Infertility means not being able to become pregnant after a year of trying. If a woman can ... keeps having miscarriages or stillbirths, that's also called infertility. Infertility is fairly common. After one year of ...
... to treat infertility in women? What is intrauterine insemination (IUI)? What is assisted reproductive technology (ART)? How ... Infertility can be treated with medicine , surgery, artificial insemination , or assisted reproductive technology . Many times these treatments ...
Health Matters, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's online gateway to health issues, presents this in-depth feature on infertility. Readers will find a detailed introduction to "the different kinds of infertility, what can be done, the costs involved, and the tricky ethical and legal issues that can crop up." The feature also includes a number of useful links, recommended reading, and an indispensable glossary of terms.
Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com/ ...
Infertility is a term doctors use if a woman hasn't been able to get pregnant after ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from physical problems, hormone ...
... Organizations Resources: FAQs › FAQs - The Psychological Component of Infertility -- written by the ASRM Mental Health Professional Group ( ... Professional in your area ) Q1. What impact does infertility have on psychological well being? Infertility often creates ...
... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Infertility and Fertility: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is infertility? "Infertility" is a term that describes when a ...
... player. Phthalates and Male Infertility HealthDay February 19, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Environmental Health Infertility Reproductive Hazards ... of Health Page last updated on 12 March 2015
Primary infertility is a term used to describe a couple that has never been able to conceive a pregnancy ... to do so through unprotected intercourse. Causes of infertility include a wide range of physical as well ...
Infertility is defined as a failure to conceive in a couple trying to reproduce for a period of two years without conception. Approximately 15 percent of couples are infertile, and among these couples, male factor infertility accounts for approximately 50 percent of causes. Male infertility is a multifactorial syndrome encompassing a wide variety of disorders. In more than half of
... org • URL www.asrm.org PATIENT FACT SHEET Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility You probably don't realize ... of this, sexual problems can arise. What is sexual dysfunction? Doctors divide normal sexual function into 3 ...
... Diseases Diseases & Related Conditions STDs & Infertility Other STDs Archive Life Stages and Populations Adolescents and Young Adults ... STDs & Pregnancy Facts & Brochures Fact Sheet Statistics Treatment Archive Laboratory Information Prevention Screening Recommendations Publications & Products Banners ...
... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Smoking and infertility Can smoking affect my ability to have a child? Most ... complication rates are also increased with smoking. Will smoking affect my eggs or sperm? Chemicals (such as ...
... elements can lead to infertility. Frequent use of laptops near the testicles 4 as well as saunas ... D, Komaroff E. Increase in scrotal temperature in laptop computer users. Human Reproduction 2004. Available at http:// ...
Frances-Fischer, Jana E.; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.
Reviews the literature on the experience of parenting after primary infertility and describes construction and initial testing of an instrument for assessing characteristics of this understudied population. (Contains 52 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)
... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Stress and infertility It is not clear how exactly ... during times of intense personal challenge. What is stress? Stress is often defined as an e vent ...
Natan Bar-Chama; Jonathan Schiff; Risa Yavorsky; Michael Diefenbach
Infertility is common and associated with distress, anxiety, and depression, all of which can result in sexual dysfunction.\\u000a This stress-related erectile dysfunction can be effectively treated with oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. A review\\u000a of the current literature suggests that phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have no detrimental effects on human semen parameters\\u000a or hormonal milieu. Physicians treating infertile couples should
Winfield, A.C.; Wentz, A.C.
This text presents a review of all the imaging modalities available in the diagnosis of infertility. This book integrates the perspectives of experts in ob/gyn, radiology, reproductive endocrinology, and urology. It's a one-of-a-kind ''how to'' guide to hysterosalpinography and infertility evaluation, providing complete clinical information on the techniques, pitfalls, problems encountered and differential diagnosis. Detailed descriptions accompany numerous high-quality illustrations to help correlate findings and give meaning to the radiographic and ultrasound images.
Chighizola, C B; de Jesus, G R
Since the late 1980s some publications have proposed that antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) may have some relationship with infertility, considering reported deleterious effects that aPL exert on trophoblast proliferation and growth. Although not included in current classification criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome, many physicians investigate for aPL in patients with a history of infertility, including antibodies not listed in classification criteria, and most of those patients will receive anticoagulant therapy if any of those antibodies have a result considered positive. A review of literature was conducted searching for studies that investigated the association of aPL and infertility and if aPL positivity alters in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. The definition of infertility, routine work-up to exclude other causes of infertility, definition of IVF failure as inclusion criteria and control populations were heterogeneous among studies. Most of them enrolled women over 40 years of age, and exclusion of other confounding factors was also inconsistent. Of 29 studies that assessed aPL positivity rates in infertile women, the majority had small sample sizes, implying a lack of power, and 13 (44.8%) reported higher frequency of aPL in infertile patients compared to controls, but most of them investigated a panel of non-criteria aPL tests, whose clinical significance is highly controversial. Only two studies investigated all three criteria tests, and medium-high titer of anticardiolipin cut-off conforming to international guidelines was used in one study. Considering IVF outcome, there was also disparity in this definition: few studies assessed the live birth rate, others the implantation rate. Of 14 publications that addressed the relationship between aPL and IVF outcome, only two described a detrimental effect of these autoantibodies. In conclusion, available data do not support an association between aPL and infertility, and aPL positivity does not seem to influence IVF outcome. Well-designed clinical studies recruiting women with a clear diagnosis of infertility and a high-risk aPL profile should be performed to test whether clinically relevant aPL do-or not-exert an effect on human fertility. PMID:25228713
... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español What infertility treatments are available? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Treatments for infertility can range from medications to embryo implantation through ...
... Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was developed in collaboration with ... a surgical procedure called laparoscopy. Does endometriosis cause infertility? If you have endometriosis, it may be more ...
Oldereid, N B; Rui, H; Purvis, K
This study summarizes the results of a questionnaire sent to 312 men involved in a fertility investigation. The answers illustrate the psychological problems linked to the infertile state, and indicate that men are generally well orientated about the extent of the problem. In the majority of cases, the infertile couples first contacted a gynecologist rather than a general practioner or other specialist. In over one third of the cases, this contact occurred within the first 12 months of attempting to achieve a pregnancy. The study implies an increasing negative attitude to donor insemination, and approximately one fifth of the men had at some time consulted fringe medicine. PMID:2042142
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.
This report illustrates a range of options for Congressional action in nine principal areas of public policy related to infertility: (1) collecting data on reproductive health; (2) preventing infertility; (3) information to inform and protect consumers; (4) providing access to infertility services; (5) reproductive health of veterans; (6) transfer…
Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…
Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others
In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…
Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi
Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655
Wall, Darci J; Javitt, Marcia C; Glanc, Phyllis; Bhosale, Priyadarshani R; Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Harris, Robert D; Khati, Nadia J; Mitchell, Donald G; Nyberg, David A; Pandharipande, Pari V; Pannu, Harpreet K; Shipp, Thomas D; Siegel, Cary Lynn; Simpson, Lynn; Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J; Zelop, Carolyn M
Appropriate imaging for women undergoing infertility workup depends upon the clinician's suspicion for potential causes of infertility. Transvaginal US is the preferred modality to assess the ovaries for features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. For women who have a history or clinical suspicion of endometriosis, which affects at least one third of women with infertility, both MRI and pelvic US can provide valuable information. If tubal occlusion is suspected, whether due to endometriosis, previous pelvic inflammatory disease, or other cause, hysterosalpingogram (HSG) is the preferred method of evaluation. To assess for anatomic causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) such as Müllerian anomalies, synechiae, and leiomyomas, saline infusion sonohysterography, MRI and 3-D US are most appropriate. Up to 10% of women suffering recurrent pregnancy loss have a congenital Müllerian anomaly. When assessment of the pituitary gland is indicated, MRI is the imaging exam of choice.The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:25706363
Statistical Issues and Methods inStatistical Issues and Methods in Infertility ResearchInfertility. Schieve, E. Schisterman #12;Main statistical issues: overview · General structure in infertility data · Correlated data methods · Further methodology development #12;Structure in infertility data Hierarchical
Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Kazemi, Ashraf; Hasanzadeh, Akbar
Background: Preconception interventions in infertile couples can increase the chance of pregnancy and lower its complications. The success in infertility treatment and achieving a successful pregnancy is of great importance among infertile couples compared to others. This study has tried to investigate necessary preconception interventions before beginning of infertility treatment cycle among infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 268 individuals presenting to fertility clinics (Moshtagh and Shahid beheshty) across the city of Isfahan, Iran. Simple sampling method was used. Questionnaire and patients’ medical records were used to collect data. Descriptive and analytic statistical methods and SPSS software were used for analysis. Results: The results showed that the interventions related to diseases treatment and prescription of folic acid before the beginning of infertility treatment were complete for most of the subject (47.06% and 79.9% respectively), but referral for genetics counseling had not been conducted in most of the cases (98.9%). Specific interventions in relation with the infertility treatment before beginning the treatment cycle had been conducted in 50% of the subjects. Conclusion: The results of this study showed a weakness concerning necessary preconception interventions before beginning of infertility treatment cycle in most of the studied subjects. With regard to the effect of preconception interventions on outcome of infertility treatment, and with consideration of high importance of pregnancy success in infertile couples, paying more attention to conduct this manner is necessary. PMID:25250367
R. Dale McClure
Understanding reproductive physiology is pivotal in the evaluation and therapy of endocrine abnormalities. Although an endocrinological\\u000a cause of male infertility is uncommon (less than 2%) (1) identification is important, as specific hormonal therapy is often successful. The human testis is an organ of dual function:\\u000a spermatogenesis, occuring in the seminiferous tubules, and secretion of steroid hormones (androgens) by the Leydig
Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev
Background/Objective: Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Conclusions: Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients. PMID:19569467
Miettinen, M; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K
Infertility have been studied mostly from the medical perspectives, because inconsiderate infertility includes often versatile examinations and treatments. On the other hand the psychosocial factors and crisis experience of the infertility clients have not been paid much attention. Also the meaning and consequences of infertility to clients have not been studied. It is, however, important to study infertility, since its incidence is 5-15% in Finnish fertile population. This article explains on the literature basis concepts free and inconsiderate infertility. In addition, cultural, biological and social features of infertility are described. Finally, further nursing research topics concerning infertility clients and their needs are emphasized. PMID:1558762
Matsumoto, O; Imanishi, O; Okuda, Y; Shinozaki, M; Kamidono, S
The diagnostic methods for male infertility in our clinic are reviewed, and the following are emphasized. In azoospermia, examinations for obstructive azoospermia such as testicular biopsy should be made focussing on patients with 10 ml or higher testicular volume and with 20 mIU/ml or lower serum FSH level. In hypospermic patients, examination of post-ejaculated urine and ultrasonotomography examination of prostate are necessary for the diagnosis of incomplete retrograde ejaculation and obstruction or stenosis of the ejaculatory ducts. PMID:1767758
Michelle Emery Blake
Various authors have recognized the significance of grief among clients who are infertile. Poetry therapy offers unique opportunities for clients to crystallize and communicate their thoughts and feelings about this painful issue. Examples of poetry used to illustrate the various stages of grieving reflect the author's personal experience of infertility.
Fatemeh Ramazanzadeh; Ahmad Ali Noorbala; Nasrin Abedinia; Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh
Background: This study assessed emotional adjustment of infertile couples and the psychological outcomes of infertility (depression, anxiety, relationship and sexual problems, and personality disorders) in different phases of treatment. References used include studies which have been performed within the last two decades. The articles were invested on data bases at Pub med, Scholar, Google, Scpous and Amazon and key words
Daniluk, Judith C.
Presents specific intervention strategies that may serve to reinforce infertility experience as opportunity for personal and marital growth. Concludes through counseling clients may complete much of the emotional work required to reach a point of resolution and acceptance of their infertility. (Author/ABL)
Gerrity, Deborah A.
Briefly reviews the literature on infertility and its emotional, physical, existential, and relational effects on individuals, couples, and families. Life crisis and biopsychosocial theories are discussed as they apply to persons struggling with infertility issues. In addition, stage models derived from a biopsychosocial perspective are presented.…
Abstract The objective of this paper was to describe methods to estimate infertility from secondary data collected in nationally representative demographic surveys, such as the World Fertility Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys. Primary infertility was approximated by the proportion childless after at least seven years of marriage. Secondary infertility was measured by the proportion subsequently infertile among parous women.
Linda M. Whiteford; Lois Gonzalez
Infertility is experienced by 5 million U.S. couples, some of whom perceive it a stigmatizing condition. Recent technological innovations have created a multitude of medical interventions for those infertile individuals who can financially afford them. For some infertile women, those interventions also transform infertility from a private pain to a public, prolonged crisis. Our research focuses on 25 U.S. women
Coccia, Maria Elisabetta; Battistoni, Silvia; Borini, Andrea
Endometriosis is a debilitating condition characterized by high recurrence rates. The etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Typically, endometriosis causes pain and infertility, although 20–25% of patients are asymptomatic. The principal aims of therapy include relief of symptoms, resolution of existing endometriotic implants, and prevention of new foci of ectopic endometrial tissue. Current therapeutic approaches are far from being curative; they focus on managing the clinical symptoms of the disease rather than fighting the disease. Specific combinations of medical, surgical, and psychological treatments can ameliorate the quality of life of women with endometriosis. The benefits of these treatments have not been entirely demonstrated, particularly in terms of expectations that women hold for their own lives. Although theoretically advantageous, there is no evidence that a combination medical-surgical treatment significantly enhances fertility, and it may unnecessarily delay further fertility therapy. Randomized controlled trials are required to demonstrate the efficacy of different treatments. PMID:20574791
Dadhich, P; Ramasamy, R; Lipshultz, L I
One in six couples are infertile, and in 50% of these couples, a male factor plays a role. Therefore, it is imperative that physicians become comfortable in the basic evaluation of the infertile male. By performing a thorough history and physical examination, physicians can usually establish a differential diagnosis and proceed to laboratory testing that will help to establish an etiology for infertility. The purpose of this review is to provide general guidelines for a physician seeking to evaluate a man's fertility status and to suggest the most common pathologies that might be found through a directed work-up. PMID:25604696
Araoye, Margaret O
Infertility is of public health importance in Nigeria and many other developing nations because of its high prevalence and especially due to its serious social implications. A review of the epidemiology of infertility in Nigeria and other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa is presented and socio-cultural issues including the social impact on couples are discussed. The major cause of infertility in Africa is infection--STDs, post-abortal and puerperal sepsis. Beliefs about causes, and failure of orthodox methods of treatment have led many couples to seek solution from traditional doctors and faith healers without success. Infertility causes marital disharmony, which often leads to divorce. Women are often blamed for the infertility and men engage in polygyny in an attempt to have children. The couple can also suffer stress from the management of the infertility. Adoption is not popular and assisted reproduction has medico-legal implications. Preventive measures are suggested, including counselling at every stage of the management. PMID:14529236
Van Heertum, Kristin; Barmat, Larry
In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the contributory role of uterine fibroids to infertility. The prevalence of these tumors increases with age, which becomes significant as more women are delaying childbearing. Therefore, fibroids and infertility frequently occur together. Treatment varies with fibroid location and size. The various methods of treatment include open myomectomy, laparoscopic or robot-assisted myomectomy, medical treatment, uterine artery embolization and magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery. While there is a general consensus on the treatment of submucosal fibroids, the management of intramural fibroids in the infertility patient remains controversial. This paper aims to review and summarize the current literature in regards to the approach to uterine fibroids in the infertile patient. PMID:25482490
Esteves, Sandro C; Agarwal, Ashok
Extraordinary advances have been achieved in the field of male infertility in the last decades. There are new concepts in sperm physiology and several modern tools for the assessment of spermatogenesis kinetics in vivo. New tests using molecular biology and DNA damage assays allow the clinician to correctly diagnose men so far classified as having idiopathic male infertility. In the field of treatment, microsurgery has increased success rates either for reconstruction of the reproductive tract or the retrieval of spermatozoa for assisted conception. Emerging evidence suggests that life-style and environmental conditions are of utmost importance in male fertility and subfertility. This review discusses several concepts that have changed over the last years, such as the duration of the spermatogenic cycle in humans, Y-chromosome infertility, the reproductive potential of non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome men, the impact of paternal age and sperm DNA in male infertility, the role of antioxidants in the treatment of infertile men, the predictive factors and techniques for sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermia, and the microsurgical treatment of clinical varicoceles. Whenever possible, levels of evidence are provided as suggested by the Oxford Center of Evidence-based Medicine. PMID:21385475
G. M. D. Lemmens; M. Vervaeke; P. Enzlin; E. Bakelants; D. Vanderschueren; T. D'Hooghe; K. Demyttenaere
BACKGROUND: The recognition of the distressing character of infertility diagnosis and treatment has led to the development of several psychosocial interventions for infertile couples. At the Leuven University Fertility Centre, a body- mind marital group intervention was developed to help infertile couples cope with the distress related to infertility. METHODS AND RESULTS: This treatment programme was originally adapted from a
... Medicine News & Research Out of a Struggle With Infertility, Success From: Headlines in Reproductive Medicine Letrozole Shows Promise for Treating Infertility in Obese Men From: Headlines in Reproductive Medicine ...
Podolska, Magdalena Z; Bidzan, Mariola
Recently there has been enormous progress in couple infertility treatment and diagnostics. Some couples cannot conceive despite the fact that there seems to be no objective somatic or immunologic reasons. In such situations gynaecologists are helpless and couples may be overwhelmed by a sense of defeat and hopelessness. Thus, consulting a psychologist or therapist on how to cope better with the problem may be a good solution. The objective of the following paper is to discuss the dilemmas of couples undergoing infertility treatment, related psychological problems, and to determine the need for psychological and therapeutic support. The study demonstrates numerous infertility causes and concludes that there is no universal method of dealing with them. Very frequently psychological and somatic problems overlap. Psychological causes are often the primary factors, but sometimes they are secondary derivatives of the therapeutic process. A wide scope of factors must be considered to attempt psychological analysis of patients treated for infertility including the influence of the family and relations within, reaction to the diagnosis and suggested treatment, the influence of religion on the treatment, the evaluation of the relations in the family of procreation, sexual life assessment, the sense of a woman's self-esteem and self-acceptance. Basing on empirical analysis it was concluded that all women treated for infertility want to create a full family. They have problems in coping with emotional liability during treatment and a sense of fear and failure. Understanding the psychological mechanisms observed in patients treated for infertility might help to diagnose the causes of their problems with facing the new, extremely difficult situation. PMID:21469521
Smajdor, Anna; Cutas, Daniela
In this paper we will look at the various ways in which infertility can be understood and at how need for reproductive therapies can be construed. We will do this against the background of research with artificial gametes (AGs). Having explored these questions we will attempt to establish the degree to which technologies such as AGs could expand the array of choices that people have to reproduce and/or become parents. Finally, we will examine whether and in what ways the most promising developments of such technologies are likely to bring about the "end of infertility". PMID:24293033
Greil, Arthur; And Others
Infertility is a widespread health problem in the United States, affecting anywhere from 10 to 15 percent and perhaps even a greater percentage of U.S. couples. Infertility can have far-reaching effects on life satisfaction, well-being, and psychological adjustment. This paper presents an analysis of sex and intimacy among infertile couples based…
Examines the coping strategies adopted by 50 infertile men and women. All interviewed had sought medical help, and many became knowledgeable about reproduction and infertility. Redefining the problem and managing negative concepts about infertility were other coping strategies. Seeking social support, positive identities, and other ways of meeting…
Butler, Robert R.; Koraleski, Stephanie
Discusses helpful ways for mental health counselors to work with infertile clients, explaining nature of infertility, psychological crisis it provokes, common reactions of infertile clients, and strategies to help clients cope. Discusses specific strategies for assessing clients' potential for suicide or self-destructive acts and improving their…
McQuillan, Julia; Stone, Rosalie A. Torres; Greil, Arthur L.
Using data from a random sample of 580 midwestern women, the authors explore the association between lifetime infertility and life satisfaction. Past research shows lower life satisfaction among those seeking help for infertility. The authors find no direct effects of lifetime infertility, regardless of perception of a problem, on life…
Forrest, Linda; Gilbert, Mary S.
Reviews literature on infertility with a focus on myths and misunderstandings about the causes of infertility; a description of the crisis of infertility including common psychological responses; the additional psychological complexity introduced by medical procedures and reproductive technology; and suggestions for mental health counselors.…
Kleiman, S E; Yogev, L; Gamzu, R; Hauser, R; Botchan, A; Lessing, J B; Paz, G; Yavetz, H
Recently, microdeletions in the azoospermic factor region of the Y chromosome, in addition to chromosomal anomalies, have been detected in men with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. In this study we evaluated the molecular and cytogenetic defects of infertile men. The frequency of Y microdeletions among 105 azoospermic, 28 oligozoospermic and 32 fertile men was tested on lymphocyte DNA using a series of 20 sequence-tagged sites. In addition, microdeletions were evaluated on testicular-derived DNA among 26 azoospermic patients who underwent testicular biopsy and in whom no sperm cells could be identified. Karyotype analysis was performed on 72 of the infertile patients. Deletions were detected in 6.7% azoospermic and 3.6% oligozoospermic men. No deletions were identified among the fertile men. Identical results were obtained with DNA derived either from lymphocytes or testicular tissue. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the 72 infertile patients tested (62 azoospermic, 10 oligozoospermic) was 16.6%, with a high percentage of gonosome anomalies. Additional andrological parameters (hormone values, cryptorchidism) failed to identify men at risk for having microdeletions before the test. Our findings support the recommendation to perform genetic defect screening among infertile men before their enrollment in an intracytoplasmic injection/in-vitro fertilization programme. PMID:10374090
Watkins, Kathryn J.; Baldo, Tracy D.
Infertility affects many individuals and couples. This article begins with a case study of a couple who have experienced infertility yet do not identify infertility as their presenting problem. Clients and counselors alike often overlook infertility. This article offers an overview of the biology of infertility and its psychological and…
Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio; Sengoku, Kazuo
Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings. PMID:22046184
Matthews, Anne Martin; Matthews, Ralph
Examines the social and social psychological implications of infertility and involuntary childlessness. Examines the clinical and popular literature on the correlates and causes of infertility and the social psychological consequences of infertility. Suggests ways that family practitioners and researchers might overcome some of the limitations.…
Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Temple, Jeff R.
This manuscript reviews research from the past year on the ethical and psychosocial impact of infertility on women and men. We discuss several issues surrounding ovarian stimulation, particularly high-order multiple births, egg banking (especially for research purposes), and diminished ovarian reserve. We also present recent work on distress and counseling, which includes greater attention to subgroups of infertile women. More research on issues confronting men has emerged recently, and we outline these with regard to their relationships with infertile women, or as the infertility patient. Last, we outline some ethical issues posed by newer procedures of fertility preservation and uterine transplant. PMID:23336092
Jumayev, Izatulla; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Rustamov, Oybek; Zakirova, Nodira; Kasuya, Hideki; Sakamoto, Junichi
The purpose of this matched case-control study was to investigate the social correlates of primary infertility among females aged 35 years or less. The study was conducted in the Clinics of Samarkand Medical Institute, Uzbekistan, among 120 infertile and 120 healthy women matched by age, residential area, and occupation from January to June 2009. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Median duration of infertility was 10.0 months (interquartile range = 6.0-13.0). The rate of remarriage was 3.5 times higher among infertile women compared with healthy subjects. Insufficient family income, poor quality of life, life stress, and discontentment with daily routines as well as 'bad' relationships with family members (husband, mother- and father-in-law) were significant correlates of female infertility. Infertile women were more likely to underestimate the importance of sexual intimacy, and a negative attitude to sex. Female infertility is associated with various social correlates leading to higher remarriage rates and to further complicating the problem of infertility. Thus, a correction of women's basic attitudes and their relationships to their surrounding social habitat should be an essential component of any program of infertility management. PMID:23092100
... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Sensorineural deafness and male infertility On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... April 2010 What is sensorineural deafness and male infertility? Sensorineural deafness and male infertility is a condition ...
... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... April 2010 What is CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility? CATSPER1 -related nonsyndromic male infertility is a condition ...
Myers, Lawrence C.
Request for Infertility Treatment Expense Reimbursement Employee Name-mail #12;Information about the Infertility Treatment Reimbursement Benefit: Description of Benefit of infertility treatments and associated services. This benefit is available to regular benefits
Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid
Background: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods: This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman’s test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Many of the current problems in this society, particularly in families are due to the transition of the society from a traditional model to a modern one. The majority of the infertile women experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing counseling services to women in infertility treatment centers is suggested to prevent domestic violence against infertile women. PMID:25695010
Balasubramanian, R. K. R
was 3. 8 in 1953, 1. 0 in 1954 and 1. 7 in 1955. In 1955 he also evaluated semen quality of 1710 stallions, Their mean ejaculate volume was 61. 60+ 1. 04 cc. ; motility 75, 19+ 0. 44 and survival time in vitro at O'C to 4'C was 37. 79+ 0. 45 hours... be brought into foal during their first year in India. Infertility has been a major problem to all livestock breeders for decades. Considerable work has been done in cattle and sheep to improve the fertility percentages, however, much remains to be done...
Grether, Judith K.; Qian, Yinge; Croughan, Mary S.; Wu, Yvonne W.; Schembri, Michael; Camarano, Loretta; Croen, Lisa A.
Concerns persist about a possible link between infertility and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Interpretation of existing studies is limited by racial/ethnic homogeneity of study populations and other factors. Using a case-control design, we evaluated infertility history and treatment documented in medical records of members of Kaiser…
The experience of infertility can lead to individual emotional distress and problematic relationships. The acts of writing and reading poetry on this issue serve to synthesize and release intense emotions including loss, betrayal, frustration, and anger. The author chose to examine a number of themes both within and across poems that appeared poignant in their relationship to infertility: women's bodies,
Marcia C. Inhorn; Kimberly A. Buss
Infertility in the developing world has been relatively neglected as an international health problem and a topic of social scientific and epidemiological inquiry. In this study, we examine factors placing poor urban Egyptian men and women at risk of infertility, and we explore the sociocultural and political-economic contexts in which these health-demoting factors are perpetuated. Our approach to the problem
Louw, D. J.
This paper examines the crisis of infertility in the context of the biological or instinctual, cultural, and religious root of parenting. A therapeutic approach to the problem of infertility suggests that pastoral care should make a thorough diagnosis of the correlation between the motivation for parenting, role expectations in the social and…
van Balen, Frank; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Ketting, Evert
Infertile couples' (N=131) consideration of options for dealing with infertility (medical help, adoption, fostering, alternative medicine, and focusing on other life goals) is studied. Options were related to specific motivations including altruistic motives for adoption or foster care. Results, timing of choices, and motivations are discussed.…
Infertility affects more than 10% of the world's population. In developing countries, there are severe social, psychological and economic consequences for infertile men and women. All of the cited references are compiled from primary peer-reviewed research articles that were conducted through one-to-one interviews or focus groups in countries of developing regions, such as Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The following paper seeks to raise awareness of the consequences of infertility in developing nations and identify infertility as an under-observed, but significant public health issue. It is proposed that education programmes tailored to each society's specific religious beliefs and grounded traditions must be implemented in order to reverse the social stigma, detrimental psychological effects, and loss of economic security that results from infertility. PMID:23327901
... and cervix Medicines such as chemotherapy drugs Hormone imbalances Obesity Older age Ovarian cysts and polycystic ovary ... Heavy use of alcohol, marijuana, or cocaine Hormone imbalance Impotence Infection Medicines such as cimetidine, spironolactone, and ...
Andrea Marie Tremaglio
This study examined several variables which are related to the infertility experience, and determined how these variables contribute to prediction of marital adjustment in infertile couples. These variables are psychological distress, self-esteem, guilt and blame, sexuality, time in treatment, amount of time married, and age.Infertile couples from a support organization of infertile people, and from the practices of physicians completed
Background No previous study has provided national estimates of the prevalence of primary and secondary infertility in sizeable areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Primary infertility is measured by the proportion childless among women who entered their first marriage at least 7 years before date of censoring. Secondary infertility is measured by the 'subsequently infertile estimator' from parous ever- married women.
Original article Infertility of Varroa jacobsoni females after invasion into Apis mellifera worker brood were infertile, whereas in Euro- pean bees only 10-20% infertile Varroa females were found from the original host species, Apis cerana. Since host-dependent infertility evidently has a strong
Arthur L. Greil
This essay reviews the literature on the social psychological impact of infertility, paying special attention to the relationship between gender and the infertility experience. It is convenient to divide the literature into articles which explore the possibility that infertility may have psychological causes (Psychogenic Hypothesis) and those which examine the psychological consequences of infertility (Psychological Consequences Hypothesis). The psychogenic hypothesis
The sociocultural aspects of infertility among members of the matrilineal ethnic group Macua are studied. Strategies applied by infertile women, the use of traditional healers versus modern hospital, and explanations given for infertility are presented. Solutions attempted, social consequences of infertility, and recommendations for culturally…
Grodstein, F; Goldman, M B; Cramer, D W
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between moderate alcohol intake and fertility. METHODS. Interviews were conducted with 3833 women who recently gave birth and 1050 women from seven infertility clinics. The case subjects were categorized based on the infertility specialist's assignment of the most likely cause of infertility: ovulatory factor, tubal disease, cervical factor, endometriosis, or idiopathy. Separate logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between alcohol use and each type of infertility, adjusted for age, infertility center, cigarette smoking, caffeine use, number of sexual partners, use of an intrauterine device (for tubal disease), and body mass index and exercise (for ovulatory factor). RESULTS. We found an increase in infertility, due to ovulatory factor or endometriosis, with alcohol use. The odds ratio for ovulatory factor was 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 1.7) for moderate drinkers and 1.6 (95% CI = 1.1, 2.3) for heavier drinkers, compared with nondrinkers. The risk of endometriosis was roughly 50% higher in case subjects with any alcohol intake than in control subjects (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.3, at moderate levels; OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 2.7, at heavier levels). CONCLUSIONS. Moderate alcohol use may contribute to the risk of specific types of infertility. PMID:8092366
Macer, Matthew Latham
Synopsis Endometriois has been associated with infertility, however the mechanism by which it affects fertility are still not fully understood. This manuscript reviews the proposed mechanisms of endometriosis pathogenesis, it affects on fertility and treatments of endometriosis-associated infertility. Theories on etiology of disease include retrograde menstruation, coelomic metaplasia, altered immunity, stem cells, and genetics. Endometriosis affects gametes and embryos, the fallopian tubes and embryo transport, and the eutopic endometrium; these abnormalities likely all impact fertility. Current treatment options of endometriosis-associated infertility include surgery, superovulation with IUI, and IVF. We also discuss potential future treatments for endometriosis related infertility such as stem cells transplantation and immune therapy. PMID:23182559
Berlanda, Nicola; Alberico, Daniela; Barbara, Giussy; Frattaruolo, Maria Pina; Vercellini, Paolo
Several clinical and epidemiological studies demonstrated an association between endometriosis and infertility. A role in the genesis of infertility may be played by endometriomas, which may interfere with ovulation or damage ovarian tissue. Unlike peritoneal implants, the availability of an accurate noninvasive sonographic diagnosis facilitates the investigation of endometrioma associated infertility. The laparoscopic excision of an endometrioma relieves the ovary from the damage caused by the cyst itself, which may be progressive over time, but at the same time is associated with a detrimental effect on ovarian reserve and with high rates of postoperative endometrioma recurrence. Therefore, the management of endometrioma-related infertility should not be based upon surgery alone, but upon a combination of surgery, with a refinement of the operating technique, long-term oral contraceptive, in vitro fertilization and oocyte cryopreservation. PMID:25776287
... Males Fertility Treatments for Females Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Treatments for Diseases That Cause Infertility Other FAQs ... clomiphene and/or metformin. 4 , 5 Fertility treatments . ART , such as IVF, also may help women with ...
\\u000a Infertility, besides being a medical condition, is a social situation. Infertility is a low-control, chronic stressor with\\u000a severe long-lasting negative social and psychological consequences. Achieving a pregnancy\\/delivery after assisted reproduction\\u000a technology treatment is associated with increased mental well-being. Treatment failure is associated with increased levels\\u000a of anxiety and depression during the treatment period and after end of treatment. It is
Hwang, Kathleen; Lipshultz, Larry I.; Lamb, Dolores J.
The evaluation of the infertile male continues to be a clinical challenge of increasing significance with considerable emotional and financial burdens. Many physiological, environmental and genetic factors are implicated; however, the etiology of suboptimal semen quality is poorly understood. This review focuses on the diagnostic testing currently available, as well as future directions that will be helpful for the practicing urologist and other clinicians to fully evaluate the infertile male. PMID:21088937
Tannys D. R. Vause; Laura Jones; Mark Evans; Valerie Wilkie
Objective: Pre-conception counselling is important, as most pregnancies are unplanned. There are few published studies examining women's attitudes and knowledge in this area. As part of our ongoing education quality improvement program we evaluated the pre-conception knowledge and attitudes of women at an infertility clinic. Methods: Women who presented for initial assessment to a university-affiliated infertility clinic completed a knowledge
DavidS Guzick; MichaelW Sullivan; G. David Adamson; MarcelleI Cedars; RichardJ Falk; EdwinP Peterson; MichaelP Steinkampf
Objective: To analyze the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of alternative treatments for unexplained infertility.Design: Retrospective analysis of 45 published reports.Setting: Clinical practices.Patient(s): Couples who met criteria for unexplained infertility. Women with Stage I or Stage II endometriosis were included.Intervention(s): Observation; clomiphene citrate (CC); gonadotropins (hMG); IUI; and GIFT and IVF.Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical pregnancy rate.Result(s): Combined pregnancy rates per initiated cycle,
White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane
Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued. PMID:23781228
Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid
BACKGROUND: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. SETTING AND DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: While 33.3% of men and 43.3% of women surveyed insisted on not using surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). CONCLUSION: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples. PMID:24829531
Al–Hawsawi, Khalid; Motair, Wael; Bawa, Abdallah Makhloof
Introduction Old men preparing themselves for marriage late in their lives might face infertility. Infertility in this group of men should be considered from a wider perspective, as they face any age–related health troubles that include, but are not limited to, androgen deficiency and psychological disorders that impede early conception. This review aims to shed light on the proper approach to this minority of secondarily infertile men. Material and methods A comprehensive electronic English literature search was conducted, using various medical websites and books, for the factors that cause infertility in senior fathers. The physiology of geriatric males, together with their common comorbidities, were discussed. Results Old men presenting with secondary infertility should be approached differently. Aging, itself, has a significant impact on male sexual function, sperm parameters, and fertility; all of which contribute to poor fecundability, decreased fertilizing capacity, increased time to pregnancy, increased rate of DNA damage, high abortion rates and increased prevalence of fetal developmental failures. The complexity and the unknowns of the aging male physiology, together with the interaction of obstinate diseases the patient might have, make the issue very difficult to tackle. Conclusions Management should include the conventional way of treating young sufferers and further target the underlying causes, if known, along with the provision of geriatric, psychologic, and andrologic support. PMID:25140235
... do not restore fertility . Male Infertility Best Practice Policy Committee of the American Urological Association & Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2006). Report on optimal evaluation of the infertile male. Fertility and Sterility , 86, ...
... Advances Supported Networks, Programs & Initiatives Genetic Cause of Infertility Associated with Uterine Fibroids Skip sharing on social ... To determine whether TSC genes were involved in infertility related to fibroids, scientists funded by the Fertility ...
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
A PROGESTOGEN (CHLORMADINONE ACETATE = CAP) FOR CYCLE CONTROL AND INFERTILITY TREATMENT IN THE MARE, CAP has been used for infertility treatments and cycle control in mares in Austria. In all indications
Allison, Janet R.
Explores the experience of role conflict for women in infertile couples. Findings lead to an understanding of infertility as part of an interactional system for dealing with potentially intolerable sources of role conflict. (Author)
Kim, Duck O.
Infertility Peer Support Groups are held on the 3rd Thursday of every month (Couples Welcome!) Come groups to people with problems of infertility and education and assistance to associated professionals
de Kok, Christina
Infertility is a serious personal, social and public health issue in developing countries such as Malawi. Infertility is often a ‘hidden’ problem in this context as the policy and service emphasis is on issues like infant ...
This chapter describes religion in general before discussing the centrality of its concern for family formation. In light of this, the impact of infertility on religious people is considered. Recognizing religion's cautiously positive attitude towards assisted reproductive technology (ART) as a potential ally in the project of family formation and the relief of infertility, two areas that have caused concern for the religions are discussed: perceived threats to marriage and the sanctity of the human embryo. Throughout the chapter, illustrations are drawn from particular religions, including Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism. There are striking similarities in their concerns and in the range of their responses to ART. Ways in which medical personnel should take into account the religious dimensions of the experience of infertility in their care for patients are suggested. PMID:17110170
Igberase, Gabriel O
The aim of the study is to show that long standing forgotten intrauterine device contributes to infertility, reporting three cases presented at Central Hospital Warri, Nigeria, a government tertiary health center. Three cases of forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) contributing to infertility were seen. Two were inserted for contraceptive reasons while one was inserted while being managed for uterine synechae. Health care providers should ensure proper documentation of all procedures carried out, adequate counseling which should include taking an informed consent and also ensuring both short and long term follow up of their clients. Also all patients being evaluated for infertility and clients with past history of intrauterine device must have a speculum examination and ultrasound scan carried out. PMID:24765335
R. E. Short; R. A. Bellows; R. B. Staigmiller; J. G. Berardinelli; E. E. Custer; E. E. Custep
ABSTRACT Postpartum infertility is caused by four factors: general infertility, lack of uterine involution, short estrous cycles and anestrus. The general infertility component is common to any estrous cycle and reduces potential fertility by 20 to 30%. Incomplete uterine involution prevents fertilization during the first 20 d after calving but is not related to anestrus. Short estrous cycles prevent fertility
Peterson, Brennan D.; Eifert, Georg H.
Women and men diagnosed with infertility experience a variety of infertility-related stressors, including changes to their family and social networks, strain on their sexual relationship, and difficulties and unexpected challenges in their relationship. Infertility stress is linked with depression and psychological distress, and can lead to…
Nicole N Varasteh; Robert S Neuwirth; Bruce Levin; Martin D Keltz
Objective: To compare reproductive benefits of hysteroscopic myomectomy and polypectomy for infertility to outcomes in infertile couples with normal hysteroscopic findings.Methods: Women with diagnoses of infertility who had hysteroscopic evaluations by a single surgeon between 1975 and 1996 were sent a routine follow-up questionnaire regarding their reproductive histories. All 92 subjects who were located responded to the questionnaire, and 78
ARTICLE CATSPER2, a human autosomal nonsyndromic male infertility gene Nili Avidan1 , Hannah Tamary in spermatozoa) may explain the observed deafness and male infertility phenotypes. To the best of our knowledge associated with nonsyndromic male infertility. European Journal of Human Genetics (2003) 11, 497502. doi:10
McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; White, Lynn; Jacob, Mary Casey
Tests the hypothesis that women who have experienced infertility report higher psychological distress. Examines whether roles or resources condition the effects of infertility or whether its effects are limited to childless women. Infertility combined with involuntary childlessness is associated with significantly greater distress. For women in…
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Risk factors for infertility in nursing cows linked to calving C Ducrot I Cimarosti F Bugnard with 3 590 cows in order to study the risk factors for infertility linked to calving. Based upon an analy infertility, breed factors, parity, fattening, comfort, calf characteristics (number, sex, weight
I Gerhard; E Wallis
This prospective observational pilot study investigated the effect of individualized homeopathy on male infertility based on sperm count, hormone values and general health. Forty-five subfertile men were treated with single homeopathic remedies for an average of 10.3 months. The drugs were prescribed on the basis of the overall symptomatic situation. The variables ‘sperm density’, ‘percentage of sperm with good progressive
Counselling has been strongly recommended by numerous governmental, medical and community associations to help infertile people. The purpose of this review was to determine whether psychosocial interventions improved well-being and pregnancy rates, and to identify the kinds of interventions that were most effective. A systematic search identified all published and unpublished papers in any language and any source that (1)
Cook, Ellen Piel
Presents a framework for understanding the crisis of infertility which is characterized by extensive anxiety, damaged self-esteem, grief, uncertainty about the future, and estranged relationships with each other and with family and friends. Proposes some interventions appropriate to helpers from a variety of disciplines. (ABB)
... approximately 1 in 2,000 to 1 in 3,000 males of all ethnic groups. This condition accounts for between 5 percent and 10 percent of cases of azoospermia or severe oligospermia. What are the genetic changes related to Y chromosome infertility? As its name suggests, this form of ...
Introduction Obesity in men is associated with infertility in numerous studies. The current trend for decline in semen parameters parallels the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide. In addition to impaired semen quality, fertility among obese men may be affected by sexual dysfunction, endocrinopathy, aromatization activity, psychological and thermal effects, sleep apnea, leptin and minor toxins, and possibly the inflammatory and obstructive elements of epididymitis pathology. The variable degrees of certainty associated with these causes parallel the levels of supporting evidence. This search aims to shed lights on different conditions that obese men suffer from; as that makes the treatment of infertility more categorized. Material and methods A PubMed search was conducted to identify clinical and pathological mechanisms linking obesity to male infertility. Results Among the myriad of publications reviewed in this paper, impaired spermatogenesis and sexual dysfunction have been shown to drive other variables towards poor fertility potentials. The paper presented a new, detailed flow chart showing more factors and further interactions among conditions leading to infertility. Conclusions The prime hormonal defect in obese men is hypotestosteronaemia, which results in impaired spermatogenesis leading to poor fecundability. Studies have shown that most mechanisms accounting for reduced fertility potentials in overweight men are reversible.
Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.
