectomy, laparoscopic varicocelectomy, and radiological percutaneous embolization. Microsurgical varicocelectomy appears to be the optimal treatment in most cases, whereas the other procedures are useful only in specific cases. After treatment, it typically takes 3 to 6 months for patients' semen parameters to improve; thus, other therapies, including assisted reproductive technology, should be considered if infertility persists after this interval, especially in older couples. Controversies still remain regarding how varicoceles in certain subgroups, such as adolescents or men with azoospermia, should be treated. Due to their relatively high prevalence rate among the general population, varicoceles can occur concomitantly with other conditions that cause impaired spermatogenesis. Further studies are necessary in order to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment. In this review, we sought to summarize the issues currently associated with varicocele treatment in infertile men. PMID:27574593

  17. Microbiota of the seminal fluid from healthy and infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dongsheng; Zhou, Xia; Zhong, Xue; Settles, Matt; Herring, Jessica; Wang, Li; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Xu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore potential causes of male infertility by determining the composition and structure of commensal bacterial communities in seminal fluids. Design: Microscopy of gram stained semen samples and classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences to determine the species composition of semen bacterial communities. Setting(s): Clinical andrology laboratory and academic research laboratories. Patient(s): 19 sperm donors and 58 infertility patients. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustering of seminal microbial communities, and multiple statistical tests. Result(s): High numbers of diverse kinds of bacteria were present in most samples of both sperm donors and infertility patients. The bacterial communities varied widely between subjects, but they could be clustered into six groups based on similarities in composition and the rank abundances of taxa. Overall there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients. However, multiple statistical tests showed a significant negative association between sperm quality and the presence of Anaerococcus. The results also indicated that many of the bacterial taxa identified in semen also occur in the vaginal communities of some women, especially those with bacterial vaginosis, which suggests heterosexual sex partners may share bacteria. Conclusion(s): Diverse kinds of bacteria were present in the human semen, there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients, The presence of Anaerococcus might be a biomarker for low sperm quality. PMID:23993888

  18. Seminal biomarkers for the evaluation of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Bieniek, Jared M; Drabovich, Andrei P; Lo, Kirk C

    2016-01-01

    For men struggling to conceive with their partners, diagnostic tools are limited and often consist of only a standard semen analysis. This baseline test serves as a crude estimation of male fertility, leaving patients and clinicians in need of additional diagnostic biomarkers. Seminal fluid contains the highest concentration of molecules from the male reproductive glands, therefore, this review focuses on current and novel seminal biomarkers in certain male infertility scenarios, including natural fertility, differentiating azoospermia etiologies, and predicting assisted reproductive technique success. Currently available tests include antisperm antibody assays, DNA fragmentation index, sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization, and other historical sperm functional tests. The poor diagnostic ability of current assays has led to continued efforts to find more predictive biomarkers. Emerging research in the fields of genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics holds promise for the development of novel male infertility biomarkers. Seminal protein-based assays of TEX101, ECM1, and ACRV1 are already available or under final development for clinical use. Additional panels of DNA, RNA, proteins, or metabolites are being explored as we attempt to understand the pathophysiologic processes of male infertility. Future ventures will need to continue data integration and validation for the development of clinically useful infertility biomarkers to aid in male infertility diagnosis, treatment, and counseling. PMID:26975492

  19. Power of Proteomics in Linking Oxidative Stress and Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sajal; Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis, PCOS, and unexplained infertility are currently the most common diseases rendering large numbers of women infertile worldwide. Oxidative stress, due to its deleterious effects on proteins and nucleic acids, is postulated to be the one of the important mechanistic pathways in differential expression of proteins and in these diseases. The emerging field of proteomics has allowed identification of proteins involved in cell cycle, as antioxidants, extracellular matrix (ECM), cytoskeleton, and their linkage to oxidative stress in female infertility related diseases. The aim of this paper is to assess the association of oxidative stress and protein expression in the reproductive microenvironments such as endometrial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and follicular fluid, as well as reproductive tissues and serum. The review also highlights the literature that proposes the use of the fertility related proteins as potential biomarkers for noninvasive and early diagnosis of the aforementioned diseases rather than utilizing the more invasive methods used currently. The review will highlight the power of proteomic profiles identified in infertility related disease conditions and their linkage with underlying oxidative stress. The power of proteomics will be reviewed with regard to eliciting molecular mechanisms for early detection and management of these infertility related conditions. PMID:24900998

  20. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Matzuk, Martin M; Lamb, Dolores J

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other individuals with a known etiology, effective cures are lacking, although their infertility is often bypassed with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some accompanied by safety or ethical concerns. Certainly, progress in the field of reproduction has been realized in the twenty-first century with advances in the understanding of the regulation of fertility, with the production of over 400 mutant mouse models with a reproductive phenotype and with the promise of regenerative gonadal stem cells. Indeed, the past six years have witnessed a virtual explosion in the identification of gene mutations or polymorphisms that cause or are linked to human infertility. Translation of these findings to the clinic remains slow, however, as do new methods to diagnose and treat infertile couples. Additionally, new approaches to contraception remain elusive. Nevertheless, the basic and clinical advances in the understanding of the molecular controls of reproduction are impressive and will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:18989307

  1. Clinical Outcomes of Varicocele Repair in Infertile Men: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Varicoceles are a major cause of impaired spermatogenesis and the most common correctable cause of male infertility. They are found in approximately 40% of men with primary infertility and 80% of men with secondary infertility, although they also occur in 12% of men with normal semen parameters. The presence of a varicocele does not always affect spermatogenesis, as it has been reported that only 20% of men with documented varicoceles suffer fertility problems. However, varicocele repair appears to have beneficial effects in men with impaired semen parameters and palpable varicoceles. Currently, the main procedures employed for varicocele repair are microsurgical subinguinal or inguinal varicocelectomy, laparoscopic varicocelectomy, and radiological percutaneous embolization. Microsurgical varicocelectomy appears to be the optimal treatment in most cases, whereas the other procedures are useful only in specific cases. After treatment, it typically takes 3 to 6 months for patients' semen parameters to improve; thus, other therapies, including assisted reproductive technology, should be considered if infertility persists after this interval, especially in older couples. Controversies still remain regarding how varicoceles in certain subgroups, such as adolescents or men with azoospermia, should be treated. Due to their relatively high prevalence rate among the general population, varicoceles can occur concomitantly with other conditions that cause impaired spermatogenesis. Further studies are necessary in order to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment. In this review, we sought to summarize the issues currently associated with varicocele treatment in infertile men. PMID:27574593

  2. Web-based treatment for infertility-related psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Minden B; Byrd, Michelle R; O'Donohue, William T; Jacobs, Negar Nicole

    2010-08-01

    Infertility has been associated with stigma and negative psychosocial functioning. However, only a small proportion of this population actually receives care. Fertility patients predominantly use the Internet for information gathering, social support, and assistance with decision-making; yet, available web resources are unreliable sources of mental health care. Web-based alternatives also have the potential to assist with intervention access difficulties and may be of significant lower cost. This study evaluated the efficacy of a web-based approach to providing a cognitive behavioral intervention with 31 infertile women seeking medical reproductive technologies. Following randomized assignment, participants using the web-based intervention were compared with those in a wait-list control condition on general and infertility-related psychological stress measures. Results were mixed regarding intervention efficacy. Significant declines in general stress were evidenced in the experimental group compared with a wait-list control group. However, website access did not result in statistically significant improvements on a measure of infertility-specific stress. These findings add to the literature on psychological interventions for women experiencing fertility problems. Moreover, despite the widespread use of the Internet by this population, the present study is one of the first to investigate the usefulness of the Internet to attenuate stress in this population. Preliminary results suggest general stress may be significantly reduced in infertile women using an online cognitive behavioral approach. PMID:20127127

  3. Seminal biomarkers for the evaluation of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Jared M; Drabovich, Andrei P; Lo, Kirk C

    2016-01-01

    For men struggling to conceive with their partners, diagnostic tools are limited and often consist of only a standard semen analysis. This baseline test serves as a crude estimation of male fertility, leaving patients and clinicians in need of additional diagnostic biomarkers. Seminal fluid contains the highest concentration of molecules from the male reproductive glands, therefore, this review focuses on current and novel seminal biomarkers in certain male infertility scenarios, including natural fertility, differentiating azoospermia etiologies, and predicting assisted reproductive technique success. Currently available tests include antisperm antibody assays, DNA fragmentation index, sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization, and other historical sperm functional tests. The poor diagnostic ability of current assays has led to continued efforts to find more predictive biomarkers. Emerging research in the fields of genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics holds promise for the development of novel male infertility biomarkers. Seminal protein-based assays of TEX101, ECM1, and ACRV1 are already available or under final development for clinical use. Additional panels of DNA, RNA, proteins, or metabolites are being explored as we attempt to understand the pathophysiologic processes of male infertility. Future ventures will need to continue data integration and validation for the development of clinically useful infertility biomarkers to aid in male infertility diagnosis, treatment, and counseling. PMID:26975492

  4. Infertility in the light of new scientific reports - focus on male factor.

    PubMed

    Szkodziak, Piotr; Wozniak, Slawomir; Czuczwar, Piotr; Wozniakowska, Ewa; Milart, Paweł; Mroczkowski, Artur; Paszkowski, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting one- fifth of couples trying to conceive worldwide (60-80 mln). According to the trends observed, the problem is predicted to increase by another two million cases annually. In Poland, infertility-related issues are found in about 19% of couples, including 4% with infertility and 15% with limited fertility. Inability to conceive occurs equally in men and women (50%), irrespective of the direct cause. Although it is generally thought that reproductive issues concern women, infertility affects men and women equally. This study is an attempted to systematize knowledge about the role of the male factor in infertility, particularly current knowledge concerning the environmental factors of infertility. For this purpose, the Medline and CINAHL databases and the Cochrane Library was searched for articles published in English during the last 10 years, using the following keywords: infertility, male factor, semen examination and environmental factor of infertility. PMID:27294623

  5. Can complementary/alternative medicine be used to treat infertility?

    PubMed

    Bennington, Linda K

    2010-01-01

    Infertility affects more than 7.3 million American women. When traditional treatments fail, alternative methods may be sought, but unfortunately some of them could be exploitative rather than legitimate. The intent of this article is to examine various complementary alternative medicine (CAM) treatments and techniques, and assess their known efficacy in the treatment of infertility. For research purposes, the National Institutes of Health has divided CAM into five domains: (1) whole medical systems; (2) mind-body medicine; (3) biologically based practices; (4) manipulative and body-based practices; and (5) energy medicine. Each of these domains is defined and discussed. Scientific evidence relating to the efficacy of procedures is presented and correlated to fertility outcomes. Information for nursing interventions is included as a means of better understanding what the infertile couple needs. PMID:20453590

  6. The Role of Estrogen Modulators in Male Hypogonadism and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Rambhatla, Amarnath; Mills, Jesse N.; Rajfer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol, normally considered a female hormone, appears to play a significant role in men in a variety of physiologic functions, such as bone metabolism, cardiovascular health, and testicular function. As such, estradiol has been targeted by male reproductive and sexual medicine specialists to help treat conditions such as infertility and hypogonadism. The compounds that modulate estradiol levels in these clinical conditions are referred to as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). In a certain subset of infertile men, particularly those with hypogonadism, or those who have a low serum testosterone to estradiol ratio, there is some evidence suggesting that SERMs and AIs can reverse the low serum testosterone levels or the testosterone to estradiol imbalance and occasionally improve any associated infertile or subfertile state. This review focuses on the role these SERMs and AIs play in the aforementioned reproductive conditions. PMID:27601965

  7. The Role of Estrogen Modulators in Male Hypogonadism and Infertility.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, Amarnath; Mills, Jesse N; Rajfer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol, normally considered a female hormone, appears to play a significant role in men in a variety of physiologic functions, such as bone metabolism, cardiovascular health, and testicular function. As such, estradiol has been targeted by male reproductive and sexual medicine specialists to help treat conditions such as infertility and hypogonadism. The compounds that modulate estradiol levels in these clinical conditions are referred to as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). In a certain subset of infertile men, particularly those with hypogonadism, or those who have a low serum testosterone to estradiol ratio, there is some evidence suggesting that SERMs and AIs can reverse the low serum testosterone levels or the testosterone to estradiol imbalance and occasionally improve any associated infertile or subfertile state. This review focuses on the role these SERMs and AIs play in the aforementioned reproductive conditions. PMID:27601965

  8. Effect of Palm Pollen on Sperm Parameters of Infertile Man.

    PubMed

    Rasekh, Athar; Jashni, Hojjatollah Karimi; Rahmanian, Karamatollah; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh

    2015-04-01

    There is a rapidly growing trend in the consumption of herbal remedies in the developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of orally administered Date Palm Pollen (DPP) on the results of semen analysis in adult infertile men. Forty infertile men participated in our study. They were treated by Pollen powder 120 mg kg(-1) in gelatinous capsules every other day, for two months. Before and at the end of therapy, the semen was collected after masturbation and sperm numbers, motility and morphology were determined. Our findings revealed that consumption of DPP improved the sperm count. The treatment was significantly increased sperm motility, morphology and forward progressive motility. Date palm pollen seems to cure male infertility by improving the quality of sperm parameters. PMID:26506651

  9. Infertility in public health: the case of Norway

    PubMed Central

    Sundby, J.

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a health issue that demonstrates how unequal access to health care is at a global level. In the poorer segments of the world, and in poor parts of wealthy societies, access is often minimal or non-existent. Public and lay attitudes to modern infertility treatment have been heavily debated alongside development of methods. I have looked at the changes in the public discourse in modern media, legislation, politics, and among professionals. The paper seeks to present and discuss some of these changes as they have evolved in one of the countries that have had one of the more strict laws regulating access to treatment, namely Norway. It is a country that nevertheless offers treatment in the public health system. The paper also tries to connect this discussion to the difficulties faced in every attempt to expand infertility services to the developing world. PMID:25013709

  10. Male infertility: the role of imaging in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, T; Sidhu, P S; Wilkins, C J

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of male infertility is assuming greater importance, with male factors implicated as a causal factor in up to half of infertile couples. Following routine history, examination and blood tests, imaging is frequently utilised in order to assess the scrotal contents for testicular volume and morphology. Additionally, this may give indirect evidence of the presence of possible reversible pathology in the form of obstructive azoospermia. Further imaging in the form of transrectal ultrasound and MRI is then often able to categorise the level of obstruction and facilitate treatment planning without resort to more invasive imaging such as vasography. Ultrasound guidance of therapy such as sperm or cyst aspiration and vasal cannulation may also be performed. This article reviews the imaging modalities used in the investigation of male infertility, and illustrates normal and abnormal findings that may be demonstrated. PMID:22763036

  11. Couples' reactions to male infertility and donor insemination.

    PubMed

    Berger, D M

    1980-09-01

    The author interviewed 16 couples after the husband had been diagnosed as infertile. Eleven husbands experienced a period of impotency. Fourteen of the women experienced anger toward the husband, psychiatric symptoms, and/or dreams about their concern for the husband, a wish to be rid of him, and guilt over this wish. Ten couples had decided to pursue donor insemination; 6 had delayed 1 3/4 to 4 years after the diagnosis of infertility and had a better adjustment than 3 of the 4 couples who did not. The author believes that the total secrecy involved in donor insemination inhibits the working through of conflicts about infertility and donor insemination itself. PMID:7425152

  12. Denying and preserving self: Batswana women's experiences of infertility.

    PubMed

    Mogobe, Dintle K

    2005-08-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to understand and theoretically explain infertility from the perspective of 40 infertile women and four members of the traditional health care system. Symbolic interaction and feminism were combined to under-gird the study. Through ongoing data collection and analysis, a theoretical framework of denying and preserving self was constructed. Preserving self or self-preservation means developing personal measures aimed at preventing o rreducing harm inflicted by others as a result of one's infertility. Contributory factors to denying of self include denial of status as a woman; denial of immortality; denial of experiences of pregnancy, labour and delivery; denial of economic and social security; and the belief that they are being chastised by God and the forefathers. In addition, the women develop strategies to deal with such denials by looking for deeper meaning, working it out, giving in to feelings, getting more involved, getting away, and doin gadoption. Implications of the study are discussed. PMID:16485584

  13. Medical management of male infertility in the absence of a specific etiology.

    PubMed

    Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Parekattil, Sijo J

    2014-07-01

    Idiopathic male infertility can be diagnosis in approximately one-third of infertile males. The empirical medical treatment with or without assisted reproductive techniques appears common in male infertility practice. This type of management can be classified as hormonal treatment including gonadotropins, antiestrogens, and aromatase inhibitors and support with antioxidant supplements such as carnitine, lycopene, glutathione, and vitamin E. This review investigates the evidence of commonly used empirical medical management of male infertility when there is no demonstrable diagnosis. PMID:24919031

  14. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages

  15. Psychiatric Morbidity in Infertility Patients in a Tertiary Care Setup

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pankaj; Rastogi, Rajesh; Gandhi, Raghu; Kapoor, Rohit; Sachdeva, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    Context Infertility is regarded as a trigger for psychological morbidity. Infertile couples often suffer from anxiety, depression and lack of self confidence. Aims To study the demographic factors associated with infertility in a tertiary care setup and to determine the level of anxiety and depression associated with it by using standardized scales. The study protocol also included studying the various coping strategies employed by these patient groups. Settings and Design Case control study. Materials and Methods A prestructured questionnaire based study conducted for a span of 6 months. The study population included the patients attending the infertility and the family planning outpatient department. We applied the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) and the Becks Depression Inventory (BDI). Brief COPE Inventory was applied to look for the various coping measures that are employed by the anxious and depressed patients. Statistical Analysis Data analysis was done using SPSS ver20. Results A total of 280 study subjects were included in the study; which included 140 women from the infertility clinic and 140 from the family planning OPD. A total of 56.4% (79/140) of the females were found to be suffering from depression and 68.9% (96/140) of the females were found to be suffering from anxiety and depression both. Seven risk factors were found to be significant for depression based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale and 6 risk factors were found to be significant based on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The most common coping method employed by depressed women was venting 72.2% (57/79) followed by behavioural disengagement 70.9% (56/79); whereas the most important coping method employed by the anxious and depressed women was behavioural disengagement 71.9% (69/96). Conclusion Anxiety and depression is common among patients suffering from infertility and measures should be taken to alleviate it. PMID:26500988

  16. Analysis of partial AZFc deletions in Malaysian infertile male subjects.

    PubMed

    Almeamar, Hussein Ali; Ramachandran, Vasudevan; Ismail, Patimah; Nadkarni, Prashan; Fawzi, Nora

    2013-04-01

    Complete deletions in the AZF (a, b, and c) sub-regions of the Y-chromosome have been shown to contribute to unexplained male infertility. However, the role of partial AZFc deletions in male infertility remains to be verified. Three types of partial AZFc deletions have been identified. They are gr/gr, b1/b3, and b2/b3 deletions. A recent meta-analysis showed that ethnic and geographical factors might contribute to the association of partial AZFc deletions with male infertility. This study analyzed the association of partial AZFc deletions in Malaysian infertile males. Fifty two oligozoospermic infertile males and 63 fertile controls were recruited to this study. Screening for partial AZFc deletions was done using the two sequence-tagged sites approach (SY1291 and SY1191) which were analyzed using both the conventional PCR gel-electrophoresis and the high resolution melt, HRM method. Gr/gr deletions were found in 11.53% of the cases and 9.52% of the controls (p = 0.725). A B2/b3 deletion was found in one of the cases (p = 0.269). No B1/b3 deletions were identified in this study. The results of HRM analysis were consistent with those obtained using the conventional PCR gel-electrophoresis method. The HRM analysis was highly repeatable (95% limit of agreement was -0.0879 to 0.0871 for SY1191 melting temperature readings). In conclusion, our study showed that partial AZFc deletions were not associated with male infertility in Malaysian subjects. HRM analysis was a reliable, repeatable, fast, cost-effective, and semi-automated method which can be used for screening of partial AZFc deletions. PMID:23231020

  17. Depression among Women with Primary Infertility attending an Infertility Clinic in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Rate, Severity, and Contributing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Al-Homaidan, Homaidan Turki

    2011-01-01

    Background Infertility is a severely distressing experience for many couples. Depression is considered as one of the main psychological disorders associated with infertility and it may significantly affect the life of infertile individuals, their treatment, and follow-up. Objective The objective of the study was to determining the prevalence and predisposing factors of depressive disorders among the infertile compared to fertile women. Methodology Rate of depression was explored by this cross-sectional study carried out among women attending In-Vitro Fertilization Clinic (91 infertile women) and Well Baby Clinic (94 fertile women) at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh, KSA. Self administrated questionnaire including Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used. Mean BDI score was measured and its relation with different variables was explored, such as age, educational level, duration of infertility, pressure from family members, miscarriages and support from husband. Results This study showed that 49 (53.8%) of the infertile women and 35 (37.2%) of the fertile women had depression. Mean BDI score between infertile and fertile women was significantly different (p <0.001). Infertile women were found to be more severely depressed (p =0.014). Among the infertile women, those who had pressure from family members for not getting pregnant were more depressed than those with no such pressure (P=0.001). Conclusion Depression is more common and severe in infertile women than fertile women. Pressure from family to get pregnant is a significant contributor to depression. Caregivers should routinely screen infertile women for depression during and after treatment for infertility and manage concomitantly. PMID:23267288

  18. Infertility: from a personal to a public health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, A T; Bernstein, J

    1999-01-01

    The inability to conceive a child is most often viewed as a private matter, but public health perspectives and skills can contribute greatly to our knowledge about infertility, and the development of effective and rational public policy for prevention, access to health care, and regulation of new technologies. We offer a primer of public health aspects of infertility in an effort to encourage the broad spectrum of public health professionals to become more knowledgeable about these topics and join in the national debate about preventive strategies, cost-benefit assessment, resource allocation, and ethics. Images p494-a p495-a p499-a p506-a PMID:10670617

  19. Infertility: Towards an Awareness of a Need among Family Life Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Nancy L.; Christopher, F. Scott

    1984-01-01

    Discusses emotional problems related to infertility investigation and treatment. Reviews causes and treatment of infertility, coping patterns, and the role of counselors and family life educators in easing the crises of infertility and facilitating successful resolution of associated emotional problems. (JAC)

  20. What Are the Issues Confronting Infertile Women? A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerli, Katja; Znoj, Hansjorg; Berger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a stressful experience, yet little is known about the specific issues confronting infertile women. In the present study, researchers sought to identify themes important to infertile women and examine possible associations with mental health levels. Using qualitative content analysis, researchers analyzed the email messages of 57…

  1. The Effect of Social Coping Resources and Growth-Fostering Relationships on Infertility Stress in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Donna M.; Myers, Jane E.

    2002-01-01

    The experience of infertility often results in multiple stresses and needs for coping in these women. Study examines the relationship between the uses of social coping resources, growth-fostering relationships, and infertility stress. Results support the use of social coping resources for coping with infertility stress. (Contains 62 references and…

  2. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Women’s Infertility and Treatment Seeking Behavior in India

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sanjit; Gupta, Pallavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility is an emergent issue in India. Until recently, very few studies have understood the patterns and consequences of infertility in India. Family planning programs in India also viewed exclusively the patterns and determinants of overfertility rather than infertility. Furthermore, there is the lack of information about treatment seeking behavior of infertile couples. Therefore, this paper aimed to examine the extent of infertility and treatment seeking behavior among infertile women in India. An attempt was also made to evaluate the effects of socio-demographic factors on treatment seeking behavior. Methods: The study used the data from the District Level Household and Facility Survey carried out in India during 2007–08. Several statistical techniques such as chi-square test, proportional hazard model and binary logistic regression model were used for the analysis. Results: Approximately, 8% of currently married women suffered from infertility in India and most of them were secondary infertile (5.8%). Within India, women’s infertility rate was the highest in west Bengal (13.9 percent) and the lowest in Meghalaya (2.5 percent). About 80% of infertile women sought treatment but a substantial proportion (33%) received non-allopathic and traditional treatment due to expensive modern treatment and lack of awareness. Conclusion: In the context of policy response, it can be said that there is a need to improve the existing services and quality of care for infertile women. Treatment for infertility should be integrated into the larger reproductive health packages. PMID:27141468

  3. Infertility, infertility treatment, and achievement of pregnancy in female survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Sara E.; Najita, Julie S.; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E.; Sklar, Charles A.; Robison, Leslie L.; Diller, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies have documented decreased pregnancy rates and early menopause in female cancer survivors; however, infertility rates and reproductive interventions have not been studied. This study investigates infertility and time to pregnancy among female childhood cancer survivors, and analyzes treatment characteristics associated with infertility and subsequent pregnancy. Methods The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) is a cohort study including five-year cancer survivors from 26 institutions who were <21 years old at the time of diagnosis between January 1, 1970, and December 31, 1986, and a sibling control group. CCSS females ages 18–39 years reporting they had ever been sexually active (3,531 survivors and 1,366 female controls) were studied. Self-reported infertility, medical treatment for infertility, the time to first pregnancy in survivors and siblings, and the risk of infertility in survivors by demographic, disease, and treatment variables were analyzed. Findings Survivors had an increased risk of clinical infertility (>1 year of attempts at conception without success) compared to siblings which was most pronounced at early reproductive ages (≤24 years Relative Risk (RR)=2·92, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1·18–7·20; 25–29 years RR=1·61, 95% CI 1·05–2·48; 30–39 years RR=1·37, 95% CI 1·11–1·69). Despite being equally likely to seek treatment for infertility, survivors were less likely to be prescribed medication for treatment of infertility (RR=0·57, 95% CI 0·46–0·70). Increasing doses of uterine radiation and alkylating agent chemotherapy were most strongly associated with infertility. Although survivors had an increased time to pregnancy interval (p=0·032), 64·2% (292/455) with infertility achieved a pregnancy. Interpretation A more comprehensive understanding of infertility after cancer is critical for counseling and decision-making regarding future attempts at conception as well as fertility preservation

  4. Initial evaluation and management of infertility by the primary care physician.

    PubMed

    Frey, Keith A; Patel, Ketan S

    2004-11-01

    Infertility is a common condition seen in primary care practices. Infertility is defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse during which a pregnancy is not achieved. in the United States, 15% to 20% of all couples are infertile, with higher rates seen in older couples. The causes of infertility include abnormalities of any portion of the male or female reproductive system. The female partner usually presents initially for an infertilty problem, often in the context of an annual well-women examination. The primary care physician who provides such preventive care can initiate the diagnostic evaluation and can treat some causes of infertility. PMID:15544024

  5. Male infertility testing: reactive oxygen species and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Ko, Edmund Y; Sabanegh, Edmund S; Agarwal, Ashok

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an integral component of sperm developmental physiology, capacitation, and function. Elevated ROS levels, from processes such as infection or inflammation, can be associated with aberrations of sperm development, function, and fertilizing capacity. We review the impact of ROS on sperm physiology, its place in infertility evaluation, the implications for reproductive outcomes, and antioxidant therapy. Our systematic review of PubMed literature from the last 3 decades focuses on the physiology and etiology of ROS and oxidative stress (OS), evaluation of ROS, and antioxidants. ROS is normally produced physiologically and is used to maintain cellular processes such as sperm maturation, capacitation, and sperm-oocyte interaction. When ROS production exceeds the buffering capacity of antioxidants, OS occurs and can have a negative impact on sperm and fertility. ROS and antioxidant capacity testing can potentially add additional prognostic information to standard laboratory testing for the infertile male, although its role as standard part of an evaluation has yet to be determined. Elevated ROS levels have been implicated with abnormal semen parameters and male infertility, but the impact of ROS on fertilization rates and pregnancy is controversial. This is partly because of the lack of consensus on what type of patients may be suitable for ROS testing and assay standardization. Routine ROS testing for the infertile male is not currently recommended. PMID:25458618

  6. Aneuploidies level in sperm nuclei in patients with infertility.

    PubMed

    Alchinbayev, Mirzakarim Karimovich; Aralbayeva, Araylyim Nugmanovna; Tuleyeva, Lazzat Namatullaevna; Duysenbayeva, Svetlana Melsovna; Makazhanov, Marat Abzalovich

    2016-09-01

    Male infertility is a relevant social and medical problem. Male infertility is mostly caused by genetic disorders. The purpose of the study was to analyze the correlation of chromosome aberrations, as well as DNA fragmentation and various manifestations of spermatogenesis disorder. Sperm samples of 58 males with infertility and 23 conditionally healthy males were studied. All patients diagnosed with asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia and oligoteratozoospermia underwent subsequent analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA fragmentation was examined with sperm chromatin dispersion test (sperm chromatin dispersion, Spermprocessor, India) with an Axioscope 40 fluorescent microscope. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with fluorescent probes (Vysis Multi Vysion PGT, Abbot Molecular) was used to study chromosome abnormalities in sperm nuclei with regard to X and Y chromosomes, as well as to chromosomes 18 and 21. It was found that the development of pathospermia was characterized by genetic discontinuity, which manifests as DNA fragmentation and disjunction of chromosomes in meiosis with spermatogenesis. It was also found that the prevailing type of pathospermia in men with infertility was oligozoospermia. In addition, this group also had the highest rate of numerical chromosome abnormalities. This was caused by the degeneration of spermatozoids with aneuploidies in chromosomes. PMID:27269280

  7. Zinc deficiency in malabsorption states: a cause of infertility?

    PubMed

    Jameson, S

    1976-01-01

    Thirteen patients with malabsorption, 7 women and 5 men, were investigated extensively. All showed low serum zinc concentrations irrespective of the duration of illness and degree of malabsorption. Eleven of the 13 had active coeliac disease. It was suspected that the low serum zinc concentrations reflected a state of zinc deficiency, and this theory was borne out by the fact that no inflammatory reaction, no clear-cut albumin deficiency, and no oestrogen or corticosteroid influence could be demonstrated. All 7 women suffered from infertility, in most of them of long standing. Two showed secondary infertility after pregnancy and abnormal labour resulting in infants with congenital malformations (one case of bilateral congenital dislocation of the hip and one of multiple cardiac anomalies). I have reported similar complications in pregnancies in which the serum zinc was low. One of the infertile women conceived after the institution of gluten-free diet and zinc therapy, but later aborted spontaneously. Investigations on zinc metabolism and intestinal absorption might well prove valuable in otherwise unexplained infertility and could open up a new therapeutic approach. PMID:1067747

  8. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis
    New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000

    Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa:
    Potential for Infertility Research

    David Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3
    1Reproductive ...

  9. Five Medical Treatment Stages of Infertility: Implications for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrity, Deborah A.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the marital happiness, state/trait anxiety, coping techniques, and types of support received for a national sample of men and women experiencing the infertility medical process. Suggests that counselors should be aware that medical treatment affects the distress level of the individual and couple and the types of coping used. Further…

  10. Gender and Infertility: A Relational Approach To Counseling Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Donna M.; Myers, Jane E.

    2000-01-01

    The Relational Model (J. V. Jordan, 1995) of women's development is a theory that explains women's development in a context of relationships, specifically relationships that promote growth for self and others. This model is applied to counseling women who are experiencing infertility, and a case presentation is provided to illustrate the approach.…

  11. Incorporating Ideological Context in Counseling Couples Experiencing Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Judith A.; Panchal, Krishna

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the influence of ideological values on couples' experience of infertility. Contextual issues are considered in terms of how they influence medical decision making as well as emotional factors. Strength-based counseling interventions that attend to couples' diverse values are described. Last, implications for counselors,…

  12. Cultural Considerations in Counseling Couples Who Experience Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Infertility creates challenges affecting various aspects of couples' intimate lives. Practices regarding reproduction are often shaped by cultural messages. Culturally sensitive treatment methods help counselors provide effective therapy to couples with fertility problems. This article describes cultural influences, challenges, and counseling…

  13. NK cells, autoantibodies, and immunologic infertility: a complex interplay.

    PubMed

    De Carolis, Caterina; Perricone, Carlo; Perricone, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    Infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) are heterogeneous conditions that have been frequently explained with an immunological pathomechanism. A deeper insight into apparently unexplained infertility and RSA shows increasing evidences supporting both alloimmune and autoimmune mechanisms, in which natural killer (NK) cells and autoantibodies seem to play a relevant role. Successful pregnancy is considered as Th1-Th2 cooperation phenomenon, with a predominantly Th2-type lymphocytes response, together with the emerging role of interleukin (IL)-12, IL-15, and IL-18 and of other unidentified soluble factors dependent on NK cells. Uterine NK cells comprise the largest population at implantation site, and their activity, characteristics, and abundance suggest that they participate at the "decidualization" process that, vice versa, induces NK activation and recruitment in each menstrual cycle. However, NK cell alteration may be associated with impaired pregnancy, and the modulation in the number of circulating NK cells is most likely to be a primary event rather than an active inflammation/drug administration consequence during an inflammatory/autoimmune process, thus playing an important role in the pathogenesis of immunological infertility. Relationships within immunological infertility, recurrent spontaneous abortion, autoantibodies, and NK cells will be reviewed herein. PMID:19908167

  14. Epigenetic alterations in sperm associated with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Akane; Miyauchi, Naoko; Hamada, Hirotaka; Hiura, Hitoshi; Chiba, Hatsune; Okae, Hiroaki; Sato, Akiko; John, Rosalind M; Arima, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    The most common form of male infertility is a low sperm count, known as oligozoospermia. Studies suggest that oligozoospermia is associated with epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic alterations in sperm, which may arise due to the exposure of gametes to environmental factors or those that pre-exist in the sperm of infertile individuals, may contribute to the increased incidence of normally rare imprinting disorders in babies conceived after assisted reproductive technology using the sperm of infertile men. Genomic imprinting is an important developmental process whereby the allelic activity of certain genes is regulated by DNA methylation established during gametogenesis. The aberrant expression of several imprinted genes has been linked to various diseases, malignant tumors, lifestyle and mental disorders in humans. Understanding how infertility and environmental factors such as reproductive toxicants, certain foods, and drug exposures during gametogenesis contribute to the origins of these disorders via defects in sperm is of paramount importance. In this review, we discuss the association of epigenetic alterations with abnormal spermatogenesis and the evidence that epigenetic processes, including those required for genomic imprinting, may be sensitive to environmental exposures during gametogenesis, fertilization and early embryonic development. In addition, we review imprinting diseases and their relationships with environmental factors. While the plasticity of epigenetic marks may make these more susceptible to modification by the environment, this also suggests that aberrant epigenetic marks may be reversible. A greater understanding of this process and the function of epidrugs may lead to the development of new treatment methods for many adult diseases in the future. PMID:26212350

  15. Is the wrong question being asked in infertility research?

    PubMed

    Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E; Hornstein, Mark D; Kotelchuck, Milton; Diop, Hafsatou; Cabral, Howard; Declercq, Eugene R

    2016-01-01

    A persistent finding is that assisted reproductive technology (ART) is associated with compromised birth outcomes, including higher risks for prematurity, low birthweight, and congenital malformations, even among singletons. Over the past decade, our research group, the Massachusetts Outcome Study of Assisted Reproductive Technology (MOSART), has evaluated pregnancy and birth outcomes among three groups of women, those women treated with ART, those with indicators of subfertility but without ART treatment, and fertile women. We have also explored the influence of infertility-related diagnoses on outcomes for women and infants. Over the course of our research, we have changed our perspective from an original focus on ART treatment parameters as the primary cause of excess morbidity to one centered instead on the underlying infertility-related diagnoses. This paper summarizes the research findings from our group that support this change in focus for infertility-based research from a primary emphasis on ART treatment to greater attention to the contribution of preexisting pathology underlying the infertility and suggests directions for future analyses. PMID:26634257

  16. Modifiable Risk Factors and Infertility: What are the Connections?

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Brooke V.; Abusief, Mary; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is a relatively common condition, greatly affecting couples medically and psychologically. Although infertility treatment is safe, it can be time-intensive, expensive and increase the risk of multiple gestations. Thus, to reduce costs and risks, couples may initially consider lifestyle change to increase their fertility and chances of pregnancy. For many of the diet factors studied (for example: caffeine, soy, protein, iron), there are conflicting data. However, there are some items men and women consume that are detrimental to fertility, such as alcohol and tobacco. The data on exercise are varied but may have an effect on ovulation and fertility - positive or negative. Body mass index appears to impact fertility also, with obesity in both men and women negatively affecting pregnancy rates. In addition, there remains concern and a growing body of research on environmental toxin exposures and reproductive health. Finally, supporting patients through infertility diagnosis and treatment is critical, as psychological stress may impact conception. It is imperative that the relationship between lifestyle factors and fertility continue to be explored as to lessen the morbidity associated with infertility. PMID:27594813

