Science.gov

Sample records for infiltrating post-ischemic brain

  1. Neuroprotective effects of a glutathione depletor in rat post-ischemic reperfusion brain damage.

    PubMed

    Giacomo, Claudia Di; Santangelo, Rosa; Sorrenti, Valeria; Volti, Giovanni L; Acquaviva, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    The induction of heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, occurs as an adaptative response to oxidative stress and is consequent to decrease in cellular glutathione levels. Our previous studies demonstrated significant increase in survival rates of rats treated with glutathione depletors and submitted to transient cerebral ischemia. The aim of the present research was to test the effects of L-Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a glutathione depletor, during cerebral post-ischemic reperfusion. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral clamping of common carotid arteries for 20 min. Each sample was used for glutathione ad lipid peroxidation level dosage and for evaluating the expression of heme oxygenase both after a single subcutaneous administration of BSO and without treatment. In the same experimental conditions, endothelial, inducible and neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS, iNOS and nNOS) and Dimethylarginine Dimethyl amine Hydrolases (DDAH-1 and DDAH-2) were also evaluated. Results obtained in the present study suggested that HO-1 over-expression may be implicated in the protective effect of BSO in post-ischemic reperfusion brain damage, although the involvement of other important stress mediators cannot be ruled out. PMID:25613502

  2. Post-ischemic hypothermia reduced IL-18 expression and suppressed microglial activation in the immature brain.

    PubMed

    Fukui, On; Kinugasa, Yukiko; Fukuda, Aya; Fukuda, Hirotsugu; Tskitishvili, Ekaterine; Hayashi, Shusaku; Song, Mihyon; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Hosono, Takayoshi; Shimoya, Koichiro; Murata, Yuji

    2006-11-22

    Inflammation is an important factor for hypoxia-ischemia (HI) brain injury. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine which may be a contributor to injury in the immature brain after HI. To investigate the effects of post-HI hypothermia on IL-18 in the developing brain, 7-day-old rats were subjected to left carotid artery ligation followed by 8% oxygen for 60 min and divided into a hypothermia group (rectal temperature 32 degrees C for 24 h) and a normothermia group (36 degrees C for 24 h). The IL-18 mRNA was analyzed with real-time RT-PCR, and the protein level was analyzed by Western blot, and the location and source of IL-18 were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The significant increase of the IL-18 mRNA was observed in the ipsilateral hemispheres of the normothermia group at 24 h and 72 h after HI compared with controls, but the level in the ipsilateral hemispheres of the hypothermia group was significantly reduced at both time points, compared with the normothermia group, respectively. The IL-18 protein level in the ipsilateral hemispheres of the normothermia group significantly increased at 72 h after HI compared with controls, however, the protein level of the hypothermia group was significantly decreased, compared with the normothermia group. IL-18-positive cells were observed throughout the entire cortex, corpus callosum (CC) and striatum in the ipsilateral hemispheres of normothermia group at 72 h after HI, however, little positive cells were observed in the hypothermia group. Double labeling immunostaining found that most of the IL-18-positive cells were colocalized with lectin, which is a marker of microglia. The number of ameboid microglia (AM) in the normothermia group was significantly increased in cortex and CC, compared with the number in controls, but there were very few ramified microglia (RM) in these areas. In contrast, the number of AM in the hypothermia group was significantly decreased in cortex and CC, compared with the number in

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of post-ischemic blood-brain barrier damage with PEGylated iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong-Fang; Qian, Cheng; An, Yan-Li; Chang, Di; Ju, Sheng-Hong; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage during ischemia may induce devastating consequences like cerebral edema and hemorrhagic transformation. This study presents a novel strategy for dynamically imaging of BBB damage with PEGylated supermagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents. The employment of SPIONs as contrast agents made it possible to dynamically image the BBB permeability alterations and ischemic lesions simultaneously with T2-weighted MRI, and the monitoring could last up to 24 h with a single administration of PEGylated SPIONs in vivo. The ability of the PEGylated SPIONs to highlight BBB damage by MRI was demonstrated by the colocalization of PEGylated SPIONs with Gd-DTPA after intravenous injection of SPION-PEG/Gd-DTPA into a mouse. The immunohistochemical staining also confirmed the leakage of SPION-PEG from cerebral vessels into parenchyma. This study provides a novel and convenient route for imaging BBB alteration in the experimental ischemic stroke model.

  4. Post-ischemic diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Marsch, S C; Dalmas, S; Philbin, D M; Wanigasekera, V A; Ryder, W A; Wong, L S; Foëx, P

    1994-12-01

    Though a sustained post-ischemic decrease in contractile function has been clearly established, post-ischemic diastolic function has not been thoroughly investigated. Accordingly, 11 anesthetized (isoflurane 1%) open-chest beagles were instrumented to measure left ventricular pressure and dimensions (circumferential length and wall thickness) in an apicoanterior area supplied by the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Pressure-dimension relations were modified by stepwise infusion and withdrawal of 200 mL of the animals' own blood during baseline, 45 minutes partial occlusion of the LAD (systolic bulging), and 60 minutes after the onset of reperfusion. Stiffness constants were derived from the end-diastolic pressure-length and stress-strain relations, respectively. Myocardial ischemia was associated with significant (P < 0.05) alterations of the following parameters of diastolic function: (1) 47% increase in end-diastolic pressure; (2) 22% decrease in peak negative dP/dt; (3) 9% increase in the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau); (4) postcystolic contraction; (5) 6% increase in end-diastolic length and 10% decrease in end-diastolic thickness; (6) 12% increase in unstressed length (creep) and 13% decrease in unstressed thickness; (7) 51% increase in chamber stiffness and a 63% increase in myocardial stiffness; and (8) 40% decrease in the peak lengthening rate. After 60 minutes of reperfusion, only end-diastolic pressure and tau had returned to baseline values whereas systolic shortening fraction, postsystolic contraction, and end-diastolic and unstressed dimensions had only partially recovered. No recovery occurred in peak negative dP/dt, chamber stiffness, myocardial stiffness, and peak lengthening rate. Thus, both myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are associated with complex changes in global and regional left ventricular diastolic function. PMID:7880987

  5. Pediatric Cerebral Stroke: Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging May Predict Post-Ischemic Malignant Edema

    PubMed Central

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Poretti, Andrea; Orman, Gunes; Meoded, Avner; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is an advanced MRI technique providing information on the blood oxygenation level. Deoxyhemoglobin is increased in hypoperfused tissue characterized by SWI-hypointensity, while high oxyhemoglobin concentration within hyperperfused tissue results in a SWI iso- or hyperintensity compared to healthy brain tissue. We describe a child with a stroke, where SWI in addition to excluding hemorrhage and delineating the thrombus proved invaluable in determining regions of hyperperfusion or luxury perfusion, which contributed further to the prognosis including an increased risk of developing post-ischemic malignant edema. PMID:24199819

  6. Regulatory T cells actively infiltrate metastatic brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Adam Quasar; Rolle, Cleo E; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2009-06-01

    Regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+, Treg) have been shown to play a major role in suppression of the immune response to malignant gliomas. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of Treg infiltration in metastatic brain tumor models, including melanoma, breast and colon cancers. Our data indicate that both CD4+ and Treg infiltration are significantly increased throughout the time of metastatic tumor progression. These findings were recapitulated in human CNS tumor samples of metastatic melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Collectively, these data support investigating immunotherapeutic strategies targeting Treg in metastatic CNS tumors. PMID:19424570

  7. O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine modification of proteins is activated in post-ischemic brains of young but not aged mice: Implications for impaired functional recovery from ischemic stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Sheng, Huaxin; Yu, Zhui; Paschen, Wulf; Yang, Wei

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of age on the response of brains to an ischemic challenge, we subjected young and aged mice to transient forebrain ischemia, and analyzed the heat shock response and unfolded protein response, ubiquitin conjugation and SUMO conjugation, and O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine modification of proteins (O-GlcNAcylation). The most prominent age-related difference was an inability of aged mice to activate O-GlcNAcylation. Considering many reports on the protective role of O-GlcNAcylation in various stress conditions including myocardial ischemia, this pathway could be a promising target for therapeutic intervention to improve functional recovery of aged patients following brain ischemia. PMID:26661187

  8. Cellular prion protein promotes post-ischemic neuronal survival, angioneurogenesis and enhances neural progenitor cell homing via proteasome inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Doeppner, T R; Kaltwasser, B; Schlechter, J; Jaschke, J; Kilic, E; Bähr, M; Hermann, D M; Weise, J

    2015-01-01

    Although cellular prion protein (PrPc) has been suggested to have physiological roles in neurogenesis and angiogenesis, the pathophysiological relevance of both processes remain unknown. To elucidate the role of PrPc in post-ischemic brain remodeling, we herein exposed PrPc wild type (WT), PrPc knockout (PrP−/−) and PrPc overexpressing (PrP+/+) mice to focal cerebral ischemia followed by up to 28 days reperfusion. Improved neurological recovery and sustained neuroprotection lasting over the observation period of 4 weeks were observed in ischemic PrP+/+ mice compared with WT mice. This observation was associated with increased neurogenesis and angiogenesis, whereas increased neurological deficits and brain injury were noted in ischemic PrP−/− mice. Proteasome activity and oxidative stress were increased in ischemic brain tissue of PrP−/− mice. Pharmacological proteasome inhibition reversed the exacerbation of brain injury induced by PrP−/−, indicating that proteasome inhibition mediates the neuroprotective effects of PrPc. Notably, reduced proteasome activity and oxidative stress in ischemic brain tissue of PrP+/+ mice were associated with an increased abundance of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and PACAP-38, which are known stimulants of neural progenitor cell (NPC) migration and trafficking. To elucidate effects of PrPc on intracerebral NPC homing, we intravenously infused GFP+ NPCs in ischemic WT, PrP−/− and PrP+/+ mice, showing that brain accumulation of GFP+ NPCs was greatly reduced in PrP−/− mice, but increased in PrP+/+ animals. Our results suggest that PrPc induces post-ischemic long-term neuroprotection, neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the ischemic brain by inhibiting proteasome activity. PMID:26673668

  9. Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Minbiao; Lewis, Spencer; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Snuderl, Matija; Venneti, Sriram; Fisher-Hubbard, Amanda; Garrard, Mia; Fu, Dan; Wang, Anthony C.; Heth, Jason A.; Maher, Cormac O.; Sanai, Nader; Johnson, Timothy D.; Freudiger, Christian W.; Sagher, Oren; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Orringer, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating tumor from normal brain is a major barrier to achieving optimal outcome in brain tumor surgery. New imaging techniques for visualizing tumor margins during surgery are needed to improve surgical results. We recently demonstrated the ability of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a non-destructive, label-free optical method, to reveal glioma infiltration in animal models. Here we show that SRS reveals human brain tumor infiltration in fresh, unprocessed surgical specimens from 22 neurosurgical patients. SRS detects tumor infiltration in near-perfect agreement with standard hematoxylin and eosin light microscopy (κ=0.86). The unique chemical contrast specific to SRS microscopy enables tumor detection by revealing quantifiable alterations in tissue cellularity, axonal density and protein:lipid ratio in tumor-infiltrated tissues. To ensure that SRS microscopic data can be easily used in brain tumor surgery, without the need for expert interpretation, we created a classifier based on cellularity, axonal density and protein:lipid ratio in SRS images capable of detecting tumor infiltration with 97.5% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity. Importantly, quantitative SRS microscopy detects the spread of tumor cells, even in brain tissue surrounding a tumor that appears grossly normal. By accurately revealing tumor infiltration, quantitative SRS microscopy holds potential for improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery. PMID:26468325

  10. Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ji, Minbiao; Lewis, Spencer; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Snuderl, Matija; Venneti, Sriram; Fisher-Hubbard, Amanda; Garrard, Mia; Fu, Dan; Wang, Anthony C; Heth, Jason A; Maher, Cormac O; Sanai, Nader; Johnson, Timothy D; Freudiger, Christian W; Sagher, Oren; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Orringer, Daniel A

    2015-10-14

    Differentiating tumor from normal brain is a major barrier to achieving optimal outcome in brain tumor surgery. New imaging techniques for visualizing tumor margins during surgery are needed to improve surgical results. We recently demonstrated the ability of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a nondestructive, label-free optical method, to reveal glioma infiltration in animal models. We show that SRS reveals human brain tumor infiltration in fresh, unprocessed surgical specimens from 22 neurosurgical patients. SRS detects tumor infiltration in near-perfect agreement with standard hematoxylin and eosin light microscopy (κ = 0.86). The unique chemical contrast specific to SRS microscopy enables tumor detection by revealing quantifiable alterations in tissue cellularity, axonal density, and protein/lipid ratio in tumor-infiltrated tissues. To ensure that SRS microscopic data can be easily used in brain tumor surgery, without the need for expert interpretation, we created a classifier based on cellularity, axonal density, and protein/lipid ratio in SRS images capable of detecting tumor infiltration with 97.5% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity. Quantitative SRS microscopy detects the spread of tumor cells, even in brain tissue surrounding a tumor that appears grossly normal. By accurately revealing tumor infiltration, quantitative SRS microscopy holds potential for improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery. PMID:26468325

  11. Differential Activation of Infiltrating Monocyte-Derived Cells After Mild and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Trahanas, Diane M; Cuda, Carla M; Perlman, Harris; Schwulst, Steven J

    2015-03-01

    Microglia are the resident innate immune cells of the brain. Although embryologically and functionally distinct, they are morphologically similar to peripheral monocyte-derived cells, resulting in a poor ability to discriminate between the two cell types. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and reliable method to simultaneously characterize, quantify, and discriminate between whole populations of myeloid cells from the brain in a murine model of traumatic brain injury. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent traumatic brain injury (n = 16) or sham injury (n = 14). Brains were harvested at 24 h after injury. Multiparameter flow cytometry and sequential gating analysis were performed, allowing for discrimination between microglia and infiltrating leukocytes as well as for the characterization and quantification of individual subtypes within the infiltrating population. The proportion of infiltrating leukocytes within the brain increased with the severity of injury, and the predominant cell types within the infiltrating population were monocyte derived (P = 0.01). In addition, the severity of injury altered the overall makeup of the infiltrating monocyte-derived cells. In conclusion, we describe a flow cytometry-based technique for gross discrimination between infiltrating leukocytes and microglia as well as the ability to simultaneously characterize and quantify individual myeloid subtypes and their maturation states within these populations. PMID:26091024

  12. Differential activation of infiltrating monocyte-derived cells after mild and severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Trahanas, Diane M.; Cuda, Carla M.; Perlman, Harris; Schwulst, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are the resident innate immune cells of the brain. Although embryologically and functionally distinct, they are morphologically similar to peripheral monocyte-derived cells resulting in a poor ability to discriminate between the two cell types. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and reliable method to simultaneously characterize, quantify, and discriminate between whole populations of myeloid cells from the brain in a murine model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Male C57BL/6 mice underwent TBI (n=16) or sham injury (n=14). Brains were harvested at 24 hours post injury. Multiparameter flow cytometry and sequential gating analysis was performed allowing for discrimination between microglia and infiltrating leukocytes as well as for the characterization and quantification of individual subtypes within the infiltrating population. The proportion of infiltrating leukocytes within the brain increased with the severity of injury and the predominate cell types within the infiltrating population were monocyte-derived (p=0.01). Additionally, the severity of injury altered the overall makeup of the infiltrating monocyte-derived cells. In conclusion, we describe a flow cytometry based technique for gross discrimination between infiltrating leukocytes and microglia as well as the ability to simultaneously characterize and quantify individual myeloid subtypes and their maturation states within these populations. PMID:26091024

  13. Hepatic Branch Vagus Nerve Plays a Critical Role in the Recovery of Post-Ischemic Glucose Intolerance and Mediates a Neuroprotective Effect by Hypothalamic Orexin-A

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Yui; Koda, Shuichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus) plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve) is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse) administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve) with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker). These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A. PMID:24759941

  14. Pyruvate blocks blood-brain barrier disruption, lymphocyte infiltration and immune response in excitotoxic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jae K; McLarnon, James G

    2016-01-01

    The effects of pyruvate, the end metabolite of glycolysis, on blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment and immune reactivity were examined in the quinolinic acid (QA)-injected rat striatum. Extensive disruption of BBB was observed at 7 d post QA-injection as demonstrated by increased immunohistochemical staining using antibody against immunoglobulin G (IgG). Animals receiving pyruvate administration (500 mg/kg) with QA-injection exhibited reduced lgG immunoreactivity (by 45%) relative to QA alone. QA intrastriatal injection also resulted in marked increases in the number of infiltrating T-lymphocytes (by 70-fold) and expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC-class II) (by 45-fold) relative to unlesioned control. Treatment with pyruvate significantly reduced infiltration of T-cells (by 68%) and MHC class II expression (by 48%) induced by QA. These results indicate that QA injection into rat striatum leads to impairment in BBB function with pyruvate administration reducing immune response and BBB leakiness in excitotoxic injury. PMID:27073744

  15. Curcumin reduces brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yuan, Jichao; Zhu, Haitao; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Lan; Liao, Xiaojun; Wen, Zexian; Chen, Yaxing; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiangkai

    2016-05-01

    T lymphocytes contribute to inflammation, thereby exacerbating neuronal injury after cerebral ischemia. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that inflammation is a key contributor to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury. Curcumin, a low-molecular-weight curry spice that is derived from the Curcuma longa plant, suppresses T lymphocyte proliferation and migration. Based on these findings, we investigated whether treatment with curcumin would reduce the number of cerebral T lymphocytes in mice with experimentally induced ICH. We found that a large number of T lymphocytes infiltrated the brain at 3days post-ICH. Curcumin significantly improved neurological scores and reduced brain edema in mice with ICH, consistent with a role in reducing neuroinflammation and neurovascular injury. Using flow cytometry, we observed significantly fewer T lymphocytes in brain samples obtained from the curcumin-treated group than in samples obtained from the vehicle-treated group. Moreover, Western blot analysis and immunostaining indicated that treatment with curcumin significantly reduced the expression of a vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), interferon-γ (INF-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in the mouse brain at 72h post-ICH. Our results suggest that administering curcumin may alleviate cerebral inflammation resulting from ICH, at least in part by reducing the infiltration of T lymphocytes into the brain. Therefore, preventing T lymphocytes from infiltrating the brain may become a new strategy for treating clinical ICH. PMID:27026486

  16. Metastasis Infiltration: An Investigation of the Postoperative Brain-Tumor Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Raore, Bethwel; Schniederjan, Matthew; Prabhu, Roshan; Brat, Daniel J.; Shu, Hui-Kuo; Olson, Jeffrey J.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate brain infiltration of metastatic tumor cells past the main tumor resection margin to assess the biological basis for the use of stereotactic radiosurgery treatment of the tumor resection cavity and visualized resection edge or clinical target volume. Methods and Materials: Resection margin tissue was obtained after gross total resection of a small group of metastatic lesions from a variety of primary sources. The tissue at the border of the tumor and brain tissue was carefully oriented and processed to evaluate the presence of tumor cells within brain tissue and their distance from the resection margin. Results: Microscopic assessment of the radially oriented tissue samples showed no tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding brain tissue. Among the positive findings were reactive astrocytosis observed on the brain tissue immediately adjacent to the tumor resection bed margin. Conclusions: The lack of evidence of metastatic tumor cell infiltration into surrounding brain suggests the need to target only a narrow depth of the resection cavity margin to minimize normal tissue injury and prevent treatment size-dependent stereotactic radiosurgery complications.

  17. Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability and Monocyte Infiltration in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floris, S.; Blezer, E. L. A.; Schreibelt, G.; Dopp, E.; van der Pol, S. M. A.; Schadee-Eestermans, I. L.; Nicolay, K.; Dijkstra, C. D.; de Vries, H. E.

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced cerebrovascular permeability and cellular infiltration mark the onset of early multiple sclerosis lesions. So far, the precise sequence of these events and their role in lesion formation and disease progression remain unknown. Here we provide quantitative evidence that blood-brain barrier leakage is an early event and precedes massive…

  18. Detection of human brain cancer infiltration ex vivo and in vivo using quantitative optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Kut, Carmen; Chaichana, Kaisorn L; Xi, Jiefeng; Raza, Shaan M; Ye, Xiaobu; McVeigh, Elliot R; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Li, Xingde

    2015-06-17

    More complete brain cancer resection can prolong survival and delay recurrence. However, it is challenging to distinguish cancer from noncancer tissues intraoperatively, especially at the transitional, infiltrative zones. This is especially critical in eloquent regions (for example, speech and motor areas). This study tested the feasibility of label-free, quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) for differentiating cancer from noncancer in human brain tissues. Fresh ex vivo human brain tissues were obtained from 32 patients with grade II to IV brain cancer and 5 patients with noncancer brain pathologies. On the basis of volumetric OCT imaging data, pathologically confirmed brain cancer tissues (both high- and low-grade) had significantly lower optical attenuation values at both cancer core and infiltrated zones when compared with noncancer white matter, and OCT achieved high sensitivity and specificity at an attenuation threshold of 5.5 mm(-1) for brain cancer patients. We also used this attenuation threshold to confirm the intraoperative feasibility of performing in vivo OCT-guided surgery using a murine model harboring human brain cancer. Our OCT system was capable of processing and displaying a color-coded optical property map in real time at a rate of 110 to 215 frames per second, or 1.2 to 2.4 s for an 8- to 16-mm(3) tissue volume, thus providing direct visual cues for cancer versus noncancer areas. Our study demonstrates the translational and practical potential of OCT in differentiating cancer from noncancer tissue. Its intraoperative use may facilitate safe and extensive resection of infiltrative brain cancers and consequently lead to improved outcomes when compared with current clinical standards. PMID:26084803

  19. Detection of Human Brain Cancer Infiltration ex vivo and in vivo Using Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography*

    PubMed Central

    Kut, Carmen; Chaichana, Kaisorn L.; Xi, Jiefeng; Raza, Shaan M.; Ye, Xiaobu; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Li, Xingde

    2015-01-01

    More complete brain cancer resection can prolong survival and delay recurrence. However, it is challenging to distinguish cancer from non-cancer tissues intraoperatively, especially at the transitional, infiltrative zones. This is especially critical in eloquent regions (e.g. speech and motor areas). This study tested the feasibility of label-free, quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) for differentiating cancer from non-cancer in human brain tissues. Fresh ex vivo human brain tissues were obtained from 32 patients with grades II-IV brain cancer and 5 patients with non-cancer brain pathologies. Based on volumetric OCT imaging data, pathologically confirmed brain cancer tissues (both high-grade and low-grade) had significantly lower optical attenuation values at both cancer core and infiltrated zones when compared with non-cancer white matter, and OCT achieved high sensitivity and specificity at an attenuation threshold of 5.5 mm-1 for brain cancer patients. We also used this attenuation threshold to confirm the intraoperative feasibility of performing in vivo OCT-guided surgery using a murine model harboring human brain cancer. Our OCT system was capable of processing and displaying a color-coded optical property map in real time at a rate of 110-215 frames per second, or 1.2-2.4 seconds for an 8-16 mm3 tissue volume, thus providing direct visual cues for cancer versus non-cancer areas. Our study demonstrates the translational and practical potential of OCT in differentiating cancer from non-cancer tissue. Its intraoperative use may facilitate safe and extensive resection of infiltrative brain cancers and consequently lead to improved outcomes when compared with current clinical standards. PMID:26084803

  20. BK K+ channel blockade inhibits radiation-induced migration/brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Lukas; Haehl, Erik; Schilbach, Karin; Lukowski, Robert; Kühnle, Matthias; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin; Zips, Daniel; Ruth, Peter; Huber, Stephan M.