This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be…
Background Infertility is a global reproductive health issue that affects many individuals and couples. Despite the high prevalence of infertility in Ghana, no study has been done on the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana. This study therefore explored the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. Methods We interviewed fifteen childless couples, forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants using a semi-structured interview guide. We also carried out three focus group discussions; one for childless women, one for women with children and one for men with children. The data were transcribed, coded, arranged and analyzed for categories and themes. Results Infertile couples are socially stigmatised and excluded from leadership roles in their communities. Couples without children are denied membership in the ancestral world thereby losing the opportunity to live again. Both males and females are engaged in sex with multiple partners to prove their fertility. Conclusions Both men and women suffer from the social effects of childlessness. The desire to have biological children in a pronatalist society results in unhealthy practices. Health policy makers and gender advocates should be more concerned about infertility. PMID:23517021
Venkatesh, Thejaswini; Suresh, Padmanaban S; Tsutsumi, Rie
Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system characterized by inability to achieve pregnancy after 12 or more months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. A variety of factors, including ovulation defects, spermatogenic failure, parental age, obesity, and infections have been linked with infertility, in addition to specific karyotypes and genotypes. The study of genes associated with infertility in rodent models has expanded the field of translational genetics in identifying the underlying cause of human infertility problems. Many intriguing aspects of the molecular basis of infertility in humans remain poorly understood; however, application of genetic knowledge in this field looks promising. The growing literature on the genetics of human infertility disorders deserves attention and a critical concise summary is required. This paper provides information obtained from a systematic analysis of the literature related to current research into the genetics of infertility affecting both sexes. PMID:25506236
Background The desire of many young women to become parents may be influenced by the premium placed on children by society. In Africa, children are highly valued for social, cultural and economic reasons. Infertile and childless women in Africa are therefore confronted with a series of societal discrimination and stigmatization which may lead to psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression. Even though some research has been done on the prevalence of infertility in Ghana, very little is known about the psychological impact of childlessness among infertile women. The present study aimed to examine prevalence and severity of depression in relation to age, type of infertility and duration of infertility in Ghanaian infertile women. Methods A total of 100 infertile women who met the selection criteria and had agreed to participate in the study were interviewed using the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire from December 2012 to April 2013 at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale/Ghana. Data concerning socio-demographic characteristics such as age, monthly income, duration of infertility, marital status, educational level, number of previous conception, number of previous children, religion, as well as occupation of the respondents were recorded. Results The prevalence of depression among the women was 62.0% with the level of depression showing a significant positive correlation with age of the women and the duration of infertility. The level of depression was significantly higher among subjects with low or no formal education and among the unemployed. Women with primary infertility also presented with high depression scores as measured by BDI. Conclusions In conclusion, the prevalence of depression among the infertile women is high, especially among infertile women age 26 and above, those who are less educated, those with primary infertility, as well as those who have been diagnosed as infertile for more than 3 years. Interventions to decrease and prevent the development of severe depression among these patients should be considered. PMID:24612693
Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi
Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life. PMID:25788801
Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Jahanian Sadatmahalleh, Shahideh; Akhoond, Mohammad Reza; Ghaffari, Firouzeh; Zolfaghari, Zahra
Background: Different success rate of Intracytoplasmic Sperm injection (ICSI) has been observed in various causes of infertility. In this study, we evaluated the relation between ICSI outcome and different causes of infertility. We also aimed to examine parameters that might predict the pregnancy success rate following ICSI. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study included1492 infertile women referred to Infertility Center of Royan Institute between 2010 and 2011. We assigned two groups including pregnant (n=504) and non-pregnant (n=988), while all participants underwent ICSI cycles. All statistics were performed by SPSS program. Statistical Analysis was carried out using Chi-square and t test. Logistic regression was done to build a prediction model in ICSI cycles. Results: The overall clinical pregnancy rate in our study was 33.9% (n=1492). There was a statistically significant difference in mean serum concentration on day 3 after application of luteinizing hormone (LH) between the pregnant and the non-pregnant groups (p<0.05). However, There were no significant differences between two groups in the serum concentrations on day 3 after application of the following hormones: folliclestimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and metoclopramidestimulated prolactin (PRL) . We found no association between different causes of infertility and clinical outcomes . The number of metaphase II (MII) oocytes, embryo transfer, number of good embryo (grade A, B, AB), total dose of gonadotropin, endometrial thickness, maternal age, number of previous cycle were statistically significant between two groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate that ICSI in an effective option in couples with different causes of infertility. These variables were integrated into a statistical model to allow the prediction for the chance of pregnancy following ICSI cycles. It is required that each infertility center gather enough information about the causes of infertility in order to provide more information and better assistance to patients. Therefore, we suggest that physicians prepare adequate training and required information regarding these procedures for infertile couples in order to improve their knowledge. PMID:24520469
Ahmad Ali Noorbala; Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh; Nasrin Abedinia; Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh
This study was performed in order to determine the prevalence and predisposing factors of psychiatric disorders among infertile\\u000a and fertile women attending Vali-e-Asr Hospital. A total of 150 fertile women from Vali-e-Asr Reproduction Health Research\\u000a Center and fertile women from the Gynecology Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital were chosen by consecutive sampling. Data included\\u000a demographic information, SCL-90-R, and a semi-structured
Nashivochnikova, N A; Krupin, V N; Selivanova, S A
The article presents the results of the application of spematon in 39 men from infertile couples with different forms of pathospermia (asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia, teratozoospermia). It is shown that the effect in the first 3 months of use of spematon is mainly associated with normalization of acrosome reaction of sperm cells. It was established that spematon, due to content of L-carnitine content, zinc, vitamin E, contributes restoration of induction of acrosome reaction. PMID:24956674
Marques-Pinto, André; Carvalho, Davide
Over recent decades, epidemiological studies have been reporting worrisome trends in the incidence of human infertility rates. Extensive detection of industrial chemicals in human serum, seminal plasma and follicular fluid has led the scientific community to hypothesise that these compounds may disrupt hormonal homoeostasis, leading to a vast array of physiological impairments. Numerous synthetic and natural substances have endocrine-disruptive effects, acting through several mechanisms. The main route of exposure to these chemicals is the ingestion of contaminated food and water. They may disturb intrauterine development, resulting in irreversible effects and may also induce transgenerational effects. This review aims to summarise the major scientific developments on the topic of human infertility associated with exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs), integrating epidemiological and experimental evidence. Current data suggest that environmental levels of EDs may affect the development and functioning of the reproductive system in both sexes, particularly in foetuses, causing developmental and reproductive disorders, including infertility. EDs may be blamed for the rising incidence of human reproductive disorders. This constitutes a serious public health issue that should not be overlooked. The exposure of pregnant women and infants to EDs is of great concern. Therefore, precautionary avoidance of exposure to EDs is a prudent attitude in order to protect humans and wildlife from permanent harmful effects on fertility. PMID:23985363
Counselling has been strongly recommended by numerous governmental, medical and community associations to help infertile people. The purpose of this review was to determine whether psychosocial interventions improved well-being and pregnancy rates, and to identify the kinds of interventions that were most effective. A systematic search identified all published and unpublished papers in any language and any source that (1) described a psychosocial intervention and (2) evaluated its effect on at least one outcome measure in an infertile population. A total of 380 studies met the first criteria but only 6.6% (n=25) of these were independent evaluation studies. Analysis of these studies showed that psychosocial interventions were more effective in reducing negative affect than in changing interpersonal functioning (e.g., marital and social functioning). Pregnancy rates were unlikely to be affected by psychosocial interventions. It was also found that group interventions which had emphasised education and skills training (e.g., relaxation training) were significantly more effective in producing positive change across a range of outcomes than counselling interventions which emphasised emotional expression and support and/or discussion about thoughts and feelings related to infertility. Men and women were found to benefit equally from psychosocial interventions. Directions for future research on the evaluation of psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:14572840
Cho, Kang Su; Seo, Ju Tae
Varicocele is the most common cause of male infertility and is generally correctable or at least improvable by various surgical and radiologic techniques. Therefore, it seems simple and reasonable that varicocele should be treated in infertile men with varicocele. However, the role of varicocele repair for the treatment of subfertile men has been questioned during the past decades. Although varicocele repair can induce improvement of semen quality, the obvious benefit of spontaneous pregnancy has not been shown through several meta-analyses. Recently, a well-designed randomized clinical trial was introduced, and, subsequently, a novel meta-analysis was published. The results of these studies advocate that varicocele repair be regarded as a standard treatment modality in infertile men with clinical varicocele and abnormal semen parameters, which is also supported by current clinical guidelines. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has been regarded as the gold standard compared to other surgical techniques and radiological management in terms of the recurrence rate and the pregnancy rate. However, none of the methods has been proven through well-designed clinical trials to be superior to the others in the ability to improve fertility. Accordingly, high-quality data from well-designed studies are needed to resolve unanswered questions and update current knowledge. Upcoming trials should be designed to define the best technique and also to define how to select the best candidates who will benefit from varicocele repair. PMID:25405011
Cho, Kang Su
Varicocele is the most common cause of male infertility and is generally correctable or at least improvable by various surgical and radiologic techniques. Therefore, it seems simple and reasonable that varicocele should be treated in infertile men with varicocele. However, the role of varicocele repair for the treatment of subfertile men has been questioned during the past decades. Although varicocele repair can induce improvement of semen quality, the obvious benefit of spontaneous pregnancy has not been shown through several meta-analyses. Recently, a well-designed randomized clinical trial was introduced, and, subsequently, a novel meta-analysis was published. The results of these studies advocate that varicocele repair be regarded as a standard treatment modality in infertile men with clinical varicocele and abnormal semen parameters, which is also supported by current clinical guidelines. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has been regarded as the gold standard compared to other surgical techniques and radiological management in terms of the recurrence rate and the pregnancy rate. However, none of the methods has been proven through well-designed clinical trials to be superior to the others in the ability to improve fertility. Accordingly, high-quality data from well-designed studies are needed to resolve unanswered questions and update current knowledge. Upcoming trials should be designed to define the best technique and also to define how to select the best candidates who will benefit from varicocele repair. PMID:25405011
Mastrogiacomo, I; Foresta, C; Ruzza, G; Rizzotti, A; Lembo, A; Zanchetta, R
With a view to investigating the cause of persistent infertility, the authors studied a group of 27 patients who had, previously, undergone surgical ligation of the spermatic vein for varicocele and infertility. Of these subjects, who failed to father after surgery, 12 presented persisting varicocele at the clinical examination. In 6 cases, the seminal fluid was positive for U. Urealyticum. One patient had orchiepididymitis; in one spermioagglutinating antibodies were found, in one the female partner was found to be infertile. Even preoperatively, three subjects had pathologically high gonadotropin levels, an important sign of testicular parenchyma alteration. In three subjects only there were no pathological findings to explain persistent infertility. PMID:6421194
Pinto-Gouveia, José; Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, Marina; Matos, Marcela
Little is known about emotional regulation processes of psychological flexibility/acceptance, self-compassion, and coping styles in infertility and the way they may exert a protective function towards depression. The aim of the current study was to explore how these emotion regulation processes are related to depression and to the sense of self-efficacy to deal with infertility in infertile patients. Gender differences were also considered. One hundred couples without known fertility problems and 100 couples with an infertility diagnosis completed the instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, Coping Styles Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Self-Compassion Scale and Infertility Self-efficacy Scale. Infertile couples presented statistically significantly higher scores on depression and lower scores in psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion than the control group. This pattern was particularly identified in women who also tended to use less an emotional/detached coping style and to perceive themselves as less confident to deal with infertility than men. Multiple regression analysis showed that psychological flexibility/acceptance was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in men and women with infertility. Emotional regulation processes, such as psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion, seem to be relevant to the understanding of depressive symptoms and psychological adjustment to infertility, suggesting that these issues should be addressed in a therapeutic context with these couples. PMID:22309792
Lee, T Y; Sun, G H; Chao, S C
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an infertility diagnosis on treatment-related stresses. One hundred infertile Chinese couples participated in this study. Three structured questionnaires were used to analyze the differences between husbands and wives. As a group wives appear to experience significantly more stress from infertility tests and treatment than their husbands, regardless of whether female infertility was present. Husbands with mixed or idiopathic infertility experienced less stress to infertility than husbands with only male infertility or female infertility. Wives with mixed or idiopathic infertility experienced less stress to infertility than wives with only a female infertility. Marital duration, time in treatment, and the number of AIH or IVF procedures were positively related to the wives' stress level, whereas only number of IVF procedures was positively related to the husbands' stress level. Interventions to enhance the infertility treatment experience are suggested. PMID:11204620
de Kok, Bregje Christina
This study examines social constructions of infertility in Malawi. The literature on infertility consists of epidemiological studies, describing patterns of infertility in terms of its incidence, causes and health seeking ...
This article provides an overview of the psychological and social implications of infertility. After describing the evolution of current theoretical understanding in this area, it outlines typical emotional and gender-specific reactions as well as the impact of infertility on the concept of identity and loss. Key questions are presented that medical professionals can use in order to facilitate communication with
Shadaan Abid; Jyotsna Gokral; Anurupa Maitra; Pervin Meherji; Seema Kadam; Eusebio Pires; Deepak Modi
Progesterone has been implicated in the process of spermatogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the association of progesterone receptor (PR) expression with spermatogenesis in the testis of infertile men. PR mRNA and protein were assessed by in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in testicular biopsies obtained from 18 infertile men. The extent of spermatogenesis was assessed by Johnsen scoring. None of the
Neelofar Sami; Tazeen Saeed Ali
Objective: To explore the experiences of social consequences among women suffering from secondary infertil- ity. Methods:Descriptive case series of 400 women with secondary infertility attending tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Results: More than two thirds (67.7%) of women stated that their inability to give live births or give birth to sons had resulted in marital dissonance. The respondents had
Barbara J. Berg; John F. Wilson
Psychological functioning was examined for a cross section of 104 couples in different stages of medical investigation for infertility. Couples were separated into three stages based upon the length of time they had been pursuing medical treatment for infertility: year 1, year 2, and year 3 and beyond. Emotional strain was moderately elevated during the first year, returned to more
Lee, T Y; Sun, G H
Some 15% or 1 in 6 American couples in the childbearing years have infertility problems. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both infertile men and women have negative emotional responses, such as stress, anxiety and depression. In Europe, Canada, and the United States the response of infertile husbands was different from that of their wives in self-image, marital adjustment, and sexual relations. The differences in psychological distress, marital satisfaction, and sexual satisfaction between Chinese infertile husbands and wives were evaluated. Fifty-nine infertile couples participated in this study. The subjects completed an Infertility Questionnaire, Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, and Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire as measures of gender differences in facing infertility problems. Paired t tests revealed that husbands expressed significantly less distress than that of the wives. The husbands' self-esteem was higher than that of the wives. The husbands' marital and sexual satisfaction was also higher than that of the wives. These results propose that although differences exist in cultural, ethnic, and religious norms between Chinese society and Western society, the Chinese couples' response to infertility is similar to that of Western couples. The major difference is that the in-laws play an important role in Chinese society, especially in marital satisfaction. PMID:11111862
Lee, T Y; Sun, G H; Chao, S C; Chen, C C
Infertility treatment involves more complicated, uncomfortable, and humbling medical procedures for women, so the coping strategies used by wives may differ from those used by husbands. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a Coping Scale for Infertile Couples that would be sensitive to the differences in gender. What couples actually do to cope with infertility and whether these strategies are different between couples were also addressed. A total of 138 infertile couples participated in this study. The Coping Scale for Infertile Couples was administered with the Infertility Questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Jalowiec Coping Scale as measures of concurrent validity. Factor analysis extracted 4 subscales from the Coping Scale for Infertile Couples. Test-retest and internal consistency reliability were high. Paired t tests revealed that wives used the "Increasing space and Sharing the burden" strategies to a greater degree than their husbands. Husbands used the "Being the best" strategy to a greater degree than the wives. A significant correlation with distress, stress, and coping measures provided evidence of concurrent validity. Preliminary results suggest that this measure has good reliability and validity, which can contribute toward the elucidation of coping strategies used by infertile couples and assist in planning effective interventions. PMID:11111863
Schneider, Myra G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.
This study investigated psychosocial factors thought to be associated with perceived stress over the course of infertility treatment. The research was based on secondary analysis of data from the Study of Marriage, Family, and Life Quality with a sample of 128 people who completed an infertility-related stress instrument at all three measurement…
Fady I. Sharara; Richard T. Scott; David B. Seifer
Women in their mid to late 30s and early 40s with infertility constitute the largest portion of the total infertility population. These women frequently undergo multiple testing, and most will require expensive and invasive therapies, including assisted reproductive technologies, with markedly reduced pregnancy rates in those older than 40. These women also have a higher incidence of pregnancy loss even
A population survey was undertaken to study infertility in Gambia. All infertile women in 24 randomly selected enumeration areas were assessed. Problems faced, coping mechanisms employed, and types of health care available were examined. Patterns of consultation with traditional versus formal health care and rural/urban differences were uncovered…
M G Hull; C M Glazener; N J Kelly; D I Conway; P A Foster; R A Hinton; C Coulson; P A Lambert; E M Watt; K M Desai
Specialist infertility practice was studied in a group of 708 couples within a population of residents of a single health district in England. They represented an annual incidence of 1.2 couples for every 1000 of the population. At least one in six couples needed specialist help at some time in their lives because of an average of infertility of 21\\/2
Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others
Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…
Daniluk, Judith C.; Hurtig-Mitchell, Joss
Using qualitative approach, authors explored the experiences of becoming parents through adoption after unsuccessful infertility treatments. Analysis of data revealed three overarching themes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for counselors who work with infertile couples considering adoption, clients engaged in adoption…
Myers, Lisa B.; Wark, Linda
Describes a cognitive-behavioral model for treating couples' negative reactions to infertility. After a discussion of why the cognitive-behavioral approach can competently address the goals of couples coping with infertility, three phases of treatment are outlined: assessment, therapy, and closure. Areas for assessment include spouses, marital…
Esteves, Sandro C; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Agarwal, Ashok
Male infertility is directly or indirectly responsible for 60% of cases involving reproductive-age couples with fertility-related issues. Nevertheless, the evaluation of male infertility is often underestimated or postponed. A coordinated evaluation of the infertile male using standardized procedures improves both diagnostic precision and the results of subsequent management in terms of effectiveness, risk and costs. Recent advances in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have made it possible to identify and overcome previously untreatable causes of male infertility. To properly utilize the available techniques and improve clinical results, it is of the utmost importance that patients are adequately diagnosed and evaluated. Ideally, this initial assessment should also be affordable and accessible. We describe the main aspects of male infertility evaluation in a practical manner to provide information on the judicious use of available diagnostic tools and to better determine the etiology of the most adequate treatment for the existing condition. PMID:21655766
Kessler, Lawrence M.; Craig, Benjamin M.; Plosker, Shayne M.; Reed, Damon R.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.
Objective To examine the characteristics of women seeking infertility evaluation and treatment. Design Cross-sectional survey based on in-person interviews, followed by two-step hurdle analysis. Participants 4,558 married or cohabitating women ages 25–44 Setting U.S. household population of women based on the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth Intervention None Main Outcome Measure(s) Likelihood of seeking preliminary infertility evaluation. Likelihood of seeking infertility treatment once evaluated. Treatment type provided. Results 623 women (13.7%) reported seeking infertility evaluation, of which 328 reported undergoing subsequent infertility treatment. Age at marriage, marital status, education, health insurance status, race/ethnicity, and religion were associated with the likelihood of seeking infertility evaluation. For example, the predicted probability that a non-White woman who married at 25 will seek evaluation was 12%. This probability increased to 34% for White women with a graduate degree who married at age 30. Among women who are evaluated, income, employment status, and ethnicity correlated strongly with the likelihood of seeking infertility treatment. Infertility drug therapy was the most frequent treatment used. Reproductive surgery and in vitro fertilization (IVF) were used the least. Conclusions The use of infertility services is not random and understanding the socio-demographic factors correlated with use may assist new couples with family planning. Roughly 50% of the women evaluated for infertility progressed to treatment, and only a small proportion were treated with more advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as IVF therapy. Future research aimed at improving access to effective healthcare treatments within the boundaries of affordability is warranted. PMID:23849845
Wosnitzer, Matthew; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Li, Philip S
Men with azoospermia or severe oligospermia (< 5 x 10(6)/ml) should have genetic testing to identify the reason for male infertility before treatment. Identification of obstructive azoospermia (OA) or non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is essential because genetic testing differs for OA (which has normal testicular function, testicular volume, and FSH) versus NOA (which has small, soft testes and increased FSH). Among patients with NOA, history and physical examination along with laboratory testing is required to choose genetic testing specifically for primary testicular failure or congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Genetic testing options include cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) testing for men with OA due to congenital absence of the vas, while karyotype, Y chromosome microdeletions (YCMD), and other specific genetic tests may be indicated if patient has severe oligospermia or NOA. These genetic tests help to identify which patients may benefit from medical and/or surgical intervention. The most recent techniques for genetic analysis will improve diagnosis and management of male infertility. PMID:24520658
Memon, M A
A complete breeding soundness evaluation is essential for assessment of the infertile male dog. Cryptorchidism, a sex-limited autosomal recessive trait, is more common as a unilateral condition. Azoospermia is an ejaculate consisting of seminal plasma but lacking sperm; repeated semen collections in the presence of an estrual bitch will rule out inadequate experience and lack of sexual stimulation. Both carnitine and alkaline phosphatase (AP) are produced in the epididymis; seminal plasma AP concentrations>5000 U/L indicate a normal ejaculate, whereas <5000 U/L is associated with incomplete ejaculation. Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), the most common age-related condition in intact male dogs, is characterized by a sanguineous urethral discharge, hematuria, or hemospermia; diagnosis is based on prostatic enlargement and confirmed by a transabdominal biopsy. Although castration is recommended, valuable breeding dogs can be given finasteride. Prostatitis is more common in older dogs with BPH. Culture of the third fraction of the ejaculate or urine obtained by cystocentesis is indicated. Bacterial prostatitis is treated with antibiotics with high lipid solubility. Some dogs with bacterial prostatitis may develop prostatic abscesses (a medical and surgical emergency). Prostatic cysts are often asymptomatic. Approximately, 5-7% of dogs with prostatic disease have prostatic neoplasia, most commonly adenocarcinoma (it occurs in both intact and castrated dogs), which often metastasizes and has a very poor prognosis. Although a specific diagnosis can be made in many cases of male dog infertility, not all causes are amenable to treatment. PMID:17512045
Arzu Vicdan; Kubilay Vicdan; Serdar Günalp; Aykut Kence; Cem Akarsu; Ahmet Zeki I??k; Eran Sözen
Objective: The main purpose of this study is to detect the frequency and type of both chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in patients with severe male factor infertility and fertile control subjects. The association between the genetic abnormality and clinical parameters was also evaluated. Methods: This study was carried out in 208 infertile and 20 fertile men. Results of
Deidra Taylor Rausch
The purpose of this study is to introduce the General Infertility Model and present preliminary research findings which consider the role of marital cohesion, social support, religiosity, infertility diagnosis, and pregnancy outcome as factors predicting the level of stress and depression experienced by women and men pursuing Advanced Reproductive Technology (ART) cycles. Forty-two couples pursuing ART cycles completed self-report measures
Clinically a couple is considered to be infertile after at least one year without contraception and without pregnancy. There was scant knowledge about the prevalences of infertility, involuntary childlessness and the seeking of fertility treatment and only few longitudinal studies about the psychosocial consequences of infertility and its treatment. This thesis is about the epidemiological aspects of infertility; the conceptualization and measurement of important psychosocial aspects of infertility; and a medical sociological analysis of the associations between these psychosocial variables among Danish women and men in fertility treatment. The thesis is based on nine papers. The three main purposes were: (i) to review critically, population based studies of infertility and medical care seeking in industrialised countries. Further, to examine these prevalences and subsequent motherhood among women in former assisted reproduction in a Danish population. (ii) To develop measures of psychosocial consequences of infertility: fertility problem stress, marital benefit, communication, coping strategies, attitudes to and evaluation of fertility treatment. (iii) To examine these phenomena and to analyse their interrelations among Danish women and men in fertility treatment. The thesis is based on four empirical studies: (i) The Women and Health Survey, a cross-sectional population-based study among 15-44 year old women (n=907, 25-44 year old) in Copenhagen County, 1989. (ii) The Psychosocial Infertility Interview Study, a qualitative interview study among 16 couples (n=2 participants) infertility treatment at The Fertility Clinic, Herlev University Hospital,1992. (iii) The Infertility Cohort, a longitudinal cohort study consecutively including all couples (n=250 participants) beginning anew fertility treatment period at one of four public (Braedstrup, Herlev, Odense, Rigshospitalet) and one private fertility clinic (Trianglen),2000-2002. (iv) The Communication and Stress Management Training Programme, an intervention study among couples(n=74 participants) in fertility treatment at The Fertility Clinic, The Juliane Marie Centre, Rigshospitalet, 2001-2003. Included is also a literature review of population-based infertility studies from industrialised countries. Data from (iii) and (iv) are studies from The Copenhagen Multi-centre Psychosocial Infertility (COMPI) Research Programme (www.compipro.dk). Epidemiological and demographic studies investigating the prevalences of infertility differed in how they defined the numerator (the infertile participants) and the denominator (the population at risk). It was important to calculate reliable estimates of the infertility prevalence by including only women who had tried to have at least one child in the population at risk, as a notable proportion of women in the fertile ages had not (yet) attempted to become a mother. The lifetime prevalence of infertility in the representative population-based study was 26.4%. In the age group 35 to 44 years 5.8% were primarily involuntarily in fecund (involuntarily childless). Even in a country with access to fertility treatment in a public health-care system without self-payment lower education was a predictor of lower treatment seeking. In the cohort study (2000-2002)of couples starting a new period of assisted reproduction treatment 62.6% reported a treatment-related pregnancy at the one-year follow-up. In total 32.4% reported a treatment-related delivery. In total 24.2% reported a current continuing pregnancy and spontaneous pregnancies accounted for 2.7% of these. We developed measures of fertility problem stress, marital benefit(that infertility has brought the partners closer together and strengthened their marriage), partner communication, infertility related communication, coping strategies, attitudes to fertility treatment and evaluation of care. The medical sociological analyses showed that the variables of psychosocial consequences of infertility and treatment are interwoven with each others in a complex pattern, a pattern that both differe
Background Although there is little information available to quantify the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), growing evidence suggests that CAM prevalence among patients seeking infertility treatment is increasing worldwide. There are many products available on the market and many infertile patients demand information about CAM from their health care providers. This paper investigates the prevalence of CAM use among infertile couples in Jordan. Additionally, trends and factors contributing to CAM use for infertility treatment among these couples have been evaluated. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire inquiring demographic information, use of CAM for medical conditions, in general, and types of CAM used for infertility treatment, in specific, was completed by one thousand twenty one infertile patients attending at two types of facilities; in vitro Fertilization (IVF) centers at both public and private hospitals and infertility private clinics. Both types of facilities were distributed in different areas of Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between May and August 2012. Results Our results show that CAM therapies for infertility treatment were encountered in 44.7% of the study sample. The vast majority of CAM users were females. The most commonly used CAM therapies were herbs and spiritual healing. A clear correlation between the use of CAM for infertility versus the use of CAM for other chronic medical conditions has been found. Conclusions The prevalence of CAM use for infertility treatment in Jordan is relatively high, particularly among young females, well educated and with a low income, in consistence with the studies reported elsewhere. Herbs and spiritual healing are widely used among patients in adjunct to conventional medical interventions. As CAM use is prevalent among patients, there is a clear need for health providers to become more aware of this phenomenon and for further research in this field. PMID:23414246
Azadeh S. Fatemi; Seyed Jalal Younesi; Manouchehr Azkhosh; Ali Askari
This study aims to compare dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment in infertile employed and unemployed females. Due to the stresses of infertility, infertile females are faced with a variety of sexual and psychological problems, as well as dysfunctional attitudes that can lead to depression. Moreover, infertility problems provoke women into maladjustment and inadvertent corruption of relationships. In this regard, our
Barbara J. Berg; John F. Wilson; Paul J. Weingartner
Infertility has traditionally been viewed as a female problem and women have been expected to suffer greater psychological distress due to infertility. This paper investigates the nature of gender differences and sex-role identification in the psychological sequelae associated with infertility treatment. The expectation that infertile women experience higher distress levels than men was not supported by these data. No gender
E. JEAN WICKINGS; CARL-WILHELM FREISCHEM; KLAUS LANGER; EBERHARD NIESCHLAG
Sperm penetration rates in the heterologous ovum pen- etration test were correlated with results of routine semen analysis in 30 fertile and 50 infertile men. There was no difference in penetration rates when comparing infertile men with normal and abnormal seminal pa- rameters, nor was any difference seen between fertile (15-83%) and infertile men (8-83%). Of the 22 infertile men
Abbey, Antonia; And Others
Examined parenthood among 174 infertile couples and 74 presumed fertile couples. Infertile women who became parents experienced greater global well-being but diminished marital well-being, compared with infertile women who had not become parents. Infertile men who became parents experienced same negative effects that wives reported but did not…
Abbey, Antonia; And Others
Longitudinally examined effects of infertility on marital and global life quality with 174 infertile couples and 74 fertile couples. By third interview, 42% of infertile couples and 36% of fertile couples were parents. Psychosocial predictors of life quality were highly similar for members of infertile and fertile couples and for couples with and…
Légaré, Christine; Droit, Arnaud; Fournier, Frédéric; Bourassa, Sylvie; Force, André; Cloutier, Francine; Tremblay, Roland; Sullivan, Robert
Male factors account for 40% of infertility cases. The identification of differentially expressed proteins on spermatozoa from fertile and infertile men can help in the elucidation of the molecular basis of male infertility. The aim of this study was to compare sperm proteomes from 3 different groups: fertile men, normozoospermic men consulting for infertility, and normozoospermic men with an impaired capacity for fertilization (IVF-failure). We used differential proteomics with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling, and LC-MS analysis to identify proteins that are differentially expressed. A total of 348 unique proteins were identified and quantified. The analysis identified 33 proteins that were differentially expressed in the IVF-failure group vs the fertile group. Comparison of the infertile and fertile groups revealed that 18 proteins appeared to be differentially expressed. Four proteins were similarly altered in the IVF-failure and infertile groups: semenogelin 1 (SEMG1), prolactin-induced protein (PIP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHS), and phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2). These protein markers were selected for validation using multiple reactions monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) and further confirmed by Western blot analysis. Overall, these results suggest that a panel of proteins may be used as biomarkers for future studies of infertility. PMID:25355644
Greil, Arthur L; Slauson-Blevins, Kathleen; McQuillan, Julia
About 10 years ago Greil published a review and critique of the literature on the socio-psychological impact of infertility. He found at the time that most scholars treated infertility as a medical condition with psychological consequences rather than as a socially constructed reality. This article examines research published since the last review. More studies now place infertility within larger social contexts and social scientific frameworks although clinical emphases persist. Methodological problems remain but important improvements are also evident. We identify two vigorous research traditions in the social scientific study of infertility. One tradition uses primarily quantitative techniques to study clinic patients in order to improve service delivery and to assess the need for psychological counselling. The other tradition uses primarily qualitative research to capture the experiences of infertile people in a sociocultural context. We conclude that more attention is now being paid to the ways in which the experience of infertility is shaped by social context. We call for continued progress in the development of a distinctly sociological approach to infertility and for the continued integration of the two research traditions identified here. PMID:20003036
Greil, Arthur L.; Slauson-Blevins, Kathleen; McQuillan, Julia
About 10 years ago Greil published a review and critique of the literature on the socio-psychological impact of infertility. He found at the time that most scholars treated infertility as a medical condition with psychological consequences rather than as a socially constructed reality. This article examines research published since the last review. More studies now place infertility within larger social contexts and social scientific frameworks although clinical emphases persist. Methodological problems remain but important improvements are also evident. We identify two vigorous research traditions in the social scientific study of infertility. One tradition uses primarily quantitative techniques to study clinic patients in order to improve service delivery and to assess the need for psychological counseling. The other tradition uses primarily qualitative research to capture the experiences of infertile people in a sociocultural context. We conclude that more attention is now being paid to the ways in which the experience of infertility is shaped by social context. We call for continued progress in the development of a distinctly sociological approach to infertility and for the continued integration of the two research traditions identified here. PMID:20003036
Kohan, Shahnaz; Ghasemi, Zahra; Beigi, Marjan
Background: Infertility is a serious problem in a couple's life that affects their marriage relationships. So, dissatisfaction with sexual function resulting from interpersonal problems is common among these couples. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of infertile women in their sexual life. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. The participants were 20 infertile women referring to the health care centers and infertility clinics of Isfahan and were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected by tape recording of deep interviews and analyzed by Colaizzi's method. Results: Analysis of the participants’ experiences led to five main concepts: “Disturbed in femininity-body image,” “discouragement of sexual relations,” “sacrifice of sexual pleasure for the sake of getting pregnant,” “confusion in sexual relation during infertility treatment,” and “striving to protect their marriage.” Conclusions: Findings revealed that infertility affects women's different aspects of sexual life, especially disturbance in femininity-body image and sexual reluctance. With regard to women's willingness to protect their matrimonial life and prevent sexual trauma as a destroying factor for their family's mental health, it seems sexual counseling is necessary for infertile couples. PMID:25709688
Slauson-Blevins, Kathleen S; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L
Using data from Wave 1 (2004-2006) of the National Survey of Fertility Barriers (NSFB), a national probability sample of women ages 25-45, we examine online information-seeking among ever-infertile women. Of the 1352 women who met criteria for infertility, 459 (34%) neither talked to a doctor nor went online for information, 9% went online only for information, 32% talked to a doctor but did not go online, and 25% did both. Guided by Chrisman's Health-Seeking Model and previous research on Internet use to obtain health information, we employ multinomial logistic regression to compare these four groups of ever-infertile women. Findings generally support Chrisman's model. Infertile women tend to seek information online as a complement to, rather than as a substitute for, in-person health-seeking. Greater faith in the ability of medical science to treat infertility and greater perceived stigma were associated with higher odds of using the Internet to obtain information about infertility. In general, women who perceived the symptoms of infertility as more salient had higher odds of using both online and in-person or only in-person health-seeking compared to online health-seeking. Women with greater resources had higher odds of using online sources of information. Strong network encouragement to seek treatment was associated with higher odds of in-person health-seeking and combining in-person and online health-seeking compared to only going online or doing nothing. PMID:24355477
Kawwass, Jennifer F.; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Session, Donna R.; Boulet, Sheree; Jamieson, Denise J.
OBJECTIVE To assess trends of tubal factor infertility and to evaluate risk of miscarriage and delivery of preterm or low birth weight (LBW) neonates among women with tubal factor infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS We assessed trends of tubal factor infertility among all fresh and frozen, donor, and nondonor ART cycles performed annually in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (N=1,418,774) using the National ART Surveillance System. The data set was then limited to fresh, nondonor in vitro fertilization cycles resulting in pregnancy to compare perinatal outcomes for cycles associated with tubal compared with male factor infertility. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses controlling for maternal characteristics and calculated adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The percentage of ART cycles associated with tubal factor infertility diagnoses decreased from 2000 to 2010 (26.02–14.81%). Compared with male factor infertility, tubal factor portended an increased risk of miscarriage (14.0% compared with 12.7%, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.12); risk was increased for both early and late miscarriage. Singleton neonates born to women with tubal factor infertility had an increased risk of pre-term birth (15.8% compared with 11.6%, adjusted RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20–1.34) and LBW (10.9% compared with 8.5%, adjusted RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36). Significant increases in risk persisted for early and late preterm delivery and very low and moderately LBW delivery. A significantly elevated risk was also detected for twin, but not triplet, pregnancies. CONCLUSION Tubal factor infertility, which is decreasing in prevalence in the United States, is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and LBW delivery as compared with couples with male factor infertility using ART. PMID:23812461
Christopher R Newton; Wendy Sherrard; Irene Glavac
Objective: To develop a reliable, valid instrument to evaluate perceived infertility-related stress.Design: Prospective study.Setting: University-affiliated teaching hospital.Patient(s): Consecutively referred patients (1,153 women and 1,149 men) seen for infertility treatment.Intervention(s): None.Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants’ infertility-related stress was assessed by written questionnaire using the Fertility Problem Inventory. Current levels of anxiety, depression, and marital satisfaction also were determined.Result(s): Women described greater global
Thacker, Stetson; Yadav, Satya P; Sharma, Rakesh K; Kashou, Anthony; Willard, Belinda; Zhang, Dongmei; Agarwal, Ashok
In this study, the sperm protein profile was compared between fertile and infertile men using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography mass spectrometer analysis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. Four unique proteins, semenogelin II precursor, prolactin-induced protein, clusterin isoform 1, and prostate-specific antigen isoform 1 preproprotein, were predominantly present in the semen of healthy men; however, semenogelin II precursor and clusterin isoform 1 were not seen in the semen of infertile men, suggesting unique differences in the spermatozoa protein profiles of fertile and infertile men. PMID:21536282
Bradley J. Van Voorhis; Amy E. T. Sparks; Brian D. Allen; Dale W. Stovall; Craig H. Syrop; F. K. Chapler
Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments.Design: Retrospective cohort study.Setting: Academic medical center infertility practice.Patient(s): All patients treated for infertility in a 1-year time span.Intervention(s): Intrauterine inseminations, clomiphene citrate and IUI (CC-IUI), hMG and IUI (hMG-IUI), assisted reproductive techniques (ART), and neosalpingostomy by laparotomy.Main Outcome Measure(s): All medical charges and pregnancy outcomes associated with the treatments were obtained. Cost-effectiveness
Mosalanejad, Leili; Parandavar, Nehle; Gholami, Morteza; Abdollahifard, Sareh
Background: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) provide the hope of pregnancy for infertile women, but do not always turn this hope into reality. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of infertile women from increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment. Materials and Methods: Using a qualitative research design (Phenomenology study), 23 subjects were selected who had experienced infertility failure visited by gynecologist (Rasekh Infertility center) in 2012. The data were collected through semi structured interviews and analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology by Collizi's seven-stage method. Results: Totally 96 codes were identified. The data arranged in two categories. The factors decreasing and increasing hope in infertility treatments. Totally 5 themes and 20 sub themes were extracted. The increasing factors which emerged from the data contain "spiritual source", "family interaction and support" and "information through the media", and decreasing factors contain "nature of treatments" and "negatively oriented mind". PMID:24799869
Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali
Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady) PMID:24799871
Chia, S E; Tay, S K
The aim of the study was to determine if certain occupations pose an increased risk for infertility (of no known cause) among a group of infertile men compared with a group of fertile men. A total of 640 consecutive men whose spouses were unable to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. Of these, 218 men (cases) were found to have no known cause for their infertility. A total of 227 men whose spouses were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. The Singapore Standard Occupational Classification was used to code the subjects' occupations. Semen parameters (density, total sperm counts, motility, viability, and normal morphology) in all of the cases were significantly poorer than those in the controls. The risk for infertility is associated with smoking adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.85 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91 to 4.24. Work, independently, is not a risk factor for infertility. Engineering technicians (adjusted OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.36 to 5.54), finance analysts (adjusted OR, 4.66; 95% CI, 1.90 to 11.40), corporate and computing managers (adjusted OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.98), and teachers (adjusted OR, 7.72; 95% CI, 1.86 to 32.10) were at a greater risk of infertility compared with "services and clerical workers." Using services and clerical workers as a reference group, certain occupations are at a higher risk for infertility. Higher work demands and possible electromagnetic field exposure could be contributory factors for infertility. PMID:11725334
... how the testicles work. Other problems are hormone imbalances or blockages in the male reproductive organs. In ... of men who are infertile. 6 A hormone imbalance or blockage of sperm movement can cause a ...
... Publications En Español Treatments for Infertility Resulting from PCOS Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... In most cases, fertility problems in women with PCOS result from the absence of ovulation (anovulation), but ...
Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000 Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility Research David Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...
Lopushnyan, Natalya A; Walsh, Thomas J
Evaluation and surgical treatment of male infertility has evolved and expanded, now leading to more precise diagnoses and tailored treatments with diminished morbidity and greater success. Surgeries for male infertility are divided into four major categories: (i) diagnostic surgery; (ii) surgery to improve sperm production; (iii) surgery to improve sperm delivery; and (iv) surgery to retrieve sperm for use with in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF–ICSI). While today we are more successful than ever in treating male infertility, pregnancy is still not always achieved likely due to factors that remain poorly understood. Clinicians treating infertility should advocate for couple-based therapy, and require that both partners have a thorough evaluation and an informed discussion before undergoing specific surgical therapies. PMID:22120932
Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Alabdrabalnabi, Abdullah A; Albacker, Rehab B; Al-Jughaiman, Umar A; Hassan, Samar N
Introduction Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1) to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2) to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic. Methods and materials We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results A generally poor level of knowledge (59%) and a neutral attitude (76%) toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%), black magic (67.5%), intrauterine devices (71.3%), and contraceptive pills (42.9%). The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001) or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001), if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003) and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001). Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6%) and fertile outpatients (71.5%). Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%), using alternative medicine (42%), engaging in physical exercise (39%), eating certain foods (22%), and quitting smoking (12%). Conclusion These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. PMID:23874117
Geetu Pahlajani; Tommaso Falcone
Endometriosis has been one of the most confusing gynecological diseases since it was first described. Whereas there is a reasonable\\u000a body of evidence in literature to demonstrate an association between endometriosis and infertility, a definite cause and effect\\u000a relationship has not been established. The mechanism by which endometriosis causes infertility remains an enigma. Virtually\\u000a every aspect of reproduction in women
Michelle P Lukse; Nicholas A Vacc
Objective: To identify the levels of grief and depression and the coping mechanisms of women with infertility problems who participated in in vitro fertilization (IVF) or ovulation-induction medication.Methods: Pretest and post-test data were obtained from 50 IVF and 50 ovulation-induction medication patients receiving treatment at two urban infertility centers.Results: Both groups of women experienced measurable levels of grief and depression
Polani B. Seshagiri
Infertility is a reproductive health problem that affects many couples in the human population. About 13–18% of couple suffers\\u000a from it and approximately one-half of all cases can be traced to either partner. Regardless of whether it is primary or secondary\\u000a infertility, affected couples suffer from enormous emotional and psychological trauma and it can constitute a major life crisis\\u000a in
Caterina De Carolis; Carlo Perricone; Roberto Perricone
Infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) are heterogeneous conditions that have been frequently explained with\\u000a an immunological pathomechanism. A deeper insight into apparently unexplained infertility and RSA shows increasing evidences\\u000a supporting both alloimmune and autoimmune mechanisms, in which natural killer (NK) cells and autoantibodies seem to play a\\u000a relevant role. Successful pregnancy is considered as Th1–Th2 cooperation phenomenon, with a
This document discusses the evaluation and management of varicoceles in the male partners of infertile couples, and presents the controversies and recommendations regarding this condition. This document replaces the ASRM Practice Committee document titled "Report on Varicocele and Infertility," last published in 2008, and was developed in conjunction with the Society for Male Reproduction and Urology (Fertil Steril 2008;90:S247-9). PMID:25458620
Zorrilla, Michelle; Yatsenko, Alexander N
Infertility is a relatively common health condition, affecting nearly 7% of all couples. Clinically, it is a highly heterogeneous pathology with a complex etiology that includes environmental and genetic factors. It has been estimated that nearly 50% of infertility cases are due to genetic defects. Hundreds of studies with animal knockout models convincingly showed infertility to be caused by gene defects, single or multiple. However, despite enormous efforts, progress in translating basic research findings into clinical studies has been challenging. The genetic causes remain unexplained for the vast majority of male or female infertility patients. A particular difficulty is the huge number of candidate genes to be studied; there are more than 2,300 genes expressed in the testis alone, and hundreds of those genes influence reproductive function in humans and could contribute to male infertility. At present, there are only a handful of genes or genetic defects that have been shown to cause, or to be strongly associated with, primary infertility. Yet, with completion of the human genome and progress in personalized medicine, the situation is rapidly changing. Indeed, there are 10-15 new gene tests, on average, being added to the clinical genetic testing list annually. PMID:24416713
Nirosha Lansakara; Ananda Rajitha Wickramasinghe; Harshalal Rukka Seneviratne
Primary infertility may have a considerable impact on the psychological well-being of women. In the present study, the authors investigated the psychological well-being and its correlates among Sri Lankan women with primary infertility. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were compared with 177 fertile women matched for age and duration of marriage to identify differences in the psychological
Joseph T. F. Lau; Qingsheng Wang; Yimin Cheng; Jean H. Kim; Xilin Yang; Hi Yi Tsui
An anonymous cross-sectional survey interviewed 192 infertile couples consulting a family planning clinic in rural China. Of them, over 30% believed that childless couples could not live well, 80% desired to have a child very badly, over 60% pressured themselves or spouse due to infertility, and over 50% felt pressured when having sex. Furthermore, 19.8% of men and 37.5% of
Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hosein; Aminian, Amir Hossein; Baghianimoghadam, Behnam; Ghasemi, Nasrin; Abdoli, Ali Mohammad; Seighal Ardakani, Najmeh; Fallahzadeh, Hosein
Background: Infertility is accompanied by numerous psychological and social problems. Infertile couples are more anxious and emotionally distressed than other fertile people. Previous studies suggested that infertility is more stressful for women than men. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the status of general health of infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated general health of 150 infertile couples attending to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility that were selected consequently. The data were gathered by the researchers, based on face to face interview before and after three months of treatment by two questionnaires. The first questionnaire had questions on demographic information and the second one was the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). This questionnaire has four sub- scales areas. All data were transferred directly to SPSS 15 and analyzed. Results: The mean age of women was 28.3 and men were 32.4 years. The scores for all sub- scales of GHQ in women were more than men. There was significant difference between age and general health at physical symptoms scales (p=0.002), anxiety and sleep disorders (p=0.003). The age group 25-29 years had higher scores (more than 7) than other age groups. There was significant difference between the scale of social dysfunction and results of treatment. Conclusion: Our results, similar to the previous studies have revealed negetive social and mental effects of infertility on women is more than men, so there is need that they be educated specially. PMID:24639785
Van Voorhis, B J; Syrop, C H
Although the evaluation of cost-effective approaches to infertility treatment remains in its infancy, several important principles have emerged from the initial studies in this field. Currently, in treating couples with infertility without tubal disease or severe male-factor infertility, the most cost-effective approach is to start with IUI or superovulation-IUI treatments before resorting to IVF procedures. The woman's age and number of sperm present for insemination are significant factors influencing cost-effectiveness. The influence of certain diagnoses on the cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments requires further study. Even when accounting for the costs associated with multiple gestations and premature deliveries, the cost of IVF decreases within the range of other cost-effective medical procedures and decreases to less than the willingness to pay for these procedures. Indeed, for patients with severe tubal disease, IVF has been found to be more cost-effective than surgical repair. The cost-effectiveness of IVF will likely improve as success rates show continued improvements over the course of time. In addition, usefulness of embryo selection and practices to reduce the likelihood of high-order multiple pregnancies, without reductions in pregnancy rates, will significantly impact cost-effectiveness. The exclusion of infertility treatments from insurance plans is unfortunate and accentuates the importance of physicians understanding the economics of infertility treatment with costs that are often passed directly to the patient. The erroneous economic policies and judgments that have led to inequities in access to infertility health care should not be tolerated. PMID:11100309
LARSEN, ULLA; HOLLOS, MARIDA; OBONO, OKA; WHITEHOUSE, BRUCE
This paper examines the experiences of women with infertility in two Nigerian communities with different systems of descent and historically different levels of infertility. First, the paper focuses on the life experiences of individual women across the two communities and second, it compares these experiences with those of their fertile counterparts, in each community. In doing this, women who are childless are distinguished from those with subfertility and compared with high-fertility women. The research is based on interdisciplinary research conducted among the Ijo and Yakurr people of southern Nigeria, which included a survey of approximately 100 childless and subfertile women and a matching sample of 100 fertile women as well as in-depth ethnographic interviews with childless and subfertile women in two communities: Amakiri in Delta State and Lopon in Cross River State. The findings indicate that while there are variations in the extent to which childlessness is considered to be problematic, the necessity for a woman to have a child remains basic in this region. PMID:20561392
Jung, Jae Hung
Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility and in 25% of cases, the etiology of male infertility is unknown. Effective treatments are well-established for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, male accessory gland infection, retrograde ejaculation, and positive antisperm antibody. However, the appropriate treatment for idiopathic male infertility is unclear. Empirical medical treatment (EMT) has been used in men with idiopathic infertility and can be divided into two categories based on the mode of action: hormonal treatment and antioxidant supplementation. Hormonal medications consist of gonadotropins, androgens, estrogen receptor blockers, and aromatase inhibitors. Antioxidants such as vitamins, zinc, and carnitines have also been widely used to reduce oxidative stress-induced spermatozoa damage. Although scientifically acceptable evidence of EMT is limited because of the lack of large, randomized, controlled studies, recent systematic reviews with meta-analyses have shown that the administration of gonadotropins, anti-estrogens, and oral antioxidants results in a significant increase in the live birth rate compared with control treatments. Therefore, all physicians who treat infertility should bear in mind that EMT can improve semen parameters and subsequent fertility potential through natural intercourse. PMID:25309854
Hou, Dongsheng; Zhou, Xia; Zhong, Xue; Settles, Matt; Herring, Jessica; Wang, Li; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Xu, Chen
Objective: To explore potential causes of male infertility by determining the composition and structure of commensal bacterial communities in seminal fluids. Design: Microscopy of gram stained semen samples and classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences to determine the species composition of semen bacterial communities. Setting(s): Clinical andrology laboratory and academic research laboratories. Patient(s): 19 sperm donors and 58 infertility patients. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustering of seminal microbial communities, and multiple statistical tests. Result(s): High numbers of diverse kinds of bacteria were present in most samples of both sperm donors and infertility patients. The bacterial communities varied widely between subjects, but they could be clustered into six groups based on similarities in composition and the rank abundances of taxa. Overall there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients. However, multiple statistical tests showed a significant negative association between sperm quality and the presence of Anaerococcus. The results also indicated that many of the bacterial taxa identified in semen also occur in the vaginal communities of some women, especially those with bacterial vaginosis, which suggests heterosexual sex partners may share bacteria. Conclusion(s): Diverse kinds of bacteria were present in the human semen, there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients, The presence of Anaerococcus might be a biomarker for low sperm quality. PMID:23993888
Gupta, Sajal; Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok
Endometriosis, PCOS, and unexplained infertility are currently the most common diseases rendering large numbers of women infertile worldwide. Oxidative stress, due to its deleterious effects on proteins and nucleic acids, is postulated to be the one of the important mechanistic pathways in differential expression of proteins and in these diseases. The emerging field of proteomics has allowed identification of proteins involved in cell cycle, as antioxidants, extracellular matrix (ECM), cytoskeleton, and their linkage to oxidative stress in female infertility related diseases. The aim of this paper is to assess the association of oxidative stress and protein expression in the reproductive microenvironments such as endometrial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and follicular fluid, as well as reproductive tissues and serum. The review also highlights the literature that proposes the use of the fertility related proteins as potential biomarkers for noninvasive and early diagnosis of the aforementioned diseases rather than utilizing the more invasive methods used currently. The review will highlight the power of proteomic profiles identified in infertility related disease conditions and their linkage with underlying oxidative stress. The power of proteomics will be reviewed with regard to eliciting molecular mechanisms for early detection and management of these infertility related conditions. PMID:24900998
Franco, Giorgio; Misuraca, Leonardo; Ciletti, Mario; Leonardo, Costantino; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Palminteri, Enzo; De Dominicis, Carlo
Surgery for male infertility includes three main areas: varicocele surgery, recanalization of seminal tract, sperm retrieval.Varicocele treatment in infertily is still controversial. Recent scientific evidence appears to demonstrate that in selected cases varicocele treatment is beneficial in improving semen parameters and pregnancy rate. The key for the success of treatment seems to be a correct indication. It is our opinion that varicocele should be treated in presence of abnormal semen parameters, when clinically significant, and in adolescents with atrophy of the affected testis. So far, no specific technique, either surgical, microsurgical or sclerotherapic, can be considered the gold standard. Good results in our hands have been obtained with the microsurgical lymphatic sparing high ligation of internal spermatic vein.Innovations in surgery for seminal tract obstructions include the new tubular invagination techniques for epididimovasostomy, which showed excellent results with a simplified and time-saving microsurgical approach. In distal obstructions, a new transperineal ultrasound-guided approach has been proposed for the diagnostic work-up and treatment. Advantages of this technique and of the TURED must be balanced with those of immediate sperm retrieval for ART.In sperm retrieval, microTESE represents the most important surgical evolution in non-obstructive azoospermia. We have recently proposed a new stepwise approach starting with a minimal equatorial incision for conventional testicular biopsy which is extended to perform microTESE only when no sperm is retrieved. In this way microTESE is offered only to patients who really need it. Another field of innovation is sperm retrieval for ICSI in patients with Klinefelter Syndrome. PMID:25214369
Peterson, Brennan D; Newton, Christopher R; Rosen, Karen H
Because studies examining the emotional impact of infertility-related stress generally focus on individuals, there has been little research examining how relationship and individual variables are linked. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of congruence (e.g., agreement) between partner's perceived infertility-related stress and its effects on depression and marital adjustment in infertile men and women. Couples referred for infertility treatments at a University-affiliated teaching hospital completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) 3 months prior to their first treatment cycle. Study findings show that men and women in couples who perceived equal levels of social infertility stress reported higher levels of marital adjustment when compared to men and women in couples who perceived the stress differently. In addition, women in couples who felt a similar need for parenthood reported significantly higher levels of marital satisfaction when compared to women in couples where the males reported a greater need for parenthood. While couple incongruence was unrelated to depression in males, incongruence over relationship concerns and the need for parenthood was related to female depression. These findings provide initial support for the theory that high levels of agreement between partners related to the stresses they experience help them successfully manage the impact of these stressful life events. Possibilities for future research examining the construct of couple congruence are discussed. PMID:12698599
Ammar, T; Sidhu, P S; Wilkins, C J
The investigation of male infertility is assuming greater importance, with male factors implicated as a causal factor in up to half of infertile couples. Following routine history, examination and blood tests, imaging is frequently utilised in order to assess the scrotal contents for testicular volume and morphology. Additionally, this may give indirect evidence of the presence of possible reversible pathology in the form of obstructive azoospermia. Further imaging in the form of transrectal ultrasound and MRI is then often able to categorise the level of obstruction and facilitate treatment planning without resort to more invasive imaging such as vasography. Ultrasound guidance of therapy such as sperm or cyst aspiration and vasal cannulation may also be performed. This article reviews the imaging modalities used in the investigation of male infertility, and illustrates normal and abnormal findings that may be demonstrated. PMID:22763036
Hammarberg, Karin; Kirkman, Maggie
It is often presumed that infertility is not a problem in resource-poor areas where fertility rates are high. This is challenged by consistent evidence that the consequences of childlessness are very severe in low-income countries, particularly for women. In these settings, childless women are frequently stigmatized, isolated, ostracized, disinherited and neglected by the family and local community. This may result in physical and psychological abuse, polygamy and even suicide. Attitudes among people in high-income countries towards provision of infertility care in low-income countries have mostly been either dismissive or indifferent as it is argued that scarce healthcare resources should be directed towards reducing fertility and restricting population growth. However, recognition of the plight of infertile couples in low-income settings is growing. One of the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals was for universal access to reproductive health care by 2015, and WHO has recommended that infertility be considered a global health problem and stated the need for adaptation of assisted reproductive technology in low-resource countries. This paper challenges the construct that infertility is not a serious problem in resource-constrained settings and argues that there is a need for infertility care, including affordable assisted reproduction treatment, in these settings. It is often presumed that infertility is not a problem in densely populated, resource-poor areas where fertility rates are high. This presumption is challenged by consistent evidence that the consequences of childlessness are very severe in low-income countries, particularly for women. In these settings, childless women are frequently stigmatized, isolated, ostracized, disinherited and neglected by the family and local community. This may result in physical and psychological abuse, polygamy and even suicide. Because many families in low-income countries depend on children for economic survival, childlessness and having fewer children than the number identified as appropriate are social and public health matters, not only medical problems. Attitudes among people in high-income countries towards provision of infertility care in low-income countries have mostly been either dismissive or indifferent as it is argued that scarce healthcare resources and family planning activities should be directed towards reducing fertility and restricting population growth. However, recognition of the plight of infertile couples in low-income settings is growing. One of the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals was for universal access to reproductive health care by 2015, and WHO has recommended that infertility be considered a global health problem and stated the need for adaptation of assisted reproduction technology in low-resource countries. In this paper, we challenge the construct that infertility is not a serious problem in resource-constrained settings and argue that there is a need for infertility care, including affordable assisted reproduction treatment, in these settings. PMID:23260034
Reinhardt, Klaus; Ribou, Anne-Cecile
Predicting infertility is central to reproductive biology, medicine and evolutionary biology. In-vitro studies suggest that oxidative sperm damage causes infertility. Oxidative sperm damage can be reduced via two fundamental pathways: the removal of oxygen radicals by antioxidants, or the interference with cell metabolism to reduce the formation of oxygen radicals. Oxidative damage protection of spermatozoa should evolve frequently, especially during female sperm storage. However, in-vivo evidence linking oxidative protection and fertility is rare. We show that the intra-sperm production rate of oxygen radicals and the sperm metabolic rate were reduced in female bedbugs, Cimex lectularius, compared to males, and females laid fertile eggs. Females became infertile when sperm oxygen radicals and sperm metabolic rate increased to male levels. Our results link female fitness to sublethal sperm damage, imply adaptive benefits of interfering with sperm metabolism and offer the hypothesis that polyandry may serve to replace low-quality sperm.