  17. Spermatozoa protein alterations in infertile men with bilateral varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Cui, Zhihong; Ayaz, Ahmet; Gupta, Sajal; Willard, Belinda; Gopalan, Banu; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Among infertile men, a diagnosis of unilateral varicocele is made in 90% of varicocele cases and bilateral in the remaining varicocele cases. However, there are reports of under-diagnosis of bilateral varicocele among infertile men and that its prevalence is greater than 10%. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) extracted from spermatozoa cells of patients with bilateral varicocele and fertile donors. Subjects consisted of 17 men diagnosed with bilateral varicocele and 10 proven fertile men as healthy controls. Using the LTQ-orbitrap elite hybrid mass spectrometry system, proteomic analysis was done on pooled samples from 3 patients with bilateral varicocele and 5 fertile men. From these samples, 73 DEP were identified of which 58 proteins were differentially expressed, with 7 proteins unique to the bilateral varicocele group and 8 proteins to the fertile control group. Majority of the DEPs were observed to be associated with metabolic processes, stress responses, oxidoreductase activity, enzyme regulation, and immune system processes. Seven DEP were involved in sperm function such as capacitation, motility, and sperm-zona binding. Proteins TEKT3 and TCP11 were validated by Western blot analysis and may serve as potential biomarkers for bilateral varicocele. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of DEP and identified proteins with distinct reproductive functions which are altered in infertile men with bilateral varicocele. Functional proteomic profiling provides insight into the mechanistic implications of bilateral varicocele-associated male infertility. PMID:25999357

  18. Ethical boundary-work in the infertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy; Jacoby, Ann; Gabbay, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Infertility practice and reproductive technologies are generally seen as 'controversial' areas of scientific inquiry that raise many complex ethical issues. This paper presents a qualitative study that considered how clinicians constructed the role of the 'ethical' in their everyday practice. We use the concept of ethical boundary-work to develop a theory of 'settled' and 'controversial' morality to illuminate how infertility clinicians drew boundaries between different conceptions of the role ethics played in their practice. An attention to areas of settled morality, usually rendered invisible by their very nature, enables us to see how clinicians manage the 'ethical' in their practice. We argue that by creating a space of 'no-ethics' in their practice--part of a settled morality that does not require articulation--the informants re-appropriate an area of their practice from 'outside' influences and control. Bringing these elements to light can help 'outsiders' to challenge and question these distinctions and therefore bring additional perspectives to debates over morality in the infertility clinic. Illuminating the everyday ethical concerns of infertility clinicians can help direct ethical thinking towards these practical concerns, as well as to more abstract debates. PMID:21226735

  19. Modalities for treatment of antisperm antibody mediated infertility: novel perspectives.

    PubMed

    Naz, Rajesh K

    2004-05-01

    Immunoinfertility because of antisperm antibodies (ASA) is an important cause of infertility in humans. The incidence of ASA in infertile couples is 9-36% depending on the reporting center. Early claims regarding the incidence and involvement of ASA in involuntary infertility were probably overemphasized, which has resulted in subsequent confusion, doubt, and underestimation of their clinical significance. No immunoglobulin that binds to sperm should be called an antisperm antibody in a strict sense unless it is directed against a sperm antigen that plays a role in fertilization and fertility. ASA directed against the fertilization-related antigens are more relevant to infertility than the immunoglobulins that bind to sperm associated antigens. Several methods have been reported for treatment of immunoinfertility. These include: immunosuppressive therapies using corticosteroids or cyclosporine; assisted reproductive technologies such as intrauterine insemination, gamete intrafallopian transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection; laboratory techniques such as sperm washing, immunomagnetic sperm separation, proteolytic enzyme treatment, and use of immunobeads. Most of the available techniques have side effects, are invasive and expensive, have low efficacy, or provide conflicting results. Recent findings using defined sperm antigens that have a role in fertilization/fertility have provided animal models and innovative novel perspectives for studying the mechanism of immunoinfertility and possible modalities for treatment. The better understanding of local immunity and latest advances in hybridoma and recombinant technologies, proteomics and genomics leading to characterization of sperm antigens relevant to fertility will help to clarify the controversy and to establish the significance of ASA in infertility. PMID:15212677

  20. Limitations and barriers in access to care for male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Akanksha; Nangia, Ajay K; Dupree, James M; Smith, James F

    2016-05-01

    The primary challenge to identifying and addressing barriers in access to care for male factor infertility is accurate measurement of the prevalence of male infertility. Current estimates are based on couples pursuing assisted reproduction, and likely underestimate the problem. These estimates also fail to account for the number of patients facing infertility due to cancer or cancer treatment. Lack of health insurance coverage for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility presents a major barrier for couples struggling with infertility. However, it is not the only barrier. Education level, household income, cultural norms, religious beliefs, geographic location, and the availability of specialty-trained reproductive urologists are all important factors in determining the ease with which patients access and obtain infertility care. Addressing each of these obstacles directly is imperative to improving reproductive care and outcomes for infertile couples in the United States. PMID:27054307

  1. Infertility Care Among OEF/OIF/OND Women Veterans in the Department of Veterans Affairs

    PubMed Central

    Mattocks, Kristin; Kroll-Desrosiers, Aimee; Zephyrin, Laurie; Katon, Jodie; Weitlauf, Julie; Bastian, Lori; Haskell, Sally; Brandt, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Background An increasing number of young women Veterans seek reproductive health care through the VA, yet little is known regarding the provision of infertility care for this population. The VA provides a range of infertility services for Veterans including artificial insemination, but does not provide in vitro fertilization. This study will be the first to characterize infertility care among OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans using VA care. Methods We analyzed data from the OEF/OIF/OND roster file from the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC)—Contingency Tracking System Deployment file of military discharges from October 1, 2001–December 30, 2010, which includes 68,442 women Veterans between the ages of 18 and 45 who utilized VA health care after separating from military service. We examined the receipt of infertility diagnoses and care using ICD-9 and CPT codes. Results Less than 2% (n = 1323) of OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans received an infertility diagnosis during the study period. Compared with women VA users without infertility diagnosis, those with infertility diagnosis were younger, obese, black, or Hispanic, have a service-connected disability rating, a positive screen for military sexual trauma, and a mental health diagnosis. Overall, 22% of women with an infertility diagnosis received an infertility assessment or treatment. Thirty-nine percent of women Veterans receiving infertility assessment or treatment received this care from non-VA providers. Conclusions Overall, a small proportion of OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans received infertility diagnoses from the VA during the study period, and an even smaller proportion received infertility treatment. Nearly 40% of those who received infertility treatments received these treatments from non-VA providers, indicating that the VA may need to examine the training and resources needed to provide this care within the VA. Understanding women’s use of VA infertility services is an important component of understanding VA

  2. Folic acid supplementation and IVF pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Murto, T; Skoog Svanberg, A; Yngve, A; Nilsson, T K; Altmäe, S; Wånggren, K; Salumets, A; Stavreus-Evers, A

    2014-06-01

    Folic acid supplements are commonly used by infertile women which leads to a positive folate status. However, the effect of folic acid supplements on pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility has not been well investigated. This study evaluated folic acid supplement use and folate status in women with unexplained infertility in relation to IVF pregnancy outcome. In addition, use of folic acid supplements and folate status were compared between women with unexplained infertility and fertile, nonpregnant control women. Women with unexplained infertility used significantly more folic acid supplements and had higher median total folic acid intake from supplements compared with fertile control women (both P < 0.001). Women with unexplained infertility also had significantly higher median plasma folate and lower median plasma homocysteine concentrations than fertile women (both P < 0.001), but folic acid supplementation or folate status were not related to pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility. In conclusion, folic acid supplementation or good folate status did not have a positive effect on pregnancy outcome following infertility treatment in women with unexplained infertility. Folate is one of the B vitamins which has been suggested to be related to infertility. Folic acid is an artificial form of folate which is commonly used in dietary supplements. Folic acid supplementation has been shown to increase folate concentrations and decrease concentrations of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood. Folic acid supplementation is commonly used by infertile women, but the effect on pregnancy outcome in women with a diagnosis of unexplained infertility has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, folic acid supplement use and folate status (concentrations of folate and homocysteine) in women with unexplained infertility were evaluated in relation to pregnancy outcome. In addition, the use of folic acid supplements and folate

  3. A qualitative study of Ottawa university students’ awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Awareness of infertility risk factors is an essential first step to safeguard future fertility. Whereas several studies have examined university students’ awareness of female fertility and related risk factors, the topic of male infertility has not been well examined. The objective of this study was to assess young men and women’s awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, male and female infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2008 with a multi-ethnic sample of sixteen male and twenty-three female Ottawa university students, followed by qualitative data analysis to identify major themes. Interview topics included awareness of male and female infertility risk factors, infertility diagnosis/treatments and personal options in the event of future infertility. Results Participants were generally familiar with infertility as a biomedical health problem, could identify sex-specific risk factors but overestimated fertility of women in their thirties and ART success rates. Reproductive health knowledge gaps and confusion of the physiological life-stage of menopause with infertility were apparent. Most participants would pursue in vitro fertilization or international adoption in the event of personal infertility. Some participants wished to use a ‘natural’ approach and were concerned with potential side effects of ART-related medications. Conclusions The general awareness of infertility in young adults is promising and supports the potential uptake for health promotion of fertility preservation. This study underscores the continued need for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education and promotion for adolescents and young adults. PMID:23962162

  4. Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with Endometriosis in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Sadatmahalleh, Shahideh Jahanian; Akhoond, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Mehrak

    2016-01-01

    Background Endometriosis affects women’s physical and mental wellbeing. Symptoms include dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and infertility. The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between some relevant factors and symptoms and risk of an endometriosis diagnosis in infertile women. Materials and Methods A retrospective study of 1282 surgical patients in an infertility Institute, Iran between 2011 and 2013 were evaluated by laparoscopy. Of these, there were 341 infertile women with endometriosis (cases) and 332 infertile women with a normal pelvis (comparison group). Chi-square and t tests were used to compare these two groups. Logistic regression was done to build a prediction model for an endometriosis diagnosis. Results Gravidity [odds ratio (OR): 0.8, confidence interval (CI): 0.6-0.9, P=0.01], parity (OR: 0.7, CI: 0.6-0.9, P=0.01), family history of endometriosis (OR: 4.9, CI: 2.1-11.3, P<0.001), history of galactorrhea (OR: 2.3, CI: 1.5-3.5, P=0.01), history of pelvic surgery (OR: 1.9, CI: 1.3-2.7, P<0.001), and shorter menstrual cycle length (OR: 0.9, CI: 0.9-0.9, P=0.04) were associated with endometriosis. Duration of natural menstruation and age of menarche were not correlated with subsequent risk of endometriosis (P>0.05). Fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, pelvic pain and premenstrual spotting were more significant among late-stage endometriosis patients than in those with early-stage endometriosis and more prevalent among patients with endometriosis than that of the comparison group. In the logistic regression model, gravidity, family history of endometriosis, history of galactorrhea, history of pelvic surgery, dysmenorrhoea, pelvic pain, dysparaunia, premenstrual spotting, fatigue, and diarrhea were significantly associated with endometriosis. However, the number of pregnancies was negatively related to endometriosis. Conclusion Endometriosis is a considerable public health issue because it affects many

  5. Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in etiopathogenesis of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, Monis Bilal; Kumar, Rakesh; Bhatt, Audesh; Bamezai, R. N. K.; Kumar, Rajeev; Gupta, Narmada P.; Das, T. K.; Dada, Rima

    2008-01-01

    Objective To understand role of mitochondrial (mt) mutations in genes regulating oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in pathogenesis of male infertility. Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility is frequently attributed to defects of sperm motility and number. Mitochondrion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) play an important role in variety of physiological process. They control the oxidative energy supply and thus are central to growth, development and differentiation. Mitochondrial function is controlled by a fine-tuned crosstalk between mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA). As mitochondria supply energy by OXPHOS, any mutation in mtDNA disrupts adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and thus result in an impaired spermatogenesis and impaired flagellar movement. As sperm midpiece has few mtDNA copies, thus enhanced number of mutant mtDNA results in early phenotypic defect which manifest as spermatogenic arrest or asthenozoospermia. Oxidative stress and mtDNA mutations are positively correlated and mutations in mitochondrial genome (mt genome) are implicated in the lowered fertilising capacity of the sperm and affects the reproductive potential of an individual. Materials and Methods A thorough review of articles in the last 15 years was cited with reference to the below-mentioned keywords. The articles considered discuss the role of mt genome in the normal functioning of sperm and the factors associated with mt mutations and impact of these mutations on the reproductive potential. Results Sperm motility is a very important factor for the fertilisation of ova. The energy requirements of sperm are therefore very critical for sperm. Mutations in the mitochondrial genes as COX II, ATPase 6 and 8 play an important role and disrupts ATP production affecting the spermatogenesis and sperm motility. Therefore, the aberrations in mt genome are an important etiopatholgy of male infertility. Conclusion In the context of male infertility, mt

  6. Sexual function in women with primary and secondary infertility in comparison with controls.

    PubMed

    Davari Tanha, F; Mohseni, M; Ghajarzadeh, M

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a distressing health condition that has diverse effects on couples' lives. One of the most affected aspects of life in infertile women is sexual function, which is a key factor in physical and marital health. The goal of this study was to evaluate sexual function according to the type of infertility in comparison with controls. In this study, 191 women with primary infertility and 129 with secondary infertility along with 87 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. They were asked to fill a valid and reliable FSFI (Female Sexual Function Index). Age, partner age and duration of marriage were significantly different between the primary and secondary infertility groups. The score of each FSFI domain was significantly higher in the control group, and the only significant difference between primary and secondary infertility groups was in the desire domain. Multiple linear regression analysis between the total FSFI score as a dependent variable and age, partner age, Body Mass Index and marriage duration as independent variables showed that age is a dependent predictor of FSFI in the primary group. We found significant negative correlation between total FSFI score and age, partner age and marriage duration (r1=-0.21 and P<0.001, r2=-0.14 and P=0.01, r3=-0.19 and P<0.001). Sexual dysfunction is high in all infertile women, and women with secondary infertility suffer more from impaired sexual function compared with those with primary infertility. PMID:24430276

  7. The Impact of Emotionally Focused Therapy on Emotional Distress in Infertile Couples

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Marzieh; Shairi, Mohammad Reza; Roshan, Rasoul; Rahimi, Changiz Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the effect of emotionally focused therapy (EFT) on factors contributing to emotional distress among infertile couples. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, the subjects consisted of 12 Iranian couples: six infertile men and six infertile women. They were assessed as depressed, anxious and stressful individuals using depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS). The subjects were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group with six couples (i.e. three infertile men and three infertile women) received EFT, while the control group with similar number of couples (i.e. three infertile men and three infertile women) was deprived of the treatment. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding job, educational level, income, age, marriage and infertility duration. The pre- and post-test comparisons of DASS subscales showed that level of depression, anxiety and stress among couples with EFT instruction was significantly less than those without such in- structions (p<0.0001). Conclusion Emotionally focused therapy could reduce the rate of depression, anxiety and stress in infertile couples, regardless of the man or woman as the cause of infertility. PMID:24520504

  8. Comparison of dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment among infertile employed and unemployed women in Iran.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Azadeh S; Younesi, Seyed Jalal; Azkhosh, Manouchehr; Askari, Ali

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to compare dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment in infertile employed and unemployed females. Due to the stresses of infertility, infertile females are faced with a variety of sexual and psychological problems, as well as dysfunctional attitudes that can lead to depression. Moreover, infertility problems provoke women into maladjustment and inadvertent corruption of relationships. In this regard, our goal is to consider the effects of employment in conjunction with education on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment among infertile women in Iran. In this work, we employed the survey method. We recruited 240 infertile women, utilizing the cluster random sampling method. These women filled out the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and the social adjustment part of the California Test of Personality. Next, multivariate analysis of variance was performed to test the relationship of employment status and education with dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. Our results indicated that dysfunctional attitudes were far more prevalent in infertile unemployed women than in infertile employed women. Also, social adjustment was better in infertile employed women than in infertile unemployed women. It was shown that education level alone does not have significant effect on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. However, we demonstrated that the employment status of infertile women in conjunction with their education level significantly affects the two dimensions of dysfunctional attitudes (relationships, entitlements) and has insignificant effects on social adjustment. It was revealed that in employed infertile women in Iran, the higher education level, the less dysfunctional were attitudes in relationships and entitlements, whereas in unemployed infertile women, those with a college degree had the least and those with master's or higher degrees had the most dysfunctional attitudes in terms of relationships and entitlements. PMID

  9. Unusual presentation of seminal vesiculitis in an infertile man.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Rocha, Fernando Tadeu

    2007-12-01

    Seminal vesiculitis is generally not investigated in infertile men, since it is uncommon and often nonspecific in signs and symptoms. In this article, the author reports an unusual presentation of seminal vesiculitis, incidentally diagnosed in a man referred for semen analysis to investigate infertility. Analyses of physical properties of the ejaculate (coagulation, liquefaction, volume, viscosity and pH) and of biochemical markers of the prostate (total calcium and zinc) and seminal vesicle (fructose and inorganic phosphorus) detected a dysfunction of the seminal vesicles that was subsequently diagnosed as vesiculitis using transrectal ultrasound. After treatment with a single 500-mg dose of oral ciprofloxacin, the patient was referred again for semen analysis. The analysis showed considerable improvement of the seminal vesicle function. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:18163927

  10. Infertility and miscarriage: common pathways in manifestation and management.

    PubMed

    Agenor, Angena; Bhattacharya, Sohinee

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between miscarriage and fertility is complex. While most healthcare settings treat miscarriage as a problem of subfertility in assisted reproduction units, others believe that miscarriage occurs in super-fertile women. Infertile women undergoing assisted reproduction are at a greater risk of having a miscarriage especially at an advanced age compared with women conceiving naturally. Aberrant expression of immunological factors and chromosomal abnormalities underlie both infertility and miscarriage. Common risk factors include increased maternal age, obesity, smoking, alcohol, pre-existing medical conditions and anatomical abnormalities of the reproductive system. Management pathways of both conditions may be similar with pre-implantation genetic testing and assisted reproductive technology used in both conditions. This paper discusses the synergies and differences between the two conditions in terms of their epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, risk factors and management strategies. The two conditions are related as degrees of severity of reproductive failure with common pathways in manifestation and management. PMID:26238301

  11. Smoking and Male Infertility: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Harlev, Avi; Gunes, Sezgin Ozgur; Shetty, Amit; du Plessis, Stefan Simon

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have reported that the contents of cigarette smoke negatively affect sperm parameters, seminal plasma, and various other fertility factors. Nevertheless, the actual effect of smoking on male fertility is not clear. The effect of smoking on semen parameters is based on the well-established biological finding that smoking increases the presence of reactive oxygen species, thereby resulting in oxidative stress (OS). OS has devastating effects on sperm parameters, such as viability and morphology, and impairs sperm function, hence reducing male fertility. However, not all studies have come to the same conclusions. This review sheds light upon the arguable association between smoking and male fertility and also assesses the impact of non-smoking routes of tobacco consumption on male infertility. It also highlights the evidence that links smoking with male infertility, including newly emerging genetic and epigenetic data, and discusses the clinical implications thereof. PMID:26770934

  12. Posterior Urethral Valve: An Unusual Cause of Primary Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Agbugui, Jude Orumuah; Omokhudu, Oisamoren

    2015-01-01

    Background Posterior urethral valve presenting in adulthood is uncommon. This can be an unusual cause of primary male infertility as a result of abnormalities in sexual function. Case Presentation This report describes a 40 year old man who presented to us on account of inability to impregnate his wife after 2 years of marriage. History revealed poor stream of urine since childhood and passage of scanty ejaculate during intercourse. A micturating cystourethrogram revealed dilated posterior urethra in keeping with posterior urethral valves. Endoscopic valve ablation was done with subsequent improvement in ejaculate volume and urine stream. His spouse achieved pregnancy thereafter. Conclusion In this report, it was found that adult posterior urethral valve though uncommon may be a cause of male infertility. Restoration of fertility potential can be achieved following valve ablation. PMID:25927029

  13. AB031. Challenge of microsurgery for male infertility in China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yiming; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2016-01-01

    There are more than 15% couples suffer from infertility within 1 year. One in eight couples encounters problems when attempting to conceive a first child and one in six when attempting to conceive a subsequent child. The causes of infertility both of male and female could share 50%. With the recent advances in assisted fertilization such as in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), the couples suffer from infertility would like to choose assisted fertilization and nearly 1 million cycles ICSI were carried out in China every year, even its pregnancy rate 40% and live birth rate 35%, with very costed and with risks of inherent and born defects. Among of male factors of infertility, varicoceles are highly relevant (38%) and can result in a myriad of deleterious effects on male reproduction. Varicocele repair may be effective in men with subnormal semen analysis, a clinical varicocele and otherwise unexplained infertility. Numerous therapeutic options are available for correcting varicoceles, including surgical varicocelectomy and radiographic venous embolization. However, recent studies demonstrated that microsurgery for varicocele correction, with the lowest recurrence rate and the highest pregnancy rate compared with other surgical approaches, is a more cost-effective therapeutic modality than both assisted fertility for in infertility couples and it is safe and effective compared to the others surgical approaches. Obstructive azoospermia (OA) are highly prevalent (13%) in male infertility results from obstruction of the excurrent ducts (due to many causes) at any location between the rete testis and the ejaculatory ducts. Recent advances in microsurgical approaches with reversal rate 63.8–79.2%, pregnancy rate 30.6–35.8%. According to the calculations of cost per delivery for vasectomy reversal vs. sperm retrieval/ICSI, under a wide variety of initial assumptions, it is clear that vasectomy reversal/epididymovasostomy is associated

  14. Family focus or career focus: controlling for infertility.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C S

    1999-12-01

    In order to shed light on the direction of causality between fertility timing and earnings, this paper uses medical diagnoses of infertility as instruments for age at first birth (for those women who did give birth) and childlessness among married women. Although multivariate ordinary least squares regression results find a positive correlation between childbirth at later ages and higher wages as well as between childlessness and increased wages, delays in childbearing due to infertility do not significantly increase a woman's wages. Thus, data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) indicate that delaying childbirth does not, by itself, guarantee higher wages in the labor market. Therefore, this study does not support the conventional notion of the 'mommy track' in which career success and motherhood are incompatible. PMID:10574233

  15. Genital tuberculosis in the infertile women - an update.

    PubMed

    Ishrat, S; Fatima, P

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is endemic in many developing countries of the world including Bangladesh. Genital tuberculosis is a significant cause of infertility in the women of these countries. The diagnosis of genital tuberculosis in infertile women is difficult as most of the cases are usually asymptomatic. A high index of clinical suspicion is required. Genital tuberculosis always affects the fallopian tubes. It affects the endometrium in half of the cases. In addition to tuberculin skin tests and interferon gamma release assays, procedures like hysterosalpingography, laparoscopy-dye test, endometrial curettage and laparoscopy with multiple sampling for smear microscopy and culture for mycobacterium tuberculosis can detect the cases. In recent years diagnosis has been improved by polymerase chain reaction targeted against mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. Following early diagnosis, treatment with anti-tubercular drugs is favourable for fertility only when tubal and endometrial damage is minimal. In cases where the organs are more severely involved the outcome is poor even with in- vitro fertilization. PMID:25725695

  16. Male Reproductive Cancers and Infertility: A Mutual Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Tvrda, Eva; Agarwal, Ashok; Alkuhaimi, Nawaf

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction and malignancies related to the male gender represent a serious health concern, whose incidence has significantly risen over the past years. Prior to treatment, testicular or prostate cancer patients often display poor semen characteristics similar to subfertile or infertile patients. This fact is underscored by cases where the malignancy is often diagnosed in males who undergo a general fertility screening. This review aims to examine the associations between male infertility and reproductive cancers focusing on common etiologies and biological mechanisms underlining these pathologies. Furthermore, we discuss compelling epidemiological data hypothesizing that male reproductive failure may act as a precursor of future andrological malignancies, including testicular or prostate cancer, thus providing a stimulus for a more specific research in male reproductive health and emphasizing the importance of this relation for physicians taking care of male patients with a reproductive disease. PMID:25837470

  17. [48,XXYY men with azoospermia: how to manage infertility?].

    PubMed

    Roche, C; Sonigo, C; Benmiloud-Tandjaoui, N; Boujenah, J; Benzacken, B; Poncelet, C; Hugues, J-N

    2014-01-01

    48,XXYY syndrome is a rare form of sex chromosomal aneuploidy. Usually considered as a variant of Klinefelter syndrome because of shared features (azoospermia, tall stature, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism), it is a separate entity because diagnostic is currently made in prepubertal boy with neuro-psychological disorders. We here report the case of a 48,XXYY patient consulting for adult infertility and the indication to perform testicular sperm extraction is discussed. PMID:24934769

  18. Infertility evaluation and treatment according to Jewish law.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G

    1997-02-01

    The Jewish attitude toward infertility can be learned from the fact that the first commandment of God to Adam was "be fruitful and multiply". When evaluating an infertile couple according to the Halakha (Hebrew law), one should first evaluate the female factor. If pathology is found, one may proceed to investigate the male factor, inadequate or abnormal production, ejaculation, or deposition of spermatozoa. The basic fact that allows in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) to be considered in the rabbinical literature at all is that the oocyte and the sperm originate from the wife and the husband, respectively. For many centuries Jewish religious authorities have discussed the principle involved in artificial insemination from a donor. The discussions are based on ancient sources in the Talmud and the codes of Jewish law is prohibited for a variety of reasons e.g. incest, lack of genealogy, and the problem of inheritance. In the case of egg donation the problem that arises is who should be considered the mother, the donor of the oocyte or the one in whose uterus the embryo develops, the one who gives birth. Jewish law states that the child is related to the woman who finished its formation, the one who gave birth. The Jewish religion does not forbid the practice of surrogate motherhood in the case of full surrogacy. From the religious point of view, the child will belong to the father who gave the sperm and to the woman who gave birth. Creating and inducing a preimplantation in embryo in vitro for fertility research should be allowed if there is a real chance that the sperm owner may benefit and have a child as a result of this research. Nowadays, assisted reproductive technology is a common practice in the treatment of infertility. Nevertheless, different religious arguments of the world's religions impose limitations on the therapeutic approach to infertility. PMID:9138953

  19. Endometriosis and Infertility: How and When to Treat?

    PubMed Central

    Fadhlaoui, Anis; Bouquet de la Jolinière, Jean; Feki, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial-like tissue (glands or stroma) outside the uterus, which induces a chronic inflammatory reaction. Although endometriosis impairs fertility, it does not usually completely prevent conception. The question of evidence based-medicine guidelines in endometriosis-associated infertility is weak in many situations. Therefore, we will highlight in this issue where the challenges are. PMID:25593948

  20. Infertility and Perinatal Loss: When the Bough Breaks

    PubMed Central

    Byatt, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Infertility and perinatal loss are common, and associated with lower quality of life, marital discord, complicated grief, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Young women, who lack social supports, have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss or a history of trauma and / or preexisting psychiatric illness are at a higher risk of experiencing psychiatric illnesses or symptoms after a perinatal loss or during infertility. It is especially important to detect, assess, and treat depression, anxiety, or other psychiatric symptoms because infertility or perinatal loss may be caused or perpetuated by such symptoms. Screening, psychoeducation, provision of resources and referrals, and an opportunity to discuss their loss and plan for future pregnancies can facilitate addressing mental health concerns that arise. Women at risk of or who are currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms should receive a comprehensive treatment plan that includes the following: (1) proactive clinical monitoring, (2) evidence-based approaches to psychotherapy, and (3) discussion of risks, benefits, and alternatives of medication treatment during preconception and pregnancy. PMID:26847216

  1. Women and celiac disease: association with unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Pellicano, R; Astegiano, M; Bruno, M; Fagoonee, S; Rizzetto, M

    2007-06-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a permanent intolerance to gluten characterized by destructions of the small intestinal villi and malabsorption. The gluten-free diet (GFD) results in healing of the mucosa, resolution of the malabsorpitive states, and reversal of great part of CD effects. Among the extradigestive complications associated with CD, unexplained infertility has been reported since the 70's. The prevalence of CD among women with unexplained infertility is 2.5-3.5%, higher, although not always significantly, than control population. To date, it is widely accepted that untreated CD represents a risk for abortion, low birth weight babies and short-breast feeding period. These features can be corrected by GFD. Some discrepancies could stem from the heterogeneity of the studies. Regarding a potential pathogenic mechanism, since CD causes malabsorption of folic acid and other nutrients, this pathway has been proposed to explain the unfavourable outcomes of pregnancy. However, this remains a speculation. In conclusion, each woman with unexplained infertility should be screened for CD. PMID:17592443

  2. Trace elements in seminal plasma of men from infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Szynkowska, Małgorzata I.; Motak-Pochrzęst, Hanna; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Sypniewski, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An analysis of lead, zinc, cadmium and other trace elements in semen of men from infertile couples was performed to determine the association between abnormal semen parameters and enviromental or occupational exposure to some trace metals. Material and methods Presence of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead was measured in seminal plasma of 34 men from infertile couples using spectrometry with time-of-flight analysis. Correlations among sperm parameters and trace metals were determined using cluster analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Abnormally high concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc and cobalt were found in 23 seminal plasma of men from infertile couples. The most consistent evidence was determined for an association between high cadmium concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count, motility and morphology below reference limits (p < 0.01). A correlation of significantly increased tin level and reduced sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential was observed (p = 0.04). Conclusions In our study we observed a correlation of tin level with sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential. PMID:26170853

  3. Treatment strategies for infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vitek, Wendy; Hoeger, Kathleen; Legro, Richard S

    2016-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder that can be diagnosed when two of the following three criteria are present: menstrual irregularity, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. Factors such as the individual's body weight influence the severity of the phenotype and risk of metabolic comorbidities. While anovulatory infertility is a common issue among lean and obese reproductive-aged women with PCOS, obesity is associated with resistance to oral ovulation induction agents, lower pregnancy rates and a higher risk of pregnancy complications. Lifestyle modification is recommended as first line therapy among obese women with PCOS in order to optimize their outcomes. Among lean and obese women with PCOS, ovulation induction can be achieved with aromatase inhibitors, selective estrogen receptor modulators, insulin sensitizing agents, gonadotropins and ovarian drilling with varying rates of ovulation, live birth and multiple gestations. Assisted reproductive technologies are reserved for women who do not conceive despite restoration of ovulation or couples with additional factors contributing to their infertility. This review will outline treatment strategies for achieving a healthy pregnancy among lean and obese women with PCOS and infertility. PMID:26765152

  4. A Nutrition Screening Form for Female Infertility Patients.

    PubMed

    Langley, Susie

    2014-12-01

    A Nutrition Screening Form (NSF) was designed to identify lifestyle risk factors that negatively impact fertility and to provide a descriptive profile of 300 female infertility patients in a private urban infertility clinic. The NSF was mailed to all new patients prior to the initial physician's visit and self-reported data were assessed using specific criteria to determine if a nutrition referral was warranted. This observational study revealed that 43% of the women had a body mass index (BMI) <20 or ≥25 kg/m(2), known risks for infertility. Almost half reported a history of "dieting" and unrealistic weight goals potentially limiting energy and essential nutrients. A high number reported eating disorders, vegetarianism, low fat or low cholesterol diets, and dietary supplement use. Fourteen percent appeared not to supplement with folic acid, 13% rated exercise as "extremely" or "very active", and 28% reported a "high" perceived level of stress. This preliminary research demonstrated that a NSF can be a useful tool to identify nutrition-related lifestyle factors that may negatively impact fertility and identified weight, BMI, diet, exercise, and stress as modifiable risk factors deserving future research. NSF information can help increase awareness among health professionals and patients about the important link between nutrition, fertility, and successful reproductive outcomes. PMID:26067073

  5. Aetiology of obstructive azoospermia in Chinese infertility patients.

    PubMed

    Han, H; Liu, S; Zhou, X-G; Tian, L; Zhang, X-D

    2016-09-01

    To explore the aetiology of obstructive azoospermia (OA) in Chinese infertility patients, 133 OA patients was included in this study diagnosed and evaluated by one major specialist trained urological infertility. We retrospected the medical records to collect relative information. All of the patients had been underwent physical examination, ultrasound scan to the urogenital system, serum hormone tests, genetic tests and two separate semen analyses. The mean age of all 133 patients was 32.7 ± 6.8 years. A total of 266 reproductive tract units (two/patient) were classified into four categories: no causes (Idiopathic) for 74 units (27.8%), single cause for 173 units (65.0%), double causes for 17 units (6.4%) and triple causes for two units (0.8%). As to single cause of OA, there were four types: trauma for 0 unit (0%), infection for 125 units (47.0%), dysplasia for 11 units (4.1%) and surgeries for 37 units (13.9%). As to total cause of OA, there were five types: infection for 144 units (54.1%), orchitis for 51 units (19.2%), epididymitis for 54 units (20.3%), gonorrhoea for 28 units (10.5%) and inguinal hernia repair surgery for 18 units (6.8%). The most frequent cause of obstructive azoospermia was infection revealed in these Chinese infertility populations, followed by idiopathic reason. PMID:26688510

  6. Infertility, impotence, and emasculation – psychosocial contexts for abandoning reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas W; Wassersug, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    From a Darwinian perspective we live to reproduce, but in various situations genetic males elect not to reproduce by choosing medical treatments leading to infertility, impotence, and, in the extreme, emasculation. For many men, infertility can be psychologically distressing. However, for certain genetic males, being infertile may improve their quality of life. Examples include (1) men who seek vasectomy, (2) individuals with Gender Dysphoria (e.g., transwomen, and modern day voluntary eunuchs), (3) most gay men, and (4) men treated for testicular and prostate cancer. Men who desire vasectomy typically have a Darwinian fitness W >1 at the time of their vasectomies; i.e., after they have their desired number of offspring or consider themselves past an age for parenting newborns. In contrast, prostate and testicular cancer patients, along with individuals with extreme Gender Dysphoria, do not necessarily seek to be sterile, but accept it as an unavoidable consequence of the treatment for their condition undertaken for survival (in case of cancer patients) or to achieve a better quality of life (for those with Gender Dysphoria). Most gay men do not father children, but they may play an avuncular role, providing for their siblings’ offspring's welfare, thus improving their inclusive fitness through kin selection. In a strictly Darwinian model, the primary motivation for all individuals is to reproduce, but there are many situations for men to remove themselves from the breeding populations because they have achieved a fitness W ≥1, or have stronger medical or psychological needs that preclude remaining fertile. PMID:26924280

  7. Treatment of infertility in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Brackett, Nancy L; Lynne, Charles M; Ibrahim, Emad; Ohl, Dana A; Sønksen, Jens

    2010-03-01

    Most men with spinal cord injury (SCI) are infertile. Erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities contribute to the problem. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernous injections of alprostadil, penile prostheses, and vacuum constriction devices. In anejaculatory patients who wish to father children, semen retrieval is necessary. Penile vibratory stimulation is recommended as the first line of treatment. Patients who fail penile vibratory stimulation can be referred for electroejaculation. If this approach is not possible, prostate massage is an alternative. Surgical sperm retrieval should be considered as a last resort when other methods fail. Most men with SCI have a unique semen profile characterized by normal sperm count but abnormally low sperm motility. Scientific investigations indicate that accessory gland dysfunction and abnormal semen constituents contribute to the problem. Despite abnormalities, sperm from men with SCI can successfully induce pregnancy. In selected couples, the simple method of intravaginal insemination is a viable option. Another option is intrauterine insemination. The efficacy of intrauterine insemination increases as the total motile sperm count inseminated increases. In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are options in cases of extremely low total motile sperm count. Reproductive outcomes for SCI male factor infertility are similar to outcomes for general male factor infertility. PMID:20157304

  8. Hypothetical link between infertility and genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingxia; Li, Bin; Yuan, Wenzhen; Zhao, Lihui; Zhang, Xuehong

    2014-01-01

    It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk linked with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs offers the basic elements for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been justified whether the bad effects are directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or trans-genesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations have tested the safety of GMFs including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could be potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs. PMID:25342149

  9. Infertility in Central Africa: infection is the cause.

    PubMed

    Collet, M; Reniers, J; Frost, E; Gass, R; Yvert, F; Leclerc, A; Roth-Meyer, C; Ivanoff, B; Meheus, A

    1988-06-01

    Determinants of infertility were studied in 340 women in Eastern Gabon, an area situated in the "infertility belt" of Central Africa. Fallopian tube occlusion was diagnosed in 82.8% of cases, showing the importance of infection-related causes. Women with tubal occlusion did not differ significantly from women with normal tubes in obstetrical history or prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis on endocervical culture. Antecedents of pelvic inflammatory disease or a pelvic mass were significantly more common in the group with tubal occlusion. This group also had a significantly higher prevalence of serum chlamydial antibodies at a titer of 1/64 or higher. Hormonal factors were found in 31.7% of women, a cervical factor in 29.0% and mechanical factors in 5.6%. No diagnosis could be made in 12.2% of cases. During the investigation, 4.4% of women became pregnant. The predominance of infectious related causes of infertility makes it imperative to focus resources on prevention programs of upper genital tract infections in women. PMID:2900173