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of the brain by glioblastoma cells reportedly requires Ca2+ signals and BK K+ channels that program and drive glioblastoma cell migration, respectively. Ionizing radiation (IR) has been shown to induce expression of the chemokine SDF-1, to alter the Ca2+ signaling, and to stimulate cell migration of glioblastoma cells. Here, we quantified fractionated IR-induced migration/brain infiltration of human glioblastoma cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model and analyzed the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and BK channels. To this end, the radiation-induced migratory phenotypes of human T98G and far-red fluorescent U-87MG-Katushka glioblastoma cells were characterized by mRNA and protein expression, fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, BK patch-clamp recording and transfilter migration assay. In addition, U-87MG-Katushka cells were grown to solid glioblastomas in the right hemispheres of immunocompromised mice, fractionated irradiated (6 MV photons) with 5 × 0 or 5 × 2 Gy, and SDF-1, CXCR4, and BK protein expression by the tumor as well as glioblastoma brain infiltration was analyzed in dependence on BK channel targeting by systemic paxilline application concomitant to IR. As a result, IR stimulated SDF-1 signaling and induced migration of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, paxilline blocked IR-induced migration in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that fractionated IR of glioblastoma stimulates and BK K+ channel targeting mitigates migration and brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells in vivo. This suggests that BK channel targeting might represent a novel approach to overcome radiation-induced spreading of malignant brain tumors during radiotherapy. PMID:26893360

  1. BK K+ channel blockade inhibits radiation-induced migration/brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Edalat, Lena; Stegen, Benjamin; Klumpp, Lukas; Haehl, Erik; Schilbach, Karin; Lukowski, Robert; Kühnle, Matthias; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin; Zips, Daniel; Ruth, Peter; Huber, Stephan M

    2016-03-22

    Infiltration of the brain by glioblastoma cells reportedly requires Ca2+ signals and BK K+ channels that program and drive glioblastoma cell migration, respectively. Ionizing radiation (IR) has been shown to induce expression of the chemokine SDF-1, to alter the Ca2+ signaling, and to stimulate cell migration of glioblastoma cells. Here, we quantified fractionated IR-induced migration/brain infiltration of human glioblastoma cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model and analyzed the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and BK channels. To this end, the radiation-induced migratory phenotypes of human T98G and far-red fluorescent U-87MG-Katushka glioblastoma cells were characterized by mRNA and protein expression, fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, BK patch-clamp recording and transfilter migration assay. In addition, U-87MG-Katushka cells were grown to solid glioblastomas in the right hemispheres of immunocompromised mice, fractionated irradiated (6 MV photons) with 5 × 0 or 5 × 2 Gy, and SDF-1, CXCR4, and BK protein expression by the tumor as well as glioblastoma brain infiltration was analyzed in dependence on BK channel targeting by systemic paxilline application concomitant to IR. As a result, IR stimulated SDF-1 signaling and induced migration of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, paxilline blocked IR-induced migration in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that fractionated IR of glioblastoma stimulates and BK K+ channel targeting mitigates migration and brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells in vivo. This suggests that BK channel targeting might represent a novel approach to overcome radiation-induced spreading of malignant brain tumors during radiotherapy. PMID:26893360

  2. Infiltrating cells from host brain restore the microglial population in grafted cortical tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Tao, Sijue; Fang, Yukun; Guo, Jing; Zhu, Lirui; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of embryonic cortical tissue is considered as a promising therapy for brain injury. Grafted neurons can reestablish neuronal network and improve cortical function of the host brain. Microglia is a key player in regulating neuronal survival and plasticity, but its activation and dynamics in grafted cortical tissue remain unknown. Using two-photon intravital imaging and parabiotic model, here we investigated the proliferation and source of microglia in the donor region by transplanting embryonic cortical tissue into adult cortex. Live imaging showed that the endogenous microglia of the grafted tissue were rapidly lost after transplantation. Instead, host-derived microglia infiltrated and colonized the graft. Parabiotic model suggested that the main source of infiltrating cells is the parenchyma of the host brain. Colonized microglia proliferated and experienced an extensive morphological transition and eventually differentiated into resting ramified morphology. Collectively, these results demonstrated that donor tissue has little contribution to the activated microglia and host brain controls the microglial population in the graft. PMID:27615195

  3. Intracavitary moderator balloon combined with 252Cf brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy, improving dosimetry in brain tumour and infiltrations

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, S F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This article proposes a combination of californium-252 (252Cf) brachytherapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and an intracavitary moderator balloon catheter applied to brain tumour and infiltrations. Methods: Dosimetric evaluations were performed on three protocol set-ups: 252Cf brachytherapy combined with BNCT (Cf-BNCT); Cf-BNCT with a balloon catheter filled with light water (LWB) and the same set-up with heavy water (HWB). Results: Cf-BNCT-HWB has presented dosimetric advantages to Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT in infiltrations at 2.0–5.0 cm from the balloon surface. However, Cf-BNCT-LWB has shown superior dosimetry up to 2.0 cm from the balloon surface. Conclusion: Cf-BNCT-HWB and Cf-BNCT-LWB protocols provide a selective dose distribution for brain tumour and infiltrations, mainly further from the 252Cf source, sparing the normal brain tissue. Advances in knowledge: Malignant brain tumours grow rapidly and often spread to adjacent brain tissues, leading to death. Improvements in brain radiation protocols have been continuously achieved; however, brain tumour recurrence is observed in most cases. Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT-HWB represent new modalities for selectively combating brain tumour infiltrations and metastasis. PMID:25927876

  4. The indirect NMDAR inhibitor flupirtine induces sustained post-ischemic recovery, neuroprotection and angioneurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Hanna M; Pehlke, Jens R; Kaltwasser, Britta; Kilic, Ertugrul; Bähr, Mathias; Hermann, Dirk M; Doeppner, Thorsten R

    2015-06-10

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation induces excitotoxicity, contributing to post-stroke brain injury. Hitherto, NMDAR deactivation failed in clinical trials due to insufficient pre-clinical study designs and drug toxicity. Flupirtine is an indirect NMDAR antagonist being used as analgesic in patients. Taking into account its tolerability profile, we evaluated effects of flupirtine on post-stroke tissue survival, neurological recovery and brain remodeling.Mice were exposed to stroke and intraperitoneally treated with saline (control) or flupirtine at various doses (1-10 mg/kg) and time-points (0-12 hours). Tissue survival and cell signaling were studied on day 2, whereas neurological recovery and tissue remodeling were analyzed until day 84.Flupirtine induced sustained neuroprotection, when delivered up to 9 hours. The latter yielded enhanced neurological recovery that persisted over three months and which was accompanied by enhanced angioneurogenesis. On the molecular level, inhibition of calpain activation was noted, which was associated with increased signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-6 (STAT6) abundance, reduced N-terminal-Jun-kinase and NF-κB activation, as well as reduced proteasomal activity. Consequently, blood-brain-barrier integrity was stabilized, oxidative stress was reduced and brain leukocyte infiltration was diminished.In view of its excellent tolerability, considering its sustained effects on neurological recovery, brain tissue survival and remodeling, flupirtine is an attractive candidate for stroke therapy. PMID:26050199

  5. The indirect NMDAR inhibitor flupirtine induces sustained post-ischemic recovery, neuroprotection and angioneurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Hanna M.; Pehlke, Jens R.; Kaltwasser, Britta; Kilic, Ertugrul; Bähr, Mathias; Hermann, Dirk M.; Doeppner, Thorsten R.

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation induces excitotoxicity, contributing to post-stroke brain injury. Hitherto, NMDAR deactivation failed in clinical trials due to insufficient pre-clinical study designs and drug toxicity. Flupirtine is an indirect NMDAR antagonist being used as analgesic in patients. Taking into account its tolerability profile, we evaluated effects of flupirtine on post-stroke tissue survival, neurological recovery and brain remodeling. Mice were exposed to stroke and intraperitoneally treated with saline (control) or flupirtine at various doses (1-10 mg/kg) and time-points (0-12 hours). Tissue survival and cell signaling were studied on day 2, whereas neurological recovery and tissue remodeling were analyzed until day 84. Flupirtine induced sustained neuroprotection, when delivered up to 9 hours. The latter yielded enhanced neurological recovery that persisted over three months and which was accompanied by enhanced angioneurogenesis. On the molecular level, inhibition of calpain activation was noted, which was associated with increased signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-6 (STAT6) abundance, reduced N-terminal-Jun-kinase and NF-κB activation, as well as reduced proteasomal activity. Consequently, blood-brain-barrier integrity was stabilized, oxidative stress was reduced and brain leukocyte infiltration was diminished. In view of its excellent tolerability, considering its sustained effects on neurological recovery, brain tissue survival and remodeling, flupirtine is an attractive candidate for stroke therapy. PMID:26050199

  6. Mast cells promote blood brain barrier breakdown and neutrophil infiltration in a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    McKittrick, Craig M; Lawrence, Catherine E; Carswell, Hilary V O

    2015-01-01

    Blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and neuroinflammation are key events in ischemic stroke morbidity and mortality. The present study investigated the effects of mast cell deficiency and stabilization on BBB breakdown and neutrophil infiltration in mice after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). Adult male C57BL6/J wild type (WT) and mast cell-deficient (C57BL6/J KitWsh/Wsh (Wsh)) mice underwent tMCAo and BBB breakdown, brain edema and neutrophil infiltration were examined after 4 hours of reperfusion. Blood brain barrier breakdown, brain edema, and neutrophil infiltration were significantly reduced in Wsh versus WT mice (P<0.05). These results were reproduced pharmacologically using mast cell stabilizer, cromoglycate. Wild-type mice administered cromoglycate intraventricularly exhibited reduced BBB breakdown, brain edema, and neutrophil infiltration versus vehicle (P<0.05). There was no effect of cromoglycate versus vehicle in Wsh mice, validating specificity of cromoglycate on brain mast cells. Proteomic analysis in Wsh versus WT indicated that effects may be via expression of endoglin, endothelin-1, and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Using an in vivo model of mast cell deficiency, this is the first study showing that mast cells promote BBB breakdown in focal ischemia in mice, and opens up future opportunities for using mice to identify specific mechanisms of mast cell-related BBB injury. PMID:25564235

  7. CCR2 Deficiency Impairs Macrophage Infiltration and Improves Cognitive Function after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Erene C.; Wang, Sarah H.; Lee, Chih Cheng; Bingham, Deborah; Zhang, Jiasheng; Cozen, Myrna L.; Charo, Israel; Huang, Eric J.; Liu, Jialing; Nakamura, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) provokes inflammatory responses, including a dramatic rise in brain macrophages in the area of injury. The pathway(s) responsible for macrophage infiltration of the traumatically injured brain and the effects of macrophages on functional outcomes are not well understood. C-C-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is known for directing monocytes to inflamed tissues. To assess the role of macrophages and CCR2 in TBI, we determined outcomes in CCR2-deficient (Ccr2−/−) mice in a controlled cortical impact model. We quantified brain myeloid cell numbers post-TBI by flow cytometry and found that Ccr2−/− mice had greatly reduced macrophage numbers (∼80–90% reduction) early post-TBI, compared with wild-type mice. Motor, locomotor, and cognitive outcomes were assessed. Lack of Ccr2 improved locomotor activity with less hyperactivity in open field testing, but did not affect anxiety levels or motor coordination on the rotarod three weeks after TBI. Importantly, Ccr2−/− mice demonstrated greater spatial learning and memory, compared with wild-type mice eight weeks after TBI. Although there was no difference in the volume of tissue loss, Ccr2−/− mice had significantly increased neuronal density in the CA1-CA3 regions of the hippocampus after TBI, compared with wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that Ccr2 directs the majority of macrophage homing to the brain early after TBI and indicates that Ccr2 may facilitate harmful responses. Lack of Ccr2 improves functional recovery and neuronal survival. These results suggest that therapeutic blockade of CCR2-dependent responses may improve outcomes following TBI. PMID:24806994

  8. Brain infiltration of leukocytes contributes to the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zattoni, Michela; Mura, Maria Luisa; Deprez, Francine; Schwendener, Reto A; Engelhardt, Britta; Frei, Karl; Fritschy, Jean-Marc

    2011-03-16

    Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that inflammatory processes contribute to the pathophysiology of epilepsy, but underlying mechanisms remain mostly unknown. Using immunohistochemistry for CD45 (common leukocyte antigen) and CD3 (T-lymphocytes), we show here microglial activation and infiltration of leukocytes in sclerotic tissue from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), as well as in a model of TLE (intrahippocampal kainic acid injection), characterized by spontaneous, nonconvulsive focal seizures. Using specific markers of lymphocytes, microglia, macrophages, and neutrophils in kainate-treated mice, we investigated with pharmacological and genetic approaches the contribution of innate and adaptive immunity to kainate-induced inflammation and neurodegeneration. Furthermore, we used EEG analysis in mutant mice lacking specific subsets of lymphocytes to explore the significance of inflammatory processes for epileptogenesis. Blood-brain barrier disruption and neurodegeneration in the kainate-lesioned hippocampus were accompanied by sustained ICAM-1 upregulation, microglial cell activation, and infiltration of CD3(+) T-cells. Moreover, macrophage infiltration was observed, selectively in the dentate gyrus where prominent granule cell dispersion was evident. Unexpectedly, depletion of peripheral macrophages by systemic clodronate liposome administration affected granule cell survival. Neurodegeneration was aggravated in kainate-lesioned mice lacking T- and B-cells (RAG1-knock-out), because of delayed invasion by Gr-1(+) neutrophils. Most strikingly, these mutant mice exhibited early onset of spontaneous recurrent seizures, suggesting a strong impact of immune-mediated responses on network excitability. Together, the concerted action of adaptive and innate immunity triggered locally by intrahippocampal kainate injection contributes seizure-suppressant and neuroprotective effects, shedding new light on neuroimmune interactions in temporal lobe

  9. Targeting acid sphingomyelinase reduces cardiac ceramide accumulation in the post-ischemic heart.

    PubMed

    Klevstig, Martina; Ståhlman, Marcus; Lundqvist, Annika; Scharin Täng, Margareta; Fogelstrand, Per; Adiels, Martin; Andersson, Linda; Kolesnick, Richard; Jeppsson, Anders; Borén, Jan; Levin, Malin C

    2016-04-01

    Ceramide accumulation is known to accompany acute myocardial ischemia, but its role in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease is unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine how ceramides accumulate in the ischemic heart and to determine if cardiac function following ischemia can be improved by reducing ceramide accumulation. To investigate the association between ceramide accumulation and heart function, we analyzed myocardial left ventricle biopsies from subjects with chronic ischemia and found that ceramide levels were higher in biopsies from subjects with reduced heart function. Ceramides are produced by either de novo synthesis or hydrolysis of sphingomyelin catalyzed by acid and/or neutral sphingomyelinase. We used cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes to investigate these pathways and showed that acid sphingomyelinase activity rather than neutral sphingomyelinase activity or de novo sphingolipid synthesis was important for hypoxia-induced ceramide accumulation. We also used mice with a partial deficiency in acid sphingomyelinase (Smpd1(+/-) mice) to investigate if limiting ceramide accumulation under ischemic conditions would have a beneficial effect on heart function and survival. Although we showed that cardiac ceramide accumulation was reduced in Smpd1(+/-) mice 24h after an induced myocardial infarction, this reduction was not accompanied by an improvement in heart function or survival. Our findings show that accumulation of cardiac ceramides in the post-ischemic heart is mediated by acid sphingomyelinase. However, targeting ceramide accumulation in the ischemic heart may not be a beneficial treatment strategy. PMID:26930027

  10. A limited role for regulatory T cells in post-ischemic neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Hellingman, A A; van der Vlugt, L E P M; Lijkwan, M A; Bastiaansen, A J N M; Sparwasser, T; Smits, H H; Hamming, J F; Quax, P H A

    2012-02-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that arteriogenesis is enhanced in mice deficient in regulatory T cells (CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T cell), which can suppress effector T cell responses. The present study investigates the effects of these regulatory T cells on arteriogenesis in more detail by either specific expanding or depleting regulatory T cells. Hind limb ischemia was induced by electro-coagulation of the femoral artery in mice. Regulatory T cells were either expanded by injecting mice with a complex of interleukin (IL)-2 with the IL-2 monoclonal antibody JES6-1, or depleted by anti-CD25 antibody or diphtheria toxin injections in DEREG mice (depletion of regulatory T cells). Blood flow restoration was monitored using laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Collateral arteries were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Regulatory T cell expansion led to a moderate though significant suppression of blood flow restoration after ischemia induction. Surprisingly, depletion of regulatory T cells resulted in minor increase on blood flow recovery. However, collateral and capillary densities in the post-ischemic skeletal muscle were significantly increased in DEREG mice depleted for regulatory T cells. The presence of regulatory T cells after ischemia induction when analysed in non-depleted DEREG mice could be demonstrated by green fluorescent protein staining only in lymph nodes in the ischemic area, and not in the ischemic muscle tissue. The current study demonstrates that, even under conditions of major changes in regulatory T cell content, the contribution of regulatory T cells to the regulation of the arteriogenic response is only moderate. PMID:21426486

  11. A limited role for regulatory T cells in post-ischemic neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Hellingman, AA; van der Vlugt, LEPM; Lijkwan, MA; Bastiaansen, AJNM; Sparwasser, T; Smits, HH; Hamming, JF; Quax, PHA

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recently, it was demonstrated that arteriogenesis is enhanced in mice deficient in regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cell), which can suppress effector T cell responses. The present study investigates the effects of these regulatory T cells on arteriogenesis in more detail by either specific expanding or depleting regulatory T cells. Hind limb ischemia was induced by electro-coagulation of the femoral artery in mice. Regulatory T cells were either expanded by injecting mice with a complex of interleukin (IL)-2 with the IL-2 monoclonal antibody JES6–1, or depleted by anti-CD25 antibody or diphtheria toxin injections in DEREG mice (depletion of regulatory T cells). Blood flow restoration was monitored using laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Collateral arteries were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Regulatory T cell expansion led to a moderate though significant suppression of blood flow restoration after ischemia induction. Surprisingly, depletion of regulatory T cells resulted in minor increase on blood flow recovery. However, collateral and capillary densities in the post-ischemic skeletal muscle were significantly increased in DEREG mice depleted for regulatory T cells. The presence of regulatory T cells after ischemia induction when analysed in non-depleted DEREG mice could be demonstrated by green fluorescent protein staining only in lymph nodes in the ischemic area, and not in the ischemic muscle tissue. The current study demonstrates that, even under conditions of major changes in regulatory T cell content, the contribution of regulatory T cells to the regulation of the arteriogenic response is only moderate. PMID:21426486

  12. Unique Transcriptional Profile of Sustained Ligand-Activated Preconditioning in Pre- and Post-Ischemic Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, Kevin J.; Tupicoff, Amanda; Williams-Pritchard, Grant; Kiessling, Can J.; See Hoe, Louise E.; Headrick, John P.; Peart, Jason N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Opioidergic SLP (sustained ligand-activated preconditioning) induced by 3–5 days of opioid receptor (OR) agonism induces persistent protection against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury in young and aged hearts, and is mechanistically distinct from conventional preconditioning responses. We thus applied unbiased gene-array interrogation to identify molecular effects of SLP in pre- and post-ischemic myocardium. Methodology/Principal Findings Male C57Bl/6 mice were implanted with 75 mg morphine or placebo pellets for 5 days. Resultant SLP did not modify cardiac function, and markedly reduced dysfunction and injury in perfused hearts subjected to 25 min ischemia/45 min reperfusion. Microarray analysis identified 14 up- and 86 down-regulated genes in normoxic hearts from SLP mice (≥1.3-fold change, FDR≤5%). Induced genes encoded sarcomeric/contractile proteins (Myh7, Mybpc3,Myom2,Des), natriuretic peptides (Nppa,Nppb) and stress-signaling elements (Csda,Ptgds). Highly repressed genes primarily encoded chemokines (Ccl2,Ccl4,Ccl7,Ccl9,Ccl13,Ccl3l3,Cxcl3), cytokines (Il1b,Il6,Tnf) and other proteins involved in inflammation/immunity (C3,Cd74,Cd83, Cd86,Hla-dbq1,Hla-drb1,Saa1,Selp,Serpina3), together with endoplasmic stress proteins (known: Dnajb1,Herpud1,Socs3; putative: Il6, Gadd45g,Rcan1) and transcriptional controllers (Egr2,Egr3, Fos,Hmox1,Nfkbid). Biological themes modified thus related to inflammation/immunity, together with cellular/cardiovascular movement and development. SLP also modified the transcriptional response to I-R (46 genes uniquely altered post-ischemia), which may influence later infarction/remodeling. This included up-regulated determinants of cellular resistance to oxidant (Mgst3,Gstm1,Gstm2) and other forms of stress (Xirp1,Ankrd1,Clu), and repression of stress-response genes (Hspa1a,Hspd1,Hsp90aa,Hsph1,Serpinh1) and Txnip. Conclusions Protection via SLP is associated with transcriptional repression of inflammation/immunity, up

  13. Non-Selective Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists, Hinokiresinols Reduce Infiltration of Microglia/Macrophages into Ischemic Brain Lesions in Rat via Modulating 2-Arachidonolyglycerol-Induced Migration and Mitochondrial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Anthony Jalin, Angela M. A.; Rajasekaran, Maheswari; Prather, Paul L.; Kwon, Jin Sun; Gajulapati, Veeraswamy; Choi, Yongseok; Kim, Chunsook; Pahk, Kisoo; Ju, Chung; Kim, Won-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that therapeutic strategies to modulate the post-ischemic inflammatory responses are promising approaches to improve stroke outcome. Although the endocannabinoid system has been emerged as an endogenous therapeutic target to regulate inflammation after stroke insult, the downstream mechanisms and their potentials for therapeutic intervention remain controversial. Here we identified trans- and cis-hinokiresinols as novel non-selective antagonists for two G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, cannabinoid receptor type 1 and type 2. The Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing and Boyden chamber migration assays using primary microglial cultures revealed that both hinokiresinols significantly inhibited an endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol-induced migration. Hinokiresinols modulated 2-arachidonoylglycerol-induced mitochondrial bioenergetics in microglia as evidenced by inhibition of ATP turnover and reduction in respiratory capacity, thereby resulting in impaired migration activity. In rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (1.5-h) followed by 24-h reperfusion, post-ischemic treatment with hinokiresinols (2 and 7-h after the onset of ischemia, 10 mg/kg) significantly reduced cerebral infarct and infiltration of ED1-positive microglial/macrophage cells into cerebral ischemic lesions in vivo. Co-administration of exogenous 2-AG (1 mg/kg, i.v., single dose at 2 h after starting MCAO) abolished the protective effect of trans-hinokiresionol. These results suggest that hinokiresinols may serve as stroke treatment by targeting the endocannabinoid system. Alteration of mitochondrial bioenergetics and consequent inhibition of inflammatory cells migration may be a novel mechanism underlying anti-ischemic effects conferred by cannabinoid receptor antagonists. PMID:26517721

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Blood Brain/Nerve Barrier Dysfunction and Leukocyte Infiltration: Closely Related or Discordant?

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Gesa; Stoll, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Unlike other organs the nervous system is secluded from the rest of the organism by the blood brain barrier (BBB) or blood nerve barrier (BNB) preventing passive influx of fluids from the circulation. Similarly, leukocyte entry to the nervous system is tightly controlled. Breakdown of these barriers and cellular inflammation are hallmarks of inflammatory as well as ischemic neurological diseases and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. The spatiotemporal relationship between BBB/BNB disruption and leukocyte infiltration has been a matter of debate. We here review contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive tool to depict barrier dysfunction and its relation to macrophage infiltration in the central and peripheral nervous system under pathological conditions. Novel experimental contrast agents like Gadofluorine M (Gf) allow more sensitive assessment of BBB dysfunction than conventional Gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA enhanced MRI. In addition, Gf facilitates visualization of functional and transient alterations of the BBB remote from lesions. Cellular contrast agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) and perfluorocarbons enable assessment of leukocyte (mainly macrophage) infiltration by MR technology. Combined use of these MR contrast agents disclosed that leukocytes can enter the nervous system independent from a disturbance of the BBB, and vice versa, a dysfunctional BBB/BNB by itself is not sufficient to attract inflammatory cells from the circulation. We will illustrate these basic imaging findings in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia, and traumatic nerve injury and review corresponding findings in patients. PMID:23267343

  15. Cellular proliferation and infiltration following interstitial irradiation of normal dog brain is altered by an inhibitor of polyamine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fike, J.R.; Gobbel, G.T.; Chou, D.

    1995-07-15

    The objectives of this study were to quantitatively define proliferative and infiltrative cell responses after focal {sup 125}I irradiation of normal brain, and to determine the effects of an intravenous infusion of {alpha}-defluoromethylornithine (DFMO) on those responses. Adult beagle dogs were irradiated using high activity {sup 125}I sources. Cellular responses were quantified using a histomorphometric analysis. After radiation alone, cellular events included a substantial acute inflammatory response followed by increased BrdU labeling and progressive increases in numbers of capillaries and astrocytes. {alpha}-Difluoromethylornithine treatment significantly affected the measured cell responses. As in controls, an early inflammatory response was measured, but after 2 weeks there were more PMNs/unit area than in controls. The onset of measurable BrdU labeling was delayed in DFMO-treated animals, and the magnitude of labeling was significantly reduced. Increases in astrocyte and vessel numbers/mm{sup 2} were observed after a 2-week delay. At the site of implant, astrocytes from DFMO-treated dogs were significantly smaller than those from controls. There is substantial cell proliferation and infiltration in response to interstitial irradiation of normal brain, and these responses are significantly altered by DFMO treatment. Although the precise mechanisms by which DFMO exerts its effects in this model are not known, the results from this study suggest that modification of radiation injury may be possible by manipulating the response of normal cells to injury. 57 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes correlates with extent of brain edema and overall survival time in patients with brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Berghoff, Anna S; Fuchs, Elisabeth; Ricken, Gerda; Mlecnik, Bernhard; Bindea, Gabriela; Spanberger, Thomas; Hackl, Monika; Widhalm, Georg; Dieckmann, Karin; Prayer, Daniela; Bilocq, Amelie; Heinzl, Harald; Zielinski, Christoph; Bartsch, Rupert; Birner, Peter; Galon, Jerome; Preusser, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune microenvironment of the brain differs from that of other organs and the role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in brain metastases (BM), one of the most common and devastating complication of cancer, is unclear. We investigated TIL subsets and their prognostic impact in 116 BM specimens using immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD8, CD45RO, FOXP3, PD1 and PD-L1. The Immunoscore was calculated as published previously. Overall, we found TIL infiltration in 115/116 (99.1%) BM specimens. PD-L1 expression was evident in 19/67 (28.4%) BM specimens and showed no correlation with TIL density (p > 0.05). TIL density was not associated with corticosteroid administration (p > 0.05). A significant difference in infiltration density according to TIL subtype was present (p < 0.001; Chi Square); high infiltration was most frequently observed for CD3+ TILs (95/116; 81.9%) and least frequently for PD1+ TILs (18/116; 15.5%; p < 0.001). Highest TIL density was observed in melanoma, followed by renal cell cancer and lung cancer BM (p < 0.001). The density of CD8+ TILs correlated positively with the extent of peritumoral edema seen on pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (p = 0.031). The density of CD3+ (15 vs. 6 mo; p = 0.015), CD8+ (15 vs. 11 mo; p = 0.030) and CD45RO+ TILs (18 vs. 8 mo; p = 0.006) showed a positive correlation with favorable median OS times. Immunoscore showed significant correlation with survival prognosis (27 vs. 10 mo; p < 0.001). The prognostic impact of Immunoscore was independent from established prognostic parameters at multivariable analysis (HR 0.612, p < 0.001). In conclusion, our data indicate that dense TILs infiltrates are common in BM and correlate with the amount of peritumoral brain edema and survival prognosis, thus identifying the immune system as potential biomarker for cancer patients with CNS affection. Further studies are needed to substantiate our findings. PMID:26942067

  17. Microgliosis in the Injured Brain: Infiltrating Cells and Reactive Microglia Both Play a Role.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-04-01

    Microgliosis is an intense reaction of CNS microglia to pathogenic insults. One of the characteristic features of microgliosis is an increase in the number of activated microglia at the site of lesion. Ontogenically, microglia are considered to be of mesodermal lineage in the adult CNS, but the origin of the accumulated microglia in pathological conditions remains controversial. Some studies indicate that circulating cells from the bloodstream can infiltrate the CNS and contribute to microglial pool, but some studies suggest that local expansion of reactive microglia is the sole source for parenchymal microglia. Recent data suggest that latent progenitors may also exist in the CNS. Available evidence suggests that multiple sources of microglia may exist under various neurological conditions. In this review, we compare the prevalent views and supporting evidence from different experimental models and provide an overview on the origins of microgliosis. PMID:25672621

  18. Auricular vagus nerve stimulation promotes functional recovery and enhances the post-ischemic angiogenic response in an ischemia/reperfusion rat model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Li, Longling; Ma, Jingxi; Zhang, Lina; Niu, Fei; Feng, Tao; Li, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    VNS promoted post-ischemic functional recovery and angiogenesis, possibly in conjunction with the up-regulated expression of BDNF, eNOS and VEGF in the rat brain. PMID:26964767

  19. Modeling early-onset post-ischemic seizures in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chiping; Wang, Justin; Peng, Jessie; Patel, Nisarg; Huang, Yayi; Gao, Xiaoxing; Aljarallah, Salman; Eubanks, James H; McDonald, Robert; Zhang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in the aged population, with post-stroke seizures being a poor prognostic factor. The pathological processes underlying post-stroke seizures are not well understood and studies of these seizures in aging/aged animals remain scarce. Therefore, our primary objective was to model post-stroke seizures in aging mice (C57 black strain, 16–20 month-old), with a focus on early-onset, convulsive seizures that occur within 24-hours of brain ischemia. We utilized a middle cerebral artery occlusion model and examined seizure activity and brain injury using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic monitoring and histological assessments. Aging mice exhibited vigorous convulsive seizures within hours of the middle cerebral artery occlusion. These seizures manifested with jumping, rapid running, barrel-rolling and/or falling all in the absence of hippocampal-cortical electrographic discharges. Seizure development was closely associated with severe brain injury and acute mortality. Anticonvulsive treatments after seizure occurrence offered temporary seizure control but failed to improve animal survival. A separate cohort of adult mice (6–8 months-old) exhibited analogous early-onset convulsive seizures following the middle cerebral artery occlusion but had better survival outcomes following anticonvulsive treatment. Collectively, our data suggest that early-onset convulsive seizures are a result of severe brain ischemia in aging animals. PMID:25943585