Aaron F. Ridenour; Jeremy B. Yorgason; Brennan Peterson
Resilience in couples experiencing infertility is critical to decrease the impact of infertility-related stress and sustain\\u000a positive interactions and collective perceptions in couples. The Infertility Resilience Model (IRM) presented in this article\\u000a provides a framework within which various individual, couple, and external factors that influence resilience can be understood.\\u000a Although numerous approaches have been applied to infertility, few of them
Marcia C. Inhorn
Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on average 8–12 percent of couples worldwide. In some societies, however—particularly those in the “infertility belt” of sub-Saharan Africa—as many as one-third of all couples are unable to conceive. Factors causing high rates of tubal infertility in parts of the developing world include sexually transmitted, postpartum, and postabortion infections; however, male infertility,
Khazaie, Yahya; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding single stranded RNA molecules that are physiologically produced in eukaryotic cells to regulate or mostly down-regulate genes by pairing with their complementary base-sequence in related mRNA molecules in the cytoplasm. It has been reported that other than its function in many physiological cell processes, dysregulation of miRNAs plays a role in the development of many diseases. In this short review, the association between miRNAs and some male reproductive disorders is surveyed. Male factor Infertility is a devastating problem from which a notable percentage of couples suffer. However, the molecular mechanism of many infertility disorders has not been clearly elucidated. Since miRNAs have an important role in numerous biological cell processes and cellular dysfunctions, it is of interest to review the related literature on the role of miRNAs in the male reproductive organs. Aberrant expression of specific miRNAs is associated with certain male reproductive dysfunctions. For this reason, assessment of expression of such miRNAs may serve as a suitable molecular biomarker for diagnosis of those male infertility disorders. The presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the miRNAs’ binding site in its targeted mRNA has been reported to have an association with idiopathic male infertility. Also, a relation with male infertility has been shown with SNP in the genes of the factors necessary for miRNA biogenesis. Therefore, focusing on the role of miRNAs in male reproductive disorders can further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of male infertility and generate the potential for locating efficient biomarkers and therapeutic agents for these disorders. PMID:25083174
Agarwal, Ashok; Hamada, Alaa; Esteves, Sandro C
In the modern era, contemporary management of male infertility has undergone groundbreaking changes with the introduction of new concepts, advanced testing, and therapeutic interventions. As practicing gynecologists are often the first physicians who encounter an infertile couple, it is essential that these clinicians are continuously updated about the new pearls and pitfalls of male infertility management. Semen analysis is commonly ordered by gynecologists. In 2010, the WHO released new cutoff reference values for the semen parameters adopting novel methodology, which has incited much debate. Reference values have been lowered in comparison with previous standards, with a direct clinical implication in decision-making strategies. Specialized sperm-function tests, such as sperm oxidative stress and sperm chromatin integrity assessments, became clinically available, thus offering an opportunity to better understand sperm dysfunctions concealed during routine semen analysis. Furthermore, the initial counseling of azoospermic men by an andrologically well educated gynecologist may alleviate the misconception and distress surrounding the false belief of sterility, and will clarify the available options of percutaneous and microsurgical sperm-retrieval techniques and assisted conception outcome. Regarding varicocele, which is commonly seen in infertile males, it is now clear that the best treatment option for infertile men with clinical varicocele is the microsurgical vein ligation. Natural conception is significantly improved after varicocelectomy, and recent data suggest that such treatment optimizes reproductive outcome of couples undergoing ICSI or micro-TESE sperm retrieval. Lastly, new therapeutic interventions, including oral antioxidant therapy and lifestyle modifications, have gained increasing attention, as they aid in alleviating male infertility. PMID:25883438
Almeamar, Hussein Ali; Ramachandran, Vasudevan; Ismail, Patimah; Nadkarni, Prashan; Fawzi, Nora
Complete deletions in the AZF (a, b, and c) sub-regions of the Y-chromosome have been shown to contribute to unexplained male infertility. However, the role of partial AZFc deletions in male infertility remains to be verified. Three types of partial AZFc deletions have been identified. They are gr/gr, b1/b3, and b2/b3 deletions. A recent meta-analysis showed that ethnic and geographical factors might contribute to the association of partial AZFc deletions with male infertility. This study analyzed the association of partial AZFc deletions in Malaysian infertile males. Fifty two oligozoospermic infertile males and 63 fertile controls were recruited to this study. Screening for partial AZFc deletions was done using the two sequence-tagged sites approach (SY1291 and SY1191) which were analyzed using both the conventional PCR gel-electrophoresis and the high resolution melt, HRM method. Gr/gr deletions were found in 11.53% of the cases and 9.52% of the controls (p?=?0.725). A B2/b3 deletion was found in one of the cases (p?=?0.269). No B1/b3 deletions were identified in this study. The results of HRM analysis were consistent with those obtained using the conventional PCR gel-electrophoresis method. The HRM analysis was highly repeatable (95% limit of agreement was -0.0879 to 0.0871 for SY1191 melting temperature readings). In conclusion, our study showed that partial AZFc deletions were not associated with male infertility in Malaysian subjects. HRM analysis was a reliable, repeatable, fast, cost-effective, and semi-automated method which can be used for screening of partial AZFc deletions. PMID:23231020
Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi; Yasemi, Masood; Peyman, Hadi; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Yaghoubi, Monireh; Bimanand, Lida
Objective: Sperm analysis is an important step to evaluate and diagnose male’s infertility. The present study aimed to determine associated factors with males’ infertility by using semen analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study 96 men were evaluated who attended to the infertility clinics of Ilam province, western Iran between May 2010 to May 2011. Semen analysis was done using the Weili Dynamic Sperm Analysis software adapted to the WHO classification. Based on movement and speed characters, sperms were classified to either A, B, C or D classes. Participants were stratified into two groups that called “Oligospermia (OS)” with sperm counts of less than 20 million in mL (n=48) and “Non-Oligospermia (NOS)” with values more than determined cutoff point (n=48). Results: The Mean age ±SD for OS and NOS group were 29.9 ±5.1 y and 31.17 ±5.24 y, respectively (p>0.05). Overall, 62.5% of OS and 31.2% of NOS were clinically infertile (OR=3.6, CI, 1.5-8.5, p=0.01). A significant difference was found between job and live ratio(A+B+C) in NOS group (F=2.8, p<0.05). Conclusion: Prevalence of infertility was higher in the OS men compared to the NOS group. The main risk factors in the OS group were History of Varicocele surgery and residence site of patients that are totally similar to the NOS men. Further case-control studies and clinical trials are recommended to recognize infertility causes in men. PMID:25386439
Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Parekattil, Sijo J
Use of the operative microscope marked a new era for microsurgery in male infertility and andrology in the 1970s. More than a decade has passed since the initial description of the first robotic-assisted microsurgical vasovasostomy. Large single-center series have recently been published on robotic-assisted microsurgery for vasectomy reversal, especially in the past few years. Multicenter studies are also beginning to be reported, and the potential for this new platform for microsurgery is starting to become more apparent. This article describes the basic technical details of robotic-assisted microsurgery in male infertility and andrology, and reviews the latest literature. PMID:25306167
Fidler, A T; Bernstein, J
The inability to conceive a child is most often viewed as a private matter, but public health perspectives and skills can contribute greatly to our knowledge about infertility, and the development of effective and rational public policy for prevention, access to health care, and regulation of new technologies. We offer a primer of public health aspects of infertility in an effort to encourage the broad spectrum of public health professionals to become more knowledgeable about these topics and join in the national debate about preventive strategies, cost-benefit assessment, resource allocation, and ethics. Images p494-a p495-a p499-a p506-a PMID:10670617
Hammerli, Katja; Znoj, Hansjorg; Berger, Thomas
Infertility is a stressful experience, yet little is known about the specific issues confronting infertile women. In the present study, researchers sought to identify themes important to infertile women and examine possible associations with mental health levels. Using qualitative content analysis, researchers analyzed the email messages of 57…
Katerina Lykeridou; Kleanthi Gourounti; Anna Deltsidou; Dimitrios Loutradis; Grigorios Vaslamatzis
Despite the great number of studies conducted to examine the impact of infertility on the psychological status of women undergoing infertility treatment, little is known about the psychological impact of infertility when it is due to male or female factors and its role in the cause of higher levels of anxiety and stress. The aim of this cross?sectional study was
Infertility in females is multifactorial in origin. Though hysterolaparoscopy is the gold-standard investigation, USG is usually the first-line investigation. MRI has expanded the usefulness of imaging in female infertility. This pictorial essay reviews the role of imaging in the evaluation of female infertility. PMID:21042438
Fernanda Polisseni; Eduardo A. Bambirra; Aroldo F. Camargos
Chronic endometritis has been related to infertility and recurrent abortion. It is usually asymptomatic, and the diagnosis is rarely clinically suspected. We performed a prospective study to evaluate both the role of diagnostic hysteroscopy in the detection of chronic endometritis in infertile patients and Chlamydia trachomatis is a potential etiologic factor. Fifty consecutive patients who sought treatment for infertility in
Kartik S. Jhaveri; Waseem Mazrani; Tanya P. Chawla; Rafiq Filobbos; Ants Toi; Keith Jarvi
Infertility is a common problem. The role of imaging in assisting clinical evaluation is discussed. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are first-line, noninvasive imaging techniques that provide accurate definition of anatomical causes of infertility. This affords an opportunity to deliver timely and appropriate treatment. This pictorial review illustrates normal imaging anatomy and various causes of male infertility, and focuses on
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
1 Estimation of the frequency of involuntary infertility on a nation-1 wide basis2 3 Running title remain infertile is challenging. Our aim was to describe the couple4 fecundity (in terms of frequency of involuntary infertility) among the general population living5 in France. METHODS: We used a current
Ikbkap/Elp1 Deficiency Causes Male Infertility by Disrupting Meiotic Progression Fu-Jung Lin1 Deficiency Causes Male Infertility by Disrupting Meiotic Progression. PLoS Genet 9(5): e1003516. doi:10 in developmental defects, including mental retardation in Trisomy 21, infertility, to name two . During
Fabio F Pasqualotto; Rakesh K Sharma; David R Nelson; Anthony J Thomas; Ashok Agarwal
Objective: To determine whether particular semen characteristics in various clinical diagnoses of infertility are associated with high oxidative stress and whether any group of infertile men is more likely to have high seminal oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in sperm physiological functions, but elevated levels of ROS or oxidative stress are related to male infertility.Design:
Myers, Lawrence C.
Revised 6/1/2011 Request for Infertility Treatment Expense Reimbursement Employee Name/Explanation: ______________________________________________________ #12;Revised 6/1/2011 Information about the Infertility Treatment Reimbursement Benefit: Description for fees incurred as a result of infertility treatments or services as follows: · Maximum reimbursement per
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Prolactin secretion in infertile men before and after treatment with bromocriptine D. BOUCHER J. This report studies prolactin secretion in infertile men and the effect of bro- mocriptine treatment. Twelve normal and 90 infertile men are studied. Prolactin, LH, FSH and testosterone are specifically
Porter, Nancy L.; Christopher, F. Scott
Discusses emotional problems related to infertility investigation and treatment. Reviews causes and treatment of infertility, coping patterns, and the role of counselors and family life educators in easing the crises of infertility and facilitating successful resolution of associated emotional problems. (JAC)
Gibson, Donna M.; Myers, Jane E.
The experience of infertility often results in multiple stresses and needs for coping in these women. Study examines the relationship between the uses of social coping resources, growth-fostering relationships, and infertility stress. Results support the use of social coping resources for coping with infertility stress. (Contains 62 references and…
BabyZone Getting Pregnant Infertility Late Fertility Fertile Future: Women May Become More Fertile Over Age 40 | BabyZone 14/05/2012http://www.babyzone.com/getting-pregnant/infertility/05/2012http://www.babyzone.com/getting-pregnant/infertility/peak-fertility-rate_67460 #12;Content provided
Ernestina S. Donkor; Jane Sandall
This research aimed to investigate the extent to which women in Southern Ghana seeking infertility treatment perceived themselves as stigmatised in order to investigate the relationship between perceived stigma and infertility-related stress. A survey was conducted using face-to-face interviews in three languages with 615 women receiving infertility treatment on three health sites in Southern Ghana. The majority (64%) of women
Gana, Kamel; Jakubowska, Sylwia
The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive effects of infertility-related stress on psychological distress and marital satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate a nonrecursive model hypothesizing the impact of infertility-related stress on both emotional distress and marital dissatisfaction, which were supposed to have a reciprocal influence on each other. The model was estimated using data from a sample of 150 infertile patients (78 males and 72 females). Findings confirmed the predictive effects of infertility-related stress on both emotional and marital distress. However, infertility-related stress was found to have more impact on emotional distress than on marital satisfaction. PMID:25139894
Legro, Richard S; Wu, Xiaoke
Clinical trials in infertility choose from a variety of outcomes including change in some surrogate marker of gamete quality to healthy live birth. Incomplete reporting of outcomes makes it difficult to compare studies and to determine the clinical impact of infertility treatments. In this Views and Reviews, we explore the merits of collecting various outcomes of interest in infertility trials from the vantage point of infertility specialists, an obstetrician, and a pediatrician. These articles support more complete reporting of maternal, paternal, fetal, and infant outcomes from infertility trials to improve patient care and ultimately public health. PMID:24786738
Thirteen patients with malabsorption, 7 women and 5 men, were investigated extensively. All showed low serum zinc concentrations irrespective of the duration of illness and degree of malabsorption. Eleven of the 13 had active coeliac disease. It was suspected that the low serum zinc concentrations reflected a state of zinc deficiency, and this theory was borne out by the fact that no inflammatory reaction, no clear-cut albumin deficiency, and no oestrogen or corticosteroid influence could be demonstrated. All 7 women suffered from infertility, in most of them of long standing. Two showed secondary infertility after pregnancy and abnormal labour resulting in infants with congenital malformations (one case of bilateral congenital dislocation of the hip and one of multiple cardiac anomalies). I have reported similar complications in pregnancies in which the serum zinc was low. One of the infertile women conceived after the institution of gluten-free diet and zinc therapy, but later aborted spontaneously. Investigations on zinc metabolism and intestinal absorption might well prove valuable in otherwise unexplained infertility and could open up a new therapeutic approach. PMID:1067747
Burnett, Judith A.
Infertility creates challenges affecting various aspects of couples' intimate lives. Practices regarding reproduction are often shaped by cultural messages. Culturally sensitive treatment methods help counselors provide effective therapy to couples with fertility problems. This article describes cultural influences, challenges, and counseling…
Chalva Tchovelidze; Joseph Tritto; Thierry Guetta
Between 1990 and 2002, 179 varicocele patients, of which had bilateral varicocele, were consulted for infertility in the Urology and Andrology Department of the Saint Antoine and Tenon hospitals. The varicocele cases have been classified into four different grades. Its definition was based on the examination, palpation, the Valsalva procedure, Ultrasonography, color doppler examination and surgical operation data. In this
F. Akbari Asbagh; A. Sina; H. Najmabadi; M. T. Akbari; A. Tabarroki
This study was designed to determine the frequency of Y chromosome AZF (Azoospermia Factor ) subregions, microdeletions in patients with idiopathic nonobstructive azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia. Subjects included 40 men who had been referred to infertility clinics for assisted reproduction, 37 were azoospermic and 3 had severe oligospermia. Medical history and physical exam revealed no evidence of infection, obstruction of
Ko, Edmund Y; Sabanegh, Edmund S; Agarwal, Ashok
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an integral component of sperm developmental physiology, capacitation, and function. Elevated ROS levels, from processes such as infection or inflammation, can be associated with aberrations of sperm development, function, and fertilizing capacity. We review the impact of ROS on sperm physiology, its place in infertility evaluation, the implications for reproductive outcomes, and antioxidant therapy. Our systematic review of PubMed literature from the last 3 decades focuses on the physiology and etiology of ROS and oxidative stress (OS), evaluation of ROS, and antioxidants. ROS is normally produced physiologically and is used to maintain cellular processes such as sperm maturation, capacitation, and sperm-oocyte interaction. When ROS production exceeds the buffering capacity of antioxidants, OS occurs and can have a negative impact on sperm and fertility. ROS and antioxidant capacity testing can potentially add additional prognostic information to standard laboratory testing for the infertile male, although its role as standard part of an evaluation has yet to be determined. Elevated ROS levels have been implicated with abnormal semen parameters and male infertility, but the impact of ROS on fertilization rates and pregnancy is controversial. This is partly because of the lack of consensus on what type of patients may be suitable for ROS testing and assay standardization. Routine ROS testing for the infertile male is not currently recommended. PMID:25458618
Schneider, Myra G; Forthofer, Melinda S
This study investigated psychosocial factors thought to be associated with perceived stress over the course of infertility treatment. The research was based on secondary analysis of data from the Study of Marriage, Family, and Life Quality with a sample of 128 people who completed an infertility-related stress instrument at all three measurement intervals (1988, 1999, and 1990). Self-esteem and perceived health were associated with stress at the study baseline, importance of a biological family and extent of spousal support associated with stress at the 12-month follow-up, and factors pertaining to infertility treatment (number of treatments, relationship with physicians) associated with stress at the 24-month follow-up. Self-esteem was the only psychosocial factor associated with change in stress over the course of treatment. Social workers and health care professionals should be sensitive to the emotional experiences of couples during infertility treatment. Identifying factors explaining stress, or that may be targets for intervention, has significance for social workers in health care and other settings. PMID:16190294
Volker Thomas; Deidra T. Rausch
This study presents preliminary findings evaluating the relationship between marital cohesion, pregnancy outcome, and gender and the level of stress and depression experienced by individuals pursuing infertility treatment. Women exhibited more stress and depression than men prior to treatment did, yet the level of change (pre-post) in depression and stress after treatment did not differ by gender. Pregnancy outcome helped
Gerrity, Deborah A.
Explores the marital happiness, state/trait anxiety, coping techniques, and types of support received for a national sample of men and women experiencing the infertility medical process. Suggests that counselors should be aware that medical treatment affects the distress level of the individual and couple and the types of coping used. Further…
Kodandapani, Sreelakshmi; Pai, Muralidhar V; Nambiar, Jayaraman; Moka, Rajshekar
Genetic aberrations comprise one-third of women with premature ovarian aging (POA). X chromosome abnormalities are seen in these women. We report a case of a 29-year-old lady with primary infertility and POA. She was phenotypically normal and her basal follicle stimulating hormone level was above the age-specific cut-off. Karyotype was triple X syndrome. PMID:22346085
Pront, R; Margalioth, E J; Green, R; Eldar-Geva, T; Maimoni, Z; Zimran, A; Elstein, D
A high prevalence of low levels of cobalamin had been found in a survey of multi-ethnic normal individuals in Israel. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of cobalamin deficiency among Israeli couples suffering from infertility. All couples seen at the in vitro fertilization clinic at an urban hospital (Shaare Zedek Medical Center) in Jerusalem for a 6-month period were invited. Mean cobalamin levels were 259.2 pg ml(-1) in males and 275.1 pg ml(-1) in females (normal >200 pg ml(-1)), 35.5% of 172 men and 23.3% of 223 females had cobalamin deficiency (P = 0.01). There were 171 couples with complete demographic questionnaires and cobalamin values for each partner. In 74 couples (43.3%), one partner was cobalamin deficient, with no significant difference between those with unexplained infertility versus those with explained infertility; and in 13 couples, both partners were cobalamin deficient. Thirty-nine per cent of all men with an abnormal semen analysis had cobalamin deficiency, a finding that requires further investigation. This study questions whether higher rates of male infertility in Israel are partially ascribable to cobalamin deficiency. Recommendation for supplementation in both males and females to achieve high-normal levels of cobalamin would be prudent. PMID:19143730
Burnett, Judith A.; Panchal, Krishna
This article describes the influence of ideological values on couples' experience of infertility. Contextual issues are considered in terms of how they influence medical decision making as well as emotional factors. Strength-based counseling interventions that attend to couples' diverse values are described. Last, implications for counselors,…
Mohd Ismail Bin Mohd Tambi; M. Kamarul Imran
This study investigated the effect of treatment with the proprietary standardized, water-soluble extract of the root of the Malaysian plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, which is thought to enhance male fertility with regard to higher semen volumes, sperm concentrations, the percentage of normal sperm morphology and sperm motility in male partners of sub-fertile couples with idiopathic infertility. A total of 350
Gibson, Donna M.; Myers, Jane E.
The Relational Model (J. V. Jordan, 1995) of women's development is a theory that explains women's development in a context of relationships, specifically relationships that promote growth for self and others. This model is applied to counseling women who are experiencing infertility, and a case presentation is provided to illustrate the approach.…
Katherine Peoquin; Marie-France Lafontaine
Infertility is a major stressor for many couples. Although several reviews addressing psychological distress and depression within infertile couples exist, less emphasis has been placed on infertility-related anxiety. Yet it is important to know whether clinical anxiety is a prevalent problem among infertile couples and what are the characteristics of those suffering from clinical anxiety. The present article summarizes the
Murto, T; Skoog Svanberg, A; Yngve, A; Nilsson, T K; Altmäe, S; Wånggren, K; Salumets, A; Stavreus-Evers, A
Folic acid supplements are commonly used by infertile women which leads to a positive folate status. However, the effect of folic acid supplements on pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility has not been well investigated. This study evaluated folic acid supplement use and folate status in women with unexplained infertility in relation to IVF pregnancy outcome. In addition, use of folic acid supplements and folate status were compared between women with unexplained infertility and fertile, nonpregnant control women. Women with unexplained infertility used significantly more folic acid supplements and had higher median total folic acid intake from supplements compared with fertile control women (both P < 0.001). Women with unexplained infertility also had significantly higher median plasma folate and lower median plasma homocysteine concentrations than fertile women (both P < 0.001), but folic acid supplementation or folate status were not related to pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility. In conclusion, folic acid supplementation or good folate status did not have a positive effect on pregnancy outcome following infertility treatment in women with unexplained infertility. Folate is one of the B vitamins which has been suggested to be related to infertility. Folic acid is an artificial form of folate which is commonly used in dietary supplements. Folic acid supplementation has been shown to increase folate concentrations and decrease concentrations of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood. Folic acid supplementation is commonly used by infertile women, but the effect on pregnancy outcome in women with a diagnosis of unexplained infertility has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, folic acid supplement use and folate status (concentrations of folate and homocysteine) in women with unexplained infertility were evaluated in relation to pregnancy outcome. In addition, the use of folic acid supplements and folate status were compared between women with unexplained infertility and fertile control women. Our results showed that women with unexplained infertility used considerably more folic acid supplements and had higher total folic acid intake from supplements compared with fertile control women. Women with unexplained infertility had better blood folate and homocysteine concentrations than fertile women, but folic acid supplementation or folate status were not related to pregnancy outcome following the infertility treatment. In conclusion, high folic acid intake or good folate status did not increase the possibility of a birth of a healthy baby after infertility treatment in women with unexplained infertility. PMID:24745837
Background Awareness of infertility risk factors is an essential first step to safeguard future fertility. Whereas several studies have examined university students’ awareness of female fertility and related risk factors, the topic of male infertility has not been well examined. The objective of this study was to assess young men and women’s awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, male and female infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2008 with a multi-ethnic sample of sixteen male and twenty-three female Ottawa university students, followed by qualitative data analysis to identify major themes. Interview topics included awareness of male and female infertility risk factors, infertility diagnosis/treatments and personal options in the event of future infertility. Results Participants were generally familiar with infertility as a biomedical health problem, could identify sex-specific risk factors but overestimated fertility of women in their thirties and ART success rates. Reproductive health knowledge gaps and confusion of the physiological life-stage of menopause with infertility were apparent. Most participants would pursue in vitro fertilization or international adoption in the event of personal infertility. Some participants wished to use a ‘natural’ approach and were concerned with potential side effects of ART-related medications. Conclusions The general awareness of infertility in young adults is promising and supports the potential uptake for health promotion of fertility preservation. This study underscores the continued need for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education and promotion for adolescents and young adults. PMID:23962162
Donkor, Ernestina S; Sandall, Jane
This research aimed to investigate the extent to which women in Southern Ghana seeking infertility treatment perceived themselves as stigmatised in order to investigate the relationship between perceived stigma and infertility-related stress. A survey was conducted using face-to-face interviews in three languages with 615 women receiving infertility treatment on three health sites in Southern Ghana. The majority (64%) of women in this sample felt stigmatised. Sequential multiple regression analyses indicated that higher levels of perceived stigma were associated with increased infertility-related stress. Also women with higher levels of education felt less infertility-related stress. The presence of an existing child/children, the number of years spent in infertility treatment and the type of marriage (monogamous/polygamous union) were less important in predicting stress. The findings suggest that the social status of infertile women derived from other factors can be of importance in minimising the impact of stigmatisation and stress related to infertility. These findings highlight the wider beneficial effects of improved educational opportunities for girls and women. PMID:17673344
Fatemi, Azadeh S; Younesi, Seyed Jalal; Azkhosh, Manouchehr; Askari, Ali
This study aims to compare dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment in infertile employed and unemployed females. Due to the stresses of infertility, infertile females are faced with a variety of sexual and psychological problems, as well as dysfunctional attitudes that can lead to depression. Moreover, infertility problems provoke women into maladjustment and inadvertent corruption of relationships. In this regard, our goal is to consider the effects of employment in conjunction with education on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment among infertile women in Iran. In this work, we employed the survey method. We recruited 240 infertile women, utilizing the cluster random sampling method. These women filled out the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and the social adjustment part of the California Test of Personality. Next, multivariate analysis of variance was performed to test the relationship of employment status and education with dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. Our results indicated that dysfunctional attitudes were far more prevalent in infertile unemployed women than in infertile employed women. Also, social adjustment was better in infertile employed women than in infertile unemployed women. It was shown that education level alone does not have significant effect on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. However, we demonstrated that the employment status of infertile women in conjunction with their education level significantly affects the two dimensions of dysfunctional attitudes (relationships, entitlements) and has insignificant effects on social adjustment. It was revealed that in employed infertile women in Iran, the higher education level, the less dysfunctional were attitudes in relationships and entitlements, whereas in unemployed infertile women, those with a college degree had the least and those with master's or higher degrees had the most dysfunctional attitudes in terms of relationships and entitlements. PMID:22043894
Seshadri, S; Khalil, M; Osman, A; Clough, A; Jayaprakasan, K; Khalaf, Y
Saline infusion sonography (SIS) has become a valuable diagnostic modality in gynaecology over the last three decades. SIS is now commonly employed for detailed evaluation of the uterine cavity as part of pre-treatment assessment in infertile women. The objective of this paper is review the scientific literature on SIS in infertility. Medline, Ovid and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant articles. The indications, technical aspects and the potential advantages of SIS are discussed. The efficacy and sensitivity of SIS are compared to hysteroscopy in the evaluation of uterine polyps, fibroids, intrauterine adhesions and uterine anomalies. Increasing evidence suggests the use of SIS prior to an in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle as it has increased sensitivity in the detection of intrauterine pathology. SIS is cost-effective and results in better patient satisfaction scores than hysteroscopy. PMID:25528732
Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Dey, Biswajit; Raj, Vikram G; Arora, Prerna
Background Cellular angiofibroma, first described in 1997, is known to occur in both genders with equal predilection occurring in middle aged females and older males. Case Presentation In this study, a case of vaginal cellular angiofibroma was reported in a 30 year old female presenting with secondary infertility. The case was diagnosed based on morphology and immunohistochemistry and was treated surgically. The interesting feature of the case was the rarity of its incidence at the vagina and its resemblance to other benign and more aggressive tumours in the same site. Conclusion Cellular angiofibromas are benign tumours, which rarely occur in vagina. Although middle aged females are affected more, cellular angiofibromas can affect females of reproductive age group and can cause secondary infertility. These tu-mours need to be distinguished from other benign tumours and aggressive tumours occurring in the same site. PMID:25202676
Andrade-Rocha, Fernando Tadeu
Seminal vesiculitis is generally not investigated in infertile men, since it is uncommon and often nonspecific in signs and symptoms. In this article, the author reports an unusual presentation of seminal vesiculitis, incidentally diagnosed in a man referred for semen analysis to investigate infertility. Analyses of physical properties of the ejaculate (coagulation, liquefaction, volume, viscosity and pH) and of biochemical markers of the prostate (total calcium and zinc) and seminal vesicle (fructose and inorganic phosphorus) detected a dysfunction of the seminal vesicles that was subsequently diagnosed as vesiculitis using transrectal ultrasound. After treatment with a single 500-mg dose of oral ciprofloxacin, the patient was referred again for semen analysis. The analysis showed considerable improvement of the seminal vesicle function. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:18163927
Knops, Johannes M H
The paradigm in prairie ecology is that fire is one of the key factors determining vegetation composition. Fire can impact grassland ecosystems in various ways, including changing plant species composition and inducing nitrogen loss. I found that 17 years of different burning frequencies in infertile grassland had only a minor impact on the vegetation composition and diversity. The only major impact from increasing the frequency of fires was a decrease of Poa pratensis abundance. However, other plant species did not respond to the change in Poa abundance. This result contrasts with previous studies in savannas and more productive grasslands, where the balance between trees, grasses, and the elimination of the litter layer can result in large vegetation changes. However, in this system primary productivity was low, litter did not accumulate and no major vegetation shifts occurred. Thus, the long-term vegetation impacts of burning in an infertile, low-productivity prairie were minimal. PMID:16941181
Fadhlaoui, Anis; Bouquet de la Jolinière, Jean; Feki, Anis
Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial-like tissue (glands or stroma) outside the uterus, which induces a chronic inflammatory reaction. Although endometriosis impairs fertility, it does not usually completely prevent conception. The question of evidence based-medicine guidelines in endometriosis-associated infertility is weak in many situations. Therefore, we will highlight in this issue where the challenges are. PMID:25593948
Minden B. Sexton; Michelle R. Byrd; William T. O’Donohue; Negar Nicole Jacobs
Infertility has been associated with stigma and negative psychosocial functioning. However, only a small proportion of this\\u000a population actually receives care. Fertility patients predominantly use the Internet for information gathering, social support,\\u000a and assistance with decision-making; yet, available web resources are unreliable sources of mental health care. Web-based\\u000a alternatives also have the potential to assist with intervention access difficulties and
Tara M. Cousineau; Traci C. Green; Evelyn Corsini; A Seibring; Marianne T. Showstack; Linda Applegarth; Marie Davidson; Mark Perloe
BACKGROUND: The study goal was to develop and test the effectiveness of a brief online education and support program for female infertility patients. METHODS: A randomized-controlled trial was conducted. Using a Solomon-four group design, 190 female patients were recruited from three US fertility centers and were randomized into two experimental and two no-treatment control groups. The psychological outcomes assessed included
Paula W. Link; Carol A. Darling
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived life, marital, and sexual satisfaction of married couples undergoing treatment for infertility. A survey research design was utilized involving the responses of 4.3 husband-wife pairs. The findings indicated that wives had a significantly lower level of satisfaction with life than their husbands and that there were significant relationships between husband-wife
Yousef Boobes; Bassam Bernieh; Hussein Saadi; M. Raafat Al Hakim; Samra Abouchacra
Sirolimus is an immunosupressor of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I) group. Recent studies have emphasized\\u000a a potential impact of sirolimus on male gonadal function. We report our clinical experience with sirolimus-induced gonadal\\u000a dysfunction and infertility in both male and female kidney transplant patients. Of the 170 kidney transplant patients, nine\\u000a (5.3%) patients (six males and three females) were
Fadhlaoui, Anis; Bouquet de la Jolinière, Jean; Feki, Anis
Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial-like tissue (glands or stroma) outside the uterus, which induces a chronic inflammatory reaction. Although endometriosis impairs fertility, it does not usually completely prevent conception. The question of evidence based-medicine guidelines in endometriosis-associated infertility is weak in many situations. Therefore, we will highlight in this issue where the challenges are. PMID:25593948
Mohamed R. El-Dakhly; Gamil A. Tawadrous; Taymour Mostafa; Mohamed M. F. Roaia; Abdel R. M. El-Nashar; Shedeed A. Shedeed; Ihab I. Kamel; Amal A. Aziz; Yasser El-Mohtaseb
Aim:To assess laminin levels in the seminal plasma of infertile and fertile men, and to analyze the correlation of laminin levels with sperm count, age, sperm motility and semen volume.Methods:One hundred and twenty-five recruited men were equally divided into five groups according to their sperm concentration and clinical examination: fertile normozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), obstructive azoospermia (OA) and congenital
Fakhr, M; Abou-salem, A M; El Sayed, L; El Hakim, S; El Sokkary, M B; El Sokkary, F
The present study was carried out to assess the ovarian structure in cases of primary infertility (PI), and secondary infertility (SI). 40 patients were selected from the infertility clinic of Al Azhar University hospital from those suspected to have ovarian abnormalities with history of amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea or those having enlarged ovaries on pelvic examination. Their ages ranged from 17 to 40 years; their husbands were generally in good health and fertile. 28 were suffering from PI and 12 from SI. Ovarian biopsy was taken in 20 patients by laparoscopic technique and 20 patients by wedge resection. At the same time endometrial biopsy was taken with a specimen of cervical mucus and vaginal cells to detect the presence or absence of ovulation. Evidence of recent ovulation was present in 57.1% of the cases of PI and 50% of the cases of SI. However, the ovarian structure was abnormal in 92.9% of the cases of PI and 83.3% of the cases of SI. Polycystic ovary was present in 71.4% of PI cases and in 58.3% of SI cases and was considered the most common ovarian abnormality in both groups, followed by sclerotic ovary, which was detected in 14.3% of PI cases and no SI cases. Other findings in both groups included tubo-ovarian abscess, ovarian fibroma and a serous cystadenoma. PMID:12295113
Baklouti-Gargouri, Siwar; Ghorbel, Myriam; Ben Mahmoud, Afif; Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Cherif, Meriam; Chakroun, Nozha; Sellami, Afifa; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Ammar-Keskes, Leila
In this study we performed a systematic sequence analysis of 6 mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome oxidase II, cytochrome oxidase III, adenosine triphosphate synthase6, ATP synthase8, and cytochrome b] in 66 infertile men suffering from asthenospermia (n=34) in comparison to normospermic infertile men (n=32) and fertile men (n=100) from Tunisian population. A total of 72 nucleotide substitutions in blood cells mitochondrial DNA were found; 63 of them were previously identified and reported in the human mitochondrial DNA database ( www.mitomap.org ) and 9 were novel. We also detected in 3 asthenospermic patients a novel heteroplasmic missense mitochondrial mutation (m.9387 G>A) in COXIII gene (8.8%) that was not found in any of normospermic infertile and fertile men. This mutation substituting the valine at position 61 to methionine in a conserved amino acid in the transmembrane functional domain of the polypeptide, induces a reduction of the hydropathy index (from +1.225 to +1.100) and a decrease of the protein 3D structures number (from 39 to 32) as shown by PolyPhen bioinformatic program. PMID:23645088
Trompoukis, C; Kalaitzis, C; Giannakopoulos, S; Sofikitis, N; Touloupidis, S
Aristotle (384-322bc) was one of the leading intellectual figures of all time. In his work he systematised a massive amount of knowledge on a diverse range of subjects, including medicine. This article discusses the observations and hypotheses of this great philosopher on semen and infertility, as they are presented in his work Generation of Animals. This is combined with an evaluation of his positions in relation to those of the Hippocratic Corpus on the same subject. An extensive review of Aristotle's work Generation of Animals was performed with particular focus on his perspectives about semen and infertility. Publications referring to this work were also reviewed. According to Aristotle, semen is that which contains the principles that come from both parents when they unite. He believed that semen was formed by the secretion of nutriments by the body, developing his theories of sterility on this basic principle. A lack of fertility is attributed to genetic or acquired causes. He proposed methods for diagnosing sterility, primarily the 'water test' for men and the 'pessary' method for women. Even if his observations contain clear mistakes, such as attributing only secondary functions to male testicles and the identification of menses as women's 'seed', Aristotle's views also contain keen observations and exceptional thinking, both on the characteristics of semen and the causes of sterility (infertility). PMID:17212808
Sahaj, D A; Smith, C K; Kimmel, K L; Houseknecht, R A; Hewes, R A; Meyer, B E; Leduc, L B; Danforth, A
Increasing attention in the literature has focused on the relationship between psychosocial factors and infertility. This study presents a psychosocial profile of infertile couples over a two-year period. During this period, psychosocial data including life change, social support, and personality traits were obtained prospectively from 134 individuals participating in the In Vitro Fertilization Program of the Jones Institute of Reproductive Medicine at the Eastern Virginia Medical School. Instruments utilized included the Life Experiences Survey, the Family APGAR, the Friends APGAR, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, and the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Despite the presumed adverse psychological influence of their infertility, Life Experience Survey scores for both men and women did not differ significantly from normative data. Family APGAR scores indicated a high degree of satisfaction with family function. Friends APGAR scores were somewhat lower than normative data. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, a measure of perception regarding factors influencing health outcomes, was unremarkable. The Eysenck Personality Inventory revealed a lower score on the neuroticism scale for the men. These psychosocial results were surprisingly normal. PMID:3171491
Introduction Intrauterine fetal bone retention is a rare complication and the bony fragments probably work like an intrauterine contraceptive device resulting in secondary infertility. Among the scarcely reported cases in the literature, there was no report described the retention of a large number of fetal bones with nearly intact morphology. Case presentation The present report described an unusual case of fetal bone retention in a 30-year-old infertile Chinese woman who had a surgical termination of a 15-week pregnancy 9 years ago. The routine B-ultrasound diagnosed intrauterine foreign bodies. A hysteroscopy was performed which showed a large number of intrauterine bony fragments, with clear fetal skeletal outline and intact morphology. The detected residual fetal bones were removed under hysteroscopy, assisted by B-ultrasound scanning. The patient was pregnant 5 months later. The present case confirms the importance of routine examination of the intactness of the fetus after abortion, particularly when it happens in pregnancies of more than 12 weeks. Once diagnosed, the detected residual fetal bones should be removed by surgery, mainly under hysteroscopy. Conclusions The retention of fetal bone may cause infertility, and removal of the residual bone may restore fertility. The improvement in hysteroscopy made it feasible to diagnose and remove the bones. The present case highlights the importance of examining the intactness of the removed fetus. PMID:24898732
Brackett, Nancy L; Lynne, Charles M; Ibrahim, Emad; Ohl, Dana A; Sønksen, Jens
Most men with spinal cord injury (SCI) are infertile. Erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities contribute to the problem. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernous injections of alprostadil, penile prostheses, and vacuum constriction devices. In anejaculatory patients who wish to father children, semen retrieval is necessary. Penile vibratory stimulation is recommended as the first line of treatment. Patients who fail penile vibratory stimulation can be referred for electroejaculation. If this approach is not possible, prostate massage is an alternative. Surgical sperm retrieval should be considered as a last resort when other methods fail. Most men with SCI have a unique semen profile characterized by normal sperm count but abnormally low sperm motility. Scientific investigations indicate that accessory gland dysfunction and abnormal semen constituents contribute to the problem. Despite abnormalities, sperm from men with SCI can successfully induce pregnancy. In selected couples, the simple method of intravaginal insemination is a viable option. Another option is intrauterine insemination. The efficacy of intrauterine insemination increases as the total motile sperm count inseminated increases. In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are options in cases of extremely low total motile sperm count. Reproductive outcomes for SCI male factor infertility are similar to outcomes for general male factor infertility. PMID:20157304
Gao, Mingxia; Li, Bin; Yuan, Wenzhen; Zhao, Lihui; Zhang, Xuehong
It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk linked with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs offers the basic elements for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been justified whether the bad effects are directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or trans-genesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations have tested the safety of GMFs including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could be potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs. PMID:25342149
Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Allan, Helen T; Smith, Pam A
The study reported in this paper explores how infertile women cope with infertility using their religious and spiritual beliefs. In total, 30 infertile women affiliated to different denominations of Christianity and Islam were interviewed in the UK and Iranian fertility clinics using grounded theory. The categories which emerged included governing ones' 'Self' through gaining control of emotions, adopting religious coping strategies, and handling the burden of infertility peacefully, which all related to the core category of 'relying on a higher being'. We argue that infertile women employ a variety of religious and spiritual coping strategies which are associated with adaptive health outcomes. Further scientific inquiry is required to investigate how religion and spirituality promote adaptation to infertility. PMID:24869428
Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh; Malek Mansour Aghssa; Nasrin Abedinia; Farid Zayeri; Navid Khanafshar; Mamak Shariat; Mina Jafarabadi
BACKGROUND: A cross sectional study was designed to survey the relationship between anxiety\\/depression and duration\\/cause of infertility, in Vali-e-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: After obtaining their consents, 370 female patients with different infertility causes participated in, and data gathered by Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) and Cattle questionnaires for surveying anxiety and depression due to the duration of infertility.