  10. Infertility and Perinatal Loss: When the Bough Breaks.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Amritha; Byatt, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    Infertility and perinatal loss are common, and associated with lower quality of life, marital discord, complicated grief, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Young women, who lack social supports, have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss or a history of trauma and / or preexisting psychiatric illness are at a higher risk of experiencing psychiatric illnesses or symptoms after a perinatal loss or during infertility. It is especially important to detect, assess, and treat depression, anxiety, or other psychiatric symptoms because infertility or perinatal loss may be caused or perpetuated by such symptoms. Screening, psychoeducation, provision of resources and referrals, and an opportunity to discuss their loss and plan for future pregnancies can facilitate addressing mental health concerns that arise. Women at risk of or who are currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms should receive a comprehensive treatment plan that includes the following: (1) proactive clinical monitoring, (2) evidence-based approaches to psychotherapy, and (3) discussion of risks, benefits, and alternatives of medication treatment during preconception and pregnancy. PMID:26847216

  11. Seminal Corynebacterium strains in infertile men with and without leucocytospermia.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, M; Masallat, D T; Elkholy, A A; Abdel-Hamid, I A; Mostafa, T

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to identify seminal Corynebacterium strains in infertile men with and without leucocytospermia. Semen samples from 60 infertile men were allocated into two equal groups: semen samples with leucocytospermia and semen samples without leucocytospermia. Semen culture for Corynebacterium species was carried out on Columbia agar medium confirmed by Gram-stained film and biochemical tests followed by analytical profile index biotyping and antibiotic susceptibility. Bacterial isolates were detected in 20/60 semen cultures (33.3%) as Corynebacteria, Staphylococci, Alpha haemolytic streptococci and E. coli. In all, 12/60 (20%) had Corynebacterium positive semen culture, whereas C. seminal was the major isolated species followed by C. amycolatum, C. jekium and C. urealyticum. There was nonsignificant difference between patients with/without Corynebacterium positive culture regarding sperm concentration and normal sperm morphology; however, in positive cultures sperm motility was significantly lower compared with negative cultures. Antimicrobial sensitivity among Corynebacteria strains was highest for vancomycin, rifampicin then imipenem, ampicillin + sulbactam, ciprofloxacin. It is concluded that positive semen cultures for different Corynebacteria species were demonstrated in infertile men, whereas Corynebacterium seminale was the most common isolated species. Vancomycin, rifampicin then imipenem and ampicillin + sulbactam are recommended as sensitive antibiotics. PMID:26228802

  12. Correlation between Y chromosome microdeletion and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, X G; Hu, H Y; Guo, Y H; Sun, Y P

    2016-01-01

    Dyszoospermia due to genetic factors is the leading cause of male infertility. To explore the correlation between azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletion of the Y chromosome and male infertility, we evaluated AZF microdeletion on the long arm of the Y chromosome in 166 infertile males and 50 fertile males using multiplex polymerase chain reactions amplification and gel electrophoresis. The results demonstrated that 28 individuals had varying degrees of microdeletion in the AZF region (16.90%); 12 out of the 76 males with azoospermia and 16 out of the 90 males with oligospermia had AZF microdeletion. AZF microdeletion was not observed in any of the healthy controls. In addition, 53.60% of the AZF microdeletions occurred in the AZFc region. It can be concluded that AZF microdeletion on the long arm of the Y chromosome can result in male spermatogenesis dysfunction. Detection of AZF microdeletion can provide a theoretical basis for genetic counseling, as well as improve the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. PMID:27323142

  13. Infertility, impotence, and emasculation - psychosocial contexts for abandoning reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas W; Wassersug, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    From a Darwinian perspective we live to reproduce, but in various situations genetic males elect not to reproduce by choosing medical treatments leading to infertility, impotence, and, in the extreme, emasculation. For many men, infertility can be psychologically distressing. However, for certain genetic males, being infertile may improve their quality of life. Examples include (1) men who seek vasectomy, (2) individuals with Gender Dysphoria (e.g., transwomen, and modern day voluntary eunuchs), (3) most gay men, and (4) men treated for testicular and prostate cancer. Men who desire vasectomy typically have a Darwinian fitness W >1 at the time of their vasectomies; i.e., after they have their desired number of offspring or consider themselves past an age for parenting newborns. In contrast, prostate and testicular cancer patients, along with individuals with extreme Gender Dysphoria, do not necessarily seek to be sterile, but accept it as an unavoidable consequence of the treatment for their condition undertaken for survival (in case of cancer patients) or to achieve a better quality of life (for those with Gender Dysphoria). Most gay men do not father children, but they may play an avuncular role, providing for their siblings' offspring's welfare, thus improving their inclusive fitness through kin selection. In a strictly Darwinian model, the primary motivation for all individuals is to reproduce, but there are many situations for men to remove themselves from the breeding populations because they have achieved a fitness W ≥1, or have stronger medical or psychological needs that preclude remaining fertile. PMID:26924280

  14. When to refer an infertile mare to a theriogenologist.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, M M

    2008-08-01

    Most equine infertility cases can be solved with a methodical, thorough physical and reproductive examination and appropriate diagnostic laboratory aids. Repeated examinations may be needed in some cases to identify subtle anatomical abnormalities or irregularities between hormonal and physiological relationships of the reproductive tract. For pregnancy to occur, hormonal signaling must be exquisitely synchronized with physical changes of the reproductive tract and deposition of fertile semen in the uterus. Asynchrony of these events, infection, inflammation, previous trauma to the reproductive tract or "stress" can interfere with conception or maintenance of pregnancy. Infertile mares are presented for three common problems: (1) accumulation of intra-uterine fluid during or immediately after estrus; (2) long standing infection and/or chronic inflammation; or (3) irregular or no estrous cycles. By defining the problem, diagnostics can be chosen to determine the cause. Treatment protocols should be designed around the diagnosis and antibiotics, ecbolics or steroids should not be used indiscriminately. In all cases of mare infertility, semen quality needs to be determined to be satisfactory as a subfertile stallion bred to a subfertile mare greatly decreases the likelihood of pregnancy. PMID:18514809

  15. Cancer risk following radiotherapy for infertility or menstrual disorders.

    PubMed

    Ron, E; Auvinen, A; Alfandary, E; Stovall, M; Modan, B; Werner, A

    1999-09-01

    A cohort of 968 Israeli women treated with radiotherapy for infertility was followed up for cancer incidence. The majority of the subjects were irradiated to both the ovaries and the pituitary gland. Mean doses to the brain, colon, ovary and bone marrow were 0. 8, 0.6, 1.0 and 0.4 Gy, respectively. More than 10 years after radiation treatment, 60 cancers were observed compared with 74.5 expected based on national cancer incidence rates (standardized incidence ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.61-1.04). No statistically significant excess or deficit was seen for any individual type of cancer; however, a non-significant 60% increased risk of colon cancer was observed. Risk of colon cancer was higher among women with 2 or more treatments and increased with length of follow-up. A decreased risk of breast cancer was suggested. Neither age at exposure nor attained age modified subsequent cancer risk. No clear excess of any cancer site was observed among women at organ doses above the median compared with subjects at doses below the median, except a slight increase in colon cancer. No significant excess incidence of cancer was demonstrated in this small cohort of patients treated with radiotherapy for infertility. Our results are consistent with those from an earlier study of cancer mortality among women receiving radiotherapy for infertility conducted in New York City. Int. J. Cancer 82:795-798, 1999. Published 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:10446443

  16. Perceptions and experiences of women in karachi, pakistan regarding secondary infertility: results from a community-based qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sami, Neelofar; Saeed Ali, Tazeen

    2012-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 22% with primary infertility at 4% and secondary infertility at 18%. This study explored perceptions and experiences of women in Karachi, Pakistan regarding the causes, treatment-seeking behavior for and consequences of secondary infertility. Methods. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with married women explored their perceptions and experiences for issues related to secondary infertility. Results. The knowledge of women about the causes and scientific treatment options for infertility was limited resulting in inclination for traditional unsafe health care. Infertility was stated to result in marital instability, stigmatization and abuse specially for women with no live child. Conclusions. Since infertility can have a serious effect on both the psychological well-being and the social status of women in Pakistan, effective interventions are the need of the day. There is a dire need for health education and counseling to be integrated into infertility management plans. PMID:22474450

  17. Effect of gender on antisperm antibodies in infertile couples in central India.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Maria; Chaudhari, A R; Singh, Ramji

    2012-01-01

    The presence of antisperm antibodies in serum may impair sperm function leading to immunological infertility. The aim of study was to determine the presence of antisperm antibodies in the circulating blood of infertile couples. This cross sectional study included 109 couples suffering from infertility for more than one-year duration. Serum antisperm antibodies were determined by Varelisa Sperm Antibodies Enzyme Immunoassay kit. The percentage incidence of antisperm antibodies in infertile men was 30.27% was statistically not significant from the 33.03% incidence in infertile women (P Value > 0.05). In the nineteen (15.59%) couples both the husband as well as wife was positive for sperm antibodies. The presence of antisperm antibodies may impair fertilizing ability therefore its assessment should be consideredas an essential part of infertility management. PMID:23734441

  18. On-label and off-label drugs used in the treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Chehab, Mahmoud; Madala, Alosh; Trussell, J C

    2015-03-01

    Infertility affects 6.1 million U.S. couples-representing 10% of reproductive-age adults and 15% of all couples trying to conceive. Half of the time, infertility is the result of an abnormal semen analysis or other male factors, with 40%-50% of these infertile men diagnosed with idiopathic or nonclassifiable infertility. While the role of hormone therapy for men with an identified abnormality is well defined, the literature remains inconclusive and controversial regarding hormone manipulation using empirical (off-label) medical therapies for men with idiopathic infertility. This manuscript reviews the commonly used off-label medications used to treat idiopathic male factor infertility: clomiphene citrate, letrozole/anastrozole, exogenous androgens, and pentoxifylline. PMID:25660648

  19. Iranian and English women's use of religion and spirituality as resources for coping with infertility.

    PubMed

    Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Allan, Helen T; Smith, Pam A

    2014-06-01

    The study reported in this paper explores how infertile women cope with infertility using their religious and spiritual beliefs. In total, 30 infertile women affiliated to different denominations of Christianity and Islam were interviewed in the UK and Iranian fertility clinics using grounded theory. The categories which emerged included governing ones' 'Self' through gaining control of emotions, adopting religious coping strategies, and handling the burden of infertility peacefully, which all related to the core category of 'relying on a higher being'. We argue that infertile women employ a variety of religious and spiritual coping strategies which are associated with adaptive health outcomes. Further scientific inquiry is required to investigate how religion and spirituality promote adaptation to infertility. PMID:24869428

  20. Infertility treatment in a population-based sample: 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Sara E; Baksh, Laurie; Stanford, Joseph B

    2012-05-01

    To describe the characteristics of women seeking infertility treatment and the types of fertility treatment sought within a population-based sample. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) of women with a live birth using data from seven states. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with infertility treatment utilization. Infertility treatment was reported by 10.5% of women who were trying to become pregnant. The most common treatment reported was fertility enhancing drugs (29%), followed by assisted reproductive technology including in vitro fertilization (21%), and artificial insemination together with fertility enhancing drugs (15%). Some women reported using other types of treatment (23%). The PRAMS data provide insights into the use of infertility treatment among women giving birth in the United States. Further research is needed to understand the true prevalence of infertility, factors that influence treatment choices, and the longitudinal impact of infertility treatment on outcomes. PMID:21559776

  1. Meiotic recombination and male infertility: from basic science to clinical reality?

    PubMed

    Hann, Michael C; Lau, Patricio E; Tempest, Helen G

    2011-03-01

    Infertility is a common problem that affects approximately 15% of the population. Although many advances have been made in the treatment of infertility, the molecular and genetic causes of male infertility remain largely elusive. This review will present a summary of our current knowledge on the genetic origin of male infertility and the key events of male meiosis. It focuses on chromosome synapsis and meiotic recombination and the problems that arise when errors in these processes occur, specifically meiotic arrest and chromosome aneuploidy, the leading cause of pregnancy loss in humans. In addition, meiosis-specific candidate genes will be discussed, including a discussion on why we have been largely unsuccessful at identifying disease-causing mutations in infertile men. Finally clinical applications of sperm aneuploidy screening will be touched upon along with future prospective clinical tests to better characterize male infertility in a move towards personalized medicine. PMID:21297654

  2. On-label and off-label drug use in the treatment of female infertility.

    PubMed

    Usadi, Rebecca S; Merriam, Kathryn S

    2015-03-01

    Female infertility affects millions of couples worldwide and is estimated to account for one-third of all cases of infertility. The purpose of this article is to review the uses of both off-label treatments and those approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for female infertility, by examining the mechanism of action, the side-effect profile, fetal anomaly risks, and contraindications for the various drugs. PMID:25660647

  3. In vitro fertilization for male infertility: when and how?

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Fishel, S

    1997-12-01

    The first observation that in vitro fertilization (IVF) was useful for treating oligozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia was reported by Fishel and Edwards in 1982. This was followed by a series of cases indicating the value of IVF in such cases. Conventional IVF has been modified and refined to achieve increased rates of conception in cases of male factor infertility. Methods such as high insemination concentration IVF for the treatment of teratozoospermia and microscopic IVF for the treatment of oligozoospermia have had some impact on fertilization and pregnancy rates; however, reports of success are varied. The recent advent of micromanipulation and, in particular, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has overshadowed the use of these modified IVF procedures. Because of the high fertilization and pregnancy rates achieved with ICSI, other micromanipulation techniques (subzonal insemination and partial zona dissection) have been abandoned; there have also been suggestions that other more conventional techniques, i.e. IVF, should also be abandoned and that ICSI become the sole technique for the treatment of infertility. The rapid increase in the number of centres using ICSI has led to extreme pressure for individual units to achieve high fertilization and pregnancy rates and there is a temptation to assign all patients to ICSI treatment. It is important that, in this highly competitive environment, new techniques are not applied haphazardly and reduced to the mere injection of gametes and achievement of pregnancy regardless of the cause of infertility. In his 1986 IVF--Historical Perspective, Fishel quoted Auguste Comte: 'to understand science it is necessary to know its history'. IVF has much recent history in animal and also human work. Although ICSI is the most significant therapeutic advance in male infertility treatment, its application to human IVF is only 4 years old, with a paucity of animal studies on which to rely. For this reason IVF still plays a

  4. Systematic characterization of seminal plasma piRNAs as molecular biomarkers for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yeting; Wang, Cheng; Fu, Zheng; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Suyang; Lu, Meiling; Sun, Wu; Ye, Chao; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Chunni; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Although piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis, little is known about piRNAs in the seminal plasma of infertile males. In this study, we systematically investigated the profiles of seminal plasma piRNAs in infertile males to identify piRNAs that are altered during infertility and evaluate their diagnostic value. Seminal plasma samples were obtained from 211 infertile patients (asthenozoospermia and azoospermia) and 91 fertile controls. High-throughput sequencing technology was employed to screen piRNA profiles in seminal plasma samples pooled from healthy controls and infertile patients. The results identified 61 markedly altered piRNAs in infertile patient groups compared with control group. Next, a quantitative RT-PCR assay was conducted in the training and validation sets to measure and confirm the concentrations of altered piRNAs. The results identified a panel of 5 piRNAs that were significantly decreased in seminal plasma of infertile patients compared with healthy controls. ROC curve analysis and risk score analysis revealed that the diagnostic potential of these 5 piRNAs to distinguish asthenozoospermic and azoospermic individuals from healthy controls was high. In summary, this study identifies a panel of piRNAs that can accurately distinguish fertile from infertile males. This finding may provide pathophysiological clues about the development of infertility. PMID:27068805

  5. Infertility: Why can't we classify this inability as disability?

    PubMed

    Khetarpal, Abha; Singh, Satendra

    2012-01-01

    Disability is a complex phenomenon. It reflects an interaction between features of a person's body and features of the society in which he or she lives. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), lays stress on the functional as well as the structural problem of a person. All the definitions of disability also include the disorders of the reproductive and endocrine system. So infertility and impotency should also be included in the category of disability. It affects the participation in areas of life and can have a disabling affect on an individual. Like any other disability the couple has to adapt and integrate infertility in their sense of self thus infertility comes as a major life crisis. Medically, infertility, in most cases, is considered to be the result of a physical impairment or a genetic abnormality. Socially, couples are incapable of their reproductive or parental roles. On social level, infertility in most cultures remains associated with social stigma and taboo just like the social model of disability. Couples who are unable to reproduce may be looked down upon due to social stigmatisation. Infertility can lead to divorces and separation leading to a broken family life. Without labelling infertility as a disability, it is difficult for the people to access services and welfare benefits offered by the government. Infertility treatments are highly sophisticated so they are very expensive and are even not covered by insurance and government aid.In the light of all this it becomes imperative to categorise infertility as disability. PMID:22848333

  6. Effect of Infertility on the Quality of Life, A Cross- Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility is a major life crisis which causes serious mental problems and stressful experience of infertile couples. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the quality of life in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: In a cross - sectional study compared the quality of life in 450 women attending both public and private health centers in Ilam, western of Iran, in 2013. Participants were divided in two groups’ fertilities and infertilities women. Data was collected by trained research midwives using demographic and SF-36 questionnaires. SPSS software Package 16 was used to analyze the data of this project. Differences were regarded statistically significant with an alpha error of 0.05. Results: Significant difference was reported in mean age between fertile and infertile women (p=0.003). Mean scores of all Mental dimensions of quality of life were higher in fertile women in comparison with infertile women. This difference was statistically significant (58.35±19.43 vs 56.56±13.18 respectively) (p= 0.000).The mean score of all physical dimensions have not statistically significant difference in fertile and infertile women (79.77± 23.19 vs 74.96±23.45 respectively) (p= 0.441). Conclusion: In most infertile women, the mean score of Mental dimensions of quality of life is lower in comparison with fertile women, therefore, it is necessary the used of counseling and treatment programs in infertile women. PMID:25478412

  7. Systematic characterization of seminal plasma piRNAs as molecular biomarkers for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yeting; Wang, Cheng; Fu, Zheng; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Suyang; Lu, Meiling; Sun, Wu; Ye, Chao; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Chunni; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Although piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis, little is known about piRNAs in the seminal plasma of infertile males. In this study, we systematically investigated the profiles of seminal plasma piRNAs in infertile males to identify piRNAs that are altered during infertility and evaluate their diagnostic value. Seminal plasma samples were obtained from 211 infertile patients (asthenozoospermia and azoospermia) and 91 fertile controls. High-throughput sequencing technology was employed to screen piRNA profiles in seminal plasma samples pooled from healthy controls and infertile patients. The results identified 61 markedly altered piRNAs in infertile patient groups compared with control group. Next, a quantitative RT-PCR assay was conducted in the training and validation sets to measure and confirm the concentrations of altered piRNAs. The results identified a panel of 5 piRNAs that were significantly decreased in seminal plasma of infertile patients compared with healthy controls. ROC curve analysis and risk score analysis revealed that the diagnostic potential of these 5 piRNAs to distinguish asthenozoospermic and azoospermic individuals from healthy controls was high. In summary, this study identifies a panel of piRNAs that can accurately distinguish fertile from infertile males. This finding may provide pathophysiological clues about the development of infertility. PMID:27068805

  8. Infertility: Why can't we classify this inability as disability?

    PubMed Central

    Khetarpal, Abha; Singh, Satendra

    2012-01-01

    Disability is a complex phenomenon. It reflects an interaction between features of a person's body and features of the society in which he or she lives. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), lays stress on the functional as well as the structural problem of a person. All the definitions of disability also include the disorders of the reproductive and endocrine system. So infertility and impotency should also be included in the category of disability. It affects the participation in areas of life and can have a disabling affect on an individual. Like any other disability the couple has to adapt and integrate infertility in their sense of self thus infertility comes as a major life crisis. Medically, infertility, in most cases, is considered to be the result of a physical impairment or a genetic abnormality. Socially, couples are incapable of their reproductive or parental roles. On social level, infertility in most cultures remains associated with social stigma and taboo just like the social model of disability. Couples who are unable to reproduce may be looked down upon due to social stigmatisation. Infertility can lead to divorces and separation leading to a broken family life. Without labelling infertility as a disability, it is difficult for the people to access services and welfare benefits offered by the government. Infertility treatments are highly sophisticated so they are very expensive and are even not covered by insurance and government aid. In the light of all this it becomes imperative to categorise infertility as disability. PMID:22848333

  9. Factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) from infertile women attending the Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Shayan, Zahra; Pourmovahed, Zahra; Najafipour, Fatemeh; Abdoli, Ali Mohammad; Mohebpour, Fatemeh; Najafipour, Sedighe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, infertility problems have become a social concern, and are associated with multiple psychological and social problems. Also, it affects the interpersonal communication between the individual, familial, and social characteristics. Since women are exposed to stressors of physical, mental, social factors, and treatment of infertility, providing a psychometric screening tool is necessary for disorders of this group. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the factor structure of the general health questionnaire-28 to discover mental disorders in infertile women. Materials and Methods: In this study, 220 infertile women undergoing treatment of infertility were selected from the Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility with convenience sampling in 2011. After completing the general health questionnaire by the project manager, validity and, reliability of the questionnaire were calculated by confirmatory factor structure and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. Results: Four factors, including anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, depression, and physical symptoms were extracted from the factor structure. 50.12% of the total variance was explained by four factors. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was obtained 0.90. Conclusion: Analysis of the factor structure and reliability of General Health Questionnaire-28 showed that it is suitable as a screening instrument for assessing general health of infertile women. PMID:27141541

  10. Comparison of sexual dysfunction in women with infertility and without infertility referred to Al-Zahra Hospital in 2013-2014

    PubMed Central

    Mirblouk, Fariba; Asgharnia, Dr.Maryam; Solimani, Robabeh; Fakor, Fereshteh; Salamat, Fatemeh; Mansoori, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the affected aspects in infertile women that have not been given sufficient attention is sexual function. Sexual function is a key factor in physical and marital health, and sexual dysfunction could significantly lower the quality of life. Aim of this study was to assess the comparison sexual dysfunction in women with infertility and without infertility, admitted to Al- Zahra Hospital. Objective: We decided to assess the prevalence of women sexual disorders in fertile and infertile subjects, admitted to Al-Zahra Hospital. Materials and Methods: 149 fertile and 147 infertile women who referred to infertility clinic of Al-Zahra Hospital during 2013-2014 were entered this cross-sectional study and Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire (FSFI) had been filled by all the cases. Most of women were married for 6-10 years (35.5%) and mean marriage time in participants was 9.55±6.07 years. Data were analyzed using SPSS software Ver. 18 and 2 test and logistic regression model has been used for analysis. Results: Results showed significant differences between desire (p=0.004), arousal (p=0.001), satisfaction (p=0.022) and total sexual dysfunction (p=0.011) in both groups but in lubrication (p=0.266), orgasm (p=0.61) and pain (p=0.793) difference were not significant. Conclusion: Some of sexual dysfunction indices are high in all infertile women. Our findings suggest that infertility impacts on women’s sexual function in desire, arousal, satisfaction and total sexual dysfunction. Health care professional should be sensitive to impact that diagnosis of infertility can have on women’s sexuality. PMID:27200426

  11. Clinical management and therapeutic outcome of infertile couples in southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Menuba, Ifeanyi E; Ugwu, Emmanuel O; Obi, Samuel N; Lawani, Lucky O; Onwuka, Chidinma I

    2014-01-01

    Background Infertility is highly prevalent in Nigeria and most infertile couples in southeast Nigeria are offered conventional forms of treatment, which consist mainly of ovulation induction and tubal surgery, due to limited availability and high cost of endoscopic and assisted reproductive technologies like laparoscopy and in vitro fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infertility, outcome of infertility investigation, and the treatment outcome of infertile couples following therapeutic interventions in southeast Nigeria over a 12-month period. Methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study of 218 consecutive infertile couples presenting for infertility management at the infertility clinics of two tertiary health institutions in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Infertility investigations were carried out on these couples using the available conventional diagnostic facilities. Following the results of the investigations/diagnosis, conventional treatment was offered to the couples as appropriate. Data analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. Results The mean age of the women was 33.5±4.62 (range: 15–49) years. Most (58.3% [n=127]) were nulliparous. The prevalence of infertility was 12.1%. Infertility was primary in 28.4% (n=62) and secondary in 71.6% (n=156). Female etiologic factors were responsible in 32.1% (n=70), male factors in 26.1% (n=57), and a combination of male/female factors in 29.4% (n=64). The etiology was unknown in 12.4% (n=27). Tubal factors 23.8 % (n=52) and ovulation failures 26.1% (n=57) are common female factors implicated. Pregnancy rate following treatment was 16.7% (n=28). Multivariate regression analysis indicates that younger age of ≤30 years, duration of infertility ≤5 years, and female factor infertility were associated with higher pregnancy outcome following treatment. Conclusion The prevalence of infertility is high and pregnancy rate following conventional treatment

  12. Comparison of lifestyle in fertile and infertile couples in Kermanshah during 2013

    PubMed Central

    Khosrorad, Tahereh; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Riazi, Hedyeh; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Alavimajd, Hamid; Shahsavari, Soodeh; Bakhtiari, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a major reproductive health in gynecology. According to the world health organization, there are currently 50-80 million infertile couples in the world. Objective: Considering the critical effects of lifestyle on reproductive health, this study aimed to compare the lifestyle of fertile and infertile couples in Kermanshah during 2013. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive cross sectional study that was done on 216 fertile and infertile couples attending Infertility Center and six medical centers that were selected through the convenience sampling. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire containing demographic and fertility-related information and also lifestyle items on nutrition, physical activity, perceived social support, responsibility for health, and inappropriate health behaviors. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analysis, independent t, chi-square and Generalized Estimating equation were performed to analyze the data. Results: Fertile and infertile women (86.1% and 73. 1% respectively, p= 0. 03) as well as fertile and infertile men were significantly different in terms of physical activity (87% and 96.3% p<0.001, respectively) and perceived social support (p<0.001). Moreover, there was a significant difference between fertile and infertile women in nutrition (p<0.001). Similar differences were observed in responsibility for health and inappropriate health behaviors between fertile and infertile men. However, all of the dimensions of lifestyle, except nutrition, were significantly different between fertile and infertile couples. Conclusion: As lifestyle plays a crucial role in reproductive health, the inappropriate lifestyle of infertile couples has to be modified through effective measures such as awareness promotion, behavioral changes, and development of a healthy environment. PMID:26568759

  13. Thyroid Hormones and Prolactin Levels in Infertile Women in Southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Udoh, Alphonsus Ekpe; Essien, Okon Ekwerre; Isong, Idongesit Kokoabasi Paul; Gali, Rebecca Mtaku; Archibong, Edim Eyo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Human infertility is a complex global health problem. It has multiple social consequences which are especially profound for thyroid hormones in infertility with the aim of determining the degree of association of thyroid hormones with hyperprolactinemia in our population. Materials and Methods: The serum levels of prolactin, T3, T4 and TSH were determined in 90 hyperprolactinemic infertile women, 90 normoprolactinemic infertile women and 50 fertile women. The hormones were assayed using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay kits. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation were used to analyze the data, with the significant p-level set at 0.05. Results: A significantly higher mean serum prolactin and TSH were observed among the infertile groups compared to the fertile controls (p<0.05). The mean serum T3 and T4 were significantly lower in the hyperprolactinemic infertile women compared to the fertile controls (p<0.05). The mean TSH and T3 of normoprolactinemic infertile women and controls were comparable (p>0.05). However, the mean T4 was significantly lower in normoprolactinemic infertile women compared to the fertile controls (p<0.05). In all the groups, TSH correlated inversely with T3 and T4, while T3 correlated positively with T4. It was only in the control group that prolactin correlated positively and significantly with TSH. Conclusion: It is therefore concluded that hyperprolactinemia with thyroid dysfunction may be a major contributory hormonal factor in infertility among infertile women and as such, estimation of prolactin, T3, T4 and TSH should be included in the workup for infertile women especially those with hyperprolactinaemia. PMID:25954648

  14. Infertility in Jewish couples, biblical and rabbinic law.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    The Jewish religion is family orientated, and life is guided by 'Halacha', a code of conduct based on biblical and rabbinic law. There is a duty to have children, in view of the first biblical commandment 'be fruitful and multiply', which sanctions most treatments for infertility. Interpretations vary among Orthodox, Conservative and Progressive rabbis, but it is only rabbis who have authority to advise infertile couples on which procedures concur with Jewish law, and their appraisals tend towards leniency in the interests of domestic happiness. Prohibitions against 'wasting seed', and against marriage to a man with 'wounded testes or severed membrum', may be waived to allow semen collection for analysis and treatment for male infertility. All types of assisted conception are approved, including in vitro and micro-assisted fertilization, provided the gametes are from married couples. In short cycles, artificial insemination can be permitted in the post-menstrual week of 'niddah' when coitus is forbidden. Jewish descent from the mother is automatic but, for Orthodox couples, a technical violation of the law against adultery or incest can spoil the marriage prospects of a child or interrupt the paternal priestly line of Cohen or Levi. Donor gametes are largely unacceptable to Orthodox rabbis, since egg donation confuses the definition of the mother, and because sperm donation creates subterfuge in a child's genealogy and a risk of consanguinity. However, Progressive and Conservative rabbis place more emphasis on the social attributes of parents and frequently approve of gamete donation. The Jewish status of children resulting from surrogacy or adoption can be settled by religious conversion. Objections to treating unmarried couples, single or lesbian women, and to posthumous conception, arise because such households are not traditional families. PMID:11844302

  15. Associations between peripheral androgens and cortisol in infertile women.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Seier, Kenneth; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Weghofer, Andrea; Wu, Yan-Guang; Wang, Qi; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H

    2016-04-01

    Testosterone has in recent years been proven essential for normal growth and maturation of small growing follicles. Concomitantly, low functional ovarian reserve (LFOR), characterized by a small growing follicle pool, has been associated with low testosterone levels, which can be of ovarian and/or adrenal origin. In this study we, therefore, investigated whether peripheral sex steroid precursors and testosterone levels potentially reflect on adrenal function. In a retrospective cohort study of 355 consecutive infertile women, who presented to an academically affiliated fertility center in New York City, we investigated in a series of statistical models whether low peripheral sex steroid precursors and testosterone are associated with peripheral cortisol (C) levels, reflecting adrenal function. To determine potential correlations, we investigated the dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione (AD), total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT); sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and C in a series of multivariate and logistic regression analyses, utilizing C either as a continuous variable or with cut off <5.0μg/dL, and TT only as a continuous variable. Practically all models demonstrated significant predictability of peripheral sex hormone precursors for C levels, with DHEA demonstrating the strongest and most consistent predictability as an individual parameter and as part of the DHEAS/DHEA ratio. We conclude that in infertile women peripheral sex hormone precursors, especially DHEA, reflect C levels and, therefore, adrenal function. In infertile women, at all ages low levels of sex hormone precursors, therefore, should be considered indications for further adrenal assessments. PMID:26804970

  16. Surrogate motherhood as a medical treatment procedure for women's infertility.

    PubMed

    Jovic, Olga S

    2011-03-01

    The content of this work is conceived on the research of the consequences of surrogate motherhood as a process of assisted procreation, which represent a way of parenthood in cases when it is not possible to realize parenthood through a natural way. Surrogate motherhood is a process in which a woman (surrogate mother) agrees to carry a pregnancy with the intent to give the child to the couple with whom she has made a contract on surrogate maternity after the birth. This process of conception and birth makes the determination of the child's origin on its mother's side hard to determine, because of the distinction of the genetic and gestation phases of the two women. The concept of surrogate motherhood is to appear in two forms, depending on the existence or the non-existence of the genetic link between the surrogate mother and the child she gives birth to. There are gestation (full) and genetic (partial) surrogates each with different modalities and legal and ethical implications. In Serbia, Infertility Treatment and the Bio-medically Assisted Procreation Act from 2009 explicitly forbids surrogate motherhood, despite the fact that an infertile couple decides to use it, as a rule, after having tried all other treatment procedures, in cases when there is a diagnosis but the conventional treatment applied has not produced the desired results. Given the fact that no one has the right to ignore the sufferings of people who cannot procreate naturally, the medical practice and legal science in our country plead for a formulation of a legal framework in which to apply surrogate motherhood as an infertility treatment, under particular conditions. PMID:21528795

  17. Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Guilherme Leme; Hallak, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The negative impact of AAS abuse on male fertility is well known by urologists. The secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is often highlighted when AAS and fertility are being discussed. On the other hand, the patterns of use, mechanisms of action and direct effects over the testicle are usually overseen. The present study reviews the vast formal and "underground" culture of AAS, as well as their overall implications. Specific considerations about their impact on the male reproductive system are made, with special attention to the recent data on direct damage to the testicle. To our knowledge this kind of overview is absolutely unique, offering a distinguished set of information to the day-by-day urologists. For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. Initially, these substances were restricted to professional bodybuilders, becoming gradually more popular among recreational power athletes. Currently, as many as 3 million anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States, and considering its increasing prevalence, it has become an issue of major concern. Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse, with male factor being present in up to 50% of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS, specially oriented to urologists, is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient axial inhibition, and the more recent experimental reports

  18. Tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, and infertility: what ailed George Orwell?

    PubMed

    Ross, John J

    2005-12-01

    In the last and most productive years of his life, George Orwell struggled with pulmonary tuberculosis, dying at the dawn of the era of chemotherapy. His case history illustrates clinical aspects of tuberculosis with contemporary relevance: the role of poverty in its spread, the limited efficacy of monotherapy, the potential toxicity of treatment, and the prominence of cachexia as a terminal symptom. Orwell's ordeals with collapse therapy may have influenced the portrayal of the tortures of Winston Smith in the novel 1984. I discuss unifying diagnoses for Orwell's respiratory problems and apparent infertility, including tuberculous epididymitis, Young syndrome, immotile cilia syndrome, and cystic fibrosis. PMID:16267732

  19. Prospective Changes in Infertile Patients using Nonlinear Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuko; Tomiyama, Tatsuhiro; Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Tsukamoto, Asami; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi

    2011-06-01

    We measured pulse waves in 22 infertile women from the beginning of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) through to pregnancy testing. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and autonomic nerve balance in the pregnancy group were significantly lower than that in the non-pregnancy group. In this study, we measured plethysmograms of four women who became pregnant and 18 who did not, ten times from each. We calculated LLE and a value for the autonomic nerve balance; from this analysis, we conclude that a mental state that allows for the possibility of becoming pregnant is necessary for a successful pregnancy.