  20. Quantitative imaging of magnesium distribution at single-cell resolution in brain tumors and infiltrating tumor cells with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Subhash; Parker, Dylan J; Barth, Rolf F; Pannullo, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest forms of human brain tumors. The infiltrative pattern of growth of these tumors includes the spread of individual and/or clusters of tumor cells at some distance from the main tumor mass in parts of the brain protected by an intact blood-brain-barrier. Pathophysiological studies of GBM could be greatly enhanced by analytical techniques capable of in situ single-cell resolution measurements of infiltrating tumor cells. Magnesium homeostasis is an area of active investigation in high grade gliomas. In the present study, we have used the F98 rat glioma as a model of human GBM and an elemental/isotopic imaging technique of secondary ion mass spectrometry, a CAMECA IMS-3f ion microscope, for studying Mg distribution with single-cell resolution in freeze-dried brain tissue cryosections. Quantitative observations were made on tumor cells in the main tumor mass, contiguous brain tissue, and infiltrating tumor cells in adjacent normal brain. The brain tissue contained a significantly lower total Mg concentration of 4.70 ± 0.93 mmol/kg wet weight (mean ± SD) in comparison to 11.64 ± 1.96 mmol/kg wet weight in tumor cells of the main tumor mass and 10.72 ± 1.76 mmol/kg wet weight in infiltrating tumor cells (p < 0.05). The nucleus of individual tumor cells contained elevated levels of bound Mg. These observations have established that there was enhanced influx and increased binding of Mg in tumor cells. They provide strong support for further investigation of altered Mg homeostasis and activation of Mg-transporting channels in GBMs as possible therapeutic targets. PMID:26703785

  1. Distribution and prognostic relevance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoints in human brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Harter, Patrick N.; Bernatz, Simon; Scholz, Alexander; Zeiner, Pia S.; Zinke, Jenny; Kiyose, Makoto; Blasel, Stella; Beschorner, Rudi; Senft, Christian; Bender, Benjamin; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W.; Wikman, Harriet; Glatzel, Markus; Meinhardt, Matthias; Juratli, Tareq A.; Steinbach, Joachim P.; Plate, Karl H.; Wischhusen, Jörg; Weide, Benjamin; Mittelbronn, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The activation of immune cells by targeting checkpoint inhibitors showed promising results with increased patient survival in distinct primary cancers. Since only limited data exist for human brain metastases, we aimed at characterizing tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and expression of immune checkpoints in the respective tumors. Two brain metastases cohorts, a mixed entity cohort (n = 252) and a breast carcinoma validation cohort (n = 96) were analyzed for CD3+, CD8+, FOXP3+, PD-1+ lymphocytes and PD-L1+ tumor cells by immunohistochemistry. Analyses for association with clinico-epidemiological and neuroradiological parameters such as patient survival or tumor size were performed. TILs infiltrated brain metastases in three different patterns (stromal, peritumoral, diffuse). While carcinomas often show a strong stromal infiltration, TILs in melanomas often diffusely infiltrate the tumors. Highest levels of CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were seen in renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and strongest PD-1 levels on RCCs and melanomas. High amounts of TILs, high ratios of PD-1+/CD8+ cells and high levels of PD-L1 were negatively correlated with brain metastases size, indicating that in smaller brain metastases CD8+ immune response might get blocked. PD-L1 expression strongly correlated with TILs and FOXP3 expression. No significant association of patient survival with TILs was observed, while high levels of PD-L1 showed a strong trend towards better survival in melanoma brain metastases (Log-Rank p = 0.0537). In summary, melanomas and RCCs seem to be the most immunogenic entities. Differences in immunotherapeutic response between tumor entities regarding brain metastases might be attributable to this finding and need further investigation in larger patient cohorts. PMID:26517811

  2. T-cell brain infiltration and immature antigen-presenting cells in transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease-like cerebral amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, M T; Merlini, M; Späni, C; Gericke, C; Schweizer, N; Enzmann, G; Engelhardt, B; Kulic, L; Suter, T; Nitsch, R M

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral beta-amyloidosis, one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), elicits a well-characterised, microglia-mediated local innate immune response. In contrast, it is not clear whether cells of the adaptive immune system, in particular T-cells, react to cerebral amyloidosis in AD. Even though parenchymal T-cells have been described in post-mortem brains of AD patients, it is not known whether infiltrating T-cells are specifically recruited to the extracellular deposits of beta-amyloid, and whether they are locally activated into proliferating, effector cells upon interaction with antigen-presenting cells (APCs). To address these issues we have analysed by confocal microscopy and flow-cytometry the localisation and activation status of both T-cells and APCs in transgenic (tg) mice models of AD-like cerebral amyloidosis. Increased numbers of infiltrating T-cells were found in amyloid-burdened brain regions of tg mice, with concomitant up-regulation of endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, compared to non-tg littermates. The infiltrating T-cells in tg brains did not co-localise with amyloid plaques, produced less interferon-gamma than those in controls and did not proliferate locally. Bona-fide dendritic cells were virtually absent from the brain parenchyma of both non-tg and tg mice, and APCs from tg brains showed an immature phenotype, with accumulation of MHC-II in intracellular compartments. These results indicate that cerebral amyloidosis promotes T-cell infiltration but interferes with local antigen presentation and T-cell activation. The inability of the brain immune surveillance to orchestrate a protective immune response to amyloid-beta peptide might contribute to the accumulation of amyloid in the progression of the disease. PMID:26872418

  3. The TNFα-Transgenic Rat: Hippocampal Synaptic Integrity, Cognition, Function, and Post-Ischemic Cell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, L. Creed; Kryscio, Richard J.; Norris, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), is a key regulator of neuroinflammation linked to numerous neurodegenerative conditions and diseases. The present study used transgenic rats that overexpress a murine TNFα gene, under the control of its own promoter, to investigate the impact of chronically elevated TNFα on hippocampal synaptic function. Neuronal viability and cognitive recovery in TNFα Tg rats were also determined following an ischemic insult arising from reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Basal CA3-CA1 synaptic strength, recorded in acute brain slices, was not significantly different between eight-week-old TNFα Tg rats and non-Tg rats. In contrast, slices from TNFα Tg rats showed significantly greater levels of long-term potentiation (LTP) in response to 100 Hz stimulation, suggesting that synaptic networks may be hyperexcitable in the context of elevated TNFα. Cognitive and motor deficits (assessed on the Morris Water Maze and Rotarod task, respectively) were present in TNFα Tg rats in the absence of significant differences in the loss of cortical and hippocampal neurons. TNF overexpression exacerbated MCAO-dependent deficits on the rotarod, but ameliorated cortical neuron loss in response to MCAO. PMID:27144978

  4. In Silico Neuro-Oncology: Brownian Motion-Based Mathematical Treatment as a Potential Platform for Modeling the Infiltration of Glioma Cells into Normal Brain Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Antonopoulos, Markos; Stamatakos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Intensive glioma tumor infiltration into the surrounding normal brain tissues is one of the most critical causes of glioma treatment failure. To quantitatively understand and mathematically simulate this phenomenon, several diffusion-based mathematical models have appeared in the literature. The majority of them ignore the anisotropic character of diffusion of glioma cells since availability of pertinent truly exploitable tomographic imaging data is limited. Aiming at enriching the anisotropy-enhanced glioma model weaponry so as to increase the potential of exploiting available tomographic imaging data, we propose a Brownian motion-based mathematical analysis that could serve as the basis for a simulation model estimating the infiltration of glioblastoma cells into the surrounding brain tissue. The analysis is based on clinical observations and exploits diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. Numerical simulations and suggestions for further elaboration are provided. PMID:26309390

  5. Pro-inflammatory T-Lymphocytes rapidly infiltrate into the brain and contribute to neuronal injury following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Guiying; Carter, Jessica; Traystman, Richard J.; Wagner, David H.; Herson, Paco S.

    2014-01-01

    Although inflammatory mechanisms have been linked to neuronal injury following global cerebral ischemia, the presence of infiltrating peripheral immune cells remains understudied. We performed flow cytometry of single cell suspensions obtained from the brains of mice at varying time points after global cerebral ischemia induced by cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) to characterize the influx in lymphocytes into the injured brain. We observed that CA/CPR caused a large influx of lymphocytes within 3 hours of resuscitation that was maintained for the 3 day duration of our experiments. Using cell staining flow cytometry we observed that the large majority of infiltrating lymphocytes were CD4+ T cells. Intracellular stains revealed a large proportion of pro-inflammatory T cells expressing either TNFα or INFγ. Importantly, the lack of functional T cells in TCRα knockout mice reduced neuronal injury following CA/CPR, implicating pro-inflammatory T cells in the progression of ischemic neuronal injury. Finally, we made the remarkable observation that the novel CD4+CD40+ (Th40) population of pro-inflammatory T cells that are strongly associated with autoimmunity are present in large numbers in the injured brain. These data indicate that studies investigating the neuro-immune response after global cerebral ischemia should consider the role of infiltrating T cells in orchestrating the acute and sustained immune response. PMID:25084739

  6. Mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger improves post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Escobales, Nelson; Nuñez, Rebeca E.; Jang, Sehwan; Parodi-Rullan, Rebecca; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Sacher, Joshua R.; Skoda, Erin M.; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter; Javadov, Sabzali

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aging and age-associated diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of XJB-5-131 (XJB), a mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, on cardiac resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced oxidative stress in aged rats. Male adult (5-month old, n=17) and aged (29-month old, n=19) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: adult (A), adult+XJB (AX), aged (O), and aged+XJB (OX). XJB was administered 3 times per week (3 mg/kg body weight, IP) for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, cardiac function was continuously monitored in excised hearts using the Langendorff technique for 30 min, followed by 20-min of global ischemia, and 60-min reperfusion. XJB improved post-ischemic recovery of aged hearts, as evidenced by greater left ventricular developed-pressures and rate-pressure products than the untreated, aged-matched group. The state 3 respiration rates at complexes I, II and IV of mitochondria isolated from XJB-treated aged hearts were 57% (P<0.05), 25% (P<0.05) and 28% (P<0.05), respectively, higher than controls. Ca2+-induced swelling, an indicator of permeability transition pore opening, was reduced in mitochondria of XJB-treated aged rats. In addition, XJB significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane as well as total and mitochondrial ROS levels in cultured cardiomyocytes. This study underlines the importance of mitochondrial ROS in aging-induced cardiac dysfunction and suggests that targeting mitochondrial ROS may be an effective therapeutic approach to protect the aged heart against IR injury. PMID:25451170

  7. Mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger improves post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Escobales, Nelson; Nuñez, Rebeca E; Jang, Sehwan; Parodi-Rullan, Rebecca; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Sacher, Joshua R; Skoda, Erin M; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter; Javadov, Sabzali

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aging and age-associated diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of XJB-5-131 (XJB), a mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, on cardiac resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced oxidative stress in aged rats. Male adult (5-month old, n=17) and aged (29-month old, n=19) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: adult (A), adult+XJB (AX), aged (O), and aged+XJB (OX). XJB was administered 3 times per week (3mg/kg body weight, IP) for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, cardiac function was continuously monitored in excised hearts using the Langendorff technique for 30 min, followed by 20 min of global ischemia, and 60-min reperfusion. XJB improved post-ischemic recovery of aged hearts, as evidenced by greater left ventricular developed-pressures and rate-pressure products than the untreated, aged-matched group. The state 3 respiration rates at complexes I, II and IV of mitochondria isolated from XJB-treated aged hearts were 57% (P<0.05), 25% (P<0.05) and 28% (P<0.05), respectively, higher than controls. Ca(2+)-induced swelling, an indicator of permeability transition pore opening, was reduced in the mitochondria of XJB-treated aged rats. In addition, XJB significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane as well as the total and mitochondrial ROS levels in cultured cardiomyocytes. This study underlines the importance of mitochondrial ROS in aging-induced cardiac dysfunction and suggests that targeting mitochondrial ROS may be an effective therapeutic approach to protect the aged heart against IR injury. PMID:25451170

  8. Expression of Neuronal CXCL10 Induced by Rabies Virus Infection Initiates Infiltration of Inflammatory Cells, Production of Chemokines and Cytokines, and Enhancement of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Qingqing; She, Ruiping; Huang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that enhancement of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is modulated by the expression of chemokines/cytokines and reduction of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the brains of mice infected with rabies virus (RABV). Since CXCL10 was found to be the most highly expressed chemokine, its temporal and spatial expression were determined in the present study. The expression of the chemokine CXCL10 was initially detected in neurons as early as 3 days postinfection (p.i.) in the brains of RABV-infected mice, after which it was detected in microglia (6 days p.i.) and astrocytes (9 days p.i.). Neutralization of CXCL10 by treatment with anti-CXCL10 antibodies reduced gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production and Th17 cell infiltration, as well as restoring TJ protein expression and BBB integrity. Together, these data suggest that it is the neuronal CXCL10 that initiates the cascade that leads to the activation of microglia/astrocytes, infiltration of inflammatory cells, expression of chemokines/cytokines, reduction of TJ protein expression, and enhancement of the BBB permeability. PMID:25339777

  9. Transient blockage of the CD11d/CD18 integrin reduces contusion volume and macrophage infiltration after traumatic brain injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Utagawa, Akira; Bramlett, Helen M.; Daniels, Linda; Lotocki, George; Dekaban, Gregory; Weaver, Lynne C.; Dietrich, W. Dalton

    2008-01-01

    The early inflammatory response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in secondary damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a transient treatment employing a blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the CD11d/CD18 integrin on histopathological outcome and macrophage infiltration following TBI. A parasagittal fluid percussion (FP) brain injury (1.8 – 2.1 atmosphere) was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomized into two trauma groups, treated (N=7) and nontreated (N=8) animals. In the treated group, a mAb to the CD11d subunit of the CD11d/CD18 integrin was administered 30 minutes, 24 and 48 hours after brain injury. Control animals received an isotype-matched irrelevant mAb using the same dose and treatment regimen. At three days after TBI, animals were perfusion-fixed for histopathological and immunocytochemical analysis. The anti-CD11d mAb treatment reduced contusion areas as well as overall contusion volume compared to vehicle-treated animals. For example, overall contusion volume was reduced from 2.7 ± 0.5 mm3 (mean ± SEM) to 1.4 ± 0.4 with treatment (p<0.05). Immunocytochemical studies identifying CD68 immunoreactive macrophages showed that treatment caused significant attenuation of leukocyte infiltration into the contused cortical areas. These data emphasize the beneficial effects of blocking inflammatory cell recruitment into the injured brain on histopathological outcome following traumatic brain injury. PMID:18374312

  10. Protein Tyrosine Nitration of the Flavin Subunit Is Associated with Oxidative Modification of Mitochondrial Complex II in the Post-ischemic Myocardium*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chwen-Lih; Chen, Jingfeng; Rawale, Sharad; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Kaumaya, Pravin P. T.; Zweier, Jay L.; Chen, Yeong-Renn

    2008-01-01

    Increased \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2}^{\\overline{.}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} and NO production is a key mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. A crucial segment of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is succinate ubiquinone reductase (SQR or Complex II). In SQR, oxidative impairment and deglutathionylation of the 70-kDa flavin protein occurs in the post-ischemic heart (Chen, Y. R., Chen, C. L., Pfeiffer, D. R., and Zweier, J. L. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282,32640 -3265417848555). To gain insights into the oxidative modification of the 70-kDa protein in the post-ischemic myocardium, we used the identified S-glutathionylated peptide (77AAFGLSEAGFNTACVTK93) of the 70-kDa protein as a chimeric epitope incorporating a “promiscuous” T cell epitope to generate a high titer polyclonal antibody, AbGSC90. Purified AbGSC90 showed a high binding affinity to isolated SQR. Antibodies of AbGSC90 moderately inhibited the electron transfer and superoxide generation activities of SQR. To test for protein nitration, rats were subjected to 30 min of coronary ligation followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Tissue homogenates were immunoprecipitated with AbGSC90 and probed with antibodies against 3-nitrotyrosine. Enhancement of protein tyrosine nitration was detected in the post-ischemic myocardium. Isolated SQR was subjected to in vitro protein nitration with peroxynitrite, leading to site-specific nitration at the 70-kDa polypeptide and impairment of SQR electron transfer activity. Protein nitration of SQR further impaired its protein-protein interaction with Complex III. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Tyr-56 and Tyr

  11. Activation of cerebral sodium-glucose transporter type 1 function mediated by post-ischemic hyperglycemia exacerbates the development of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Y; Ogihara, S; Harada, S; Tokuyama, S

    2015-12-01

    The regulation of post-ischemic hyperglycemia plays an important role in suppressing neuronal damage in therapeutic strategies for cerebral ischemia. We previously reported that the cerebral sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) was involved in the post-ischemic hyperglycemia-induced exacerbation of cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. Cortical SGLT-1, one of the cerebral SGLT isoforms, is dramatically increased by focal cerebral ischemia. In this study, we focused on the involvement of cerebral SGLT-1 in the development of cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. It was previously reported that activation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases SGLT-1 expression. Moreover, ischemic stress-induced activation of AMPK exacerbates cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. Therefore, we directly confirmed the relationship between cerebral SGLT-1 and cerebral AMPK activation using in vitro primary culture of mouse cortical neurons. An in vivo mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia was generated using a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The development of infarct volume and behavioral abnormalities on day 3 after MCAO were ameliorated in cerebral SGLT-1 knock down mice. Cortical and striatal SGLT-1 expression levels were significantly increased at 12h after MCAO. Immunofluorescence revealed that SGLT-1 and the neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) were co-localized in the cortex and striatum of MCAO mice. In the in vitro study, primary cortical neurons were cultured for five days before each treatment with reagents. Concomitant treatment with hydrogen peroxide and glucose induced the elevation of SGLT-1 and phosphorylated AMPK/AMPK ratio, and this elevation was suppressed by compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in primary cortical neurons. Moreover, compound C suppressed neuronal cell death induced by concomitant hydrogen peroxide/glucose treatment in primary cortical neurons. Therefore, we concluded that enhanced cerebral SGLT-1 function mediated by post-ischemic

  12. Certain types of iron oxide nanoparticles are not suited to passively target inflammatory cells that infiltrate the brain in response to stroke

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Christoph; Datwyler, Anna Lena; Wiekhorst, Frank; Trahms, Lutz; Lindquist, Randall; Schellenberger, Eyk; Mueller, Susanne; Schütz, Gunnar; Roohi, Farnoosh; Ide, Andreas; Füchtemeier, Martina; Gertz, Karen; Kronenberg, Golo; Harms, Ulrike; Endres, Matthias; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Farr, Tracy D

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous administration of iron oxide nanoparticles during the acute stage of experimental stroke can produce signal intensity changes in the ischemic region. This has been attributed, albeit controversially, to the infiltration of iron-laden blood-borne macrophages. The properties of nanoparticles that render them most suitable for phagocytosis is a matter of debate, as is the most relevant timepoint for administration. Both of these questions are examined in the present study. Imaging experiments were performed in mice with 30 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Iron oxide nanoparticles with different charges and sizes were used, and mice received 300 μmol Fe/kg intravenously: either superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs), ultrasmall SPIOs, or very small SPIOs. The particles were administered 7 days before MCAO, at the time of reperfusion, or 72 hours after MCAO. Interestingly, there was no observable signal change in the ischemic brains that could be attributed to iron. Furthermore, no Prussian blue-positive cells were found in the brains or blood leukocytes, despite intense staining in the livers and spleens. This implies that the nanoparticles selected for this study are not phagocytosed by blood-borne leukocytes and do not enter the ischemic mouse brain. PMID:23443176

  13. Certain types of iron oxide nanoparticles are not suited to passively target inflammatory cells that infiltrate the brain in response to stroke.

    PubMed

    Harms, Christoph; Datwyler, Anna Lena; Wiekhorst, Frank; Trahms, Lutz; Lindquist, Randall; Schellenberger, Eyk; Mueller, Susanne; Schütz, Gunnar; Roohi, Farnoosh; Ide, Andreas; Füchtemeier, Martina; Gertz, Karen; Kronenberg, Golo; Harms, Ulrike; Endres, Matthias; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Farr, Tracy D

    2013-05-01

    Intravenous administration of iron oxide nanoparticles during the acute stage of experimental stroke can produce signal intensity changes in the ischemic region. This has been attributed, albeit controversially, to the infiltration of iron-laden blood-borne macrophages. The properties of nanoparticles that render them most suitable for phagocytosis is a matter of debate, as is the most relevant timepoint for administration. Both of these questions are examined in the present study. Imaging experiments were performed in mice with 30 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Iron oxide nanoparticles with different charges and sizes were used, and mice received 300 μmol Fe/kg intravenously: either superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs), ultrasmall SPIOs, or very small SPIOs. The particles were administered 7 days before MCAO, at the time of reperfusion, or 72 hours after MCAO. Interestingly, there was no observable signal change in the ischemic brains that could be attributed to iron. Furthermore, no Prussian blue-positive cells were found in the brains or blood leukocytes, despite intense staining in the livers and spleens. This implies that the nanoparticles selected for this study are not phagocytosed by blood-borne leukocytes and do not enter the ischemic mouse brain. PMID:23443176

  14. Infiltrative Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    Bejar, David; Colombo, Paolo C; Latif, Farhana; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana

    2015-01-01

    Infiltrative cardiomyopathies can result from a wide spectrum of both inherited and acquired conditions with varying systemic manifestations. They portend an adverse prognosis, with only a few exceptions (ie, glycogen storage disease), where early diagnosis can result in potentially curative treatment. The extent of cardiac abnormalities varies based on the degree of infiltration and results in increased ventricular wall thickness, chamber dilatation, and disruption of the conduction system. These changes often lead to the development of heart failure, atrioventricular (AV) block, and ventricular arrhythmia. Because these diseases are relatively rare, a high degree of clinical suspicion is important for diagnosis. Electrocardiography and echocardiography are helpful, but advanced techniques including cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear imaging are increasingly preferred. Treatment is dependent on the etiology and extent of the disease and involves medications, device therapy, and, in some cases, organ transplantation. Cardiac amyloid is the archetype of the infiltrative cardiomyopathies and is discussed in great detail in this review. PMID:26244036

  15. Aggravation of post-ischemic liver injury by overexpression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lu; Koh, Hyoung-Won; Bae, Ui-Jin; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to inhibit reperfusion-induced apoptosis. IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is the major circulating carrier protein for IGF-1 and induces apoptosis. In this study, we determined if IGFBP-3 was important in the hepatic response to I/R. To deliver IGFBP-3, we used an adenovirus containing IGFBP-3 cDNA (AdIGFBP-3) or an IGFBP-3 mutant devoid of IGF binding affinity but retaining IGFBP-3 receptor binding ability (AdIGFBP-3GGG). Mice subjected to I/R injury showed typical patterns of hepatocellular damage. Protein levels of IGFBP-3 were increased after reperfusion and showed a positive correlation with the extent of liver injury. Prior injection with AdIGFBP-3 aggravated liver injury: serum aminotransferases, prothrombin time, proinflammatory cytokines, hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis, and neutrophil infiltration were markedly increased compared to control mice. A decrease in antioxidant potential and an upregulation of NADPH oxidase might have caused these aggravating effects of IGFBP-3. Experiments using HepG2 cells and N-acetylcysteine-pretreated mice showed a discernible effect of IGFBP-3 on reactive oxygen species generation. Lastly, AdIGFBP-3 abolished the beneficial effects of ischemic preconditioning and hypothermia. Mice treated with AdIGFBP-3GGG exhibited effects similar to those of AdIGFBP-3, suggesting a ligand-independent effect of IGFBP-3. Our results suggest IGFBP-3 as an aggravating factor during hepatic I/R injury. PMID:26073647

  16. Celloidin mounting (embedding without infiltration) - a new, simple and reliable method for producing serial sections of high thickness through complete human brains and its application to stereological and immunohistochemical investigations.