Maeve Dooley; Aonghus Nolan; K. M. Sarma
This study investigated the subjective experiences of males attending a fertility treatment unit due to male factor infertility (MFI). In particular, the study aimed to explore how infertile males construe their infertility and how this impacts on their psychological well-being. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine males and analysed using grounded theory. Three inter-dependent themes were identified: (1) Impact to
Marianne Amir; Netta Horesh; Tami Lin-Stein
The moderating effects of two psychological resources—attachment style and perceived social support—on adjustment were studied in 109 infertile women, examining the effects of duration of infertility and of primary (the woman has no child of her own) versus secondary (the woman already has a child of her own) infertility. Subjects were administered questionnaires measuring marital adjustment, psychological distress, and well-being.
Antonia Abbey; Frank M. Andrews; L. Jill Halman
There is a large literature that demonstrates that infertility has a variety of negative effects on women’s and men’s well-being, but little is known about the impact of becoming a parent. The effects of parenthood were examined in a longitudinal study with both wives and husbands from 174 infertile couples and a comparison group of 74 presumed fertile couples. Infertile
Hall, J; Fishel, S
The first observation that in vitro fertilization (IVF) was useful for treating oligozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia was reported by Fishel and Edwards in 1982. This was followed by a series of cases indicating the value of IVF in such cases. Conventional IVF has been modified and refined to achieve increased rates of conception in cases of male factor infertility. Methods such as high insemination concentration IVF for the treatment of teratozoospermia and microscopic IVF for the treatment of oligozoospermia have had some impact on fertilization and pregnancy rates; however, reports of success are varied. The recent advent of micromanipulation and, in particular, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has overshadowed the use of these modified IVF procedures. Because of the high fertilization and pregnancy rates achieved with ICSI, other micromanipulation techniques (subzonal insemination and partial zona dissection) have been abandoned; there have also been suggestions that other more conventional techniques, i.e. IVF, should also be abandoned and that ICSI become the sole technique for the treatment of infertility. The rapid increase in the number of centres using ICSI has led to extreme pressure for individual units to achieve high fertilization and pregnancy rates and there is a temptation to assign all patients to ICSI treatment. It is important that, in this highly competitive environment, new techniques are not applied haphazardly and reduced to the mere injection of gametes and achievement of pregnancy regardless of the cause of infertility. In his 1986 IVF--Historical Perspective, Fishel quoted Auguste Comte: 'to understand science it is necessary to know its history'. IVF has much recent history in animal and also human work. Although ICSI is the most significant therapeutic advance in male infertility treatment, its application to human IVF is only 4 years old, with a paucity of animal studies on which to rely. For this reason IVF still plays a very important role in the treatment of male factor infertility and should only be ruled out when it has failed previously or the number of available sperm is limited. PMID:9692012
Yebei, V N
Studies on infertility in the Netherlands have little information on migrant Ghanaian women, even though Ghanaians are the third largest migrant group in Amsterdam. An exploratory study on the unmet needs, attitudes, and beliefs of migrant Ghanaian women with infertility problems living in the Netherlands, and the kinds of treatment they sought was undertaken in 1999. Qualitative data were collected from 12 women with primary or secondary infertility through narratives and 20 key informant interviews. The women described seeking treatment for infertility in Ghana, the Netherlands and other European countries, included use of infertility drugs, surgery, donor insemination and in vitro fertilisation. Illegal migrant women are not entitled to treatment paid by the national health system, and being of low income they cannot afford to pay directly for this or to obtain private health insurance. Herbalists and spiritual healers in both Amsterdam and Ghana were regularly consulted, especially for their willingness to address the social and spiritual aspects of infertility. To produce a pregnancy where male infertility was suspected, transfer of sexual rights to another man in the husband/partner's family, or a healer or priest, was a practical remedy that kept male infertility hidden. This study revealed difficulties experienced in clinical settings due to language barriers and cultural differences. Ghanaian women living in the Netherlands need much more information on the causes of infertility and their options. PMID:11424241
Almobarak, Ahmed O; Elhoweris, Mohammed H; Nour, Hilmi M; Ahmed, Mohammed Abd Allah M; Omer, Al-Fadhil Alobeed; Ahmed, Mohamed H
Background: Pelvic inflammatory disease is one of the major causes of infertility in females. Also, women with infertility are at high-risk of developing cervical intraepithelial lesions or even carcinoma. Aim: To assess the prevalence and patterns of epithelial cell abnormalities in cervical smears in Sudanese infertile and fertile women. Materials and Methods: The present study included 200 cases (women with infertility) of age group 20-60 years who had routine pap smear. A total of 700 fertile women constituted the control group. Results: Among the 200 infertile women, 93.5% reported as negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), and 6.5% were epithelial cell abnormalities (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and above). In the control group 96.6% of the smears reported as NILM and 3.4% as epithelial cell abnormalities. The percentage of abnormal pap smears in the infertile women was significantly higher when compared with the control group. Conclusions: Epithelial cell abnormalities are significantly higher in women with infertility as compared with fertile women. Importantly, inflammatory smears were reported two times more than in the controls. We recommend pap smear as a routine practice for all women assessed for infertility problems. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of human papilloma virus infections in infertile women with abnormal cervical cytology. PMID:23833398
Ashraf, Direkvand-Moghadam; Azadeh, Direkvand-Moghadam
Introduction: Infertility is a major life crisis which causes serious mental problems and stressful experience of infertile couples. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the quality of life in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: In a cross - sectional study compared the quality of life in 450 women attending both public and private health centers in Ilam, western of Iran, in 2013. Participants were divided in two groups’ fertilities and infertilities women. Data was collected by trained research midwives using demographic and SF-36 questionnaires. SPSS software Package 16 was used to analyze the data of this project. Differences were regarded statistically significant with an alpha error of 0.05. Results: Significant difference was reported in mean age between fertile and infertile women (p=0.003). Mean scores of all Mental dimensions of quality of life were higher in fertile women in comparison with infertile women. This difference was statistically significant (58.35±19.43 vs 56.56±13.18 respectively) (p= 0.000).The mean score of all physical dimensions have not statistically significant difference in fertile and infertile women (79.77± 23.19 vs 74.96±23.45 respectively) (p= 0.441). Conclusion: In most infertile women, the mean score of Mental dimensions of quality of life is lower in comparison with fertile women, therefore, it is necessary the used of counseling and treatment programs in infertile women. PMID:25478412
Pokale, Yamini S.; Jadhav, Ajinkya M.; Gangane, Suresh D.
Background and objectives: The chromosomal abnormalities are one of the important causes of male infertility. In view of the genetic risks for the next generation, the importance of careful evaluation of karyotype is essential. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men with primary infertility from Indian population. Materials and Methods: The 78 infertile men with primary infertility, out of which 26 men were azoospermic, 19 men were oligospermic, 4 men were asthenospermic and 29 men were oligoasthenospermic were studied. Karyoptying was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes by using the Giemsa trypsin banding (GTG) banding technique. Additional data was collected from published studies in Indian population leading to a total of 1814 cases. Results: Chromosome analysis of 78 infertile males showed major chromosome abnormalities in 10.2%, with 6.4% in autosomal chromosome abnormalities and 3.8% in sex chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of major chromosome abnormalities in oligospermic males were 21% and azoospermic males were 15.4 %. Chromosomal polymorphic variants were identified to be 16.7%. Combining the data from other published studies identified 153/ 1814 (8.4%) infertile men of chromosomal abnormalities; with 10.8% in azoospermia, 7.3% in oligospermia and 7.3% in oligoasthenoteratospermic from India. Interpretation and Conclusion: The overall high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile males suggests that the conventional chromosomal analysis is an important investigative tool for male infertility, especially prior to use of any assisted reproductive techniques. PMID:25478430
Camarano, Loretta; Alkon, Abbey; Nachtigall, Robert D.; Schembri, Michael; Weiss, Sandra; Croughan, Mary S.
Objective To determine predictors of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery (PTD) in singleton pregnancies conceived by women with and without a history of infertility. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Eleven infertility clinics in Northern California. Patients Three groups of women who carried singleton pregnancies to ? 20 weeks gestation: 542 infertile women who conceived after treatment, 441 infertile women who conceived spontaneously, and 1008 fertile women for comparison. Interventions Chart review. Main Outcome Measures Association of LBW or PTD with infertility treatment, maternal age, parity, obesity, or development of gestational diabetes. Results Infertile women who conceived with treatment were more likely to be obese, develop gestational diabetes, and have ovarian, ovulatory, or male factor infertility than infertile women who conceived spontaneously. Infertile women who conceived after treatment had 1.61 (95% CI 1.08– 2.41) times greater odds of having a LBW infant. Nulliparity was an independent predictor of LBW 1.54 (95% CI 1.09– 2.16) and PTD (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.20–2.49) in all three groups after controlling for maternal age, history of infertility, infertility treatment, obesity, and gestational diabetes. Conclusions Nulliparous women and women with a history of infertility who conceive a singleton after treatment may be at increased odds for having a LBW infant. Infertile women do not appear to be at increased odds for PTD. PMID:22633266
Menuba, Ifeanyi E; Ugwu, Emmanuel O; Obi, Samuel N; Lawani, Lucky O; Onwuka, Chidinma I
Background Infertility is highly prevalent in Nigeria and most infertile couples in southeast Nigeria are offered conventional forms of treatment, which consist mainly of ovulation induction and tubal surgery, due to limited availability and high cost of endoscopic and assisted reproductive technologies like laparoscopy and in vitro fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infertility, outcome of infertility investigation, and the treatment outcome of infertile couples following therapeutic interventions in southeast Nigeria over a 12-month period. Methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study of 218 consecutive infertile couples presenting for infertility management at the infertility clinics of two tertiary health institutions in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Infertility investigations were carried out on these couples using the available conventional diagnostic facilities. Following the results of the investigations/diagnosis, conventional treatment was offered to the couples as appropriate. Data analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. Results The mean age of the women was 33.5±4.62 (range: 15–49) years. Most (58.3% [n=127]) were nulliparous. The prevalence of infertility was 12.1%. Infertility was primary in 28.4% (n=62) and secondary in 71.6% (n=156). Female etiologic factors were responsible in 32.1% (n=70), male factors in 26.1% (n=57), and a combination of male/female factors in 29.4% (n=64). The etiology was unknown in 12.4% (n=27). Tubal factors 23.8 % (n=52) and ovulation failures 26.1% (n=57) are common female factors implicated. Pregnancy rate following treatment was 16.7% (n=28). Multivariate regression analysis indicates that younger age of ?30 years, duration of infertility ?5 years, and female factor infertility were associated with higher pregnancy outcome following treatment. Conclusion The prevalence of infertility is high and pregnancy rate following conventional treatment is poor. There is a need to improve facilities for managing infertility as well as making artificial reproductive techniques readily available, accessible, and affordable. PMID:25328391
Hotaling, J; Carrell, D T
Spermatogenesis involves the aggregated action of up to 2300 genes, any of which, could, potentially, provide targets for diagnostic tests of male factor infertility. Contrary to the previously proposed common variant hypothesis for common diseases such as male infertility, genome-wide association studies and targeted gene sequencing in cohorts of infertile men have identified only a few gene polymorphisms that are associated with male infertility. Unfortunately, the search for genetic variants associated with male infertility is further hampered by the lack of viable animal models of human spermatogenesis, difficulty in robustly phenotyping infertile men and the complexity of pedigree studies in male factor infertility. In this review, we describe basic genetic principles involved in understanding the genetic basis of male infertility and examine the utility and proper clinical use of the proven genetic assays of male factor infertility, specifically Y chromosome microdeletions, chromosomal translocations, karyotype, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutation analysis and sperm genetic tests. Unfortunately, these tests are only able to diagnose the cause of about 20% of male factor infertility. The remainder of the review will be devoted to examining novel tests and diagnostic tools that have the potential to explain the other 80% of male factor infertility that is currently classified as idiopathic. Those tests include epigenetic analysis of the spermatozoa and the evaluation of rare genetic variants and copy number variations in patients. Success in advancing to the implementation of such areas is not only dependent on technological advances in the laboratory, but also improved phenotyping in the clinic. PMID:24711280
Okonofua, F E; Snow, R C; Alemnji, G A; Okoruwa, A; Ijaware, C O
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that infertile Nigerian women have higher serum levels of antibodies against Neisseria gonorrhoea and Treponema pallidum compared with fertile controls. DESIGN: The prevalence of serum antibodies against N gonorrhoea and T pallidum was compared in fertile and infertile Nigerian women. SETTING: Population based case-control study in Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria. SUBJECTS: 60 women with infertility identified from a community based questionnaire survey of 1075 women were compared with 53 age matched fertile controls. METHODS: Sera of fertile and infertile women were tested for the presence of gonococcal antibodies with indirect agglutination test and syphilis antibodies using rapid reagin method. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of anti-gonococcal and anti-treponemal antibodies in cases and controls. Frequency of self reports of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in cases and controls. RESULTS: In comparison with fertile women, infertile women were more likely to report having had repeated lower abdominal pains (p < 0.01), yellow vaginal discharge (p < 0.004), and whitish vaginal discharge (p < 0.02). There was no significant difference between cases and controls in the proportions reporting previous STI diagnoses. However, two infertile women reported previous gonococcal infection compared with none in the fertile group. Sixteen of the infertile women (26.7%) demonstrated anti-gonococcal antibodies in their sera compared with only four of the 53 fertile controls (7.5%) (p < 0.02; OR 4.5). There was no significant difference between fertile and infertile women in the proportion showing serological reactivity to T pallidum. CONCLUSION: Infertile women have a higher prevalence of anti-gonococcal antibodies compared with fertile controls. Infertile women are also more likely to report previous lower abdominal pains and vaginal discharge. These results provide credible evidence implicating STIs and N gonorrhoea in particular as important factors contributing to female infertility in this population. Public health measures are warranted to address the high rate of STIs and N gonorrhoea in Nigeria. PMID:9306900
Ivanov, P; Gecheva, Sv; Tsvyatkovska, Tsv; Georgieva, G; Komsa-Penkova, R; Konova, E; Simeonova, M; Tanchev, St
Because of the presence of additional confounding factors, such as cervical incompetence or uterine infections, the impact of inherited thrombophilia in women with second infertility has been hard to assess. The evaluation of the significance of the most common inherited thrombophilic factors - Factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin gene mutation 20210 G > A (FII), polymorphism (PL) 677 C > T in MTHFR, PL A1/A2 in platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and PAL-1 PL 4G/5G in 35 women with two or more secondary (who have given birth to at least one child) recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) before 14 weeks of gestation compared to 70 healthy women with no history of RPL and at least one uncomplicated full-term pregnancy, has been performed. Eight out of 35 women with secondary RPL (25.7%) and 6 out of 70 controls (8.6%) have had FVL or FII 20210 G > A (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.05-13.2, p = 0.038). Five (14.3%) women with secondary infertility were carriers for FVL and four (11.4%) for FII 20210 G > A, corresponding to four (5.7%) and two (2.9%) of the women in the control group. The carrier status for MTHFR 677 C > T (TT genotype), PL A1/A2 and PL 4G/5G (4G/4G genotype) was as follows: 11.4%, 28% and 30.8% in patients and 14.3%, 17.1% and 24.3% in controls without significant difference between the groups. Despite of the presence of background factors, an appreciable role of inherited thrombophilia in secondary RPL was established, which enforces thrombophilia testing and management of women with second infertility as well as women with primary RPL. PMID:23234018
Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Behari, Jitendra
A significant decrease in protein kinase C and total sperm count along with increased apoptosis were observed in male Wistar rats exposed to mobile phone frequencies (2 h/day x 35 days at 0.9 W/kg specific absorption rate). The results suggest that a reduction in protein kinase activity may be related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under microwave field exposure. Decrease in sperm count and an increase in apoptosis may be causative factor due to mobile radiation exposure leading to infertility. PMID:21299041
Each year, in an attempt to stimulate journalism students' interest in medical writing, CMAJ sponsors the Amy Chouinard Memorial Essay Prize. The $750 award is in memory of Amy Chouinard, a longtime and valued contributor to CMAJ and the Canadian Journal of Surgery. Students from any recognized journalism program at a Canadian college or university are eligible to enter, and the deadline for 1998 entries is June 1. The 1997 winner, Megan Easton, presents a well-written and thorough account of the issues surrounding infertility treatment. Interest in the topic came naturally enough--her father, Dr. William Easton, is a urogynecologist in private practice in Scarborough, Ont. PMID:9614830
Takahashi, Yuko; Tomiyama, Tatsuhiro; Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Tsukamoto, Asami; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi
We measured pulse waves in 22 infertile women from the beginning of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) through to pregnancy testing. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and autonomic nerve balance in the pregnancy group were significantly lower than that in the non-pregnancy group. In this study, we measured plethysmograms of four women who became pregnant and 18 who did not, ten times from each. We calculated LLE and a value for the autonomic nerve balance; from this analysis, we conclude that a mental state that allows for the possibility of becoming pregnant is necessary for a successful pregnancy.
Akar, Münire Erman
Current data on uterus allotransplantation research has been reviewed and summarized. Over the past 15 years, progress in uterus transplantation research has increased dramatically. As a consequence, the first pregnancy and delivery following uterus allotransplantation in rats have been reported. The technique has been better defined. Although clinical pregnancy and delivery following uterus allotransplantation has been reported in humans, there are still many questions to be answered before clinical application. Gestational surrogacy still remains an important option for being a genetic parent in selected cases with uterine factor infertility. PMID:25788850
The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of poetry writing as a means of coping with the crisis of infertility. Noting how the crisis of infertility reawakens earlier conflicts, the author provides a personal narrative on how her own poetry served as a tool for self-discovery and healing. Attention is given to both individual and couple issues.
Ugwu, Emmanuel O; Odoh, Godwin U; Obi, Samuel N; Ezugwu, Frank O
Background Male factor infertility presents one of the greatest challenges with respect to infertility treatment in Africa. Artificial insemination by donor semen (AID) is a cost-effective option for infertile couples, but its practice may be influenced by sociocultural considerations. The purpose of this study was to determine the awareness and acceptability of AID among infertile couples in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, and identify the sociocultural factors associated with its practices. Methods Questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of 200 consecutive infertile couples accessing care at the infertility clinics of two tertiary health institutions in Enugu, Nigeria, between April 1, 2012 and January 31, 2013. Results Among the 384 respondents, the level of awareness and acceptability of AID were 46.6% (179/384) and 43% (77/179), respectively. The acceptability rate was significantly higher among female respondents, women with primary infertility, and those whose infertility had lasted for 5 years and beyond (P<0.05). The major reasons for nonacceptance of AID were religious conviction (34.7%, n=33), cultural concern (17.9%, n=17), fear of contracting an infection (17.9%, n=17), and fear of possibility of failure of the procedure (12.6%, n=12). Conclusion Health education and public enlightenment are advocated to increase awareness and dispel the current misconceptions about AID in our environment. PMID:24611022
Ö. Yaman; T. Soygür; E. Yilmaz; S. Elgün; A. Keskine?e; O. Gö?ü?
This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the effects of testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and testicular histology on infertile patients with the aid of xanthine oxidase system and testicular tissue malondialdehyde levels. Forty patients with idiopathic infertility constituted our study group. Bilateral testicular biopsies were performed and spermatogenesis was assessed histopathologically. Patients were divided into 4
Shinji Komori; Hiroyuki Kasumi; Ri-ichiro Kanazawa; Kazuko Sakata; Yuko Nakata; Hiroshi Kato; Koji Koyama
We analysed the CAG repeat length in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene in 59 idiopathic Japanese infertile males with oligozoospermia; 36 fertile males were also analysed as controls. The number of CAG repeats in infertile males ranged from 14 to 32 (mean 21.2 K 4.2), whereas the number of CAG repeats in fertile males ranged from 16 to
Katja Haemmerli; Hansjoerg Znoj; Salome Burri; Patricia Graf; Dorothea Wunder; Pasqualina Perrig-Chiello
The usefulness of psychological support for infertile patients has been highlighted in the literature over the past number of years. This article provides a review of existing research on psychological interventions for infertile patients, and presents the Fertility Group Intervention as an example of the application of existing research. There is clear empirical evidence of high levels of depressive symptoms,
Christie L. Markestad; Linda M. Montgomery; Robert A. Bartsch
Twenty infertile couples participated in the present study to investigate psychological, marital, and sexual adjustment, specifically as related to length of time they had been in treatment. The instruments administered were the SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and Index of Sexual Satisfaction (1SS). Findings indicated marital and sexual adjustment did not adversely relate to length of time infertile
Monique Borgerhoff Mulder; Jeanette M. Frediani
This project involves the dissertation research of an anthropology student from the University of California-Davis, studying the effects of infertility on the status of women in a Tanzanian society of Africa. The proposal will test the hypothesis that infertile women will undergo marital stress because of divorce, lack of resources, and general lack of prestige, subject to the women's' position
Gamze Teskereci; Selma Oncel
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of lifestyle on the quality of life among couples undergoing infertility treatment. The research universe consisted of the couples undergoing infertility treatment in Akdeniz University's Center of Reproductive Endocrinology and Assisted Reproductive Techniques. A total of 200 couples were included in the research. The data collection tools were a “Personal
Esmaeilzadeh, Seddigheh; Basirat, Zahra; Shafi, Hamid
Introduction The experience of infertility is a common medical condition in the developing countries. The aim of this retrospective epidemiologic study was to determine fertility status and parity in Babol, Iran and then identify physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among women who have experienced infertility. Material and methods A total of 1,081 women aged 20-45 years were selected using cluster sampling. The current physical activity was measured using the original International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form. Lifestyle factors were compared between those who had experienced infertility (n = 168) and the rest of the women. A face-to-face household interview was conducted using a specially designed interview questionnaire. Results After adjusting for suspected confounding factors, women with infertility experience had a 4.8-fold increased risk of obesity (OR = 2.02, CI = 0.70, 5.84) and almost a 3.8-fold increased risk of being overweight (OR = 2.11, CI = 0.72, 6.17) compared to women without infertility. No significant differences were found in Met-minutes of sedentary activity, intensity of walking, moderate, vigorous, and total physical activity, self-reported dietary intake, exercise, and level of physical activity between women with and without experience of infertility. Conclusions Since both obesity and infertility are increasing public health issues in Iranian women, more attention should be paid to lifestyle behaviors, especially gaining weight in women who have experienced infertility. PMID:23847673
Asemota, Obehi A; Klatsky, Peter
Infertility in resource-poor settings is an overlooked global health problem. Although scarce health care resources must be deployed thoughtfully, prioritization of resources may be different for recipient and donor countries, the latter of whom focus on maternal health care, prevention, and family planning. For women and couples with involuntary childlessness, the negative psychosocial, sociocultural, and economic consequences in low-income countries are severe, possibly more so than in most Western societies. Despite the local importance of infertility, few resources are committed to help advance infertility care in regions like sub-Saharan Africa. The worldwide prevalence of infertility is remarkably similar across low-, middle-, and high-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes infertility as a global health problem and established universal access to reproductive health care as one of the United Nation's Millennium Developmental Goals for 2015. Currently, access to infertility care is varied and is usually only attainable by the very wealthy in low-income countries. We provide an overview on the current state of access to infertility care in low-income countries such as in sub-Saharan Africa and a rationale for providing comprehensive reproductive care and possible solutions for providing cost-effective infertility services in these settings. PMID:25565507
Immature oocyte retrieval followed by in-vitro maturation (IVM) is a promising potential treatment option, especially for women who are infertile through polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Although the pregnancy and implantation rates of IVM treatment are not as high as conventional IVF treatment, IVM treatment has many advantages for infertile women with PCOS, because this group of patients is extremely sensitive
Patrick John Rowe
Rates of primary infertility worldwide are in the region of one to five per cent, with higher rates found in central Africa, while rates of secondary infertility range from seven to 33 per cent. This paper is about research carried out since the late 1970s by the Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction on clinical
Julio César Rosa-e-Silva; Ionara Diniz Barcelos; Paula Andrea Navarro; Ana Carolina Japur de Sá Rosa-e-Silva; Antonio Alberto Nogueira; Rui Alberto Ferriani
INTRODUCTION: Endometrial ossification is an uncommon disease related to secondary infertility and its etiology and pathogenesis are controversial. More than 80% of reported cases occur after pregnancy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted with a history of secondary infertility and with a regular menstrual cycle. She reported a miscarriage at 12 weeks of gestation 7 years previously and
Aguero, Jorge M.; Marks, Mindy S.
We introduce a new instrument for family size, infertility, to investigate the causal relationship between children and female labor force participation. Infertility mimics an experiment where nature assigns an upper bound for family size, independent of a woman's background. This new instrument allows us to investigate the differential labor…
Mousavi, Seyyed Abbas; Masoumi, Seyyedeh Zahra; Keramat, Afsaneh; Pooralajal, Jalal; Shobeiri, Fatemeh
Background Infertility has potentially inappropriate effects on quality of life in infertile couples. Various general and specific questionnaires have been structured for assessing different aspects of quality of life in infertile men, women, or couples. The present systematic review was designed to assess these questionnaires and also identify different factors affecting infertile couples based on the aforesaid questionnaires. Methods The research strategy involved general and specific terms in relation to couples's infertility and their quality of life. A review was done for studies published from 1982 to 2012 that were indexed in Medline, ISI Web of Science and Scopus as well as abstract books on this subject. We also corresponded with the authors of the references in related studies for introducing more resources and references. Results In all reviewed studies, different aspects of the quality of life in couples were evaluated including sexual, psychological, social, communicational, environmental, occupational, medical, as well as economical ones. In total, after initial screening of all studies, 10 general and 2 specific questionnaires were retrieved. Although no meta-analysis was found in the review, infertility had a negative effect on quality of life in couples. Conclusion This study revealed that some general questionnaires such as SF-36 and WHO-QOL were mostly used for assessing quality of life in infertile couples and some specific questionnaires such as FERTI-QoL and Fertility Problem Inventory were rarely used. Thus, it seems that the evaluation of quality of life in infertile couples needs valid instruments for measurement. PMID:24163794
Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Fabamwo, A. O.
Tubal disease constitutes a major factor in infertility especially in developing countries. This study was undertaken to assess the hysterosalpingographic patterns seen in infertile patients in an urban centre in Lagos. Two hundred and twenty patients who reported from the gynaecology clinic to the radiology department of Lagos State University…
Bresnick, Ellen R.
Discusses the importance of assessing the impact infertility has on couples/individuals and understanding the relevance of this impact in the context of psychological treatment. Infertility's negative impact can be minimized by therapeutic intervention. Three psychological-behavioral categories for couples are posited, with case studies. (Author)
Fouad, Nadya A.; Fahje, Kristin Kons
Investigated effect of various factors related to infertility on women's (N=31) self-esteem and concomitant incidence of depression. Results support positive relationship between infertile women's self-esteem and their internal locus of control, self-esteem and subjective satisfaction with their social support, and general satisfaction with social…
Lansakara, Nirosha; Wickramasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Seneviratne, Harshalal Rukka
Primary infertility may have a considerable impact on the psychological well-being of women. In the present study, the authors investigated the psychological well-being and its correlates among Sri Lankan women with primary infertility. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were compared with 177 fertile women matched for age and duration of marriage to identify differences in the psychological well-being between the two groups. They were recruited from a prevalence survey conducted in the district of Colombo, Sri Lanka from August 2005 to February 2006. The General Health Questionnaire-30 (GHQ-30) and Mental Health sub-components of the Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used to measure psychological well-being. In addition, infertile women with and without psychological distress were compared to identify the social, marital, treatment, and demographic factors independently associated with psychological distress. A significantly higher proportion of women with primary infertility (66.1%; 95% CI 58.6-73.0%) had psychological distress as compared to fertile women (18.6 %; 95% CI 13.2-25.2%; P < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors, infertile women who were psychologically distressed were significantly less educated (OR = 55.3; 95% CI 15.2-201.0), had poor marital communication (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.3-9.8), had a higher priority for having children (OR = 4.2; 95% CI 1.3-13.8), and had been previously (OR = 39.1; 95% CI 8.3-185.4) or currently (OR = 11.0; 95% CI 3.0-40.6) investigated/treated for infertility when compared with infertile women without distress. Women with primary infertility reported more distress as compared to fertile women. Psychological distress among infertile women was associated with poorer education, being previously/currently investigated/treated, placing higher importance on having children, and having poor marital communication. The need for psychological intervention targeting infertile women in clinics and community settings is highlighted. PMID:21707340
Kovac, Jason R.; Pastuszak, Alexander W.; Lamb, Dolores J.
Despite the fact that male factors contribute to approximately 50% of all infertility, the mechanisms underlying their origin are unknown. Currently, clinicians rely primarily on semen analyses to predict male reproductive potential and chart treatment success. Even when invasive procedures are performed, the causes of male infertility frequently remain elusive. Recently, the advent of new technologies has spurred the search for novel male infertility biomarkers, and the detection of genes, proteins or metabolites unique to the infertile male holds much promise. The concept that a cost-effective, non-invasive and accurate set of biomarkers can be identified to diagnose male infertility is tantalizing. This review focuses on the various methodologies employed in the discovery of novel biomarkers along with their findings. Specific attention is paid to recent advances in the fields of genetics, proteomics and metabolomics. PMID:23415969
Lee, L K; Foo, K Y
Infertility is a worldwide reproductive health problem which affects approximately 15% of couples, with male factor infertility dominating nearly 50% of the affected population. The nature of the phenomenon is underscored by a complex array of transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic differences which interact in unknown ways. Many causes of male factor infertility are still defined as idiopathic, and most diagnosis tends to be more descriptive rather than specific. As such, the emergence of novel transcriptomic and metabolomic studies may hold the key to more accurately diagnose and treat male factor infertility. This paper provides the most recent evidence underlying the role of transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis in the management of male infertility. A summary of the current knowledge and new discovery of noninvasive, highly sensitive and specific biomarkers which allow the expansion of this area is outlined. PMID:24875852
Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Allan, Helen T.