  20. Might uterus transplantation be an option for uterine factor infertility?

    PubMed

    Akar, Münire Erman

    2015-01-01

    Current data on uterus allotransplantation research has been reviewed and summarized. Over the past 15 years, progress in uterus transplantation research has increased dramatically. As a consequence, the first pregnancy and delivery following uterus allotransplantation in rats have been reported. The technique has been better defined. Although clinical pregnancy and delivery following uterus allotransplantation has been reported in humans, there are still many questions to be answered before clinical application. Gestational surrogacy still remains an important option for being a genetic parent in selected cases with uterine factor infertility. PMID:25788850

  1. Natural procreative technology for infertility and recurrent miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Elizabeth; Schliep, Karen; Stanford, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To study the outcomes of women with infertility or miscarriage treated with natural procreative technology (NaProTechnology or NPT), a systematic medical approach to promoting conception in vivo; and to compare the outcomes with those previously published from a general practice in Ireland. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting An urban Canadian primary care practice in which the physician had a part-time practice in NPT. Participants Couples with infertility or recurrent miscarriage who received treatment in the practice between August 2000 and July 2006. Intervention All couples were taught to identify the fertile time of their menstrual cycles using the Creighton Model FertilityCare System (CrMS) and completed a standard NPT evaluation. Many also received additional medical treatment to enhance conception in vivo. Main outcome measures Live birth was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included conceptions, multiple births, low birth weight, and prematurity. Results A total of 108 couples received NPT and were included in the analysis, of which 19 (18%) reported having 2 or more previously unexplained miscarriages. The average female age was 35.4 years. Couples had been attempting to conceive for a mean of 3.2 years. Twenty-two participants (20%) had previously given birth; 24 (22%) had previous intrauterine insemination; and 9 (8%) had previous assisted reproductive technology. The cumulative adjusted proportion of first live births for those completing up to 24 months of NPT treatment was 66 per 100 couples, and the crude proportion was 38%. The cumulative adjusted proportion of first conceptions was 73 per 100 couples, and the crude proportion was 47%. Of the 51 couples who conceived, 12 couples (24%) conceived with CrMS instruction alone, 35 (69%) conceived with CrMS and NPT medical treatment, and 4 (8%) conceived after additional surgical treatment. All births were singleton births; 54% were born at 37 weeks’ gestation or later

  2. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2014–2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. Results One main theme emerged through analysis entitled “cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis” with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. Conclusion The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women. PMID:26767097

  3. Access to and use of infertility services in the United States: framing the challenges.

    PubMed

    Adashi, Eli Y; Dean, Laura A

    2016-05-01

    An overview of access to and use of general infertility and assisted reproductive technology (ART) services in the United States (U.S.) shows a declining trend for the ever-use of infertility services. Moreover, the use of ART services lags relative to other member nations of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Access to and use of general infertility and ART services is primarily undermined by a severely constrained underwriting universe dominated by self-insured employers and by a finite number of state infertility insurance mandates. The contribution of traditional public and private payers to the underwriting of ART is limited. As compared with OECD member nations wherein the access to and underwriting of general infertility and ART services is universal, the current status quo in the U.S. can only be characterized as dismal. Further, the current state of affairs is socially unjust in that the right to build a family in the face of infertility appears to have become a function of economic prowess. Given the dominance of the self-insured employers as underwriters of general infertility and ART services, advocacy directed at this interest group is likely to prove most productive. Improving the state of underwriting of general infertility and ART services in the U.S. must be embraced as a central moral imperative and as an unwavering strategic goal of the professional societies entrusted with the reproductive health of women and men. PMID:26826275

  4. Epidemiology of infertility: a population-based study in Babol, Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh, Seddigheh; Delavar, Mouloud Agajani; Zeinalzadeh, Mahtab; Mir, Mohammad-Reza Aghajani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of researchers in the present study was to determine the prevalence of infertility and self-reported cause of infertility in Babol, Iran and then identify the factors associated with infertility. A retrospective epidemiologic study was conducted of characteristics of urban and rural women related to infertility. A total of 1,140 women aged 20-45 years were selected using cluster sampling. Of these 1,140 women, 59 (5.2%) (CI 4.2, 6.2) were voluntarily childless. Of the remaining 1,081 women, 913 (84.5%) (CI 82.5, 86.5) reported no difficulties in having children, and the remaining 168 (15.5%) (CI 13.5, 17.5) experienced difficulty conceiving at some stage in their lives. The prevalence of ever having primary infertility was 4.3% (CI 2.3, 6.3). The most frequently self-reported causes of infertility in this study were ovulation problems (39.2%). Infertile women were significantly more likely to have a higher age at marriage (p = 0.001), lower education (p = 0.006), higher body mass index (p = 0.0001), long-term health problems (p = 0.0001), a partner who smoked (p = 0.029), and past history of tubal or ectopic pregnancy (p = 0.002). These risk factors may help inform reproductive health clinics and primary healthcare centers about factors associated with infertility. PMID:23127216

  5. A Holistic Approach to the Treatment of the Crisis of Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresnick, Ellen R.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the importance of assessing the impact infertility has on couples/individuals and understanding the relevance of this impact in the context of psychological treatment. Infertility's negative impact can be minimized by therapeutic intervention. Three psychological-behavioral categories for couples are posited, with case studies. (Author)

  6. An Exploratory Study of the Psychological Correlates of Infertility on Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Fahje, Kristin Kons

    1989-01-01

    Investigated effect of various factors related to infertility on women's (N=31) self-esteem and concomitant incidence of depression. Results support positive relationship between infertile women's self-esteem and their internal locus of control, self-esteem and subjective satisfaction with their social support, and general satisfaction with social…

  7. Survey of the Situation of Infertile Women Seeking In Vitro Fertilization Treatment in China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xuan; Wang, Gongxian; Liu, Sisun; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Fang; Qiu, Yun; Huang, Xiaojin

    2013-01-01

    Background. In previous studies, people's knowledge of reproductive health and infertile women's psychological states was surveyed in several countries. However, there has been limited information concerning the psychological states of infertile women seeking treatment and the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in China. Methods. Infertile women were asked to complete short questionnaires on the day that their oocytes were retrieved; these questionnaires covered the durations of their infertility, levels of education, sources of pressure, and psychological states. Data concerning IVF outcomes were provided by embryologists and clinicians. The correlations between the duration of infertility and educational level, psychological state and education level, and psychological state and outcome of IVF were analyzed in the cohort study. Results. The duration of infertility in more than half of the females was longer than 5 years. Compared with less-educated women, women with higher levels of education sought treatment earlier and their rates of depressive symptoms were lower. There is an association between negative emotions and outcome of IVF. Conclusions. The survey of the situations of infertile women seeking IVF treatment in China indicates the importance of popularizing knowledge concerning reproductive health. Improving medical conditions, reducing the costs of treatment, and developing social culture will aid in relieving the stress of infertile women and improving assisted reproductive treatment. PMID:24369006

  8. Infertility in Women: Hysterosalpingographic Assessment of the Fallopian Tubes in Lagos, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Fabamwo, A. O.

    2009-01-01

    Tubal disease constitutes a major factor in infertility especially in developing countries. This study was undertaken to assess the hysterosalpingographic patterns seen in infertile patients in an urban centre in Lagos. Two hundred and twenty patients who reported from the gynaecology clinic to the radiology department of Lagos State University…

  9. Motherhood and Female Labor Supply in the Developing World: Evidence from Infertility Shocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguero, Jorge M.; Marks, Mindy S.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new instrument for family size, infertility, to investigate the causal relationship between children and female labor force participation. Infertility mimics an experiment where nature assigns an upper bound for family size, independent of a woman's background. This new instrument allows us to investigate the differential labor…

  10. Access to infertility care in the developing world: the family promotion gap.

    PubMed

    Asemota, Obehi A; Klatsky, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Infertility in resource-poor settings is an overlooked global health problem. Although scarce health care resources must be deployed thoughtfully, prioritization of resources may be different for recipient and donor countries, the latter of whom focus on maternal health care, prevention, and family planning. For women and couples with involuntary childlessness, the negative psychosocial, sociocultural, and economic consequences in low-income countries are severe, possibly more so than in most Western societies. Despite the local importance of infertility, few resources are committed to help advance infertility care in regions like sub-Saharan Africa. The worldwide prevalence of infertility is remarkably similar across low-, middle-, and high-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes infertility as a global health problem and established universal access to reproductive health care as one of the United Nation's Millennium Developmental Goals for 2015. Currently, access to infertility care is varied and is usually only attainable by the very wealthy in low-income countries. We provide an overview on the current state of access to infertility care in low-income countries such as in sub-Saharan Africa and a rationale for providing comprehensive reproductive care and possible solutions for providing cost-effective infertility services in these settings. PMID:25565507

  11. Use of multivitamins, intake of B vitamins and risk of ovulatory infertility

    PubMed Central

    Chavarro, Jorge E.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Willett, Walter C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine whether use of multivitamins and intake of specific nutrients in multivitamins is associated with ovulatory infertility. Design and Setting The Nurses’ Health Study II, a prospective cohort study. Participants 18,555 married, pre-menopausal women without a history of infertility who attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant between 1991 and 1999. Main outcome measures Incident reports of infertility due to anovulation. Results During 8 years of follow-up 438 women reported infertility due to ovulatory disorder. There was an inverse association between frequency of multivitamin use and ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (95% confidence interval) of ovulatory infertility was 0.88 (0.60, 1.28) for women consuming 2 tablets/week or less, 0.69 (0.51, 0.95) for women consuming 3 to 5 tablets/week and 0.59 (0.46, 0.75) for women consuming 6 or more tablets/week, when compared to women who did not use these supplements (P, trend <0.001). Folic acid appeared to explain part of the association between multivitamin supplement use and risk of ovulatory infertility. Conclusions Regular use of multivitamin supplements may decrease the risk of ovulatory infertility. PMID:17624345

  12. Feeling the blues of infertility in a South Asian context: psychological well-being and associated factors among Sri Lankan women with primary infertility.

    PubMed

    Lansakara, Nirosha; Wickramasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Seneviratne, Harshalal Rukka

    2011-06-21

    Primary infertility may have a considerable impact on the psychological well-being of women. In the present study, the authors investigated the psychological well-being and its correlates among Sri Lankan women with primary infertility. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were compared with 177 fertile women matched for age and duration of marriage to identify differences in the psychological well-being between the two groups. They were recruited from a prevalence survey conducted in the district of Colombo, Sri Lanka from August 2005 to February 2006. The General Health Questionnaire-30 (GHQ-30) and Mental Health sub-components of the Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used to measure psychological well-being. In addition, infertile women with and without psychological distress were compared to identify the social, marital, treatment, and demographic factors independently associated with psychological distress. A significantly higher proportion of women with primary infertility (66.1%; 95% CI 58.6-73.0%) had psychological distress as compared to fertile women (18.6 %; 95% CI 13.2-25.2%; P < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors, infertile women who were psychologically distressed were significantly less educated (OR = 55.3; 95% CI 15.2-201.0), had poor marital communication (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.3-9.8), had a higher priority for having children (OR = 4.2; 95% CI 1.3-13.8), and had been previously (OR = 39.1; 95% CI 8.3-185.4) or currently (OR = 11.0; 95% CI 3.0-40.6) investigated/treated for infertility when compared with infertile women without distress. Women with primary infertility reported more distress as compared to fertile women. Psychological distress among infertile women was associated with poorer education, being previously/currently investigated/treated, placing higher importance on having children, and having poor marital communication. The need for psychological intervention targeting infertile women in clinics and community settings is

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infertility at a Rural Site of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Liqiang; Tan, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze prevalence and risk factors of infertility at a representative rural site of Northern China. Method This is a cross-sectional study. We conducted a face-to-face questionnaire survey from July 2014 to October 2014 involving 5,131 women who were at childbearing age in Suizhong, a medium-sized, representative county located in Northern China. Finally, data from 4,232 valid questionnaires were analyzed. Definition Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regularly unprotected sexual intercourse. Results Infertility prevalence in Suizhong County was 13.09% (95% CI, 12.09%-14.1%), of which the primary infertility incidence was 0.99% (95% CI, 0.72%-1.34%), and the secondary infertility incidence was 12.10% (95% CI, 11.13%-13.12%). For women, the infertility incidence of underweight women (Body Mass Index, BMI<18.5 kg/m2) was 1.5-fold higher than that of women with moderate BMI (18.5–24.9 kg/m2). The infertility incidence of women with little exercise was 4 times more than that of women with regular exercise, and 2 times more than that of women with heavy exercise. The group with moderate menstrual flow had the lowest prevalence of infertility, while both scant and excessive menstruation led to increased infertility incidence. Number of pregnancies (OR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.51–0.79) was a protective factor for infertility, while the number of abortions (OR = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.58–2.93) was a risk factor for infertility. For men, those who stayed up late at night more than 3 times per week showed a significantly higher infertility incidence. Men who engaged in occupations with high-temperature working environment also suffered from an infertility incidence of about four times more than the others. Conclusions We found significant association between women's infertility incidence with their BMI, state of exercise, amount of menstrual flow, number of pregnancies and number of abortions

  14. “Trying” Times: Medicalization, Intent, and Ambiguity in the Definition of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Greil, Arthur L.; McQuillan, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Researchers studying infertility from the perspective of anthropology and other the social sciences seldom examine the assumptions embedded in the biomedical definition of infertility. Implicit in the biomedical definition is the assumption that people can be divided straightforwardly into those who are trying to conceive and those who are not trying to conceive. If being infertile implies “intent to conceive,” we must recognize that there are various degrees of intent and that the line between the fertile and the infertile is not as sharp as is usually imagined. Drawing on structured interview data collected from a random sample of Midwestern U.S. women and from qualitative interviews, we demonstrate that that there is a wide range of intent among those classified as infertile according to the biomedical definition. We explore the implications of this for research. PMID:20550090

  15. Experimental methods to preserve male fertility and treat male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Gassei, Kathrin; Orwig, Kyle E

    2016-02-01

    Infertility is a prevalent condition that has insidious impacts on the infertile individuals, their families, and society, which extend far beyond the inability to have a biological child. Lifestyle changes, fertility treatments, and assisted reproductive technology (ART) are available to help many infertile couples achieve their reproductive goals. All of these technologies require that the infertile individual is able to produce at least a small number of functional gametes (eggs or sperm). It is not possible for a person who does not produce gametes to have a biological child. This review focuses on the infertile man and describes several stem cell-based methods and gene therapy approaches that are in the research pipeline and may lead to new fertility treatment options for men with azoospermia. PMID:26746133

  16. Indigenous knowledge systems and attitudes towards male infertility in Mhondoro-Ngezi, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Stanzia

    2013-01-01

    Male impotence and infertility are health and social problems that have resulted in significant suffering to men the world over. From an African perspective, and in Zimbabwe in particular, the taboo nature of male impotence and infertility carries a lot of mystique. Based on evidence from focus-group discussions, in-depth and key-informant interviews, this study reveals rural Shona people to have indigenous knowledge systems that trigger the investigation of signs of impotence (perceived as associated with male infertility) at infancy, puberty and after marriage. Male infertility carries overtones of failure, frustration, pain, social ostracism, stigma, marital instability, discomfiture and suicide. Intervention strategies to remedy perceived problems were exclusively sociocultural, involving the administration of traditional herbs and traditional healers' divination. Given the existence of indigenous knowledge systems for the investigation and mediation of male impotence and infertility, it is worth incorporating traditional healers in future strategies targeting these emasculating conditions. PMID:23550631

  17. Bilateral ovarian maldescent: Unusual cause of infertility - A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Garg, D; Grazi, R; Kankanala, N; Melzer-Ross, K

    2016-08-01

    Infertility due to ovarian maldescent is extremely rare and diagnosis can be challenging in the absence of uterine anomalies. We present a case of infertility due to bilateral ovarian maldescent with normal uterine anatomy who conceived after in vitro fertilization and did not require removal of the ovaries. A 19-year-old woman presented with primary infertility. After three failed cycles of ovulation induction/intrauterine insemination and one failed cycle of fresh embryo transfer, the patient underwent laparoscopy, which showed bilateral ovaries above the pelvic brim. The patient conceived after second in vitro fertilization and delivered at 34 weeks. Accurate diagnosis of ovarian maldescent in a patient of unexplained infertility and normal uterus is crucial for successful follicular aspiration and infertility treatment. It is important to counsel patients about the benign nature of this rare entity and future fertility. PMID:27094464

  18. The management of infertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Homburg, Roy

    2003-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS] is the commonest cause of anovulatory infertility. Treatment modes available are numerous mainly relying on ovarian stimulation with FSH, a reduction in insulin concentrations and a decrease in LH levels as the basis of the therapeutic principles. Clomiphene citrate is still the first line treatment and if unsuccessful is usually followed by direct FSH stimulation. This should be given in a low dose protocol, essential to avoid the otherwise prevalent complications of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancies. The addition of a GnRH agonists, while very useful during IVF/ET, adds little to ovulation induction success whereas the position of GnRH antagonists is not yet clear. Hyperinsulinemia is the commonest contributor to the state of anovulation and its reduction, by weight loss or insulin sensitizing agents such as metformin, will alone often restore ovulation or will improve results when used in combination with other agents. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling is proving equally as successful as FSH for the induction of ovulation, particularly in thin patients with high LH concentrations. Aromatase inhibitors are presently being examined and may replace clomiphene in the future. When all else has failed, IVF/ET produces excellent results. In conclusion, there are very few women suffering from anovulatory infertility associated with PCOS who cannot be successfully treated today. PMID:14617367

  19. [Bacterial infection as a cause of infertility in humans].

    PubMed

    Sleha, Radek; Boštíková, Vanda; Salavec, Miloslav; Mosio, Petra; Kusáková, Eva; Kukla, Rudolf; Mazurová, Jaroslava; Spliňo, Miroslav

    2013-04-01

    Microorganisms which are present in the human urogenital tract may be involved in the development of inflammatory changes negatively affecting the genitals in both men and women. Pathological conditions due to inflammatory alterations may result in complete loss of fertility. Infections of the urogenital tract are responsible for 15% of all cases of infertility in couples. Negative impact on the human reproduction is mainly caused by direct damage to the genital tract mucosa by metabolic products of microorganisms or by induction of pro-inflammatory responses of the body. Another mechanism is indirect impact of microorganisms on the genital function. Moreover, the effect of bacteria on spermatogenesis and semen quality is important in men. Infections mainly caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae represent the greatest risk in terms of permanent consequences for human reproduction. As for other sexually transmitted disorders, such as infections caused by Gardnerella vaginalis, urogenital mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas, the link between infection and infertility has been intensively researched. PMID:23768092

  20. [Male infertility with chromosomal abnormalities. I. XYY syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hazama, M; Oka, N; Hamaguchi, T; Okada, H; Matsumoto, O; Kamidono, S; Ishigami, J

    1985-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are found in a considerably high percentage of cases of male infertility, in particular azoospermia. We report a case of the XYY syndrome and review the literature. A 36-year-old man, a factory hand, presented with infertility. He was safely delivered at term as a fourth child when his father was 41 years old and his mother 38. He had no delinquent or criminal record. His height was 179 cm, weight 75 kg and distance of extended hands 184 cm. No gynecomastia was noticed. Both testes were 8ml in size and growth of pubic hair and penis were normal. Severe oligozoospermia was identified in semen analysis. Seminal vesiculography showed pathological dilatation of the seminal vas end. The testicular biopsy specimens revealed spermatogenic arrest for the most part. Chromosomal analysis showed 47, XYY karyotype; and, two Y-chromatin was revealed in cultured lymphocytes. Though plasma gonadotropin levels were high, testosterone, estradiol, prolactin, TSH, GH, T3 and T4 levels were within normal limits. Pituitary reserve function for secreting gonadotropins and Leydig cell reserve function to secrete testosterone have been found to be almost normal. PMID:4039524

  1. Semen analysis of infertile Igbo males in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwafia, W C; Igweh, J C; Udebuani, I N

    2006-01-01

    The semen samples of 1,110 (one thousand, one hundred and ten) Igbo males attending infertility clinic, aged between 30-50 years were collected and analyzed. The specimens were collected and analysed in the microbiology laboratory of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Eastern Nigeria. The standard method of masturbation after 3-5 days of prior abstinence from sex before sample collection was applied. The samples were examined for semen volume and microscopically as a wet preparation for sperm motility, morphology and count. The semen volume result showed that 91.07 % were normal. 6.3% sperm samples were motile. In the sperm count, only 7.3% had normal cells, 62.0% showed abnormal morphology. The aetiology of male infertility in the population studied seems to be related to the sperm count, motility and morphology but not volume. Racial factor seems to play no role and it is important to abstain from sexual intercourse some days before collection of semen for analysis. PMID:17242721

  2. The link between infertility and poverty: evidence from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Papreen

    2012-03-01

    The link between high fertility and poverty is well established. However, this paper shows how infertility may also generate poverty among childless families in Bangladesh. An ethnographic study was conducted, involving various qualitative research methods that revealed economic consequences to be one of the crucial sequelae of childlessness in Bangladesh. This paper details how the poverty/fertility relationship is dependent on social and institutional characteristics, including patriarchal values, education, urban-rural location and health services. Empirical data show that childlessness generates poverty in various ways, including the deprivation of children's earnings, decline in women's mobility, demoralisation of men to earn an income, marriage devaluation by the husband, disbursements for treatment and denial of microcredit (very small loans to those in poverty, which support them to become self-employed to generate income). The current study shows that the infertility/poverty relationship is mostly contingent upon class and gender. It is therefore the rural poor childless women who are most badly affected economically in Bangladesh rather than the urban middle class childless women. In other words, this study reveal that along with gender, class plays a dominant role in terms of the economic consequences of childlessness in Bangladesh. It sheds light on a different and unusual aspect of poverty and aims to contribute to the gender discussion of livelihood and poverty. PMID:22313219

  3. [Tubo-peritoneal factor of infertility: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Muzii, L; Sereni, M I; Battista, C; Zullo, M A; Tambone, V; Angioli, R

    2010-01-01

    Infertility, defined as the inability to conceive despite regular unprotected sexual intercourse over 12 years, affects approximately 10% of the fertile population. The commonest cause of tubal damage is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which in the developed world is caused mainly by Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The incidence of tubal damage after one episode of pelvic infection is approximately 12%, 23% after two episodes and 54% after three episodes. Other causes of tubal damage include postsurgical adhesions or endometriosis. Tubal patency can be diagnosed by hysterosalpingography (HSG) or laparoscopy with chromopertubation. Surgery represents the best therapeutic approach for tubal pathology, with a term pregnancy rate of 70% after surgery in selected patients, while the latest results in Italy of assisted reproductive technology (ART) report a live birth rate per cycle of 13.8%. In conclusion, tubal reconstructive surgery remains an important option for many couples and surgery should be the fi rst line approach for a correct diagnosis and treatment of tubal infertility. PMID:20393685

  4. Human Papillomavirus Infection, Infertility, and Assisted Reproductive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Nigel; Kucharczyk, Katherine M.; Estes, Jaclyn L.; Gerber, Rachel S.; Lekovich, Jovana P.; Elias, Rony T.; Spandorfer, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection common among men and women across all geographic and socioeconomic subgroups worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that HPV infection may affect fertility and alter the efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies. In men, HPV infection can affect sperm parameters, specifically motility. HPV-infected sperm can transmit viral DNA to oocytes, which may be expressed in the developing blastocyst. HPV can increase trophoblastic apoptosis and reduce the endometrial implantation of trophoblastic cells, thus increasing the theoretical risk of miscarriage. Vertical transmission of HPV during pregnancy may be involved in the pathophysiology of preterm rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm birth. In patients undergoing intrauterine insemination for idiopathic infertility, HPV infection confers a lower pregnancy rate. In contrast, the evidence regarding any detrimental impact of HPV infection on IVF outcomes is inconclusive. It has been suggested that vaccination could potentially counter HPV-related sperm impairment, trophoblastic apoptosis, and spontaneous miscarriages; however, these conclusions are based on in vitro studies rather than large-scale epidemiological studies. Improvement in the understanding of HPV sperm infection mechanisms and HPV transmission into the oocyte and developing blastocyst may help explain idiopathic causes of infertility and miscarriage. PMID:26609434

  5. Idiopathic infertility in two captive male gerenuk (Litocranius walleri walleri).

    PubMed

    VanderKlok, Carin M; Penfold, Linda M; Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Citino, Scott B

    2008-09-01

    Two adult male gerenuk (Litocranius walleri walleri) were confirmed infertile with distinctly varying clinical presentations. One animal had unilateral testicular degeneration/hypoplasia, and within 8 mo experienced atrophy/degeneration of the remaining testicle. The second animal had been previously treated with melengesterol acetate (MGA) milled in feed for 1 yr during puberty as part of an aggression-control study. The testes in this individual appeared normal both visually and on palpation; however, repeated semen collection consistently produced ejaculates containing high numbers of immotile spermatozoa, all of a single abnormal morphology: shortened tails, with normal total sperm counts for this species. Both gerenuk had cortisol concentrations within normal ranges for adult male gerenuk. Analysis of serum mineral concentration revealed zinc levels that would be considered low in domestic cattle. Testosterone levels were low for the animal discussed in case 1, but were within normal range for the animal in case 2 compared with other gerenuk. Investigations into endocrine causes, such as abnormal thyroid hormone concentrations and adrenal function, were unrewarding. Both animals discussed in this report are maternally related; therefore, a genetic cause of infertility cannot be ruled out. Further investigation into MGA, as well as the dietary zinc requirements for gerenuk, and resulting effects on spermatogenesis and testicular development are warranted. PMID:18817003

  6. Does varicocelectomy affect DNA fragmentation in infertile patients?

    PubMed Central

    Telli, Onur; Sarici, Hasmet; Kabar, Mucahit; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Resorlu, Berkan; Bozkurt, Selen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of varicocelectomy on DNA fragmentation index and semen parameters in infertile patients before and after surgical repair of varicocele. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 72 men with at least 1-year history of infertility, varicocele and oligospermia were examined. Varicocele sperm samples were classified as normal or pathological according to the 2010 World Health Organization guidelines. The acridine orange test was used to assess the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: DFI decreased significantly after varicocelectomy from 34.5% to 28.2% (P = 0.024). In addition all sperm parameters such as mean sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility and sperm morphology significantly increased from 19.5 × 106 to 30.7 × 106, 5.4 × 106/ml to 14.3 × 106/ml, and 19.9% to 31.2% (P < 0.001) and 2.6% to 3.1% (P = 0.017). The study was limited by the loss to follow-up of some patients and unrecorded pregnancy outcome due to short follow-up. Conclusion: Varicocele causes DNA-damage in spermatozoa. We suggest that varicocelectomy improves sperm parameters and decreases DFI. PMID:25878412

  7. Proteomic signatures of infertile men with clinical varicocele and their validation studies reveal mitochondrial dysfunction leading to infertility

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh; Samanta, Luna; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    To study the major differences in the distribution of spermatozoa proteins in infertile men with varicocele by comparative proteomics and validation of their level of expression. The study-specific estimates for each varicocele outcome were combined to identify the proteins involved in varicocele-associated infertility in men irrespective of stage and laterality of their clinical varicocele. Expression levels of 5 key proteins (PKAR1A, AK7, CCT6B, HSPA2, and ODF2) involved in stress response and sperm function including molecular chaperones were validated by Western blotting. Ninety-nine proteins were differentially expressed in the varicocele group. Over 87% of the DEP involved in major energy metabolism and key sperm functions were underexpressed in the varicocele group. Key protein functions affected in the varicocele group were spermatogenesis, sperm motility, and mitochondrial dysfunction, which were further validated by Western blotting, corroborating the proteomics analysis. Varicocele is essentially a state of energy deprivation, hypoxia, and hyperthermia due to impaired blood supply, which is corroborated by down-regulation of lipid metabolism, mitochondrial electron transport chain, and Krebs cycle enzymes. To corroborate the proteomic analysis, expression of the 5 identified proteins of interest was validated by Western blotting. This study contributes toward establishing a biomarker “fingerprint” to assess sperm quality on the basis of molecular parameters. PMID:26732106

  8. Complete evaluation of anatomy and morphology of the infertile patient in a single visit; the modern infertility pelvic ultrasound examination.

    PubMed

    Groszmann, Yvette S; Benacerraf, Beryl R

    2016-06-01

    The comprehensive "one-stop shop" ultrasound evaluation of an infertile woman, performed around cycle days 5 to 9, will reveal abundant information about the anatomy and morphology of the pelvic organs and thereby avoid costly radiation and iodinated contrast exposure. We propose a two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound to examine the appearance and shape of the endometrium, endometrial cavity, myometrium, and junctional zone, to assess for müllerian duct anomalies fibroids, adenomyosis, and polyps. We then evaluate the adnexa with grayscale ultrasound and Doppler, looking for ovarian masses or cysts, and signs of tubal disease. The cul-de-sac is imaged to look for masses, endometriosis, and free fluid. We then push gently on the uterus and ovaries to assess mobility. Lack of free movement of the organs would suggest adhesions or endometriosis. The sonohysterogram then allows for more detailed evaluation of the endometrial cavity, endometrial lining, and any intracavitary lesions. Tubal patency is then assessed during the sonohysterogram in real time by introducing air and saline or contrast and imaging the tubes (HyCoSy). With this single comprehensive ultrasound examination, patients can obtain a reliable, time-efficient, minimally invasive infertility evaluation in their own clinician's office at significantly less cost and without radiation. PMID:27054310

  9. Proteomic signatures of infertile men with clinical varicocele and their validation studies reveal mitochondrial dysfunction leading to infertility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh; Samanta, Luna; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    To study the major differences in the distribution of spermatozoa proteins in infertile men with varicocele by comparative proteomics and validation of their level of expression. The study-specific estimates for each varicocele outcome were combined to identify the proteins involved in varicocele-associated infertility in men irrespective of stage and laterality of their clinical varicocele. Expression levels of 5 key proteins (PKAR1A, AK7, CCT6B, HSPA2, and ODF2) involved in stress response and sperm function including molecular chaperones were validated by Western blotting. Ninety-nine proteins were differentially expressed in the varicocele group. Over 87% of the DEP involved in major energy metabolism and key sperm functions were underexpressed in the varicocele group. Key protein functions affected in the varicocele group were spermatogenesis, sperm motility, and mitochondrial dysfunction, which were further validated by Western blotting, corroborating the proteomics analysis. Varicocele is essentially a state of energy deprivation, hypoxia, and hyperthermia due to impaired blood supply, which is corroborated by down-regulation of lipid metabolism, mitochondrial electron transport chain, and Krebs cycle enzymes. To corroborate the proteomic analysis, expression of the 5 identified proteins of interest was validated by Western blotting. This study contributes toward establishing a biomarker "fingerprint" to assess sperm quality on the basis of molecular parameters. PMID:26732106

  10. Pregnancy Outcome after Office Microhysteroscopy in Women with Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Seyam, Emaduldin Mostafa; Hassan, Momen Mohamed; Mohamed Sayed Gad, Mohamed Tawfeek; Mahmoud, Hazem Salah; Ibrahim, Mostafa Gamal

    2015-01-01

    Background Hysteroscopy offers diagnostic accuracy and the ability to treat uterine pathology. The current study aimed to review the findings and feasibility of the proposed office-based diagnostic and operative microhysteroscopy in previously diagnosed wom- en with unexplained infertility and to evaluate the post-microhysteroscopic pregnancy outcome in a-year follow-up period. Materials and Methods This prospective controlled study was conducted between 2006 and 2013. Two hundreds women with unexplained infertility were randomized into two groups: A. study group including 100 women recruited for office micohysteroscopic session and B. control group including 100 without the proposed microhysteroscopic intervention. A malleable fiberoptic 2-mm, 0 and 30 degrees angled hysteroscopy along with an operative channel for grasping forceps, scissors, or coaxial bipolar electrode were used for both diagnostic and operative indications. The findings, complications, and patient tolerance were recorded. A-year follow-up of pregnancy outcome for both groups was also performed. Results Seventy cases (70%) of patients had a normal uterine cavity. Twenty wom- en (20%) had endometrial polyps. Other pathology included submucous myomas in 3 cases (3%), intrauterine adhesions in 3 cases (3%), polypoid endometrium in 3 cases (3%), and bicornuate uterus in one case (1%). The pathological findings were treated in all patients without complication. Also a-year follow-up of the to- tal developing cumulative pregnancy rate (CPR) was evaluated in groups A and B (control). Group A revealed the total CPR of 28.5%, among which 25% in women without pathology, 40% in women with endometrial polyps, 23% in women with adhesions, 33% in women with polypoid endometrium, and 21% in those with bi- cornuate uterus. However, A-year follow-up of spontaneous pregnancy outcome in group B showed a total CPR of 15%. Conclusion Women tolerance, safety, and feasibility of simultaneous operative correc- tion

  11. Role of genetic mutations in folate-related enzyme genes on Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kang; Zhao, Ruizhe; Shen, Min; Ye, Jiaxin; Li, Xiao; Huang, Yuan; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Several studies showed that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes might be associated with male infertility; however, the results were still inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G mutations and the MTHFR haplotype with the risk of male infertility. Overall, a total of 37 studies were selected. Our meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was a risk factor for male infertility in both azoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia patients, especially in Asian population. Men carrying the MTHFR TC haplotype were most liable to suffer infertility while those with CC haplotype had lowest risk. On the other hand, the MTHFR A1298C mutation was not related to male infertility. MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G were potential candidates in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but more case-control studies were required to avoid false-positive outcomes. All of these results were confirmed by the trial sequential analysis. Finally, our meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis proved that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes played a significant role in male infertility. PMID:26549413

  12. Traditional Practices of Turkish infertile women: an example from a rural county.

    PubMed

    Nazik, Evsen; Apay, Serap; Özdemir, Funda; Nazik, Hakan

    2015-03-01

    Infertility is not only a health problem, but is also a central existential intrapersonal and relational conflict. Infertility treatments are invasive, expensive, time-consuming, emotionally draining. All over the world there are numerous traditional methods used in the treatment of infertility. This investigation was carried out to determine the traditional practices of infertile women in a rural county in Eastern Turkey. This is a descriptive study carried out in 105 primary infertile women. Data were collected between September 2007 and April 2008 by using a questionnaire. Data analysis included descriptive statistics. 55% of the women were in the 25-34 year age range. It was observed that only 17% of the women applied to a gynecologist without using any traditional applications while 83% of the women applied for traditional applications. The most prevalent traditional practices were consulting traditional healers, visiting mausoleums where religious leaders were buried, using traditional drugs, use of written fertility amulets. Various traditional practices against infertility are prevalent rural counties. Some of these practices may be potentially harmful for women. Health professionals should be aware that infertile women may sometimes follow questionable traditional practices and advices. PMID:26040063

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Antigens Recognized by Women With Tubal Factor Infertility, Normal Fertility, and Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Budrys, Nicole M.; Gong, Siqi; Rodgers, Allison K.; Wang, Jie; Louden, Christopher; Shain, Rochelle; Schenken, Robert S.; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify Chlamydia trachomatis antigens associated with tubal factor infertility and acute infection. Methods A C. trachomatis proteome array was used to compare antibody profiles among women with tubal factor infertility, normal fertility, and acute C. trachomatis infection. Results Thirteen immunodominant antigens reacted with 50% or more sera from all women (N=73). Six C. trachomatis antigens were uniquely recognized by women diagnosed with tubal factor infertility. Combining fragmentation of the six antigens with serum sample dilution, chlamydial antigens HSP60, CT376, CT557, and CT443 could discriminate between women with tubal factor infertility and women with normal fertility with a sensitivity of 63% (95% CI: 0.41–0.77) and specificity of 100% (95% CI: 0.91–1), respectively. These antigens were designated as tubal factor infertility-associated antigens. However, these tubal factor antigens were unable to distinguish tubal factor infertility patients from those with acute infection. A combination of CT875 and CT147 distinguished women with acute infection from all other C. trachomatis-exposed women with a detection sensitivity of 63% (95% CI: 0.41–0.77) and specificity of 100% (95% CI: 0.95–1), respectively. Thus, CT875 and CT147 were designated as acute infection-associated antigens. Conclusion A sequential screening of antibodies against panels of C. trachomatis antigens can be used to identify women with tubal factor infertility and acute C. trachomatis infection. PMID:22525912

  14. Role of genetic mutations in folate-related enzyme genes on Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Zhao, Ruizhe; Shen, Min; Ye, Jiaxin; Li, Xiao; Huang, Yuan; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Several studies showed that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes might be associated with male infertility; however, the results were still inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G mutations and the MTHFR haplotype with the risk of male infertility. Overall, a total of 37 studies were selected. Our meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was a risk factor for male infertility in both azoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia patients, especially in Asian population. Men carrying the MTHFR TC haplotype were most liable to suffer infertility while those with CC haplotype had lowest risk. On the other hand, the MTHFR A1298C mutation was not related to male infertility. MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G were potential candidates in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but more case-control studies were required to avoid false-positive outcomes. All of these results were confirmed by the trial sequential analysis. Finally, our meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis proved that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes played a significant role in male infertility. PMID:26549413

  15. Psychological Disturbances and Quality of Life in Obese and Infertile Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Kocełak, Piotr; Chudek, Jerzy; Naworska, Beata; Bąk-Sosnowska, Monika; Kotlarz, Barbara; Mazurek, Monika; Madej, Paweł; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Skałba, Piotr; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Anovulatory cycles and endometriosis are the main causes of female infertility. The most frequently anovulatory cycles are related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) commonly associated with obesity and hormonal disturbances in the course of obesity. Recently published studies revealed that infertility affects about one in six couples during their lifetime and is more frequent in obese. Obesity is also associated with male infertility related to erectile dysfunction, hormonal disturbances and lower semen quality. Any of these above mentioned disorder is the important risk factor of psychological disturbances and poor quality of life among women and men in the reproductive age. On the other hand the mood disorders may exacerbate the hormonal disturbances and worsen the effectiveness of infertility management. Infertility, its therapy with accompanying psychological disturbances may also significantly affect the partners relationships. The review summarize the results described in the current literature on the association between obesity and infertility and psychological disturbances as well as their impact on quality of life and sexual functioning in women and men. Moreover, the impact of infertility and psychological disturbances on partners relationships is discussed. PMID:22844280

  16. Therapeutic Vaccines: Hope Therapy and Its Effects on Psychiatric Symptoms among Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Abdolahifard, Khadije; Jahromi, Masoumeh Golestan

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a life crisis which leads to serious psychological problems. The present study aims to investigate the effects of hope therapy as a psychological intervention on psychological distresses among infertile women. The present study was an experimental one. The study population included infertile women referring to gynecology clinics. Women who lived in Jahrom and could take part in psychotherapy sessions, had no chronic physical or mental disorders, suffered from primary infertility, had infertility unknown causes and had no history of miscarriage and stillbirth were selected through convenience sampling method and were divided into control and intervention groups (n=61). Women in the intervention group participated in eight 2-hour sessions for a period of 2 months. Study results revealed that there was a significant difference between the two groups after the intervention. Besides, there was a significant difference between the two groups through paired T-test (p<0.05). Furthermore, results of ANCOVA showed that after eliminating demographic variables, the intervention was effective in the total mean difference of the study groups. It means that the difference between the two groups was resulted from intervention. Hope therapy as a positive psychological approach can improve infertile women’s general health and subsequently improve family’s health. Therefore, in addition to assisted reproductive techniques, hope therapy is recommended to be presented to infertile people in order to improve the quality of their life and help them adapt with their problems. PMID:24373279