    PubMed

    Heinsen, H; Arzberger, T; Schmitz, C

    2000-10-01

    Celloidin mounting (embedding without infiltration) of the human central nervous system (CNS) proved to be superior to gelatin embedding for the production of serial sections ranging in thickness from 220 to 500 microm. After gallocyanin-staining, a comprehensive neuroanatomical as well as neuropathological survey of the human brain is possible, including diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Details of a fractionator analysis of the total striatal neuron number are described and the possible quantitative analysis of parallel immunohistochemically stained sections is discussed. PMID:11074343

  17. A labdane diterpene exerts ex vivo and in vivo cardioprotection against post-ischemic injury: involvement of AKT-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Berrocal, Irene; Gómez-Gaviro, María V; Benito, Yolanda; Barrio, Alicia; Bermejo, Javier; Fernández-Santos, María Eugenia; Sánchez, Pedro L; Desco, Manuel; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Fernández-Velasco, María; Boscá, Lisardo; de Las Heras, Beatriz

    2015-02-15

    Therapeutic approaches to protect the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are an area of intense research, as myocardial infarction is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Diterpenes are bioactive natural products with great therapeutic potential. In the present study, we have investigated the in vivo cardioprotective effects of a labdane diterpene (DT1) against cardiac I/R injury and the molecular mechanisms involved. DT1 attenuates post-ischemic injury via an AKT-dependent activation of HIF-1α, survival pathways and inhibition of NF-κB signaling. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in Wistar rats occluding the left coronary artery (LCA) for 30min followed by 72h reperfusion. DT1 (5mg/kg) was intravenously administered at reperfusion. In addition, we investigated the mechanisms of cardioprotection in the Langendorff-perfused model. Cardioprotection was observed when DT1 was administered after myocardial injury. The molecular mechanisms involved the activation of the survival pathway PDK-1, AKT and AMPK, a reduced phosphorylation of PKD1/2 and sustained HIF-1α activity, leading to increased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and decreased caspase-3 activation. Pharmacological inhibition of AKT following MI and prior to DT1 challenge significantly decreased the cardioprotection afforded by DT1 therapy at reperfusion. Cardiac function after MI was significantly improved after DT1-treatment, as evidenced by hemodynamic recovery and decreased myocardial infarct size. These findings demonstrate an efficient in vivo cardioprotection by diterpene DT1 against I/R when administered at reperfusion, opening new therapeutic strategies as adjunctive therapy for the pharmacological management of I/R injury. PMID:25557296

  18. Effects of acute versus post-acute systemic delivery of neural progenitor cells on neurological recovery and brain remodeling after focal cerebral ischemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Doeppner, T R; Kaltwasser, B; Teli, M K; Bretschneider, E; Bähr, M; Hermann, D M

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) induces functional recovery after stroke, albeit grafted cells are not integrated into residing neural networks. However, a systematic analysis of intravenous NPC delivery at acute and post-acute time points and their long-term consequences does not exist. Male C57BL6 mice were exposed to cerebral ischemia, and NPCs were intravenously grafted on day 0, on day 1 or on day 28. Animals were allowed to survive for up to 84 days. Mice and tissues were used for immunohistochemical analysis, flow cytometry, ELISA and behavioral tests. Density of grafted NPCs within the ischemic hemisphere was increased when cells were transplanted on day 28 as compared with transplantation on days 0 or 1. Likewise, transplantation on day 28 yielded enhanced neuronal differentiation rates of grafted cells. Post-ischemic brain injury, however, was only reduced when NPCs were grafted at acute time points. On the contrary, reduced post-ischemic functional deficits due to NPC delivery were independent of transplantation paradigms. NPC-induced neuroprotection after acute cell delivery was due to stabilization of the blood–brain barrier (BBB), reduction in microglial activation and modulation of both peripheral and central immune responses. On the other hand, post-acute NPC transplantation stimulated post-ischemic regeneration via enhanced angioneurogenesis and increased axonal plasticity. Acute NPC delivery yields long-term neuroprotection via enhanced BBB integrity and modulation of post-ischemic immune responses, whereas post-acute NPC delivery increases post-ischemic angioneurogenesis and axonal plasticity. Post-ischemic functional recovery, however, is independent of NPC delivery timing, which offers a broad therapeutic time window for stroke treatment. PMID:25144721

  19. Effects of acute versus post-acute systemic delivery of neural progenitor cells on neurological recovery and brain remodeling after focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Doeppner, T R; Kaltwasser, B; Teli, M K; Bretschneider, E; Bähr, M; Hermann, D M

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) induces functional recovery after stroke, albeit grafted cells are not integrated into residing neural networks. However, a systematic analysis of intravenous NPC delivery at acute and post-acute time points and their long-term consequences does not exist. Male C57BL6 mice were exposed to cerebral ischemia, and NPCs were intravenously grafted on day 0, on day 1 or on day 28. Animals were allowed to survive for up to 84 days. Mice and tissues were used for immunohistochemical analysis, flow cytometry, ELISA and behavioral tests. Density of grafted NPCs within the ischemic hemisphere was increased when cells were transplanted on day 28 as compared with transplantation on days 0 or 1. Likewise, transplantation on day 28 yielded enhanced neuronal differentiation rates of grafted cells. Post-ischemic brain injury, however, was only reduced when NPCs were grafted at acute time points. On the contrary, reduced post-ischemic functional deficits due to NPC delivery were independent of transplantation paradigms. NPC-induced neuroprotection after acute cell delivery was due to stabilization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), reduction in microglial activation and modulation of both peripheral and central immune responses. On the other hand, post-acute NPC transplantation stimulated post-ischemic regeneration via enhanced angioneurogenesis and increased axonal plasticity. Acute NPC delivery yields long-term neuroprotection via enhanced BBB integrity and modulation of post-ischemic immune responses, whereas post-acute NPC delivery increases post-ischemic angioneurogenesis and axonal plasticity. Post-ischemic functional recovery, however, is independent of NPC delivery timing, which offers a broad therapeutic time window for stroke treatment. PMID:25144721

  20. Detrimental role of the EP1 prostanoid receptor in blood-brain barrier damage following experimental ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Frankowski, Jan C.; DeMars, Kelly M.; Ahmad, Abdullah S.; Hawkins, Kimberly E.; Yang, Changjun; Leclerc, Jenna L.; Doré, Sylvain; Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is activated in response to ischemia and significantly contributes to the neuroinflammatory process. Accumulation of COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) parallels the substantial increase in stroke-mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Disruption of the BBB is a serious consequence of ischemic stroke, and is mainly mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study aimed to investigate the role of PGE2 EP1 receptor in neurovascular injury in stroke. We hypothesized that pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of EP1 protects against BBB damage and hemorrhagic transformation by decreasing the levels and activity of MMP-3 and MMP-9. We found that post-ischemic treatment with the EP1 antagonist, SC-51089, or EP1 genetic deletion results in a significant reduction in BBB disruption and reduced hemorrhagic transformation in an experimental model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. These neurovascular protective effects of EP1 inactivation are associated with a significant reduction in MMP-9/-3, less peripheral neutrophil infiltration, and a preservation of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) composing the BBB. Our study identifies the EP1 signaling pathway as an important link between neuroinflammation and MMP-mediated BBB breakdown in ischemic stroke. Targeting the EP1 receptor could represent a novel approach to diminish the devastating consequences of stroke-induced neurovascular damage. PMID:26648273

  1. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  2. Multizone infiltration monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Wortman, D.N.; Burch, J.; Judkoff, R.

    1982-06-01

    A multizone infiltration monitoring system (MIMS) using a single tracer gas has been developed. MIMS measures zonal infiltration and exfiltration as well as interzonal air movement rates. The system has been used at the 4-zone test house at the SERI interim field site, and this paper presents preliminary results. The present system can determine zonal infiltration rates, and the results show significant differences in infiltration rates for the various zones.

  3. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  4. Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  5. Hereditary Diffuse Infiltrating Retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Schedler, Katharina J E; Traine, Peter G; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Haritoglou, Christos; Metz, Klaus A; Rodrigues, Eduardo B

    2016-03-01

    Retinoblastoma is one of the most common childhood cancers. The diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma is a rare subtype of this neoplasm. The majority of cases of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma are unilateral and occur sporadically. Herein we report on a family with three children affected by retinoblastoma, among them one girl with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. This girl was diagnosed at the age of 8 years with a unilateral diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. By contrast, the two brothers became clinically apparent in the first 2 years of life with bilateral retinoblastoma. The parents were clinically unremarkable. Genetic analysis of RB1 gene was performed. The girl with diffuse infiltrating RB was found to be heterozygous for an oncogenic mutation in the RB1 gene that was also carried by both brothers and the father of the family. These results show that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma can develop on the background of a hereditary predisposition to retinoblastoma. PMID:24892564

  6. Therapy with Recombinant T-cell Receptor Ligand reduces infarct size and infiltrating inflammatory cells in brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dziennis, Suzan; Mader, Sarah; Akiyoshi, Kozaburo; Ren, Xuefang; Ayala, Patricia; Burrows, Gregory G.; Vandenbark, Arthur A.; Herson, Paco S.; Hurn, Patricia D.; Offner, Halina

    2011-01-01

    Stroke induces a biphasic effect on the peripheral immune response that involves early activation of peripheral leukocytes followed by severe immunosuppression and atrophy of the spleen. Peripheral immune cells, including T lymphocytes, migrate to the brain and exacerbate the developing infarct. Recombinant T-cell receptor (TCR) Ligand (RTL)551 is designed as a partial TCR agonist for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-reactive T cells and has demonstrated the capacity to limit infarct volume and inflammation in brain when administered to mice undergoing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The goal of this study was to determine if RTL551 could retain protection when given within the therapeutically relevant 4h time window currently in clinical practice for stroke patients. RTL551 was administered subcutaneously 4h after MCAO, with repeated doses every 24h until the time of euthanasia. Cell numbers were assessed in the brain, blood, spleen and lymph nodes and infarct size was measured after 24 and 96h reperfusion. RTL551 reduced infarct size in both cortex and striatum at 24h and in cortex at 96h after MCAO and inhibited the accumulation of inflammatory cells in brain at both time points. At 24h post-MCAO, RTL551 reduced the frequency of the activation marker, CD44, on T-cells in blood and in the ischemic hemisphere. Moreover, RTL551 reduced expression of the chemokine receptors, CCR5 in lymph nodes and spleen, and CCR7 in the blood and lymph nodes. These data demonstrate effective treatment of experimental stroke with RTL551 within a therapeutically relevant 4h time window through immune regulation of myelin-reactive inflammatory T-cells. PMID:21472429

  7. Infiltration of the basal ganglia by brain tumors is associated with the development of co-dominant language function on fMRI.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Katharina; Brennan, Nicole; Woo, Kaitlin; Zhang, Zhigang; Young, Robert; Peck, Kyung K; Holodny, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that some patients with left-hemispheric brain tumors have an increased propensity for developing right-sided language support. However, the precise trigger for establishing co-dominant language function in brain tumor patients remains unknown. We analyzed the MR scans of patients with left-hemispheric tumors and either co-dominant (n=35) or left-hemisphere dominant (n=35) language function on fMRI to investigate anatomical factors influencing hemispheric language dominance. Of eleven neuroanatomical areas evaluated for tumor involvement, the basal ganglia was significantly correlated with co-dominant language function (p<0.001). Moreover, among patients whose tumors invaded the basal ganglia, those with language co-dominance performed significantly better on the Boston Naming Test, a clinical measure of aphasia, compared to their left-lateralized counterparts (56.5 versus 36.5, p=0.025). While further studies are needed to elucidate the role of the basal ganglia in establishing co-dominance, our results suggest that reactive co-dominance may afford a behavioral advantage to patients with left-hemispheric tumors. PMID:27108246

  8. Neurological Impairment Linked with Cortico-Subcortical Infiltration of Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas at Initial Diagnosis Supports Early Brain Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Anja; Zetterling, Maria; Lundin, Margareta; Melin, Beatrice; Fahlström, Markus; Grabowska, Anna; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Berntsson, Shala Ghaderi

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) are slow-growing brain tumors that in spite of an indolent behavior at onset show a continuous expansion over time and inevitably transform into malignant gliomas. Extensive tumor resections may be performed with preservation of neurological function due to neuroplasticity that is induced by the slow tumor growth. However, DLGG prefer to migrate along subcortical pathways, and white matter plasticity is considerably more limited than gray matter plasticity. Whether signs of functional decompensating white matter that may be found as early as at disease presentation has not been systematically studied. Here, we examined 52 patients who presented with a DLGG at the time of radiological diagnosis. We found a significant correlation between neurological impairment and eloquent cortico-subcortical tumor localization, but not between neurological function and tumor volume. These results suggest that even small tumors invading white matter pathways may lack compensatory mechanisms for functional reorganization already at disease presentation. PMID:26113841

  9. The point mutation UCH-L1 C152A protects primary neurons against cyclopentenone prostaglandin-induced cytotoxicity: implications for post-ischemic neuronal injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H; Li, W; Rose, M E; Hickey, R W; Chen, J; Uechi, G T; Balasubramani, M; Day, B W; Patel, K V; Graham, S H

    2015-01-01

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPGs), such as 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2), are reactive prostaglandin metabolites exerting a variety of biological effects. CyPGs are produced in ischemic brain and disrupt the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Ubiquitin-C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a brain-specific deubiquitinating enzyme that has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Using tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analyses, we found that the C152 site of UCH-L1 is adducted by CyPGs. Mutation of C152 to alanine (C152A) inhibited CyPG modification and conserved recombinant UCH-L1 protein hydrolase activity after 15dPGJ2 treatment. A knock-in (KI) mouse expressing the UCH-L1 C152A mutation was constructed with the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technique. Brain expression and distribution of UCH-L1 in the KI mouse was similar to that of wild type (WT) as determined by western blotting. Primary cortical neurons derived from KI mice were resistant to 15dPGJ2 cytotoxicity compared with neurons from WT mice as detected by the WST-1 cell viability assay and caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. This protective effect was accompanied with significantly less ubiquitinated protein accumulation and aggregation as well as less UCH-L1 aggregation in C152A KI primary neurons after 15dPGJ2 treatment. Additionally, 15dPGJ2-induced axonal injury was also significantly attenuated in KI neurons as compared with WT. Taken together, these studies indicate that UCH-L1 function is important in hypoxic neuronal death, and the C152 site of UCH-L1 has a significant role in neuronal survival after hypoxic/ischemic injury. PMID:26539913

  10. Air encapsulation during infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Murphy, F.

    1988-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory experiments were performed to measure the effects of air encapsulation within the soil's transmission zone upon several infiltration properties. In the field, infiltration rates were measured using a double-cap infiltrometer and soil-water contents were measured using time-domain reflectometry (TDR). In the laboratory, infiltration experiments were peformed using repacked soil columns using TDR and CO 2 flooding. Results suggest that a significant portion of the total encapsulated air resided in interconnected pores within the soil's transmission zone. For the time scale considered, this residual air caused the effective hydraulic conductivity of the transmission zone to remain at a level no greater than 20% of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil. -from Authors

  11. Analysis of Infiltration Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    R. McCurley

    2003-10-27

    The primary objectives of this uncertainty analysis are: (1) to develop and justify a set of uncertain parameters along with associated distributions; and (2) to use the developed uncertain parameter distributions and the results from selected analog site calculations done in ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]) to obtain the net infiltration weighting factors for the glacial transition climate. These weighting factors are applied to unsaturated zone (UZ) flow fields in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), as outlined in the ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach'' (BSC 2002 [160146], Section 3.1) as a method for the treatment of uncertainty. This report is a scientific analysis because no new and mathematical physical models are developed herein, and it is based on the use of the models developed in or for ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]). Any use of the term model refers to those developed in the infiltration numerical model report. TSPA License Application (LA) has included three distinct climate regimes in the comprehensive repository performance analysis for Yucca Mountain: present-day, monsoon, and glacial transition. Each climate regime was characterized using three infiltration-rate maps, including a lower- and upper-bound and a mean value (equal to the average of the two boundary values). For each of these maps, which were obtained based on analog site climate data, a spatially averaged value was also calculated by the USGS. For a more detailed discussion of these infiltration-rate maps, see ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]). For this Scientific Analysis Report, spatially averaged values were calculated for the lower-bound, mean, and upper-bound climate analogs only for the glacial transition climate regime, within the

  12. Porous body infiltrating method

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot

    2002-01-01

    A mixture is formed that comprises at least some to about 10 wt % boron nitride and silicon. A body comprising a component that is wetted by or reacts with silicon is contacted with the mixture and the contacted body is infiltrated with silicon from the mixture.

  13. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David V.; Baranwal, Rita

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  14. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    Polymer infiltration investigations were directed toward development of methods by which to produce advanced composite material for automated part fabrication utilizing textile and robotic technology in the manufacture of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Significant progress was made during the project on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. The findings and results of the project are summarized in the attached paper entitled 'Powder-Coated Towpreg: Avenues to Near Net Shape Fabrication of High Performance Composite.' Also attached to this report is the second of two patent applications submitted as a result of these studies.

  15. Eosinophilic Liver Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa Rivera, Ivonne; Toro, Doris H.; Gutierrez, Jose; Acosta, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic liver infiltration is a commonly encountered focal eosinophil-related inflammation with or without necrosis, which can be seen on computed tomography (CT) in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Although this entity has a relatively benign course, it is related to numerable conditions for which diagnosis may be challenging and requires substantial diagnostic work-up for proper management and care of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with a 1-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain with multiple ill-defined liver hypodensities associated with significant eosinophilia. PMID:26504883

  16. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    Progress was made on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. Processes reported include powder towpreg process, weaving towpreg made from dry powder prepreg, composite from powder coated towpreg, and toughening of polyimide resin (PMR) composites by semi-interpenetrating networks. Several important areas of polymer infiltration into fiber bundles will be researched. Preparation to towpreg for textile preform weaving and braiding and for automated tow placement is a major goal, as are the continued development of prepregging technology and the various aspects of composite part fabrication.

  17. Infiltration kinetics of fibrous preform

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Toshio; Nishida, Yoshinori

    1994-12-31

    The infiltration kinetics of fibrous preform was investigated in the case of aluminum matrix composites by pressure infiltration method. Pressure was applied mechanically by a punch, and the pressure change and the punch speed were measured during the infiltration of molten aluminum into SiC whisker preforms. To analyze the correlation between applied pressure and infiltration front in the preform, the distribution of hardness along the infiltration direction in the composites was measured and the distribution of volume fraction was calculated from the hardness. A theoretical expression is derived to describe fluid flow in the preform during the infiltration, on the condition that the pressure on the preform surface starts to rise from zero and when the applied pressure exceeds the compressive strength of preform, deformation starts. The starting point of deformation and the distribution of volume fraction in the composites can be calculated by the theory and proved by experiments.

  18. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    Progress was made in several areas on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. Polymer infiltration studies dealt with ways of preparing composite materials from advanced polymer resins and carbon fibers. This effort is comprised of an integrated approach to the process of composite part fabrication. The goal is to produce advanced composite materials for automated part fabrication using textile and robotics technology in the manufacture of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The object is achieved through investigations at the NASA Langley Research Center and by stimulating technology transfer between contract researchers and the aircraft industry. Covered here are literature reviews, a status report on individual projects, current and planned research, publications, and scheduled technical presentations.

  19. Infiltrating angiolipoma with phlebolith formation.

    PubMed

    De Orchis, D; Ozonoff, M B

    1986-01-01

    Angiolipomas are uncommon benign soft tissue tumors with both fatty and vascular components; they may be encapsulated or locally invasive. Three cases are reported in which phleboliths were present within infiltrating angiolipomas. The demonstration of phleboliths in a lipoma suggests the diagnosis of infiltrating angiolipoma rather than the usual encapsulated lipoma. PMID:3764475

  20. Infiltrative Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaopeng; Fu, Xu; Deng, Min; Chen, Jun; He, Jian; Shi, Jiong; Qiu, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Data on infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma (iHCC) receiving hepatectomy are unclear. Our study assessed the outcomes, effects of anatomical resection, and prognostic factors in a cohort of Chinese patients with iHCC undergoing hepatectomy. Data from 47 patients with iHCC undergoing hepatectomy were analyzed in a retrospective study. Independent prognostic factors of overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Correlations between microvascular invasion (MVI) and clinicopathological features were assessed using the χ2 test, Student t test, or the Mann–Whitney U test. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The median OS was 27.37 months and the 1-year RFS rate were 61.7%. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level was not a specific parameter in iHCC patients undergoing hepatectomy. Anatomic resection was significantly associated with increased RFS (P = 0.007). Patients showing MVI were observed with decreased RFS (P < 0.001). A high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was significantly associated with decreased OS and RFS (P = 0.003 and P = 0.020, respectively). MVI was shown correlated with the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and LDH. Subgroup analysis indicated that in mild MVI group, survival outcome was significantly more favorable in patients with high LDH level (P = 0.019). iHCC patients are related with higher MVI rate and patients may still derive survival benefit from anatomic resection at early and intermediate stages. MVI classification could be used to identify iHCC patients with a poorer survival, especially those with a high preoperative LDH level. PMID:27175659

  1. A MODFLOW Infiltration Device Package for Simulating Storm Water Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a MODFLOW Infiltration Device (INFD) Package that can simulate infiltration devices and their two-way interaction with groundwater. The INFD Package relies on a water balance including inflow of storm water, leakage-like seepage through the device faces, overflow, and change in storage. The water balance for the device can be simulated in multiple INFD time steps within a single MODFLOW time step, and infiltration from the device can be routed through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table. A benchmark test shows that the INFD Package's analytical solution for stage computes exact results for transient behavior. To achieve similar accuracy by the numerical solution of the MODFLOW Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process requires many small time steps. Furthermore, the INFD Package includes an improved representation of flow through the INFD sides that results in lower infiltration rates than simulated by SWR1. The INFD Package is also demonstrated in a transient simulation of a hypothetical catchment where two devices interact differently with groundwater. This simulation demonstrates that device and groundwater interaction depends on the thickness of the unsaturated zone because a shallow groundwater table (a likely result from storm water infiltration itself) may occupy retention volume, whereas a thick unsaturated zone may cause a phase shift and a change of amplitude in groundwater table response to a change of infiltration. We thus find that the INFD Package accommodates the simulation of infiltration devices and groundwater in an integrated manner on small as well as large spatial and temporal scales. PMID:25187115

  2. Groundwater contamination from stormwater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, R.; Clark, S.; Parmer, K.

    1995-10-01

    The research summarized here was conducted during the first year of a 3-yr cooperative agreement (CR819573) to identify and control stormwater toxicants, especially those adversely affecting groundwater. The purpose of this research effort was to review the groundwater contamination literature as it relates to stormwater. Prior to urbanization groundwater is recharged by rainfall-runoff and snowmelt infiltrating through pervious surfaces including grasslands and woods. This infiltrating water is relatively uncontaminated. Urbanization, however, reduces the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by infiltration occurs. This results in much less groundwater recharge and greatly increased surface runoff. In addition the waters available for recharge carry increased quantities of pollutants. With urbanization, waters having elevated contaminant concentrations also recharge groundwater including effluent from domestic septic tanks, wastewater from percolation basins and industrial waste injection wells, infiltrating stormwater, and infiltrating water from agricultural irrigation. The areas of main concern that are covered by this paper are: the source of the pollutants, stormwater constituents having a high potential to contaminate groundwater, and the treatment necessary for stormwater.

  3. Hemimegalencephaly with Facial Congenital Infiltrating Lipomatosis in a Child

    PubMed Central

    SANTANA-RAMIREZ, Adrián; FARIAS-SERRATOS, Felipe; SANCHEZ-CORONA, José; CASTAÑEDA-CISNEROS, Gema; FARIAS-SERRATOS, Nadia M.

    2014-01-01

    We report an unusual case of hemimegalencephaly (HMG) associated with ipsilateral congenital-infiltrating lipomatosis of the face in a five–month-old boy. Hemimegalencephaly is a rare but unique malformation characterized by enlargement of all or parts of a cerebral hemisphere. The affected hemisphere may have focal or diffuse neuronal migration defects, with areas of polymicrogyria, pachygyria and heterotopia. Our aim was to investigate morphologic abnormalities occurring on the affected hemisphere by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), but some MRI findings were also noted outside of the affected hemicerebrum. There are a few case reports that have described various other abnormalities accompanying this condition, such as enlargement of ipsilateral brainstem, cerebellum and left lateral ventricle. MRI may be the most useful method demonstrating features of hemimegalencephaly with infiltrating lipomatosis of the face. However, studies using electroencephalogram (EEG) and brain single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) can show distinct variants of discharges and brain-perfusion anomalies. PMID:26171364

  4. Gliosarcoma with liposarcomatous component, bone infiltration and extracranial growth.

    PubMed

    Borota, O C; Scheie, D; Bjerkhagen, B; Jacobsen, E A; Skullerud, K

    2006-01-01

    Gliosarcoma is a highly malignant brain tumor consisting of both a glioblastoma and a mesenchymal component. The latter typically resembles fibrosarcoma, but differentiation patterns resembling osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, angiosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma have also been described. Molecular-genetic studies have shown that both glioblastoma and the mesenchymal component share identical cytogenetic abnormalities or mutations, suggesting a monoclonal origin from glial cells. We report an unusual case of gliosarcoma that presented as a large intracerebral tumor with infiltration of the temporal bone and the soft tissues in the infratemporal fossa. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of alternating areas of glioblastoma and fibrosarcoma. Focally, areas ofosteosarcomatous and liposarcomatous differentiation were found. Although gliosarcoma with transcranial penetration is very rare, it should be suspected in case of intracranial tumor with glioblastoma-imaging features, infiltration of bone and extracranial growth. Our case of liposarcomatous differentiation in gliosarcoma--together with another very recently reported similar case--expands the morphologic heterogeneity of this peculiar brain tumor. PMID:16866302

  5. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  6. RAPID INFILTRATION WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid infiltration treatment performance of three infiltration basins receiving primary treated municipal wastewater is evaluated for optimum total nitrogen control using a series of manual operational techniques and by remote control computer operation of a sprinkler system. Thr...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration. (a) Envelope air infiltration. The opaque envelope shall be designed and constructed to limit...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration. (a) Envelope air infiltration. The opaque envelope shall be designed and constructed to limit...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration. (a) Envelope air infiltration. The opaque envelope shall be designed and constructed to limit...

  10. Infiltrative lung diseases in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Freymond, N; Cottin, V; Cordier, J F

    2011-03-01

    Pregnancy may affect the diagnosis, management, and outcome of infiltrative lung disease (ILD). Conversely, ILD may affect pregnancy. ILD may occur as a result of drugs administered commonly or specifically during pregnancy. Most ILDs predominate in patients older than 40 years and are thus rare in pregnant women. During pregnancy ILD may arise de novo and preexisting ILD may be exacerbated or significantly worsened. Some ILDs generally do not alter the management of pregnancy, labor, or delivery. Preexisting ILD no longer contraindicates pregnancy systematically, but thorough evaluation of ILD before pregnancy is required to identify potential contraindications and adapt monitoring. PMID:21277455

  11. Early-Onset Convulsive Seizures Induced by Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Aging Mice: Effects of Anticonvulsive Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jessie; Patel, Nisarg; Huang, Yayi; Gao, Xiaoxing; Aljarallah, Salman; Eubanks, James H.; McDonald, Robert; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased risk of seizures/epilepsy. Stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) and cardiac arrest related brain injury are two major causative factors for seizure development in this patient population. With either etiology, seizures are a poor prognostic factor. In spite of this, the underlying pathophysiology of seizure development is not well understood. In addition, a standardized treatment regimen with anticonvulsants and outcome assessments following treatment has yet to be established for these post-ischemic seizures. Previous studies have modeled post-ischemic seizures in adult rodents, but similar studies in aging/aged animals, a group that mirrors a higher risk elderly population, remain sparse. Our study therefore aimed to investigate early-onset seizures in aging animals using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model. Male C57 black mice 18-20-month-old underwent a unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery followed by a systemic hypoxic episode (8% O2 for 30 min). Early-onset seizures were detected using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring. Brain injury was assessed histologically at different times post HI. Convulsive seizures were observed in 65% of aging mice post-HI but not in control aging mice following either sham surgery or hypoxia alone. These seizures typically occurred within hours of HI and behaviorally consisted of jumping, fast running, barrel-rolling, and/or falling (loss of the righting reflex) with limb spasms. No evident discharges during any convulsive seizures were seen on cortical-hippocampal EEG recordings. Seizure development was closely associated with acute mortality and severe brain injury on brain histological analysis. Intra-peritoneal injections of lorazepam and fosphenytoin suppressed seizures and improved survival but only when applied prior to seizure onset and not after. These findings together suggest that seizures are a major contributing factor to acute mortality in aging

  12. Isolation and Flow Cytometric Analysis of Glioma-infiltrating Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Gregory J.; Castro, Maria G.; Lowenstein, Pedro R.