Background Religion and spirituality are a fundamental part of culture and influence how individuals experience and interpret infertility counselling. Thus far, little research has examined the influence of religiosity on the experience of infertility, and to our knowledge no study exists investigating the responses of religious infertile women to counselling. In this study we explored Muslim and Christian women’s experiences and preferences with regard to infertility counselling. Materials and Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 30 infertile women affiliated to different denominations of Islam (Shiite and Sunni) and Christianity (Protestantism, Catholicism, Orthodoxies) were interviewed. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews at fertility clinics in the UK and Iran, and analyzed using the Straussian mode of grounded theory. Results Emerging categories included: Appraising the meaning of infertility religiously, applying religious coping strategies, and gaining a faith-based strength. These were encompassed in the core category of ‘relying on a higher being’. Religious infertile women experienced infertility as an enriching experience for spiritual growth. This perspective helped them to acquire a feeling of self- confidence and strength to manage their emotions. Hence, they relied more on their own religious coping strategies and less on formal support resources like counselling services. However, they expected counsellors to be open to taking time to discuss their spiritual concerns in counselling sessions. Conclusion In addition to focusing on clients’ psychosocial needs, infertility counsellors should also consider religious and spiritual issues. Establishing a sympathetic and accepting relationship with infertile women will allow them to discuss their religious perspectives, which consequently may enhance their usage of counselling services. PMID:25101160
Okonofua, F E; Ako-Nai, K A; Dighitoghi, M D
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the possibility that infertile Nigerian women have a higher rate of cervical colonisation with pathogenic and facultative organisms than fertile controls. DESIGN--The prevalence of common microorganisms in the vagina and endocervical canals of infertile women was compared with that of pregnant controls. SETTING--The Obafemi Awolowo University Hospital Maternity Centre. SUBJECTS--92 infertile women were compared with 86 pregnant controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--rates of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and other facultative organisms in cases and controls. RESULTS--The rate of isolation of Neisseria gonorrheae was 17.4% among infertile women compared with 10.5% in the group of pregnant women (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in the rate of isolation of Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and other facultative organisms. High rates of isolation of microorganisms were observed in both groups. However, women with secondary infertility had higher rate of carriage of Neisseria gonorrheae, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as compared with women with primary infertility. Nearly 15% of infertile women had previous episodes of pelvic inflammatory disease and 26% had had induced abortions. A positive history of vaginal discharge was a poor predictor of vagina and endocervical carriage of microorganisms. CONCLUSIONS--High rates of pathogenic organisms exist in the lower genital tract of infertile women and controls. Women with secondary infertility are more likely to have pathogenic organisms than women with primary infertility. A policy of routinely screening women for lower genital tract infections should be pursued in this population because of the high rate of infection. PMID:7635492
Telli, Onur; Sarici, Hasmet; Kabar, Mucahit; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Resorlu, Berkan; Bozkurt, Selen
Introduction: The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of varicocelectomy on DNA fragmentation index and semen parameters in infertile patients before and after surgical repair of varicocele. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 72 men with at least 1-year history of infertility, varicocele and oligospermia were examined. Varicocele sperm samples were classified as normal or pathological according to the 2010 World Health Organization guidelines. The acridine orange test was used to assess the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: DFI decreased significantly after varicocelectomy from 34.5% to 28.2% (P = 0.024). In addition all sperm parameters such as mean sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility and sperm morphology significantly increased from 19.5 × 106 to 30.7 × 106, 5.4 × 106/ml to 14.3 × 106/ml, and 19.9% to 31.2% (P < 0.001) and 2.6% to 3.1% (P = 0.017). The study was limited by the loss to follow-up of some patients and unrecorded pregnancy outcome due to short follow-up. Conclusion: Varicocele causes DNA-damage in spermatozoa. We suggest that varicocelectomy improves sperm parameters and decreases DFI. PMID:25878412
Karuputhula, Narendra Babu; Chattopadhyay, Ratna; Chakravarty, Baidyanath; Chaudhury, Koel
Studies on elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in granulosa cells (GC) and its subsequent effect on fertilization are limited. Oxidative stress (OS) mediated alterations in GC of infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) was investigated. GC were obtained from 28 women with endometriosis (Group A), 26 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (Group B), and 32 women with tubal factor infertility (Group C). GC characteristics including cell count, viability, morphology and number of oocytes retrieved, and oocyte quality were assessed. OS parameters such as ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and DNA fragmentation were also studied and IVF outcome parameters assessed. An ?20 fold increase in GC ROS generation was observed in Group B as compared to Group C. Though not as high as Group B, Group A also showed significantly high ROS levels compared with Group C. More than 100-fold decrease in MMP in Group B compared with Group C was observed. A similar trend was observed in Group A, where MMP decreased 7 fold. Significant apoptosis was evident in Groups A and B supported by depolarization of MMP and significant increase in DNA damage. IVF outcome parameters including fertilization rate, good quality embryo formation rate, and pregnancy outcome were adversely affected in Group B. It is hypothesized that ?20 fold increase in ROS generation in GC of PCOS women plays an adverse role in affecting the IVF success rate. It was of note that the IVF outcome parameters of women with endometriosis were not affected. PMID:23278116
Agarwal, S K; Haney, A F
Timed sexual intercourse is a frequently prescribed component in the treatment for infertile couples. This recommendation is based on a combination of intuition and data from studies often lacking in methodology. With increasingly sophisticated and expensive methods available to time coitus with the presumptive evidence of ovulation, such as the urinary LH kits, the already significant stress of timed intercourse is compounded by the expense of these timing modalities. There is a complete lack of data demonstrating an increased chance of pregnancy with use of such devices. Yet there is evidence that the stress of timed intercourse is a major problem for infertile couples and may even hinder normal reproductive functioning. Available data suggest that much of the period of peak fertility during the menstrual cycle is missed if coitus is timed with the menstrual calendar, basal body temperature thermometer, or LH kit. In addition, the recommendation of a coital frequency of at least a couple of times per week would not only help reduce stress, but also ensure coitus during the period of the menstrual cycle with the greatest chance of resulting in a pregnancy. PMID:8041552
Halvaei, Iman; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Ghasemi-Esmailabad, Saeed; Nabi, Ali; Shamsi, Farimah
Background The main goal was to evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of Zoroastrians living in Iran towards oocyte donation (OD) and embryo donation (ED) program. Methods This cross sectional study consisted of 318 Zoroastrians (n=175 for OD and n=143 for ED) of both sexes. The questionnaire form comprised two parts of general demographic characteristics of the participants and twenty multiple-choice questions about attitude and knowledge of participants towards OD and ED. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test was applied for comparison of data generated from ED and OD groups. Results Majority of the participants supported OD (69.7%) and ED (71.3%) for infertile patients. In addition, 40% and 42% preferred donation program (OD and ED, respectively), compared to adoption. About 60% of the respondents believed that the donors have no right to find the child and claim it as their own. In addition, more than half of the respondents thought that the recipients of oocyte/embryo should never know the name and address of the donors. More than half of the participants did not know whether their religion accepts donation program or not. Approximately, 80% of respondents supported psychological counseling for both donors and recipients. Moreover, about 56% of the participants necessitated the advertisement on OD/ED program in the mass media. Conclusion Our preliminary data showed that Zoroastrians supported both OD and ED program equally for infertile couples. PMID:25473631
Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel A; Hamatani, Toshio; Cano, Antonio
The present review aims to ascertain whether different infertility etiologies share particular genes and/or molecular pathways with other pathologies and are associated with distinct and particular risks of later-life morbidity and mortality. In order to reach this aim, we use two different sources of information: (1) a public web server named DiseaseConnect ( http://disease-connect.org ) focused on the analysis of common genes and molecular mechanisms shared by diseases by integrating comprehensive omics and literature data; and (2) a literature search directed to find clinical comorbid relationships of infertility etiologies with only those diseases appearing after infertility is manifested. This literature search is performed because DiseaseConnect web server does not discriminate between pathologies emerging before, concomitantly or after infertility is manifested. Data show that different infertility etiologies not only share particular genes and/or molecular pathways with other pathologies but they have distinct clinical relationships with other diseases appearing after infertility is manifested. In particular, (1) testicular and high-grade prostate cancer in male infertility; (2) non-fatal stroke and endometrial cancer, and likely non-fatal coronary heart disease and ovarian cancer in polycystic ovary syndrome; (3) osteoporosis, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders and dementia in premature ovarian failure; (4) breast and ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations in diminished ovarian reserve; (5) clear cell and endometrioid histologic subtypes of invasive ovarian cancer, and likely low-grade serous invasive ovarian cancer, melanoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in endometriosis; and (6) endometrial and ovarian cancer in idiopathic infertility. The present data endorse the principle that the occurrence of a disease (in our case infertility) is non-random in the population and suggest that different infertility etiologies are genetically and clinically linked with other diseases in single meta-diseases. This finding opens new insights for clinicians and reproductive biologists to treat infertility problems using a phenomic approach instead of considering infertility as an isolated and exclusive disease of the reproductive system/hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In agreement with a previous validation analysis of the utility of DiseaseConnect web server, the present study does not show a univocal correspondence between common gene expression and clinical comorbid relationship. Further work is needed to untangle the potential genetic, epigenetic and phenotypic relationships that may be present among different infertility etiologies, morbid conditions and physical/cognitive traits. PMID:25880215
Malik, Sumaira H; Coulson, Neil S
Current research shows that online support groups can offer people affected by infertility a unique and valuable source of social support. However, to date most research has focused on the experiences of people who post messages to online infertility support groups; in comparison, little is known about how "lurkers" (i.e., those individuals who read messages but do not post messages) use and benefit from online infertility support groups. The purpose of the present study was to compare the use and experience of online infertility support groups between lurkers and posters. A total of 295 participants who were recruited from several online infertility support groups completed an online questionnaire containing questions about their use and experience of online support groups and measures of loneliness, social support, marital satisfaction, and perceived infertility-related stress. Differences between lurkers and posters were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and ? or Fisher exact tests. Results revealed that compared with posters, lurkers visited the online support groups less often and scored significantly lower in overall satisfaction with the online support group. However, both lurkers and posters reported gaining a range of unique benefits from access to an online support group. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in loneliness, social support, infertility-related stress, and marital satisfaction between lurkers and posters. These findings suggest that reading messages posted to online support groups may be as beneficial as interacting with the group. PMID:21709546
Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Partin, James; Goldstein, Jason; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Ansari, Uzma; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Zhong, Guangming; Black, Carolyn M
Tubal factor infertility (TFI) represents 36% of female infertility and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is a major cause. Although TFI is associated with host inflammatory responses to bacterial components, the molecular pathogenesis of Chlamydia-induced infertility remains poorly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that activation of specific cysteine proteases, the caspases, during C. trachomatis genital infection causes the disruption of key fertility-promoting molecules required for embryo development and implantation. We analyzed the effect of caspase inhibition on infertility and the integrity of Dicer, a caspase-sensitive, fertility-promoting ribonuclease III enzyme, and key micro-RNAs in the reproductive system. Genital infection with the inflammation- and caspase-inducing, wild-type C. trachomatis serovar L2 led to infertility, but the noninflammation-inducing, plasmid-free strain did not. We confirmed that caspase-mediated apoptotic tissue destruction may contribute to chlamydial pathogenesis. Caspase-1 or -3 deficiency, or local administration of the pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK into normal mice protected against Chlamydia-induced infertility. Finally, the oviducts of infected infertile mice showed evidence of caspase-mediated cleavage inactivation of Dicer and alteration in critical miRNAs that regulate growth, differentiation, and development, including mir-21. These results provide new insight into the molecular pathogenesis of TFI with significant implications for new strategies for treatment and prevention of chlamydial complications. PMID:23303804
Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Hosaka, Takashi; Izumi, Shun-ichiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kondo, Akane; Makino, Tsunehisa
We report that infertile women in Japan as well as in the Western world have high levels of emotional distress, anxiety, and depression. The reasons for anxiety and depression in infertile women are easy to presume but remain unclear. We conducted the present study to assess the relationship between the anxiety and depression of infertile Japanese women and their thought processes and emotional well-being with regard to their infertility. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 101 infertile Japanese women who visited the infertility clinic at Tokai University. Inventories included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and our original infertility questionnaire, which is composed of 22 questions to assess attitudes and emotional status in facing the stigma of infertility. After factor analysis, comparison between the HADS and the infertility questionnaire was made with simultaneous multiple regression analyses. Anxiety and depression in childless Japanese women were significantly associated with lack of husband's support and feeling stress. Our findings should prove useful in designing and implementing psychological support programs for infertile Japanese women. Psychological interventions to relieve or diminish these conditions might have significant therapeutic benefits for women attending infertility clinics in Japan. PMID:15474640
Mohammad Alizadeh Charandabi, Sekineh; Kamalifard, Mahin; Mahzad Sedaghiani, Mehrzad; Montazeri, Ali; Dehghanpour Mohammadian, Elham
Introduction: The present study aimed to determine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its predictive factors among infertile women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on infertile women referring to Majidi Infertility Center (Tabriz, Iran). The data was collected through self-administered questionnaires including clinical and demographic characteristics and the Persian version of 36-item short form health survey (SF-36). One-sample t-test, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Overall, 1012 infertile women were studied. The quality of life scores of infertile women in all eight subscales were significantly lower than normative data for Iranian women. Low physical component summary was more frequent in younger [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.45; 95% CI: 1.07-1.96], less educated (AOR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.27-2.41), and low income (AOR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.06-2.16) participants. It was less frequent in individuals whose infertility duration was 3-9 years (AOR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48-0.86), had male (AOR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.43-0.78) or female and male factors infertility (AOR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.30-0.78), or had a history of 1-2 in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Low mental component summary was associated with low income (AOR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.11-2.18) and unexplained cause of infertility (AOR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.32-0.56). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated low quality of life among infertile women. The findings suggested the need for providing this group, especially those at higher risk such as low educated or low income females, with necessary support. PMID:25276691
Akyüz, Aygül; ?ahiner, Gönül; Seven, Memnun; Bak?r, Bilal
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 139 married women diagnosed as primary infertile who applied to an in vitro fertilization (IVF) center in Turkey, between September and December 2009. A descriptive information questionnaire developed by the researcher was used for data collection. In addition, an infertility distress scale (IDS) for determining the severity effect of infertility and the scale for marital violence against women (SDVW) for determining level of marital violence against the women were used. Results: The total IDS score of the study sample was 37.76 ± 10.53. There was no significant relationship between the age and education level of the women and the total IDS score. The total IDS score was higher in women who did not work and those being treated for infertility for more than three years. The total SDVW score of the study sample was 67.0 ± 8.26. The total SDVW score was higher in women who had been trying to have a child for more than six years and had received infertility treatment for longer than three years. The employment status of the women and physical, emotional, and sexual violence scores had a statistically significant relationship with the IDS scores. The emotional violence score was found to have the highest significance among the variables affecting total IDS score. Conclusion: Marital violence is a factor increasing the distress of infertile women. Healthcare staff serving infertile couples should consider the possibility of domestic violence against women as a factor affecting the psychological infertility distress level. PMID:24696770
This article analyzes a public controversy surrounding the hormonal treatment of infertility associated with observance of rabbinic law to illuminate the reach of rabbi-doctor relations in a local configuration of religion and biomedicine that I call "kosher medicine." I combine a historical perspective on the evolution of religious laws governing menstruation, and the rabbi-doctor relations with a contemporary ethnography of these relations and laws to illuminate the interplay of continuities, discontinuities, tradition, and modernity and their uses and abuses in the contemporary mode of interpenetration between observant Judaism and biomedicine. The controversy highlights asymmetric permeations into biomedical and rabbinic professional domains. Collaborations persist as long as doctors who declare their incompetence in rabbinic law accommodate to demands of rabbis who are expert in it and also claim competence to challenge medical decisions. Once a doctor demonstrates competence in rabbinic law to challenge rabbinic directives a crisis develops. PMID:23557006
Türk, Silver; Mändar, Reet; Mahlapuu, Riina; Viitak, Anu; Punab, Margus; Kullisaar, Tiiu
In this study, we aimed to compare the level of zinc, selenium, glutathione peroxidase activity and antioxidant status in following populations of men: severe inflammation in prostate (>10(6) white blood cells in prostate secretion; n=29), severe leukocytospermia, (>10(6) white blood cells in semen; n=31), mild inflammation, (0.2-1M white blood cells in semen or prostate secretion; n=24), non-inflammatory oligozoospermia (n=32) and healthy controls (n=27). Male partners of infertile couples had reduced level of antioxidative activity, selenium and zinc in their seminal plasma. Most importantly, reduced selenium levels were evident in all patient groups regardless of inflammation status. Therefore, these patients might gain some benefit from selenium supplementation. PMID:24462254
Summary The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when “infertility,” understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented. PMID:24362276
Guié, P; Iovenitti, P; N'guessan, K; Tegnan, J; Koffi, K; Carta, G; Anongba, S
Tubercolosis is a frequent bacterial infection in less developed countries. Lung and lymph node localisations are common, while the genital apparatus is less involved. In this work a rare case of cervical tuberculosis followed by some lesions causing infertility in a 20-year-old woman is reported. The diagnosis was confirmed by a histological examination from a biopsy of the cervix. The patient was offered six-month antituberculosis therapy which eliminated the cervical lesions. A few years later she came under our care for infertility due to uterine adhesions diagnosed by hysterosalpingography. Now the patient is being treated for infertility complicated by amenorrhoea. PMID:18581774
Jhaveri, Kartik S; Mazrani, Waseem; Chawla, Tanya P; Filobbos, Rafiq; Toi, Ants; Jarvi, Keith
Infertility is a common problem. The role of imaging in assisting clinical evaluation is discussed. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are first-line, noninvasive imaging techniques that provide accurate definition of anatomical causes of infertility. This affords an opportunity to deliver timely and appropriate treatment. This pictorial review illustrates normal imaging anatomy and various causes of male infertility, and focuses on congenital and acquired testicular abnormalities and post-testicular obstruction, such as congenital absence of the vasa deferentia, seminal vesicle cysts, prostatic utricle cysts, Mullerian cysts, ejaculatory duct cysts (Wolffian cysts), and epididymal obstruction. PMID:20188509
Jackson, Jennifer E; Rosen, Mitchell; McLean, Tracey; Moro, Jacqueline; Croughan, Mary; Cedars, Marcelle I
Several European studies have suggested a higher prevalence of celiac disease (CD) among infertile women (4% to 8%) compared with the general population (<1%). We screened a cohort of women with unexplained infertility in Northern California for the serum markers of CD, tissue transglutaminase and endomysium antibodies (EMA). Given that only one woman out of 121 (0.8%) screened positive for CD, it appears that CD is about as prevalent in this cohort of infertile women as in the general U.S. population (<1%). PMID:17662282
Background Spermatozoa morphology is an important and complex characteristic of the fertilization capacity of male germ cells. Morphological abnormalities have been observed to be accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and further damage to spermatozoa, ultimately leading to infertility. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between seminal ROS production and sperm morphology in infertile teratozoospermic patients as well as in healthy men of proven and unproven fertility. Methods Semen samples were collected from 79 patients classified as teratozoospermic and 56 healthy donors (control). Standard semen analysis was performed and spermatozoa morphology was assessed according to the WHO 2010 guidelines. Seminal ROS was measured by chemiluminescence assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated, and sensitivity, specificity, cutoff value and area under curve (AUC) were determined. Results Sperm morphology was significantly poor in the Teratozoospermic Group compared with the 3 Donor Groups (P?0.05). Significantly higher levels of ROS (RLU/sec/106 sperm) were seen in the Teratozoospermic group (145.4 (41.5; 555.4) compared to the Donor Groups: All Donors (64.8 (21.1; 198.2), Proven Donors (58.8 (14.2; 79.2) and Proven Donors < 2 years (58.8 (14.2; 79.2) (P?0.05). ROS correlated negatively with sperm concentration in the All Donor group (r?=??0.354; P?=?0.021) as well as in the Teratozospermic group (r ?0.356; P?=?0.002). Using ROC analysis, we established the cutoff values for concentration, morphology and ROS. Conclusions The incidence of teratozoospermia may be directly related to the overproduction of seminal ROS. Therefore, besides sperm concentration and motility, spermatozoa morphology should receive an equally important consideration in the overall assessment of male fertility. PMID:24884815
Plaseski, Toso; Novevski, Predrag; Kocevska, Borka; Dimitrovski, Cedomir; Efremov, Georgi D; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana
Y chromosome deletions in the three azoospermia factor (AZF) regions constitute the most common genetic cause of spermatogenic failure. The aim of this study was to estimate the length and boundaries of the AZF deletions and to correlate the AZF deletions with the sperm concentrations, testicular histology, Y haplogroups and the ethnic origin of the men with deletions. PCR analysis of STS loci in the three AZF regions was used to characterize the deletions. Y haplogroup was predicted from a set of 17 Y short tandem repeats (STR) marker values. A total of nine men out of 218 infertile/subfertile men showed the presence of Y microdeletions. In eight patients the results were consistent with the presence of AZFc deletions, while in one patient a larger deletion involving both AZFb and AZFc regions was detected. In two patients, the deletion, initially diagnosed as AZFc, involved part of the distal part of the AZFb region and in one of them the deletion also extended into the region distal to the AZFc. The 3.5 Mb AZFc deletion, due to homologous recombination between b2 and b4 amplicons, was detected in six men (66.7% of all Y deletions), thus being the most common type of AZF deletion among infertile men from the Republic of Macedonia. Patients with the 3.5 Mb AZFc deletion had azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia and variable histological results [Sertoly cell only syndrome (SCOS), maturity arrest (MA) and hypospermatogenesis (HSG)]. They were of different ethnic origin (Macedonian, Albanian and Romany) and belonged to different Y haplogroups (I1b, J2, E3b and G). PMID:16862061
In vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies are facing with growing demands of older women to conceive. Although ovarian stem cells (OSCs) of older women are capable of producing in vitro fresh oocyte-like cells (OLCs), such cells cannot respond to IVM and IVF due to the lack of granulosa cells required for their maturation. Follicular renewal is also dependent on support of circulating blood mononuclear cells. They induce intermediary stages of meiosis (metaphase I chromosomal duplication and crossover, and telophase) in emerging ovarian germ cells, as for the first time demonstrated here, induce formation of granulosa cells, and stimulate follicular growth and development. A pretreatment of OSC culture with mononuclear cells collected from blood of a young healthy fertile woman may cause differentiatio n of bipotential OSCs into both developing germ and granulosa cells. A small volume blood replacement, may enable treatment of ovarian infertility in vivo. The transferred mononuclear cells may temporarily rejuvenate virtually all tissues, including improvement of the function of endocrine tissues. Formation of new follicles and their development may be sufficient for IVM and IVF. The novel proposed in vitro approaches may be used as a second possibility. Infertility of human males affects almost a half of the infertility cases worldwide. Small blood volume replacement from young healthy fertile men may also be easy approach for the improvement of sperm quality in older or other affected men. In addition, body rejuvenation by small blood volume replacement from young healthy individuals of the same sex could represent a decline of in vitro methodology in favor of in vivo treatment for human functional diseases. Here we propose for the first time that blood mononuclear cells are essential for rejuvenation of those tissues, where immune system components participate in an appropriate division and differentiation of tissue stem cells. If needed, small blood volume replacement from distinct young healthy individual could be utilized in six month intervals for repair of young altered or aged reproductive and other tissue functions. Systemic and local use of honey bee propolis tincture is an alternative option for functional rejuvenation of some tissues. PMID:25778477
Objective The aim of the paper is to examine how those working in, using and regulating assisted conception clinics discussed infertility counselling and its provision within the context of embryo donation and in vitro fertilisation. Method 35 participants were recruited for semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. All data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The thematic analysis revealed recurring themes based upon the portrayals of infertility counselling, embryo donation and in vitro fertilisation. Conclusions This paper suggests that an implicit hierarchy exists around those using assisted conception techniques and their infertility counselling requirements, which was dependent upon the assisted conception technique used. As a result, some people using assisted conception techniques felt that their needs had been overlooked due to this covert hierarchy. Practice implications Those working in, using or regulating assisted conception clinics should not view infertility counselling as restricted to treatments involving donation, or solely for people within the clinical system. PMID:21035297
Clinical papers strongly recommend psychosocial counseling for patients attending infertility clinics. These recommendations are at odds with studies showing that very few patients actually take-up such services. The disparity between recommendation and actual use would seem to be due to the lack of distinction between the needs of the few highly distressed patients who feel overwhelmed by their infertility and those of the average infertile couple who experience distress but cope well with it. In the former case, psychosocial counseling is likely to be beneficial, while in the latter case informal sources of help, for example, that provided through documentation, are likely to be sufficient. Unfortunately, the emphasis on psychosocial counseling for highly distressed patients in the area of infertility has left the needs of less distressed patients neglected and the potential usefulness of alternative methods of intervening with these patients unexplored. PMID:9130063
Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747
Marianne Bitler; Lucie Schmidt
Infertility is more common for non-Hispanic black women, non-Hispanic other race women, and Hispanic women than for non-Hispanic white women, and both infertility and impaired fecundity are more common for high school dropouts and high school graduates with no college than for 4-year college graduates, and for older women compared with women 29 and younger. Older women, non-Hispanic white women,
Gini, P C; Ikerionwu, S E
A total of 4700 specimens of premenstrual endometrial curettings from infertile women were reviewed at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Ten cases of tuberculous endometritis were found, giving a prevalence of 0.2%. The significance of this low prevalence is discussed. It is suggested that more deliberate efforts should be made to search for genital tuberculosis in infertile women in developing countries. PMID:1968860
Chao-Chin Hsu; Pao-Lin Kuo; Louise Chuang; Ying-Hung Lin; Yen-Ni Teng; Yung-Ming Lin
Aim:To determine the deletion junctions of infertile men in Taiwan with azoospermia factor region c (AZFc) deletions and to evaluate the genotype\\/phenotype correlation.Methods:Genomic DNAs from 460 infertile men were examined. Bacterial artificial chromosome clones were used to verify the accuracy of polymerase chain reaction. Deletion junctions of the AZFc region were determined by analysis of sequence-tagged sites and gene-specific markers.Results:Complete
Lubna Ishaq Bhatti; Fariyal F. Fikree; Amanullah Khan
Objectives: There is a dearth of knowledge regarding Pakistani women's perceptions and treatment seeking behavior for infertility. We conducted this study to explore the contextual factors that influence the health-seeking behavior of infertile women in the lower socio-economic group.Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women, identified from clinics and community using pre-tested interview guidelines covering issues as the chronological
Mansoureh Karimzadeh; Nasser Salsabili; Firouzeh Akbariasbagh; Abdoulrassol Mehrsai
Background Parenthood is one of the major transitions in adult life for both men and women, which is associated with major emotional sequels. This study was performed to determine the psychological impact of infertility in healthy infertile (HI) male and their partners compared to spinal cord injured (SCI) male patients and their partners.Methods In this descriptive analytical study 115 subjects who attended
Yakov M Epstein; Helane S Rosenberg; Theresa Venet Grant; Nancy Hemenway B. A
Objective: To gather information about demographic characteristics, medical status, mode of Internet participation, and psychological well-being of participants whose only outlets (OOs) for talking about infertility are Internet medical and support forums and to compare them with persons who have additional outlets (AOs).Design: Prospective Internet-based survey.Setting: Website of a nonprofit international infertility organization.Patient(s): Five hundred eighty-nine persons submitting fully completed
Rachootin, P.; Olsen, J.
The association between infertility and a number of occupations and occupational exposures was examined in a case-control study utilizing data collected from medical records and mailed questionnaires. The results suggest that male exposure to heat and female exposure to noise, textile dyes and lead, mercury, and cadmium are associated with infertility. Further research is needed to examine the entire spectrum of abnormal reproductive and developmental outcomes of exposure to these agents and to identify their full effects.
Hideya Kodama; Raizo Yamaguchi; Jun Fukuda; Hiroshi Kasai; Toshinobu Tanaka
Objective: To investigate whether a high level of oxidative DNA damage in spermatozoa occurs in infertile male patients and to examine the influence of antioxidant treatments on the levels of this damage.Design: Controlled clinical study and uncontrolled pilot study.Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Akita University School of Medicine.Patient(s): Nineteen infertile male and 17 control patients.Intervention(s): The levels of oxidative
Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Sehhati, Fahimeh; Rahimi, Mareieh
Introduction: Improving the lifestyle of infertile couples led to the preservation of their performance, increase their quality of life, and reduce health cost. So, the aims of this study were to determine the health-promoting lifestyle and its predictors among infertile couples. Methods: In a cross-sectional, analytical study 322 infertile couples referred to an infertility clinic in Tabriz was participated with convenience sampling method. The demographic and the standard Health Promoting Lifestyle-II (HPLP II) questionnaires were completed by all couples individually. For determining the demographic predictors of health-promoting lifestyle, the multivariate linear regression was used. Results: The mean (standard deviation) score of health-promoting lifestyle in couples was 2.4 (0.4) of the achievable score ranged from 1 to 4. The highest mean score was for nutrition subscale 2.6 (0.5) in both men and women and the lowest mean score was for physical activity subscale in women 2.1(0.5) and men 2.3(0.5) and health responsibility subscale (2.3(0.5) in both men and women. Educational level, cause of infertility, adequacy of income for living expense, and living situation were predictors of health-promoting lifestyle. Conclusion: The results showed that participants do not carry out all health-promoting behaviors, especially physical activity and health responsibility, in an acceptable level. These behaviors have an important role in improving the quality of life, health maintenance, and fertility. Thus, the provision of strategies, including those in accordance with predictors of health-promoting behaviors, is important for improving the health status of infertile couples. PMID:25276761
Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Syedeh Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali
Background Infertility may prevent couples to achieve the desired social roles and lead to some social and psychological problems. This study aimed to explain the social consequences of infertility in Iranian women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods A qualitative content analysis was conducted based on 32 semi-structured interviews with 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children. The participants were purposefully selected with maximum variability from a fertility health research center in Tehran, Iran, from January to October 2012. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. Results Our findings indicate that the consequences of infertility are divided into five main categories: 1. violence including psychological violence and domestic physical violence, 2. marital instability or uncertainty, 3. social isolation including avoiding certain people or certain social events and self-imposed isolation from family and friends, 4. social exclusion and partial deprivation including being disregarded by family members and relatives and reducing social interactions with the infertile woman and 5. social alienation. Conclusion This study reveals that Iranian women with fertility issues seeking treatment face several social problems that could have devastating effects on the quality of their lives. It is, therefore, recommended that, in Iran, infertility is only considered as a biomedical issue of a couple and pay further attention to its sociocultural dimensions and consequences. PMID:25780523
Morris, M.A.; Moix, I.; Mermillod, B. [Univ. and Cantonal Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others
Up to 1 in 3 couples have a problem of infertility at some time in their lives. Sex chromosome anomalies are found in 5-10% of couples, with mosaic aneuploidy being a common finding in primary infertility. Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), in contrast, is frequently associated with autosomal structural anomalies. We hypothesized that low-level mosaic X chromosome aneuploidy was associated with primary infertility but not with RSA. Three groups were studied: women from couples with primary infertillity (n=26); women with three or more spontaneous abortions (n=22); and age-matched normally fertile women (at least two pregnancies; n=28). Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine X chromosome ploidy in 100 nuclei per patient, using a contig of three cosmids from MAO locus (kindly donated by W. Berger, Nijmegen). A control probe (chr. 15 centromere) was simultaneously hybridized, and only nuclei containing two control signals were scored for the X chromosome. The mean numbers of nuclei with two X chromosome signals were the same in all groups (Welch equality of means test: p>0.97). However, there is a significant difference between the variances of the primary infertile and RSA groups (Levene`s test: p=0.025 after Bonferrone correction for multiple testing). This provides preliminary support for the hypothesis of an association between primary infertility and low-level mosaic X chromosome aneuploidy.
Fahami, Fariba; Pahlavanzadeh, Saeid; Asadi, Mahboobeh
Background: Sexual function is reduced in an infertile woman. This study aimed to determine the effect of a communication skills training program on sexual function in infertile women referring to the medical centers in Isfahan in 2012. Materials and Methods: This study is a field trial study using control groups in which 32 infertile couples were selected by convenience sampling, and then, were randomly divided into control and training groups. Data were collected before (T1), 1 week after (T2), and 1 month after (T3) the training. In the intervention group, education was conducted in the form of five 3-h sessions, sequentially held with 1 week interval. Female Sexual Function Index (FISI) scale and Individual Fertility questionnaire were used to collect the data. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests [t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and least significant difference (LSD)]. Results: Communication skills training increased the sexual function in infertile women. ANOVA showed that women's sexual function was significantly greater in the intervention group compared to the control group, after training. LSD test showed no significant difference in sexual function in T2 and T3. Conclusions: Communication skills can have a significant impact on the sexual function of infertile couples, and communication skills training can improve the quality of marital life skills through the counseling sessions conducted with infertile couples.
Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, M; Pinto-Gouveia, J; Matos, M
The objective of this study is to investigate gender differences regarding the mediator role of self-compassion and self-judgment on the effects of external shame, internal shame, dyadic adjustment, on infertility-related stress. One hundred and sixty-two women and 147 men with a primary infertility diagnosis completed the following set of self-report measures: Others as Shamer, Experience of Shame Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Self-Compassion Scale, and Fertility Problem Inventory. Path analyses results revealed that in women self-compassion fully mediated the effect of internal shame on infertility-related stress and partially mediated the effect of dyadic adjustment on this variable, while external shame had only a direct effect. In men self-judgment fully mediated the effect of external and internal shame on infertility-related stress. Dyadic adjustment had only a direct effect on infertility-related stress. In conclusion, there is a distinct role of self-compassion and self-judgment on the relationship between shame and infertility-related stress in men and women. Such differences should be taken into account in psychological interventions with these patients. Future research is warranted to further support our results. PMID:23821009
Wischmann, T.; Schilling, K.; Toth, B.; Rösner, S.; Strowitzki, T.; Wohlfarth, K.; Kentenich, H.
Introduction: Infertile couples often report quality-of-life impairments, especially in terms of sexuality, self-esteem and partnership quality. So far, there have been no systematic studies of the sex lives and behaviour of infertile women and men before and after the emergence of their mutual desire for a child. Materials and Methods: From February 2010 to August 2010 all couples starting treatment either at Heidelberg University?s Women?s Hospital or at the Fertility Center Berlin were asked to fill out the Self-Esteem and Relationship Questionnaire (SEAR). A total of n?=?158 women and n?=?153 men participated in the study. Results: Decreasing tendencies were observable for both partners in the domains Sexual Relationship Satisfaction and Confidence and in the subscales Self-Esteem and Overall Relationship Satisfaction. There were especially clear indications of a loss of spontaneous sexuality during the experience of infertility. We were also able to establish that infertility has a negative impact on women?s self-esteem. Discussion: The results of this study indicate that SEAR can be used as a feasible instrument for identifying infertile women and men whose infertility has a negative effect on their relationship quality and/or sex lives. PMID:25221344
The lifetime prevalence of infertility in representative population-based studies from industrialised countries is 17-28%, and on average, 56% of individuals affected seek medical advice. Infertility, as well as being a medical condition, has a social dimension; it is a poorly-controlled, chronic stressor with severe long-lasting negative social and psychological consequences. Although infertility can lead to severe strain in a couples' relationship, it can also have a potentially positive effect. Appraisal-oriented coping strategies including emotional coping are associated with reduced stress in infertility. Long-term studies of involuntary childless women following unsuccessful treatment show that although most adjust well psychologically, their childlessness is a major theme of their lives. Most studies are based on cross-sectional studies among couples seeking fertility treatment and focus on individual characteristics, for example, stress level, anxiety and symptoms of depression. There is a lack of studies investigating the impact of infertility and its treatment on social relations and of studies which have used the couple as the unit of analysis. More large-scale, long-term prospective cohort studies which address the social as well as psychological consequences of infertility are needed. PMID:19330608
Nachtigall, Robert D.; Castrillo, Martha; Shah, Nina; Turner, Dylan; Harrington, Jennifer; Jackson, Rebecca
Study Objective To provide insight into the experience of low income immigrant Latino couples seeking infertility treatment. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Infertility Clinic at a University-affiliated urban public teaching hospital. Patients Infertile low-income immigrant Latino couples (105 women and 40 men). Interventions In-depth tape-recorded interviews. Main Outcome Measures After transcription and translation, the interviews were coded and analyzed for thematic content. Results We identified four major challenges to providing infertility services to this population: (1) Communication: Language and cultural barriers resulted in patients having difficulty both in understanding diagnoses and treatments and in communicating their questions, concerns and experiences to physicians; (2) Continuity: Because medical student and residents rotated frequently, patients usually saw a different physician at each visit. (3) Bureaucracy: Patients reported having difficulty with appointment scheduling, follow-up visits, and timed laboratory procedures. (4) Accessibility: Patients faced issues of limited availability and affordability of treatment. Conclusions At a large, urban, University-affiliated infertility clinic, challenges related to communication, comprehension, continuity, bureaucracy, accessibility, availability, and affordability impeded the delivery of optimal infertility care to many low income immigrant Latino patients. We recommend a greater availability of translators and both patient and physician cultural orientations to address these health care barriers. PMID:18710703
Shafi, Hamid; Esmaeilzadeh, Seddigheh; Delavar, Mouloud Agajani; Haydari, Fatemeh Hosseinpour; Mahdinejad, Neda; Abedi, Sharare
Background: Existing data suggests that varicocele plays a central role in progressive infertility. Aims: This study was designed to assess the occupational and lifestyle factors of development of varicocele among male infertile, for a better prevention and management of the varicocele. Materials and Methods: All males with infertility, who presented at Fatemezahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center between April 2010 and February 2011, were examined. Their occupations, smoking, and drinking alcohol, presence or absence of varicocele were evaluated. The lifestyle factors associated with varicocele were analyzed. Results: The data of 816 men, aged 21-71 years, were included in the study. Two hundred and sixty-one men (32%) with varicocele and 555 (68%) without varicocele were found. Percentage of varicocele was significantly higher in smokers compared with non-smokers (P = 0.035). The adjusted OR for varicocele in smokerswas significantly higher than that in non-smoker (OR = 2.420; 95% CI = 1.04, 5.61). No significant differences were seen between varicocele and occupation or alcohol drinking for the prevalence of varicocele. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated that a high frequency of varicocele was indentified among male infertile. Therefore, it is necessary for those male cigarette-smokers to evaluate their possibilities of infertility and varicocele. PMID:25489566
Noveski, Predrag; Madjunkova, Svetlana; Mircevska, Marija; Plaseski, Toso; Filipovski, Vanja; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana
Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) is the most common CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) that explains about 1-2% of the male infertility cases. Controversial data have been published regarding the involvement of CFTR mutations in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Here, we describe single base extension (SNaPshot) assay for detection of 11 common CFTR mutations: F508del, G542X, N1303K, 621+1G->T, G551D, R553X, R1162X, W1282X, R117H, 2184insA and 1717-1G->A and IVS8polyT variants. The assay was validated on 50 previously genotyped samples and was used to screen a total of 369 infertile men with different impairment of spermatogenesis and 136 fertile controls. Our results show that double heterozygosity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) mutations are found in a high percentage (22.7%) of infertile men with obstructive azoospermia, but not in other studied groups of infertile men. The SNaPshot assay described here is an inexpensive, fast and robust method for primary screening of the most common CFTR mutations both in patients with classical CF and CFTR-RD. It can contribute to better understanding of the role of CFTR mutations in impaired spermatogenesis, ultimately leading to improved management of infertile men. PMID:25386751
Puri, Suman; Jain, Dinesh; Puri, Sandeep; Kaushal, Sandeep; Deol, Satjeet Kaur
Aims: To evaluate the role of laparohysteroscopy in female infertility andto study the effect of therapeutic procedures in achieving fertility. Settings and Design: Patients with female infertility presenting to outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology were evaluated over a period of 18 months. Materials and Methods: Fifty consenting subjects excluding male factor infertility with normal hormonal profile and no contraindication to laparoscopy were subject to diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. Statistical Analysis Used: T-test. Results: We studied 50 patients comprising of 24 (48%) cases of primary infertility and 26 (52%) patients of secondary infertility. The average age of active married life for 50 patients was between 8 and 9 years. In our study, the most commonly found pathologies were PCOD, endometroisis and tubal blockage. 11 (28.2) patients conceived after laparohysteroscopy followed by artificial reproductive techniques. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the benefit of laparohysteroscopy for diagnosis and as a therapeutic tool in patients with primary and secondary infertility. We were able to achieve a higher conception rate of 28.2%. PMID:25664268
Mircevska, Marija; Plaseski, Toso; Filipovski, Vanja; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana
Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) is the most common CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) that explains about 1–2% of the male infertility cases. Controversial data have been published regarding the involvement of CFTR mutations in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Here, we describe single base extension (SNaPshot) assay for detection of 11 common CFTR mutations: F508del, G542X, N1303K, 621+1G->T, G551D, R553X, R1162X, W1282X, R117H, 2184insA and 1717-1G->A and IVS8polyT variants. The assay was validated on 50 previously genotyped samples and was used to screen a total of 369 infertile men with different impairment of spermatogenesis and 136 fertile controls. Our results show that double heterozygosity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) mutations are found in a high percentage (22.7%) of infertile men with obstructive azoospermia, but not in other studied groups of infertile men. The SNaPshot assay described here is an inexpensive, fast and robust method for primary screening of the most common CFTR mutations both in patients with classical CF and CFTR-RD. It can contribute to better understanding of the role of CFTR mutations in impaired spermatogenesis, ultimately leading to improved management of infertile men. PMID:25386751
Legro, Richard S.; Brzyski, Robert G.; Diamond, Michael P.; Coutifaris, Christos; Schlaff, William D.; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M.; Huang, Hao; Yan, Qingshang; Alvero, Ruben; Haisenleder, Daniel J.; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Bates, G. Wright; Usadi, Rebecca; Lucidi, Scott; Baker, Valerie; Trussell, J.C.; Krawetz, Stephen A.; Snyder, Peter; Ohl, Dana; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping
BACKGROUND Clomiphene is the current first-line infertility treatment in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, but aromatase inhibitors, including letrozole, might result in better pregnancy outcomes. METHODS In this double-blind, multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 750 women, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive letrozole or clomiphene for up to five treatment cycles, with visits to determine ovulation and pregnancy, followed by tracking of pregnancies. The polycystic ovary syndrome was defined according to modified Rotterdam criteria (anovulation with either hyperandrogenism or polycystic ovaries). Participants were 18 to 40 years of age, had at least one patent fallopian tube and a normal uterine cavity, and had a male partner with a sperm concentration of at least 14 million per milliliter; the women and their partners agreed to have regular intercourse with the intent of conception during the study. The primary outcome was live birth during the treatment period. RESULTS Women who received letrozole had more cumulative live births than those who received clomiphene (103 of 374 [27.5%] vs. 72 of 376 [19.1%], P = 0.007; rate ratio for live birth, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.87) without significant differences in overall congenital anomalies, though there were four major congenital anomalies in the letrozole group versus one in the clomiphene group (P = 0.65). The cumulative ovulation rate was higher with letrozole than with clomiphene (834 of 1352 treatment cycles [61.7%] vs. 688 of 1425 treatment cycles [48.3%], P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in pregnancy loss (49 of 154 pregnancies in the letrozole group [31.8%] and 30 of 103 pregnancies in the clomiphene group [29.1%]) or twin pregnancy (3.4% and 7.4%, respectively). Clomiphene was associated with a higher incidence of hot flushes, and letrozole was associated with higher incidences of fatigue and dizziness. Rates of other adverse events were similar in the two treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS As compared with clomiphene, letrozole was associated with higher live-birth and ovulation rates among infertile women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00719186.) PMID:25006718
Collins, J A; Burrows, E A; Yeo, J; YoungLai, E V
Although sperm-associated antibody could impair fertility through various mechanisms, the results of follow-up studies do not uniformly confirm that pregnancy rates are lower when one of the infertile partners demonstrates antibody to spermatozoa. We conducted a prospective double-blind cohort comparative analysis in which antibody assay results were not available to physicians or patients for clinical management. The diagnostic protocol included mid-luteal progesterone, semen analysis, hysterosalpingogram and laparoscopy. The serum of each partner was assayed by immunobead testing, tray agglutination testing and a gelatin agglutination test. Data on relevant clinical characteristics and events during follow-up were collected prospectively. Among 471 couples in whom both partners were evaluated, 42 (8.9%) tested positive for anti-sperm antibodies by one or more assays, including 38 (8.1%) male partners and 6 (1.3%) female partners. The number of conceptions was 118/429 (27.5%) in antibody negative couples, 9/38 (23.7%) in male partner-positive couples and 1/6 (16.7%) in female partner-positive couples. With proportional hazards analysis, antibody status in either partner was not a significant independent predictor of time to pregnancy. PMID:8501191
The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.
Brackett, Nancy L.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs most often to young men. Following SCI, most men are infertile due to a combination of erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Erectile dysfunction may be treated by the same therapies that are used in the general population. Similarly, the same treatments that are effective to assist conception in couples with non-SCI male factor patients are effective in assisting conception in SCI male-factor patients. The most apparent differences in male-factor symptoms between SCI and non-SCI patients are the high occurrences of anejaculation and atypical semen profiles in men with SCI. Methods available to assist ejaculation in men with SCI include penile vibratory stimulation and EEJ. Use of surgical sperm retrieval as the first line of treatment for anejaculation in men with SCI is controversial. Most men with SCI have a unique semen profile characterized by normal sperm concentration, but abnormally low sperm motility. Toxic substances in the semen contribute to this problem. Despite impaired sperm parameters, pregnancy outcomes using sperm from men with SCI are similar to pregnancy outcomes using sperm from non-SCI men. Future studies should focus on improving natural ejaculation and improving semen quality in these men. PMID:24278717
Avasthi, Prachee; Scheel, Jan Frederik; Ying, Guoxin; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Baehr, Wolfgang; Wolfrum, Uwe
Summary Centrins are calmodulin-like Ca2+-binding proteins that can be found in all ciliated eukaryotic cells from yeast to mammals. Expressed in male germ cells and photoreceptors, centrin 1 (CETN1) resides in the photoreceptor transition zone and connecting cilium. To identify its function in mammals, we deleted Cetn1 by homologous recombination. Cetn1?/? mice were viable and showed no sign of retina degeneration suggesting that CETN1 is nonessential for photoreceptor ciliogenesis or structural maintenance. Phototransduction components localized normally to the Cetn1?/? photoreceptor outer segments, and loss of CETN1 had no effect on light-induced translocation of transducin to the inner segment. Although Cetn1?/? females and Cetn1+/? males had normal fertility, Cetn1?/? males were infertile. The Cetn1?/? testes size was normal, and spermatogonia as well as spermatocytes developed normally. However, spermatids lacked tails suggesting severe defects at the late maturation phase of spermiogenesis. Viable sperm cells were absent and the few surviving spermatozoa were malformed. Light and electron microscopy analyses of Cetn1?/? spermatids revealed failures in centriole rearrangement during basal body maturation and in the basal-body–nucleus connection. These results confirm an essential role for CETN1 in late steps of spermiogenesis and spermatid maturation. PMID:23641067
Schover, Leslie R.; van der Kaaij, Marleen; van Dorst, Eleonora; Creutzberg, Carien; Huyghe, Eric; Kiserud, Cecilie E.
Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options.
Doig, P. A.; McKnight, J. D.; Miller, R. B.
The results of a study on endometrial biopsies obtained from 700 infertile mares are reported. Infiltrative endometritis was present in 51% consisting of a combination of an acute and chronic cellular response in 6%, mild chronic infiltrations in 35% and moderate to severe chronic infiltrations in 10%. Demonstrable endometrial fibrosis was found in 88% of the mares with the majority having mild (51%) or moderate (35%) changes. The age of the mares and the average number of years barren gradually increased with the severity of endometrial fibrosis, as did the combined incidence of fetal loss (early embryonic death and abortion) during the three year period preceding the biopsy. A significant decrease in foaling percentage for the year following the biopsy was observed with increasing severity of endometrial fibrosis. Chisquare analysis projected a decrease in foaling rate of 22.8% for each category increase in severity. The number of years barren and the farm management system used also had a significant effect on foaling probability. The foaling rates for mares that were bred artificially (82%) under strict veterinary supervision using an extender incorporating gentamicin were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than for mares bred in a conventional manner under average management conditions (48%). It was concluded that endometrial biopsy is a valuable diagnostic and prognostic technique. When the degree of fibrosis is used to predict foaling probability, the number of years barren and the breeding method to be used should also be considered to arrive at a more accurate prediction. PMID:7026016
Mohseni Moghadam, Naeime; Kheirkhah, Babak; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Tafsiri, Elham
Background: Mycoplasmas can cause acute and chronic diseases at multiple sites with wide-range complications and have been implicated as cofactors in diseases. The infections influenced form genital mycoplasmas specifically Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium potentially affect reproductive disorders, and infertility. Objective: Isolation and molecular identification of Mycoplasma genitalium from the genital tract of infertile male and vaginal discharge of infertile female referred to Infertility Center of Kerman in 2013. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized, prospective study. We included 100 infertile male and 100 infertile female that were referred to the Infertility Center of Kerman. Then for isolation and molecular identification of Mycoplasma genitalium from urethral and vaginal discharge polymerase chain reaction was performed on Mycoplasma genus and genitalium. Results: From a total of 100 semen samples 45 patients (45%) were mycoplasma-positive and 13 (28.8%) were genitalium species positive. Also, from a total of 100 women samples 43 women (43%) were mycoplasma-positive and 10 (23.2%) were genitalium species positive. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic tree was drawn. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, a high percentage of infertile male and female were infected with the Mycoplasma genitalium. For prevention of harmful and significant consequences of this infection, we suggest a screening program in symptomatic infertile couples. PMID:25469132
Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used in the Middle East, especially to treat chronic diseases such as infertility. We aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics, and determinants of CAM use, particularly herbs and antioxidant therapies, among infertile males presenting for infertility evaluation in Jordan. Methods Demographic information, use of alternative and antioxidant therapies for infertility treatment, and patients’ belief in efficacy and safety of the therapies used were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. Data were collected from 428 infertile male patients presenting at infertility clinics in Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between April 2013 and September 2013. Results Of the 428 men who completed the questionnaire, 184 (43%) used at least one of the alternative and antioxidant therapies specified in the questionnaire. Nutritional regime; vitamins, such as vitamins C and E; and medicinal herbs, such as ginger, saw palmetto, and ginseng were the most commonly used therapies reported. A correlation between the use of alternative and antioxidant therapies versus infertility duration was found. Additionally, the majority of males using CAM did not inform their health care providers about their usage. Conclusions The high prevalence of CAM use among infertile male patients underscores the urge to assimilate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as to improve infertile patients’ knowledge of the safe use of CAM modalities. PMID:25026980
Cserepes, R. E.; Bugán, A.; Korösi, T.; Toth, B.; Rösner, S.; Strowitzki, T.; Wischmann, T.