  17. Comparison of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment strategies in promotion of infertility self-efficacy scale in infertile women: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Hajar; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Esmailzadeh, Seddigheh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Salmalian, Hajar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The infertility is associated with psychological consequence including depression, and lack of self-efficacy. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacological and no pharmacological strategies in promotion of self-efficacy of infertile women. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 89 infertile women who were recruited from Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center and were randomized into three groups; cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), antidepressant therapy with flouxetine 20 mg daily for 3 month, and a control group. All participants completed Infertility Self-efficacy Inventory (ISE) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at the beginning and end of the study. Results: The means ISE scores among the CBT, fluoxetine, and control groups at the beginning and end of the study were 6.1±1.6 vs. 7.2±0.9, 6.4±1.4 vs. 6.9±1.3 and 6.1±1.1 vs. 5.9±1.4 respectively. Both CBT and fluoxetine increased the mean of ISE scores more than control group after intervention (p<0.0001, p=0.033; respectively), but increase in the CBT group was significantly greater than flouxetine group. Finally, there was evidence of high infertility self-efficacy for women exposed to the intervention compared with those in the control group. Also, there was an improvement in depression. Both fluoxetine and CBT decreased significantly the mean of BDI scores more than the control group; decrease in the CBT group was significantly more than that in the fluoxetine group. Conclusion: CBT can serve as an effective psychosocial intervention for promoting self-efficacy of infertile women. Registration ID in IRCT: IRCT2012061710048N1 PMID:24639784

  18. Increased depression and anxiety in infertile Japanese women resulting from lack of husband's support and feelings of stress.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Hosaka, Takashi; Izumi, Shun-ichiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kondo, Akane; Makino, Tsunehisa

    2004-01-01

    We report that infertile women in Japan as well as in the Western world have high levels of emotional distress, anxiety, and depression. The reasons for anxiety and depression in infertile women are easy to presume but remain unclear. We conducted the present study to assess the relationship between the anxiety and depression of infertile Japanese women and their thought processes and emotional well-being with regard to their infertility. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 101 infertile Japanese women who visited the infertility clinic at Tokai University. Inventories included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and our original infertility questionnaire, which is composed of 22 questions to assess attitudes and emotional status in facing the stigma of infertility. After factor analysis, comparison between the HADS and the infertility questionnaire was made with simultaneous multiple regression analyses. Anxiety and depression in childless Japanese women were significantly associated with lack of husband's support and feeling stress. Our findings should prove useful in designing and implementing psychological support programs for infertile Japanese women. Psychological interventions to relieve or diminish these conditions might have significant therapeutic benefits for women attending infertility clinics in Japan. PMID:15474640

  19. Increased Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Unexplained Infertility in the United States: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Wang, Jeffrey; Lee, Susie K.; Murray, Joseph A.; Sauer, Mark V.; Green, Peter H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder which can present with a variety of non-gastrointestinal manifestations. In women, it may manifest with an assortment of gynecologic or obstetric disorders. Some reports have linked female infertility with undiagnosed celiac disease. Though there are a number of studies from Europe and the Middle East, only two prior American studies have examined the prevalence of “silent” celiac disease in a female infertility population. We prospectively performed serologic screening for celiac disease in 188 infertile women (ages 25–39). While we did not demonstrate an increased prevalence of celiac disease in our overall infertile female population, we were able to detect a significantly increased prevalence (5.9%) of undiagnosed celiac disease among women presenting with unexplained infertility (n=51). Our findings suggest the importance of screening infertile female patients, particularly those with unexplained infertility, for celiac disease. PMID:21682114

  20. Exploration of the counseling needs of infertile couples: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari, Fatemeh; Ghahiri, Ataollah; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Habibi, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identification of the main needs of infertile patients is essential to provision of appropriate supportive services and care based on their needs. Thus, the present study aims to explore infertile couples’ counseling needs. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out with an inductive qualitative content analysis approach during 2012–2013. The participants of this study included 26 Iranian infertile couples and 7 medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives). The infertile couples were selected through purposive sampling and considering maximal variation from patients attending state-run and private infertility treatment centers as well as infertility specialists, offices in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran. Unstructured in-depth interviews and field notes were utilized for data gathering and replying to this research main question, “What are the counseling needs of infertile couples?” The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was carried out through conventional content analysis. Results: Data analysis revealed two main themes. The first theme was “a need for psychological counseling,” which included four subthemes: Emotional distress management, sexual counseling, marital counseling, and family counseling. The second theme was “a need for guidance and information throughout treatment process,” which included three subthemes: Treatment counseling, financial counseling, and legal counseling. Conclusions: The counseling needs of infertile couples are varied, and they require various psychosocial support and counseling interventions. The participants of this study identified clearly the significance of psychological counseling and information throughout the long and onerous journey of infertility and its treatment. PMID:26457091

  1. Halachic infertility: rabbis, doctors, and the struggle over professional boundaries.

    PubMed

    Ivry, Tsipy

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes a public controversy surrounding the hormonal treatment of infertility associated with observance of rabbinic law to illuminate the reach of rabbi-doctor relations in a local configuration of religion and biomedicine that I call "kosher medicine." I combine a historical perspective on the evolution of religious laws governing menstruation, and the rabbi-doctor relations with a contemporary ethnography of these relations and laws to illuminate the interplay of continuities, discontinuities, tradition, and modernity and their uses and abuses in the contemporary mode of interpenetration between observant Judaism and biomedicine. The controversy highlights asymmetric permeations into biomedical and rabbinic professional domains. Collaborations persist as long as doctors who declare their incompetence in rabbinic law accommodate to demands of rabbis who are expert in it and also claim competence to challenge medical decisions. Once a doctor demonstrates competence in rabbinic law to challenge rabbinic directives a crisis develops. PMID:23557006

  2. Infertility, obstetric and gynaecological problems in coeliac sprue.

    PubMed

    Sher, K S; Jayanthi, V; Probert, C S; Stewart, C R; Mayberry, J F

    1994-01-01

    There is now substantial evidence that coeliac sprue is associated with infertility both in men and women. In women it can also lead to delayed menarche, amenorrhoea, early menopause, recurrent abortions, and a reduced pregnancy rate. In men it can cause hypogonadism, immature secondary sex characteristics and reduce semen quality. The real mechanism by which coeliac sprue produces these changes is unclear, but factors such as malnutrition, iron, folate and zinc deficiencies have all been implicated. In addition in men gonadal dysfunction is believed to be due to reduced conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone caused by low levels of 5 alpha-reductase in coeliac sprue. This leads to derangement of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Hyperprolactinaemia is seen in 25% of coeliac patients, which causes impotence and loss of libido. Gluten withdrawal and correction of deficient dietary elements can lead to a return of fertility both in men and women. PMID:7988065

  3. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q 10 , glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  4. Treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, P

    2010-05-01

    The treatment of infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) associates lifestyle measures, and the use of drugs to induce ovulation. In this endeavour, clomifene citrate (CC) should be used as the first line of treatment, followed eventually by low dose gonadotrophin stimulation, as a second line. In rare cases, in case of failure of the CC treatment, ovarian drilling i.e. laparoscopic ovarian surgery (LOS), and finally assisted reproduction techniques can be used, if needed. Overall, ovulation induction (representing the CC-gonadotrophin paradigm) is highly effective with a cumulative singleton live birth rate of 72%. The use of insulin sensitizers i.e. metformin in PCOS should be restricted to women with glucose intolerance and/or insulin resistance. Based on recent data available, the routine use of this drug, alone, in ovulation induction is not recommended. PMID:20394912

  5. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  6. Infertility today: the management of female medical causes.

    PubMed

    Tinneberg, Hans-Rudolf; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    It has to be suspected that some environmentally hazardous substances have genotoxic properties, revealing their reproductive toxicity at a later stage only. Cancer, including childhood cancer, is more common than usually expected. Undesirable side effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation can be premature ovarian failure or even premature menopause. In cases of autoimmune disease, autoantibodies can directly affect maturation of oocytes in the follicle, fertilization, and implantation. Spontaneous abortions are more common in patients with autoimmune disease. Thrombophilia is known to display a higher rate of spontaneous abortions as well as pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. Infections are a common threat to pregnancy. Metabolic syndrome is increasingly frequent in western countries and often associated with hyperandrogenemia and polycystic disease. Women with inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis usually have no problems conceiving. In conclusion, even though infertility is a multifactorial disease, various medical and non-medical conditions can be attributed to it. PMID:24140222

  7. The Invention of Infertility in the Classical Greek World:

    PubMed Central

    Flemming, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when “infertility,” understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented. PMID:24362276

  8. Infertility caused by tubal blockage: An ayurvedic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Shukla Upadhyaya, Kamayani; Karunagoda, Kaumadi; Dei, L P

    2010-04-01

    Tubal blockage is one of the most important factors for female infertility. This condition is not described in Ayurvedic classics, as the fallopian tube itself is not mentioned directly there. The present study is an effort to understand the disease according to Ayurvedic principles. Correlating fallopian tubes with the Artavavaha (Artava-bija-vaha) Srotas, its block is compared with the Sanga Srotodushti of this Srotas. Charak's opinion that the diseases are innumerable and newly discovered ones should be understood in terms of Prakriti, Adhishthana, Linga, and Aayatana, is followed, to describe this disease. An effort has been made to evaluate the role of all the three Doshas in producing blockage, with classification of the disease done as per the Dasha Roganika. PMID:22131704

  9. Infertility caused by tubal blockage: An ayurvedic appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Shukla (Upadhyaya), Kamayani; Karunagoda, Kaumadi; Dei, L. P.

    2010-01-01

    Tubal blockage is one of the most important factors for female infertility. This condition is not described in Ayurvedic classics, as the fallopian tube itself is not mentioned directly there. The present study is an effort to understand the disease according to Ayurvedic principles. Correlating fallopian tubes with the Artavavaha (Artava-bija-vaha) Srotas, its block is compared with the Sanga Srotodushti of this Srotas. Charak's opinion that the diseases are innumerable and newly discovered ones should be understood in terms of Prakriti, Adhishthana, Linga, and Aayatana, is followed, to describe this disease. An effort has been made to evaluate the role of all the three Doshas in producing blockage, with classification of the disease done as per the Dasha Roganika. PMID:22131704

  10. Experiences of Infertility in British and Pakistani Women: A Cross-Cultural Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Batool, Syeda Shahida; de Visser, Richard Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of infertility is affected by cultural factors. In this cross-cultural qualitative study we explored the experience of infertility among six women living in Pakistan and eight living in the UK. Although infertile women in the UK and Pakistan had many shared experiences related to their own desires for motherhood and the hopes of others, they also faced unique psychosocial challenges shaped by cultural context. Based on our findings, we suggest a need for further resources and networks to support women, particularly women living in cultures that allow women few fulfilling social roles other than motherhood. PMID:25535774

  11. Health related quality of life among different PCOS phenotypes of infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Dilbaz, Berna; Çınar, Mehmet; Özkaya, Enis; Tonyalı, Nazan Vanlı; Dilbaz, Serdar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and health quality profile differences between infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes and women with unexplained infertility. Material and Methods: The WHOQOL-BREF were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 132 women diagnosed with PCOS (study group) and 32 women diagnosed with unexplained infertility (control group). Body mass index (BMI), duration of infertility (DOI), type of infertility (TOI) and Ferriman Gallwey scores (FG scores), were compared between the study and control groups and between different phenotype groups of PCOS: Group 1-Hyperandrogenemia (HA)-anovulation (N=34), Group 2-HA-PCO (ovulatory PCOS, (N=34), Group 3-PCO-anovulation (N=32), and Group 4-HA-PCO-anovulation (N=32) and the associations of these parameters with the health quality profile were analyzed. Results: Physical, Spiritual and Environmental scores were significantly lower (p<0.05) in Group 1 patients (HA-AO) in comparison to the other three PCOS groups and the control group, while the same difference was observed in the social scores with a near significance (p=0.05). Linear regeression analyses revealed significant associations between type of infertility (beta coefficient: −0.423, p=0.001), FG score (beta coefficient: −0.177, p=0.016), phenotype 1 (beta coefficient: −0.236, p=0.002) and physical scores. Psychological scores were associated with the type (beta coefficient: −0.641, p=0.001) and duration (beta coefficient: −0.149, p=0.009) of infertility. Scores in the social area were only associated with type of infertility (beta coefficient: −0.443, p=0.001). Scores of environmental area were significantly associated again with the type of infertility (beta coefficient: −0.499, p=0.001) and FG scores (beta coefficient: −0.195, p=0.008). Primary infertility was a risk factor for low physical (odds ratio: 8.100, 95% CI: 3.827–17.142), social (odds ratio: 9

  12. Knowledge, perceptions and myths regarding infertility among selected adult population in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The reported prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is approximately 22% with 4% primary and 18% secondary infertility. Infertility is not only a medical but also a social problem in our society as cultural customs and perceived religious dictums may equate infertility with failure on a personal, interpersonal, or social level. It is imperative that people have adequate knowledge about infertility so couples can seek timely medical care and misconceptions can be rectified. We aim to assess the knowledge, perception and myths regarding infertility and suggest ways to improve it. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out by interviewing a sample of 447 adults who were accompanying the patients at two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. They were interviewed one-on-one with the help of a pretested questionnaire drafted by the team after a thorough literature review and in consultation with infertility specialists. Results The correct knowledge of infertility was found to be limited amongst the participants. Only 25% correctly identified when infertility is pathological and only 46% knew about the fertile period in women's cycle. People are misinformed that use of IUCD (53%) and OCPs (61%) may cause infertility. Beliefs in evil forces and supernatural powers as a cause of infertility are still prevalent especially amongst people with lower level of education. Seeking alternative treatment for infertility remains a popular option for 28% of the participant as a primary preference and 75% as a secondary preference. IVF remains an unfamiliar (78%) and an unacceptable option (55%). Conclusions Knowledge about infertility is limited in the population and a lot of misconceptions and myths are prevalent in the society. Alternative medicine is a popular option for seeking infertility treatment. The cultural and religious perspective about assisted reproductive technologies is unclear, which has resulted in its reduced acceptability. PMID:21970548

  13. Relationship amongst teratozoospermia, seminal oxidative stress and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spermatozoa morphology is an important and complex characteristic of the fertilization capacity of male germ cells. Morphological abnormalities have been observed to be accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and further damage to spermatozoa, ultimately leading to infertility. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between seminal ROS production and sperm morphology in infertile teratozoospermic patients as well as in healthy men of proven and unproven fertility. Methods Semen samples were collected from 79 patients classified as teratozoospermic and 56 healthy donors (control). Standard semen analysis was performed and spermatozoa morphology was assessed according to the WHO 2010 guidelines. Seminal ROS was measured by chemiluminescence assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated, and sensitivity, specificity, cutoff value and area under curve (AUC) were determined. Results Sperm morphology was significantly poor in the Teratozoospermic Group compared with the 3 Donor Groups (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of ROS (RLU/sec/106 sperm) were seen in the Teratozoospermic group (145.4 (41.5; 555.4) compared to the Donor Groups: All Donors (64.8 (21.1; 198.2), Proven Donors (58.8 (14.2; 79.2) and Proven Donors < 2 years (58.8 (14.2; 79.2) (P < 0.05). ROS correlated negatively with sperm concentration in the All Donor group (r = −0.354; P = 0.021) as well as in the Teratozospermic group (r −0.356; P = 0.002). Using ROC analysis, we established the cutoff values for concentration, morphology and ROS. Conclusions The incidence of teratozoospermia may be directly related to the overproduction of seminal ROS. Therefore, besides sperm concentration and motility, spermatozoa morphology should receive an equally important consideration in the overall assessment of male fertility. PMID:24884815

  14. Approaches to improve the diagnosis and management of infertility.

    PubMed

    Devroey, P; Fauser, B C J M; Diedrich, K

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent advances in our understanding of the causes of infertility and of assisted reproductive technology (ART) have led to the development of complex diagnostic tools, prognostic models and treatment options. The Third Evian Annual Reproduction (EVAR) Workshop Meeting was held on 26-27 April 2008 to evaluate evidence supporting current approaches to the diagnosis and management of infertility and to identify areas for future research efforts. METHODS Specialist reproductive medicine clinicians and scientists delivered presentations based on published literature and ongoing research on patient work-up, ovarian stimulation and embryo quality assessment during ART. This report is based on the expert presentations and subsequent group discussions and was supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. RESULTS It was agreed that single embryo transfer (SET) should be used with increasing frequency in cycles of ART. Continued improvements in cryopreservation techniques, which improve pregnancy rates using supernumerary frozen embryos, are expected to augment the global uptake of SET. Adaptation and personalization of fertility therapy may help to optimize efficacy and safety outcomes for individual patients. Prognostic modelling and personalized management strategies based on individual patient characteristics may prove to represent real progress towards improved treatment. However, at present, there is limited good-quality evidence to support the use of these individualized approaches. CONCLUSIONS Greater quality control and standardization of clinical and laboratory evaluations are required to optimize ART practices and improve individual patient outcomes. Well-designed, good-quality studies are required to drive improvements to the diagnosis and management of ART processes. PMID:19380415

  15. Oxidative status in granulosa cells of infertile women undergoing IVF.

    PubMed

    Karuputhula, Narendra Babu; Chattopadhyay, Ratna; Chakravarty, Baidyanath; Chaudhury, Koel

    2013-04-01

    Studies on elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in granulosa cells (GC) and its subsequent effect on fertilization are limited. Oxidative stress (OS) mediated alterations in GC of infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) was investigated. GC were obtained from 28 women with endometriosis (Group A), 26 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (Group B), and 32 women with tubal factor infertility (Group C). GC characteristics including cell count, viability, morphology and number of oocytes retrieved, and oocyte quality were assessed. OS parameters such as ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and DNA fragmentation were also studied and IVF outcome parameters assessed. An ∼20 fold increase in GC ROS generation was observed in Group B as compared to Group C. Though not as high as Group B, Group A also showed significantly high ROS levels compared with Group C. More than 100-fold decrease in MMP in Group B compared with Group C was observed. A similar trend was observed in Group A, where MMP decreased 7 fold. Significant apoptosis was evident in Groups A and B supported by depolarization of MMP and significant increase in DNA damage. IVF outcome parameters including fertilization rate, good quality embryo formation rate, and pregnancy outcome were adversely affected in Group B. It is hypothesized that ∼20 fold increase in ROS generation in GC of PCOS women plays an adverse role in affecting the IVF success rate. It was of note that the IVF outcome parameters of women with endometriosis were not affected. PMID:23278116

  16. Novel methods of treating ovarian infertility in older and POF women, testicular infertility, and other human functional diseases.

    PubMed

    Bukovsky, Antonin

    2015-01-01

    In vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies are facing with growing demands of older women to conceive. Although ovarian stem cells (OSCs) of older women are capable of producing in vitro fresh oocyte-like cells (OLCs), such cells cannot respond to IVM and IVF due to the lack of granulosa cells required for their maturation. Follicular renewal is also dependent on support of circulating blood mononuclear cells. They induce intermediary stages of meiosis (metaphase I chromosomal duplication and crossover, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis) in newly emerging ovarian germ cells, as for the first time demonstrated here, induce formation of granulosa cells, and stimulate follicular growth and development. A pretreatment of OSC culture with mononuclear cells collected from blood of a young healthy fertile woman may cause differentiation of bipotential OSCs into both developing germ and granulosa cells. A small blood volume replacement may enable treatment of ovarian infertility in vivo. The transferred mononuclear cells may temporarily rejuvenate virtually all tissues, including improvement of the function of endocrine tissues. Formation of new follicles and their development may be sufficient for IVM and IVF. The novel proposed in vitro approaches may be used as a second possibility. Infertility of human males affects almost a half of the infertility cases worldwide. Small blood volume replacement from young healthy fertile men may also be easy approach for the improvement of sperm quality in older or other affected men. In addition, body rejuvenation by small blood volume replacement from young healthy individuals of the same sex could represent a decline of in vitro methodology in favor of in vivo treatment for human functional diseases. Here we propose for the first time that blood mononuclear cells are essential for rejuvenation of those tissues, where immune system components participate in an appropriate division and differentiation

  17. A hierarchy of needs? Embryo donation, in vitro fertilisation and the provision of infertility counselling

    PubMed Central

    Machin, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the paper is to examine how those working in, using and regulating assisted conception clinics discussed infertility counselling and its provision within the context of embryo donation and in vitro fertilisation. Method 35 participants were recruited for semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. All data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The thematic analysis revealed recurring themes based upon the portrayals of infertility counselling, embryo donation and in vitro fertilisation. Conclusions This paper suggests that an implicit hierarchy exists around those using assisted conception techniques and their infertility counselling requirements, which was dependent upon the assisted conception technique used. As a result, some people using assisted conception techniques felt that their needs had been overlooked due to this covert hierarchy. Practice implications Those working in, using or regulating assisted conception clinics should not view infertility counselling as restricted to treatments involving donation, or solely for people within the clinical system. PMID:21035297

  18. Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

  19. [Professor LAI Xinsheng's treatment experience of infertility by Tongyuan needling technique].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuemei; Meng, Zhenzhen; Wang, Ranran

    2015-03-01

    Professor LAI Xinsheng's treatment experience of infertility mainly by Tongyuan needling technique for both females and males is summarized. Tongyuan needling technique is a treatment method of leading qi to its primordial location mainly through viscera back-shu points that can dredge the governor vessel and tonify the spirit and conception vessel points in abdomen and abdominal front-mu points, and according to state of illness acupoints for opening the 4 gates or five shu points are combined; reinforcing and reducing manipulations of acupuncture are applied for reference. With the method of listing cases, professor LAI Xinsheng's Tongyuan needling technique is detailedly introduced in different aspects, such as the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome infertility and male infertility and improving the success rate of test-tube baby, and the manipulation of Tongyuan needling technique is summarized, indicating that Tongyuan needling technique is worth vigorously prompting in clinical treatment of infertility. PMID:26062206

  20. Investigation of Personality Traits between Infertile Women Submitted to Assisted Reproductive Technology or Surrogacy

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Najmeh; Yazdkhasti, Fariba; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Personality traits affect human relationships, social interactions, treatment procedures, and essentially all human activities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the personality traitsincluding sensation seeking, flexibility, and happiness among a variety of infertile women who were apt to choose assisted reproductive technology (ART) or surrogacy. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional study that was performed on 251 infertile women who visited Isfahan and Tehran Reproductive Medicine Center. These fertility clinics are located in Isfahan and Tehran, Iran. In this study, 201 infertile women who underwent treatment using ART and 50 infertile women who tended to have surrogacy were chosen by convenience sampling. Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS-V), Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (adapted from NEO Personality Inventory-Revised) and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) were used as research instruments. All participants had to complete the research instruments in order to be included in this study. Data were analyzed by descriptive-analytical statistics and statistical tests including multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Z Fisher. Statistically significant effects were accepted for P<0.05. Results In the sensation-seeking variable, there was a meaningful difference between under-study groups. However, the flexibility and happiness variables did not have a significant difference between under-study groups (P<0.001). Interaction between education, employment, and financial status was effective in happiness of infertile women underwent ART (P<0.05), while age, education and financial status were also effective in happiness of infertile women sought surrogacy (P<0.05). A positive meaningful relationship was seen between sensation seeking and flexibility variables in both groups (P<0.05). And a negative meaningful relationship was seen between sensation seeking and happiness in infertile women who sought

  1. Clinical, epidemiological and socio-cultural aspects of infertility in resource-poor settings. Evidence from Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Dhont, N.

    2011-01-01

    Infertility is a serious but entirely neglected public health problem in resource-poor countries. Most of the infertility is caused by infections and therefore potentially preventable. The problem of infertility in Rwanda has not been researched so far. We examined predictors for infertility and treatment-seeking behaviour in an unmatched case-control. We performed infertility investigations in all infertile couples and discussed consequences of infertility in focus group discussions. HSV-2 and HIV infection and sexual violence were the most important determinants of infertility. We found a higher HIV prevalence among couples in secondary and not primary infertile relationships with at least one HIV infected partner in 45% of these couples. Men in infertile relationships reported more frequently concurrent partners over the last year than fertile men. We found a high prevalence of tubal factor (70%) and male factor infertility (64%). Pregnancy rates (16%) were low after conventional therapy. Both men and women are unlikely to attribute infertility to the male partner. Participants reported a wide array of treatments they received in the past, often including ineffective or even harmful interventions. We demonstrated severe suffering as a consequence of infertility for both men and women but with women carrying the largest burden, similar to what is reported in other resource-poor countries. Overall, we can conclude that there is an urgent need for a more holistic approach towards reproductive health services in SSA, one that recognises the importance of reproductive failure. The link with HIV has important consequences for both HIV and reproductive health programs. PMID:24753853

  2. The hidden world of anti-phospholipid antibodies and female infertility: A literature appraisal.

    PubMed

    Chighizola, Cecilia B; de Jesus, Guilherme R; Branch, D Ware

    2016-06-01

    Even though the association of anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) with infertility is debated, infertile women are commonly screened for aPL. To review evidence, a systematic PubMed search was conducted to retrieve papers addressing (i) the association between aPL and infertility, (ii) the positivity rate of criteria and non-criteria aPL in women with infertility, (iii) the association between aPL and assisted reproduction technologies (ART) outcome, (iv) the efficacy of medical treatments on ART outcome, and (v) the effects of ART on thrombotic risk. A total of 46 papers were considered; several limitations emerged: (i) wide heterogeneity in study populations, (ii) non-prospective design in 90% of studies, and (iii) aPL cutoffs not conforming to international guidelines in more than 75% of studies; aPL positivity not confirmed in 89% of studies. Most studies evinced an association between infertility and anti-β2GPI antibodies and almost all non-criteria aPL. The association rate with infertility was below 50% for lupus anti-coagulant, anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL), and anti-phosphatidic acid antibodies. According to our estimates, overall positivity rates of criteria and non-criteria aPL tests are 6% and 3% among infertile women, 1% and 2% among controls, respectively. A significant difference in the positivity rate of patients versus controls emerged for aCL only. Five of 18 studies reported a detrimental effect of aPL on ART outcome. Only one of the six studies assessing the effects of treatment on ART outcome among aPL-positive infertile women reported a benefit. All relevant studies reported no increase in the rate of thrombosis among aPL-positive women undergoing ART. PMID:26827907

  3. Presence of HHV-6A in Endometrial Epithelial Cells from Women with Primary Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bortolotti, Daria; Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Caselli, Elisabetta; Bolzani, Silvia; Rotola, Antonella; Di Luca, Dario; Rizzo, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the roles of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 primary unexplained infertile women, a prospective randomized study was conducted on a cohort of primary unexplained infertile women and a cohort of control women, with at least one successful pregnancy. HHV-6 DNA was analyzed and the percentage and immune-phenotype of resident endometrial Natural Killer (NK) cells, as the first line of defense towards viral infections, was evaluated in endometrial biopsies. Cytokine levels in uterine flushing samples were analyzed. HHV-6A DNA was found in 43% of endometrial biopsies from primary unexplained infertile women, but not in control women. On the contrary, HHV-6B DNA was absent in endometrial biopsies, but present in PBMCs of both cohorts. Endometrial NK cells presented a different distribution in infertile women with HHV6-A infection compared with infertile women without HHV6-A infection. Notably, we observed a lower percentage of endometrial specific CD56brightCD16- NK cells. We observed an enhanced HHV-6A-specific endometrial NK cell response in HHV-6A positive infertile women, with a marked increase in the number of endometrial NK cells activating towards HHV-6A infected cells. The analysis of uterine flushing samples showed an increase in IL-10 levels and a decrease of IFN-gamma concentrations in infertile women with HHV6-A infection. Our study indicates, for the first time, that HHV-6A infection might be an important factor in female unexplained infertility development, with a possible role in modifying endometrial NK cells immune profile and ability to sustain a successful pregnancy. PMID:27367597

  4. The risk of infertility and delayed conception associated with exposures in the Danish workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Rachootin, P.; Olsen, J.

    1983-05-01

    The association between infertility and a number of occupations and occupational exposures was examined in a case-control study utilizing data collected from medical records and mailed questionnaires. The results suggest that male exposure to heat and female exposure to noise, textile dyes and lead, mercury, and cadmium are associated with infertility. Further research is needed to examine the entire spectrum of abnormal reproductive and developmental outcomes of exposure to these agents and to identify their full effects.

  5. Presence of HHV-6A in Endometrial Epithelial Cells from Women with Primary Unexplained Infertility.

    PubMed

    Marci, Roberto; Gentili, Valentina; Bortolotti, Daria; Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Caselli, Elisabetta; Bolzani, Silvia; Rotola, Antonella; Di Luca, Dario; Rizzo, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the roles of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 primary unexplained infertile women, a prospective randomized study was conducted on a cohort of primary unexplained infertile women and a cohort of control women, with at least one successful pregnancy. HHV-6 DNA was analyzed and the percentage and immune-phenotype of resident endometrial Natural Killer (NK) cells, as the first line of defense towards viral infections, was evaluated in endometrial biopsies. Cytokine levels in uterine flushing samples were analyzed. HHV-6A DNA was found in 43% of endometrial biopsies from primary unexplained infertile women, but not in control women. On the contrary, HHV-6B DNA was absent in endometrial biopsies, but present in PBMCs of both cohorts. Endometrial NK cells presented a different distribution in infertile women with HHV6-A infection compared with infertile women without HHV6-A infection. Notably, we observed a lower percentage of endometrial specific CD56brightCD16- NK cells. We observed an enhanced HHV-6A-specific endometrial NK cell response in HHV-6A positive infertile women, with a marked increase in the number of endometrial NK cells activating towards HHV-6A infected cells. The analysis of uterine flushing samples showed an increase in IL-10 levels and a decrease of IFN-gamma concentrations in infertile women with HHV6-A infection. Our study indicates, for the first time, that HHV-6A infection might be an important factor in female unexplained infertility development, with a possible role in modifying endometrial NK cells immune profile and ability to sustain a successful pregnancy. PMID:27367597

  6. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-03-01

    Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility. PMID:26986137

  7. A maternally inherited autosomal point mutation in human phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) leads to male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kashir, Junaid; Konstantinidis, Michalis; Jones, Celine; Lemmon, Bernadette; Chang Lee, Hoi; Hamer, Rebecca; Heindryckx, Bjorn; Deane, Charlotte M.; De Sutter, Petra; Fissore, Rafael A.; Parrington, John; Wells, Dagan; Coward, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Male factor and idiopathic infertility contribute significantly to global infertility, with abnormal testicular gene expression considered to be a major cause. Certain types of male infertility are caused by failure of the sperm to activate the oocyte, a process normally regulated by calcium oscillations, thought to be induced by a sperm-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta (PLCζ). Previously, we identified a point mutation in an infertile male resulting in the substitution of histidine for proline at position 398 of the protein sequence (PLCζH398P), leading to abnormal PLCζ function and infertility. METHODS AND RESULTS Here, using a combination of direct-sequencing and mini-sequencing of the PLCζ gene from the patient and his family, we report the identification of a second PLCζ mutation in the same patient resulting in a histidine to leucine substitution at position 233 (PLCζH233L), which is predicted to disrupt local protein interactions in a manner similar to PLCζH398P and was shown to exhibit abnormal calcium oscillatory ability following predictive 3D modelling and cRNA injection in mouse oocytes respectively. We show that PLCζH233L and PLCζH398P exist on distinct parental chromosomes, the former inherited from the patient's mother and the latter from his father. Neither mutation was detected utilizing custom-made single-nucleotide polymorphism assays in 100 fertile males and females, or 8 infertile males with characterized oocyte activation deficiency. CONCLUSIONS Collectively, our findings provide further evidence regarding the importance of PLCζ at oocyte activation and forms of male infertility where this is deficient. Additionally, we show that the inheritance patterns underlying male infertility are more complex than previously thought and may involve maternal mechanisms. PMID:22095789

  8. Improving the Reporting of Clinical Trials of Infertility Treatments (IMPRINT): modifying the CONSORT statement†‡

    PubMed Central

    Legro, Richard S.; Wu, Xiaoke; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Farquhar, Cynthia; Fauser, Bart C.J.M.; Mol, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials testing infertility treatments often do not report on the major outcomes of interest to patients and clinicians and the public (such as live birth) nor on the harms, including maternal risks during pregnancy and fetal anomalies. This is complicated by the multiple participants in infertility trials which may include a woman (mother), a man (father), and result in a third individual if successful, their offspring (child), who is also the desired outcome of treatment. The primary outcome of interest and many adverse events occur after cessation of infertility treatment and during pregnancy and the puerperium, which create a unique burden of follow-up for clinical trial investigators and participants. In 2013, because of the inconsistencies in trial reporting and the unique aspects of infertility trials not adequately addressed by existing Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statements, we convened a consensus conference in Harbin, China, with the aim of planning modifications to the CONSORT checklist to improve the quality of reporting of clinical trials testing infertility treatment. The consensus group recommended that the preferred primary outcome of all infertility trials is live birth (defined as any delivery of a live infant ≥20 weeks gestations) or cumulative live birth, defined as the live birth per women over a defined time period (or number of treatment cycles). In addition, harms to all participants should be systematically collected and reported, including during the intervention, any resulting pregnancy, and during the neonatal period. Routine information should be collected and reported on both male and female participants in the trial. We propose to track the change in quality that these guidelines may produce in published trials testing infertility treatments. Our ultimate goal is to increase the transparency of benefits and risks of infertility treatments to provide better medical care to affected individuals and

  9. Health-promoting Lifestyle and its Demographic Predictors in Infertile Couples Referred to Infertility Clinic of Tabriz Al-Zahra Hospital, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Sehhati, Fahimeh; Rahimi, Mareieh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Improving the lifestyle of infertile couples led to the preservation of their performance, increase their quality of life, and reduce health cost. So, the aims of this study were to determine the health-promoting lifestyle and its predictors among infertile couples. Methods: In a cross-sectional, analytical study 322 infertile couples referred to an infertility clinic in Tabriz was participated with convenience sampling method. The demographic and the standard Health Promoting Lifestyle-II (HPLP II) questionnaires were completed by all couples individually. For determining the demographic predictors of health-promoting lifestyle, the multivariate linear regression was used. Results: The mean (standard deviation) score of health-promoting lifestyle in couples was 2.4 (0.4) of the achievable score ranged from 1 to 4. The highest mean score was for nutrition subscale 2.6 (0.5) in both men and women and the lowest mean score was for physical activity subscale in women 2.1(0.5) and men 2.3(0.5) and health responsibility subscale (2.3(0.5) in both men and women. Educational level, cause of infertility, adequacy of income for living expense, and living situation were predictors of health-promoting lifestyle. Conclusion: The results showed that participants do not carry out all health-promoting behaviors, especially physical activity and health responsibility, in an acceptable level. These behaviors have an important role in improving the quality of life, health maintenance, and fertility. Thus, the provision of strategies, including those in accordance with predictors of health-promoting behaviors, is important for improving the health status of infertile couples. PMID:25276761

  10. Sexuality, Self-Esteem and Partnership Quality in Infertile Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Wischmann, T.; Schilling, K.; Toth, B.; Rösner, S.; Strowitzki, T.; Wohlfarth, K.; Kentenich, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Infertile couples often report quality-of-life impairments, especially in terms of sexuality, self-esteem and partnership quality. So far, there have been no systematic studies of the sex lives and behaviour of infertile women and men before and after the emergence of their mutual desire for a child. Materials and Methods: From February 2010 to August 2010 all couples starting treatment either at Heidelberg Universityʼs Womenʼs Hospital or at the Fertility Center Berlin were asked to fill out the Self-Esteem and Relationship Questionnaire (SEAR). A total of n = 158 women and n = 153 men participated in the study. Results: Decreasing tendencies were observable for both partners in the domains Sexual Relationship Satisfaction and Confidence and in the subscales Self-Esteem and Overall Relationship Satisfaction. There were especially clear indications of a loss of spontaneous sexuality during the experience of infertility. We were also able to establish that infertility has a negative impact on womenʼs self-esteem. Discussion: The results of this study indicate that SEAR can be used as a feasible instrument for identifying infertile women and men whose infertility has a negative effect on their relationship quality and/or sex lives. PMID:25221344

  11. Antioxidants and infertility treatment, the role of Satureja Khuzestanica: A mini-systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Safarnavadeh, Tahereh; Rastegarpanah, Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    Background: The use of antioxidants in the treatment of infertility has been suggested and recent studies have indicated that oral administration of Satureja Khuzestanica essential oil (SKEO) to rats induces significant antioxidative effects. Objective: This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of antioxidants in infertility and also to assess the effectiveness of Satureja Khuzestanica in infertility management. Materials and Methods: Pubmed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant trials published from respective database inception dates to August 2010. Study selection, and data extraction were performed by authors. Results: Fifteen trials on evaluation of antioxidants in infertility and seven studies on the effectiveness of Satureja Khuzestanica were identified. Only 4 of the 15 trials were with application of allocation concealment and three studies were done in in-vitro environment. Despite the methodological and clinical heterogeneity of the trials, 14 of the 15 (93.33%) trials showed an improvement in either sperm quality or pregnancy rate after antioxidant therapy. The human and animal studies of Satureja Khuzestanica showed a significant antioxidative potential of the plant and its effectiveness for infertility improvement. Conclusion: The use of oral antioxidants in infertility could improve sperm quality and pregnancy rates. Improved fertility observed by SKEO in rats might be due to its antioxidative effect. Further studies and clinical trials in humans are necessary to evaluate SKEO effectiveness in fertility disturbances. PMID:25587249

  12. Social support, marital adjustment, and psychological distress among women with primary infertility in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Medhin, Girmay

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify prevalence rates of psychological distress among Pakistani women seeking help for primary infertility. The associations of social support, marital adjustment, and sociodemographic factors with psychological distress were also examined. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were interviewed from one hospital in Islamabad using a Self-Reporting Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. The prevalence of psychological distress was 37.3 percent. The results of the logistic regression suggested that marital adjustment and social support were significantly negatively associated with psychological distress in this sample. These associations were not confounded by any of the demographic variables controlled in the multivariable regression models. The role of perceived social support and adjustment in marriage among women experiencing primary infertility are important factors in understanding their psychological distress. The results of this small-scale effort highlight the need for social and familial awareness to help tackle the psychological distress related to infertility. Future research needs to focus on the way the experience of infertility is conditioned by social structural realities. New ways need to be developed to better take into account the process and nature of the infertility experience. PMID:25837531

  13. X chromosome aneuploidy in infertile women: Analysis by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.A.; Moix, I.; Mermillod, B.