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory has recently demonstrated that natural killer (NK) cells are capable of eradicating orthotopically implanted mouse GL26 and rat CNS-1 malignant gliomas soon after intracranial engraftment if the cancer cells are rendered deficient in their expression of the β-galactoside-binding lectin galectin-1 (gal-1). More recent work now shows that a population of Gr-1+/CD11b+ myeloid cells is critical to this effect. To better understand the mechanisms by which NK and myeloid cells cooperate to confer gal-1-deficient tumor rejection we have developed a comprehensive protocol for the isolation and analysis of glioma-infiltrating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The method is demonstrated here by comparing PBMC infiltration into the tumor microenvironment of gal-1-expressing GL26 gliomas with those rendered gal-1-deficient via shRNA knockdown. The protocol begins with a description of how to culture and prepare GL26 cells for inoculation into the syngeneic C57BL/6J mouse brain. It then explains the steps involved in the isolation and flow cytometric analysis of glioma-infiltrating PBMCs from the early brain tumor microenvironment. The method is adaptable to a number of in vivo experimental designs in which temporal data on immune infiltration into the brain is required. The method is sensitive and highly reproducible, as glioma-infiltrating PBMCs can be isolated from intracranial tumors as soon as 24 hr post-tumor engraftment with similar cell counts observed from time point matched tumors throughout independent experiments. A single experimentalist can perform the method from brain harvesting to flow cytometric analysis of glioma-infiltrating PBMCs in roughly 4–6 hr depending on the number of samples to be analyzed. Alternative glioma models and/or cell-specific detection antibodies may also be used at the experimentalists’ discretion to assess the infiltration of several other immune cell types of interest without the need for alterations to the

  13. Infiltration in soils with a saturated surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogarth, W. L.; Lockington, D. A.; Barry, D. A.; Parlange, M. B.; Haverkamp, R.; Parlange, J.-Y.

    2013-05-01

    An earlier infiltration equation relied on curve fitting of infiltration data for the determination of one of the parameters, which limits its usefulness in practice. This handicap is removed here, and the parameter is now evaluated by linking it directly to soil-water properties. The new predictions of infiltration using this evaluation are quite accurate. Positions and shapes of soil-water profiles are also examined in detail and found to be predicted analytically with great precision.

  14. Soil properties controlling infiltration in volcanic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neris, Jonay; Tejedor, Marisa; Jiménez, Concepción

    2013-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is an important process whose behaviour depends on external factors and soil properties that vary depending on the type of soil. The soil parameters affecting the infiltration capacity of six soil orders all formed on volcanic materials (andisols, vertisols, alfisols, aridisols, inceptisols, and entisols) and contribute to the differences between them were studied in this paper. A total of 108 sites were selected on the island of Tenerife (Spain). The main soil properties were analysed and the steady-state infiltration rate measured using a double-ring infiltrometer. The relationship between the soil properties and infiltration was modelled using statistical Principal Components Analysis and regressions. The research concludes that the relation between structural development and texture play a decisive role. The high structural development of non-vitric andisols, due to the high organic matter and short-range-order mineral content, leads to an extremely fast infiltration rate. The structural instability and fine texture of aridisols produce low infiltration. In less developed soils (entisols and vitric andisols) where aggregate formation is minimal or non-existent, the coarse grain size is the relevant factor determining their very fast and extremely fast infiltration. In vertisols and alfisols, which have strong aggregation but low stability, clay type and content play an important role and lead to a moderate and moderately fast steady-state infiltration rate, respectively. In the most typic inceptisols, with moderate structural development and stability, the balance of the properties is largely responsible for the intermediate infiltration rate observed.

  15. ECM hydrogel for the treatment of stroke: Characterization of the host cell infiltrate.

    PubMed

    Ghuman, Harmanvir; Massensini, Andre R; Donnelly, Julia; Kim, Sung-Min; Medberry, Christopher J; Badylak, Stephen F; Modo, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Brain tissue loss following stroke is irreversible with current treatment modalities. The use of an acellular extracellular matrix (ECM), formulated to produce a hydrogel in situ within the cavity formed by a stroke, was investigated as a method to replace necrotic debris and promote the infiltration of host brain cells. Based on magnetic resonance imaging measurements of lesion location and volume, different concentrations of ECM (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 mg/mL) were injected at a volume equal to that of the cavity (14 days post-stroke). Retention of ECM within the cavity occurred at concentrations >3 mg/mL. A significant cell infiltration into the ECM material in the lesion cavity occurred with an average of ∼36,000 cells in the 8 mg/mL concentration within 24 h. An infiltration of cells with distances of >1500 μm into the ECM hydrogel was observed, but the majority of cells were at the tissue/hydrogel boundary. Cells were typically of a microglia, macrophage, or neural and oligodendrocyte progenitor phenotype. At the 8 mg/mL concentration, ∼60% of infiltrating cells were brain-derived phenotypes and 30% being infiltrating peripheral macrophages, polarizing toward an M2-like anti-inflammatory phenotype. These results suggest that an 8 mg/mL ECM concentration promotes a significant acute endogenous repair response that could potentially be exploited to treat stroke. PMID:27031811

  16. Infiltration into soils: Conceptual approaches and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel

    2013-04-01

    Infiltration is a key process in aspects of hydrology, agricultural and civil engineering, irrigation design, and soil and water conservation. It is complex, depending on soil and rainfall properties and initial and boundary conditions within the flow domain. During the last century, a great deal of effort has been invested to understand the physics of infiltration and to develop quantitative predictors of infiltration dynamics. Jean-Yves Parlange and Wilfried Brutsaert have made seminal contributions, especially in the area of infiltration theory and related analytical solutions to the flow equations. This review retraces the landmark discoveries and the evolution of the conceptual approaches and the mathematical solutions applied to the problem of infiltration into porous media, highlighting the pivotal contributions of Parlange and Brutsaert. A historical retrospective of physical models of infiltration is followed by the presentation of mathematical methods leading to analytical solutions of the flow equations. This review then addresses the time compression approximation developed to estimate infiltration at the transition between preponding and postponding conditions. Finally, the effects of special conditions, such as the presence of air and heterogeneity in soil properties, on infiltration are considered.

  17. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration... gain due to infiltration as much as possible without impinging on health and comfort and within...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration... gain due to infiltration as much as possible without impinging on health and comfort and within...

  19. Infiltration Model for Center Pivot Sprinkler Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The marked reduction in infiltration rate caused by formation of a soil surface seal due to water droplet impact on bare soil is a well known phenomenon but is rarely considered in infiltration models, especially under center pivot irrigation. The objective of this study was to develop a soil infil...

  20. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites by chemical vapor infiltration. This period has been devoted in part to the exploration of material systems suitable for MACVI processing. A number of potential processing schemes are possible using combinations of absorbing and transparent material as composite components. This includes the use of an absorbing preform (nicalon fiber) combined with a transparent matrix (silicon nitride). Composites 5 cm in diameter by 1 cm. thick have been fabricated to densities of 65% theoretical. Processing times for these materials are under 20 hours. Higher densities will require additional microwave power now possible with the new reactor. The most effective MACVI scheme will involve the use of a transparent fiber with an absorbing matrix. The hot spot will be initiated by appropriate treatment of the central region of the preform. To this end alumna fibers with pretreatments to control thermal gradients has been explored. Nextel 610 fibers have been effectively pretreated carbon coating resulting in preferential heating in the interior of the preform. Possible matrix materials include siliconized silicon carbide, doped silicon carbide, alumna and zirconia. A patent for MACVI has been issued 10/19/93.

  1. Activation of liver X receptor reduces global ischemia brain injury by reduction of nuclear factor-κB

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Oumei; Ostrowski, Robert P.; Liu, Wenwu; Zhang, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found that liver X receptors (LXRs) agonists decrease inflammation and possess neuroprotective properties. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of liver X receptor agonist GW3965 on brain injury following global cerebral ischemia in the rat. The 48 male SD rats were randomly partitioned into three groups: sham, global ischemia (4-vessel occlusion for 15 minutes; 4VO) treated with vehicle and global ischemia treated with GW3965 (20mg/kg, via i.p at 10 minutes after reperfusion). The functional outcome was determined by neurological evaluation at 24 hours post ischemia and by testing rats in T maze at 3 and 7 days after reperfusion. The rats' daily body weight, incidence of seizures and 72 hours mortality were also determined. After Nissl staining and TUNEL in coronal brain sections, the numbers of intact and damaged cells were counted in the CA1 sector of the hippocampus. The expression of phosphorylated inhibitor of κB (p-IκBα), Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) subunit p65, and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) were analyzed with Western blot at 12 hours after reperfusion. GW3965 tended to reduce 72 hours mortality and the incidence of post-ischemic seizures. GW3965-treated rats showed an improved neuronal survivability in CA1 and a significant increase in the percentage of spontaneous alternations detected in T-maze on day 7 after ischemia. GW3965-induced neuroprotection was associated with a significant reduction in nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 subunit and a decrease in the hippocampal expression of NF-kB target gene, COX-2. LXR receptor agonist protects against neuronal damage following global cerebral ischemia. The mechanism of neuroprotection may include blockade of NF-κB activation and the subsequent suppression of COX-2 in the post ischemic brain. PMID:20096333

  2. Arginine-Vasopressin Receptor Blocker Conivaptan Reduces Brain Edema and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption after Experimental Stroke in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zeynalov, Emil; Jones, Susan M.; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Snell, Lawrence D.; Elliott, J. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Stroke is complicated by brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and is often accompanied by increased release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). AVP acts through V1a and V2 receptors to trigger hyponatremia, vasospasm, and platelet aggregation which can exacerbate brain edema. The AVP receptor blockers conivaptan (V1a and V2) and tolvaptan (V2) are used to correct hyponatremia, but their effect on post-ischemic brain edema and BBB disruption remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate if these drugs can prevent brain edema and BBB disruption in mice after stroke. Methods Experimental mice underwent the filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with reperfusion. Mice were treated with conivaptan, tolvaptan, or vehicle. Treatments were initiated immediately at reperfusion and administered IV (conivaptan) or orally (tolvaptan) for 48 hours. Physiological variables, neurological deficit scores (NDS), plasma and urine sodium and osmolality were recorded. Brain water content (BWC) and Evans Blue (EB) extravasation index were evaluated at the end point. Results Both conivaptan and tolvaptan produced aquaresis as indicated by changes in plasma and urine sodium levels. However plasma and urine osmolality was changed only by conivaptan. Unlike tolvaptan, conivaptan improved NDS and reduced BWC in the ipsilateral hemisphere: from 81.66 ± 0.43% (vehicle) to 78.28 ± 0.48% (conivaptan, 0.2 mg, p < 0.05 vs vehicle). Conivaptan also attenuated the EB extravasation from 1.22 ± 0.08 (vehicle) to 1.01 ± 0.02 (conivaptan, 0.2 mg, p < 0.05). Conclusion Continuous IV infusion with conivaptan for 48 hours after experimental stroke reduces brain edema, and BBB disruption. Conivaptan but not tolvaptan may potentially be used in patients to prevent brain edema after stroke. PMID:26275173

  3. Melt infiltration of silicon carbide compacts. I - Study of infiltration dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, Rajiv; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    1992-01-01

    Countergravity, pressure-assisted infiltration with a 2014 Al alloy of suitably tamped porous compacts of platelet shaped single crystals of alpha (hexagonal) silicon carbide was used to measure particulate wettability and infiltration kinetics under dynamic conditions relevant to pressure casting of composites. A threshold pressure P(th) for ingression of the infiltrant was identified based on the experimental penetration length versus pressure profiles for a range of experimental variables which included infiltration pressure, infiltration time, SiC size and SiC surface chemistry. The results showed that P(th) decreased whereas the penetration length increased with increasing SiC size and infiltration time. Cu-coated SiC led to lower P(th) and larger penetration lengths compared to uncoated SiC under identical conditions. These observations have been discussed in the light of theoretical models of infiltration and the kinetics of wetting.

  4. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  5. Geophysical methods for monitoring infiltration in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coquet, Yves; Pessel, Marc; Saintenoy, Albane

    2015-04-01

    Geophysics provides useful tools for monitoring water infiltration in soil essentially because they are non-invasive and have a good time-resolution. We present some results obtained on different soils using two geophysical techniques: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Infiltration in a loamy soil was monitored using a 2D Wenner array set up under a tension disc infiltrometer. A good imaging of the infiltration bulb below the infiltrometer could be achieved provided a sufficient resistivity contrast between the wet and the dry soil zones. ERT data could be used to invert soil hydraulic properties. However, we found that the information provided by the ERT could be of limited importance in regard to the information provided by the infiltration rate dynamics if the ERT spatial resolution is not small enough to capture the details of the infiltration front at the limit between the wet and dry soil zones. GPR was found to be a good tool to monitor the progression of the infiltration front in a sandy soil. By combining a water transport simulation model (HYDRUS-1D), a method for transforming water content into dielectric permittivity values (CRIM), and an electromagnetic wave propagation model (GprMax), the Mualem-van Genuchten hydraulic parameters could be retrieved from radargrams obtained under constant or falling head infiltration experiments. Both ERT and GPR methods have pros and cons. Time and spatial resolutions are of prime importance to achieve a sufficient sensitivity to all soil hydraulic parameters. Two exploration fields are suggested: the combination of different geophysical methods to explore infiltration in heterogeneous soils, and the development of integrated infiltrometers that allow geophysical measurements while monitoring water infiltration rate in soil.

  6. Chemical vapor infiltration of carbon fiber bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Currier, R.P.; Devlin, D.J.; Barbero, R.S.

    1992-12-31

    Chemical vapor infiltration in carbon fiber bundles is studied under isothermal conditions over the temperature range 1000--1090 C at a nominal pressure of 300 Torr. Pyrolytic decomposition of methane is used in the infiltration experiments with carbon weight gain data obtained continuously from thermogravimetric analysis. The sensitivity of the infiltration dynamics to initial yarn porosity and to spatial variations in fiber positioning are explored. Results indicate that small changes in initial porosity can have significant impact on the weight gain above the solid phase percolation threshold.

  7. Chemical vapor infiltration of carbon fiber bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Currier, R.P.; Devlin, D.J.; Barbero, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration in carbon fiber bundles is studied under isothermal conditions over the temperature range 1000--1090 C at a nominal pressure of 300 Torr. Pyrolytic decomposition of methane is used in the infiltration experiments with carbon weight gain data obtained continuously from thermogravimetric analysis. The sensitivity of the infiltration dynamics to initial yarn porosity and to spatial variations in fiber positioning are explored. Results indicate that small changes in initial porosity can have significant impact on the weight gain above the solid phase percolation threshold.

  8. Enhanced Post-Ischemic Neurogenesis in Aging Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yao-Fang; Preston, Edward; Wojtowicz, J. Martin

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis persists in adult mammals, but its rate declines dramatically with age. Evidence indicates that experimentally-reduced levels of neurogenesis (e.g., by irradiation) in young rats has profound influence on cognition as determined by learning and memory tests. In the present study we asked whether in middle-aged, 10- to 13-months-old rats, cell production can be restored toward the level present in young rats. To manipulate neurogenesis we induced bilateral carotid occlusion with hypotension. This procedure is known to increase neurogenesis in young rats, presumably in a compensatory manner, but until now, has never been tested in aging rats. Cell production was measured at 10, 35, and 90 days after ischemia. The results indicate that neuronal proliferation and differentiation can be transiently restored in middle-aged rats. Furthermore, the effects are more pronounced in the dorsal as opposed to ventral hippocampus thus restoring the dorso-ventral gradient seen in younger rats. Our results support previous findings showing that some of the essential features of the age-dependent decline in neurogenesis are reversible. Thus, it may be possible to manipulate neurogenesis and improve learning and memory in old age. PMID:20877422

  9. Infiltration formulas by curve number procedure.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.-L.

    1982-01-01

    The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number procedure for estimating runoff volume is examined in terms of the validity and applicability of the derived infiltration equations. -from ASCE Publications Abstracts

  10. Mathematical Analysis and Optimization of Infiltration Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H.-C.; Gottlieb, D.; Marion, M.; Sheldon, B. W.

    1997-01-01

    A variety of infiltration techniques can be used to fabricate solid materials, particularly composites. In general these processes can be described with at least one time dependent partial differential equation describing the evolution of the solid phase, coupled to one or more partial differential equations describing mass transport through a porous structure. This paper presents a detailed mathematical analysis of a relatively simple set of equations which is used to describe chemical vapor infiltration. The results demonstrate that the process is controlled by only two parameters, alpha and beta. The optimization problem associated with minimizing the infiltration time is also considered. Allowing alpha and beta to vary with time leads to significant reductions in the infiltration time, compared with the conventional case where alpha and beta are treated as constants.

  11. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    SciTech Connect

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined.

  12. Managing landscape disturbances to increase watershed infiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural land undergoing conversion to conventional urban development can drastically increase runoff and degrade water quality. A study of landscape management for improving watershed infiltration was conducted using readily available runoff data from experimental watersheds. This article focus...

  13. Interactions between landscape types and infiltration fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurinova, N.

    2014-12-01

    Type of landscape is a complex characteristic include several factors which has strong influence on volume of infiltration flux. These factors are geomorphogy characteristics, soil type of vadozone, deep of ground water level, type of plants and meteorological conditions. This research are presented results of simulating water movement in one-dimensional variably saturated media for different types of landscape nearby Zvenigorod town (Moscow Region, Russia) in reserve part of Moscow River Valley. There was taking into account 11 different type of landscape. On basis of this 11 model were simulated. Examined models shown the high influence of plants type and ground water levels on infiltration recharge. The most high infiltration recharge was received for second fluvial terrace with forest, sandy soil and ground water level at 10 m deep. For a flood plain was receive the lowest value of infiltration recharge and the highest value of evaporation.

  14. All’s Well That Transcribes Well: Non-coding RNAs and Post-Stroke Brain Damage

    PubMed Central

    Vemuganti, Raghu

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian genome is replete with various classes of non-coding (nc) RNA genes. Many of them actively transcribe, and their relevance to CNS diseases is just beginning to be understood. CNS is one of the organs in the body that shows very high ncRNAs activity. Recent studies demonstrated that cerebral ischemia rapidly changes the expression profiles of different classes of ncRNAs: including microRNA, long noncoding RNA and piwi-interacting RNA. Several studies further showed that post-ischemic neuronal death and/or plasticity/regeneration can be altered by modulating specific microRNAs. These studies are of interest for therapeutic development as they may contribute to identifying new ncRNA targets that can be modulated to prevent secondary brain damage after stroke. PMID:23954844

  15. Stormwater infiltration trenches: a conceptual modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, limitations linked to traditional urban drainage schemes have been pointed out and new approaches are developing introducing more natural methods for retaining and/or disposing of stormwater. These mitigation measures are generally called Best Management Practices or Sustainable Urban Drainage System and they include practices such as infiltration and storage tanks in order to reduce the peak flow and retain part of the polluting components. The introduction of such practices in urban drainage systems entails an upgrade of existing modelling frameworks in order to evaluate their efficiency in mitigating the impact of urban drainage systems on receiving water bodies. While storage tank modelling approaches are quite well documented in literature, some gaps are still present about infiltration facilities mainly dependent on the complexity of the involved physical processes. In this study, a simplified conceptual modelling approach for the simulation of the infiltration trenches is presented. The model enables to assess the performance of infiltration trenches. The main goal is to develop a model that can be employed for the assessment of the mitigation efficiency of infiltration trenches in an integrated urban drainage context. Particular care was given to the simulation of infiltration structures considering the performance reduction due to clogging phenomena. The proposed model has been compared with other simplified modelling approaches and with a physically based model adopted as benchmark. The model performed better compared to other approaches considering both unclogged facilities and the effect of clogging. On the basis of a long-term simulation of six years of rain data, the performance and the effectiveness of an infiltration trench measure are assessed. The study confirmed the important role played by the clogging phenomenon on such infiltration structures. PMID:19587416

  16. A field method for measurement of infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, A.I.

    1963-01-01

    The determination of infiltration--the downward entry of water into a soil (or sediment)--is receiving increasing attention in hydrologic studies because of the need for more quantitative data on all phases of the hydrologic cycle. A measure of infiltration, the infiltration rate, is usually determined in the field by flooding basins or furrows, sprinkling, or measuring water entry from cylinders (infiltrometer rings). Rates determined by ponding in large areas are considered most reliable, but the high cost usually dictates that infiltrometer rings, preferably 2 feet in diameter or larger, be used. The hydrology of subsurface materials is critical in the study of infiltration. The zone controlling the rate of infiltration is usually the least permeable zone. Many other factors affect infiltration rate--the sediment (soil) structure, the condition of the sediment surface, the distribution of soil moisture or soil- moisture tension, the chemical and physical nature of the sediments, the head of applied water, the depth to ground water, the chemical quality and the turbidity of the applied water, the temperature of the water and the sediments, the percentage of entrapped air in the sediments, the atmospheric pressure, the length of time of application of water, the biological activity in the sediments, and the type of equipment or method used. It is concluded that specific values of the infiltration rate for a particular type of sediment are probably nonexistent and that measured rates are primarily for comparative use. A standard field-test method for determining infiltration rates by means of single- or double-ring infiltrometers is described and the construction, installation, and operation of the infiltrometers are discussed in detail.

  17. Photonic crystal waveguide created by selective infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas Bedoya, A.; Domachuk, P.; Grillet, C.; Monat, C.; Mägi, E. C.; Li, E.; Eggleton, B. J.

    2012-06-01

    The marriage of photonics and microfluidics ("optofluidics") uses the inherent mobility of fluids to reversibly tune photonic structures beyond traditional fabrication methods by infiltrating voids in said structures. Photonic crystals (PhCs) strongly control light on the wavelength scale and are well suited to optofluidic tuning because their periodic airhole microstructure is a natural candidate for housing liquids. The infiltration of a single row of holes in the PhC matrix modifies the effective refractive index allowing optical modes to be guided by the PhC bandgap. In this work we present the first experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable single mode W1 photonic crystal defect waveguide created by selective liquid infiltration. We modified a hexagonal silicon planar photonic crystal membrane by selectively filling a single row of air holes with ~300nm resolution, using high refractive index ionic liquid. The modification creates optical confinement in the infiltrated region and allows propagation of a single optical waveguide mode. We describe the challenges arising from the infiltration process and the liquid/solid surface interaction in the photonic crystal. We include a detailed comparison between analytic and numerical modeling and experimental results, and introduce a new approach to create an offset photonic crystal cavity by varying the nature of the selective infiltration process.

  18. A pathology-based substrate for target definition in radiosurgery of brain metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, Brigitta G. . E-mail: brigitta.baumert@maastro.nl; Rutten, Isabelle; Dehing-Oberije, Cary M.Sc.; Twijnstra, Albert; Dirx, Miranda J.M.; Debougnoux-Huppertz, Ria M.T.L.; Lambin, Philippe; Kubat, Bela

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the need of a margin other than for accuracy reasons in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain metastases by means of histopathology. Methods and Materials: Evaluation of 45 patients from two pathology departments having had brain metastases and an autopsy of the brain. Growth patterns were reviewed with a focus on infiltration beyond the metastases boundary and made visible with immunohistochemical staining: the metastasis itself with tumor-specific markers, surrounding normal brain tissue with a glial marker, and a possible capsule with a soft tissue marker. Measurements were corrected by a tissue-shrinkage correction factor taken from literature. Outcomes parameters for infiltration were mean and maximum depths of infiltration and number of measured infiltration sites. Results: In 48 of 76 metastases, an infiltration was present. The largest group of metastases was lung cancer. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and melanoma showed a maximum depth of infiltration of {>=}1 mm, and other histologies <1 mm. For non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), melanoma, and sarcoma, the highest number of infiltrative sites were observed (median, 2; range, 1-8). SCLC showed significantly larger infiltrative growth, compared with other diagnostic groups. In NSCLC, the highest percentage of infiltration was present (70%). Conclusions: Infiltrative growth beyond the border of the brain metastasis was demonstrated in 63% of the cases evaluated. Infiltrative growth, therefore, has an impact in defining the clinical target volume for SRS of brain metastases, and a margin of {approx}1 mm should be added to the visible lesion.

  19. Lorentz force infiltration of fibrous preforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Richard M.; Mortensen, Andreas

    1991-12-01

    A new process for the production of metal matrix composites, whereby molten metal is forced into the interstices of a fibrous preform using electromagnetic body forces, is presented. These forces are created by subjecting the molten matrix to a concentrated transient magnetic field which, in turn, induces intense eddy currents in the melt. This gives rise to Lorentz forces which propel the metal into the preform. Equations governing the mechanics of Lorentz force infiltration of an axisymmetric preform surrounded by molten metal are solved numerically. A finite difference algorithm is applied to solve Maxwell's equation of electromagnetic field propagation and to determine the flux density as a function of radial position. The resulting Lorentz force is then calculated and balanced with the inertial, fluid friction and capillary forces, taking preform compression into account, to predict infiltration velocity and cumulative infiltration distance. Apparatuses were designed and constructed to infiltrate cylindrical preforms of 24 vol pct 3-μm-diameter chopped alumina fiber preforms with commercial purity aluminum. Two capacitor banks were charged from 1 to 4 kV and rapidly discharged to produce magnetic pulses of up to 4 tesla peak, at frequencies of 2 to 3 kHz in the infiltrating furnace. A commercial MAGNEFORM unit was also used to produce fields of up to 5 tesla at 5.6 kHz.-Sound composite samples were produced, to a depth of 1.8 mm into the preforms, with little or no breakage of fibers. Good agreement between theoretical model predictions and experimentally measured infiltration depths was demonstrated. Primary process variables for a given matrix-preform system, were the number of discharges, the magnetic pulse intensity and frequency, and the melt ring thickness. The model predicts a pulse frequency below which infiltration does not occur and an optimum frequency for maximum infiltration depth. Successive pulses are predicted to produce only slightly

  20. Nonlinear Dynamic Theory of Acute Cell Injuries and Brain Ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Doaa; Anggraini, Fika; Degracia, Donald; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral ischemia in the form of stroke and cardiac arrest brain damage affect over 1 million people per year in the USA alone. In spite of close to 200 clinical trials and decades of research, there are no treatments to stop post-ischemic neuron death. We have argued that a major weakness of current brain ischemia research is lack of a deductive theoretical framework of acute cell injury to guide empirical studies. A previously published autonomous model based on the concept of nonlinear dynamic network was shown to capture important facets of cell injury, linking the concept of therapeutic to bistable dynamics. Here we present an improved, non-autonomous formulation of the nonlinear dynamic model of cell injury that allows multiple acute injuries over time, thereby allowing simulations of both therapeutic treatment and preconditioning. Our results are connected to the experimental data of gene expression and proteomics of neuron cells. Importantly, this new model may be construed as a novel approach to pharmacodynamics of acute cell injury. The model makes explicit that any pro-survival therapy is always a form of sub-lethal injury. This insight is expected to widely influence treatment of acute injury conditions that have defied successful treatment to date. This work is supported by NIH NINDS (NS081347) and Wayne State University President's Research Enhancement Award.