Introduction: As gender role attitudes and the evaluation of parenthood and childlessness have subtle variations in each society, cross-country studies focusing on infertility are needed to draw a complex picture in the psychosocial context of infertility. This study investigates similarities and differences between German and Hungarian infertile couples regarding infertility specific quality of life and personal gender role attitudes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with data of 540 participants (270 couples) attending the first fertility consultation in one fertility clinic in Germany and in five fertility clinics in Hungary. Data were collected between February 2012 and March 2013. Two psychological questionnaires were applied: The FertiQoL to measure infertility specific quality of life and the PAQ to measure gender role attitudes like “instrumental” acting (as a traditional “masculine” attitude) and “expressive” communicating (as a traditional “femine” attitude) and their combinations “combined” attitude (as both “instrumental” and “expressive”) and “neutral” attitude (neither “instrumental” nor “expressive”). Results: German couples seeking assisted reproduction treatment are older aged and have longer lasting relationships than Hungarian couples. Hungarian couples scored higher on all quality of life scales than did German couples. In the Hungarian group, “combined” attitudes (use of both “expressive” and “instrumental” attitudes) is associated with higher levels of quality of life compared with other gender role attitudes. In the German group, individuals with “combined” attitudes seem to show better quality of life than those in “expressive” and “neutral” clusters. Conclusions: The strategy of using combined “expressive” and “instrumental” attitudes proved to act as a buffer against infertility-related stress for both members of the couple in two European countries and can therefore be recommended as helpful in counselling the infertile couple. PMID:25484375
Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri
The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05) and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment. PMID:25184788
Yoshioka, Waka; Amino, Nobuyuki; Ide, Akane; Kang, Shino; Kudo, Takumi; Nishihara, Eijun; Ito, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Hirotoshi; Miyauchi, Akira
Infertile women sometimes associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). The guidelines of the American Endocrine Society, and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Thyroid Association recommend treatment with thyroxine (T4) for patients with SCH who want to have children. We examined 69 female infertile patients with SCH and the effects of levothyroxine (l-T4) therapy on pregnancy rates and pregnancy outcomes were observed. Fifty-eight (84.1%) patients successfully conceived during the T4 treatment period (Group A), although 17 patients (29.3%) had miscarriage afterward. The remaining 11 patients continued to be infertile (Group B). The median TSH value in Group A before the T4 treatment was 5.46 ?IU/mL (range 3.1-13.3) and this significantly decreased to 1.25 ?IU/mL (range 0.02-3.75) during the treatment (p < 0.001). The estimated duration of infertility before the T4 treatment was 2.8±1.7 years and the duration until pregnancy after the treatment was significantly shorter at 0.9±0.9 years (p < 0.001). Shortening of the infertile period after the T4 therapy was observed not only in patients who were treated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) but also in patients who conceived spontaneously in Group A. Administered T4 dose was 54.3±14.2 ?g before pregnancy and 68.5±22.8 ?g during pregnancy (p < 0.001). Anti-thyroid autoantibodies were identified in 42.0% of all patients and no significant difference was observed in positivity between Group A and Group B. High successful pregnancy rate and shorter duration of infertility until pregnancy after T4 treatment strongly suggest that T4 enhanced fertility in infertile patients with SCH. PMID:25312747
Background To develop a scale to evaluate violence experienced among infertile women. Method Three steps were followed in the development of the scale: Literature review and deep interviews to generate item pool, content validity testing, and administration of draft. Content validity was evaluated by experts. The draft scale was pilot-tested with a convenience sample of 30 women during their treatment. After the pilot-test, 166 infertile females filled the scale in the infertility clinic of a university hospital in Istanbul. Results For evaluation of construct validity, Kaiser-Mayer Olkin was 0.91. Bartlett test was statistically significant (p?=?0.00). According to the results of analysis, 5 domains were determined: “domestic violence”, “social pressure”, “punishment”, “exposure to traditional practices” and “exclusion”. The values of correlation of item were between 0.50 and 0.82. Item-total and subscale-total correlation varied between 0.57-0.91. The scale had good internal reliability, with Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient of 0.96. The other coefficients of subscales varied between 0.80-0.94. Conclusions The scale called “Infertile Women’s Exposure to Violence Determination Scale” indicates high reliability, good content and construct validity. Routine screening for domestic violence in infertility clinics is necessary to give affected women an opportunity to access appropriate health care and support services. On the other hand, common use of Infertile Women’s Exposure to Violence Determination Scale in infertility clinics provides increased sensitivity and awareness by caregivers. PMID:24576353
Akyuz, Aygul; Sever, Nese; Karasahin, Emre; Guvenc, Gulten; Cek, Suzan
Background There are various treatment options for infertility, and new techniques are also being developed as it is an important healthcare problem affecting approximately 15-20% of married couples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of infor- mation of fertile and infertile Turkish women on oocyte donation in order to understand their awareness of the legal, ethical, social and religious issues regarding this technique and to compare these two groups in terms of these variables. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included infertile women being treated at the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) program of a university hos- pital and women who had presented at the gynecology outpatients department of the same university for routine check-ups and who had no previous history of infertility. After consulting with specialists in the field and searching the related literature, a data collection form having 22 questions for infertile women and 18 questions for fertile women was prepared. Results The women were asked whether they would use the oocytes of another woman if necessary. The results showed that 67.6% of the fertile women said they would never want to use this method, while 63.9% of the infertile women stated they may accept to use this method under certain conditions (two distinct answers appeared in the answers, some women stated they would prefer donated oocytes from close relatives, while others stated they would prefer oocytes from total strangers), such as from a close relative or from someone they do not know at all. Conclusion Infertile women mentioned that they could use illegal routes if necessary to have a child at much higher rates than stated by fertile women. This shows that desire to have a child is a strong source of motivation in Turkey. PMID:25379158
Cserepes, R E; Bugán, A; Korösi, T; Toth, B; Rösner, S; Strowitzki, T; Wischmann, T
Introduction: As gender role attitudes and the evaluation of parenthood and childlessness have subtle variations in each society, cross-country studies focusing on infertility are needed to draw a complex picture in the psychosocial context of infertility. This study investigates similarities and differences between German and Hungarian infertile couples regarding infertility specific quality of life and personal gender role attitudes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with data of 540 participants (270 couples) attending the first fertility consultation in one fertility clinic in Germany and in five fertility clinics in Hungary. Data were collected between February 2012 and March 2013. Two psychological questionnaires were applied: The FertiQoL to measure infertility specific quality of life and the PAQ to measure gender role attitudes like "instrumental" acting (as a traditional "masculine" attitude) and "expressive" communicating (as a traditional "femine" attitude) and their combinations "combined" attitude (as both "instrumental" and "expressive") and "neutral" attitude (neither "instrumental" nor "expressive"). Results: German couples seeking assisted reproduction treatment are older aged and have longer lasting relationships than Hungarian couples. Hungarian couples scored higher on all quality of life scales than did German couples. In the Hungarian group, "combined" attitudes (use of both "expressive" and "instrumental" attitudes) is associated with higher levels of quality of life compared with other gender role attitudes. In the German group, individuals with "combined" attitudes seem to show better quality of life than those in "expressive" and "neutral" clusters. Conclusions: The strategy of using combined "expressive" and "instrumental" attitudes proved to act as a buffer against infertility-related stress for both members of the couple in two European countries and can therefore be recommended as helpful in counselling the infertile couple. PMID:25484375
Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri
The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05) and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that "women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment. PMID:25184788
MASOUMI, Seyyedeh Zahra; POOROLAJAL, Jalal; KERAMAT, Afsaneh; MOOSAVI, Seyyed Abbas
Background Several studies have been conducted in Iran in order to investigate the prevalence of depression among infertile couples. However, there is a remarkable diversity among the results. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate an overall prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples in Iran. Methods: International and national electronic databases were searched up to June 2011 including MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, SID, MagIran, and IranMedex as well as conference databases. Furthermore, reference lists of articles were screened and the studies’ authors were contacted for additional references. Cross-sectional studies addressing the prevalence of depression among infertile couples were included in this meta-analysis. We assessed 12 separate studies involving overall 2818 participants of which 1251 had depression. Results: Overall prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.55). The prevalence rate of depression was 0.44 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.56) during 2000 to 2005 and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.57 during 2006 to 2011. The prevalence rate of depression was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.53) among women and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.54) among men. Conclusion: Not only the prevalence of depression in infertile couples was high but also had increasing growth in recent years. Furthermore, despite many studies conducted addressing the prevalence of depression in infertile couples, there is however a remarkable diversity between the results. Thus, one can hardly give a precise estimation of the prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples in Iran now. PMID:23802102
Background This article analyzes several key issues in the debate: the acceptability of in vitro fertilization; regulation of assisted reproduction and the possibilities of reimbursement for assisted reproduction treatment in Lithuania. Method Two groups of respondents participated in the survey: fertile women and women with fertility disorders. 93 completed questionnaires from women with fertility problems and 146 from women with no fertility problems were analysed. Results Fertile respondents more frequently perceived the embryo as a human being (Fertile Individuals – 68.5%; Infertile Individuals – 35.5%; p < 0.05) and more frequently maintained that assisted reproduction treatment should be only partly reimbursed (Fertile Individuals – 71.3%; Infertile Individuals – 39.8%; p < 0.05). Respondents with fertility disorders more frequently thought that artificial insemination procedure could also be applied to unmarried couples (Fertile Individuals – 51.4%; Infertile Individuals – 76.3%; p < 0.05), and more frequently agreed that there should be no age limit for artificial insemination procedures (Fertile Individuals – 36.3%; Infertile Individuals – 67.7%; p < 0.05). The majority of respondents in both groups (Fertile Individuals – 77.4%; Infertile Individuals – 82.8%; p < 0.05) believed that donation of reproductive cells should be regulated by law. Fertile respondents more frequently considered that strict legal regulation was necessary in case of the number of transferred embryos (Fertile Individuals – 69.2%; Infertile Individuals – 39.8%; p < 0.05) and freezing of embryos (Fertile Individuals – 69.9%; Infertile Individuals – 57.0%; p < 0.05). Conclusion Fertile respondents were statistically more likely to believe that the IVF procedure should be applied only to married couples or women who had a regular partner, the age limit should be defined and the psychological assessment of the couple’s relationship and their readiness for the IVF procedure was necessary. In contrast, infertile couples were statistically more likely than fertile respondents to maintain that the IVF procedure should be fully reimbursed by the state. Fertile respondents were statistically more likely to be categorical with respect to the number of embryos and the freezing of embryos. Meanwhile there is a statistically significant difference in opinions of infertile respondents who were in favour of stricter regulation on donation of reproductive cells. PMID:24684746
Jamalizadeh Bahaabadi, Samaneh; Mohseni Moghadam, Naeime; Kheirkhah, Babak; Farsinejad, Alireza; Habibzadeh, Victoria
Background: Infection of urogenital system with Mycoplasma potentially affect reproductive system and increases infants mortalities. Therefore, detection of these organisms is an important issue that should be considered and appropriate diagnostic methods should be used to identify these microorganisms. In the female reproductive system, infection can affect different parts of the cervix, endometrium, and fallopian tube. The extent of this infection in different diseases and its pathogenesis might be related to anatomic site of involvement. Some infections can lead to infertility in both males and females. Genital infection with Mycoplasmas have devastating effects on reproductive organs and cause fertility disorders and mortality in infants. In recent years, many studies have been conducted to isolate these pathogens; however, the isolates have not been identified so far. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the molecular identity of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from infertile female and male reproductive system in the Infertility Center of Kerman. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed purposefully on 100 infertile females and 100 infertile males who were referred to the Infertility Center of Kerman during a six-month period. The collected samples of semen and vaginal swabs were examined for the presence of M. hominis by PCR. The samples with positive results in PCR were selected for molecular identification. Alignment of samples sequence was performed using MEGA 5 software through Neighbor-joining method. Results: Among 100 samples from infertile males, the presence of genus Mycoplasma was confirmed in 45 cases of which 15 cases were infected with M. hominis. Among 100 samples from infertile female, the presence of genus Mycoplasma was confirmed in 43 cases of which 18 case were infected with M. hominis. The positive samples were sequenced and the phylogenetic tree was plotted. Conclusions: The results showed that 37.5% of infertile males and females were infected with M. hominis. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the study isolates indicates a particular variety among these isolates. In comparing the isolates in the study, a very little genotypic similarity was found among some of them. PMID:25738116
Shukla, Kamla Kant; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari; Shankwar, Satya Narain; Tiwari, Sarvada Chandra
The present investigation was undertaken to assess the role of Mucuna pruriens in infertile men who were under psychological stress. Study included 60 subjects who were undergoing infertility screening and were found to be suffering from psychological stress, assessed on the basis of a questionnaire and elevated serum cortisol levels. Age-matched 60 healthy men having normal semen parameters and who had previously initiated at least one pregnancy were included as controls. Infertile subjects were administered with M. pruriens seed powder (5 g day?1) orally. For carrying out morphological and biochemical analysis, semen samples were collected twice, first before starting treatment and second after 3 months of treatment. The results demonstrated decreased sperm count and motility in subjects who were under psychological stress. Moreover, serum cortisol and seminal plasma lipid peroxide levels were also found elevated along with decreased seminal plasma glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid contents and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity. Treatment with M. pruriens significantly ameliorated psychological stress and seminal plasma lipid peroxide levels along with improved sperm count and motility. Treatment also restored the levels of SOD, catalase, GSH and ascorbic acid in seminal plasma of infertile men. On the basis of results of the present study, it may be concluded that M. pruriens not only reactivates the anti-oxidant defense system of infertile men but it also helps in the management of stress and improves semen quality. PMID:18955292
Boyle, C A; Khoury, M J; Katz, D F; Annest, J L; Kresnow, M J; DeStefano, F; Schrader, S M
We investigated the relation between various sperm characteristics, including morphometric parameters, and impaired fertility among 596 men who participated in a national study. Semen was collected and processed by using a standardized protocol, and sperm measurements were made using a computer-aided sperm analysis instrument. We defined infertility in two ways: (1) the inability to father a child after trying for a year or longer, and (2) the number of children fathered. We found that all measures of sperm motion were decreased among men with impaired fertility. After adjustment for the other motion parameters and various potential confounders, however, only the percentage of progressive cells was associated with infertility. One morphometric parameter, the mean length/width ratio, was consistently associated with both measures of infertility, even after adjustment for potential covariates. This measure was also strongly associated with infertility among various subgroups defined by poor sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. The sperm length/width ratio appears to be an important correlate of infertility in males. PMID:1591323
Aflatoonian, A; Baghianimoghadam, B; Abdoli, A; Partovi, P; Hemmati, P; Tabibnejad, N; Harasym, P
Objectives: to present our first experience in scheme development based on CPC philosophy in Iran. Hypothesis: One of the most important reasons of an obvious gap between medical education and professional expectations (outcomes) encountered by recent medical graduates is due to applying conventional curricula, which rely on hypothetical-deductive reasoning model. The University of Calgary has implemented a new curriculum which is organized according to 125 ways in which patients may present to a physician. In this study we will present our first experience in scheme development based on CPC philosophy in Iran. Methods: In 2007, research and clinical center for infertility (Yazd University of medical sciences, IRAN), began developing a full module for infertility (lesson plan) with fourteen components based on the new curricular philosophy. We recruited a scheme of infertility according to a specific way. Results: Thus, at the first step of the module creation, a scheme was made as the most important mainstay of presentation module, i.e. a structured scheme that includes all causative diseases of infertility. Conclusions: Any effort in the organization of knowledge around schemes including in the domain of infertility would be valuable to meet some of the standards of WFME. Also, development of modules, by the teams composed of experts and students, can improve the quality of medical education. PMID:22574082
Mostafa, T; Rashed, L A; Osman, I; Marawan, M
This study aimed to assess seminal plasma oxytocin (OT) and oxidative stress (OS) levels in infertile men with varicocele (Vx). A total of 131 men were divided into fertile men (n = 20), fertile men with Vx (n = 17), infertile men without Vx (n = 40) and infertile men with Vx (n = 54). OT, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated in seminal plasma. Mean levels of seminal OT, MDA were significantly decreased, and the mean level of GPx was significantly increased in fertile men with/without Vx compared with infertile men with/without Vx. Mean levels of OT, MDA were increased, and mean level of GPx was significantly decreased in Vx grade III cases compared with Vx grades I, II cases and in bilateral Vx cases compared with unilateral Vx. There was significant negative correlation between seminal OT with sperm count, sperm motility, seminal GPx and significant positive correlation with sperm abnormal forms, seminal MDA. It is concluded that seminal OT is significantly decreased in fertile men with/without Vx compared with infertile men with/without Vx. Seminal OT demonstrated significant negative correlation with sperm count, sperm motility, seminal GPx and significant positive correlation with sperm abnormal forms, seminal MDA. Seminal OT is associated with Vx grade and its bilaterality. PMID:24635706
Altuner, Durdu; Gulaboglu, Mine; Yapca, Omer Erkan; Cetin, Nihal
Cisplatin causes infertility due to ovarian toxicity. The toxicity mechanism is unknown, but evidence suggests oxidative stress. In this study, the effect of mirtazapine on cisplatin-induced infertility and oxidative stress in rats was investigated. 64 female rats were divided into 4 groups of 16. Except for the controls that received physiologic saline only, all were administered with cisplatin (5?mg/kg i.p.) and mirtazapine (15?mg/kg p.o.) or mirtazapine (30?mg/kg p.o.) for 10?days. After this period, six rats from each group were randomly selected, and malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), total gluthatione (tGSH), gluthatione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanine (8-OH Gua) levels were measured in their ovarian tissues. Reproductive functions of the remaining rats were examined for 6 months. The MDA, MPO, NO groups and 8-OH Gua levels were higher in the cisplatin-treated groups than the controls, which was not observed in the mirtazapine and cisplatin groups. GSH, GPx, and SOD levels were reduced by cisplatin, which was prevented by mirtazapine. Cisplatin caused infertility by 70%. The infertility rates were, respectively, 40% and 10% for the 15 and 30?mg/kg mirtazapine administered groups. In conclusion, oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in the rat ovary tissue causes infertility in the female rats. Mirtazapine reverses this in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:23737712
Karimian, Mohammad; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh
The human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene encodes one of the key enzymes in folate metabolism. This gene is located on chromosome 1 (1p36.3), which has 12 exons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association of the two (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms of this gene with male infertility. In a case-control study, 250 blood samples were collected from IVF centres in Sari and Babol (Iran): 118 samples were from oligospermic men and 132 were from controls. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MTHFR genotype were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was no association found between the A1298C variant and male infertility. However, carriers of the 677T allele (CT and TT genotypes) were at a higher risk of infertility than individuals with other genotypes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.04; P=0.0174). Structural analysis of human MTHFR flavoprotein showed that C677T transition played an important role in the change in affinity of the MTHFR-Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding site. Based on our results, we suggest that C677T transition in MTHFR may increase the risk of male infertility, and detection of the C677T polymorphism biomarker may be helpful in the screening of idiopathic male infertility. PMID:25412139
Mikulincer, M; Horesh, N; Levy-Shiff, R; Manovich, R; Shalev, J
This study examines the contribution of adult attachment style to the adjustment to infertility. Both husbands and wives of 80 infertile couples undergoing medical treatment completed the Attachment Style Scale, the Mental Health Inventory and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. One year later, data were collected on whether women became pregnant. Diagnosis of male infertility was significantly more distressing than diagnosis of female infertility. Significant differences were found among attachment groups: secure persons, either men or women, reported more well-being, less distress and more dyadic adjustment than avoidant and anxious-ambivalent persons. Partners of secure persons also reported significantly higher levels of well-being and dyadic adjustment and significantly lower levels of distress than partners of anxious-ambivalent persons. However, these effects of attachment style were significant mainly when male infertility was diagnosed. Husbands' secure attachment made a significant positive contribution to pregnancy likelihood and this effect was mediated by adjustment measures. Results are discussed in terms of attachment theory. PMID:9733422
Azimi, Cyrus; Khaleghian, Malihea; Farzanfar, Farideh
Background: The infertility is an important health problem, affecting about 15% of couples. The important role of genetic factors in pathogenesis of infertility is now increasingly recognized. The value of karyotyping women in the routine work-out of couples referred for sterility has long been recommended. Objective: The aim of this study was to define the frequency of all chromosomal aberrations among women which referred to our department due to infertility during the 21-year period. Materials and Methods: In this 21-year retrospective study, for the first time, we investigated 896 women which referred to our department due to infertility during 1986 to 2006. For chromosome analysis, heparinized peripheral blood samples were cultured, harvested and banded according to standard methods. Results: Out of 896 patients, 710 patients (79.24%) had a normal karyotype, and 186 patients (20.76%) showed abnormal karyotype. Among the abnormal ones 48 patients (25.81%) showed Turner's syndrome (45,X), and 45 patients (24.19%) were sex reversal with 46,XY karyotype. The rest of 93 patients (50%) revealed a wide range of chromosome abnormalities. Conclusion: Our results emphasized the importance of the standard cytogenetic methods in assessing the genetic characteristics of infertile females, which allows detecting a variety of somatic chromosome abnormalities, because some of these may interfere with the success of reproduction. PMID:24639762
Farzadi, Laya; Ghasemzadeh, Aliyeh; Bahrami-asl, Zahra; Shirdel, Hossein
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate possible predictors of irrational parenthood cognitions among infertile women seeking treatment. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 300 women who visited an Infertility Center in Iran during 2010 were studied. A pre-validated inventory was used to assess irrational parenthood cognitions. Potential predictors of the total irrational parenthood cognitions score were assessed. Results Mean irrational parenthood cognition score was 39.7(Range 0–56). Through bivariate analysis, the score on irrational parenthood cognition was inversely correlated with age and positively correlated with length of time seeking for infertility treatment and length of time expecting pregnancy. In a multivariate model, infertile women with higher education, especially academic education, or those with higher economic status were less likely to have irrational parenthood cognitions. However, higher motherhood motivation, no previous experience of pregnancy and being under social pressure, from others around, increased the likelihood of having irrational parenthood cognitions. Conclusions Some variables such as female spouse’s educational level and being under social pressure can independently predict irrational parenthood cognitions among infertile women that may be of use in designing health promotion plans in order to target the vulnerable women. PMID:25756990
Salmeri, Mario; Valenti, Daniela; La Vignera, Sandro; Bellanca, Salvatore; Morello, Angela; Toscano, M Antonietta; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Calogero, Aldo E
In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis infection among 250 unselected infertile men, the presence of urogenital symptoms in infected men and the effects of these microorganisms on the conventional sperm parameters. Urethral samples were obtained using a swab inserted 3-4 cm into the urethral meatus. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis were detected by the kit Mycofast R evolution 3 Elitech Microbiology (Elitech Microbiology, Signes, France). Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 15.6% of the cases and Mycoplasma hominis in 3.6%. One patients had a co-infection with both pathogens. About 41% of the infertile patients with mycoplasma infection had urogenital symptoms. A lower number of patients with mycoplasma infection had normal sperm parameters compared with non-infected infertile men, but this frequency showed only a trend compared to non-infected patients (Chi-square=3.61; P=0.057), and a significantly higher percentage of patients with oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia (Chi-square=127.3; P<0.0001), or asthenozoospermia alone (Chi-square=5.74; P<0.05) compared to non-infected infertile patients. In conclusion, this study showed an elevated prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis infection in unselected men attending an infertility outpatient clinic and that the presence of these microorganisms is associated with a higher percentage of patients with abnormal sperm parameters. PMID:22546762
Belsey, Mark A.
The problem of infertility, with particular reference to Africa south of the Sahara, is reviewed. In many areas, up to 40% of women are reported to have completed their reproductive years without bearing a child. The condition is widely distributed, but also often localized in pockets corresponding to geographical or tribal units. Most available demographic data provide estimates of childlessness but it is not sufficient to define the problem in terms of primary and secondary infertility, pregnancy wastage, and infant and child mortality. The major underlying cause for the high levels of infertility appears to be the sequelae of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in both men and women, manifested as obstructive azoospermia and tubal occlusion. Other infections, such as those that may follow abortion or delivery, or systemic infections, may be important in some areas. The available data suggest that different patterns of infertility and pregnancy wastage, and different etiological agents and processes, contribute to the problem of infertility in the different areas. The need for a systematic, standardized research approach in several areas is clearly indicated. PMID:798639
Bakhshayesh, Ali Reza; Kazeraninejad, Mahsa; Dehghan Mongabadi, Mahsa; Raghebian, Malihe
Background: Infertility affects various aspects of personality and psychology, familial and career performances, and relationships. Studies show that stress, anxiety, life dissatisfaction, and other psychological problems follow infertility. Infertility issue, its tests and remedy are stressful and may lead to anxiety and depression and have destructive effects on couple relationships. Objective: The present study was done in order to comparison general health and coping strategies in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: This is an analytic cross-sectional study and was done through random sampling on 70 fertile women and 70 infertile women who visited Yazd’s clinics. The age range of participants was between 20-40 years. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Ways of coping questionnaire (WOCQ) were filled by women who were agreed to participate in the study, following some explanations about aims and ways of doing the study. In the next step, data were analyzed through statistic methods and independent t-test. We considered a significant level p<0.05 in all tests. Results: The results indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) with respect to general health in two groups, but no significant difference was found in problem-centered and emotion centered coping strategies and depression anxiety. Conclusion: This study shows that general health in both groups is below average which means women are not sensitive about their general health. So planning on improving women’s general health by providing consultation and training courses is suggested. PMID:25246933
Quintino-Moro, Alessandra; Zantut-Wittmann, Denise E.
Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of infertility in women with Graves' disease (GD) or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and associated factors. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Endocrinology Clinic for Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases, with 193 women aged 18–50 years with GD and 66 women aged 18–60 years with HT. The women were interviewed to obtain data on their gynecological and obstetric history and family history of autoimmune diseases. Their medical records were reviewed to determine the characteristics of the disease and to confirm association with other autoimmune diseases. Infertility was defined as 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse without conception. Results. The prevalence of infertility was 52.3% in GD and 47.0% in HT. Mean age at diagnosis was 36.5 years and 39.2 years, in GD and HT, respectively. The mean number of pregnancies was lower in women who were 35 years old or younger at diagnosis and was always lower following diagnosis of the disease, irrespective of age. The only variable associated with infertility was a shorter time of the disease in HT. Conclusions. The prevalence of infertility was high in women with GD and HT and affected the number of pregnancies in young women. PMID:24678319
Umeora, O U J; Ejikeme, B N; Sunday-Adeoye, I; Umeora, M C
This study evaluated the rate and factors influencing male uptake of infertility investigations. Infertility constituted 11.2% of all new gynaecological consultations in the centre during the study period. A total of 61 (70.1%) males consented to seminal fluid studies without much hesitation, 12.4% after much persuasion, while the remainder (17.5%) refused. Obliging doctor's recommendation was the primary motivation for those who willingly had seminal fluid studies while the claim to be healthy and not being responsible for infertility were the commonest barriers for reluctance or refusal to be investigated. Fears of exposure of semen so obtained to witchcraft and rituals were also contributory. Gynaecologists working in rural South-east Nigeria should through systematic public enlightenment dispel misconceptions of necessary medical intervention. PMID:18569479
Ebrahimi, Mahbod; Akbari Asbagh, Firoozeh
Ovarian pregnancy is a rare form of extra uterine pregnancy. Serous cyst adenoma is a benign variant of epithelial cell tumors of ovary. The coexistence of a cyst adenoma with an ovarian pregnancy in the same ovary is extremely rare. Some studies suggested that infertility or ovulation-inducing drugs can be involved in increased risk of ovarian tumors and ovarian pregnancies. A 28-year-old infertile woman presented with a ruptured ovarian pregnancy following ovulation induction with metformin. She had a concurrent benign serous cyst adenoma in the same ovary. Resection of both ovarian pregnancy and tumoral mass were performed. The ovary was preserved. Removal of gestational tissue and preservation of the involved ovary are the best options for management of ovarian pregnancy in young patient. Although there is an association between infertility/ovulation inducting medications and ovarian gestation, their connections with serous cyst adenoma are undetermined. PMID:24696771
Davalieva, K; Kiprijanovska, S; Noveski, P; Plaseski, T; Kocevska, B; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D
Seminal plasma is a potential source of biomarkers for many disorders of the male reproductive system including male infertility. Knowledge of the peptide and protein components of seminal fluid is accumulating especially with the appearance of high-throughput MS-based techniques. Of special interest in the field of male infertility biomarkers, is the identification and characterization of differentially expressed proteins in seminal plasma of men with normal and impaired spermatogenesis. However, the data obtained until now is still quite heterogeneous and with small percentage of overlap between independent studies. Extensive comparative analysis of seminal plasma proteome is still needed in order to establish a potential link between seminal plasma proteins and male infertility. PMID:24052741
Palmer-Wackerly, Angela L; Krieger, Janice L
People use metaphors to cognitively frame their experiences as well as to explain those experiences to others, especially in complex medical situations. However, previous research has not fully explored the extent to which metaphors may be helpful or harmful to achieving well-being. This investigation fills this gap by identifying and explaining metaphor use in the context of infertility. Guided by self-determination theory, in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 women and men who had experienced an inability to conceive a child. Analysis of participant narratives yielded 10 prominent metaphors that reflect how participants' need for competence, autonomy, and relatedness were (and were not) met during their infertility experience. Results indicate that cognitively framing the infertility experience using certain metaphors is more likely to enhance personal and relational well-being, while others may be more harmful. Suggestions for communication with doctors, partners, families, and friends are discussed. PMID:25061825
Durmaz, Ay?en; M?ç?l?, Serap Cilaker; Vatansever, Seda; Gündüz, Cumhur; Ba?r?yan?k, Hüsnü Alper; Dikmen, Nurten; Göker, Ege Nazan Tavmergen; Tavmergen, Erol
Male infertility is correlated with sperm morphology and sperm DNA damage, which are completely different from that of fertile individuals. An accurate sperm DNA damage analysis and ultrastructural examination of the ejaculate provide important support in the clinical evaluation. It is supposed that in the near future, the fertilization rate, pregnancy rate, and miscarriages could be predicted using the combination of these types of tests in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). For this purpose, we report a very rare case of an infertile man having short tail sperm. The infertile man and his wife underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). During this process, we examined the ultrastructure of the ejaculated sperm with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and calculated the sperm DNA damage with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and COMET assays. Then, we evaluated the association between sperm DNA damage and embryo quality.
Dubchak, A Ie; Raksha, I I; Dubenko, O D; Mandzi?, I M
Laparoscopy was performed in women for diagnosis and treatment of infertility and chronic pelvic pain (CHPP). While laparoscopy performance in all the women there was revealed the adhesion process in the region of the uterine accessories, in 42.5% of them--in a small pelvis and abdominal organs, more frequently various forms of genital endometriosis were revealed, and it is interesting, that it was revealed for the first time in 33.75% of women intraoperatively. Coexistence of adenomyosis and external genital endometriosis was noted in 51.25% observations, what is trustworthy more, than in women, suffering infertility without CHPP. The concomitant affection rate is trustworthy enhanced, than in women, suffering infertility without CHPP. PMID:23610949
Kurachi, H.; Wakimoto, H.; Sakumoto, T.; Aono, T.; Kurachi, K.
The specific radioimmunoassay system was developed for the titration of the antibodies to porcine zona pellucida (ZP) in human sera by using /sup 125/I-labeled purified porcine ZP as antigen, which is known to have cross-reactivity with human ZP. The antibodies in human sera were detected in 3 of 11 (27%) women with unexplained infertility, in 16 of 48 (33%) amenorrheic patients, in 4 of 12 (33%) fertile women, and in 3 of 10 (30%) men. Moreover, antibody titers in infertile women were no higher than those in fertile women and in men. These results seem to suggest that the antibodies in human sera that cross-react with porcine ZP may not be an important factor in causing infertility in women.
Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B
Infertility counseling is a specialized field that will continue to grow in coming years as the impact of infertility and its treatment is documented more and more in terms of emotional, physical, social and life consequences. Counselors should anticipate issues that may arise in the future and assist couples in their efforts to address them. We report here on recordkeeping issues of possible future concern that should be addressed when Orthodox Jewish couples make use of donor eggs. Good medical practice values the importance of understanding the patient's individual concerns and values, including the complex psychological, sociological and cultural context in which they experience their infertility. Good counseling anticipates and addresses future problems about which patients might not currently be aware. PMID:24446049
ANNARINA AMBROSINI; GIOVANNA ZOLESE; SIMONA AMBROSI; ENRICO BERTOLI; FRANCO MANTERO; MARCO BOSCARO; GIANCARLO BALERCIA
The goal of this study was to examine the effect of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) on the capacitation process and hy- peractivated motility (HA) in idiopathic infertile men. Our data show the effect of PEA on the kinematic parameters of sperm cells from idiopathic infertile men during the capacitation of spermatozoa in vitro, both in the presence and absence of 2.5 nM
M Golshani; G Eslami; Sh Mohhammadzadeh Ghobadloo; F Fallah; H Goudarzi; AA Soleimani Rahbar; F Fayaz
Background: The aim of this study was to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyti- cum from semen samples of infertile men by Multiplex PCR and investigation of influence of bacteriospermia on semen parameters. Methods: Semen samples of 200 infertile men were evaluated by Multiplex PCR. In addition, analysis of semen parameters was performed according to the WHO guidelines.
L. Repokari; R.-L. Punamaki; L. Unkila-Kallio; S. Vilska; P. Poikkeus; J. Sinkkonen; F. Almqvist; A. Tiitinen; M. Tulppala
BACKGROUND: Evidence about the effects of infertility and assisted reproduction technique (ART) on marital relationships is discrepant. Here, we examined the impact of ART on marital relationships. The roles of life stressors, infertility and treatment characteristics in predicting marital relations were also evaluated. METHODS: Subjects: 367 couples with singleton IVF\\/ICSI pregnancies. Controls: 379 couples with spontaneous singleton pregnancies. Women and
Ahmed Aboul Nasr; Hesham Hamzah; Zakaria Abou El Maaty; Hesham Gaber; Omniah Azzam
Objective: to assess the morphological findings of the ovary based on transvaginal ultrasound in infertile oligomenorrheic women and their predictivity for endocrine signs of polycystic ovary syndrome Design: prospective controlled trial Setting: Kasr El-Aini Hospital Participants: Fifty women were recruited and divided into two groups: Group I: 30 patients suffering from primary or secondary infertility with oligomenorrhea. Group II: 20
Lyall, Kristen; Baker, Alice; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Walker, Cheryl K.
Previous findings on relationships between infertility, infertility therapies, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been inconsistent. The goals of this study are first, to briefly review this evidence and second, to examine infertility and its treatments in association with having a child with ASD in newly analyzed data. In review, we identified 14 studies published as of May 2013 investigating infertility and/or its treatments and ASD. Overall, prior results showed little support for a strong association, though some increases in risk with specific treatments were found; many limitations were noted. In new analyses of the CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) population-based study, cases with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 513) and controls confirmed to have typical development (n = 388) were compared with regard to frequencies of infertility diagnoses and treatments overall and by type. Infertility diagnoses and treatments were also grouped to explore potential underlying pathways. Logistic regression was used to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios overall and, in secondary analyses, stratified by maternal age (?35 years) and diagnostic subgroups. No differences in infertility, infertility treatments, or hypothesized underlying pathways were found between cases and controls in crude or adjusted analyses. Numbers were small for rarer therapies and in subgroup analyses; thus the potential for modest associations in specific subsets cannot be ruled out. However, converging evidence from this and other studies suggests that assisted reproductive technology is not a strong independent risk factor for ASD. Recommendations for future studies of this topic are provided. PMID:23965925
L. C. Kao; A. GERMEYER; S. TULAC; S. LOBO; J. P. YANG; R. N. TAYLOR; K. OSTEEN; B. A. LESSEY; L. C. GIUDICE
Endometriosis is clinically associated with pelvic pain and infertility, with implantation failure strongly suggested as an underlying cause for the observed infertility. Eutopic endo- metrium of women with endometriosis provides a unique ex- perimental paradigm for investigation into molecular mech- anisms of reproductive dysfunction and an opportunity to identify specific markers for this disease. We applied paral- leled gene expression
Abbey, Antonia; And Others
Examined relationship between self-esteem, perceived control, interpersonal conflict between spouses, global and intimacy life quality, and stress produced by infertility in 185 married infertile couples. Found that fertility problem stress had indirect negative effects on life quality via its mediating effects on self-esteem, internal control,…
Snarey, John; And Others
The experience of marital infertility is a major biosocial life crisis that also represents a serious threat to the development of psychosocial generativity. Psychological studies of the consequences of involuntary infertility, however, are rare. A study was undertaken to identify variations in the coping patterns used by men who have experienced…
Sunnotel, Olaf; Hiripi, Laszlo; Lagan, Kevin; McDaid, Jennifer R; De Leon, Johanny M; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Crowe, Hannah; Kaluskar, Soniya; Ward, Michael; Scullion, Catherine; Campbell, Alan; Downes, C S; Hirst, David; Barton, David; Mocanu, Edgar; Tsujimura, Akira; Cox, Marc B; Robson, Tracy; Walsh, Colum P
Abstract Background Male infertility is a common cause of reproductive failure in humans. In mice, targeted deletions of the genes coding for FKBP6 or FKBP52, members of the FK506 binding protein family, can result in male infertility. In the case...
Pepe, Margaret V.; Byrne, T. Jean
Examined immediate and long-term effects of infertility treatment on the marital and sexual relationship, as perceived by women (n=40) who failed to become pregnant during treatment. Results indicated infertility treatment significantly affected both marital and sexual satisfaction after treatment was terminated, as well as during treatment. (ABL)
Yousefniapasha, Yousefreza; Jorsaraei, Gholamali; Gholinezhadchari, Maryam; Mahjoub, Soleiman; Hajiahmadi, Mahmoud; Farsi, Mehrdad
Objective: Cigarette is a rich source of oxidants and reactive nitrogen species. Nitric oxide (NO) in high concentration has deleterious effects on human sperm function. Antioxidant defense system in seminal plasma protects spermatozoa from the attack of reactive oxygen metabolites. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between cigarette smoking with the NO levels and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the seminal plasma in infertile smoker men and to compare severity of oxidative stress (OS) in them with fertile and infertile non-smoking men. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, a total of 95 male participants attended the Infertility Clinic of the Fatehmeh-zahra Hospital in Babol, Mazandaran Province, Iran, between 2010 and 2011. They were divided into three groups: I. fertile non-smokers (F.ns; n=32), II. infertile non-smokers (IF.ns; n=30) and III. infertile smokers (IF.s; n=33) according to semen analysis World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 2001) and smoking data. TAC concentration and NO levels of seminal plasma were measured using the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method and the Griess reagent, respectively. Results: Standard sperm parameters were significantly higher in the fertile group than those in the infertile groups, but these differences between the IF.ns and IF.s were not statistically significant. The mean TAC in the seminal plasma was higher in the F.ns>IF.ns>IF.s, respectively, but these differences were not statistically significant among three groups (p= 0.096). In contrast, the mean NO level in the seminal plasma was lower in the F.ns
Olesen, C; Hansen, C; Bendsen, E; Byskov, A G; Schwinger, E; Lopez-Pajares, I; Jensen, P K; Kristoffersson, U; Schubert, R; Van Assche, E; Wahlstroem, J; Lespinasse, J; Tommerup, N
Evidence for the importance of genetic factors in male fertility is accumulating. In the literature and the Mendelian Cytogenetics Network database, 265 cases of infertile males with balanced reciprocal translocations have been described. The candidacy for infertility of 14 testis-expressed transcripts (TETs) were examined by comparing their chromosomal mapping position to the position of balanced reciprocal translocation breakpoints found in the 265 infertile males. The 14 TETs were selected by using digital differential display (electronic subtraction) to search for apparently testis-specific transcripts in the TIGR database. The testis specificity of the 14 TETs was further examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on adult and fetal tissues showing that four TETs (TET1 to TET4) were testis-expressed only, six TETs (TET5 to TET10) appeared to be differentially expressed and the remaining four TETs (TET11 to TET14) were ubiquitously expressed. Interestingly, the two tesis expressed-only transcripts, TET1 and TET2, mapped to chromosomal regions where seven and six translocation breakpoints have been reported in infertile males respectively. Furthermore, one ubiquitously, but predominantly testis-expressed, transcript, TET11, mapped to 1p32-33, where 13 translocation breakpoints have been found in infertile males. Interestingly, the mouse mutation, skeletal fusions with sterility, sks, maps to the syntenic region in the mouse genome. Another transcript, TET7, was the human homologue of rat Tpx-1, which functions in the specific interaction of spermatogenic cells with Sertoli cells. TPX-1 maps to 6p21 where three cases of chromosomal breakpoints in infertile males have been reported. Finally, TET8 was a novel transcript which in the fetal stage is testis-specific, but in the adult is expressed in multiple tissues, including testis. We named this novel transcript fetal and adult testis-expressed transcript (FATE). PMID:11134355
Background A routine semen analysis is a first step in the laboratory evaluation of the infertile male. In addition, other tests such as measurement of reactive oxygen species can provide additional information regarding the etiology of male infertility. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of semen parameters with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in two groups: healthy donors of unproven and proven fertility and infertile men. In addition, we sought to establish an ROS cutoff value in seminal plasma at which a patient may be predicted to be infertile. Methods Seminal ejaculates from 318 infertile patients and 56 donors, including those with proven fertility were examined for semen parameters and ROS levels. Correlations were determined between traditional semen parameters and levels of ROS among the study participants. ROS levels were measured using chemiluminescence assay. Receiver operating characteristic curves were obtained to calculate a cutoff value for these tests. Results Proven Donors (n?=?28) and Proven Donors within the past 2 years (n?=?16) showed significantly better semen parameters than All Patients group (n?=?318). Significantly lower ROS levels were seen in the two Proven Donor groups compared with All Patients. The cutoff value of ROS in Proven Donors was determined to be 91.9 RLU/s with a specificity of 68.8% and a sensitivity of 93.8%. Conclusions Infertile men, irrespective of their clinical diagnoses, have reduced semen parameters and elevated ROS levels compared to proven fertile men who have established a pregnancy recently or in the past. Reactive oxygen species are negatively correlated with traditional semen parameters such as concentration, motility and morphology. Measuring ROS levels in the seminal ejaculates provides clinically-relevant information to clinicians. PMID:24885775
Zaimy, Mohammad Ali; Kalantar, Seyyed Mehdi; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan; Jahaninejad, Tahere; Pashaiefar, Hossein; Ghasemzadeh, Jalal; Zahraei, Mahnaz
Background: About 15% of couples have infertility problems which 40% of them are related to the male factors. Genetic factors are candidate for about 10% of male infertility conditions. Among these, AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and AZFd regions on the Yq are considered most important for spermatogenesis. Microdeletions of these regions are thought to be involved in some cases of azoospermic or oligospermic infertile men. Objective: We studied the prevalence of AZF microdeletions among Iranian infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and oligospermia. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Iranian azoospermic and oligospermic infertile men were selected for case group and 50 men with normal spermogram as control group. The molecular study of Y chromosome microdeletions was done by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) method by using of 13 sequence tagged site (STS) markers from AZF region. Results: Four (8%) patients showed Y chromosome microdeletions among case group, deletion in AZFc region was the most frequent (80%) followed by AZFb (20%), in AZFa and AZFd region we did not detect any deletions. No deletion was detected in control group; the ratio of Y chromosome microdeletion in azoospermic men was higher than this ratio in oligospermic men [19% (3/16) among azoospermic men and 3% (1/34) among oligospermics]. Serum FSH level in men with microdeletions was higher than this level in men with no deletions (p=0.034). Conclusion: Because of relatively high prevalence of microdeletions on the long arm of Y chromosome among Iranian azoospermic and oligospermic patients, screening of this microdeletion may be advised to infertile men particularly azoospermic and oligospermic men before using assisted reproductive treatments. PMID:24639778
Parsanezhad, Mohammad Ebrahim; Dadras, Nasrin; Maharlouei, Najmeh; Neghahban, Leila; Keramati, Peghah; Amini, Madihe
Background: Unexplained infertility is still a challenging issue as to its causes, appropriate management and treatment. Evidence implicates early embryopathy or implantation failure as likely causes. Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of local endometrial injury on pregnancy rate in selected unexplained infertile patients. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial conducted in Shiraz University Infertility Clinic of Ghadir Hospital. A total of 217 women with unexplained infertility aged 23-35 years old were randomly divided into two study groups through block randomization. After superovulation by clomiphene-citrate and gonadotropins and when the dominant follicles reached 18-20 mm, patients were randomly assigned to undergo endometrial local injury at posterior uterine wall by piplle endometrial sampling (n=114) or mock pipette biopsy (n=103) during pre-ovulatory days (when spontaneous urinary LH surge was detected). Then all the patients were instructed to follow a regularly timed intercourse. Results: The pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the endometrial injury group compared to the control group [17/114 (14.9%) vs. 6/103 (5.8%) (OR: 2.83 95% CI: 1.07-7.49, p=0.03]. The abortion rate was comparable between two groups (17.64% vs. 14.28%; p=0.701). Conclusion: Local mechanical injury of the endometrium can enhance the uterine receptivity and facilitates the embryo implantation. This simple, easy, and cost effective procedure is worth considering in selective unexplained infertility patients who implantation failure is the likely causes of infertility before complex treatments. This procedure may help reduce psychological tensions and high expenses imposed through such interventions. Registration ID in IRCT: IRCT2012082510657N1 PMID:24639710
Richardson, Marcy E.; Bleiziffer, Andreas; Tüttelmann, Frank; Gromoll, Jörg; Wilkinson, Miles F.
The X-linked RHOX cluster encodes a set of homeobox genes that are selectively expressed in the reproductive tract. Members of the RHOX cluster regulate target genes important for spermatogenesis promote male fertility in mice. Studies show that demethylating agents strongly upregulate the expression of mouse Rhox genes, suggesting that they are regulated by DNA methylation. However, whether this extends to human RHOX genes, whether DNA methylation directly regulates RHOX gene transcription and how this relates to human male infertility are unknown. To address these issues, we first defined the promoter regions of human RHOX genes and performed gain- and loss-of-function experiments to determine whether human RHOX gene transcription is regulated by DNA methylation. Our results indicated that DNA methylation is necessary and sufficient to silence human RHOX gene expression. To determine whether RHOX cluster methylation associates with male infertility, we evaluated the methylation status of RHOX genes in sperm from a large cohort of infertility patients. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong association between RHOX gene cluster hypermethylation and three independent types of semen abnormalities. Hypermethylation was restricted specifically to the RHOX cluster; we did not observe it in genes immediately adjacent to it on the X chromosome. Our results strongly suggest that human RHOX homeobox genes are under an epigenetic control mechanism that is aberrantly regulated in infertility patients. We propose that hypermethylation of the RHOX gene cluster serves as a marker for idiopathic infertility and that it is a candidate to exert a causal role in male infertility. PMID:23943794
?lker Günyeli; Faruk Abike; ?lkkan Dünder; Canan Aslan; Ömer Lütfi Tap?s?z; Osman Temizkan; Ahmet Payasl?; Evrim Erdemo?lu
Objective In our study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections among infertile couples and effects of these infections on infertility.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Prevalence of Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma antibodies and Chlamydia IgM antibodies and its effect on these agents’ sperm\\u000a parameters, namely, morphology, density, and motility were investigated among a total of 212
Amirjannati, Nasser; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sehhat, Zahra
Background: Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Results: According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001). Conclusion: We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA on serum. PMID:25031577
Salehpour, Saghar; Akbari Sene, Azadeh
We present super infection of an ovarian dermoid cyst with actinomyces in an infertile patient. This is a case-report study for evaluation a couple with male factor infertility, who was a good candidate for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), while a 10 cm dermoid cyst was found in the woman’s right ovary. Patient complained of pelvic pain, intermittent fever, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia. The cyst was extracted using laparoscopy, whilst in histopathological examination, an actinomycosis super infection was reported. Actinomyc super infection of an ovarian dermoid cyst is a very rare incident which can also occur in women with no history of intrauterine device (IUD) usage or previous fertility. PMID:24520476
Metin Akbulut; Çi?dem Berna Ege; Esra Canan Kelten; Mehmet Emin Soysal
Objective Osseous metaplasia is a rare pathological entity that affects the uterus and usually appears following abortion, chronic endometritis,\\u000a metabolic disorders or following LEEP excision of the cervix.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case Herein, we present the occurrence of osseous metaplasia in a 27-year-old patient with a history of an abortion 2 years ago\\u000a and suffering infertility.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusion We suggest that the infertility in this patient may be
Kubota, Yasuaki; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Maeda, Shinichi; Katsumata, Yoshinari; Moriwaki, Takayuki; Tashiro, Kazuhiro; Deguchi, Takashi
Owing to progress of assisted reproduction technology in recent years, it has become possible for couples with infertility problems to have children. Between March 1998 and May 2003 testicular sperm extraction (TESE) was performed on 30 men with male-factor infertility in our hospital. Consequently, we succeeded in recovering 20 spermatozoa. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was subsequently performed in 15 couples and resulted in 8 pregnancies. There was a statistically significant difference in follicle-stimulating hormone, luteirizing hormone and Johnsen's score between the non-obstructive groups with successful TESE and those with unsuccessful TESE. PMID:15732333
Z. NOVOTNÝ; J. K?ÍŽAN; R. ŠÍMA; P. ŠÍMA; P. UHER; N. ZECH; R. H?TTELOVÁ; P. BABOROVÁ; Z. UL?OVÁ-GALLOVÁ; E. ULMANOVÁ; Z. HOUDEK; Z. ROKYTA; V. BABUŠKA; M. KRÁLÍ?KOVÁ
The frequency of functionally relevant mu- tations of the leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) gene in infertile women is significantly enhanced in com- parison with fertile controls. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the impact of LIF gene mutations on the outcome of the treat- ment in women with various causes of infertility. Fif- teen infertile women
Louis, Jean Fredo; Thoma, Marie E.; Sørensen, Ditte Nørbo; McLain, Alexander C.; King, Rosalind B.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Keiding, Niels; Buck Louis, Germaine M.