    1994-09-01

    Up to 1 in 3 couples have a problem of infertility at some time in their lives. Sex chromosome anomalies are found in 5-10% of couples, with mosaic aneuploidy being a common finding in primary infertility. Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), in contrast, is frequently associated with autosomal structural anomalies. We hypothesized that low-level mosaic X chromosome aneuploidy was associated with primary infertility but not with RSA. Three groups were studied: women from couples with primary infertillity (n=26); women with three or more spontaneous abortions (n=22); and age-matched normally fertile women (at least two pregnancies; n=28). Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine X chromosome ploidy in 100 nuclei per patient, using a contig of three cosmids from MAO locus (kindly donated by W. Berger, Nijmegen). A control probe (chr. 15 centromere) was simultaneously hybridized, and only nuclei containing two control signals were scored for the X chromosome. The mean numbers of nuclei with two X chromosome signals were the same in all groups (Welch equality of means test: p>0.97). However, there is a significant difference between the variances of the primary infertile and RSA groups (Levene`s test: p=0.025 after Bonferrone correction for multiple testing). This provides preliminary support for the hypothesis of an association between primary infertility and low-level mosaic X chromosome aneuploidy.

  14. Metabolomics: a state-of-the-art technology for better understanding of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Minai-Tehrani, A; Jafarzadeh, N; Gilany, K

    2016-08-01

    Male factor infertility affects approximately half of the infertile couples, in spite of many years of research on male infertility treatment and diagnosis; several outstanding questions remain to be addressed. In this regard, metabolomics as a novel field of omics has been suggested to be applied for male infertility problems. A variety of terms associated with metabolite quantity and quality have been established to demonstrate mixtures of metabolites. Despite metabolomics and metabolite analyses have been around more than decades, a limited number of studies concerning male infertility have been carried out. In this review, we summarised the latest finding in metabolomics techniques and metabolomics biomarkers correlated with male infertility. The rapid progress of a variety of metabolomics platforms, such as nonoptical and optical spectroscopy, could ease separation, recognition, classification and quantification of several metabolites and their metabolic pathways. Here, we recommend that the novel biomarkers determined in the course of metabolomics analysis may stand for potential application of treatment and future clinical practice. PMID:26608970

  15. The Social Consequences of Infertility among Iranian Women: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Syedeh Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali

    2015-01-01

    Background Infertility may prevent couples to achieve the desired social roles and lead to some social and psychological problems. This study aimed to explain the social consequences of infertility in Iranian women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods A qualitative content analysis was conducted based on 32 semi-structured interviews with 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children. The participants were purposefully selected with maximum variability from a fertility health research center in Tehran, Iran, from January to October 2012. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. Results Our findings indicate that the consequences of infertility are divided into five main categories: 1. violence including psychological violence and domestic physical violence, 2. marital instability or uncertainty, 3. social isolation including avoiding certain people or certain social events and self-imposed isolation from family and friends, 4. social exclusion and partial deprivation including being disregarded by family members and relatives and reducing social interactions with the infertile woman and 5. social alienation. Conclusion This study reveals that Iranian women with fertility issues seeking treatment face several social problems that could have devastating effects on the quality of their lives. It is, therefore, recommended that, in Iran, infertility is only considered as a biomedical issue of a couple and pay further attention to its sociocultural dimensions and consequences. PMID:25780523

  16. SNaPshot Assay for the Detection of the Most Common CFTR Mutations in Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Mircevska, Marija; Plaseski, Toso; Filipovski, Vanja; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2014-01-01

    Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) is the most common CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) that explains about 1–2% of the male infertility cases. Controversial data have been published regarding the involvement of CFTR mutations in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Here, we describe single base extension (SNaPshot) assay for detection of 11 common CFTR mutations: F508del, G542X, N1303K, 621+1G->T, G551D, R553X, R1162X, W1282X, R117H, 2184insA and 1717-1G->A and IVS8polyT variants. The assay was validated on 50 previously genotyped samples and was used to screen a total of 369 infertile men with different impairment of spermatogenesis and 136 fertile controls. Our results show that double heterozygosity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) mutations are found in a high percentage (22.7%) of infertile men with obstructive azoospermia, but not in other studied groups of infertile men. The SNaPshot assay described here is an inexpensive, fast and robust method for primary screening of the most common CFTR mutations both in patients with classical CF and CFTR-RD. It can contribute to better understanding of the role of CFTR mutations in impaired spermatogenesis, ultimately leading to improved management of infertile men. PMID:25386751

  17. Seminal cyclooxygenase relationship with oxidative stress in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men with varicocele.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, T; Rashed, L; Taymour, M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the relation of seminal cyclooxygenase COX-1, COX-2 with oxidative stress in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men with varicocele (Vx). In all, 128 men were allocated into fertile men, fertile men with Vx, infertile OAT men without Vx and infertile OAT men with Vx. They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination and semen analysis. Also, seminal COX-1, COX-2, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated. Mean levels of seminal COX-1, COX-2 were over-expressed, the mean level of seminal MDA was significantly increased, and the mean level of seminal GPx was significantly decreased in infertile OAT men with Vx compared with other groups. Seminal COX-1 and COX-2 were over-expressed in cases with Vx grade III compared with Vx grades I, II cases and in cases with bilateral Vx compared with unilateral Vx. There was significant negative correlation between seminal COX-1 and COX-2 with sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm normal morphology, seminal GPx and significant positive correlation with seminal MDA. It is concluded that seminal COX-1 and COX-2 are over-expressed in infertile OAT men with Vx compared with fertile men with/without and infertile OAT men without Vx being associated with oxidative stress, Vx grade and Vx laterality. PMID:25906828

  18. Sexual satisfaction of infertile couples assessed using the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS).

    PubMed

    Shoji, Mayumi; Hamatani, Toshio; Ishikawa, Shoko; Kuji, Naoaki; Ohta, Hiroaki; Matsui, Hideo; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Recently, infertility treatment-related psychological effects are receiving increased attention. However, whether sexual satisfaction is reduced amongst infertile couples remains to be elucidated. In this study, sexual satisfaction of Japanese infertile couples was assessed using a validated questionnaire designed to assess the male and female partner individually, and the couple as a whole for the first time. This study randomly included 170 infertile couples seen at the outpatient clinic and 170 couples that had recently achieved spontaneous pregnancy. All couples were given the Japanese version of the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS). In couples aged 35 years or older, the male partners showed significantly worse sexual satisfaction scores than the female partners. Sexual satisfaction also deteriorated with therapeutic interventions, with mental factors affected more than physical factors. Therapeutic interventions such as timed sexual intercourse and assisted reproductive technology were considered emotionally stressful for infertile couples, with sexual satisfaction accordingly lower in this group than in couples achieving spontaneous pregnancy. GRISS successfully evaluated lower sexual satisfaction associated with infertility, and hence is a useful tool for identifying couples whose sexual satisfaction could be enhanced by counselling or other stress-reduction modalities. PMID:24902628

  19. The mediator role of emotion regulation processes on infertility-related stress.

    PubMed

    Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, M; Pinto-Gouveia, J; Matos, M

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate gender differences regarding the mediator role of self-compassion and self-judgment on the effects of external shame, internal shame, dyadic adjustment, on infertility-related stress. One hundred and sixty-two women and 147 men with a primary infertility diagnosis completed the following set of self-report measures: Others as Shamer, Experience of Shame Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Self-Compassion Scale, and Fertility Problem Inventory. Path analyses results revealed that in women self-compassion fully mediated the effect of internal shame on infertility-related stress and partially mediated the effect of dyadic adjustment on this variable, while external shame had only a direct effect. In men self-judgment fully mediated the effect of external and internal shame on infertility-related stress. Dyadic adjustment had only a direct effect on infertility-related stress. In conclusion, there is a distinct role of self-compassion and self-judgment on the relationship between shame and infertility-related stress in men and women. Such differences should be taken into account in psychological interventions with these patients. Future research is warranted to further support our results. PMID:23821009

  20. Body weight control practice as a cause of infertility.

    PubMed

    Bates, G W

    1985-09-01

    Evidence concerning the relationship between the ratio of lean mass to body fat in the female body and the maintenance of female reproductive functions was examined, and the results of a US clinical study in which a weight gain regime was used to treat unexplained in fertility in 29 fashionabely slim women were presented. During the female pubertal process, there is an average increase in the lean body weight of 44% and a mean increase in the body fat of 120%. Apparently, the accummulation of fat is a necessary prerequisite for the onset of menarche and the establishment and maintenance of regular ovulatory cycles. A small change in body weight produces a relatively large shift in the body weight to fat ratio. As a result, weight loss is frequently followed by amenorrhea. Studies of the endocrine and central nervous system changes in patients with anorexia nervosa, an extreme form of overzealous weight control, provides clues for understanding the effects of less extreme weight control practices on reproductive functions. The gonadotropin secretory pattern of anorexia nervosa patients is similar to the prepubertal pattern. When gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is administered to patients with 53%-64% of their ideal body weight (IBW), they have a weak luteinizing hormone (LH) response and a normal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) response. As their weight increases, the LH response becomes stronger, and at 90%-94% of their IBW, the LH response is frequently exaggerated. Other studies indicate that an exaggerated LH response also occurs when GnRH is administered to fashionably slim women. This finding suggests that gonadotropin secretory studies should be conducted when evaluating women with weight related menstrual dysfunctions. In the present study, 29 patients with unexplained infertility were identified as being overly, but not excessively, concerned with maintaining a slim body image. On the average, they were 91% below their IBW. The women were asked to

  1. Human sperm chromatin epigenetic potential: genomics, proteomics, and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballescà, Josep Lluis; Oliva, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The classical idea about the function of the mammalian sperm chromatin is that it serves to transmit a highly protected and transcriptionally inactive paternal genome, largely condensed by protamines, to the next generation. In addition, recent sperm chromatin genome-wide dissection studies indicate the presence of a differential distribution of the genes and repetitive sequences in the protamine-condensed and histone-condensed sperm chromatin domains, which could be potentially involved in regulatory roles after fertilization. Interestingly, recent proteomic studies have shown that sperm chromatin contains many additional proteins, in addition to the abundant histones and protamines, with specific modifications and chromatin affinity features which are also delivered to the oocyte. Both gene and protein signatures seem to be altered in infertile patients and, as such, are consistent with the potential involvement of the sperm chromatin landscape in early embryo development. This present work reviews the available information on the composition of the human sperm chromatin and its epigenetic potential, with a particular focus on recent results derived from high-throughput genomic and proteomic studies. As a complement, we provide experimental evidence for the detection of phosphorylations and acetylations in human protamine 1 using a mass spectrometry approach. The available data indicate that the sperm chromatin is much more complex than what it was previously thought, raising the possibility that it could also serve to transmit crucial paternal epigenetic information to the embryo. PMID:25926607

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of infertility-related male hormonal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kathrins, Martin; Niederberger, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of infertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men requires an understanding of the hormonal basis of spermatogenesis. The best method for accurately determining male androgenization status remains elusive. Treatment of hormonal dysfunction can fall into two categories - empirical and targeted. Empirical therapy refers to experience-based treatment approaches in the absence of an identifiable aetiology. Targeted therapy refers to the correction of a specific underlying hormonal abnormality. However, the tools available for inferring the intratesticular hormonal environment are unreliable. Thus, understanding the limitations of serum hormonal assays is very important for determining male androgen status. Furthermore, bulk seminal parameters are notoriously variable and consequently unreliable for measuring responses to hormonal therapy. In the setting of azoospermia owing to spermatogenic dysfunction, hormonal therapy - relying on truly objective parameters including the return of sperm to the ejaculate or successful surgical sperm retrieval - is a promising treatment. This approach to the treatment of fertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men contrasts with the current state of its counterpart in female reproductive endocrinology. Treatment of male hormonal dysfunction has long emphasized empirical therapy, whereas treatment of the corollary female dysfunction has been directed at specific deficits. PMID:27091665

  3. Clinical management of infertile men with nonobstructive azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sandro C

    2015-01-01

    The clinical management of men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) seeking fertility has been a challenge for andrologists, urologists, and reproductive medicine specialists alike. This review presents a personal perspective on the clinical management of NOA, including the lessons learned over 15 years dealing with this male infertility condition. A five-consecutive-step algorithm is proposed to manage such patients. First, a differential diagnosis of azoospermia is made to confirm/establish that NOA is due to spermatogenic failure. Second, genetic testing is carried out not only to detect the males in whom NOA is caused by microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome, but also to counsel the affected patients about their chances of having success in sperm retrieval. Third, it is determined whether any intervention prior to a surgical retrieval attempt may be used to increase sperm production. Fourth, the most effective and efficient retrieval method is selected to search for testicular sperm. Lastly, state-of-art laboratory techniques are applied in the handling of retrieved gametes and cultivating the embryos resulting from sperm injections. A coordinated multidisciplinary effort is key to offer the best possible chance of achieving a biological offspring to males with NOA. PMID:25677138

  4. Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components

    SciTech Connect

    Blamey, F.P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

  5. Infertility in reproductive-age female cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jennifer M; Kelvin, Joanne Frankel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-05-15

    Improved survival rates among reproductive-age females diagnosed with cancer have increased the focus on long-term quality of life, including maintenance of the ability to conceive biological children. Cancer-directed therapies such as high-dose alkylating agents and radiation to the pelvis, which deplete ovarian reserve, radiation to the brain, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and surgical resection of reproductive structures can decrease the likelihood of having biological children. Standard fertility preservation strategies such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation before the onset of therapy offer the opportunity to conserve fertility, but they may not be feasible because of the urgency to start cancer therapy, financial limitations, and a lack of access to reproductive endocrinologists. Ovarian tissue freezing is considered experimental, with limited data related to pregnancies, but it minimizes treatment delay. Studies evaluating gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues have had mixed results, although a recent randomized, prospective study in women with breast cancer demonstrated a protective effect. Fertility preservation programs are increasingly being developed within cancer programs. In this article, we describe risks to infertility and options for preservation, raise psychosocial and ethical issues, and propose elements for establishing an effective fertility preservation program. PMID:25649243

  6. Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fode, Mikkel; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Brackett, Nancy L; Ohl, Dana A; Lynne, Charles M; Sønksen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms. Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic and retroperitoneal surgery, diabetes, congenital spinal abnormalities, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Erectile dysfunction can be managed by an increasingly invasive range of treatments including medications, injection therapy and the surgical insertion of a penile implant. Retrograde ejaculation is managed by medications to reverse the condition in mild cases and in bladder harvest of semen after ejaculation in more severe cases. Anejaculation might also be managed by medication in mild cases while assisted ejaculatory techniques including penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation are used in more severe cases. If these measures fail, surgical sperm retrieval can be attempted. Ejaculation with penile vibratory stimulation can be done by some spinal cord injured men and their partners at home, followed by in-home insemination if circumstances and sperm quality are adequate. The other options always require assisted reproductive techniques including intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The method of choice depends largely on the number of motile sperm in the ejaculate. PMID:22138899

  7. Infertility in Men with Spinal Cord Injury: Research and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brackett, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs most often to young men. Following SCI, most men are infertile due to a combination of erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Erectile dysfunction may be treated by the same therapies that are used in the general population. Similarly, the same treatments that are effective to assist conception in couples with non-SCI male factor patients are effective in assisting conception in SCI male-factor patients. The most apparent differences in male-factor symptoms between SCI and non-SCI patients are the high occurrences of anejaculation and atypical semen profiles in men with SCI. Methods available to assist ejaculation in men with SCI include penile vibratory stimulation and EEJ. Use of surgical sperm retrieval as the first line of treatment for anejaculation in men with SCI is controversial. Most men with SCI have a unique semen profile characterized by normal sperm concentration, but abnormally low sperm motility. Toxic substances in the semen contribute to this problem. Despite impaired sperm parameters, pregnancy outcomes using sperm from men with SCI are similar to pregnancy outcomes using sperm from non-SCI men. Future studies should focus on improving natural ejaculation and improving semen quality in these men. PMID:24278717

  8. Studying the Relationship between the Attitude to Infertility and Coping Strategies in Couples Undergoing Assisted Reproductive Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ureizi-Samani, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using appropriate coping strategies has a positive influence on moderating mental pressures caused by infertility and the stress during treatment. Using these strategies needs personal skills and they could be influenced by individual's inner psychological and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the attitude toward infertility and coping strategies considering the couple's social and financial situation. Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted on 133 volunteered couples undergoing assisted reproductive treatment. Coping strategies and the attitude toward infertility were assessed using a self-report questionnaire. Higher scores of attitude indicated positive attitudes. Data was analyzed using paired-samples t test and multiple regression model. Results: Independent from demographic information and causes of infertility, using self-blame and self-focused rumination coping strategies were negatively related to attitude toward infertility in both men and women (p<0.05). Also, using self-blame coping strategy had a positive correlation with female infertility and negative correlation with male infertility. Conclusion: Regardless of the economic and social conditions, in infertile couples, downward trend in attitude toward infertility is mostly associated with the use of maladaptive coping strategies. PMID:26962484

  9. Alternative and antioxidant therapies used by a sample of infertile males in Jordan: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used in the Middle East, especially to treat chronic diseases such as infertility. We aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics, and determinants of CAM use, particularly herbs and antioxidant therapies, among infertile males presenting for infertility evaluation in Jordan. Methods Demographic information, use of alternative and antioxidant therapies for infertility treatment, and patients’ belief in efficacy and safety of the therapies used were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. Data were collected from 428 infertile male patients presenting at infertility clinics in Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between April 2013 and September 2013. Results Of the 428 men who completed the questionnaire, 184 (43%) used at least one of the alternative and antioxidant therapies specified in the questionnaire. Nutritional regime; vitamins, such as vitamins C and E; and medicinal herbs, such as ginger, saw palmetto, and ginseng were the most commonly used therapies reported. A correlation between the use of alternative and antioxidant therapies versus infertility duration was found. Additionally, the majority of males using CAM did not inform their health care providers about their usage. Conclusions The high prevalence of CAM use among infertile male patients underscores the urge to assimilate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as to improve infertile patients’ knowledge of the safe use of CAM modalities. PMID:25026980

  10. Oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage, a possible reason for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hosen, Md Bayejid; Islam, Md Rakibul; Begum, Firoza; Kabir, Yearul; Howlader, M Zakir Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sperm DNA damage is an important factor in the etiology of male infertility. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage with the pathogenesis of male infertility. Materials and Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 subjects, including fertile men (n=25) and infertile men (n=41) matched by age. Seminal malondialdehyde (MDA), phospholipid hydroperoxide (PHP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) were estimated by spectrophotometric and ELISA based methods and the association with the sperm parameters was assessed. Results: The percentages of motile and morphologically normal cells were significantly lower (p < 0.001, p <0.001, respectivly) in infertile men. Seminal levels of MDA, PHP and 8-OHdG were significantly higher (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p=0. 02, respectively) while the SOD and TAS were significantly lower (p=0. 0003, p< 0.001, respectively) in infertile men. Sperm parameters were negatively correlated with MDA, PHP and 8-OHdG while positively correlated with SOD and TAS. A positive correlation of 8-OHdG with MDA and PHP and a negative correlation with TAS and SOD were also found. Conclusion: These results suggested that oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage might have a critical effect on the etiology of infertility. Therefore, evaluation of oxidative status, antioxidant defense systems and DNA damage, together with sperm parameters might be a useful tool for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:26568756

  11. Ketotifen, a mast cell blocker improves sperm motility in asthenospermic infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Saharkhiz, Nasrin; Nikbakht, Roshan; Hemadi, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ketotifen on sperm motility of asthenospermic infertile men. SETTING AND DESIGN: It is a prospective study designed in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this interventional experimental study, a total of 40 infertile couples with asthenospermic infertility factor undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles were enrolled. The couples were randomly assigned to one of two groups at the starting of the cycle. In control group (n = 20), the men did not receive Ketotifen, while in experiment group (n = 20), the men received oraly ketotifen (1 mg Bid) for 2 months. Semen analysis, under optimal circumferences, was obtained prior to initiation of treatment. The second semen analysis was done 2-3 weeks after stopped ketotifen treatment and sperm motility was defined. Clinical pregnancy was identified as the presence of a fetal sac by vaginal ultrasound examination. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: All data are expressed as the mean ± standard error of mean (SEM). t test was used for comparing the data of the control and treated groups. RESULTS: The mean sperm motility increased significantly (from 16.7% to 21.4%) after ketotifen treatment (P < 0.001). This sperm motility improvement was more pronounced in the primary infertility cases (P < 0.003). The rate of pregnancy was 12.5% in infertile couples that their men receiving 1 mg/twice a day ketotifen. In 52% of infertile men's semen, the percentage of sperm motility was increased from 5% to 35% and this sperm motility improvement was also observed in 33% of necrospermia (0% motility) cases. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that ketotifen may represent as a novel therapeutic approach to improve sperm motility in the infertile men with cause of asthenospermia or necrospermia. PMID:23869145

  12. A review of management of infertility in Nigeria: framing the ethics of a national health policy

    PubMed Central

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Truter, Ernest J

    2011-01-01

    Infertility has recently been construed to be a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem seems to be viewed as of low priority with reference to the effective and efficient allocation of available health resources by national governments as well as by international donors sponsoring either research or service delivery in the public health sector. In this paper the problem of infertility in Nigeria is surveyed with a view to assessing the ethical dimension of proposals to manage infertility as a public sector priority in health care delivery. The population/individual and public/private distinction in the formulation of health policy has ethical implications that cannot simply be ignored and are therefore engaged in critically assessing the problem of infertility. Cost–utility analysis (such as Quality Adjusted Life-Year composite index) in the management of infertility in Nigeria entails the need for caution relevant to the country’s efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals. This should remain the case whether the ethical evaluation appeals to utilitarian or contractarian (Rawlsian) principles. The “worst off ” category of Nigerians includes (1) underweight children less than 5 years of age, with special concern for infants (0–1 years of age) and (2) the proportion of the population below a minimum level of dietary consumption. The Rawlsian ethic implies that any Federal Ministry of Health policy aimed at establishing public programs for infertility management can be considered a “fair” allocation and expenditure if, and only if, the situation for these two cohorts is not thereby made worse. Nigerian health policy cannot assume this type of increased allocation of its resources to infertility care without it being hard pressed to warrant defensible moral or rational argument. PMID:21892337

  13. Infertility Specific Quality of Life and Gender Role Attitudes in German and Hungarian Involuntary Childless Couples.

    PubMed

    Cserepes, R E; Bugán, A; Korösi, T; Toth, B; Rösner, S; Strowitzki, T; Wischmann, T

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: As gender role attitudes and the evaluation of parenthood and childlessness have subtle variations in each society, cross-country studies focusing on infertility are needed to draw a complex picture in the psychosocial context of infertility. This study investigates similarities and differences between German and Hungarian infertile couples regarding infertility specific quality of life and personal gender role attitudes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with data of 540 participants (270 couples) attending the first fertility consultation in one fertility clinic in Germany and in five fertility clinics in Hungary. Data were collected between February 2012 and March 2013. Two psychological questionnaires were applied: The FertiQoL to measure infertility specific quality of life and the PAQ to measure gender role attitudes like "instrumental" acting (as a traditional "masculine" attitude) and "expressive" communicating (as a traditional "femine" attitude) and their combinations "combined" attitude (as both "instrumental" and "expressive") and "neutral" attitude (neither "instrumental" nor "expressive"). Results: German couples seeking assisted reproduction treatment are older aged and have longer lasting relationships than Hungarian couples. Hungarian couples scored higher on all quality of life scales than did German couples. In the Hungarian group, "combined" attitudes (use of both "expressive" and "instrumental" attitudes) is associated with higher levels of quality of life compared with other gender role attitudes. In the German group, individuals with "combined" attitudes seem to show better quality of life than those in "expressive" and "neutral" clusters. Conclusions: The strategy of using combined "expressive" and "instrumental" attitudes proved to act as a buffer against infertility-related stress for both members of the couple in two European countries and can therefore be recommended as helpful in counselling the infertile

  14. A Survey on Oocyte Donation: Turkish Fertile and Infertile Women’s Opinions

    PubMed Central

    Akyuz, Aygul; Sever, Nese; Karasahin, Emre; Guvenc, Gulten; Cek, Suzan

    2014-01-01

    Background There are various treatment options for infertility, and new techniques are also being developed as it is an important healthcare problem affecting approximately 15-20% of married couples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of infor- mation of fertile and infertile Turkish women on oocyte donation in order to understand their awareness of the legal, ethical, social and religious issues regarding this technique and to compare these two groups in terms of these variables. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included infertile women being treated at the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) program of a university hos- pital and women who had presented at the gynecology outpatients department of the same university for routine check-ups and who had no previous history of infertility. After consulting with specialists in the field and searching the related literature, a data collection form having 22 questions for infertile women and 18 questions for fertile women was prepared. Results The women were asked whether they would use the oocytes of another woman if necessary. The results showed that 67.6% of the fertile women said they would never want to use this method, while 63.9% of the infertile women stated they may accept to use this method under certain conditions (two distinct answers appeared in the answers, some women stated they would prefer donated oocytes from close relatives, while others stated they would prefer oocytes from total strangers), such as from a close relative or from someone they do not know at all. Conclusion Infertile women mentioned that they could use illegal routes if necessary to have a child at much higher rates than stated by fertile women. This shows that desire to have a child is a strong source of motivation in Turkey. PMID:25379158

  15. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05) and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment. PMID:25184788

  16. Prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in High Vaginal Swab Samples of Infertile Females

    PubMed Central

    Seifoleslami, Mehri; Safari, Aghdas; Khayyat Khameneie, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are important causative agents of vaginitis, cervicitis, postpartum sepsis, reproductive infections and infertility in both males and females. Objectives: According to the uncertain prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in Iranian infertile females, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in high vaginal swab samples of fertile and infertile females. Patients and Methods: A total of 350 high vaginal swab specimens were taken from fertile and infertile females. Samples were cultured and those that were positive for bacteria were subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for further confirmation. Results: Of the 350 collected samples, eleven were positive for M. hominis (3.14%), fifteen were positive for U. urealyticum (4.28%) and five were positive for both of them (1.42%). Prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in the high vaginal parts of infertile females was higher than fertile females (P < 0.05). The results of traditional method were also confirmed, using the PCR amplification of urease gene of U. urealyticum and 16SrRNA gene of the M. hominis. Ureaplasma urealyticum and M. hominis had a higher prevalence in the high vaginal samples collected during the summer season. Conclusions: Considerable prevalence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in the high vaginal swab samples of infertile females compared to the low prevalence in fertile females may suggest that these two pathogens can be cause infertility. Application of the PCR method is recommended for rapid and sensitive detection of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in high vaginal swab samples. PMID:26756000

  17. Usage and perceptions of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors among the male partners of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Suk; Shim, Sung Han; Lim, Jung Jin; Yang, Seung Choul

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and the usage of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for ED treatment in infertile couples. Methods A total of 260 male partners in couples reporting infertility lasting at least 1 year were included in this study. In addition to an evaluation of infertility, all participants completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 questionnaire to evaluate their sexual function. The participants were asked about their use of PDE5 inhibitors while trying to conceive during their partner's ovulatory period and about their concerns regarding the risks of PDE5 inhibitor use to any eventual pregnancy and/or the fetus. Results Based on the IIEF-5 questionnaire, 41.5% of the participants (108/260) were classified as having mild ED (an IIEF-5 score of 17–21), while 10.4% of the participants (27/260) had greater than mild ED (an IIEF-5 score of 16 or less). The majority (74.2%, 193/260) of male partners of infertile couples had a negative perception of the safety of using a PDE5 inhibitor while trying to conceive. Only 11.1% of men (15/135) with ED in infertile couples had used a PDE5 inhibitor when attempting conception. Conclusion ED was found to be common in the male partners of infertile couples, but the use of PDE5 inhibitors among these men was found to be very low. The majority of male partners were concerned about the risks of using PDE5 inhibitors when attempting to conceive. Appropriate counseling about this topic and treatment when necessary would likely be beneficial to infertile couples in which the male partner has ED. PMID:27104154

  18. Sperm chromatin structure assay results in Nigerian men with unexplained infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kolade, Charles Oluwabukunmi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several publications have established a relationship between sperm DNA damage and male factor infertility, based on data from America, Europe, and Asia. This study aimed to compare the extent of sperm DNA damage in sperm samples from Nigerian men with unexplained infertility and in sperm samples from a fertile group composed of sperm donors who had successfully impregnated a female partner naturally or through assisted conception. Methods A total of 404 men underwent male fertility evaluation at Androcare Laboratories and Cryobank participated in this study. Semen analysis and a sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) were performed on all subjects. Results The men in the unexplained infertility group were slightly older than the men in the fertile sperm group (36±10 years vs. 32±6 years, p=0.051). No significant difference was observed between the two groups in semen analysis parameters (p≥0.05). Men in the unexplained infertility group with normal semen parameters had a significantly higher DNA fragmentation index (DFI) than men in the fertile sperm group (27.5%±7.0% vs. 14.1%±5.3%, p<0.05). In the unexplained infertility group, 63% of the men had a DFI greater than 20%, compared to 4% in the fertile sperm group. In the unexplained infertility group, 15.2% of the subjects had a DFI greater than 30%, compared to 1% in the fertile sperm group. Conclusion Our study showed that the SCSA may be a more reliable predictor of fertility potential than traditional semen analysis in cases of unexplained infertility. PMID:26473109

  19. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05) and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that "women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment. PMID:25184788

  20. A review of management of infertility in Nigeria: framing the ethics of a national health policy.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Truter, Ernest J

    2011-01-01

    Infertility has recently been construed to be a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem seems to be viewed as of low priority with reference to the effective and efficient allocation of available health resources by national governments as well as by international donors sponsoring either research or service delivery in the public health sector. In this paper the problem of infertility in Nigeria is surveyed with a view to assessing the ethical dimension of proposals to manage infertility as a public sector priority in health care delivery. The population/individual and public/private distinction in the formulation of health policy has ethical implications that cannot simply be ignored and are therefore engaged in critically assessing the problem of infertility. Cost-utility analysis (such as Quality Adjusted Life-Year composite index) in the management of infertility in Nigeria entails the need for caution relevant to the country's efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals. This should remain the case whether the ethical evaluation appeals to utilitarian or contractarian (Rawlsian) principles. The "worst off " category of Nigerians includes (1) underweight children less than 5 years of age, with special concern for infants (0-1 years of age) and (2) the proportion of the population below a minimum level of dietary consumption. The Rawlsian ethic implies that any Federal Ministry of Health policy aimed at establishing public programs for infertility management can be considered a "fair" allocation and expenditure if, and only if, the situation for these two cohorts is not thereby made worse. Nigerian health policy cannot assume this type of increased allocation of its resources to infertility care without it being hard pressed to warrant defensible moral or rational argument. PMID:21892337

  1. Attitudes of fertile and infertile woman towards new reproductive technologies: a case study of Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article analyzes several key issues in the debate: the acceptability of in vitro fertilization; regulation of assisted reproduction and the possibilities of reimbursement for assisted reproduction treatment in Lithuania. Method Two groups of respondents participated in the survey: fertile women and women with fertility disorders. 93 completed questionnaires from women with fertility problems and 146 from women with no fertility problems were analysed. Results Fertile respondents more frequently perceived the embryo as a human being (Fertile Individuals – 68.5%; Infertile Individuals – 35.5%; p < 0.05) and more frequently maintained that assisted reproduction treatment should be only partly reimbursed (Fertile Individuals – 71.3%; Infertile Individuals – 39.8%; p < 0.05). Respondents with fertility disorders more frequently thought that artificial insemination procedure could also be applied to unmarried couples (Fertile Individuals – 51.4%; Infertile Individuals – 76.3%; p < 0.05), and more frequently agreed that there should be no age limit for artificial insemination procedures (Fertile Individuals – 36.3%; Infertile Individuals – 67.7%; p < 0.05). The majority of respondents in both groups (Fertile Individuals – 77.4%; Infertile Individuals – 82.8%; p < 0.05) believed that donation of reproductive cells should be regulated by law. Fertile respondents more frequently considered that strict legal regulation was necessary in case of the number of transferred embryos (Fertile Individuals – 69.2%; Infertile Individuals – 39.8%; p < 0.05) and freezing of embryos (Fertile Individuals – 69.9%; Infertile Individuals – 57.0%; p < 0.05). Conclusion Fertile respondents were statistically more likely to believe that the IVF procedure should be applied only to married couples or women who had a regular partner, the age limit should be defined and the psychological assessment of the couple’s relationship and their readiness for the

  2. The Effect of The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy on Infertility Stress: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Pasha, Hajar; Esmailzadeh, Seddigheh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Heidary, Shima; Afshar, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infertility has been described as creating a form of stress leading to a variety of psychological problems. Both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are effective treatments for infertility stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy along with fluoxetine for improvement infertility stress in infertile women. Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 89 infertile women with mild to moderate depression (Beck scores 10-47) were recruited into the following three groups: i. cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), ii. antidepressant therapy, and iii. control group. Twenty-nine participants in the CBT method received gradual relaxation training, restructuring, and eliminating of negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes to infertility for 10 sessions. Thirty participants in the pharmacotherapy group took 20 mg fluoxetine daily for 90 days. Thirty individuals in control group did not receive any intervention. All participants completed fertility problem inventory (FPI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at the beginning and end of the study. We applied Chi-square paired t test, ANOVA and Turkey’s test to analyze the data. Results: The mean of the infertility stress scores in CBT, fluoxetine, and control groups at the beginning and end of the study were as follows, respectively: 3.5 ± 0.62 vs.2.7 ± 0.62 (p<0.05), 3.5 ± 0.53 vs.3.2 ± 4.4 (p<0.05), and 3.4 ± 0.55 vs. 3.5 ± 0.48. In CBT group, the mean scores of social concern, sexual concern, marital concern, rejection of child-free lifestyle, and need for parenthood decreased meaningfully compared to those before starting the therapy. But in fluoxetine group, mean score of women sexual concern out of those five main problems of infertility reduced significantly. Also, fluoxetine and CBT reduced depression compared to the control group. Conclusion: CBT improved the social concerns, sexual concerns, marital concerns

  3. Significant Impact of the MTHFR Polymorphisms and Haplotypes on Male Infertility Risk

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishi; Sarkar, Saumya; David, Archana; Gangwar, Pravin Kumar; Gupta, Richa; Khanna, Gita; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Khanna, Anil; Rajender, Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) converts 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate to 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate and affects the activity of cellular cycles participating in nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair, genome stability, maintenance of methyl pool, and gene regulation. Genetically compromised MTHFR activity has been suggested to affect male fertility. The objective of the present study was to find the impact on infertility risk of c.203G>A, c.1298A>C, and c.1793G>A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene. Methods PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing were used to genotype the common SNPs in the MTHFR gene in 630 infertile and 250 fertile males. Chi-square test was applied for statistical comparison of genotype data. Linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs and the frequency of common haplotypes were assessed using Haploview software. Biochemical levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) and folic acid were measured. Meta-analysis on c.1298A>C polymorphism was performed using data from ten studies, comprising 2734 cases and 2737 controls. Results c.203G>A and c.1298A>C were found to be unrelated to infertility risk. c.1793G>A was protective against infertility (P = 0.0008). c.677C>T and c.1793G>A were in significant LD (D’ = 0.9). Folic acid and tHcy level did not correlate with male infertility. Pooled estimate on c.1298A>C data from all published studies including our data showed no association of this polymorphism with male infertility (Odds ratio = 1.035, P = 0.56), azoospermia (Odds ratio = 0.97, P = 0.74), or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (Odds ratio = 0.92, p = 0.29). Eight haplotypes with more than 1% frequency were detected, of which CCGA was protective against infertility (p = 0.02), but the significance of the latter was not seen after applying Bonferroni correction. Conclusion Among MTHFR polymorphisms, c.203G>A and c.1298A>C do not affect infertility risk and c.1793G>A is protective against infertility. Haplotype analysis