  1. Evaluation of an Infiltration Model with Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Serrana, M.; Gulliver, J. S.; Nieber, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    This research goal is to develop and demonstrate the means by which roadside drainage ditches and filter strips can be assigned the appropriate volume reduction credits by infiltration. These vegetated surfaces convey stormwater, infiltrate runoff, and filter and/or settle solids, and are often placed along roads and other impermeable surfaces. Infiltration rates are typically calculated by assuming that water flows as sheet flow over the slope. However, for most intensities water flow occurs in narrow and shallow micro-channels and concentrates in depressions. This channelization reduces the fraction of the soil surface covered with the water coming from the road. The non-uniform distribution of water along a hillslope directly affects infiltration. First, laboratory and field experiments have been conducted to characterize the spatial pattern of flow for stormwater runoff entering onto the surface of a sloped surface in a drainage ditch. In the laboratory experiments different micro-topographies were tested over bare sandy loam soil: a smooth surface, and three and five parallel rills. All the surfaces experienced erosion; the initially smooth surface developed a system of channels over time that increased runoff generation. On average, the initially smooth surfaces infiltrated 10% more volume than the initially rilled surfaces. The field experiments were performed in the side slope of established roadside drainage ditches. Three rates of runoff from a road surface into the swale slope were tested, representing runoff from 1, 2, and 10-year storm events. The average percentage of input runoff water infiltrated in the 32 experiments was 67%, with a 21% standard deviation. Multiple measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity were conducted to account for its spatial variability. Second, a rate-based coupled infiltration and overland model has been designed that calculates stormwater infiltration efficiency of swales. The Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson assumptions were

  2. Greatly increased toughness of infiltrated spider silk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Mo; Pippel, Eckhard; Gösele, Ulrich; Dresbach, Christian; Qin, Yong; Chandran, C Vinod; Bräuniger, Thomas; Hause, Gerd; Knez, Mato

    2009-04-24

    In nature, tiny amounts of inorganic impurities, such as metals, are incorporated in the protein structures of some biomaterials and lead to unusual mechanical properties of those materials. A desire to produce these biomimicking new materials has stimulated materials scientists, and diverse approaches have been attempted. In contrast, research to improve the mechanical properties of biomaterials themselves by direct metal incorporation into inner protein structures has rarely been tried because of the difficulty of developing a method that can infiltrate metals into biomaterials, resulting in a metal-incorporated protein matrix. We demonstrated that metals can be intentionally infiltrated into inner protein structures of biomaterials through multiple pulsed vapor-phase infiltration performed with equipment conventionally used for atomic layer deposition (ALD). We infiltrated zinc (Zn), titanium (Ti), or aluminum (Al), combined with water from corresponding ALD precursors, into spider dragline silks and observed greatly improved toughness of the resulting silks. The presence of the infiltrated metals such as Al or Ti was verified by energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra measured inside the treated silks. This result of enhanced toughness of spider silk could potentially serve as a model for a more general approach to enhance the strength and toughness of other biomaterials. PMID:19390040

  3. Electron Percolation In Copper Infiltrated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krcho, Stanislav

    2015-11-01

    The work describes the dependence of the electrical conductivity of carbon materials infiltrated with copper in a vacuum-pressure autoclave on copper concentration and on the effective pore radius of the carbon skeleton. In comparison with non-infiltrated material the electrical conductivity of copper infiltrated composite increased almost 500 times. If the composite contained less than 7.2 vol% of Cu, a linear dependence of the electrical conductivity upon cupper content was observed. If infiltrated carbon contained more than 7.2 vol% of Cu, the dependence was nonlinear - the curve could be described by a power formula (x - xc)t. This is a typical formula describing the electron percolation process in regions containing higher Cu fraction than the critical one. The maximum measured electrical conductivity was 396 × 104 Ω-1 m-1 for copper concentration 27.6 vol%. Experiments and analysis of the electrical conductivity showed that electron percolation occurred in carbon materials infiltrated by copper when the copper volume exceeded the critical concentration. The analysis also showed a sharp increase of electrical conductivity in composites with copper concentration higher than the threshold, where the effective radius of carbon skeleton pores decreased to 350 nanometres.

  4. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.

  5. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify...

  6. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify...

  7. Spatial and temporal variations of ponded infiltration in a grid of permanent infiltration rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votrubová, Jana; Dohnal, Michal; Dušek, Jaromír; Vogel, Tomáš; Tesař, Miroslav; Císlerová, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The soil at Liz experimental site (Volynka headwater catchment, Sumava Mountains, southern Bohemia) has been subject to a long term research on the soil infiltration properties since 2003. For this purpose, 18 permanent infiltration rings were installed at a gently sloped grass-covered experimental plot (300 sq.m). Using this set-up, the single-ring ponded infiltration experiments have been conducted annually. Since 2005, a procedure of repeating the same ponded infiltration experiments in two successive days has been implemented. For the soil type of the study area (sandy loam developed upon gneiss bedrock), a large spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties had been reported before. The focus of the present study has been primarily the temporal variability of the soil infiltration properties. Results of a supplementary dye-tracer experiment conducted in 2005 demonstrate that in the soil studied the infiltration process is strongly dominated by preferential flow. As expected, infiltration rates varied considerably among the infiltration ring. With regard to the impact of the initial soil moisture conditions, general decrease of the infiltration rates observed on two subsequent days was detected. Surprisingly, the spatial variations between separate measuring points were vastly overridden by a huge overall increase of the infiltration rates observed throughout the years. The observed variability of the experimental data was further examined in numerical simulations of hypothetical scenarios reflecting possible variations of soil profile and experimental set-up. Axisymmetric 3D simulations were performed using S2D code. The dual-continuum model was able to describe part of the variability of infiltration curves associated with soil structure heterogeneity. None of the tested factors could explain the wide range of infiltration rate variations observed. Nevertheless, better agreement between simulated and observed infiltration characteristics could be achieved

  8. Opal photonic crystals infiltrated with chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Astratov, V. N.; Adawi, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Tikhomirov, V. K.; Lyubin, V.; Lidzey, D. G.; Ariu, M.; Reynolds, A. L.

    2001-06-25

    Composite opal structures for nonlinear applications are obtained by infiltration with chalcogenide glasses As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and AsSe by precipitation from solution. Analysis of spatially resolved optical spectra reveals that the glass aggregates into submillimeter areas inside the opal. These areas exhibit large shifts in the optical stop bands by up to 80 nm, and by comparison with modelling are shown to have uniform glass filling factors of opal pores up to 40%. Characterization of the domain structure of the opals prior to infiltration by large area angle-resolved spectroscopy is an important step in the analysis of the properties of the infiltrated regions. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Parametric Study of Reactive Melt Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Colella, Phillip

    2000-01-01

    Reactive melt infiltration is viewed as a promising means of achieving near-net shape manufacturing with quick processing time and at low cost. Since the reactants and products are, in general, of varying density, overall conservation of mass dictates that there is a force related to chemical conversion which can directly influence infiltration behavior. In effect, the driving pressure forces may compete with the forces from chemical conversion, affecting the advancement of the front. We have developed a two-dimensional numerical code to examine these effects, using reaction-formed silicon carbide as a model system for this process. We have examined a range of initial porosities, pore radii, and reaction rates in order to investigate their effects on infiltration dynamics.

  10. Exercise induces mitochondrial biogenesis after brain ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Wu, Y; Zhang, P; Sha, H; Jia, J; Hu, Y; Zhu, J

    2012-03-15

    Stroke is a major cause of death worldwide. Previous studies have suggested both exercise and mitochondrial biogenesis contribute to improved post-ischemic recovery of brain function. However, the exact mechanism underlying this effect is unclear. On the other hand, the benefit of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in brain has been confirmed. In this study, we attempted to determine whether treadmill exercise induces functional improvement through regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis after brain ischemia. We subjected adult male rats to ischemia, followed by either treadmill exercise or non-exercise and analyzed the effect of exercise on the amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors, and mitochondrial protein. In the ischemia-exercise group, only peroxisome proliferator activated receptor coactivator-1 (PGC-1) expression was increased significantly after 3 days of treadmill training. However, after 7 days of training, the levels of mtDNA, nuclear respiratory factor 1, NRF-1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, TFAM, and the mitochondrial protein cytochrome C oxidase subunit IV (COXIV) and heat shock protein-60 (HSP60) also increased above levels observed in non-exercised ischemic animals. These changes followed with significant changes in behavioral scores and cerebral infarct volume. The results indicate that exercise can promote mitochondrial biogenesis after ischemic injury, which may serve as a novel component of exercise-induced repair mechanisms of the brain. Understanding the molecular basis for exercise-induced neuroprotection may be beneficial in the development of therapeutic approaches for brain recovery from the ischemic injury. Based upon our findings, stimulation or enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis may prove a novel neuroprotective strategy in the future. PMID:22266265

  11. Groundwater Mounding Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmer, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Misra, D.

    2007-12-01

    An accurate understanding of groundwater mound formation is important in the proper design of stormwater infiltration basins since these basins are often required to recharge a portion of pre-development infiltration volume. Mound formation due to localized recharge may reduce the infiltration rate of the basin and the ability of the soil to filter pollutants. The goal of this research was to understand groundwater mounding and the potential for contaminant transport resulting from recharge beneath stormwater infiltration basins. A 0.10 ha infiltration basin serving a 9.4 ha residential subdivision in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin was used in this study. Subsurface conditions included sand and gravel material and a groundwater table at 2.3 m below grade. Three storm events, 4.9 cm, 2.8 cm, and 4.3 cm, between August 2006 and April 2007 were modeled using the two-dimensional numerical model HYDRUS. The calibrated model was used to evaluate hypothetical basin operation scenarios for various basin sizes, soil types, ponding depths, and water table depths. The groundwater mound intersected the basin floor in most scenarios with loamy sand and sandy loam soils, an unsaturated thickness of 1.52 m, and a ponding depth of 0.61 m. No groundwater table response was observed with ponding depths less than 0.31 m with an unsaturated zone thickness of 6.09 m. The mound height was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and unsaturated zone thickness. A 7.6 cm sediment layer delayed the time to reach maximum mound height, but had a minimal effect on the magnitude of the mound. Mound heights increased as infiltration basin size increased.

  12. Primary cardiac lymphoma mimicking infiltrative cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ga Yeon; Kim, Won Seog; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Choi, Jin-Oh; Jeon, Eun-Seok

    2013-05-01

    Primary cardiac lymphoma is a rare malignancy which has been described as thickened myocardium due to the infiltration of atypical lymphocytes and accompanying intracardiac masses. Here, we report a case of a primary cardiac lymphoma without demonstrable intracardiac masses, mimicking infiltrative cardiomyopathy. A 40-year-old male presented with exertional dyspnoea and was diagnosed as having restrictive cardiomyopathy with severely decreased LV systolic function. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of primary cardiac lymphoma was confirmed. After appropriate chemotherapy, he recovered his systolic function fully. PMID:23248217

  13. Pressureless infiltration of aluminum metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kajikawa, Y.; Nukami, T.; Flemings, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Pressureless infiltration of ceramic preforms by molten aluminum is described. The preforms are SiC with varying amounts of particulate Al, Ti, and Ni. Infiltrants employed are pure Al and Al-12.5 wt pct Si. It is shown that a pressure differential within the preform is required for infiltration, and measurements are made of pressure changes in the preforms during infiltration. Results indicate that atmospheric pressure is essential for infiltration but that capillarity may play a role as well.

  14. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  15. Infiltration Flow Path Distributions in Unsaturated Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Olson, K. R.; Wan, J.

    2004-12-01

    Spatial distributions of infiltration flow paths through rock formations are complex networks that determine flow velocities, control rates of natural geochemical reactions in the subsurface, as well as rates of contaminant transport to underlying groundwater. Despite these important consequences, distributions of infiltration paths and locally fast seepage rates through rocks are not well understood. Laboratory-based studies on fractured rocks cannot easily be conducted on systems large enough to include sufficient fracture network complexity, so that inferences of field-scale flux distributions cannot be reliably made. Field-based studies to date have permitted quantification of only a small fraction of the flow distribution, typically while imposing extremely high fluxes, and therefore have not allowed comprehensive delineation of flow distributions expected under natural recharge. Based on hydraulic scaling considerations, we hypothesize that unsaturated flow path distributions in rock deposits will be similar to those occurring in fractured rock formations under low overall infiltration rates. Talus rock deposits and mine waste rock piles control flow and transport into their respective underlying groundwaters. All of these reasons motivated infiltration experiments in rock packs. Experiments have been conducted on 4 different rock types and system scales ranging from 1 to 46 rock layers. Our experiments showed that infiltration through rocks conforms to no previously reported behavior in soils, and that flow paths do not progressively converge into fewer and fewer flow paths. Instead, a fundamentally different hydraulic structure develops, having an exponential (geometric) flux distribution, with the characteristic scale determined by the characteristic rock size. Although the phenomena are very different, the evolution of flow path distributions and local seepage rate distributions is predictable based on a statistical mechanical model for energy

  16. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    PubMed

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  17. Leukocyte Infiltration Triggers Seizure Recurrence in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zanhua; Wang, Suping; Liu, Jinjie; Wang, Feng; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Yongbo

    2016-06-01

    Epilepsy, which affects about 1 % of the population worldwide, leads to poor prognosis and increased morbidity. However, effective drugs providing satisfactory control on seizure relapse were rare, which encouraged more etiological studies. Whether inflammation is one of key events underlying seizure is in debate. In order to explore the role of inflammatory in the pathogenesis and development of epilepsy, we conducted intra-caudal vein injection of leukocytes to aggravated brain inflammatory process in kainic acid-induced seizure model in this study. The results showed that intravenous administration of activated leukocytes increased the frequency and reduced the latent phase of seizure recurrences in rat models of epileptic seizure, during which leukocyte inflammation, brain-blood barrier damage, and neuron injury were also significantly aggravated, indicating that leukocyte infiltration might facilitate seizure recurrence through aggravating brain inflammation, brain-blood barrier damage, and neuron injury. PMID:27040283

  18. Optimization of bundle infiltration in the forced chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process

    SciTech Connect

    Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K.; Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.

    1995-10-01

    A two-step forced-flow, thermal-gradient, chemical vapor infiltration process (FCVI) was proposed to reduced processing time while maintaining uniformly high densities. GTCVI, a finite-volume computer code developed specifically for the FCVI process was used to model thermal gradient effects on processing time and density. An optimum thermal gradient was determined and used to process material with uniformly infiltrated bundles.

  19. Memory deficit associated with increased brain proinflammatory cytokine levels and neurodegeneration in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno; Sousa, Larissa; Miranda, Aline; Vasconcelos, Anilton; Reis, Helton; Barcelos, Lucíola; Arantes, Rosa; Teixeira, Antonio; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate behavioral changes and neuroinflammatory process following left unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (UCCAO), a model of cerebral ischemia. Post-ischemic behavioral changes following 15 min UCCAO were recorded 24 hours after reperfusion. The novel object recognition task was used to assess learning and memory. After behavioral test, brains from sham and ischemic mice were removed and processed to evaluate central nervous system pathology by TTC and H&E techniques as well as inflammatory mediators by ELISA. UCCAO promoted long-term memory impairment after reperfusion. Infarct areas were observed in the cerebrum by TTC stain. Moreover, the histopathological analysis revealed cerebral necrotic cavities surrounded by ischemic neurons and hippocampal neurodegeneration. In parallel with memory dysfunction, brain levels of TNF-a, IL-1b and CXCL1 were increased post ischemia compared with sham-operated group. These findings suggest an involvement of central nervous system inflammatory mediators and brain damage in cognitive impairment following unilateral acute ischemia. PMID:26222355

  20. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  1. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A.

    1990-05-01

    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Humic substance formation during wastewater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L. ); Hildmann-Smed, R.; Filip, Z.K. , Langen . Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene); Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research)

    1991-01-01

    Soil infiltration of wastewater effluents is a widely practiced method of treatment and disposal/reuse throughout the world. Renovation of the wastewater results from a wide variety of complex physicochemical and biological processes. One set of processes is speculated to involve the accumulation of organic matter by filtration and sorption followed by formation of humic substances. This humic substance formation can effect the performance of soil treatment systems by contributing to soil pore clogging and reduction in hydraulic capacity, and by yielding reactive substances and an enhancement of purification processes. While there has been a wealth of research into the nature and genesis of humic substances in terrestrial environments, there has been limited research of humic substance formation during soil infiltration of wastewater. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine if humic substances can form under conditions typical of those present during wastewater infiltration into natural soil systems. This work was conducted during 1989 to 1990 as a collaborative effort between the Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, located in Aas, Norway and the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene located in Langen, West Germany. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Delivery after Operation for Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Allerstorfer, Christina; Enzelsberger, Simon H.; Shebl, Omar Josef; Mayer, Richard Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been suggested that, during pregnancy, endometriosis can cause a variety of disease-related complications. Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out if women with histologically confirmed endometriosis do have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and if they suffer from a higher rate of complications during labor. Study Design. 51 women who underwent surgery because of deeply infiltrating endometriosis in the General Hospital Linz and the Women's General Hospital Linz and who gave birth in the Women's General Hospital Linz after the surgery were included in our survey. Results. 31 women (60.8%) had a spontaneous delivery and in 20 women (39.2%) a caesarean section was performed. There were no cases of third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations. Collectively there were 4 cases (7.8%) of preterm delivery and one case (2.0%) of premature rupture of membranes. In two women (6.5%) a retained placenta was diagnosed. Conclusions. Our study is the first description on delivery modes after surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. We did not find an elevated risk for perineal or vaginal laceration in women with a history of surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis, even when a resection of the rectum or of the posterior vaginal wall had been performed. PMID:27517050

  4. Rainwater Channelization and Infiltration in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cejas, Cesare; Wei, Yuli; Barrois, Remi; Durian, Douglas; Dreyfus, Remi; Compass Team

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the formation of fingered flow in dry granular media under simulated rainfall using a quasi-2D experimental set-up composed of a random close packing of mono-disperse glass beads. We determine effects of grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the formation and infiltration of water channels. For hydrophilic granular media, rainwater initially infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil creating a uniform horizontal wetting front before instabilities occur and grow to form water channels. For hydrophobic media, rainwater ponds on the soil surface rather than infiltrates and water channels may still occur at a later time when the hydraulic pressure of the ponding water exceeds the capillary repellency of the soil. We probe the kinetics of the fingering instabilities that serve as precursors for the growth and drainage of water channels. We also examine the effects of several different methods on improving rainwater channelization such as varying the level of pre-saturation, modifying the soil surface flatness, and adding superabsorbent hydrogel particles.

  5. Delivery after Operation for Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Allerstorfer, Christina; Oppelt, Peter; Enzelsberger, Simon H; Shamiyeh, Andreas; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Shebl, Omar Josef; Mayer, Richard Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been suggested that, during pregnancy, endometriosis can cause a variety of disease-related complications. Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out if women with histologically confirmed endometriosis do have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and if they suffer from a higher rate of complications during labor. Study Design. 51 women who underwent surgery because of deeply infiltrating endometriosis in the General Hospital Linz and the Women's General Hospital Linz and who gave birth in the Women's General Hospital Linz after the surgery were included in our survey. Results. 31 women (60.8%) had a spontaneous delivery and in 20 women (39.2%) a caesarean section was performed. There were no cases of third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations. Collectively there were 4 cases (7.8%) of preterm delivery and one case (2.0%) of premature rupture of membranes. In two women (6.5%) a retained placenta was diagnosed. Conclusions. Our study is the first description on delivery modes after surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. We did not find an elevated risk for perineal or vaginal laceration in women with a history of surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis, even when a resection of the rectum or of the posterior vaginal wall had been performed. PMID:27517050

  6. Infiltration rate measurement by active perfluorocarbon monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Menzies, K.T.; Pong, C.M.; Randel, M.A. )

    1987-01-01

    The rate of air infiltration in homes and buildings is a significant factor affecting the magnitude of human exposure to air pollutants in the indoor environment. Several techniques have been utilized for the determination of air infiltration. These include building pressurization and tracer analysis, e.g., SF/sub 6/. Dietz and Cote at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have developed a simple, steady-state tracer kit that can be utilized by homeowners. This kit includes a source(s) of perfluorocarbon, i.e., perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH) or perfluorodimethylcyclohexane (PDCH), and a passive sampling tube containing Ambersorb XE-347. Typically, the sampling tube is deployed for several days and then returned to a laboratory for analysis by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/electron capture detection. The authors developed an alternative sampling and analysis technique for PMCH/PDCH in homes. In order to facilitate monitoring of short-term infiltration rates (i.e., less than one day) they developed an active sorbent sampling method and solvent desorption/gas chromatography/electron capture detection analytical method. The method is based on the collection of PMCH on charcoal. The method validation, which is discussed in this article, includes analytical method development, selection of a solid sorbent, determination of desorption efficiency, analysis of breakthrough, testing of storage stability, and assessment of precision and accuracy in both the laboratory and field environment.

  7. Differential Phenotypes of Tissue-Infiltrating T Cells during Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zihui; Spizzo, Iresha; Diep, Henry; Drummond, Grant R.; Widdop, Robert E.; Vinh, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension remains the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Experimental hypertension is associated with increased T cell infiltration into blood pressure-controlling organs, such as the aorta and kidney; importantly in absence of T cells of the adaptive immune system, experimental hypertension is significantly blunted. However, the function and phenotype of these T cell infiltrates remains speculative and undefined in the setting of hypertension. The current study compared T cell-derived cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from normotensive and hypertensive mice. Splenic, blood, aortic, kidney and brain T cells were isolated from C57BL/6J mice following 14-day vehicle or angiotensin (Ang) II (0.7 mg/kg/day, s.c.) infusion. T cell infiltration was increased in aorta, kidney and brain from hypertensive mice. Cytokine analysis in stimulated T cells indicated an overall Th1 pro-inflammatory phenotype, but a similar proportion (flow cytometry) and quantity (cytometric bead array) of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-17 between vehicle- and Ang II- treated groups. Strikingly, elevated T cell-derived production of a chemokine, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), was observed in aorta (∼6-fold) and kidney in response to Ang II, but not in brain, spleen or blood. Moreover, T cell-derived ROS production in aorta was elevated ∼3 -fold in Ang II-treated mice (n = 7; P<0.05). Ang II-induced hypertension does not affect the overall T cell cytokine profile, but enhanced T cell-derived ROS production and/or leukocyte recruitment due to elevated CCL2, and this effect may be further amplified with increased infiltration of T cells. We have identified a potential hypertension-specific T cell phenotype that may represent a functional contribution of T cells to the development of hypertension, and likely several other associated vascular disorders. PMID:25501574

  8. Brain Science, Brain Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruer, John T.

    1998-01-01

    Three big ideas from brain science have arisen during the past 20 to 30 years: neural connections form rapidly early in life; critical periods occur in development; and enriched environments profoundly affect brain development during the early years. Current brain research has little to offer educational practice or policy. (10 references) (MLH)

  9. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process. PMID:24672332

  10. Toward physically based estimation of surface irrigation infiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation practitioners continue to use empirical infiltration equations. Theoretical infiltration equations are currently not capable of capturing surface irrigation infiltration behaviour, particularly at short times. An example is shown where the Green-Ampt equation can be adjusted to match fiel...

  11. Infiltration characteristics of bare soil under sequential water application events

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The marked reduction in infiltration rate caused by formation of a soil surface seal is a well known phenomenon but often ignored in infiltration models. The effect sequential water application events have on infiltration rate and soil surface seal formation has rarely been investigated. The objecti...

  12. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process. PMID:24672332

  13. Infiltration kinetics of fibrous preforms by aluminum with solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, T.; Nishida, Y.

    1995-04-01

    The infiltration mechanism of molten aluminum in a fibrous preform was investigated both experimentally and theoretically by using SiC whisker preforms which were deformed during infiltration. To analyze the correlation between applied pressure and infiltration front in the preform, the distribution of hardness along the infiltration direction in the deformed preform were measured and the distribution of volume fraction was calculated. There was a limit in the infiltration distance when pre-heat temperature of the preform was lower than the melting point of aluminum. A theoretical expression was derived to describe fluid flow including solidification in the preform and good agreement with experimental results was obtained.

  14. Exploring Variation and Predictors of Residential Fine Particulate Matter Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Nina A.; Allen, Ryan W.; Hystad, Perry; Wallace, Lance; Dell, Sharon D.; Foty, Richard; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Evans, Greg; Wheeler, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration. PMID:20948956

  15. Functional up-regulation of endopeptidase neurolysin during post-acute and early recovery phases of experimental stroke in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon; Wangler, Naomi J; Yang, Li; Shah, Kaushik; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Abbruscato, Thomas J; Karamyan, Vardan T

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we provide evidence for the first time that membrane-bound endopeptidase neurolysin is up-regulated in different parts of mouse brain affected by focal ischemia-reperfusion in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. Radioligand binding, enzymatic and immunoblotting experiments in membrane preparations of frontoparietal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus isolated from the ischemic hemisphere of mouse brain 24 h after reperfusion revealed statistically significant increase (≥ twofold) in quantity and activity of neurolysin compared with sham-operated controls. Cerebellar membranes isolated from the ischemic hemisphere served as negative control supporting the observations that up-regulation of neurolysin occurs in post-ischemic brain regions. This study also documents sustained functional up-regulation of neurolysin in frontoparietal cortical membranes for at least 7 days after stroke, which appears not to be transcriptionally or translationally regulated, but rather depends on translocation of cytosolic neurolysin to the membranes and mitochondria. Considering diversity of endogenous neurolysin substrates (neurotensin, bradykinin, angiotensins I/II, substance P, hemopressin, dynorphin A(1-8), metorphamide, somatostatin) and the well-documented role of these peptidergic systems in pathogenesis of stroke, resistance to ischemic injury and/or post-stroke brain recovery, our findings suggest that neurolysin may play a role in processes modulating the brain's response to stroke and its recovery after stroke. PMID:24164478

  16. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  17. Necrotising lymphadenitis without granulocytic infiltration (Kikuchi's disease).

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M H; Horton, L W

    1985-01-01

    Kikuchi's disease (necrotising lymphadenitis) is characterised by cervical lymphadenopathy in young patients and may be mistaken for malignant disease both clinically and histologically. Microscopically, there is a varying degree of effacement of the lymph node architecture and necrosis with an infiltrate of "histiocytic" cells and absence of polymorphs. The disease is of unknown aetiology. It was originally described in Japan, and only 27 cases have been reported elsewhere (none in the United Kingdom), although it has probably been seen but not recognised. The clinical, histopathological, electron microscopic, and immunohistological findings in four cases of the disease were evaluated. Images PMID:4066984

  18. Management of infiltrating spinal epidural angiolipoma

    PubMed Central

    Nadi, Mustafa M.; Nadi, Arwa M.; Zabara, Mohammad Y.; Ahmad, Tahani M.

    2015-01-01

    Angiolipomas of the spine are rare benign tumors commonly presenting with compressive myelopathy. The present report describes a case of spinal angiolipoma with thoracic mediastinal extension in a 50-year-old woman. She presented with a long-standing history of mid-back pain with progressive lower extremities weakness. An MRI showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass located in the posterior epidural space of the thoracic spine with mediastinal extension. Histopathological examination demonstrated features consistent with spinal angiolipoma. This report emphasizes the diagnosis and therapeutic management options of infiltrating spinal angiolipomas. PMID:25864069

  19. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the ischemic brain under lithium treatment. Link to mitochondrial disorders under stroke.