Infertility is a couple based fecundity impairment, though population level research is largely based upon information reported by female partners. Of the few studies focusing on male partners, most focus on the utilization of infertility services rather than efforts to estimate the prevalence and determinants of infertility as reported by male partners. Data from a nationally-representative sample of men aged 15–44 years who participated in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to estimate the prevalence of infertility and determinants of longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP) using the novel current duration approach. Using backward recurrence time parametric survival methods, we estimated infertility prevalence (TTP > 12 months) and time ratios (TR) associated with TTP as derived from males’ reported current duration of their pregnancy attempt. The estimated prevalence of infertility was 12.0% (95% CI: 7.0, 23.2). Longer TTP was associated with older male age (35–45 vs. 17–24 years) (TR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.03, 6.03), biological childlessness (TR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.19), and lack of health insurance (TR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.94) after controlling for the differences in couples’ age and other socioeconomic factors. The prevalence of infertility based on male reporting is consistent with estimates of infertility in the United States found in prospective cohort studies and current duration studies based on female reporting. Our findings suggest that males can reliably inform about couple infertility. Interventions and services aimed at reducing couple infertility should include attention to male factors associated with longer TTP identified in this study. PMID:23843214
Hollos, Marida; Larsen, Ulla; Obono, Oka; Whitehouse, Bruce
This paper examines how socio-economic contexts shape local meanings of infertility, how the prevalence of infertility affects these meanings, and how the above affect community responses, life experiences and infertility treatment-seeking behaviors in two African communities. The paper is based on interdisciplinary research conducted among the Ijo and the Yakurr people of southern Nigeria that included a survey of approximately 100 infertile women and a matching sample of 100 fertile women, as well as in-depth ethnographic interviews with infertile and fertile women in two communities: Amakiri in Delta State and Lopon in Cross River State. In-depth interview results show that female infertility is more problematic among the Ijo in Amakiri, where kinship is patrilineal (traced through the father's side), than among the Yakurr in Lopon, where kinship is double unilineal (traced through both parents). Childless women in Ijo society are not only disadvantaged economically but are prevented from attaining full adult womanhood. They therefore leave the community more often than other members. In Lopon there is also a strong preoccupation with fertility as a central fact of life, but infertile women receive support from maternal kin as well as voluntary associations serving as support groups. Our survey data confirm that there are significant differences between the life experiences of infertile and fertile women and between the infertile women of the two communities. The overall findings indicate that while there are variations in the extent to which infertility is considered problematic, the necessity for a woman to have a child remains basic in this region. Motherhood continues to define an individual woman's treatment in the community, her self-respect and her understanding of womanhood. PMID:19356835
Younes, A K H
To evaluate the effects of bilateral varicocelectomy on sexual activity, testicular volumes, semen quality, and serum hormone levels in impotence and male infertility patients, 48 patients were studied from an outpatient clinic from May 1998 to March 2001. The mean age was 37+/-5.9; 16 patients were complaining of erectile dysfunction and 32 patients were complaining of male infertility. The mean duration of impotence was 3.3+/-2.4 years and for male infertility was 3.8+/-3.2 years. Sexual and reproductive history was taken for erectile dysfunction and male infertility patients. General, local examination, and laboratory investigations were done for all patients. Preoperative and postoperative testicular volumes; semen parameters, including semen volume, sperm count, and motility; and morphology and hormonal parameters, including LH and FSH, and testosterone levels were measured. All patients were followed up for 3-36 months after varicocele repair. Left and right testicular volume was improved in impotence and male infertility patients and fertility groups, but this improvement was not statistically significant (p>.25). The semen volume was significantly increased in male infertility patients and fertility group (p<.05), but there was no statistical significant difference in impotent patients (p>.25). The sperm count was improved in male infertility patients and fertility group, but this improvement was not statistically significant (p>.25), and in impotent patients there was no significant difference (p>.40). The sperm motility was very significantly increased in male infertility patients and the fertility group (p<.0005), and highly significantly increased in impotent patients (p<.005). The abnormal forms were not statistically significant in impotence and male infertility patients (p>.40), but significantly decreased in the fertility group (p<.05). Serum testosterone was very significantly increased in impotence and male infertility patients (p<.0005) and was highly significantly increased in fertility groups (p<.005). Serum FSH was improved in impotence and male infertility patients, but this improvement was not statistically significant (p>.10), and in fertility groups of male infertility patients, the results showed a statistically significant increase (p<.05). Serum LH was not statistically significant in impotence and male infertility patients (p>.10), and was significantly increased in fertility groups (p<.05). The improvement of sexual activity was 50-75%, the pregnancy rate for their partners was 37% and increased plasma testosterone levels over a period of 3 years of follow-up after varicocele repair. PMID:12746101
Klein, T A; Windbichler, N; Deredec, A; Burt, A; Benedict, M Q
Objectives Anopheles gambiae is the primary vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and is a potential target of genetic control programs. We determined the capacity of male A. gambiae created by germline transformation to introduce infertility into stable age-distribution populations. We also determined effects of the transgenes on life history. Methods Stable age-distribution populations of A. gambiae mosquitoes were established in large indoor cages. Male mosquitoes carrying an I-PpoI homing endonuclease gene were introduced at ×5 and ×10 release rates where they competed with target male mosquitoes for matings. Similar trials were conducted in small cages with an additional ×1 release level. Results Infertility was successfully introduced into all target populations. In supporting experiments, complete female infertility was observed in all strains and species of the A. gambiae complex to which transgenic males were mated. Life history experiments demonstrated that reductions in I-PpoI male vigor exist in the form of reduced adult male emergence, longevity and competitiveness. Discussion A. gambiae I-PpoI males are capable of introducing high levels of infertility in target populations in indoor cage trials. This was accomplished despite losses of vigor resulting from the HEG transgene. These results motivate further trials of sexually I-PpoI A. gambiae in outdoor cage and field trials. PMID:22595271
McQuillan, Julia; Benjamins, Maureen; Johnson, David R; Johnson, Katherine M; Heinz, Chelsea R
Several recent studies have examined the connection between religion and medical service utilization. This relationship is complicated because religiosity may be associated with beliefs that either promote or hinder medical helpseeking. The current study uses structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between religion and fertility-related helpseeking using a probability sample of 2,183 infertile women in the United States. We found that although religiosity is not directly associated with helpseeking for infertility, it is indirectly associated through mediating variables that operate in opposing directions. More specifically, religiosity is associated with greater belief in the importance of motherhood, which in turn is associated with increased likelihood of helpseeking. Religiosity is also associated with greater ethical concerns about infertility treatment, which are associated with decreased likelihood of helpseeking. Additionally, the relationships are not linear throughout the helpseeking process. Thus, the influence of religiosity on infertility helpseeking is indirect and complex. These findings support the growing consensus that religiously-based behaviours and beliefs are associated with levels of health service utilization. PMID:20547437
Toledo, University of
and reproductive dysfunction. Indeed, leptin-deficient patients become hyperphagic, massively obese, and infertile. In the initial article, True et al. (2011) discuss the role of the adipocyte hormone leptin as a key metabolic a potential correlation between the existence of a sexual dimorphism of pubertal disorders in children
USING DNA MICROARRAYS TO CHARACTERIZE GENE EXPRESSION IN TESTES OF FERTILE AND INFERTILE HUMANS AND MICE John C. Rockett1, J. Christopher Luft1, J. Brian Garges1, M. Stacey Ricci2, Pasquale Patrizio2, Norman B. Hecht2 and David J. Dix1 Reproductive Toxicology Divisio...
Engin Kandirali; Selahittin Cayan; Abdullah Armagan; Bulent Erol; Ates Kadioglu
Aims: Testicular apoptosis has been shown in human specimens, but its correlation with serum gonadotropins and testosterone levels has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of apoptosis with serum hormone levels and testicular histopathological findings in infertile men. Methods: Testis biopsy specimens were obtained for routine clinical purposes from 41 azoospermic men. The
RAJEEV KUMAR; GAGAN GAUTAM; N. P. GUPTA; MANJU ARON; RIMA DADA; KIRAN KUCHERIA; SATISH KUMAR GUPTA; ANURAG MITRA
Background. Azoospermia due to obstruction of the vaso- epididymal junction is one of the few surgically correctable causes of male infertility. In patients where all clinical and laboratory parameters suggest a vaso-epididymal junction block amenable to surgery, failure to find normal spermatogenesis on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the testis may necessitate a change in treatment modality to the more
Behzad Ghorbani; Soltan Ghoraie
Introduction: Recent advances in the field of male infertility has led to a better understanding about the etiologies and genetic basis of azoospermia, as well as the availability of surgical sperm retrieval methods and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for its treatment. Nevertheless, the quality of life of these patients in general, and sexual function in particular, have not been explored
Lahey, Joanna N.
This paper examines the labor market effects of state health insurance mandates that increase the cost of employing a demographically identifiable group. State mandates requiring that health insurance plans cover infertility treatment raise the relative cost of insuring older women of child-bearing age. Empirically, wages in this group are…
Bokaie, Mahshid; Farajkhoda, Tahmineh; Enjezab, Behnaz; Heidari, Pooran; Karimi Zarchi, Mojgan
Background: There are many reasons why some couples do not become parents. Some are infertile, some do not want kids, children can be in a social context unacceptable and for others different life goals are more important. Objective: This study was designed to determine barriers of child adoption in infertile couples in Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Iran from April 2010 to June 2011. The research program was comprised consecutively in 240 infertile couples. Experts in Guidance and Counseling vetted the instrument and set that it has content validity. Test re-test reliability was conducted by the investigators using a sample of 20 couples who have filled questionnaire. Results: Although 230 (96%) of the respondents heard of child adoption, only 89 (37.3%) of couples knew correct meaning of child adoption. Fifty four women (24%) knew how to adopt a baby while the rest did not; 196 (82%) respondents expressed their unwillingness to adopt a baby. Hoping of childbearing (78%) was the main barrier to adopt a child. Conclusion: The barriers mentioned were cultural practices, stigmatization, financial implications, and technical problems. Most of the infertile Iranian couples prefer to stay even so without children or think about new treatment. PMID:25246908
Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility Research and Screening David Miller1, David Dix2, Robert Reid3, Susan Wykes3 and Stephen Krawetz3 1Reproductive Biology Group, University of Leeds, UK 2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmenta...
Ahmadi Forooshany, Seyed Habiballah; Yazdkhasti, Fariba; Safari Hajataghaie, Saiede; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein
Background This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relation- ship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. Materials and Methods In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78), who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Ques- tionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Results Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (p<0.05) and happiness was directly related to mental health, (p<0.05). Also, indirect relation between marital relationship status and mental health was significant (p<0.05). These results were confirmed in women participants but in men participants only the direct relation between happiness and mental health was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion Based on goodness of model fit in fitness indexes, happiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individu- als disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health. PMID:25379161
Daniel M. Campagne
New techniques help solve infertility. They include hormonal stimulation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). The psychological disposition of the parents-to-be influences their fertility, and thus the outcome of fertilization techniques. Fertility clinics offer consultation with a psychologist with a view to keeping in check the stress produced by the treatment itself.
Patricia L. Hansell; Beverly E. Thorn; Steven Prentice-Dunn; Donna L. Floyd
Women experiencing infertility, pregnancy, medical gynecological problems, or annual checkups were assessed for primary appraisal of their stressor and types of coping strategies used. Diagnostic category approximated the subjective appraisal of stressor for pregnant (challenge) and checkup (no stress) groups. Most participants in the medical gynecological problems group appraised their stress as a threat, but a few participants chose other
Abbie E. Goldberg; Jordan B. Downing; Hannah B. Richardson
This study explores how lesbian and heterosexual pre-adoptive couples experience and construct the transition from infertil- ity to adoption as a means to becoming parents. Thirty lesbian couples and 30 heterosexual couples were interviewed about the challenges and benefits they perceived in attempting con- ception and then later choosing adoption. Although similarities in perspectives emerged between heterosexual and lesbian participants
Jennifer B. Levin; Tamara Goldman Sher; Violet Theodos
The effect of intracouple coping concordance on psychological and marital distress was examined in a sample of 46 couples undergoing different stages of infertility treatment. Results indicate that the effect of coping similarity within couples is dependent on both the type of coping examined and the stage of the stressor. Specifically, for women the use of high levels of task-oriented
Hussein, A A; Vasudevan, R; Patimah, I; Prashant, N; Nora, F A
Azoospermia factor region (AZF) deletions (AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and AZFd) in the Y chromosome were analysed in male infertility subjects in various populations with conflicting results. This study comprised of 54 infertile males and 63 fertile controls, and the frequency of AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and AZFd deletions were determined using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as real-time PCR-high resolution melting analysis-based methods. The results of this study showed that, three of 54 cases (5.55%) had AZF (a, b and c) deletions (two had AZFc and one had AZFa deletions). Four cases were found to have AZFd deletions (7.4%) with two of them being associated with AZFc deletions (P = 0.028). The frequency of AZF (a, b and c) deletions in Malaysian infertile male subjects was found to be comparable with other populations. AZFd deletions were found to be significant (P < 0.05) in male infertility and it may be associated with other types of AZF deletions. PMID:24528375
Gvozdjáková, Anna; Kucharská, Jarmila; Dubravicky, Jozef; Mojto, Viliam; Singh, Ram B
Oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant capacity, and impaired sperm mitochondrial function are the main factors contributing to male infertility. The goal of the present study was to assess the effect of the per os treatment with Carni-Q-Nol (440?mg L-carnitine fumarate + 30?mg ubiquinol + 75?IU vitamin E + 12?mg vitamin C in each softsule) in infertile men on sperm parameters, concentration of antioxidants (coenzyme Q10,??CoQ10-TOTAL, ?, and ?-tocopherols), and oxidative stress in blood plasma and seminal fluid. Forty infertile men were supplemented daily with two or three Carni-Q-Nol softsules. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, improved sperm density was observed (by 48.9% and 80.9%, resp.) and after 3-month treatment the sperm pathology decreased by 25.8%. Concentrations of CoQ10-TOTAL (ubiquinone + ubiquinol) and ?-tocopherol were significantly increased and the oxidative stress was decreased. In conclusion, the effect of supplementary therapy with Carni-Q-Nol showed benefits on sperm function in men, resulting in 45% pregnancies of their women. We assume that assessment of oxidative stress, CoQ10-TOTAL, and ?-tocopherol in blood plasma and seminal fluid could be important metabolic biomarkers in both diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:25810566
There is an increasing body evidence suggesting that a broad range of pollutants have the potential to alter human endocrine systems. One disturbing consequence of exposures to these endocrine disruptors is that they may significantly increase the incidence of infertility in exp...
Marinus J. C. Eijkemans; Babak Imani; Annemarie G. M. G. J. Mulders; J. Dik; F. Habbema
BACKGROUND: Medical induction of ovulation using clomiphene citrate (CC) as first line and exogenous gonado- trophins as second line forms the classical treatment algorithm in normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertility. Because the chances of success following classical ovulation induction are not well established, a shift in first-line therapy can be observed towards alternative treatment. The study aim was to: (i) reliably assess
Effendy, I; Krause, W
93 consecutive patients attending our andrologic department for marital infertility were asked for possible environmental risk factors including traumata, heat, noise, smoking, radiation, micro waves, pesticides, and plastics. The data were correlated to the mean seminal parameters. No significant differences were found between patients being positive for a certain risk factor and those being negative. PMID:3115146
Kucharská, Jarmila; Dubravicky, Jozef; Mojto, Viliam; Singh, Ram B.
Oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant capacity, and impaired sperm mitochondrial function are the main factors contributing to male infertility. The goal of the present study was to assess the effect of the per os treatment with Carni-Q-Nol (440?mg L-carnitine fumarate + 30?mg ubiquinol + 75?IU vitamin E + 12?mg vitamin C in each softsule) in infertile men on sperm parameters, concentration of antioxidants (coenzyme Q10,??CoQ10-TOTAL, ?, and ?-tocopherols), and oxidative stress in blood plasma and seminal fluid. Forty infertile men were supplemented daily with two or three Carni-Q-Nol softsules. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, improved sperm density was observed (by 48.9% and 80.9%, resp.) and after 3-month treatment the sperm pathology decreased by 25.8%. Concentrations of CoQ10-TOTAL (ubiquinone + ubiquinol) and ?-tocopherol were significantly increased and the oxidative stress was decreased. In conclusion, the effect of supplementary therapy with Carni-Q-Nol showed benefits on sperm function in men, resulting in 45% pregnancies of their women. We assume that assessment of oxidative stress, CoQ10-TOTAL, and ?-tocopherol in blood plasma and seminal fluid could be important metabolic biomarkers in both diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.
Infertility Care Cambridge, December 16,2013 - A recent prospective study published in Reproductive Bio, American and Belgian researchers outline the first results of a prospective study performed in Gent of this prospective study on the novel simplified method of IVF treatment are: !Van Blerkom, J., Ombelet, W., Klerkx
Umeora, Ouj; Chukwuneke, Fn
The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice. PMID:23634339
Curti, Gianni; Skowronek, Fernanda; Vernochi, Rita; Rodriguez-Buzzi, Ana Laura; Rodriguez-Buzzi, Juan Carlos; Casanova, Gabriela; Sapiro, Rossana
Electron microscopy analysis performed in five infertile human subjects after sperm selection by swim-up followed by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) demonstrated a decrease in the number of spermatozoa with characteristics compatible with cell death. However, no significant differences were found when the swim-up/MACS semen fraction was compared with swim-up fraction alone. PMID:25454495
Arizona, University of
Metformin Treatment for Improving Outcomes Related to Infertility in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Â A Bayesian Analysis Prasadini N. Perera, BS Pharmacy, Daniel C. Malone, PhD Metformin TreatmentD AbstractAbstract OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the usefulness of metformin therapy
Kimberly A. Risma; Colin M. Clay; Terry M. Nett; Thomas Wagner; Jun Yun; John H. Nilson
Hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) is implicated in infertility and miscarriages in women. A lack of animal models has limited progress in determining the mechanisms of LH toxicity. We have recently generated transgenic mice expressing a chimeric LH beta subunit (LHbeta) in gonadotropes. The LHbeta chimera contains the C-terminal peptide of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit. Addition of this
Yesilaltay, Ayce; Dokshin, Gregoriy A; Busso, Dolores; Wang, Li; Galiani, Dalia; Chavarria, Tony; Vasile, Eliza; Quilaqueo, Linda; Orellana, Juan Andrés; Walzer, Dalia; Shalgi, Ruth; Dekel, Nava; Albertini, David F; Rigotti, Attilio; Page, David C; Krieger, Monty
The HDL receptor scavenger receptor, class B type I (SR-BI) controls the structure and fate of plasma HDL. Female SR-BI KO mice are infertile, apparently because of their abnormal cholesterol-enriched HDL particles. We examined the growth and meiotic progression of SR-BI KO oocytes and found that they underwent normal germinal vesicle breakdown; however, SR-BI KO eggs, which had accumulated excess cholesterol in vivo, spontaneously activated, and they escaped metaphase II (MII) arrest and progressed to pronuclear, MIII, and anaphase/telophase III stages. Eggs from fertile WT mice were activated when loaded in vitro with excess cholesterol by a cholesterol/methyl-?-cyclodextrin complex, phenocopying SR-BI KO oocytes. In vitro cholesterol loading of eggs induced reduction in maturation promoting factor and MAPK activities, elevation of intracellular calcium, extrusion of a second polar body, and progression to meiotic stages beyond MII. These results suggest that the infertility of SR-BI KO females is caused, at least in part, by excess cholesterol in eggs inducing premature activation and that cholesterol can activate WT mouse eggs to escape from MII arrest. Analysis of SR-BI KO female infertility raises the possibility that abnormalities in cholesterol metabolism might underlie some cases of human female infertility of unknown etiology. PMID:25368174
Younes, Berthes G; Hazzouri, Khaled M; Chaaban, Mustapha J; Karam, Walid G; Abou Jaoude, Imad F; Attieh, Joanna H; Hazzouri, Mira M
In Lebanon, assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are widely used to overcome infertility, but the genetic risk associated with these techniques is still ignored. In this study, in order to estimate the transmission risk of paternal chromosomal anomalies to ART offspring, the meiotic segregation of chromosomes X, Y, 18, and 21 was analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization on the spermatozoa of 19 Lebanese infertile men. Our results show significantly higher frequencies of sex chromosome disomies in the group of patients with oligozoospermia compared with a control group of fertile males. Interestingly, the sex chromosome aneuploidy rates were highly variable between oligozoospermic patients, and ranged between 0.9% and 12.87%. No significant increase in aneuploidy rates was found for the group of nonoligozoospermic patients with asthenozoospermia and/or teratozoospermia. In addition, the disomy rate for chromosome 21 was analyzed in 8 patients, in whom higher disomy rates were shown as compared with the controls. Altogether, the results suggest that Lebanese oligozoospermic men undergoing ART may have an increased risk of transmitting sex chromosome anomalies to their offspring, as well as, in some cases, trisomy 21. Based on this work, genetic counseling programs for Lebanese infertile couples undergoing ART procedures should be developed, in order to improve the investigation and selection of Lebanese infertile couple candidates for ART procedures and optimize the choice of ART techniques. PMID:21164147
Zhang, Erhong; Tao, Xin; Xing, Weijie; Cai, Liuhong; Zhang, Bin
Objective: To exam semen parameters in predicting intrauterine insemination (IUI) outcomes in couples with male factor. Study design: This retrospective study was performed at department of infertility and sexual medicine from September 2007 to February 2014. 307 couples with male factor infertility were included and 672 IUI cycles were analyzed. Results: From 672 inseminations performed on 307 couples, there are 27.36% couples get pregnancy (84 out of 307) and the overall pregnancy rate was 12.95% (87 out of 672) of IUI. With the increase of post total progressive sperm count, the clinical pregnancy rate increased. When the initial progressive sperm count was lower than 5*106, there was no pregnant in the IUI cycle. At the end of the third cycle, 85 clinical pregnancies had been achieved (97.70%). Conclusions: The initial total progressive sperm count lower than 5*106 means the poor outcome of IUI in the infertile couples with male factor. If the infertile couples with male factor don’t get pregnancy after three IUI cycles, the couples should receive re-assessment or other artificial reproductive technology. PMID:25568631
Radhouane Gdoura; Wiem Kchaou; Chiraz Chaari; Abir Znazen; Leila Keskes; Tarek Rebai; Adnane Hammami
BACKGROUND: Genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum) and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis) are potentially pathogenic species playing an etiologic role in both genital infections and male infertility. Reports are, however, controversial regarding the effects of these microorganisms infections in the sperm seminological variables. This study aimed at determining the frequency of genital ureplasmas and mycoplasmas in semen
Komiya, Akira; Kato, Tomonori; Kawauchi, Yoko; Watanabe, Akihiko; Fuse, Hideki
Objective. The clinical factors associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) were investigated in male patients with infertility. Materials and Methods. Fifty-four ejaculates from infertile Japanese males were used. Thirty-three and twenty-one were from the patients with varicoceles and idiopathic causes of infertility, respectively. We performed blood tests, including the serum sex hormone levels, and conventional and computer-assisted semen analyses. The sperm nuclear vacuolization (SNV) was evaluated using a high-magnification microscope. The SDF was evaluated using the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) to determine the SDF index (SDFI). The SDFI was compared with semen parameters and other clinical variables, including lifestyle factors. Results. The SDFI was 41.3 ± 22.2% (mean ± standard deviation) and did not depend on the cause of infertility. Chronic alcohol use increased the SDFI to 49.6 ± 23.3% compared with 33.9 ± 18.0% in nondrinkers. The SDFI was related to adverse conventional semen parameters and sperm motion characteristics and correlated with the serum FSH level. The SNV showed a tendency to increase with the SDFI. The multivariate analysis revealed that the sperm progressive motility and chronic alcohol use were significant predictors of the SDF. Conclusion. The SCDt should be offered to chronic alcohol users and those with decreased sperm progressive motility. PMID:25165747
Matthew Roberts; Keith Jarvi
An adequate semen volume of ejaculate fluid is required to trans - port sperm into the female reproductive tract and allow for fertil- ization of the oocyte. Thus, seminal fluid volume is an important part of the semen analysis done to investigate male infertility. In this article, we review the anatomy and physiology of ejacula - tion, the various etiologies
Hodži?, Alenka; Ristanovi?, Mom?ilo; Zorn, Branko; Tuli?, Cane; Maver, Aleš; Novakovi?, Ivana; Peterlin, Borut
Background The circadian system has a major role in maintaining homeostasis and proper body functions including reproductive capacity. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between genetic variability in the primary clock genes CLOCK and ARNTL and male infertility in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a case-control study, where we searched for an association between polymorphisms of CLOCK and ARNTL genes and male infertility in 961 Slovenian and Serbian Caucasian men. The study group consisted of 517 patients with idiopathic infertility and a control group of 444 fertile men. A statistically significant difference was found in genotype distribution between the two groups in the CLOCK gene: rs11932595 (p?=?6·10?5, q?=?4·10?4, OR equaled 1.9 with 95% CI 1.4–2.7), rs6811520 (p?=?2·10?3, q?=?8·10?3, OR?=?1.7 with 95% CI 1.2–2.2) and rs6850524 (p?=?0.01, q?=?0.02, OR?=?1.4 with 95% CI 1.1–1.9). Further analyses of haplotypes were consistent with genotyping results. Conclusions/Significance We provide evidence that genetic variability in the CLOCK gene might be associated with male infertility warranting further confirmation and mechanistic investigations. PMID:23527142
R. G. Edwards; S. B. Fishel; J. Cohen; C. B. Fehilly; J. M. Purdy; J. M. Slater; P. C. Steptoe; J. M. Webster
The program for in vitro fertilization at Bourn Hall began in October 1980. Various types of infertility have been treated during this time using the natural menstrual cycle or stimulation of follicular growth with antiestrogens and gonadotrophins. Follicular growth and maturation are assayed by urinary estrogens and LH, monitored regularly during the later follicular stage. Many patients had an endogenous
Fnu Deepinder; Hyndhavi T Chowdary; Ashok Agarwal
Metabolomics is the systematic study of metabolites as small-molecule biomarkers that represent the functional phenotype in a cell, tissue or organism. Detection of crucial disturbances in the concentration of metabolites by metabolomic profiling of key biomarkers can be beneficial in the management of various medical conditions, including male-factor infertility. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential role of this rapid, noninvasive
William R. Rice; Adam K. Chippindale
A new hypothesis is proposed for the rapid evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation via hybrid infertility. The hypothesis is motivated by two lines of experimental research from Drosophila melanogaster that demonstrate that sexually antagonistic fitness variation is abundant and that epistatic fitness variation on the Y chromosome is common. The hypothesis states that the expression of sexually antagonistic genes leads
Mona Bungum; Leif Bungum; Aleksander Giwercman
Diagnosis of male infertility has mainly been based on the World Health Organization (WHO) manual-based semen parameter's concentration, motility and morphology. It has, however, become apparent that none of these parameters are reliable markers for evaluation of the fertility potential of a couple. A search for better markers has led to an increased focus on sperm chromatin integrity testing in
Higgins, Barbara S.
Presents Close-Relationship Model as comprehensive framework in which to examine interrelated nature of causes and effects of infertility on marital relationship. Includes these factors: physical and psychological characteristics of both partners; joint, couple characteristics; physical and social environment; and relationship itself. Discusses…
R. Balhorn; S. Reed; N. Tanphaichitr
Summary Protamines were extracted from the sperm of fertile and infertile human males and the relative proportion of protamines 1, 2, and 3 were determined by scanning microdensitometry following electrophoresis of total protamine in polyacrylamide gels. The proportion of the three protamines was found to be similar in sperm obtained from different normal males. The distribution of protamines in sperm
Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.
We examined male partners' influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using the National Study of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we…
J. Egozcue; C. Templado; F. Vidal; J. Navarro; F. Morer-Fargas; S. Marina
Meiotic studies have been carried out in a series of 1100 infertile and sterile males. Of these, 599 cases have been studies in testicular biopsy, and 501, in semen samples. This is the largest meiotic series published so far. The incidence of meiotic anomalies was 4.3%. The most frequent chromosome abnormality was desynapsis (3.7%). However, the number of cases with
Tasuku Harada; Hiroki Yoshioka; Souichi Yoshida; Tomio Iwabe; Yoshimasa Onohara; Masahiro Tanikawa; Naoki Terakawa
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between the levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-6 soluble receptor, and tumor necrosis factor-? in peritoneal fluid and the size and number of active red endometriotic lesions.STUDY DESIGN: In a university hospital 39 women of reproductive age underwent either laparoscopy for infertility workup or laparoscopic surgery for ovarian chocolate cysts. Peritoneal fluid was collected
Mark Sigman; Jonathan P. Jarow
PurposeThe presence of ipsilateral testicular growth retardation (hypotrophy) is the most common indication for prophylactic varicocele repair in adolescents in an effort to prevent future infertility. We examined the relationship between semen parameters and ipsilateral versus contralateral testicular size in men with unilateral varicoceles to determine whether testicular size is an appropriate parameter for predicting future fertility.
Offers a personal narrative on how the author's own poetry helped her cope with the crisis of infertility, serving as a tool for self-discovery and healing. Suggests that specific advantages of poetry writing within the context of psychotherapy include problem solving; expression of feelings; insight; couple communication; and individual and…
Mozdarani, Hossein; Meybodi, Anahita Mohseni; Karimi, Hamideh
BACKGROUND: One of the frequent occurrences in chromosome rearrangements is pericentric inversion of the Chromosome 9; inv (9) (p11q12), which is consider to be the variant of normal karyotype. Although it seems not to correlate with abnormal phenotypes, there have been many controversial reports indicating that it may lead to abnormal clinical conditions such as infertility. The incidence is found to be about 1.98% in the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the karyotypes of 300 infertile couples (600 individuals) being referred to our infertility clinic using standard GTG banding for karyotype preparation. RESULTS: The chromosomal analysis revealed a total of 15 (2.5%) inversions, among these, 14 male patients were inversion 9 carriers (4.69%) while one female patient was affected (0.33%). The incidence of inversion 9 in male patients is significantly higher than that of normal population and even than that of female patients (P< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This result suggests that inversion 9 may often cause infertility in men due to spermatogenic disturbances, which are arisen by the loops or acentric fragments formed in meiosis. PMID:21957338
Gupta, Ashish; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Bansal, Navneeta; Jaiswer, Shyam Pyari; Shankhwar, Satya Narain
The objective of this study was to employ proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy to evaluate the impact of Mucuna pruriens seeds on the metabolic profile of seminal plasma of infertile patients. A total of 180 infertile patients were administered M. pruriens seed powder for a period of three months. Age-matched healthy men comprised the control (n=50) group in the study. Lactate, alanine, choline, citrate, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glutamine, tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, and uridine were measured in seminal plasma by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. To evaluate the degree of infertility and extent of hormonal imbalance induced by this milieu, separate sperm concentration, motility, lipid peroxide in seminal plasma and LH, FSH, T, and PRL hormone concentration in serum were measured using standard laboratory methods and RIA, respectively, in the same subjects. M. pruriens therapy rectifies the perturbed alanine, citrate, GPC, histidine and phenylalanine content in seminal plasma and improves the semen quality of post-treated infertile men with compared to pre-treated. Concomitantly, clinical variables in seminal plasma and blood serum were also improved over post therapy in infertile men. On the basis of these observations, it may be proposed that M. pruriens seed powder not only reactivates the enzymatic activity of metabolic pathways and energy metabolism but also rejuvenates the harmonic balance of male reproductive hormones in infertile men. These findings open more opportunities for infertility treatment and management by improving semen quality. PMID:21459537
Rostami Dovom, Marzieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amirshekari, Golshan; Hashemi, Somayeh; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa
Background: Infertility has a varied impact on multiple dimensions of health and functioning of women. Objective: We aimed to identify the burden of infertility and its influencing factors based on a population based study conducted in four provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: A sample of 1126 women, aged 18-45 years, was selected using the multi stage, stratified probability sampling procedure; those met the eligibility criteria were invited for further comprehensive interview. This study used the definition of infertility proposed by World Health Organization “the woman has never conceived despite cohabitation and exposure to pregnancy for a period of 1 year”. Results : The overall prevalence of lifetime infertility and current primary infertility were 21.1% (95% CI: 18.4- 23.8) and 6.4% (95% CI: 4.8-8) respectively. The probability of first pregnancy at the end of 2 years of marriage was 94% for all ever-married women. Infertility were observed as significantly higher among women age 31-35 (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.9-11.5; p=0.001) and women with more than 9 years of education (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5-3.3; p<0.0001). Conclusion: The necessities of modern living have compelled many women to postpone childbearing to their late reproductive years; however they must be informed of being at risk of infertility with ageing. PMID:25408706
Alfarraj, Dunia A.; Somily, Ali M.; Alssum, Rasheed M.; Abotalib, Zeinab M.; El-Sayed, Amal A.; Al-Mandeel, Hazim H.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection among Saudi women, its clinical presentation, and its association to infertility. Methods: This study was conducted between October 2012 and July 2013 at King Khalid University Hospital and King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Female patients aged between 19 and 46 years old with infertility problems seen at both hospitals were recruited to join the study. A separate group of female patients without infertility problems was also recruited from both hospitals to serve as controls for the study. Endocervical swabs were collected from both groups of patients, and samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction. Results: There was a statistically significantly greater prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women (n=8, 8.0%) compared with the fertile group of women (n=1, 1.0%). The C. trachomatis infection was significantly correlated to infertility. Conclusion: A significant association between infertility and increased prevalence of C. trachomatis infection is shown in this study, thus, we suggest that screening for Chlamydial infection to be part of the routine investigation for infertility. PMID:25630006
Eid, A A; Younan, D N
Germ cell apoptosis has been proposed as one of the mechanisms by which varicocele can influence fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between seminal tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) levels and male infertility in patients with varicocele. This study included 112 males: 30 fertile males with varicocele, 44 infertile males with varicocele and 38 healthy fertile control subjects without varicocele. Semen analysis was performed, and serum levels of reproductive hormones were measured. Seminal TRAIL levels in the infertile varicocele group were significantly higher than in the fertile varicocele and the control groups (P = 0.014). A significant negative correlation was found between seminal TRAIL and progressive (P < 0.001) and total motility scores (P < 0.001) in the infertile varicocele group. A significant negative correlation was also detected between seminal TRAIL levels and normal sperm morphology in the fertile varicocele (P = 0.007) and infertile varicocele patients (P = 0.047). Seminal TRAIL was significantly correlated with varicocele grade whether the patients were fertile (P = 0.001) or infertile (P = 0.035). Seminal TRAIL may thus have a potential role in varicocele-associated male infertility through its negative effect on sperm motility and morphology. PMID:25351208
According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well. PMID:24753875
Stone, Mary Bishop; Lyon, Joseph L.; VanDerslice, James A.; Alder, Stephen C.
Background: Above-ground and underground nuclear weapon detonation at the Nevada Test Site (1951–1992) has resulted in radioiodine exposure for nearby populations. Although the long-term effect of environmental radioiodine exposure on thyroid disease has been well studied, little is known regarding the effect of childhood radioiodine exposure on subsequent fertility. Objectives: We investigated early childhood thyroid radiation exposure from nuclear testing fallout (supplied predominantly by radioactive isotopes of iodine) and self-reported lifetime incidence of male or female infertility or sterility. Methods: Participants were members of the 1965 Intermountain Fallout Cohort, schoolchildren at the time of exposure who were reexamined during two subsequent study phases to collect dietary and reproductive histories. Thyroid radiation exposure was calculated via an updated dosimetry model. We used multivariable logistic regression with robust sandwich estimators to estimate odds ratios for infertility, adjusted for potential confounders and (in separate models) for a medically confirmed history of thyroid disease. Results: Of 1,389 participants with dosimetry and known fertility history, 274 were classified as infertile, including 30 classified as sterile. Childhood thyroid radiation dose was possibly associated with infertility [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.67 and AOR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.90 for the middle and upper tertiles vs. the first tertile of exposure, respectively]. The odds ratios were attenuated (AOR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.55 and AOR = 1.29; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.83 for the middle and upper tertiles, respectively) after adjusting for thyroid disease. There was no association of childhood radiation dose and sterility. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that childhood radioiodine exposure from nuclear testing may be related to subsequent adult infertility. Further research is required to confirm this. PMID:23099433
DANA, Mierla; STOIAN, Veronica
ABSTRACT Background: One of the most common structural balanced chromosome rearrangements is pericentric inversion of chromosome 9; inv(9)(p11q12), which is consider to be the variant of normal karyotype and has been found in normal population. Although it seems not to correlate with abnormal phenotypes, there have been many controversial reports indicating that it may lead to abnormal clinical conditions such as infertility and recurrent abortions. The incidence is found to be about 1% - 3% in the general population. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the clinical impact of inv(9)(p11q12)/(p11q13) in infertility. Materials and Methods: We investigated the karyotypes of 900 infertile couples (1800 individuals) admitted in our hospital for cytogenetic analysis. The control group consists of 1116 fetuses investigated by amniocentesis. This group was considered to be a sample of the fertile population, as the fetus being karyotyped is the result of a spontaneous pregnancy. Fetal karyotyping was made according to the standard indications for prenatal diagnosis (abnormal maternal serum screening results). Chromosomes from cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes and amniotic fluid were analyzed using Giemsa Trypsin-Giemsa (GTG) banding. The results of the two groups were compared. Results: 1800 infertile people were submitted for cytogenetic investigation. In the control group 97.73% had normal karyotype and 2.27% showed inversion of chromosome 9, while in the studied group 96.24% had normal karyotype and 3.76% showed inversion of chromosome 9. The incidence of inversion 9 in both male and female patients is not significantly higher comparing with normal population (p = 0.343, p< 0.05). Conclusions: Because a considerable proportion of patients with reproductive dysfunction had various cytogenetic abnormalities, the chromosomal analysis should be considered as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of reproductive dysfunction (infertility in men due to spermatogenic disturbances and in recurrent spontaneous abortion in females). PMID:23118816
Lessard, C; Siqueira, L G; D'Amours, O; Sullivan, R; Leclerc, P; Palmer, C
The objective of this case report was to identify the cause of apparent idiopathic infertility in a Red Angus (beef) bull. Semen was collected by electroejaculation and submitted to a series of assays, including evaluation of sperm motility by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), sperm morphology and DNA integrity, semen cryopreservation, AI, IVF, induction of the acrosome reaction, and determination of the level of sperm proteins associated with bull fertility potential. Total (92 ± 2%) and progressive (79 ± 4%) sperm motility; sperm concentration (1647 ± 429 × 10(6) sperm/mL); proportions of morphologically normal sperm (83 ± 6%) and DNA integrity (96 ± 2), and acrosome-intact sperm (64 ± 4%) exceeded minimum acceptable values. Frozen sperm had good total (58.7 ± 6.7%) and progressive (43.9 ± 9.2%) motility immediately after thawing. However, AI of 16 heifers resulted in no pregnancies and blastocyst production rate (following IVF using sperm from this infertile bull) was nearly identical to that produced using dead sperm (a control of parthenogenesis; 2 ± 2 and 2 ± 3%; respectively P < 0.05). Treatment with a calcium ionophore (A23187) failed to induce the acrosome reaction in sperm from the infertile bull (P < 0.05). Evaluation of several proteins associated with the fertility potential of bulls revealed that the level of Binder Sperm Protein-1 (BSP1), known to be associated with the capacitation process, was much greater on sperm from the infertile bull compared to that of his sire. In conclusion, we inferred that the idiopathic infertility in this bull was caused by a failure to complete the capacitation process. PMID:21705058
Malvezzi, Helena; Aguiar, Valéria Gomes; Paz, Claudia Cristina Paro de; Tanus-Santos, José Eduardo; Penna, Ivan Andrade de Araujo; Navarro, Paula Andrea
The current study compares the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in the follicular fluid (FF) of infertile patients with and without endometriosis submitted to ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization and the levels of MMP-2 in the serum of the same patients. We also evaluated whether the severity of endometriosis can influence serum and/or FF concentration of these metalloproteinases. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 patients: stage I/II endometriosis (n = 10), stage III/IV endometriosis (n = 10), and control (infertility due to tubal and/or male factor; n = 10). Blood samples for the analysis of MMP-2 levels were obtained during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The FF samples for the analysis of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were obtained on the day of oocyte retrieval. The concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by zymography. No intragroup or intergroup difference was observed in MMP-2 or MMP-9 levels in FF. Significantly higher MMP-2 levels were detected in the serum of infertile women with stage III/IV endometriosis compared to women with stage I/II endometriosis. In conclusion, no differences were observed in the follicular levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 between infertile patients with and without endometriosis. However, the levels of MMP-2 were significantly higher in the serum of infertile women with advanced stages of endometriosis. Taken together, the present results demonstrate that advanced pelvic endometriosis severity is related to higher serum MMP-2 levels but does not influence follicular MMP-2 or MMP-9 levels in periovulatory follicles obtained from stimulated cycles. PMID:23171686
Pal, Lubna; Norian, John; Zeitlian, Gohar; Bevilacqua, Kris; Freeman, Ruth; Santoro, Nanette
Objective To identify the prevalence of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) in a population of premenopausal infertile women and to determine if VMS associate with enhanced bone turnover and low bone mineral density (BMD). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Academic infertility practice. Patients 82 premenopausal infertile but otherwise healthy women attending for routine infertility care. Intervention BMD testing, general health and profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaires, serum samples (cycle days 1–3). Main Outcome Measures VMS, specifically hot flashes-HF and night sweats-NS; BMD-Z score, BMD categorized as “Low” (Z ? ?1.0 ) or “Normal” (Z > ?1.0); ovarian reserve assessment (biochemical and ovarian dimensions on transvaginal ultrasound); serum markers of bone turnover (NTX, TRAP, BSAP) and ovarian reserve (FSH, Estradiol and Inhibin B). Multivariable regression analyses determined the associations between VMS, BMD and bone turnover (individual markers and composite turnover score). Results The prevalence of VMS was 12% in this relatively young population (mean age 34.53 ± SD 4.32). Symptomatic women were significantly more likely to report sleep disturbances (p<0.01), exhibit evidence of low BMD (p<0.01), enhanced bone turnover and poorer ovarian reserve parameters. Multivariable logistic regression analyses confirmed HF (p<0.01) and NS (p<0.01) as independent correlates to low BMD after adjusting for age, BMI, smoking status, menstrual regularity and ovarian reserve status. Multivariable linear regression analyses demonstrated that NS, but not HF, predicted higher bone turnover (p= 0.02) after adjusting for age, smoking, menstrual regularity and ovarian reserve. Conclusions We demonstrate, in a premenopausal population of infertile women, evidence of morbid accompaniments to VMS, including sleep disturbances and evidence of low BMD. Our data further suggest a state of enhanced bone turnover in association with VMS, specifically in those experiencing NS. Declining ovarian reserve may be the common pathophysiological mechanism underlying VMS and low BMD in the symptomatic population and merits further investigation. PMID:18068159
Boerma, Ties; Vanderpoel, Sheryl; Stevens, Gretchen A.
Background Global, regional, and national estimates of prevalence of and tends in infertility are needed to target prevention and treatment efforts. By applying a consistent algorithm to demographic and reproductive surveys available from developed and developing countries, we estimate infertility prevalence and trends, 1990 to 2010, by country and region. Methods and Findings We accessed and analyzed household survey data from 277 demographic and reproductive health surveys using a consistent algorithm to calculate infertility. We used a demographic infertility measure with live birth as the outcome and a 5-y exposure period based on union status, contraceptive use, and desire for a child. We corrected for biases arising from the use of incomplete information on past union status and contraceptive use. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate prevalence of and trends in infertility in 190 countries and territories. In 2010, among women 20–44 y of age who were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, 1.9% (95% uncertainty interval 1.7%, 2.2%) were unable to attain a live birth (primary infertility). Out of women who had had at least one live birth and were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, 10.5% (9.5%, 11.7%) were unable to have another child (secondary infertility). Infertility prevalence was highest in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa/Middle East, and Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Levels of infertility in 2010 were similar to those in 1990 in most world regions, apart from declines in primary and secondary infertility in Sub-Saharan Africa and primary infertility in South Asia (posterior probability [pp] ?0.99). Although there were no statistically significant changes in the prevalence of infertility in most regions amongst women who were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, reduced child-seeking behavior resulted in a reduction of primary infertility among all women from 1.6% to 1.5% (pp?=?0.90) and a reduction of secondary infertility among all women from 3.9% to 3.0% (pp>0.99) from 1990 to 2010. Due to population growth, however, the absolute number of couples affected by infertility increased from 42.0 million (39.6 million, 44.8 million) in 1990 to 48.5 million (45.0 million, 52.6 million) in 2010. Limitations of the study include gaps in survey data for some countries and the use of proxies to determine exposure to pregnancy. Conclusions We analyzed demographic and reproductive household survey data to reveal global patterns and trends in infertility. Independent from population growth and worldwide declines in the preferred number of children, we found little evidence of changes in infertility over two decades, apart from in the regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Further research is needed to identify the etiological causes of these patterns and trends. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23271957
Kara, Murat; Sen, Askin; Cetin, Esin Sakall?; Kargun, Kursat
Chromosomal rearrangements are usually associated with male factor infertility. We report here a 34-year-old man suffering from primary infertility for 15 years. The cytogenetic analysis and investigation of Y-chromosome microdeletions were performed. A reciprocal balanced translocation t (10;19) (q11.2;q13.4) was found in oligozoospermic infertile men with no Y-chromosome microdeletions. In this case, we aimed to evaluate the 46,XY,t (10;19) (q11.2;q13.4) karyo-type, which was detected through a cytogenetic analysis of a person referred to our genetic laboratory due to primary infertility, in the light of the literature. PMID:25610329
Peter N. Schlegel
ObjectivesTo evaluate the cost-effectiveness of assisted reproduction using in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as a primary treatment for varicocele-associated infertility.
Gene arrays for elucidating mechanistic data from models of male infertility and chemical exposure in mice, rats and humans John C. Rockett and David J. Dix Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects ...
Mohamed A. Aboulghar; Ragaa T. Mansour; Gamal I. Serour; Mehana A. Sattar; Yehia M. Amin
Purpose: In a prospective study, conventional IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were performed on sibling oocytes of 22 patients with unexplained infertility (Group A) and 24 patients with borderline semen (Group B).
Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Unsal, Alaettin; Arslantas, Didem
Background To determine the correlates and the prevalence of infertility in a group of women. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 subjects aged 18-49 years in a town of western Turkey between July and August 2012. Women who have inability to become pregnant despite regular sexual intercourse during the last year were considered to be infertile. UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess the severity of loneliness. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results The mean age of the participants was 35.48 ± 8.39 years. The frequency of the infertility in our study was 12.8% (n=73). The prevalence of infertility was higher in those with a history of gynecological disease or gynecologic surgery and in those with menstrual irregularity (p<0.05; for each). The mean score on the UCLA Loneliness Scale was 32.16 ± 9.49 (from 20 to 70). In this study, no difference was found between the level of loneliness and who is responsible for infertility among infertile/fertile women (p?0.05). Level of loneliness among the women with primary infertility was higher compared to the women with secondary infertility (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of infertility among the women was relatively high. It was concluded that prospective studies are needed in order to expose the relationship between the infertility and the level of loneliness in women. PMID:25083180
Naqvi, Hena; Hussain, Syed Rizwan; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Mahdi, Farzana; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari; Shankhwar, Satya Narayain; Mahdi, Abbas Ali
Failure or severe difficulty in conceiving a child is surprisingly common, worldwide problem. Half of these cases are due to male factors with defects in sperm (1 in 15 men) being the single most common cause. Also about 60-75 % of male infertility cases are idiopathic, since the molecular mechanisms underlying the defects remain unknown. DNA methylation is crucial for spermatogenesis and high methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) activity in adult testis than other organs in mouse, signifies its critical role in spermatogenesis. According to recent findings there is a correlation of epigenetic regulation of several imprinted genes with disturbed spermatogenesis and fertility. Consequently any change in the MTHFR gene sequence can modify the spermatogenesis including transmission of infertility to the carriers. The aim of the study is to analyze the distribution of the single nucleotide polymorphism C677T in the MTHFR gene in 637 North Indian infertile patients and 364 fertile North Indian men as controls by using PCR-RFLP technique and Chi Square test for statistical analysis. The average MTHFR 677CC, 677CT, 677TT genotype frequencies of total infertile men were 70.17, 24.17, 5.65 % in infertile men and 75.27, 21.7, 2.74 % in controls, respectively. The average frequency of the MTHFR 677T allele was 17.73 % in infertile men as compared to 13.59 % in controls. The statistical difference was significant. Disease risk was found 2.27-folds increased in patients who were carrying T allele. We found an association of C677T polymorphism with male infertility and that it may be a genetic risk factor for male infertility in North Indian population. PMID:24366618
Mustafa Bahceci; Ulun Ulug
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the impact of using ICSI for assisted fertilization on first trimester survival rates of singleton gestations among an unselected infertile population. METHODS: The 1244 singleton gestations achieved by ICSI were segregated according to underlying infertility aetiology, with 55.0% having male factor, 3.6% endometriosis, 4.3% polycystic ovarian disease, 9.1% tubal factor, 24.3% unexplained and 3.3% other. None of
Armand Zini; Ryszard Bielecki; Donna Phang; Maria Teresa Zenzes
Objective: To evaluate two different assays of human sperm DNA integrity, DNA denaturation (DD) and DNA fragmentation (DF), and to correlate these with standard semen parameters.Design: Prospective, observational study.Setting: University infertility clinic.Patient(s): Forty consecutive semen samples from 33 nonazoospermic men presenting for infertility evaluation and 7 fertile men presenting for vasectomy.Intervention(s): Assessment of sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DD and DF.Main
Infertility Accepted treatment is replete with bioethical dilemmas regarding the limits of available medical therapies. Poland has no legal acts regulating the ethical problems associated with infertility treatment and work on such legislation has been in progress for a long time, arousing very intense emotions in Polish society. The purpose of the present study was to find out what Polish women undergoing infertility treatment think about the most disputable and controversial bioethical problems of assisted reproduction. An Attitudes towards Bioethical Problems of Infertility Scale was constructed specifically for this study. Items were taken from the Bioethics Bills currently under discussion in Polish Parliament (Seym). 312 women were enrolled in the study. Women experiencing infertility favoured more liberal legislation. Participants disagreed, for example, with the following regulations: prohibition of embryo freezing, prohibition of preimplantation genetic diagnosis of embryos, age limits for women using in vitro fertilisation and prohibition of in vitro fertilisation for single women. The opinions of patients undergoing infertility treatment are an important voice in the Polish debate on the Bioethics Bills. PMID:22977062
Plecko, Vanda; Zele-Starcevic, Lidija; Tripkovic, Vesna; Skerlev, Mihael; Ljubojevic, Suzana; Plesko, Sanja; Marekovic, Ivana; Jensen, Jorgen Skov
Objective To detect Mycoplasma genitalium in urine samples of infertile men and men without any signs of infection in order to investigate whether M. genitalium and other genital mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp) are found more often in urine samples of infertile men than in asymptomatic controls and to determine resistance to macrolides. Methods The study included first void urine samples taken from 145 infertile men and 49 men with no symptoms of urethritis. M. genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were detected by commercial PCR. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected by microscopy and culture. M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp were detected by culture. M. genitalium was detected by in-house conventional and real-time PCR. Results Two M. genitalium positive samples were found among samples obtained from infertile men. All asymptomatic men were M. genitalium negative. Macrolide resistance was not found in either of the two positive samples. Conclusions In comparison with reported data, an unusually low prevalence of M. genitalium was found in infertile men. The reasons for this unexpected result are not known; possibly, local demographic and social characteristics of the population influenced the result. Further studies to investigate M. genitalium in infertile and other groups of patients are needed. PMID:25157184
Peivandi, Sepideh; Ebadi, Aghdas; Modanlu, Shila
Background Controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) with intrauterine insemination (IUI) is commonly offered to infertile couples with patent fallopian tubes because it is simple, non-invasive and cost-effective technique. Another non-invasive method is fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP). This study was performed to compare the relative efficacy between FSP using fallopian sperm transfer (FAST) system and standard IUI in patients with unexplained infertility. Materials and Methods This prospective randomized study was conducted at the IVF Unit, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of ninety patients with unexplained infertility underwent ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG). Patients were then randomly assigned into either group I (n=45) to undergo standard IUI or group II (n=45) to undergo FSP using FAST system. Results The patients’ basic characteristics, including age, primary infertility and duration of infertility, were not significantly different between two study groups. In the group I, there were 9 pregnancies (a pregnancy rate per cycle of 20%), whereas in the group II, 8 pregnancies occurred (a pregnancy rate per cycle of 17.8%, p>0.05). Conclusion FSP using FAST system offers no advantage over the standard IUI in order to increase pregnancy rate in patients with unexplained infertility. PMID:25780519
Ananthapur, V; Avvari, S; Veena, K; Sujatha, M; Jyothy, A
Infertility is a major health problem which affects approximately 22% of married couples in reproductive age. Chromosomal defects are the most common genetic abnormalities in infertile men, with an incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities ranging from 2.1% to 15.5%. We describe here the clinical and cytogenetic studies carried out in a couple with repeated abortions. Cytogenetic analysis of the couple showed a de novo chromosomal translocation t (2;11)(p14;q21) in the male partner and a normal 46, XX karyotype in the female counterpart. Such an autosomal translocation may lead to the disruption of genes responsible for spermatogenesis or impaired synaptic complex pairing during meiosis resulting in reproductive failure. PMID:23738880
Van Horn, A S; Reed, S A
Couples attempting to conceive are requiring more assisted reproductive technology. Infertility may be associated with delayed onset of marriage and childbearing, smoking and alcohol excess, physiological factors such as endometriosis and varicocele, or a cause that is not identified. The psychological needs of couples, however, are often overlooked. Primary care providers can serve as the initial information source and guide for the couple struggling with infertility. In a managed care environment, a primary care provider can provide a considerable amount of education, referral for stress management and counseling, and a small portion of the medical evaluation before referring to a reproductive specialist. This overview is intended to help primary care providers and couples achieve an educated and less stressful assisted reproductive technology experience. It is not meant to circumvent the need for immediate referral to a reproductive specialist for evaluation and treatment of this very complex intervention. PMID:11725314
Mir, F; Fontaine, E; Reyes-Gomez, E; Carlus, M; Fontbonne, A
A stud dog was presented for acquired infertility. Haematospermia and teratozoospermia were found on two ejaculates 2 weeks apart. A presumptive diagnosis of prostatitis was made follo-wing ultrasound examination. An ultrasound-guided needle core biopsy was performed under general anaesthesia, revealing a mild chronic macrophagic and plasma cell prostatitis with intracytoplasmic amastigotes consistent with Leishmania spp. infection. Presence of Leishmania infantum, Leishmania donovani or Leishmania chagasi was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in seminal plasma. Serology and serum protein electrophoresis confirmed the diagnosis of a subclinical active systemic leishmaniasis. A meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol treatment was given which clearly improved within 3 months both general condition and the quality of sperm. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a prostatitis secondary to a Leishmania spp. infection. Subclinical systemic leishmaniasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infertility in dogs suffering from semen alterations. PMID:22690941
Alice D Domar; Diane Clapp; Ellen A Slawsby; Jeffery Dusek; Bruce Kessel; Melissa Freizinger
Objective: To determine the efficacy of two different group psychological interventions on viable pregnancy rates in women experiencing infertility of less than 2 years’ duration.Design: Prospective, controlled, single-blind, randomized study.Setting: Large tertiary-care teaching hospital.Patient(s): One hundred eighty-four women who had been trying to get pregnant for 1 to 2 years.Intervention(s): Participants were randomized into a 10-session cognitive-behavioral group, a standard
Christman, Matthew S.; Kraft, Kate H.; Tasian, Gregory E.; Zderic, Stephen A.; Kolon, Thomas F.
Purpose There is little normative data on semen analyses in youths at risk for, but who do not present with, infertility. Standard practice amongst infertility specialists includes evaluation of two separate semen samples given the degree of within-subject variability. We hypothesize that males transitioning from pediatric to adult care who are at risk for infertility would similarly have this variability. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of patients with a history of cryptorchidism or varicocele who submitted two semen samples for evaluation of fertility potential was conducted. The within-subject coefficient of variation (CVw) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated for each semen parameter to evaluate reproducibility and reliability, respectively. Results A total of 79 subjects were studied. Mean age ± SD was 18.8 ± 1.2 years (range 17.8 – 24.7). The CVw was high for each semen parameter, ranging from 36% for volume and motility to 82% for total motile count (TMC). ICC for a single SA ranged from 0.55 for motility to 0.88 for total count. ICC for TMC was 0.78 [95% CI, 0.67 – 0.85], consistent with substantial reliability. Conclusions Although within-patient variability of individual SA parameters was found, overall there was substantial agreement between consecutive semen analyses in this population at risk for infertility -- particularly regarding TMC, which is the most important determinant of fertility from a SA. Therefore, it is possible to appropriately classify some young men based on the result of a single measurement as they transition from pediatric to adult care. PMID:23434946
S. Ramesh Babu; M. D. Sadhnani; M. Swarna; P. Padmavathi; P. P. Reddy
Gonadotropins (FSH, LH) and testosterone are the prime regulators of germ cell development. Abnormal spermatogenesis is often\\u000a associated with altered serum gonadotropins and testosterone. FSH, LH and testosterone levels were estimated in 96 infertile\\u000a men of whom 35 were azoospermic, 35 were oligozoospermic, 11 were with varicocele and 15 were with histopathological abnormalities\\u000a like hypospermatogenesis, spermatid arrest and sertoli-cell only
Joseph B. Stanford; Tracey A. Parnell; Phil C. Boyle
Objectives: We evaluated outcomes in couples treated for infertility with natural procreative technology (NaProTechnology, NPT), a systematic medical approach for optimizing physiologic conditions for con- ception in vivo, from an Irish general practice. Methods: All couples receiving treatment from 2 NPT-trained family physicians between February 1998 and January 2002 were studied. The main outcome was live birth, and secondary outcomes
A. Santi; R. Felser; N. A. Bersinger; D. M. Wunder; B. McKinnon; M. D. Mueller
The purpose of this study was the analysis of a correlation, in infertile patients, between the quality of the endometrium\\u000a based on its vascularisation and the chances of conception. Hysteroscopy was carried out to determine the quality of the endometrial\\u000a surface using the Sakumoto–Masamoto classification (“good” vs. “poor” endometrium) in the secretory phase of the menstrual\\u000a cycle. The results were
Omran, Huda Mossa; Bakhiet, Moiz; Dashti, Mariam Ghloom
Traditional semen analysis is routinely used for the assessment of male infertility. The present study aimed to evaluate the application of molecular techniques in determining the DNA integrity of the spermatozoa of infertile men in comparison to conventional analysis. Semen samples from 52 infertile patients were analyzed by conventional assays, flow cytometry (FCM) analysis for sperm DNA integrity and colorimetric assays for total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The traditional semen analyses showed that 48.1% of the patients had normospermic samples. The figure decreased to only 25% following the application of molecular tests. DNA FCM revealed that 67.3% of the patients had an abnormal chromatin status (n=36), while at the same time, 36% showed aneuploidy features (n=19), and 59.6% had an abnormal TAC level (n=31). The normozoospermic samples had less DNA fragmentation and a higher mean seminal plasma TAC level (1,500.92±280.29 µM) than the abnormal samples (899.59±375.67 µM). Significant correlations were noted between chromatin condensation and the sperm count (r=587, P<0.001), motility (r=0.625, P<0.001), normal morphology (r=0.658, P<0.001) and white blood cell (WBC) count (r=?0.299, P<0.005). In addition, the infertile subjects with abnormal chromatin condensation had significantly lower TAC levels than the other subjects and the level was markedly decreased in the samples with severe abnormalities (class 7 and 8). The presence of the aneuploidy cells was negatively correlated with the sperm concentration (r=?0.339, P<0.005). In conclusion, traditional semen analysis has limited value in the prediction of male fertility and should be combined with other molecular tests to increase its sensitivity. PMID:23525372
Vincent W. Aoki; Douglas T. Carrell
\\u000a The quality of patient care in the reproductive medicine clinic hinges on effective integration of laboratory and clinic operations.\\u000a The reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) practice represents a truly unique niche, intimately partnering the laboratory\\u000a and clinic in overall patient treatment and management paradigms. As such, to deliver optimal patient care, there are a number\\u000a of unique challenges an REI
Dhawan, Benu; Malhotra, Neena; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Chaudhry, Rama; Mittal, Suneeta
Background & objectives: Ureaplasmas have been implicated in a variety of clinical conditions. However, only certain serovars of ureaplasmas are disease associated. Only a few classes of antimicrobial agents are available for the treatment of mycoplasmal infections in humans. Increase of resistance of genital mycoplasmas to antimicrobials has been reported worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Ureaplasma serovars in patients with infertility and genital tract infections with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based serotyping. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis were also assessed to determine the most suitable treatment strategy. Methods: Sexually active adults (n=147) with symptoms of genital tract infections and 115 infertile women were enrolled. Endocervical swabs from women and urethral swabs from men were subjected to culture and multiplex PCR for detection of genital mycoplasmas. Serotyping of Ureaplasma was done by PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility to doxycycline, azithromycin, josamycin and ofloxacin was done by microbroth dilution method. Results: Ureaplasma was detected in 25.8 per cent patients with genital tract infections and 20.8 per cent in infertile women. Serovar 3/14 was the most frequent isolate followed by serovar 1 and serovar 6. The majority of Ureaplasma isolates were susceptible to doxycycline (91%) and josamycin (86%) followed by ofloxacin (77%) and azithromycin (71%). All the isolates of M. hominis were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline, josamycin and ofloxacin. Interpretation & conclusions: The predominance of Ureaplasma serovar 3/14 suggests their possible pathogenic role in genital tract infections and infertility. For empirical treatment, doxycycline could be the drug of choice for genital mycoplasmas. PMID:23391795
Michelle M. LeBlanc; Joshua Magsig; Arnold J. Stromberg
Low-volume uterine flush (n=401) was performed in 308 infertile mares to diagnose endometritis. Mares evaluated were either barren after three or more breedings or had two or more unsuccessful embryo recovery attempts during consecutive cycles. Culture results were compared with cytological and histological findings, efflux clarity and pH to substantiate that the micro-organisms recovered were truly pathogens. Cytological specimens were
Alice D. Domar; Diane Clapp; Ellen Slawsby; Bruce Kessel; John Orav; Melissa Freizinger
Infertile women express higher levels of distress than fertile women, with distress peaking between the 2nd and 3rd year. The purpose of this study was to determine whether group psychological interventions could prevent this surge. One hundred eighty-four women who had been trying to conceive between 1 and 2 years were randomized into either a cognitive–behavioral group, a support group,
Agarwal, Arjit; Verma, Ashish; Agarwal, Shubhra; Shukla, Ram Chandra; Jain, Madhu; Srivastava, Arvind
Background: Antral follicle count (AFC) has been labeled as the most accurate biomarker to assess female fecundity. Unfortunately, no baseline Indian data exists, and we continue using surrogate values from the Western literature (inferred from studies on women, grossly different than Indian women in morphology and genetic makeup). Aims: (1) To establish the role of AFC as a function of ovarian reserve in fertility-proven and in subfertile Indian women. (2) To establish baseline cut-off AFC values for Indian women. Settings and Design: Prospective observational case-control study. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients undergoing workup for infertility were included and compared to equal number of controls (women with proven fertility). The basal ovarian volume and AFC were measured by endovaginal. USG the relevant clinical data and hormonal assays were charted for every patient. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS platform was used to perform the Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test for intergroup comparisons. Correlations were determined by Pearson's ranked correlation coefficient. Results: Regression analysis revealed the highest correlation of AFC and age in fertile and infertile patients with difference in mean AFC of both the groups. Comparison of the data recorded for cases and controls showed no significant difference in the mean ovarian volume. Conclusions: AFC has the closest association with chronological age in normal and infertile Indian women. The same is lower in infertile women than in matched controls. Baseline and cut-off values in Indian women are lower than that mentioned in the Western literature. PMID:25114395
Hasan Y. Malkawi; Hussein S. Qublan; Michel E. Kakish; Sami A. Abu-Khait
Objective: To determine the frequency of ultrasonographically detected intra-and extra-testicular abnormalities and the significance of oligospermia and azoospermia in men compared with that in normospermic controls. Methods: One hundred fifty six infertile men (117 oligospermia, sperm count <10x 10 6 \\/ml, and 39 azoospermia, study group) aged 23-52 years (mean + SD, 27+7.3), and 100 control group aged 24-56 years
Suganthi, Ramaswamy; Vijesh, Vijayabhavanath Vijayakumaran; Vandana, Nambiar; Fathima Ali Benazir, Jahangir
Spermatogenesis is an essential stage in human male gamete development, which is regulated by many Y chromosome specific genes. Most of these genes are centred in a specific region located on the long arm of the human Y chromosome known as the azoospermia factor region (AZF). Deletion events are common in Y chromosome because of its peculiar structural organization. Astonishingly, among the several known genetic causes of male infertility, Y chromosomal microdeletions emerged as the most frequent structural chromosome anomaly associated with the quantitative reduction of sperm. The development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) like intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) helps to bypass the natural barriers of fertilization, but it increases the concern about the transmission of genetic defects. Experimental evidence suggested that the men with Y chromosomal microdeletions vertically transmitted their deletion as well as related fertility disorders to their offspring via these ART techniques. In India, infertility is on alarming rise. ART centres have opened up in virtually every state but still most of the infertility centres in India do not choose to perform Y chromosomal microdeletion diagnosis because of some advanced theoretical reasons. Moreover, there is no consensus among the clinicians about the diagnosis and management of Y chromosomal microdeletion defects. The current review discusses thoroughly the role of Y chromosome microdeletion screening in the workup of male infertility, its significance as a diagnostic test, novel approaches for screening Y deletions and finally a systematic review on the current status of Y chromosome microdeletion deletion screening in India. PMID:24520494
Suganthi, Ramaswamy; Vijesh, Vijayabhavanath Vijayakumaran; Vandana, Nambiar; Fathima Ali Benazir, Jahangir
Spermatogenesis is an essential stage in human male gamete development, which is regulated by many Y chromosome specific genes. Most of these genes are centred in a specific region located on the long arm of the human Y chromosome known as the azoospermia factor region (AZF). Deletion events are common in Y chromosome because of its peculiar structural organization. Astonishingly, among the several known genetic causes of male infertility, Y chromosomal microdeletions emerged as the most frequent structural chromosome anomaly associated with the quantitative reduction of sperm. The development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) like intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) helps to bypass the natural barriers of fertilization, but it increases the concern about the transmission of genetic defects. Experimental evidence suggested that the men with Y chromosomal microdeletions vertically transmitted their deletion as well as related fertility disorders to their offspring via these ART techniques. In India, infertility is on alarming rise. ART centres have opened up in virtually every state but still most of the infertility centres in India do not choose to perform Y chromosomal microdeletion diagnosis because of some advanced theoretical reasons. Moreover, there is no consensus among the clinicians about the diagnosis and management of Y chromosomal microdeletion defects. The current review discusses thoroughly the role of Y chromosome microdeletion screening in the workup of male infertility, its significance as a diagnostic test, novel approaches for screening Y deletions and finally a systematic review on the current status of Y chromosome microdeletion deletion screening in India. PMID:24520494
Norio Miharu; Robert G. Best; S. Robert Young
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with single-color chromosome-specific probes was used to study the rates of disomy for chromosome 1, 16, X, and Y in sperm of fertile and infertile subjects. Diploidy rates were studied using a two-color cocktail of probes for chromosomes 17 and 18 in the same sperm samples. Two-color methodology was not available at the outset of
Md Latar, Ida Lilywaty; Razali, Nuguelis
Objective. To study the predictors for desire for multiple pregnancies and the influence of providing information regarding the maternal and fetal complications associated with multiple pregnancies on their preference for multiple pregnancies. Methods. Couples attending an infertility clinic were offered to fill up a questionnaire separately. Following this, they were handed a pamphlet with information regarding the risks associated with multiple pregnancies. The patients will then be required to answer the question on the number of pregnancies desired again. Results. Two hundred fifty three out of 300 respondents completed the questionnaires adequately. A higher proportion of respondents, 60.3% of females and 57.9% of males, prefer singleton pregnancy. Patients who are younger than 35 years, with preexisting knowledge of risks associated with multiple pregnancies and previous treatment for infertility, have decreased desire for multiple pregnancies. However, for patients who are older than 35, with longer duration of infertility, and those patients who have preexisting knowledge of the increased risk, providing further information regarding the risks did not change their initial preferences. Conclusion. Providing and reinforcing knowledge on the risks to mother and fetus associated with multiple pregnancies did not decrease the preference for multiple pregnancies in patients.
Lee, Hui Dai; Lee, Hyo Serk; Lee, Joong Shik; Park, Yong-Seog
Purpose This study was conducted to find the relative risk of semen abnormality with respect to smoking history and obesity. Materials and Methods Subfertile or infertile men were enrolled in this study from July 2010 to June 2011. All participants provided their cigarette use information, self-reported weight, height, semen analysis, physical examination, and sexually transmitted disease status. None of the enrolled patients had any specific pathological reason for infertility. Semen abnormality was defined as a condition in which one or more parameters did not satisfy the World Health Organization's criteria. Results A total of 1,073 male patients were considered for this study. After the application of the inclusion criteria, 193 patients were finally analyzed. These patients were divided into two groups according to semen abnormality: the normal semen group (n=72) and the abnormal semen group (n=121). Baseline characteristics, except age and smoking history, were not significantly different between the two groups. Smoking history and age were risk factors for the semen abnormality of idiopathic infertile male patients. Conclusions Smoking and old age were risk factors for semen abnormality. However, obesity did not affect the semen abnormality. Smoking affected semen quality and is therefore expected to play a negative role in conception. PMID:25237661
Zanders, Sarah E; Eickbush, Michael T; Yu, Jonathan S; Kang, Ji-Won; Fowler, Kyle R; Smith, Gerald R; Malik, Harmit Singh
Hybrid sterility is one of the earliest postzygotic isolating mechanisms to evolve between two recently diverged species. Here we identify causes underlying hybrid infertility of two recently diverged fission yeast species Schizosaccharomyces pombe and S. kambucha, which mate to form viable hybrid diploids that efficiently complete meiosis, but generate few viable gametes. We find that chromosomal rearrangements and related recombination defects are major but not sole causes of hybrid infertility. At least three distinct meiotic drive alleles, one on each S. kambucha chromosome, independently contribute to hybrid infertility by causing nonrandom spore death. Two of these driving loci are linked by a chromosomal translocation and thus constitute a novel type of paired meiotic drive complex. Our study reveals how quickly multiple barriers to fertility can arise. In addition, it provides further support for models in which genetic conflicts, such as those caused by meiotic drive alleles, can drive speciation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02630.001 PMID:24963140
HOLLOS, MARIDA; WHITEHOUSE, BRUCE
Infertility is a devastating problem around the world, particularly in the high fertility context of sub-Saharan Africa. Regardless of its medical origins, infertility causes African women personal grief and economic deprivation. This research was conducted among the Ijo who are organized into exogamous patrilineal descent groups. Women who marry into a patrilineage are perceived as bearers of sons who will eventually take their place in the lineage's genealogy. Women only figure in the lineage structure as mothers.In addition to extensive ethnographic research in this community, the paper is based on a combination of surveys of 246 women and interviews of 25 fertile and 25 infertile women.Women who have never given birth were characterized as “ useless ” . Some managed to accumulate wealth or attained education but most feared a marginal old age. Respect was given to women who have had even one child, even if that child died. The biological process of gestation confers an adult status on women allowing them to undergo initiation and to function as mature individuals. In the life course the most prominent periods of suffering are the transition from the stages of ereso (girl) to erera (mature woman), and in the period of old age. PMID:25116234
Terai, K; Yoshida, K; Yoshiike, M; Fujime, M; Iwamoto, T
Seminal plasma motility inhibitors (SPMIs) are proteinase-resistant fragments of semenogelin I and II (Sgs), which are the major proteins of semen coagulum. SPMIs inhibit the motility of spermatozoa, and Sgs are thought to be natural regulators of human sperm function. The mechanism underlying sperm motility regulation and its association with defective motility in infertile men remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between SPMIs and spermatozoa in infertile men with asthenozoospermia. Fifty-four semen samples from 37 asthenozoospermic patients and 17 samples from 9 normal healthy subjects were analyzed. Spermatozoa, washed by Percoll density gradients, were immunostained with anti-SPMI antibody and subjected to flow cytometric analysis. The proportion of spermatozoa labeled with the antibody and the average intensity of fluorescence labeling per spermatozoa were analyzed in relation to the parameters used for semen analysis. A significant negative correlation was found between sperm motility and the proportion (R = -0.68) and intensity (R = -0.38) of labeling. These results suggest that SPMIs remain on the sperm surface after liquefaction. This might account for some disorders of sperm motility observed in infertile men with asthenozoospermia. PMID:20720384
González-Jiménez, M A; Villanueva-Díaz, C A
As free stereocilia in semen samples from infertile men could be related to a subclinical chronic infection of the seminal tract, we carried out a retrospective analysis of 14 files of infertile men with stereocilia in semen (group 1) and in two control groups: 30 infertile men from the same study population (group 2) and 40 fertile sperm donors (group 3). Clinical, bacteriological, sonographic and microscopic findings associated with these semen samples were compared. Epididymal cysts were found in two of 14 men in group 1 and in four of 28 in group 2. Positive semen cultures for Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis or Ureaplasma urealyticum (chi(2) = 8.20; P = 0.002; OR: 7.22) and varicocele (chi(2) = 8.96; P = 0.002; OR: 2.25) were associated to the presence of free stereocilia in semen. These data suggest that a silent chronic infection of the epididymis by C. trachomatis, M. hominis, U. urealyticum and/or inflammation produced by varicocele might be the cause of stereocilia loss in the semen. PMID:16420239
Parrott, Fiona R.
This paper examines how men's reproductive bodies are problematised in rural northern Malawi as access to biomedically defined diagnoses of the health of men's sperm contribute to the visibility of male infertility. Ethnographic research with infertile and fertile men explored pathways into the sexual health and fertility services offered in district hospitals, men's clinical engagements and masculine imaginaries. The research suggested that men's willingness to be referred for semen analysis is an extension of intensive and persistent help-seeking for childlessness instigated by couples and encouraged by families. Within the laboratory, acceptable social arrangements for semen sample collection are negotiated between male clients and laboratory staff, which emphasise heterosexual and marital virility. Following diagnosis, counselling by clinical officers, without any significant therapeutic interventions, focuses on compassion in marriage. This paper considers: what is the role of semen analysis within public health facilities and why do men participate? How do men experience an infertility diagnosis and what do they and their partners do with this knowledge? In addition, how do these practices shape gendered relationships in families and communities? The analysis builds on Inhorn's (2012) concept of ‘emergent masculinities’ to better understand the connections between male subjectivities, medical technologies and the globalisation of male reproductive health, as they relate to men's lives in rural Malawi. PMID:25175293
Parrott, Fiona R
This paper examines how men's reproductive bodies are problematised in rural northern Malawi as access to biomedically defined diagnoses of the health of men's sperm contribute to the visibility of male infertility. Ethnographic research with infertile and fertile men explored pathways into the sexual health and fertility services offered in district hospitals, men's clinical engagements and masculine imaginaries. The research suggested that men's willingness to be referred for semen analysis is an extension of intensive and persistent help-seeking for childlessness instigated by couples and encouraged by families. Within the laboratory, acceptable social arrangements for semen sample collection are negotiated between male clients and laboratory staff, which emphasise heterosexual and marital virility. Following diagnosis, counselling by clinical officers, without any significant therapeutic interventions, focuses on compassion in marriage. This paper considers: what is the role of semen analysis within public health facilities and why do men participate? How do men experience an infertility diagnosis and what do they and their partners do with this knowledge? In addition, how do these practices shape gendered relationships in families and communities? The analysis builds on Inhorn's (2012) concept of 'emergent masculinities' to better understand the connections between male subjectivities, medical technologies and the globalisation of male reproductive health, as they relate to men's lives in rural Malawi. PMID:25175293
Kübar, H; Jalakas, M
The reproductive organs of 20 Estonian Holstein Breed (EHF) cows and three heifers, culled because of infertility, were studied by palpation per rectum and ultrasonography. In addition, pathoanatomical and pathohistological studies were carried out after slaughtering. The pathohistological study revealed that small cysts often (12 animals) existed in culled cows, whose diameter was less than 2.5 cm. These cysts were frequently accompanied by changes in secondary and Graafi follicles, rete ovarii, ovarian stroma, and the endometrium. Three cows had follicular cysts in the ovaries, which were 25-35 mm in diameter. Two cows revealed luteal cysts in the ovaries; one of them had vaginal prolapse. Four animals (one heifer and three cows) manifested tumours or tumour-like malformations: ovarian endosalpingiosis, germ and stromal cell tumour, oviductal myolipoma, and haemangiosarcoma in the uterine blood vessels. One heifer had been culled because of two abscesses in the vaginal wall close to the cervix and another had chronic endometritis. The research findings indicate that the most common cause of infertility in the culled cows was cystic degeneration in ovaries (85%), accompanied by pathological changes elsewhere in the reproductive organs. We claim that these changes are responsible for the low pregnancy rate after the treatment of ovarian cysts. The second most common reason was genital tumours (15%). In heifers, infertility is rare and its causes are heterogeneous. PMID:12440792
Quan, Q; Li, T J; Ding, X P; Wei, J; Li, L X; Fu, L
The purpose of this study was to detect chromosomal aberrations and azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletions in male patients with reproductive problems and to summarize related clinical features to provide reliable information for evaluating prenatal and preimplantation diagnoses. A large cohort of 5083 men with various phenotypes of male infertility was analyzed via G-banding karyotyping, and Origin 8.0 was used to analyze the prevalence of abnormalities. Additionally, patients with azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia were analyzed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect microdeletion in the AZF. We identified 387 patients with abnormal karyotypes, and the ratio was 7.61%. Among them were 175 patients with Klinefelter's syndrome, which was the most common numerical chromosomal abnormality and accounted for 45.22% of all chromosomal aberrations. The frequencies of increased satellites, balanced translocations, and Robertsonian translocations were 6.47, 7.00, and 3.62%, respectively. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction performed in 810 cases with azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia found a ratio of AZF microdeletions of 4.94%. The finding suggests that chromosomal abnormalities and AZF deletion are main factors that result in male infertility. Detecting these common genetic variations is necessary in infertile men seeking assisted reproductive technology. PMID:24390997
Bhongade, M B; Prasad, S; Jiloha, R C; Ray, P C; Mohapatra, S; Koner, B C
The present study evaluated the effect of psychological stress on male fertility hormones and seminal quality in male partner of infertile couples. Seventy male partners of infertile couples were evaluated for level of psychological stress using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) questionnaire, serum total testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by electrochemiluminescence assay and serum GnRH by ELISA. Seminal analysis was performed as per WHO guideline. Nineteen (27%) of them had HADS anxiety and depression score ?8 (abnormal HADS score). The persons having abnormal HADS had lower serum total testosterone, higher serum FSH and LH than those of persons having normal HADS. Serum total testosterone correlated negatively with HADS, but LH and FSH correlated positively. There was no change in GnRH with the change in stress or testosterone levels. Sperm count, motility and morphologically normal spermatozoa were lower in persons having abnormal HADS. Sperm count correlated positively with total testosterone and negatively with FSH and LH. Abnormal sperm motility and morphology were related to lower testosterone and higher LH and FSH levels. Psychological stress primarily lowers serum total testosterone level with secondary rise in serum LH and FSH levels altering seminal quality. Stress management is warranted for male infertility cases. PMID:24673246
Roshdy, O H; Hussein, T M; Zakaria, N H; Sabry, A A
The aim of this study was to examine whether an association exists between glutathione S-transferase Mu-1 (GSTM1) gene polymorphism and idiopathic male infertility. Sixty men with primary idiopathic infertility and 60 fertile men, serving as controls, were recruited for the study. The polymorphism was analysed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The frequency of GSTM1 null genotype was observed to be higher in infertile men 40% in comparison with 33.3% in the fertile men, but this difference was not statistically significant. There was statistically significant difference between cases and controls as regards GSTM1 genotype distribution ((MC) P = 0.006*) in GSTM1-positive men. Patients with the GSTM1 null genotype had significantly lower sperm concentrations and total sperm count when compared with patients with GSTM1-positive genotype. In the control group, men with GSTM1 null genotype had significantly lower sperm concentrations but not total sperm count when compared with men with GSTM1-positive genotype. The results of this study suggest a possible negative effect of GSTM1 null genotype on the spermatogenic potential of the testis. PMID:25130880
Ishihara, O; Ihno, Y; Saitoh, M; Suno, T; Kinoshita, K
In an attempt to evaluate the risks and benefits of human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) therapy for patients with unexplained infertility, the response and outcome of hMG therapy for anovulatory patients and ovulatory patients with unexplained infertility were analyzed in a group of successful cases of pregnancy. The number of follicles grown and the total doses of hMG were not significantly different in the two groups. The rate of spontaneous abortion in unexplained cases was twice as high (13.2%) as in anovulatory cases. However, the rate of multiple pregnancy was 8.8% for unexplained cases which was significantly lower than that for anovulatory cases (39.0%). In addition, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) occurred in 11.8% of unexplained cases and that was much lower than that for anovulatory cases (25.8%). This study justifies the application of gonadotrophin therapy to ovulatory patients with unexplained infertility in terms of the risks and benefits of the therapy in achieving pregnancy. PMID:8133131
Whitehouse, Bruce; Hollos, Marida
Although infertility causes women considerable grief, social stigma, and economic deprivation, scholars have paid little attention to infertility’s definitions that may depart from the standard Western usage and how such definitions influence the way women experience the condition. This article, by listening to individual women’s experiences of infertility in two Nigerian communities, examines these definitions and differentiates between culturally salient categories of infertility. In distinguishing between different kinds of childless women and those with low fertility, we intend to enhance understandings of infertility by considering women’s subjective understandings of the condition and thus moving beyond the current medical definition. By comparing women’s experiences in two different ethnic groups in Nigeria, we show how distinct forms of kinship structures and social organizations shape the ways low fertility is defined, managed, and experienced. PMID:24578250
Rizzo, Roberta; Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Bortolotti, Daria; Graziano, Angela; Gentili, Valentina; Di Luca, Dario; Marci, Roberto
The aim of this research was to determine the levels of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) and endometrial Natural Killer ((e)NK) cell percentages in uterine flushing samples from primary and secondary infertile women. sHLA-G levels were lower in the uterine flushing samples from primary infertile women in comparison with women with secondary infertility. Lower CD56+KIR2DL4+ (e)NK cell percentages were detected in primary infertile women compared with secondary infertile women. This is the first study demonstrating that primary and secondary unexplained infertilities are characterized by different basal sHLA-G levels and CD56+KIR2DL4+ (e)NK cell percentages. PMID:25764161
Manohar, Murli; Khan, Huma; Sirohi, Vijay Kumar; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad; Dwivedi, Anila
Background Compromised receptivity of the endometrium is a major cause of unexplained infertility, implantation failure and subclinical pregnancy loss. In order to investigate the changes in endometrial protein profile as a cause of unexplained infertility, the current study was undertaken to analyze the differentially expressed proteins of endometrium from early-secretory (LH+2) to mid-secretory phase (LH+7), in women with unexplained infertility. Methods 2-D gel electrophoresis was performed to analyze the proteomic changes between early- (n?=?8) and mid-secretory (n?=?8) phase endometrium of women with unexplained infertility. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified by LC-MS analysis and validated by immunoblotting and immuno-histochemical analysis in early- (n?=?4) and mid-secretory (n?=?4) phase endometrium of infertile women. Validated proteins were also analyzed in early- (n?=?4) and mid-secretory (n?=?4) phase endometrium of fertile women. Results Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed between early- and mid- secretory phases of endometrium of infertile women. The expression of Ras-related protein Rap-1b, Protein disulfide isomerase A3, Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), Cofilin-1 and RAN GTP-binding nuclear protein (Ran) were found to be significantly increased, whereas, Tubulin polymerization promoting protein family member 3, Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], Sorcin, and Proteasome subunit alpha type-5 were significantly decreased in mid- secretory phase endometrium of infertile women as compared to early-secretory phase endometrium of infertile women. Validation of 4 proteins viz. Sorcin, Cofilin-1, Apo-A1 and Ran were performed in separate endometrial biopsy samples from infertile women. The up-regulated expression of Sorcin and down-regulated expression of Cofilin-1 and Apolipoprotein-A1, were observed in mid-secretory phase as compared to early-secretory phase in case of fertile women. Conclusions De-regulation of the expression of Sorcin, Cofilin-1, Apo-A1 and Ran, during early- to mid-secretory phase may have physiological significance and it may be one of the causes for altered differentiation and/or maturation of endometrium, in women with unexplained infertility. PMID:25405865
S. J. Dyer; N. Abrahams; N. E. Mokoena; Z. M. van der Spuy
BACKGROUND: In Africa, infertility traditionally has been viewed as a female problem. This study explores reproductive health knowledge, health-seeking behaviour and experiences related to involuntary childlessness in men suffering from couple infertility. METHODS: Twenty-seven men from a diverse cultural urban community in South Africa participated in in-depth interviews at the time of their first visit to an infertility clinic in
Erdem, Kubra; Ejder Apay, Serap
Background Studies conducted on infertile women in the literature investigated some features such as depression, anxiety, loneliness, and social support. However, there has been no study examining the relationship between levels of perceived social support and depression in infertile women. Considering this deficiency, the study was conducted to determine the relationship between perceived social support and depression in infertile women. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between perceived social support and depression in infertile women. Materials and Methods This descriptive and sectional study was conducted between 16 April and 31 October 2012 in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) Centre of F?rat University Re- search Hospital. Sampling formula was used in cases when the number of elements in the population was not known to calculate minimum sample size required to be included in the study. A total of 238 women who applied to the relevant centre between the specified dates constituted the sample group of the study. A Questionnaire Form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) were used to collect the data. A pilot study was carried out on nine infertile women. As a result of the pilot study, we formed the final version of the Questionnaire Form. The data of these nine women were not involved in the research. The data obtained from the study was assessed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) version 15.0. Percentage distribution, mean, t test, one-way analysis of variance (One-Way ANOVA), and Pearson correlation analysis were used to evaluate the data. Results The women’s total mean score on the BDI was 12.55 ± 8.07. Scores obtained by women on the MSPSS was 15.75 ± 8.53 for the subscale of friend, 21.52 ± 8.20 for the subscale of family, and 15.62 ± 8.45 for the subscale of significant others. The women’s total MSPSS score was 52.89 ± 21.75. Conclusion A significant, negative relationship was found between total BDI score with subscale and total mean scores of MSPSS (r= -0.596, p<0.01). Symptoms of depression decreased as the women’s perceived social support increased. PMID:25379160
Al-Turki, Haifa A.
Objective: The purpose of this retrospective study is to look into the effect of smoking on semen and hormonal profile of Saudi Arabians attending infertility clinics. Materials and Methods: Medical record numbers of patients who attended infertility clinics and who underwent full assessment were identified rom Quadramed system and out-patient log books between January 2010 and December 2012. The standard protocol of the patients include full history, age, number of years of marriage personal habits of smoking, alcohol consumption, primary or secondary infertility. Standard laboratory tests which were performed, included, complete blood picture, random blood sugar, testosterone, follicle stimulation hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin level and semen analysis; volume, count, progressive motility and morphology. The data was entered in the database and analyzed. Results: During the study period, 279 patients attended and infertility clinic and only 258 gave the sample for analysis. The average age of patients in the smoking group was 34.23 ± 7.66 and in the nonsmokers 34.07 ± 7.92 years. Primary infertility was more common in smokers versus nonsmokers P < 0.001 confidence interval (CI)< ?44.0705, total serum testosterone level was lower 383.8 ± 239.5 versus 422.5 ± 139.2 ng/dL (0.009 CI< ?9.9415), serum prolactin level was higher 18.68 ± 13.28 versus 12.85 ± 12.34 ng/mL (0.001 CI < 8.3794). The average volume of the semen among the smokers was 2.8 ± 1.35 mL and in nonsmokers it was 3.08 ± 0.76 mL (P < 0.008 CI< ?0.123). The mean progressive motility in smokers was 31.5 ± 23.1 compared to nonsmokers 40.05 ± 25.43% (0.002 CI< ?3.2962) and total sperm count was 119.52 ± 114.12 and 139.71 ± 104.82 million/mL (0.07 CI < 1.4657). Conclusions: This study shows that the effect of smoking is dramatic reduction in the hormonal levels and semen parameters. It is recommended that smoking men undergoing fertility treatment should stop smoking to increase their chances of having offspring. PMID:25657547
Tang, Li-Xin; Yuan, Dong-Juan; Wang, Qi-Ling; Jiang, Fang; Guo, Jian; Tang, Yun-Ge; Zheng, Li-Xin; Kang, Jing X
Varicocele is commonly associated with male infertility because it impairs normal sperm morphology and activity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are important determinants of sperm cell structure and function, but their relationship with varicocele remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the PUFA composition in spermatozoa of infertile men with varicocele and to evaluate the potential relationship between PUFA and varicocele. This case control study recruited 92 infertile men with varicocele, 99 infertile men without varicocele and 95 fertile male control subjects. Semen morphology and activity parameters were assessed and seminal plasma 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content was determined by ELISA. Sperm concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography. Infertile men with varicocele had lower concentrations of omega-3 PUFA, higher omega-6:omega-3 PUFA ratios and greater oxidative DNA damage in spermatozoa compared with infertile men without varicocele and normal subjects. The degree of varicocele and DNA damage was associated with decreased omega-3 PUFA concentrations and semen quality in infertile men with varicocele. The findings suggest that omega-3 PUFA deficiency could be implicated in varicocele-associated infertility, and highlight the need for intervention trials to test the usefulness of omega-3 supplementation in reducing sperm abnormalities in infertile men with varicocele. PMID:25405715
Gong, Mancheng; Dong, Wenjing; He, Tingyu; Shi, Zhirong; Huang, Guiying; Ren, Rui; Huang, Sichong; Qiu, Shaopeng; Yuan, Runqiang
Background and Objectives Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism may be a risk factor for male infertility. However, the epidemiologic studies showed inconsistent results regarding MTHFR polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to re-examine the controversy. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were conducted to select eligible literatures for this meta-analysis (updated to June 19, 2014). According to our inclusion criteria and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), only high quality studies that observed the association between MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk were included. Crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of association between the MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk. Results Twenty-six studies involving 5,575 cases and 5,447 controls were recruited. Overall, MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism showed significant associations with male infertility risk in both fixed effects (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.23–1.46) and random effects models (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.19–1.62). Further, when stratified by ethnicity, sperm concentration and control sources, the similar results were observed in Asians, Caucasians, Azoo or OAT subgroup and both in population-based and hospital-based controls. Nevertheless, no significant association was only observed in oligo subgroup. Conclusions Our results indicated that the MTHFR polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of male infertility. Further well-designed analytical studies are necessary to confirm our conclusions and evaluate gene-environment interactions with male infertility risk. PMID:25793386
Jamali, Safieh; Zarei, Hossein; Rasekh Jahromi, Athar
Background: Infertility as the bitterest life experience can affect sexual function. Many studies have shown agitation, depression, marital dissatisfaction, and sexual dysfunction as the psychological outcomes resulting from infertility. Many factors, including body mass index, influence the female sexual function. Objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction and the relationship between sexual function and body mass index in the Iranian infertile women who had attended the infertility clinic. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 502 infertile women who had attended Honoree clinic, Jahrom in Iran between April 2012 and December 2012. The infertile cases were classified into three groups according to the body mass index: 20-24.9 (Group I), 25-29.9 (Group II), and >29.9 and above (Group III). In addition, Female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire was used in order to assess the sexual problems. Finally, the data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Student’s t-test. Results: The mean age of women was 30.95±6.80 years. The results showed that 430 subjects (87.1%) had sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, the rate of sexual dysfunction among the infertile women was reported as 23.30%, 31.47%, and 45.23% in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Considering body mass index, FSFI score was 21.65±1.70 in the women with normal weight, 18.08±1.52 in overweight women, and 12.21±3.62 in obese women and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was quite high in infertile women, which might be due to the lack of knowledge about marital issues and lack of training in the society. If body mass index is too high, it can have a great effect on fertility. In this study, being overweight and obese based on body mass index had a negative effect on the infertile woman’s sexual function. PMID:24799879