  4. Effect of lifestyle on quality of life of couples receiving infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Teskereci, Gamze; Oncel, Selma

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of lifestyle on the quality of life among couples undergoing infertility treatment. The research universe consisted of 200 couples undergoing infertility treatment in Akdeniz University's Center of Reproductive Endocrinology and Assisted Reproductive Techniques. The data collection tools the authors used were a personal information form requesting sociodemographic characteristics and history of infertility, the SF-36 Quality of Life Scale, and the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale. This study revealed that the quality of life of the women in the study was lower than that of the men. The authors also found that the couples' quality of life was reduced by variables such as advanced age, low education level, unemployment status, lower income, long duration of infertility, high body mass index, history of andrological surgery, and previous experience of assisted reproduction techniques three or more times. Last, it was determined that the couples' quality of life improved as their healthy lifestyle behaviors increased. Demonstrating positive health behavior is likely to improve the quality of life of couples undergoing infertility treatment. PMID:23631703

  5. The Effect of Mirtazapine on Cisplatin-Induced Oxidative Damage and Infertility in Rat Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Altuner, Durdu; Gulaboglu, Mine; Yapca, Omer Erkan; Cetin, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin causes infertility due to ovarian toxicity. The toxicity mechanism is unknown, but evidence suggests oxidative stress. In this study, the effect of mirtazapine on cisplatin-induced infertility and oxidative stress in rats was investigated. 64 female rats were divided into 4 groups of 16. Except for the controls that received physiologic saline only, all were administered with cisplatin (5 mg/kg i.p.) and mirtazapine (15 mg/kg p.o.) or mirtazapine (30 mg/kg p.o.) for 10 days. After this period, six rats from each group were randomly selected, and malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), total gluthatione (tGSH), gluthatione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanine (8-OH Gua) levels were measured in their ovarian tissues. Reproductive functions of the remaining rats were examined for 6 months. The MDA, MPO, NO groups and 8-OH Gua levels were higher in the cisplatin-treated groups than the controls, which was not observed in the mirtazapine and cisplatin groups. GSH, GPx, and SOD levels were reduced by cisplatin, which was prevented by mirtazapine. Cisplatin caused infertility by 70%. The infertility rates were, respectively, 40% and 10% for the 15 and 30 mg/kg mirtazapine administered groups. In conclusion, oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in the rat ovary tissue causes infertility in the female rats. Mirtazapine reverses this in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:23737712

  6. Metabolomics Analysis of Seminal Plasma in Infertile Males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Hu, Chao; Dai, Jican; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important treatment for male infertility, and its application to therapy is dependent on differentiation of TCM syndromes. This study aims to investigate the changes in metabolites and metabolic pathways in infertile males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYDS) via metabolomics approaches. Seminal plasma samples were collected from 18 infertile males with KYDS and 18 fertile males. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to characterize metabolomics profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), and pathway analysis were used for pattern recognition and metabolite identification. PCA and PLS-DA results differentiated the two groups of patients. Forty-one discriminating metabolites (18 in positive mode and 23 in negative mode) were identified. Seven metabolites were related to five potential metabolic pathways associated with biosynthesis and metabolism of aromatic amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and sphingolipid metabolism. The changes in metabolic pathways may play an important role in the origin of KYDS-associated male infertility. Metabolomics analysis of seminal plasma may be used to differentiate TCM syndromes of infertile males, but further research must be conducted. PMID:25945117

  7. Is global access to infertility care realistic? The Walking Egg Project.

    PubMed

    Ombelet, Willem

    2014-03-01

    Until very recently, the problem of infertility in developing countries has been ignored at all levels of healthcare management. Because many preventable or treatable diseases still claim millions of lives, and due to limited resources, provision of infertility care is not on the resource allocation agenda at all, prevention of sexually transmitted diseases remaining the number one priority. Tubal infertility due to sexually transmitted diseases, unsafe abortion and post-partum pelvic infections is the main cause of infertility. Most cases are only treatable with assisted reproduction technology, which are either unavailable or too costly. In December 2007, an expert meeting was organized in Arusha, Tanzania by the Walking Egg non-profit organization in co-operation with ESHRE. The meeting was the start of a global project aimed at increasing diagnostic and therapeutic options for childless couples in resource-poor countries. From the start, the Walking Egg Project has approached this problem in a multidisciplinary and global manner. It gathers medical, social, ethical, epidemiological, juridical and economic scientists to discuss and work together towards its goal. The final objective of the Walking Egg Project is the implementation of infertility services in many developing countries, preferably integrated in existing family planning and mother care services. PMID:24444813

  8. Polymorphic variants in vitamin D signaling pathway genes and the risk of endometriosis-associated infertility.

    PubMed

    Szczepańska, Malgorzata; Mostowska, Adrianna; Wirstlein, Przemyslaw; Skrzypczak, Jana; Misztal, Matthew; Jagodziński, Paweł P

    2015-11-01

    It has recently been reported that vitamin D blood plasma levels are associated with reduced risk of endometriosis. The present study aimed to investigate whether the vitamin D binding protein (GC), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and retinoid X receptor (RXR) gene variants may be genetic risk factors for endometriosis‑associated infertility. The subjects consisted of 154 women with endometriosis‑associated infertility and 347 controls. Using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism and high resolution melt techniques, the GC rs1155563, rs2298849 and rs7041; RXRA rs10881578, rs10776909 and rs749759; VDR BsmI rs1544410; and FokI rs2228570 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated in the patients with endometriosis and the healthy controls. The results indicated that no significant differences were observed between the genotype and allele frequencies of all experimental SNPs in the vitamin D signaling pathway genes in women with endometriosis-associated infertility and controls. However, a significant association was present between the A‑T haplotype, consisting of VDR rs1544410 and rs222857 minor alleles, and endometriosis-associated infertility [OR=1.659 (1.122‑2.453), P=0.011]. The results of the present study suggested that VDR gene variants act as genetic risk factors for endometriosis‑associated infertility. PMID:26398313

  9. IVF as lottery or investment: contesting metaphors in discourses of infertility.

    PubMed

    de Lacey, Sheryl

    2002-03-01

    This paper reports an aspect of a poststructural feminist study in which I explored the discursive formations within which women for whom in vitro fertilisation (IVF) was unsuccessful constitute themselves. In my exploration I draw on data from interviews with women who discontinued infertility treatment, print media material and infertility self-help books. Specifically, I highlight a metaphor of lottery in discourses of infertility, arguing that it is hegemonic and showing how when women are situated as gamblers, the metaphor is instrumental in polarising them into 'winners' or 'losers' in relation to the subjectivity of motherhood. I further deconstruct these subjectivities, showing how 'winners' are valorised and 'losers' are pathologised. But importantly, I show how infertile women who are not mothers resisted locating themselves as 'losers' in a metaphor of lottery and instead situated themselves in a contesting metaphor of investment as diligent 'workers' and as active agents in choosing the best employment of their bodily and monetary resources. This paper therefore amplifies the marginalised perspective of infertile women who are not mothers. PMID:12164714

  10. Suicidal risk among infertile women undergoing in-vitro fertilization: Incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Shani, Chen; Yelena, Stukalina; Reut, Ben Kimhy; Adrian, Shulman; Sami, Hamdan

    2016-06-30

    Despite the fact that depression and other emotional distress are well documented in infertile women, little is known about the relationship between infertility and suicidal risk. The aim of this cross sectional study was to examine the rate of suicide risk (suicidal ideation/suicidal attempts) among 106 infertile women visiting Infertility and In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Hospital Unit, and to identify the demographic, medical and clinical correlates to suicidal risk. The incidence of suicide risk was 9.4%. Suicidal women were more likely to be childless or had fewer children and experienced higher levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, they reported more frequently on denial, social withdrawal and self-blame coping strategies compared to participants without suicidal risk. A multiple logistic regression model revealed that being childless, using non-positive reappraisal and exhibiting depressive symptoms were significant predictors of suicide risk in the future. These results suggest that routine assessment of suicidal risk and depression should be provided for infertile women in the course of IVF. Furthermore, future interventions should focus on helping them acquire different emotions regulation strategies and provide alternative skills for positive coping. PMID:27084991

  11. A retrospective chromosome studies among Iranian infertile women: Report of 21 years

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Cyrus; Khaleghian, Malihea; Farzanfar, Farideh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The infertility is an important health problem, affecting about 15% of couples. The important role of genetic factors in pathogenesis of infertility is now increasingly recognized. The value of karyotyping women in the routine work-out of couples referred for sterility has long been recommended. Objective: The aim of this study was to define the frequency of all chromosomal aberrations among women which referred to our department due to infertility during the 21-year period. Materials and Methods: In this 21-year retrospective study, for the first time, we investigated 896 women which referred to our department due to infertility during 1986 to 2006. For chromosome analysis, heparinized peripheral blood samples were cultured, harvested and banded according to standard methods. Results: Out of 896 patients, 710 patients (79.24%) had a normal karyotype, and 186 patients (20.76%) showed abnormal karyotype. Among the abnormal ones 48 patients (25.81%) showed Turner's syndrome (45,X), and 45 patients (24.19%) were sex reversal with 46,XY karyotype. The rest of 93 patients (50%) revealed a wide range of chromosome abnormalities. Conclusion: Our results emphasized the importance of the standard cytogenetic methods in assessing the genetic characteristics of infertile females, which allows detecting a variety of somatic chromosome abnormalities, because some of these may interfere with the success of reproduction. PMID:24639762

  12. Women who conceived with infertility treatment were more likely to receive planned cesarean deliveries in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chien, Li-Yin; Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Yu-Hung; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of conception with infertility treatment on planned cesarean delivery. The participants were from a panel of primiparous pregnant women in northern Taiwan. The data analysis included 771 women with a singleton pregnancy, of whom 160 had a planned cesarean delivery and 611 who had a vaginal delivery. The study women answered structured questionnaires during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and at one-month postpartum. Women who conceived with infertility treatment were more likely to have planned cesarean deliveries than women who conceived without it (44.7% versus 18.1%, p < 0.001; crude odds ratio: 3.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24-5.98). After adjustment for maternal age over 35 years, whether they were currently unmarried, selection of time for birth in advance, gestational hypertension, and birthweight < 2500 g, women who conceived with infertility treatment were 2.95 times (95% CI: 1.47-5.92) more likely to have planned cesarean deliveries. The increased risk for planned cesarean deliveries among singleton women who conceived with infertility treatment cannot be explained by older maternal age or higher number of morbidities during pregnancy. Counseling for women who conceive with infertility treatments may be needed to decrease unnecessary cesarean deliveries. PMID:25581216

  13. The effect of a specific histidine-rich glycoprotein polymorphism on male infertility and semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Karin E; Nordqvist, Sarah; Kårehed, Karin; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Åkerud, Helena

    2016-08-01

    In women, there is evidence that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) named HRG C633T is relevant for a number of fertility outcomes including recurrent miscarriage, ovarian response and pregnancy outcome after IVF. This case-control study was designed to investigate whether the HRG C633T SNP is important for male infertility and pregnancy rate following IVF. Cases were 139 infertile couples and controls were 196 pregnant couples. The 335 couples all contributed with one blood sample per partner. Genomic DNA was extracted and genotyping was performed using a TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assay. Information on pregnancy rate and semen parameters was derived from medical records. Infertile couples in which the male partner was a homozygous carrier of the HRG C633T SNP had significantly lower (P < 0.01) pregnancy rate following IVF in comparison with couples where the male partner was a heterozygous HRG C633T SNP carrier. Male homozygous HRG 633T SNP carriers had overall lower total sperm count, sperm concentration, motility score and yield after preparation. In conclusion, once infertility is established the HRG C633T SNP seems to be important for male infertility and pregnancy rate following IVF. PMID:27210772

  14. Regional and geographical variations in infertility: effects of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Leke, R J; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K M

    1993-07-01

    Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomplete without consideration of the sociocultural and environmental factors. The most cost-effective approach to solving the infertility problems in Africa is prevention and education. In Mexico, problems of reproductive health are associated with pregnancy in adolescents, sexually transmitted diseases and genitourinary neoplasms. Infertility affects 10% of couples, usually as a result of asymptomatic infection. Education, poverty, nutrition, and pollution are problems that must be tackled. The government has taken positive action in the State of São Paulo in Brazil, where gender discrimination is a major factor affecting women's health and reproductive outcomes. The implementation of new policies with adequate funding has resulted in marked improvements. PMID:8243409

  15. Local Signaling Environments and Human Male Infertility: What Can Be Learned from Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Nalam, Roopa L.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most prevalent public health problems facing young adult males in today’s society. A clear, treatable cause of infertility cannot be determined in a large number of these patients, and a growing body of evidence suggests that infertility in many of these men may be due to genetic causes. Studies utilizing animal models, and most importantly, mouse knockout technology, have been integral not only for the study of normal spermatogenesis but also for identifying proteins essential for this process, which in turn are candidate genes for causing human male infertility. Successful spermatogenesis depends on a delicate balance of local signaling factors, and this review focuses specifically on the genes that encode these factors. Normal functioning of all testicular cell types is not only essential for normal fertility but, as recently hypothesized, may also be crucial to prevent germ cell oncogenesis. Analysis of these processes using mouse models in vivo has provided investigators with an invaluable tool to effectively translate basic science research to the research of human disease and infertility. PMID:20456819

  16. Regional and geographical variations in infertility: effects of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed Central

    Leke, R J; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K M

    1993-01-01

    Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomplete without consideration of the sociocultural and environmental factors. The most cost-effective approach to solving the infertility problems in Africa is prevention and education. In Mexico, problems of reproductive health are associated with pregnancy in adolescents, sexually transmitted diseases and genitourinary neoplasms. Infertility affects 10% of couples, usually as a result of asymptomatic infection. Education, poverty, nutrition, and pollution are problems that must be tackled. The government has taken positive action in the State of São Paulo in Brazil, where gender discrimination is a major factor affecting women's health and reproductive outcomes. The implementation of new policies with adequate funding has resulted in marked improvements. PMID:8243409

  17. Association of C677T transition of the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Mohammad; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh

    2016-04-01

    The human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene encodes one of the key enzymes in folate metabolism. This gene is located on chromosome 1 (1p36.3), which has 12 exons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association of the two (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms of this gene with male infertility. In a case-control study, 250 blood samples were collected from IVF centres in Sari and Babol (Iran): 118 samples were from oligospermic men and 132 were from controls. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MTHFR genotype were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was no association found between the A1298C variant and male infertility. However, carriers of the 677T allele (CT and TT genotypes) were at a higher risk of infertility than individuals with other genotypes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.04; P=0.0174). Structural analysis of human MTHFR flavoprotein showed that C677T transition played an important role in the change in affinity of the MTHFR-Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding site. Based on our results, we suggest that C677T transition in MTHFR may increase the risk of male infertility, and detection of the C677T polymorphism biomarker may be helpful in the screening of idiopathic male infertility. PMID:25412139

  18. The epidemiology of infertility: a review with particular reference to sub-Saharan Africa*

    PubMed Central

    Belsey, Mark A.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of infertility, with particular reference to Africa south of the Sahara, is reviewed. In many areas, up to 40% of women are reported to have completed their reproductive years without bearing a child. The condition is widely distributed, but also often localized in pockets corresponding to geographical or tribal units. Most available demographic data provide estimates of childlessness but it is not sufficient to define the problem in terms of primary and secondary infertility, pregnancy wastage, and infant and child mortality. The major underlying cause for the high levels of infertility appears to be the sequelae of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in both men and women, manifested as obstructive azoospermia and tubal occlusion. Other infections, such as those that may follow abortion or delivery, or systemic infections, may be important in some areas. The available data suggest that different patterns of infertility and pregnancy wastage, and different etiological agents and processes, contribute to the problem of infertility in the different areas. The need for a systematic, standardized research approach in several areas is clearly indicated. PMID:798639

  19. Early stage management of ovarian endometrioma to prevent infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brosens, I.; Puttemans, P.; Gordts, Sy.; Campo, R.; Gordts, S.; Benagiano, G.

    2013-01-01

    There are now convincing data showing that cystectomy of the endometrioma is not only no cure of infertility, but may harm follicle reserve. The question arises why is cystectomy for an endometrioma, in contrast with other benign cysts, a risk for follicle reserve and how can ovarian damage be prevented. Surgical specimens of ovaries with endometrioma in situ show in the majority of cases manifestly a combined extra-ovarian and intra-ovarian pathology with the cortex invaginated to form a pseudocyst. The extra-ovarian pathology includes endometrial lining of the cortex, bleeding and adhesions with surrounding tissues. The intra-ovarian pathology is characterized by microscopic stromal implants, fibrosis, smooth muscle metaplasia and arteriosclerosis, all affecting follicle reserve in the endometrioma bed. Clinically, ovarioscopy allows differential diagnosis (e.g. luteal cyst) and evaluation of the degree of fibrosis and darkening of the cortical wall. Transvaginal colour Doppler sonography can demonstrate the presence and extent of devascularisation in the endometrioma bed. Given this reality, surgery should be based on evaluation of the pathology of the endometrioma bed, but not on the mere size of the chocolate cyst. The main clinical problem is indeed the delayed diagnosis and consequently advanced irreversible cortical damage. Therefore, the sooner endometriomas are diagnosed, the better, because it increases the chances that vascularisation of the endometrioma bed is preserved. Finally, ablation, but not excision is the treatment of choice. The diagnosis of endometriosis is traditionally based on laparoscopy, but in a sexually active adolescent transvaginal endoscopy can be proposed. PMID:24753958

  20. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schover, Leslie R.; van der Kaaij, Marleen; van Dorst, Eleonora; Creutzberg, Carien; Huyghe, Eric; Kiserud, Cecilie E.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options. PMID:26217165

  1. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Schover, Leslie R; van der Kaaij, Marleen; van Dorst, Eleonora; Creutzberg, Carien; Huyghe, Eric; Kiserud, Cecilie E

    2014-06-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options. PMID:26217165

  2. Specific antibodies to porcine zona pellucida detected by quantitative radioimmunoassay in both fertile and infertile women

    SciTech Connect

    Kurachi, H.; Wakimoto, H.; Sakumoto, T.; Aono, T.; Kurachi, K.

    1984-02-01

    The specific radioimmunoassay system was developed for the titration of the antibodies to porcine zona pellucida (ZP) in human sera by using /sup 125/I-labeled purified porcine ZP as antigen, which is known to have cross-reactivity with human ZP. The antibodies in human sera were detected in 3 of 11 (27%) women with unexplained infertility, in 16 of 48 (33%) amenorrheic patients, in 4 of 12 (33%) fertile women, and in 3 of 10 (30%) men. Moreover, antibody titers in infertile women were no higher than those in fertile women and in men. These results seem to suggest that the antibodies in human sera that cross-react with porcine ZP may not be an important factor in causing infertility in women.

  3. An Analysis of the Concept of Partnership in the Couples Undergoing Infertility Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ying, Liying; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-01-01

    The elements of a partnership in the couples undergoing infertility treatment are not well understood. This article aims to fill the gap by using Rodger's evolutionary method of concept analysis. The attributes of the concept partnership that were identified are a process of joint hardship, sharing, intracouple communication, and mutual support. The antecedents are love and attraction for each other, agreement, and interpersonal skills. The consequences are marital benefit, improvement in psychological status, and quality of life. A middle-range model for partnership in relationship to infertile couples is proposed. The understanding of the phenomenon of partnership will enable the researchers to develop interventions, identify the appropriate assessment instruments, and to determine directions for future research on effort to support infertile couples through their hardship. PMID:25774425

  4. Addressing the particular recordkeeping needs of infertile Orthodox Jewish couples considering the use of donated eggs.

    PubMed

    Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2014-03-01

    Infertility counseling is a specialized field that will continue to grow in coming years as the impact of infertility and its treatment is documented more and more in terms of emotional, physical, social and life consequences. Counselors should anticipate issues that may arise in the future and assist couples in their efforts to address them. We report here on recordkeeping issues of possible future concern that should be addressed when Orthodox Jewish couples make use of donor eggs. Good medical practice values the importance of understanding the patient's individual concerns and values, including the complex psychological, sociological and cultural context in which they experience their infertility. Good counseling anticipates and addresses future problems about which patients might not currently be aware. PMID:24446049

  5. Human Seminal Plasma Proteome Study: A Search for Male Infertility Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Davalieva, K; Kiprijanovska, S; Noveski, P; Plaseski, T; Kocevska, B; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2012-01-01

    Seminal plasma is a potential source of biomarkers for many disorders of the male reproductive system including male infertility. Knowledge of the peptide and protein components of seminal fluid is accumulating especially with the appearance of high-throughput MS-based techniques. Of special interest in the field of male infertility biomarkers, is the identification and characterization of differentially expressed proteins in seminal plasma of men with normal and impaired spermatogenesis. However, the data obtained until now is still quite heterogeneous and with small percentage of overlap between independent studies. Extensive comparative analysis of seminal plasma proteome is still needed in order to establish a potential link between seminal plasma proteins and male infertility. PMID:24052741

  6. Dancing around infertility: the use of metaphors in a complex medical situation.

    PubMed

    Palmer-Wackerly, Angela L; Krieger, Janice L

    2015-01-01

    People use metaphors to cognitively frame their experiences as well as to explain those experiences to others, especially in complex medical situations. However, previous research has not fully explored the extent to which metaphors may be helpful or harmful to achieving well-being. This investigation fills this gap by identifying and explaining metaphor use in the context of infertility. Guided by self-determination theory, in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 women and men who had experienced an inability to conceive a child. Analysis of participant narratives yielded 10 prominent metaphors that reflect how participants' need for competence, autonomy, and relatedness were (and were not) met during their infertility experience. Results indicate that cognitively framing the infertility experience using certain metaphors is more likely to enhance personal and relational well-being, while others may be more harmful. Suggestions for communication with doctors, partners, families, and friends are discussed. PMID:25061825

  7. Psychosocial and sociocultural aspects of infertility--a comparison between Austrian women and immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Julia; Kirchengast, Sylvia; Vytiska-Binstorfer, Elisabeth; Huber, Johannes

    2004-09-01

    The polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting female fertility. In this study we examined psychosocial parameters caused by infertility in PCOS women with different socio-cultural background. Symptomatology of PCOS, body composition characteristics as well as psychosocial parameters were examined in 49 PCOS infertility patients of the University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Vienna, who originated from two different socio-cultural subgroups--Austrian women and Moslem immigrant women. In the appearance of the symptoms the typical heterogeneity of PCOS could be found in both subgroups with no differences. However, differences in the psychosocial aspects were impressive. Women from Islamic background do have a very high reproductive pressure. The Moslem immigrant PCOS women suffer more from infertility than Austrian women do. PMID:15509089

  8. How Husbands Cope When Pregnancy Fails: A Longitudinal Study of Infertility and Psychosocial Generativity. Working Paper No. 167.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snarey, John; And Others

    The experience of marital infertility is a major biosocial life crisis that also represents a serious threat to the development of psychosocial generativity. Psychological studies of the consequences of involuntary infertility, however, are rare. A study was undertaken to identify variations in the coping patterns used by men who have experienced…

  9. Women's Perceptions of Immediate and Long-Term Effects of Failed Infertility Treatment on Marital and Sexual Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepe, Margaret V.; Byrne, T. Jean

    1991-01-01

    Examined immediate and long-term effects of infertility treatment on the marital and sexual relationship, as perceived by women (n=40) who failed to become pregnant during treatment. Results indicated infertility treatment significantly affected both marital and sexual satisfaction after treatment was terminated, as well as during treatment. (ABL)

  10. Infertility and Subjective Well-Being: The Mediating Roles of Self-Esteem, Internal Control, and Interpersonal Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between self-esteem, perceived control, interpersonal conflict between spouses, global and intimacy life quality, and stress produced by infertility in 185 married infertile couples. Found that fertility problem stress had indirect negative effects on life quality via its mediating effects on self-esteem, internal control,…

  11. Study of Three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the SLC6A14 Gene in Association with Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Noveski, P; Mircevska, M; Plaseski, T; Peterlin, B; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2014-12-01

    Although several genetic causes of male infertility are known, the condition in around 60.0-75.0% of infertile male patients appears to be idiopathic. In some, genetic causes may be polygenic and require several low-penetrance genes to produce a phenotype outcome. In others, pleiotropy, when a gene can produce several phenotypic traits, may be involved. We have investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLC6A14 [solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14] gene are associated with male infertility. This gene has previously been linked with obesity and cystic fibrosis, which are associated with male infertility. It has a role in the transport of tryptophan and synthesis of serotonin that are important for normal spermatogenesis and testicular function. We have analyzed three SNPs (rs2312054, rs2071877 and rs2011162) in 370 infertile men and 241 fertile controls from two different populations (Macedonian and Slovenian). We found that the rs2011162(G) allele and rs2312054(A)-rs2071877(C)-rs2011162(G) haplotype are present at lower frequencies in the infertile rather than the fertile men (p = 0.044 and p = 0.0144, respectively). We concluded that the SLC6A14 gene may be a population-specific, low-penetrance locus which confers susceptibility to male infertility/subfertility. Additional follow-up studies of a large number of infertile men of different ethnic backgrounds are needed to confirm such a susceptibility. PMID:25937799

  12. Study of Three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the SLC6A14 Gene in Association with Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Noveski, P; Mircevska, M; Plaseski, T; Peterlin, B; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2014-01-01

    Although several genetic causes of male infertility are known, the condition in around 60.0–75.0% of infertile male patients appears to be idiopathic. In some, genetic causes may be polygenic and require several low-penetrance genes to produce a phenotype outcome. In others, pleiotropy, when a gene can produce several phenotypic traits, may be involved. We have investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLC6A14 [solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14] gene are associated with male infertility. This gene has previously been linked with obesity and cystic fibrosis, which are associated with male infertility. It has a role in the transport of tryptophan and synthesis of serotonin that are important for normal spermatogenesis and testicular function. We have analyzed three SNPs (rs2312054, rs2071877 and rs2011162) in 370 infertile men and 241 fertile controls from two different populations (Macedonian and Slovenian). We found that the rs2011162(G) allele and rs2312054(A)-rs2071877(C)-rs2011162(G) haplotype are present at lower frequencies in the infertile rather than the fertile men (p = 0.044 and p = 0.0144, respectively). We concluded that the SLC6A14 gene may be a population-specific, low-penetrance locus which confers susceptibility to male infertility/subfertility. Additional follow-up studies of a large number of infertile men of different ethnic backgrounds are needed to confirm such a susceptibility. PMID:25937799

  13. Pregnancy rate after endometrial injury in couples with unexplained infertility: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Parsanezhad, Mohammad Ebrahim; Dadras, Nasrin; Maharlouei, Najmeh; Neghahban, Leila; Keramati, Peghah; Amini, Madihe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unexplained infertility is still a challenging issue as to its causes, appropriate management and treatment. Evidence implicates early embryopathy or implantation failure as likely causes. Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of local endometrial injury on pregnancy rate in selected unexplained infertile patients. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial conducted in Shiraz University Infertility Clinic of Ghadir Hospital. A total of 217 women with unexplained infertility aged 23-35 years old were randomly divided into two study groups through block randomization. After superovulation by clomiphene-citrate and gonadotropins and when the dominant follicles reached 18-20 mm, patients were randomly assigned to undergo endometrial local injury at posterior uterine wall by piplle endometrial sampling (n=114) or mock pipette biopsy (n=103) during pre-ovulatory days (when spontaneous urinary LH surge was detected). Then all the patients were instructed to follow a regularly timed intercourse. Results: The pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the endometrial injury group compared to the control group [17/114 (14.9%) vs. 6/103 (5.8%) (OR: 2.83 95% CI: 1.07-7.49, p=0.03]. The abortion rate was comparable between two groups (17.64% vs. 14.28%; p=0.701). Conclusion: Local mechanical injury of the endometrium can enhance the uterine receptivity and facilitates the embryo implantation. This simple, easy, and cost effective procedure is worth considering in selective unexplained infertility patients who implantation failure is the likely causes of infertility before complex treatments. This procedure may help reduce psychological tensions and high expenses imposed through such interventions. Registration ID in IRCT: IRCT2012082510657N1 PMID:24639710

  14. The Walking Egg Project: Universal access to infertility care – from dream to reality

    PubMed Central

    Ombelet, W.

    2013-01-01

    Childlessness and infertility care are neglected aspects of family planning in resource-poor countries, although the consequences of involuntary childlessness are much more dramatic and can create more wide ranging societal problems compared to Western societies, particularly for women. Because many families in developing countries completely depend on children for economic survival, childlessness has to be regarded as a social and public health issue and not only as an individual medical problem. In the Walking Egg Project we strive to raise awareness surrounding childlessness in resource-poor countries and to make infertility care in all its aspects, including assisted reproductive technologies, available and accessible for a much larger part of the world population. We hope to achieve this goal through innovation and research, advocacy and networking, training and capacity building and service delivery. The Walking Egg non-profit organization has chosen a holistic approach of reproductive health and therefore strengthening infertility care should go together with strengthening other aspects of family planning and mother care. Right from the start The Walking Project has approached the problem of infertility in a multidisciplinary and global manner. It gathers medical, social, ethical, epidemiological, juridical and economical scientists and experts along with artists and philosophers to discuss and work together towards its goal. We recently developed a simplified tWE lab IVF culture system with excellent results. According to our first cost calculation, the price of a single IVF cycle using the methodologies and protocols we described, seems to be less than 200 Euros. We realize that universal access to infertility care can only be achieved when good quality but affordable infertility care is linked to effective family planning and safe motherhood programmes. Only a global project with respect to sociocultural, ethical, economical and political differences can

  15. Identification of human candidate genes for male infertility by digital differential display.

    PubMed

    Olesen, C; Hansen, C; Bendsen, E; Byskov, A G; Schwinger, E; Lopez-Pajares, I; Jensen, P K; Kristoffersson, U; Schubert, R; Van Assche, E; Wahlstroem, J; Lespinasse, J; Tommerup, N

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for the importance of genetic factors in male fertility is accumulating. In the literature and the Mendelian Cytogenetics Network database, 265 cases of infertile males with balanced reciprocal translocations have been described. The candidacy for infertility of 14 testis-expressed transcripts (TETs) were examined by comparing their chromosomal mapping position to the position of balanced reciprocal translocation breakpoints found in the 265 infertile males. The 14 TETs were selected by using digital differential display (electronic subtraction) to search for apparently testis-specific transcripts in the TIGR database. The testis specificity of the 14 TETs was further examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on adult and fetal tissues showing that four TETs (TET1 to TET4) were testis-expressed only, six TETs (TET5 to TET10) appeared to be differentially expressed and the remaining four TETs (TET11 to TET14) were ubiquitously expressed. Interestingly, the two tesis expressed-only transcripts, TET1 and TET2, mapped to chromosomal regions where seven and six translocation breakpoints have been reported in infertile males respectively. Furthermore, one ubiquitously, but predominantly testis-expressed, transcript, TET11, mapped to 1p32-33, where 13 translocation breakpoints have been found in infertile males. Interestingly, the mouse mutation, skeletal fusions with sterility, sks, maps to the syntenic region in the mouse genome. Another transcript, TET7, was the human homologue of rat Tpx-1, which functions in the specific interaction of spermatogenic cells with Sertoli cells. TPX-1 maps to 6p21 where three cases of chromosomal breakpoints in infertile males have been reported. Finally, TET8 was a novel transcript which in the fetal stage is testis-specific, but in the adult is expressed in multiple tissues, including testis. We named this novel transcript fetal and adult testis-expressed transcript (FATE). PMID:11134355

  16. Epigenetic regulation of the RHOX homeobox gene cluster and its association with human male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Marcy E.; Bleiziffer, Andreas; Tüttelmann, Frank; Gromoll, Jörg; Wilkinson, Miles F.