    PubMed

    Silachev, Denis N; Gulyaev, Mikhail V; Zorova, Ljubava D; Khailova, Ljudmila S; Gubsky, Leonid V; Pirogov, Yury A; Plotnikov, Egor Y; Sukhikh, Gennady T; Zorov, Dmitry B

    2015-07-25

    Recent evidence suggests that mitochondria are one of the main factors in the pathogenesis in different organs including brain. The pathogenesis after brain damage is caused not only by the change in bioenergetics, but also involves impairment of alternative functions of mitochondria, particularly those related to the control of cell death. In this study we evaluated partial metabolic pathways under the simulation of a stroke by using the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. The analysis shows that the induced switch to a non-oxidative energy metabolism (glycolysis) due to the block of tissue oxygen supply does not ensure the adequate supply of the tissue with ATP. Moreover, the well-known acidification of the ischemic tissue is not associated with the so-called traditionally and incorrectly considered "lactic acidosis" (the generation of lactate from glucose by itself does not lead to excessive generation of protons), but occurs because of the consumption of tissue ATP under its reduced resynthesis. Incubation of mitochondria isolated from normal rat brain at neutral and slightly acidic pH, mimicking the intracellular pH of normal and ischemic tissues correspondingly, revealed serious changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics, partially reflected in the magnitude of respiratory control and the basal and maximally stimulated respiration rates. Measurement of available metabolites by (1)H MR spectra of normal and ischemia-damaged brains showed a significant increase in lactate and myo-inositol and a moderate decrease in N-acetylaspartate 24h after reperfusion. Remarkably, the administration of lithium chloride in the reperfusion phase normalized the levels of metabolites. Moreover, the introduction of lithium salts (chloride or succinate) in the bloodstream, restored after ischemia, reduced both the size of the ischemia-induced brain damage and the degree of brain swelling. Besides, post-ischemic introduction of lithium salts largely restored the

  20. PKCδ activated by c-MET enhances infiltration of human glioblastoma cells through NOTCH2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seok-Gu; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Cui, Yan-Hong; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Jae-Seong; Kim, In-Gyu; Suh, Yongjoon; Lee, Su-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Poor prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM) is attributable to the propensity of tumor cells to infiltrate into the brain parenchyma. Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are highly expressed or aberrantly activated in GBM. However, how this signaling node translates to GBM cell invasiveness remains unknown. Here, we report that among PKC isoforms, PKCδ is strongly associated with infiltration of GBM cells. Notably, PKCδ enhanced Tyr418 phosphorylation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase SRC, which in turn activated STAT3 and subsequent NOTCH2 signaling, ultimately leading to GBM cell invasiveness. Furthermore, we showed that PKCδ was aberrantly activated in GBM cells by c-MET, a receptor tyrosine kinase hyperactivated in GBM. In agreement, inhibition either component in the c-MET/PKCδ/SRC/STAT3 signaling axis effectively blocked the NOTCH2 signaling and invasiveness of GBM cells. Taken together, our findings shed a light on the signaling mechanisms behind the constitutive activation of PKCδ signaling in GBM. PMID:26700818

  1. Dermal eosinophilic infiltrate in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Ami; Yang, Catherine S; Kim, Jinah; Bercovitch, Lionel; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Telang, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a split in the lamina lucida usually because of mutations in LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 resulting in absence or reduction of laminin-332. Rare subtypes of JEB have mutations in COL17A1, ITGB4, ITGA6 and ITGA3 leading to reduction or dysfunction of collagen XVII, integrin α6β4 and integrin α3. The classic finding under light microscopy is a paucicellular, subepidermal split. We describe the unusual presence of an eosinophilic infiltrate in the bullae and subjacent dermis in a neonate with JEB, generalized intermediate (formerly known as non-Herlitz-type JEB), discuss the histologic differential diagnosis for a subepidermal blister in a neonate, review the literature regarding cases of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) presenting with inflammatory infiltrates, and discuss mechanisms to explain these findings. This case highlights that eosinophils can rarely be seen in EB and should not mislead the dermatopathologist into diagnosing an autoimmune blistering disorder. PMID:25950805

  2. KCa3.1 inhibition switches the phenotype of glioma-infiltrating microglia/macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, A; D'Alessandro, G; Golia, M T; Grössinger, E M; Di Angelantonio, S; Ragozzino, D; Santoro, A; Esposito, V; Wulff, H; Catalano, M; Limatola, C

    2016-01-01

    Among the strategies adopted by glioma to successfully invade the brain parenchyma is turning the infiltrating microglia/macrophages (M/MΦ) into allies, by shifting them toward an anti-inflammatory, pro-tumor phenotype. Both glioma and infiltrating M/MΦ cells express the Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa3.1), and the inhibition of KCa3.1 activity on glioma cells reduces tumor infiltration in the healthy brain parenchyma. We wondered whether KCa3.1 inhibition could prevent the acquisition of a pro-tumor phenotype by M/MΦ cells, thus contributing to reduce glioma development. With this aim, we studied microglia cultured in glioma-conditioned medium or treated with IL-4, as well as M/MΦ cells acutely isolated from glioma-bearing mice and from human glioma biopsies. Under these different conditions, M/MΦ were always polarized toward an anti-inflammatory state, and preventing KCa3.1 activation by 1-[(2-Chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34), we observed a switch toward a pro-inflammatory, antitumor phenotype. We identified FAK and PI3K/AKT as the molecular mechanisms involved in this phenotype switch, activated in sequence after KCa3.1. Anti-inflammatory M/MΦ have higher expression levels of KCa3.1 mRNA (kcnn4) that are reduced by KCa3.1 inhibition. In line with these findings, TRAM-34 treatment, in vivo, significantly reduced the size of tumors in glioma-bearing mice. Our data indicate that KCa3.1 channels are involved in the inhibitory effects exerted by the glioma microenvironment on infiltrating M/MΦ, suggesting a possible role as therapeutic targets in glioma. PMID:27054329

  3. Diffusion tensor-based tumor infiltration index cannot discriminate vasogenic edema from tumor-infiltrated edema.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Manabu; Goto, Tetsu; Okita, Yoshiko; Kagawa, Naoki; Kishima, Haruhiko; Hashimoto, Naoya; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2010-02-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now used not only for delineating white matter fiber tracts, but also for assessing the histological characteristics of pathological tissues. Among these uses, predicting the extent or existence of tumor cell invasion into white matter by DTI is under extensive investigation. The previously reported tumor infiltration index (TII) holds great potential for the discrimination of pure vasogenic edema from tumor-infiltrated edema. However, conflicting data are being reported questioning the clinical value of TII. The present investigation reevaluated the utility of TII in patients with meningioma or glioma. We found that TII was unable to discriminate vasogenic from tumor-infiltrated edema. Conversely, detailed voxel-by-voxel comparison of TII and (11)C-methionie PET in the T2-hyperintense area of gliomas showed that TII and (11)C-methionie PET has a positive correlation, suggesting that, although TII is unable to discriminate the cause of edema, the extent of tumor cell invasion into white matter is depicted in gliomas by TII. These data suggest that TII involves both vasogenic and tumor-infiltrated factors, rather than only a single factor. A more intensive investigation is required to reach a complete understanding of TII. PMID:19696968

  4. Reactive infiltration in fabricating silicon carbide composites for electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liming

    The silicon carbide (SiC) composite is a promising material to improve thermal dissipation and thermal expansion matching for electronic packaging, but its wide application has been greatly hindered by the high fabrication cost. To address this cost issue, two new reactive infiltration methods have been proposed and developed to fabricate SiC composite in a net-shape manner. They are Method 1--locally magnesium-enhanced infiltration and Method 2--globally carbon-enhanced infiltration. In Method 1, a magnesium wetting agent was strategically inserted at the interface between SiC powder and Al-Si alloy. The molten Al-Si alloy was assisted by chemical reaction to infiltrate into the porous SiC powder in an inert atmosphere sealed in a quartz tube or a steel cup. The infiltration kinetics was characterized by measuring the infiltration weight gain with respect to time. It was found that the infiltration kinetics could be divided into three stages: infiltration initiation, rapid infiltration, and slow infiltration, and most of the weight gain occurred in the rapid infiltration stage. The rapid infiltration was due to the magnesium-silicon oxide reaction and the magnesium accumulation at the infiltration front. Modeling of the infiltration kinetics showed the magnesium dilution increased the dynamic contact angle, which in turn decreased the infiltration rate. The SiC oxidation, Mg content and temperature were shown to be important factors affecting the infiltration. In Method 2, a carbon wetting agent is coated globally on every SiC particle. To accomplish this coating, a slip casting, drying, curing and carbonization process was developed. A crucibleless infiltration method was designed to fabricate SiC composites in an open atmosphere protected by nitrogen. The temperature change of SiC preform during infiltration was monitored to determine the infiltration kinetics. The silicon-carbon reaction was found to create a spontaneous infiltration of molten Si or molten Al

  5. Infiltration modeling guidelines for commercial building energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, Krishnan; Winiarski, David W.; Jarnagin, Ronald E.

    2009-09-30

    This report presents a methodology for modeling air infiltration in EnergyPlus to account for envelope air barrier characteristics. Based on a review of various infiltration modeling options available in EnergyPlus and sensitivity analysis, the linear wind velocity coefficient based on DOE-2 infiltration model is recommended. The methodology described in this report can be used to calculate the EnergyPlus infiltration input for any given building level infiltration rate specified at known pressure difference. The sensitivity analysis shows that EnergyPlus calculates the wind speed based on zone altitude, and the linear wind velocity coefficient represents the variation in infiltration heat loss consistent with building location and weather data.

  6. Relevance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dushyanthen, Sathana; Beavis, Paul A; Savas, Peter; Teo, Zhi Ling; Zhou, Chenhao; Mansour, Mariam; Darcy, Phillip K; Loi, Sherene

    2015-01-01

    While breast cancer has not been considered a cancer amenable to immunotherapeutic approaches, recent studies have demonstrated evidence of significant immune cell infiltration via tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in a subset of patient tumors. In this review we present the current evidence highlighting the clinical relevance and utility of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer. Retrospective and prospective studies have shown that the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is a prognostic marker for higher responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and better survival, particularly in triple negative and HER2-positive early breast cancer. Further work is required to determine the immune subsets important in this response and to discover ways of encouraging immune infiltrate in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes-negative patients. PMID:26300242

  7. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudáková, Gabriela; Zeleňáková, Martina; Tometz, Ladislav

    2015-11-01

    Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  8. Infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, William C.; Thiros, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    The ground-water hydrology of Panguitch Valley and adjacent areas, south-central Utah, was studied during 1988-90. One objective of the study was to measure ground-water recharge from infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water. Water-level and soil-moisture data were used to estimate travel times for water moving down through the soil profile, and to compare quantities of water reaching the water table after application of flood and sprinkler irrigation. During this study, estimates of travel times from land surface to the water table ranged from 11 days in June 1989 to 2 days in September 1989. Estimates of irrigation water recharging the ground-water system ranged from 25 to 75 percent of the water applied to the flood-irrigated field. Virtually no recharge was apparent for the sprinkler-irrigated field.

  9. Reactive Melt Infiltration Of Silicon Into Porous Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    1994-01-01

    Report describes study of synthesis of silicon carbide and related ceramics by reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon/molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms. Reactive melt infiltration has potential for making components in nearly net shape, performed in less time and at lower temperature. Object of study to determine effect of initial pore volume fraction, pore size, and infiltration material on quality of resultant product.

  10. Mapping the accumulation of co-infiltrating CNS dendritic cells and encephalitogenic T cells during EAE

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Benjamin D; Walker, Alec; Harris, Melissa; Rayasam, Aditya; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsanna

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) suggests that CNS-infiltrating dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for restimulation of coinfiltrating T cells. Here we systematically quantified and visualized the distribution and interaction of CNS DCs and T cells during EAE. We report marked periventricular accumulation of DCs and myelin-specific T cells during EAE disease onset prior to accumulation in the spinal cord, indicating that the choroid plexus-CSF axis is a CNS entry portal. Moreover, despite emphasis on spinal cord inflammation in EAE and in correspondence with MS pathology, inflammatory lesions containing interacting DCs and T cells are present in specific brain regions. PMID:25288303

  11. Estimating the Limits of Infiltration in the Urban Appalachian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavin, S. M.; Bain, D.; Hopkins, K. G.; Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Copeland, E.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure in urbanized areas commonly uses infiltration systems, such as rain gardens, swales and trenches, to convey surface runoff from impervious surfaces into surrounding soils. However, precipitation inputs can exceed soil infiltration rates, creating a limit to infiltration-based storm water management, particularly in urban areas covered by impervious surfaces. Given the limited availability and varied quality of soil infiltration rate data, we synthesized information from national databases, available field test data, and applicable literature to characterize soil infiltration rate distributions, focusing on Allegheny County, Pennsylvania as a case study. A range of impervious cover conditions was defined by sampling available GIS data (e.g., LiDAR and street edge lines) with analysis windows placed randomly across urbanization gradients. Changes in effective precipitation caused by impervious cover were calculated across these gradients and compared to infiltration rate distributions to identify thresholds in impervious coverage where these limits are exceeded. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of urbanization on infiltration, but the identification of these thresholds will clarify interactions between impervious cover and soil infiltration. These methods can help identify sections of urban areas that require augmentation of infiltration-based systems with additional infrastructural strategies, especially as green infrastructure moves beyond low impact development towards more frequent application during infilling of existing urban systems.

  12. Approach to Cutaneous Lymphoid Infiltrates: When to Consider Lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Charli-Joseph, Yann Vincent; Gatica-Torres, Michelle; Pincus, Laura Beth

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates (CLIs) are common in routine dermatopathology. However, differentiating a reactive CLI from a malignant lymphocytic infiltrate is often a significant challenge since many inflammatory dermatoses can clinically and/or histopathologically mimic cutaneous lymphomas, coined pseudolymphomas. We conducted a literature review from 1966 to July 1, 2015, at PubMed.gov using the search terms: Cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, simulants/mimics/imitators of cutaneous lymphomas, and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. The diagnostic approach to CLIs and the most common differential imitators of lymphoma is discussed herein based on six predominant morphologic and immunophenotypic, histopathologic patterns: (1) Superficial dermal T-cell infiltrates (2) superficial and deep dermal perivascular and/or nodular natural killer/T-cell infiltrates (3) pan-dermal diffuse T-cell infiltrates (4) panniculitic T-cell infiltrates (5) small cell predominant B-cell infiltrates, and (6) large-cell predominant B-cell infiltrates. Since no single histopathological feature is sufficient to discern between a benign and a malignant CLI, the overall balance of clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features should be considered carefully to establish a diagnosis. Despite advances in ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and molecular clonality, these studies often display specificity and sensitivity limitations. Therefore, proper clinicopathological correlation still remains the gold standard for the precise diagnosis of CLIs. PMID:27512181

  13. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.

    1995-08-01

    A two-step forced chemical vapor infiltration process was developed that reduced infiltration times for 4.45 cm dia. by 1.27 cm thick Nicalon{sup +} fiber preforms by two thirds while maintaining final densities near 90 %. In the first stage of the process, micro-voids within fiber bundles in the cloth were uniformly infiltrated throughout the preform. In the second stage, the deposition rate was increased to more rapidly fill the macro-voids between bundles within the cloth and between layers of cloth. By varying the thermal gradient across the preform uniform infiltration rates were maintained and high final densities achieved.

  14. [Asymptomatic facial infiltrated papules in an HIV-positive male].

    PubMed

    Brenner, M; Rosin, C; Battegay, M; Häusermann, P

    2011-12-14

    A 65 year old HIV-infected patient (CDC A2, diagnosed in 07/2008) presented with facial, erythematous infiltrated papular lesions. Consistent with progressive immunodeficiency a low CD4+ T-cell count and an increase of the viral load was seen simultaneously and an eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) was assumed. Though, the lesional biopsy revealed a follicular eosinophilic infiltration and endotrichial hyphae, proving for an infiltrating dermatophytosis. This shows how an infiltrating Tinea faciei is mimicking clinically and histologically an HIV-associated EPF of the face. PMID:22161883

  15. Increased Infiltration of CD8+ T Cells by Dacarbazine in a Patient with Mucosal Penile Melanoma Refractory to Nivolumab

    PubMed Central

    Funazumi, Masato; Arima, Yumi; Kato, Kohei; Nojima, Kohei; Tanaka, Kentaro; Miura, Keiko; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Primary penile melanomas are rare tumors that represent less than 0.1% of all melanomas. We report a case of a 60-year-old Japanese male with a mucosal penile melanoma and describe an increased CD8+ T cell infiltration in brain after dacarbazine (DTIC) administration. After partial penectomy and left inguinal lymphadenectomy, he developed multiple lung, bone, spleen, brain and skin metastases. He was treated with interferon-β, DTIC and nivolumab. However, the metastases were not reduced in size. Immunohistochemistry showed an increase of CD8+ T cell infiltration and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression after the administration of DTIC, but the expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) was negative. We speculate that DTIC exerted immunostimulatory effects, but nivolumab was ineffective due to the negative expression of PD-1 and/or an insufficient infiltration of CD8+ T cells. Although this is only one case, this case report could be the first step to discuss the development of effective therapies against melanoma to take advantage of the increased CD8+ T cell infiltration elicited by chemotherapeutic agents. It would be beneficial to pay more attention to the relationship between DTIC and immune checkpoint modulators. PMID:27489432

  16. Increased Infiltration of CD8(+) T Cells by Dacarbazine in a Patient with Mucosal Penile Melanoma Refractory to Nivolumab.

    PubMed

    Funazumi, Masato; Namiki, Takeshi; Arima, Yumi; Kato, Kohei; Nojima, Kohei; Tanaka, Kentaro; Miura, Keiko; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-08-01

    Primary penile melanomas are rare tumors that represent less than 0.1% of all melanomas. We report a case of a 60-year-old Japanese male with a mucosal penile melanoma and describe an increased CD8(+) T cell infiltration in brain after dacarbazine (DTIC) administration. After partial penectomy and left inguinal lymphadenectomy, he developed multiple lung, bone, spleen, brain and skin metastases. He was treated with interferon-β, DTIC and nivolumab. However, the metastases were not reduced in size. Immunohistochemistry showed an increase of CD8(+) T cell infiltration and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression after the administration of DTIC, but the expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) was negative. We speculate that DTIC exerted immunostimulatory effects, but nivolumab was ineffective due to the negative expression of PD-1 and/or an insufficient infiltration of CD8(+) T cells. Although this is only one case, this case report could be the first step to discuss the development of effective therapies against melanoma to take advantage of the increased CD8(+) T cell infiltration elicited by chemotherapeutic agents. It would be beneficial to pay more attention to the relationship between DTIC and immune checkpoint modulators. PMID:27489432

  17. Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-21

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Malignant Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Noninfiltrating Astrocytoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Meningioma; Brain Metastases; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Pineal Parenchymal Tumor; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Infiltrating Astrocytoma; Mixed Gliomas; Stage IV Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  18. Microglia are less pro-inflammatory than myeloid infiltrates in the hippocampus of mice exposed to status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Vinet, Jonathan; Vainchtein, Ilia D; Spano, Carlotta; Giordano, Carmela; Bordini, Domenico; Curia, Giulia; Dominici, Massimo; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M; Eggen, Bart J L; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Activated microglia, astrogliosis, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage and peripheral immune cell infiltration are features of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Numerous studies correlated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines with the activated morphology of microglia, attributing them a pro-epileptogenic role. However, microglia and myeloid cells such as macrophages have always been difficult to distinguish due to an overlap in expressed cell surface molecules. Thus, the detrimental role in epilepsy that is attributed to microglia might be shared with myeloid infiltrates. Here, we used a FACS-based approach to discriminate between microglia and myeloid infiltrates isolated from the hippocampus 24 h and 96 h after status epilepticus (SE) in pilocarpine-treated CD1 mice. We observed that microglia do not express MHCII whereas myeloid infiltrates express high levels of MHCII and CD40 96 h after SE. This antigen-presenting cell phenotype correlated with the presence of CD4(pos) T cells. Moreover, microglia only expressed TNFα 24 h after SE while myeloid infiltrates expressed high levels of IL-1β and TNFα. Immunofluorescence showed that astrocytes but not microglia expressed IL-1β. Myeloid infiltrates also expressed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and 12 while microglia only expressed MMP-12, suggesting the involvement of both cell types in the BBB leakage that follows SE. Finally, both cell types expressed the phagocytosis receptor Axl, pointing to phagocytosis of apoptotic cells as one of the main functions of microglia. Our data suggests that, during early epileptogenesis, microglia from the hippocampus remain rather immune supressed whereas myeloid infiltrates display a strong inflammatory profile. GLIA 2016 GLIA 2016;64:1350-1362. PMID:27246930

  19. Infiltration on sloping surfaces: Laboratory experimental evidence and implications for infiltration modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Cifrodelli, Marco; Corradini, Corrado; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2015-04-01

    Infiltration on sloping surfaces occupies an important role in our understanding of surface and subsurface hydrology. Previous studies have provided conflicting results about the role of slope on infiltration. Here, our main objective is to highlight, by well-controlled experiments, the slope role in the absence of the conflicting contributions generated by other physical processes observed in previous studies under natural or laboratory conditions. The experimental program was designed to resolve some of the confounding factors such as lower impermeable boundary condition, range of rainfall rates relative to soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, surface sealing, and erosion of top soil. The experimental apparatus consists of a box containing a natural bare soil with slope angle γ chosen between 0° and 10°, two sensors of surface and deep flow, one probe for moisture content and an artificial rainfall generator. The primary experimental results suggest that under steady conditions and rainfall rate, r, greater than saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, the deep flow, Qd, decreases with increasing slope angle, γ, up to a value leading to Qd(γ = 1°)/Qd(γ = 10°) equal to ≈4 which is in contrast with the results provided in a few earlier papers. Furthermore, in sloping bare soils surface runoff is produced even for r < Ks. Finally, we discuss the link between Qd(γ) and the shear stress at the soil surface as a guideline in the determination of an effective saturated hydraulic conductivity to be incorporated in the existing horizontal infiltration models.

  20. Simulating Infiltration at the Large-Scale Ponded Infiltration Test, INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Andre Unger; Ardyth Simmons, Gudmundur Bodvarsson

    2001-05-31

    This work involved using ITOUGH2 to simulate the Large-Scale Ponded Infiltration Test (LPIT) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in order to calibrate parameters controlling the infiltration of water in fractured basalt using a dual-permeability modeling approach. This supports the higher objective of building confidence in the use of the dual-permeability approach for modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock systems. In particular, the objective of this work is to be able to understand transport of radionuclides at INEEL and subsequently at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A 3-D dual-permeability mesh representing the geological conditions at the LPIT was constructed as shown by the cross-section on Figure 1a. The geology consisted of surficial sediments, two separate basalt flows (A and B basalts) underlain by a low permeability sedimentary interbed (BC interbed), with a lower C basalt constituting the bottom of the model. Water was allowed to infiltrate from the pond and then pool on top of the sedimentary interbed. Water pressure and {sup 75}Se breakthroughs were simulated at four wells screened within the fractured basalt on top of the sedimentary interbed (B04N11, C04C11, B06N11, C06C11) along two radial angles and at two radial distances. Model results were calibrated to field data using ITOUGH2.

  1. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  2. Reactive-infiltration instability in radial geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzki, Piotr; Szymczak, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    A planar dissolution front propagating through a homogeneous porous matrix is unstable with respect to small variations in local permeability; regions of high permeability dissolve faster because of enhanced transport of reactants, which leads to increased rippling of the front. This phenomenon, usually referred to known as reactive-infiltration instability is an important mechanism for pattern development in geology, with a range of morphologies and scales, from cave systems running for hundreds of miles to laboratory acidization on the scale of centimeters. In general, this instability is characterized by two length scales: the diffusive length (D/v) and the reactant penetration length (v/r), where v is the Darcy velocity, D - the diffusion constant and r - the dissolution rate. If the latter scale is much smaller than the former one can adopt the so-called thin front limit, where the interface is treated as a discontinuity in porosity, with a completely dissolved phase on one side and an undissolved phase on the other. Linear stability analysis for this case has been carried out by Chadam et al. [1], and the corresponding dispersion relation shows that long wavelengths are unstable, whereas short wavelengths are stabilized by diffusion. In their derivation, Chadam et al. have considered a linear geometry with a uniform pressure gradient applied along one of the directions. However, in many cases (e.g. in the acidization techniques used in oil industry) the reactive fluids are injected through a well and thus the relevant geometry is radial rather than linear. Motivated by this, we have carried out the linear stability analysis of the reactive-infiltration problem in radial geometry, with the fluid injection at the centre of the system. We stay within the thin-front limit and derive the corresponding dispersion relation, which shows the stable regions for both the long-wavelength and short-wavelength modes, and the unstable region in between. Next, we study how

  3. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  4. Approximate furrow infiltration model for time-variable ponding depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A methodology is proposed for estimating furrow infiltration under time-variable ponding depth conditions. The methodology approximates the solution to the two-dimensional Richards equation, and is a modification of a procedure that was originally proposed for computing infiltration under constant ...

  5. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  6. MEASUREMENTS OF INFILTRATION RATES IN COMPACTED URBAN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research hs identified significant reductions in infiltration rates in disturbed urban soils, More than 150 prior tests were conducted in predominately sandy and clayey urban soils in the Birmingham and Mobile, AL areas. Infiltration in Clayey soils ws found to be affect...

  7. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  8. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  9. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  10. Infiltration model for center pivot irrigation on bare soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The marked reduction in infiltration rate caused by formation of a soil surface seal due to water droplet impact on bare soil is a well known phenomenon but is rarely considered in infiltration models, especially under center pivot irrigation. The objective of this study was to develop a soil infil...

  11. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN {number_sign}85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper.

  12. Characteristics of water infiltration in layered water repellent soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrophobic soil can influence soil water infiltration, but information regarding the impacts of different levels of hydrophobicity within a layered soil profile is limited. An infiltration study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of hydrophobicity and the position of the hyd...

  13. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-1... estimated total costs for transportation and treatment of the infiltration/inflow. Cost-effectiveness... presence, flow rate, and type of infiltration/inflow conditions which exist in the sewer system. (b)...

  14. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-1... estimated total costs for transportation and treatment of the infiltration/inflow. Cost-effectiveness... presence, flow rate, and type of infiltration/inflow conditions which exist in the sewer system. (b)...

  15. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-1... estimated total costs for transportation and treatment of the infiltration/inflow. Cost-effectiveness... presence, flow rate, and type of infiltration/inflow conditions which exist in the sewer system. (b)...

  16. Simplified modeling for infiltration and radon entry

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.H.