    2014-01-01

    The X-linked RHOX cluster encodes a set of homeobox genes that are selectively expressed in the reproductive tract. Members of the RHOX cluster regulate target genes important for spermatogenesis promote male fertility in mice. Studies show that demethylating agents strongly upregulate the expression of mouse Rhox genes, suggesting that they are regulated by DNA methylation. However, whether this extends to human RHOX genes, whether DNA methylation directly regulates RHOX gene transcription and how this relates to human male infertility are unknown. To address these issues, we first defined the promoter regions of human RHOX genes and performed gain- and loss-of-function experiments to determine whether human RHOX gene transcription is regulated by DNA methylation. Our results indicated that DNA methylation is necessary and sufficient to silence human RHOX gene expression. To determine whether RHOX cluster methylation associates with male infertility, we evaluated the methylation status of RHOX genes in sperm from a large cohort of infertility patients. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong association between RHOX gene cluster hypermethylation and three independent types of semen abnormalities. Hypermethylation was restricted specifically to the RHOX cluster; we did not observe it in genes immediately adjacent to it on the X chromosome. Our results strongly suggest that human RHOX homeobox genes are under an epigenetic control mechanism that is aberrantly regulated in infertility patients. We propose that hypermethylation of the RHOX gene cluster serves as a marker for idiopathic infertility and that it is a candidate to exert a causal role in male infertility. PMID:23943794

  17. CYP19 gene variant confers susceptibility to endometriosis-associated infertility in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ledan; Lu, Xiaosheng; Wang, Danhan; Qu, Wanglei; Li, Wenju; Xu, Xiaowen; Huang, Qiusui; Han, Xueying; Lv, Jieqiang

    2014-01-01

    An aromatase encoded by the CYP19 gene catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of estrogens, which is related to endometriosis development. To assess the association of CYP19 gene polymorphisms with the risks of endometriosis, chocolate cysts and endometriosis-related infertility, a case–control study was conducted in Chinese Han women by recruiting 225 healthy control females, 146 patients with endometriosis, 94 endometriosis women with chocolate cyst and 65 women with infertility resulting from endometriosis, as diagnosed by both pathological and laparoscopic findings. Individual genotypes at rs2236722:T>C, rs700518:A>G, rs10046:T>C and [TTTA]n polymorphisms were identified. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between the control group and case groups by chi-square analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were determined by logistic regression analysis to predict the association of CYP19 gene polymorphisms with the risk of endometriosis, the related chocolate cysts and infertility. The genotype distributions of the tested CYP19 gene polymorphisms were not significantly different between the healthy control group and the endometriosis/endometriosis with the chocolate cyst group. However, the CYP19 rs700518AA genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of endometriosis-related infertility (55.4% in the infertility group vs 25.3% in the control group, P<0.001; OR (95% CI): 3.66 (2.06–6.50)) under the recessive form of the A allele. Therefore, we concluded that in Chinese Han females CYP19 gene polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to endometriosis or chocolate cysts, whereas CYP19 rs700518AA genotype confers genetic susceptibility to endometriosis-related infertility. PMID:24968701

  18. New insights into male (in)fertility: the importance of NO

    PubMed Central

    Buzadzic, B; Vucetic, M; Jankovic, A; Stancic, A; Korac, A; Korac, B; Otasevic, V

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is a global problem that is on the rise, especially during the last decade. Currently, infertility affects approximately 10–15% of the population worldwide. The frequency and origin of different forms of infertility varies. It has been shown that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) are involved in the aetiology of infertility, especially male infertility. Various strategies have been designed to remove or decrease the production of ROS and RNS in spermatozoa, in particular during in vitro fertilization. However, in recent years it has been shown that spermatozoa naturally produce a variety of ROS/RNS, including superoxide anion radical (O2⋅−), hydrogen peroxide and NO. These reactive species, in particular NO, are essential in regulating sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction, two processes that need to be acquired by sperm in order to achieve fertilization potential. In addition, it has recently been shown that mitochondrial function is positively correlated with human sperm fertilization potential and quality and that NO and NO precursors increase sperm motility by increasing energy production in mitochondria. We will review the new link between sperm NO-driven redox regulation and infertility herein. A special emphasis will be placed on the potential implementation of new redox-active substances that modulate the content of NO in spermatozoa to increase fertility and promote conception. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-6 PMID:24601995

  19. Infertility among male UK veterans of the 1990-1 Gulf war: reproductive cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Maconochie, Noreen; Doyle, Pat; Carson, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To examine the hypothesis that, theoretically at least, exposure to toxicants of the type present in the Gulf war could affect spermatogenesis, which might be observed as increased levels of infertility. Design Retrospective reproductive cohort analysis. Setting Male UK Gulf war veterans and matched comparison group of non-deployed servicemen, surveyed by postal questionnaire. Participants 42 818 completed questionnaires were returned, representing response rates of 53% for Gulf veterans and 42% for non-Gulf veterans; 10 465 Gulf veterans and 7376 non-Gulf veterans reported fathering or trying to father pregnancies after the Gulf war. Main outcome measures Failure to achieve conceptions (type I infertility) or live births (type II infertility) after the Gulf war, having tried for at least a year and consulted a doctor; time to conception among pregnancies fathered by men not reporting fertility problems. Results Risk of reported infertility was higher among Gulf war veterans than among non-Gulf veterans (odds ratio for type I infertility 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.89; type II 1.50, 1.18 to 1.89). This small effect was constant over time since the war and was observed whether or not the men had fathered pregnancies before the war. Results were similar when analyses were restricted to clinically confirmed diagnoses. Pregnancies fathered by Gulf veterans not reporting fertility problems also took longer to conceive (odds ratio for > 1 year 1.18, 1.04 to 1.34). Conclusions We found some evidence of an association between Gulf war service and reported infertility. Pregnancies fathered by Gulf veterans with no fertility problems also reportedly took longer to conceive. PMID:15253919

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with use of herbal medicine among women attending an infertility clinic in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infertility is a public health problem associated with devastating psychosocial consequences. In countries where infertility care is difficult to access, women turn to herbal medicines to achieve parenthood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with herbal medicine use by women attending the infertility clinic. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 260 women attending the infertility clinic at Mulago hospital. The interviewer administered questionnaire comprised socio-demographic characteristics, infertility-related aspects and information on herbal medicine use. The main outcome measure was herbal medicines use for infertility treatment. Determinants of herbal medicine use were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Results The majority (76.2%) of respondents had used herbal medicines for infertility treatment. The mean age of the participants was 28.3 years ± 5.5. Over 80% were married, 59.6% had secondary infertility and 2/3 of the married participants were in monogamous unions. In a multivariable model, the variables that were independently associated with increased use of herbal medicine among infertile patients were being married (OR 2.55, CI 1.24-5.24), never conceived (OR 4.08 CI 1.86-8.96) and infertility for less than 3 years (OR 3.52 CI 1.51-8.821). Factors that were associated with less use of herbal medicine among infertile women were being aged 30 years or less (OR 0.18 CI 0.07-0.46), primary and no education (OR 0.12 CI 0.05-0.46) and living with partner for less than three years (OR 0.39 CI 0.16-0.93). Conclusions The prevalence of herbal medicine use among women attending the infertility clinic was 76.2%. Herbal medicine use was associated with the participants’ age, level of education, marital status, infertility duration, nulliparity, and duration of marriage. Medical care was often delayed and the majority of the participants did not disclose use of herbal medicines to

  1. Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Reactivity in Infertile Women: The Contribution of The Dyadic Functioning and Clinical Variables

    PubMed Central

    Czyżkowska, Anna; Awruk, Katarzyna; Janowski, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Background Infertility is a factor which has been linked to higher prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in women; however, ambiguous results have been reported about the impact of infertility on women’s sexual satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to compare sexual and dyadic functioning in infertile and fertile women. Furthermore, the associations between sexual variables and clinical variables (depressive symptoms, period trying to conceive, and treatment period) were assessed in infertile women sample. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional study involved 50 women with the history of infertility and 50 fertile women recruited from the general population. The Sexual Satisfaction Scale (SSS), Mell-Krat Scale (women’s version), Family Assessment Measure (FAM-III), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to all participants. Results Infertile women reported lower sexual satisfaction and more maladaptive patterns of dyadic functioning in comparison to the control group. As many as 45 (90%) of infertile women, compared to 13 (26%) of the control group, reported the scores on the Mell-Krat Scale indicative of the presence of dysfunctions in sexual reactivity (P≤0.001). Infertile women reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than the women from the control group (P≤0.001). Negative correlations were observed between sexual satisfaction and dyadic functioning in both groups (P≤0.05); however, the patterns of these associations were different in infertile and fertile women. For example, negative correlations were found between satisfaction with control and task accomplishment, role performance, affective involvement, and values and norms in infertile women. However, these relationships were not observed in the control group. No correlations were revealed between sexual reactivity and dyadic functioning in infertile women and the control group. Negative correlations were observed between satisfaction with control and

  2. Super Infection of An Ovarian Dermoid Cyst with Actinomyces in An Infertile Woman

    PubMed Central

    Salehpour, Saghar; Akbari Sene, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    We present super infection of an ovarian dermoid cyst with actinomyces in an infertile patient. This is a case-report study for evaluation a couple with male factor infertility, who was a good candidate for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), while a 10 cm dermoid cyst was found in the woman’s right ovary. Patient complained of pelvic pain, intermittent fever, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia. The cyst was extracted using laparoscopy, whilst in histopathological examination, an actinomycosis super infection was reported. Actinomyc super infection of an ovarian dermoid cyst is a very rare incident which can also occur in women with no history of intrauterine device (IUD) usage or previous fertility. PMID:24520476

  3. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome presenting with infertility: Role of MRI in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zohra; Goyal, Ankur; Das, Chandan J; Deka, Dipika; Sharma, Raju

    2013-07-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS), characterized by uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis, is an uncommon combined Mullerian and mesonephric duct anomaly, and its presentation in adulthood is even rarer. We report here a 22-year-old female presenting with primary infertility where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested the diagnosis of HWWS with endometriosis. In a patient of infertility with endometriosis and unilateral renal agenesis, diagnosis of HWWS should be suspected and MRI is the investigation of choice for such anomalies. PMID:24347855

  4. Empirical Drug Therapy for Idiopathic Male Infertility: What is the New Evidence?

    PubMed

    Garg, Harshit; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic male infertility is empirically managed using a number of drugs. We reviewed 64 articles published in the last 10 years on such drug therapy. There was severe heterogeneity in data along with poor definition of outcome parameters. Pregnancy or live birth rate was not reported in many studies. Antiestrogens appear to improve pregnancy rates while there is some data supporting the use of aromatase inhibitors. Antioxidants significantly increase the rate of both live birth and pregnancy but the data are limited. However, valid end-points based on data are limited for the empirical use of drugs in idiopathic male infertility. PMID:26255035

  5. Herlyn–Werner–Wunderlich syndrome presenting with infertility: Role of MRI in diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zohra; Goyal, Ankur; Das, Chandan J; Deka, Dipika; Sharma, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS), characterized by uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis, is an uncommon combined Mullerian and mesonephric duct anomaly, and its presentation in adulthood is even rarer. We report here a 22-year-old female presenting with primary infertility where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested the diagnosis of HWWS with endometriosis. In a patient of infertility with endometriosis and unilateral renal agenesis, diagnosis of HWWS should be suspected and MRI is the investigation of choice for such anomalies. PMID:24347855

  6. The potential use of intrauterine insemination as a basic option for infertility: a review for technology-limited medical settings.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Abdelrahman M; Yeh, John

    2009-01-01

    Objective. There is an asymmetric allocation of technology and other resources for infertility services. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a process of placing washed spermatozoa transcervically into the uterine cavity for treatment of infertility. This is a review of literature for the potential use of IUI as a basic infertility treatment in technology-limited settings. Study design. Review of articles on treatment of infertility using IUI. Results. Aspects regarding the use of IUI are reviewed, including ovarian stimulation, semen parameters associated with good outcomes, methods of sperm preparation, timing of IUI, and number of inseminations. Implications of the finding in light of the needs of low-technology medical settings are summarized. Conclusion. The reviewed evidence suggests that IUI is less expensive, less invasive, and comparably effective for selected patients as a first-line treatment for couples with unexplained or male factor infertility. Those couples may be offered three to six IUI cycles in technology-limited settings. PMID:20011061

  7. The problem of infertility in high fertility populations: Meanings, consequences and coping mechanisms in two Nigerian communities

    PubMed Central

    Hollos, Marida; Larsen, Ulla; Obono, Oka; Whitehouse, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-economic contexts shape local meanings of infertility, how the prevalence of infertility affects these meanings, and how the above affect community responses, life experiences and infertility treatment-seeking behaviors in two African communities. The paper is based on interdisciplinary research conducted among the Ijo and the Yakurr people of southern Nigeria that included a survey of approximately 100 infertile women and a matching sample of 100 fertile women, as well as in-depth ethnographic interviews with infertile and fertile women in two communities: Amakiri in Delta State and Lopon in Cross River State. In-depth interview results show that female infertility is more problematic among the Ijo in Amakiri, where kinship is patrilineal (traced through the father's side), than among the Yakurr in Lopon, where kinship is double unilineal (traced through both parents). Childless women in Ijo society are not only disadvantaged economically but are prevented from attaining full adult womanhood. They therefore leave the community more often than other members. In Lopon there is also a strong preoccupation with fertility as a central fact of life, but infertile women receive support from maternal kin as well as voluntary associations serving as support groups. Our survey data confirm that there are significant differences between the life experiences of infertile and fertile women and between the infertile women of the two communities. The overall findings indicate that while there are variations in the extent to which infertility is considered problematic, the necessity for a woman to have a child remains basic in this region. Motherhood continues to define an individual woman's treatment in the community, her self-respect and her understanding of womanhood. PMID:19356835

  8. Investigation of the infertile couple: should diagnostic laparoscopy be performed after normal hysterosalpingography in treating infertility suspected to be of unknown origin?

    PubMed

    Fatum, Mohammad; Laufer, Neri; Simon, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, a diagnosis of unexplained infertility is established only when all standard clinical investigations yield normal results. When tubal patency has been established by hysterosalpingography (HSG), laparoscopy has been suggested as a mandatory step to preclude the existence of peritubal adhesions and endometriosis as causes of infertility. In women without a previous history suggestive of tubal disease and who have a normal HSG, it was demonstrated that the probability of clinically relevant tubal disease or endometriosis is very low and that laparoscopy does not seem justified or cost effective. In the minority of these cases, laparoscopy might reveal minimal or mild endometriosis or peritubal adhesions. In these cases, either surgery or medical treatment has not been proven to improve fecundity. With the current success rates of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and the relatively low contribution of diagnostic laparoscopy to the decision-making process of treating patients with a normal HSG, we suggest that laparoscopy should be omitted in couples suspected of having unexplained infertility. These patients should be treated by 3-6 cycles of combined gonadotrophins and intrauterine insemination, and if unsuccessful switched to ART. PMID:11756351

  9. Measuring resilience in women experiencing infertility using the CD-RISC: examining infertility-related stress, general distress, and coping styles.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Minden B; Byrd, Michelle R; von Kluge, Silvia

    2010-03-01

    Psychological morbidity concurrent with fertility problems has been the focus of substantial scientific inquiry. However, researchers have largely overlooked psychological resilience within this population. This study explored the associations between resilience, infertility-related and general distress, and coping behaviors in forty women from nine fertility clinics throughout the United States. Participants completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), Beck-Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). Women with fertility problems evidenced significantly lower resilience scores than published norms. This study established evidence for the reliability and convergent validity of the CD-RISC with infertile populations. However, similar to other studies using this instrument, the factor structure reported by Connor and Davidson [Connor KM, Davidson JR. Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety 2003;18:76-82] was not well supported. Resilience was negatively associated with infertility-specific and general distress. Engagement in action-focused coping skills was positively correlated with resilience. Implications for enhancing resilience with this population as are discussed. PMID:19665730

  10. Smoking reduces fecundity: a European multicenter study on infertility and subfecundity. The European Study Group on Infertility and Subfecundity.

    PubMed

    Bolumar, F; Olsen, J; Boldsen, J

    1996-03-15

    Several studies published within the past 10 years indicate that smoking reduces fecundity, but not all studies have found this effect, and smoking cessation is not used routinely in infertility treatment in Europe. The present study was designed to examine male and female smoking at the start of a couple's waiting time to a planned pregnancy. Two types of samples were used: population-based samples of women aged 25-44 years who were randomly selected in different countries from census registers and electoral rolls, in which the unit of analysis was the couple; and pregnancy-based samples of pregnant women (at least 20 weeks' pregnant) who were consecutively recruited during prenatal care visits, in which the unit of analysis was a pregnancy. More than 4,000 couples were included in each sample, and 10 different regions in Europe took part in data collection. The data were collected between August 1991 and February 1993 by personal interview in all population-based samples and in all but three regions of the pregnancy sample, where self-administered questionnaires were used. The results based on the population sample showed a remarkably coherent association between female smoking and subfecundity in each individual country and in all countries together, both with the first pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.1, at the upper level of exposure) and during the most recent waiting time to pregnancy (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.1). Results based on the pregnancy sample were similar (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.3). No significant association was found with male smoking (in the population sample, OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.1 (first pregnancy) and OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.3 (most recent waiting time); in the pregnancy sample, OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.1). The fecundity distribution among smokers appeared to be shifted toward longer waiting times without a change in the shape of the distribution. Women who have difficulty conceiving should try to stop smoking

  11. Disability, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in infertile women: a cross-sectional study in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    SEZGIN, Hacer; HOCAOGLU, Cicek; GUVENDAG-GUVEN, Emine Seda

    2016-01-01

    Background Infertility is a major life crisis which can lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms and negative effects on the quality of life of affected couples, but the magnitude of the effects may vary depending on cultural expectations. Aim We compare the level of psychiatric symptoms, disability, and quality of life in fertile and infertile women in urban Turkey. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 married women being treated for infertility at the outpatient department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Rize Education and Research Hospital and a control group of 100 fertile married women. All study participants were evaluated with a socio-demographic data screening form, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results The mean anxiety subscale score and depression subscale score of HADS were slightly higher in the infertile group than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of subjects with clinically significant anxiety (i.e., anxiety subscale score of HADS ≥11) was significantly higher in infertile women than in fertile women (31% v. 17%, χ2=5.37, p=0.020), but the proportion with clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression subscale score of HADS >8) was not significantly different (43% v. 33%, χ2=2.12, p=0.145). Self-reported disability over the prior month was significantly worse in the infertile group than in the controls, and 4 of the 8 subscales of the SF-36 - general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health - were significantly worse in the infertile group. Compared to infertile women who were currently working, infertile women who were not currently working reported less severe depression and anxiety and better general health, vitality, and mental health. Conclusions Married women from urban Turkey seeking treatment for infertility do not have

  12. Prevalence of Psychiatric Morbidity in Females amongst Infertile Couples- A Hospital Based Report

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Pragati; Goyal, Lajya Devi; Kaur, Gurmeet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility leads to significant stress among couple and the reaction to infertility differs among males and females. Aim To know the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in infertile couples and compare the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders among husband and wife. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 couples diagnosed with infertility from outdoor clinics. Both male and female partner of couple were interviewed for detailed history and clinical examination was done. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was applied to detect any psychological strain in couples and in those with illness, final diagnosis were made on the basis of DSM -IV (TR). The data thus generated was subjected to appropriate Statistical Analysis. Results Out of the 50 couples, 54% of females had psychiatric morbidity. The most common diagnosis amongst the female participants was MDD (Major Depressive Disorder) (18%), whereas the second most common diagnosis was GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) (16%). Psychiatric morbidity was found in only 26% of males suffering with Adjustment Disorder being most common diagnosis (8%) and Dysthymia and MDD as the second most common diagnosis (6% each). Majority of patients having psychiatric morbidity were from age group 20-29 years. The difference between females and male counterparts was statistically significant. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity was higher among female partners than male partners. The difference was statistically significant and the situation needs further workup.

  13. Clinical Factors Associated with Sperm DNA Fragmentation in Male Patients with Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Akira; Kato, Tomonori; Kawauchi, Yoko; Watanabe, Akihiko; Fuse, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The clinical factors associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) were investigated in male patients with infertility. Materials and Methods. Fifty-four ejaculates from infertile Japanese males were used. Thirty-three and twenty-one were from the patients with varicoceles and idiopathic causes of infertility, respectively. We performed blood tests, including the serum sex hormone levels, and conventional and computer-assisted semen analyses. The sperm nuclear vacuolization (SNV) was evaluated using a high-magnification microscope. The SDF was evaluated using the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) to determine the SDF index (SDFI). The SDFI was compared with semen parameters and other clinical variables, including lifestyle factors. Results. The SDFI was 41.3 ± 22.2% (mean ± standard deviation) and did not depend on the cause of infertility. Chronic alcohol use increased the SDFI to 49.6 ± 23.3% compared with 33.9 ± 18.0% in nondrinkers. The SDFI was related to adverse conventional semen parameters and sperm motion characteristics and correlated with the serum FSH level. The SNV showed a tendency to increase with the SDFI. The multivariate analysis revealed that the sperm progressive motility and chronic alcohol use were significant predictors of the SDF. Conclusion. The SCDt should be offered to chronic alcohol users and those with decreased sperm progressive motility. PMID:25165747

  14. The influence of oxidative damage on viscosity of seminal fluid in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Birsen; Onaran, Ilhan; Kiziler, Ali Riza; Alici, Bulent; Akyolcu, Mehmet Can

    2008-01-01

    Increased oxidative damage has been suggested to play an important role in the viscosity changes of blood. However, changes in levels of oxidative damage products in semen and their relationship to seminal fluid viscosity are unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate whether oxidative damage was associated with seminal plasma viscosity in infertile subjects. The levels of malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyls were measured in sperm and seminal plasma from 102 individuals, including 60 infertile patients. Seminal fluid viscosity and semen viscosity were studied by use of capillary viscometer and glass pipettes, respectively. Significantly higher levels of oxidative stress and damage markers were found in subfertile subjects compared with the control subjects. The seminal fluid viscosities of patients were found to be significantly higher, although all of the control and patient subjects had normal viscoelasticity when semen samples were assessed according to World Health Organization guidelines. From Pearson correlation analysis, there were significant positive correlations between seminal fluid viscosity and seminal malondialdehyde and carbonyl levels in infertile males (r = .676, P < .01; r = .276, P < .05, respectively). Our results suggest that increased oxidative damage might be a factor for hyperviscosity of seminal plasma in infertile males. PMID:17673435

  15. Peculiarities of semen coagulation and liquefaction in males from infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Mikhailichenko, Vladimir V; Esipov, Andrey S

    2005-07-01

    The results of electrosemengraphy showed frequent absence of postejaculatory semen coagulation (62% of patients examined) and 3 variants of ejaculate liquefaction in males from infertile couples. Semen liquefaction was mostly of a cascade nature (one- and two-cascade types), but viscid ejaculates often liquefied slowly and monotonously (monotonous type of liquefaction). PMID:16009198

  16. Another functional frame-shift polymorphism of DEFB126 (rs11467497) associated with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shiwei; Shi, Changgeng; Chen, Guowu; Zheng, Ju-fen; Wu, Bin; Diao, Hua; Ji, Lindan; Gu, Yihua; Xin, Aijie; Wu, Yancheng; Zhou, Weijin; Miao, Maohua; Xu, Limin; Li, Zheng; Yuan, Yao; Wang, Peng; Shi, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    DEFB126 rs140685149 mutation was shown to cause sperm dysfunction and subfertility. Indel rs11467497 is another 4-nucleotide frame-shift mutation (151bp upstream of rs140685149) that leads to the premature termination of translation and the expression of peptide truncated at the carboxyl terminus. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive association study to check the contribution of rs140685149 and rs11467497 to male infertility. Our results confirmed the previous findings that there was no association between rs140685149 and sperm motility. In contrast, we found a significant association of another indel rs11467497 with male infertility. Moreover, rs11467497 was shown to be associated with higher number of round cells in the infertile males with low sperm motility. Surprisingly, the two mutations commonly existed in the sperm donors (n = 672), suggesting a potential application of the two indels in the screening for eligible sperm donors. Western blotting assays showed the sperms with rs140685149 2-nt deletion tended to have unstable DEFB126 protein in contrast of no DEFB126 protein expressed in the sperms with rs11467497 4-nt deletion, suggesting a more severe consequence caused by rs11467497 mutation. In conclusion, our study presented a significant contribution of another functional frame-shift polymorphism of DEFB126 (rs11467497) to male infertility. PMID:25721098

  17. Semen analysis in an infertile man with seminal vesicles cysts associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Rocha, Fernando Tadeu

    2006-01-01

    A case of an infertile man with bilateral seminal vesicles cysts with ipsilateral renal agenesis is presented with emphasis on the semen analysis. Ejaculates showed very low concentration of fructose, leukocytospermia, teratozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, hyperviscosity, marked sperm agglutination and a poor hypoosmotic swelling test. Clinical value of these findings is discussed. PMID:16502061

  18. Quality of Life among Iranian Infertile Women in Postmenopausal Period: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Montazeri, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infertility has a significant impact on a women's quality of life (QOL). Infertile women face with physical and mental challenges during their postmenopausal period. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QOL among Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period using a valid and reliable instrument. Methods In this cross-sectional study both snowball and social networking methods were used for sampling. Two demographic and QOL questionnaire were used for data collection. The QOL questionnaire includes 41 items which measure the QOL in five dimensions: socioeconomic, mental health, religiousness, physical health and future imagining. Data analyzed was carried out in IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 using descriptive statistic, χ2 test, and Fisher test. A P value of 0.01 or less was considered significant. Results Overall 211 eligible participants were studied. Some participants obtained full score on socioeconomic, religiousness, physical health and future imagining dimensions of QOL but none on the mental health dimension of the QOL. Only, 6.6% of study participants have a good QOL. There was a significant relationship between age and financial provider whit status of QOL. Conclusion Most Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period have poor or moderate QOL. Therefore, improving the QOL among these women should be considered. PMID:27617245

  19. Male gonadal function in coeliac disease: 1. Sexual dysfunction, infertility, and semen quality.

    PubMed

    Farthing, M J; Edwards, C R; Rees, L H; Dawson, A M

    1982-07-01

    The prevalence of hypogonadism, sexual dysfunction and abnormalities of semen quality was determined in 28 consecutive males with coeliac disease. These observations were related to jejunal morphology and nutritional status, and were compared with findings in 19 men with Crohn's disease of similar age and nutritional status. Two of the 28 coeliacs (7%) had clinical evidence of hypogonadism but impotence and decreased sexual activity occurred more commonly, the latter apparently improving after gluten withdrawal. Of the married coeliacs, 19% had infertile marriages, a value greater than expected in the general population. Hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction were not detected in our patients with Crohn's disease. Seminal analysis in coeliacs revealed marked abnormalities of sperm morphology and motility, but only the former appeared to improve after gluten withdrawal. Similar abnormalities, however, were also detected in patients with Crohn's disease, although, unlike the coeliacs, 46% also had reduced concentrations of spermatozoa. Semen quality in coeliac disease could not be clearly related to general or specific (serum vitamin B(12) and red cell folate) nutritional deficiencies or to fertility, although sperm motility was markedly reduced in two of the three coeliacs with infertile marriages. The presence of antisperm antibodies did not appear to be an important aetiological factor in male infertility in coeliac disease. The pathogenesis of infertility and sexual dysfunction in coeliac disease remains unclear, suggesting that factors such as endocrine dysfunction or other specific nutritional deficiency may be involved. PMID:7200931

  20. Coeliac disease and infertility: making the connection and achieving a successful pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hin, Harold; Ford, Fiona

    2002-01-01

    Undiagnosed coeliac disease is not uncommon in adults in the UK and can be a cause of unexplained infertility in women. Studies suggest that dietary treatment of women with coeliac disease may result in successful conception. The diet of a woman with coeliac disease during pregnancy is discussed and agencies offering support are listed. PMID:12416015

  1. Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive Discordant Couples: A Case Study in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umeora, OUJ; Chukwuneke, FN

    2013-01-01

    The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice. PMID:23634339

  2. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Female Infertility in Inbred Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Long; Wang, Tong-Song; Zhao, Miao

    2016-01-01

    The genetic factors underlying female infertility in humans are only partially understood. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of female infertility in 25 inbred mouse strains by using publicly available SNP data. As a result, a total of four SNPs were identified after chromosome-wise multiple test correction. The first SNP rs29972765 is located in a gene desert on chromosome 18, about 72 kb upstream of Skor2 (SKI family transcriptional corepressor 2). The second SNP rs30415957 resides in the intron of Plce1 (phospholipase C epsilon 1). The remaining two SNPs (rs30768258 and rs31216810) are close to each other on chromosome 19, in the vicinity of Sorbs1 (sorbin and SH3 domain containing 1). Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that Sorbs1 is highly expressed in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation. Knockdown of Sorbs1 by siRNA attenuates the induction of differentiation marker gene Prl8a2 (decidual prolactin-related protein) in an in vitro model of decidualization using mouse endometrial stromal cells, suggesting that Sorbs1 may be a potential candidate gene for female infertility in mice. Our results may represent an opportunity to further understand female infertility in humans. PMID:27449513

  3. Infertility and Crisis: Self-Discovery and Healing through Poetry Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Offers a personal narrative on how the author's own poetry helped her cope with the crisis of infertility, serving as a tool for self-discovery and healing. Suggests that specific advantages of poetry writing within the context of psychotherapy include problem solving; expression of feelings; insight; couple communication; and individual and…

  4. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH AND SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility Research and Screening
    David Miller1, David Dix2, Robert Reid3, Susan Wykes3 and Stephen Krawetz3
    1Reproductive Biology Group, University of Leeds, UK
    2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmenta...

  5. Partnered Decisions? U.S. Couples and Medical Help-Seeking for Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined male partners' influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using the National Study of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we…

  6. Couple Infertility: From the Perspective of the Close-Relationship Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Barbara S.

    1990-01-01

    Presents Close-Relationship Model as comprehensive framework in which to examine interrelated nature of causes and effects of infertility on marital relationship. Includes these factors: physical and psychological characteristics of both partners; joint, couple characteristics; physical and social environment; and relationship itself. Discusses…

  7. Role of antioxidants in treatment of male infertility: an overview of the literature.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Nallella, Kiran P; Allamaneni, Shyam S R; Said, Tamer M

    2004-06-01

    Seminal oxidative stress in the male reproductive tract is known to result in peroxidative damage of the sperm plasma membrane and loss of its DNA integrity. Normally, a balance exists between concentrations of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant scavenging systems. One of the rational strategies to counteract the oxidative stress is to increase the scavenging capacity of seminal plasma. Numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy of antioxidants in male infertility. In this review, the results of different studies conducted have been analysed, and the evidence available to date is provided. It was found that although many clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of antioxidants in selected cases of male infertility, some studies failed to demonstrate the same benefit. The majority of the studies suffer from a lack of placebo-controlled, double-blind design, making it difficult to reach a definite conclusion. In addition, investigators have used different antioxidants in different combinations and dosages for varying durations. Pregnancy, the most relevant outcome parameter of fertility, was reported in only a few studies. Most studies failed to examine the effect of antioxidants on a specific group of infertile patients with high oxidative stress. Multicentre, double-blind studies with statistically accepted sample size are still needed to provide conclusive evidence on the benefit of antioxidants as a treatment modality for patients with male infertility. PMID:15169573

  8. Reproductive outcome after autocrosslinked hyaluronic acid gel application in infertile patients who underwent laparoscopic myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Pellicano, Massimiliano; Guida, Maurizio; Bramante, Silvia; Acunzo, Giuseppe; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Tommaselli, Giovanni A; Nappi, Carmine

    2005-02-01

    Autocrosslinked hyaluronic acid gel is useful for preventing postsurgical adhesion formation in infertile patients who have undergone laparoscopic myomectomy, and it increases the pregnancy rate more than laparoscopic myomectomy alone. Moreover, pregnancy rate is significantly higher with the use of subserous sutures. PMID:15705404

  9. Long-Term Adjustment of Infertile Couples Following Unsuccessful Medical Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith C.; Tench, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    A 33-month longitudinal study was conducted with 38 infertile couples making the transition to biological childlessness after unsuccessful fertility treatments. Changes in their levels of psychological distress; marital, sexual, and life satisfaction; and self-esteem were examined. Increased self-esteem and decreased sexual satisfaction were…

  10. Treating Faith-Based Infertile Couples Using Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling Strategies: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, June A.; Smith, Alanzo H.

    2004-01-01

    The authors have found no study that addressed the influence of religious practices, biblical texts, and a spiritual environment on the dynamics of coping with crises often experienced by couples who are infertile and who transition into childlessness. Twenty-five couples from the greater New York area who were referred by religious leaders…

  11. VALUING REDUCTIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCES OF INFERTILITY RISK USING THE EFFICIENT HOUSEHOLD FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increasing body evidence suggesting that a broad range of pollutants have the potential to alter human endocrine systems. One disturbing consequence of exposures to these endocrine disruptors is that they may significantly increase the incidence of infertility in exp...

  12. Evaluation of sperm retrieval rate with bilateral testicular sperm extraction in infertile patients with azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Moein, Mohammad Reza; Moein, Mahmoud Reza; Ghasemzadeh, Jalal; Pourmasoumi, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 10% to 15% of infertile men have azoospermia, which could be obstructive or non-obstructive. Diagnostic biopsy from the testis and recently testicular sperm extraction (TESE) are the most precise investigations in these patients. Testicular biopsy can be done unilaterally or bilaterally. The worth of unilateral or bilateral testicular biopsy in men with azoospermia is controversial. Objective: To evaluate the necessity of bilateral diagnostic biopsy from the testis in new era of diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the results of testis biopsy in 419 azoospermic men, referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility from 2009-2013. Patients with known obstructive azoospermia were excluded from the study. Results: In totally, 254 infertile men (60.6%) were underwent unilateral TESE, which in 175 patients (88.4%) sperm were extracted from their testes successfully. Bilateral testis biopsy was done in 165 patients (39.4%) which in 37 patients (22.4%), sperm were found in their testes tissues. Conclusion: Due to the low probability of positive bilateral TESE results especially when we can’t found sperm in the first side, we recommend that physicians re-evaluate the risk and benefit of this procedure in era of newer and more precise technique of sperm retrieval like micro TESE. PMID:26730246

  13. An association study of HFE gene mutation with idiopathic male infertility in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Bin-Bin; Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Tao; Ma, Ke; Jiang, Jian; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Li-Hua; Peng, Yi-Feng; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the haemochromatosis gene (HFE) influence iron status in the general population of Northern Europe, and excess iron is associated with the impairment of spermatogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between three mutations (C282Y, H63D and S65C) in the HFE gene with idiopathic male infertility in the Chinese Han population. Two groups of Chinese men were recruited: 444 infertile men (including 169 with idiopathic azoospermia) and 423 controls with proven fertility. The HFE gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The experimental results demonstrated that no C282Y or S65C mutations were detected. Idiopathic male infertility was not significantly associated with heterozygous H63D mutation (odds ratio=0.801, 95% confidence interval=0.452–1.421, χ2=0.577, P=0.448). The H63D mutation frequency did not correlate significantly with the serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) levels in infertile men (P=0.896, P=0.404 and P=0.05, respectively). Our data suggest that the HFE H63D mutation is not associated with idiopathic male reproductive dysfunction. PMID:22504868

  14. Traditional Chinese medical herbs staged therapy in infertile women with endometriosis: a clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhaorong; Lian, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease defined as the presence of endometrioid tissue (glands and stroma) outside the uterus. About 30 to 40% patients with endometriosis are infertile. In traditional Chinese medical system, endometriosis associated infertility is mostly caused by kidney deficiency and blood stasis. The herb of reinforcing kidney and removing blood stasis is designed to treat the disease. Material and methods: All the 80 up-to-standard patients were divided into two different groups exactly according to the random principle. They were treated with hormone and traditional Chinese medical herb separately. After half year’s therapy, all the patients received one year’s follow-up. Their transvaginal ultrasonographic changes, serum hormone levels and pregnancy rate were recorded to analysis the effect. Results: No significant difference happened in two groups’ demographic and clinical characteristics (P > 0.05). After the treatment, the effect on serum hormone levels and specific markers are significant (P < 0.05). The transvaginal ultrasonographic changes were positive, too. The text on hepatic and renal function confirmed to the safety of the herb. Compared to hormone therapy, the traditional Chinese medical herb is safe and effective for endometriosis patients with infertility. Conclusion: Compared with hormone therapy, traditional Chinese medical herb’s two-staged therapy is effective and safe for endometriosis patients with infertility. PMID:26550373

  15. The Efficiency of a Group-Specific Mandated Benefit Revisited: The Effect of Infertility Mandates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Joanna N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the labor market effects of state health insurance mandates that increase the cost of employing a demographically identifiable group. State mandates requiring that health insurance plans cover infertility treatment raise the relative cost of insuring older women of child-bearing age. Empirically, wages in this group are…

  16. Association between methionine synthase reductase A66G polymorphism and primary infertility in Chinese males.

    PubMed

    Li, X Y; Ye, J Z; Ding, X P; Zhang, X H; Ma, T J; Zhong, R; Ren, H Y

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), and methionine synthase (MS A2756G) genotypes and non-obstructive male infertility in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 162 infertile Chinese patients with azoospermia (N = 100) or oligoasthenozoospermia (N = 62) and 120 fertile men as controls. The polymorphisms MTRR A66G, MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MS A2756G were identified by direct DNA sequencing and the results were statistically analyzed. We found no association between the incidence of any of these variants in azoospermia patients and control populations. The frequency of the MTRR66 polymorphic genotypes (AG, AG+GG) was significantly higher in the oligoasthenozoospermia group compared to the controls (P = 0.013, 0.012). Our findings revealed an association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism A66G in the MTRR gene and male infertility, particularly in oligoasthenozoospermia males, suggesting that this polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for male infertility in Chinese men. PMID:25966116

  17. The History and Challenges Surrounding Ovarian Stimulation in the Treatment of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Beall, Stephanie A.; Decherney, Alan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the history of superovulation for ovulation induction, its contributions to reproductive medicine and its impact on multiple births. DESIGN A search of the relevant literature using Pubmed and other online tools. RESULT(S) Infertility has been a condition known and studied for thousands of years. However, it was not until this past century that effective treatments were developed. With the advancement of our knowledge of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, therapies utilizing gonadotropins were developed to stimulate ovulation. Not only were we now able to treat anovulatory infertility, but also induce superovulation for in vitro fertilization. With these successes came consequences, including increased multiple pregnancies. Several countries recognized the high costs associated with multiple births and implemented regulations on the infertility industry. The rate of triplet and higher-order multiples has declined over the past decade. This is largely attributed to a decreased number of embryos transferred. Nonetheless, the twin rate has remained consistently high. CONCLUSION(S) Superovulation has become a routine medical therapy used for ovulation induction and in vitro fertilization. With the development of this technology have come effective therapies for infertility and new ethical and medical challenges. Since the advent of gonadotropin therapy we have already developed technologies to improve monitoring and decrease hyperstimulation and high order multiple pregnancies. In the future, we anticipate new tools devised to optimize one embryo for one singleton live birth. PMID:22463773

  18. Infertility resulting from transgenic I-PpoI male Anopheles gambiae in large cage trials

    PubMed Central

    Klein, T A; Windbichler, N; Deredec, A; Burt, A; Benedict, M Q

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Anopheles gambiae is the primary vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and is a potential target of genetic control programs. We determined the capacity of male A. gambiae created by germline transformation to introduce infertility into stable age-distribution populations. We also determined effects of the transgenes on life history. Methods Stable age-distribution populations of A. gambiae mosquitoes were established in large indoor cages. Male mosquitoes carrying an I-PpoI homing endonuclease gene were introduced at ×5 and ×10 release rates where they competed with target male mosquitoes for matings. Similar trials were conducted in small cages with an additional ×1 release level. Results Infertility was successfully introduced into all target populations. In supporting experiments, complete female infertility was observed in all strains and species of the A. gambiae complex to which transgenic males were mated. Life history experiments demonstrated that reductions in I-PpoI male vigor exist in the form of reduced adult male emergence, longevity and competitiveness. Discussion A. gambiae I-PpoI males are capable of introducing high levels of infertility in target populations in indoor cage trials. This was accomplished despite losses of vigor resulting from the HEG transgene. These results motivate further trials of sexually I-PpoI A. gambiae in outdoor cage and field trials. PMID:22595271

  19. The psychological profile and affective response of women diagnosed with unexplained infertility undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Aisenberg Romano, Gabi; Ravid, Hila; Zaig, Inbar; Schreiber, Shaul; Azem, Foad; Shachar, Izhak; Bloch, Miki

    2012-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that unexplained infertility may be related to specific personality and coping styles. We studied two groups of women with explained infertility (EIF, n = 63) and unexplained infertility (UIF, n = 42) undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. Women completed personality and coping style questionnaires prior to the onset of the cycle, and state depression and anxiety scales before and at two additional time points during the cycle. Almost no in-between group differences were found at any of the measured time points in regards to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 validity and clinical scales, Illness Cognitions and Life Orientation Test, or for the situational measures. The few differences found suggest a more adaptive, better coping, and functioning defensive system in women with EIF. In conclusion, we did not find any clinically significant personality differences or differences in depression or anxiety levels between women with EIF and UIF during an IVF cycle. Minor differences found are probably a reaction to the ambiguous medical situation with its uncertain prognosis, amplifying certain traits which are not specific to one psychological structure but rather to the common experience shared by the group. The results of this study do not support the possibility that personality traits are involved in the pathophysiology of unexplained infertility. PMID:22847827

  20. Treatment of infertility due to retrograde ejaculation: a simple, cost-effective method.

    PubMed

    Shangold, G A; Cantor, B; Schreiber, J R

    1990-07-01

    Our data indicate that an appropriate therapy for the infertility associated with retrograde ejaculation is isolation of sperm from voided urine after orgasm, plus IUI. This technique is simple and can be performed in the physician's office, in contrast to more complex techniques such as GIFT or in vitro fertilization. PMID:2358086