    1992-08-01

    Air leakage in the envelopes of residential buildings is the primary mechanism for provided ventilation to those buildings. For radon the same mechanisms that drive the ventilation, drive the radon entry This paper attempts to provide a simplified physical model that can be used to understand the interactions between the building leakage distribution, the forces that drive infiltration and ventilation, and indoor radon concentrations, Combining both ventilation and entry modeling together allows an estimation of Radon concentration and exposure to be made and demonstrates how changes in the envelope or ventilation system would affect it. This paper will develop simplified modeling approaches for estimating both ventilation rate and radon entry rate based on the air tightness of the envelope and the driving forces. These approaches will use conventional leakage values (i.e. effective leakage area ) to quantify the air tightness and include natural and mechanical driving forces. This paper will introduce a simplified parameter, the Radon Leakage Area, that quantifies the resistance to radon entry. To be practical for dwellings, modeling of the occupant exposures to indoor pollutants must be simple to use and not require unreasonable input data. This paper presents the derivation of the simplified physical model, and applies that model to representative situations to explore the tendencies to be expected under different circumstances.

  17. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment. PMID:25894333

  18. Reactive Infiltration of Silicon Melt Through Microporous Amorphous Carbon Preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangsuwan, P.; Tewari, S. N.; Gatica, J. E.; Singh, M.; Dickerson, R.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of unidirectional capillary infiltration of silicon melt into microporous carbon preforms have been investigated as a function of the pore morphology and melt temperature. The infiltrated specimens showed alternating bands of dark and bright regions, which corresponded to the unreacted free carbon and free silicon regions, respectively. The decrease in the infiltration front velocity for increasing infiltration distances, is in qualitative agreement with the closed-form solution of capillarity driven fluid flow through constant cross section cylindrical pores. However, drastic changes in the thermal response and infiltration front morphologies were observed for minute differences in the preforms microstructure. This suggests the need for a dynamic percolation model that would account for the exothermic nature of the silicon-carbon chemical reaction and the associated pore closing phenomenon.

  19. Displacement of nonwetting liquids from unsaturated sands by water infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, T.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1998-09-01

    Accidental spills of nonwetting or nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) onto land can lead to ground water contamination. Once a spill has occurred, liquid infiltrates downward under the influence of gravity. As the infiltration continues, capillary forces retain a portion of the immiscible liquid within the pore spaces. After infiltration ceases, the liquid remaining within the pores is termed the residual liquid, which is frequently expressed as a percentage of the total pore volume. The quantity of residual liquid retained depends on soil and liquid properties. Xylene was spilled onto moist glass beads or various moist sands and water was trickled onto the columns every eight hours for periods up to 10 days. The xylene residual in the columns with water infiltration decreased compared to those of control columns, indicating a downward displacement of xylene. The extent of displacement increased with increasing size of the porous media and with increasing amounts of water infiltration.

  20. Infiltration kinetics of aluminum in silicon carbide compacts. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, G.R.; Olson, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    Although metal-matrix composites have been fabricated by various techniques, the most successful are solid state processes such as powder metallurgy and diffusion bonding. Liquid-metal processes such as compucasting, pultrusion, and infiltration, while less successful, are potentially more economical. The advantages of producing silicon carbide-aluminum matrix composites by liquid-metal infiltration techniques can not be fully realized without an improved understanding of the infiltration behavior and the fiber/matrix bonding mechanisms. This paper reports on infiltration models which consider the physical properties of the liquid and preform (either porous compact or capillary/tube bundle). These properties include viscosity, density, surface tension, and wettability (pore shape and size in the case of the porous compact). The models have been assessed in terms of their ability to predict infiltration behavior from known physical properties of the materials.

  1. Reconfigurable photonic crystal waveguides created by selective liquid infiltration.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, A Casas; Domachuk, P; Grillet, C; Monat, C; Mägi, E C; Li, E; Eggleton, B J

    2012-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate reconfigurable photonic crystal waveguides created directly by infiltrating high refractive index (n≈2.01) liquids into selected air holes of a two-dimensional hexagonal periodic lattice in silicon. The resulting effective index contrast is large enough that a single row of infiltrated holes enables light propagation at near-infrared wavelengths. We include a detailed comparison between modeling and experimental results of single line defect waveguides and show how our infiltration procedure is reversible and repeatable. We achieve infiltration accuracy down to the single air hole level and demonstrate control on the volume of liquid infused into the holes by simply changing the infiltration velocity. This method is promising for achieving a wide range of targeted optical functionalities on a "blank" photonic crystal membrane that can be reconfigured on demand. PMID:22565727

  2. Observation of infiltration experiments with time lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Ursula; Ganz, Christina; Altfelder, Sven; Günther, Thomas; Duijnisveld, Wilhelmus; Grissemann, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Recent progress in the development of resistivity equipment enables the real time observation of infiltration processes through the vadose zone. In order to study the advantages and limitations of the method infiltration experiments are carried out for different soil types at various locations. All sites are subsequently excavated and investigated in detail. For an improved verification of the resistivity data the most recent experiment is conducted using a colour tracer. Two infiltration experiments are carried out in sandy soil. The location is Fuhrberg, close to Hannover, Germany. The area has been intensively studied for soil research purposes for more than 30 years. During both infiltration experiments water (110 l/80 l) is infiltrated for a period of 4.5 h and 8 h, respectively, and the infiltration process is observed by ERT. The resistivity measurements are conducted using a 3D-dipole-dipole configuration with electrode distances of 20 cm in the centre of the infiltration field. The whole resistivity array consists of 200 and 300 electrodes, respectively. The second experiment uses increased electrode spacing in the border area in order to enable the resolution of the deeper groundwater table (3.5 m during the second experiment compared to about 1.2 m for the first experiment). Immediately after completion of the resistivity measurements TDR and tensiometer measurements are carried out in 5-8 slices of the excavated infiltration area over a period of several days. The colour tracer used during the second experiment clearly outlines the infiltration plume with sharp outer limits. The ERT inversion depicts the shape of the plume successfully. Time lapse ERT interpretation reveals the development of the plume in time. The combination of ERT interpretation and TDR measurements enables the construction of the relationship between water content and resistivity as reconstructed by ERT using an Archie approach. By using this function water content changes can be

  3. Brain abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Brain abscesses commonly occur when bacteria or fungi infect part of the brain. As a result, swelling and irritation (inflammation) develop. Infected brain cells, white blood cells, live and dead bacteria, ...

  4. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or malignant, with cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain ... targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Many people get ...

  5. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  6. Brain surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  7. Brain Malformations

    MedlinePlus

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  8. Infiltration related miRNAs in bladder urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peng; Xu, Feng; Cheng, Wen; Gao, Jianping; Zhang, Zhengyu; Ge, Jingping; Wei, Zhifeng; Xu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Youhuang

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate infiltration related microRNAs (miRNAs) in bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC). Twenty patients with BUC were enrolled and divided into 2 groups according to infiltration or not: infiltrating BUC group (n=12) and non-infiltrating BUC group (n=8). Gene chip was used to detect infiltration related miRNAs in the BUC samples. In other recruited 17 patients with BUC who were divided into infiltrating BUC samples (n=14) and non-infiltrating BUC samples (n=3), and in 4 BUC cell lines (EJ, 5637, T24 and BIU-87), the expression of miRNAs was assayed by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In infiltrating BUC group, as compared with non-infiltrating BUC group, there were 7 differentially expressed miRNAs: hsa-miR-29c, hsa-miR-200a, hsa-miR-378, hsa-miR-429, hsa-miR-200c and hsa-miR-141 were up-regulated, while hsa-miR-451 was down-regulated. In the BUC samples, the results of RT-PCR were consistent with those by the miRNA array. In the cancer cell lines, RT-PCR in T24 only revealed the similar expression pattern of miRNAs to that by the miRNA array. It is suggested that infiltration of BUC is related with different expression of miRNAs, which may provide a novel platform for further study on function and action mechanism of miRNAs. PMID:22886973

  9. Effect of Injection Pressure of Infiltration Anesthesia to the Jawbone.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    To obtain effective infiltration anesthesia in the jawbone, high concentrations of local anesthetic are needed. However, to reduce pain experienced by patients during local anesthetic administration, low-pressure injection is recommended for subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia. Currently, there are no studies regarding the effect of injection pressure on infiltration anesthesia, and a standard injection pressure has not been clearly determined. Hence, the effect of injection pressure of subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia on local anesthetic infiltration to the jawbone was considered by directly measuring lidocaine concentration in the jawbone. Japanese white male rabbits were used as test animals. After inducing general anesthesia with oxygen and sevoflurane, cannulation to the femoral artery was performed and arterial pressure was continuously recorded. Subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia was performed by injecting 0.5 mL of 2% lidocaine containing 1/80,000 adrenaline, and injection pressure was monitored by a pressure transducer for 40 seconds. After specified time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 minutes), jawbone and blood samples were collected, and the concentration of lidocaine at each time interval was measured. The mean injection pressure was divided into 4 groups (100 ± 50 mm Hg, 200 ± 50 mm Hg, 300 ± 50 mm Hg, and 400 ± 50 mm Hg), and comparison statistical analysis between these 4 groups was performed. No significant change in blood pressure during infiltration anesthesia was observed in any of the 4 groups. Lidocaine concentration in the blood and jawbone were highest 10 minutes after the infiltration anesthesia in all 4 groups and decreased thereafter. Lidocaine concentration in the jawbone increased as injection pressure increased, while serum lidocaine concentration was significantly lower. This suggests that when injection pressure of subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia is low, infiltration of local anesthetic to the jawbone may

  10. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Menasria, Rafik; Canivet, Coraline; Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2x106 plaque forming units). Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P<0.05) and «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes (P<0.001) significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P<0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls) to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of «Ly6Clow» patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P<0.01) at a later time point (day 8), which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus, our findings suggest

  11. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Menasria, Rafik; Canivet, Coraline; Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2 x 10(6) plaque forming units). Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P < 0.05) and "Ly6C hi" inflammatory monocytes (P < 0.001) significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P < 0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls) to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of "Ly6C low" patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P < 0.01) at a later time point (day 8), which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus, our

  12. MLC901, a traditional Chinese medicine protects the brain against global ischemia.

    PubMed

    Quintard, H; Borsotto, M; Veyssiere, J; Gandin, C; Labbal, F; Widmann, C; Lazdunski, M; Heurteaux, C

    2011-09-01

    Global ischemia leads to damage in the hippocampal CA1 region and is associated with behavioral deficits. NeuroAid (MLC601 and MLC901), a Traditional Chinese Medicine is used in China for patients after stroke. We have investigated here the effects of MLC901 on brain injury and deficits after global ischemia in the rat. Global ischemia induced by four-vessel occlusion resulted in degeneration of CA1 neurons. MLC901 (0.074 mg/ml) prevented both necrosis and apoptosis of neurons up to 3 h after ischemia. These positive MLC901 effects were associated with a decrease in Bax expression and in levels of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde. Using the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 we also demonstrated the critical role of the Akt pathway in MLC901-mediated neuroprotection. MLC901 enhanced neurogenesis. Furthermore, MLC901 improved functional recovery of rats after global ischemia as assessed by the Morris water maze. In this test MLC901 reduced the increase in escape latency and in swim distance induced by ischemia. MLC901 also improved post-ischemic grip strength. If observations made with rats can be extended to humans, then MLC901 will represent a novel therapeutic strategy after cardiac arrest with a clinically interesting time window of protection. PMID:21605573

  13. Diversity and divergence of the glioma-infiltrating T-cell receptor repertoire.

    PubMed

    Sims, Jennifer S; Grinshpun, Boris; Feng, Yaping; Ung, Timothy H; Neira, Justin A; Samanamud, Jorge L; Canoll, Peter; Shen, Yufeng; Sims, Peter A; Bruce, Jeffrey N

    2016-06-21

    Although immune signaling has emerged as a defining feature of the glioma microenvironment, how the underlying structure of the glioma-infiltrating T-cell population differs from that of the blood from which it originates has been difficult to measure directly in patients. High-throughput sequencing of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires (TCRseq) provides a population-wide statistical description of how T cells respond to disease. We have defined immunophenotypes of whole repertoires based on TCRseq of the α- and β-chains from glioma tissue, nonneoplastic brain tissue, and peripheral blood from patients. Using information theory, we partitioned the diversity of these TCR repertoires into that from the distribution of VJ cassette combinations and diversity due to VJ-independent factors, such as selection due to antigen binding. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) possessed higher VJ-independent diversity than nonneoplastic tissue, stratifying patients according to tumor grade. We found that the VJ-independent components of tumor-associated repertoires diverge more from their corresponding peripheral repertoires than T-cell populations in nonneoplastic brain tissue, particularly for low-grade gliomas. Finally, we identified a "signature" set of TCRs whose use in peripheral blood is associated with patients exhibiting low TIL divergence and is depleted in patients with highly divergent TIL repertoires. This signature is detectable in peripheral blood, and therefore accessible noninvasively. We anticipate that these immunophenotypes will be foundational to monitoring and predicting response to antiglioma vaccines and immunotherapy. PMID:27261081

  14. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions: Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbord, N.; Mizrahi, G.; Furman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Entrapped air effects on infiltration under ponding conditions could be important for massive infiltration of managed aquifer recharge or soil aquifer treatment. Earlier studies found that under ponding conditions air could reduce infiltration by 70-90%. Most studies have dealt with entrapped air effects when soil surface topography is flat. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of: (1) irregular surface topography on preferential air flow path development; (2) preferential air flow path on infiltration; and (3) hydraulic head on infiltration when air is trapped. Column experiments were used to investigate these particular effects. A 140 cm deep and 30 cm wide column packed with silica sand was used under two boundary conditions: in the first, air can only escape vertically upward through the soil surface; in the second, air is free to escape. The surface was flooded with 13 liters of water, with ponding depth decreasing with time. Two soil surface conditions were tested: flat surface and irregular. It was found that in irregular surfaces, stable air flow through preferential paths was developed in the high altitude zones. Flat surface topography caused unstable air flow through random paths. Comparison between irregular and flat surface topography showed that the entrapped air pressure was lower and the infiltration rate was about 40% higher in the irregular surface topography than in the flat surface topography. No difference of infiltration rate between flat and irregular surface topography was observed when air was free to escape along the infiltration path. It was also found that at the first stage of infiltration, higher hydraulic heads caused higher entrapped air pressures and lower infiltration rates. In contrast, higher hydraulic head results in higher infiltration rate, when air was free to escape. Our results suggest that during ponding conditions: (1) preferential air flow paths develop at high surface zones of irregular topography

  15. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions. Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahi, Guy; Weisbrod, Noam; Furman, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Entrapped air effects on infiltration under ponding conditions could be important for massive infiltration of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) or soil aquifer treatment (SAT) of treated wastewater. Earlier studies found that under ponding conditions, air is being entrapped and compressed until it reaches a pressure which will enable the air to escape (unstable air flow). They also found that entrapped air could reduce infiltration by 70-90%. Most studies have dealt with entrapped air effects when soil surface topography is flat. The objective of this study is to investigate, under ponding conditions, the effects of: (1) irregular surface topography on preferential air flow path development (stable air flow); (2) preferential air flow path on infiltration; and (3) hydraulic head on infiltration when air is trapped. Column experiments were used to investigate these particular effects. A 140 cm deep and 30 cm wide column packed with silica sand was used under two boundary conditions: in the first, air can only escape vertically upward through the soil surface; in the second, air is free to escape through 20 ports installed along the column perimeter. The surface was flooded with 13 liters of water, with ponding depth decreasing with time. Two soil surface conditions were tested: flat surface and irregular surface (high and low surface zones). Additionally, Helle-show experiments were conducted in order to obtain a visual observation of preferential air flow path development. The measurements were carried out using a tension meter, air pressure transducers, TDR and video cameras. It was found that in irregular surfaces, stable air flow through preferential paths was developed in the high altitude zones. Flat surface topography caused unstable air flow through random paths. Comparison between irregular and flat surface topography showed that the entrapped air pressure was lower and the infiltration rate was about 40% higher in the irregular surface topography than in the

  16. Model description of storage and infiltration functions of infiltration facilities for urban runoff analysis by a distributed model.

    PubMed

    Furumai, H; Jinadasa, H K P K; Murakami, M; Nakajima, F; Aryal, R K

    2005-01-01

    Although there have been simulation researches focusing on reduction of stormwater peak flow by introduced infiltration facilities, model simulation of dynamic runoff behavior is still limited for frequently occurring rainfall events with weak intensity. Therefore, dynamic simulation was carried out in two urban drainages with infiltration facilities incorporated with a distributed model using two methods for describing functions of infiltration facilities. A method adjusting effective rainfall model gave poor simulation of runoff behavior in light rainfalls. Another method considering dynamic change of storage capacity as well as infiltration rate gave satisfactory estimation of the runoff in both drainages. In addition, assumption of facility clogging improved the agreement between measured and simulated hydrographs in small and medium-sized rainfall. Therefore, the proposed method might be useful for quantifying the secondary effects of the infiltration facilities on groundwater recharge and urban non-point pollutant trapping as well as runoff reduction. PMID:16248180

  17. Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Claudia; Pinzauti, Serena; Santulli, Pietro; Chapron, Charles; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-09-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disease, affecting women of reproductive age associated with chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia and infertility. Ovarian endometrioma (OMA), superficial peritoneal endometriosis (SPE), and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) are, till now, recognized as major phenotypes. The discussion is to know whether they share the same pathogenetic mechanisms. Till today, DIE is recognized as the most severe clinical form of endometriosis and has a complex clinical management. The DIE lesions have been considered in the present article, without distinguishing between the anterior (bladder) or the posterior (vagina, uterosacral ligaments, rectum, and ureter) compartment. The present knowledge indicates that hormonal function (estrogen and progesterone receptors) and immunological factors, such as peritoneal macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes, are critically altered in DIE. The aggressive behavior of DIE may be explained by the highly decreased apoptosis (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells [NF-kB], B-cell lymphoma 2 [Blc-2], and anti-Mullerian hormone) and by the increased proliferation activity related to oxidative stress (NF-kB, reactive oxygen species, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), advanced oxidation protein product). Invasive mechanisms are more expressed (matrix metalloproteinases and activins) in DIE in comparison to the OMA and SPE. Correlated with the increased invasiveness are the data on very high expression of neuroangiogenesis (nerve growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and intercellular adhesion molecule) genes in DIE. Therefore, at the present time, several of the DIE pathogenetic features result specific in comparison to other endometriosis phenotypes, pleading for the existence of a specific entity. These evidence of specific pathogenetic features of DIE may explain the more severe symptomatology related to this form of endometriosis and suggest

  18. LNAPL Removal from Unsaturated Porous Media using Surfactant Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus

    2012-11-19

    A series of unsaturated column experiments was performed to evaluate light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) fate and removal during surfactant solution infiltration. Surfactant-LNAPL phase behavior tests were conducted to optimize the remedial solutions. Packed sand and site sediment columns were first processed to establish representative LNAPL smear zone under unsaturated conditions. Infiltration of low-concentration surfactant was then applied in a stepwise flush mode, with 0.3 column pore volume (PV) of solution in each flush. The influence of infiltrated surfactant solution volume and pH on LNAPL removal was assessed. A LNAPL bank was observed at the very front of the first surfactant infiltration in each column, indicating that a very low surfactant concentration is needed to reduce the LNAPL-water interfacial tension sufficiently enough to mobilize trapped LNAPL under unsaturated conditions. More LNAPL was recovered as additional steps of surfactant infiltration were applied. Up to 99% LNAPL was removed after six infiltration steps, with less than 2.0 PV of total surfactant solution application, suggesting surfactant infiltration may be an effective method for vadose zone LNAPL remediation. The influence of pH tested in this study (3.99~10.85) was insignificant because the buffering capacity of the sediment kept the pH in the column higher than the zero point charge, pHzpc, of the sediment and therefore the difference between surfactant sorption was negligible.

  19. The Green-Ampt limit with reference to infiltration coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triadis, D.; Broadbridge, P.

    2012-07-01

    Recent progress with an analytic nonlinear model has provided the exact infiltration coefficients for realistic soil behaviors with nonsingular hydraulic functions, as well as their exact delta-function diffusivity limits. After some correction and reinterpretation of the approximate analytical method, the exactly solvable model validates some previously obtained approximate infiltration functions. The Green-Ampt infiltration function follows from a delta-function diffusivity limit with a hydraulic conductivity that may be, among other possibilities, a linear function of water content. Just as a linear conductivity function is an overestimate for a realistic soil, the second Philip infiltration coefficient S1 in the Green-Ampt infiltration function is too large due to conductivity being overestimated. Better agreement with experiment (halving the value of S1) is obtained from the analytic nonlinear model, with a limiting delta-function diffusivity and a matching Gardner exponential hydraulic conductivity function. In general, infiltration behavior is determined by the limiting forms of the diffusivity and conductivity relative to one another at the saturated water content, or alternatively, the relationship between the conductivity and soil moisture potential. A new infiltration model demonstrates the possible range of S1 for physically valid limiting conductivity functions. We show that in the delta-function diffusivity limit, the solution behaves as if the potential at the wet front were time dependent, decreasing in magnitude from an initial value at the traditional Green-Ampt level.

  20. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; McKinney, T.S.; Zhdanov, M.S.; Watt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in and climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.; Zhdanov, Michael S.; Watt, Dennis E.

    2007-07-01

    As populations grow in arid climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates.

  2. Correlation effects during liquid infiltration into hydrophobic nanoporous media

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, V. D. Belogorlov, A. A.; Byrkin, V. A.; Lisichkin, G. V.; Tronin, V. N.; Troyan, V. I.

    2011-03-15

    To explain the thermal effects observed during the infiltration of a nonwetting liquid into a disordered nanoporous medium, we have constructed a model that includes correlation effects in a disordered medium. It is based on analytical methods of the percolation theory. The infiltration of a porous medium is considered as the infiltration of pores in an infinite cluster of interconnected pores. Using the model of randomly situated spheres (RSS), we have been able to take into account the correlation effect of the spatial arrangement and connectivity of pores in the medium. The other correlation effect of the mutual arrangement of filled and empty pores on the shell of an infinite percolation cluster of filled pores determines the infiltration fluctuation probability. This probability has been calculated analytically. Allowance for these correlation effects during infiltration and defiltration makes it possible to suggest a physical mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis and to calculate the dependences of the contact angles on the degree of infiltration, porosity of the medium, and temperature. Based on the suggested model, we have managed to describe the temperature dependences of the infiltration and defiltration pressures and the thermal effects that accompany the absorption of energy by disordered porous medium-nonwetting liquid systems with various porosities in a unified way.

  3. Simulation of fluid, heat transport to estimate desert stream infiltration.

    PubMed

    Kulongoski, Justin T; Izbicki, John A

    2008-01-01

    In semiarid regions, the contribution of infiltration from intermittent streamflow to ground water recharge may be quantified by comparing simulations of fluid and heat transport beneath stream channels to observed ground temperatures. In addition to quantifying natural recharge, streamflow infiltration estimates provide a means to characterize the physical properties of stream channel sediments and to identify suitable locations for artificial recharge sites. Rates of winter streamflow infiltration along stream channels are estimated based on the cooling effect of infiltrated water on streambed sediments, combined with the simulation of two-dimensional fluid and heat transport using the computer program VS2DH. The cooling effect of ground water is determined by measuring ground temperatures at regular intervals beneath stream channels and nearby channel banks in order to calculate temperature-depth profiles. Additional data inputs included the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of unsaturated alluvium, and monthly ground temperatures measurements over an annual cycle. Observed temperatures and simulation results can provide estimates of the minimum threshold for deep infiltration, the variability of infiltration along stream channels, and also the frequency of infiltration events. PMID:18194325

  4. Simulation of fluid, heat transport to estimate desert stream infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, J.T.; Izbicki, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In semiarid regions, the contribution of infiltration from intermittent streamflow to ground water recharge may be quantified by comparing simulations of fluid and heat transport beneath stream channels to observed ground temperatures. In addition to quantifying natural recharge, streamflow infiltration estimates provide a means to characterize the physical properties of stream channel sediments and to identify suitable locations for artificial recharge sites. Rates of winter streamflow infiltration along stream channels are estimated based on the cooling effect of infiltrated water on streambed sediments, combined with the simulation of two-dimensional fluid and heat transport using the computer program VS2DH. The cooling effect of ground water is determined by measuring ground temperatures at regular intervals beneath stream channels and nearby channel banks in order to calculate temperature-depth profiles. Additional data inputs included the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of unsaturated alluvium, and monthly ground temperatures measurements over an annual cycle. Observed temperatures and simulation results can provide estimates of the minimum threshold for deep infiltration, the variability of infiltration along stream channels, and also the frequency of infiltration events.

  5. Nutrient infiltrate concentrations from three permeable pavement types.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert A; Borst, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each permeable pavement type has four, 54.9-m(2), lined sections that direct all infiltrate into 5.7-m(3) tanks enabling complete volume collection and sampling. This paper highlights the results from a 12-month period when samples were collected from 13 rainfall/runoff events and analyzed for nitrogen species, orthophosphate, and organic carbon. Differences in infiltrate concentrations among the three permeable pavement types were assessed and compared with concentrations in rainwater samples and impervious asphalt runoff samples, which were collected as controls. Contrary to expectations based on the literature, the PA infiltrate had significantly larger total nitrogen (TN) concentrations than runoff and infiltrate from the other two permeable pavement types, indicating that nitrogen leached from materials in the PA strata. There was no significant difference in TN concentration between runoff and infiltrate from either PICP or PC, but TN in runoff was significantly larger than in the rainwater, suggesting meaningful inter-event dry deposition. Similar to other permeable pavement studies, nitrate was the dominant nitrogen species in the infiltrate. The PA infiltrate had significantly larger nitrite and ammonia concentrations than PICP and PC, and this was presumably linked to unexpectedly high pH in the PA infiltrate that greatly exceeded the optimal pH range for nitrifying bacteria. Contrary to the nitrogen results, the PA infiltrate had significantly smaller orthophosphate concentrations than in rainwater, runoff, and infiltrate from PICP

  6. Carbon fibre-reinforced silicon nitride composites by slurry infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Grenet, C.; Plunkett, L.; Veyret, J.B.; Bullock, E.

    1995-12-01

    The present paper reports on the fabrication of long-carbon fibre reinforced silicon nitride matrix composites by liquid infiltration of an aqueous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slurry followed by hot-pressing. A methodology for the maximum volume and uniform infiltration of preforms has been developed by optimising slurry rheology and fibre wetting conditions. Fully infiltrated green forms of 55% theoretical density are achieved with some 40% volume fraction of fibres. The quality of the composites has been assessed by microstructural analysis and mechanical characterization.

  7. Intra-Arterial Administration of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promotes Functional Recovery of the Brain After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Silachev, D N; Plotnikov, E Yu; Babenko, V A; Danilina, T I; Zorov, L D; Pevzner, I B; Zorov, D B; Sukhikh, G T

    2015-08-01

    We compared the efficiency of delivery of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells into the brain after their intravenous and intra-arterial injection. Analysis of the therapeutic effects of cells after experimental traumatic brain injury revealed improvement of the neurological status and motor functions of the damaged hemisphere, the effect being more pronounced after intraarterial injection of cells. Intra-arterial administration was followed by rapid infiltration of the cells into the brain tissue and their number considerably surpassed that after intravenous infusion. Targeted delivery of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells into the brain after their injection into the carotid arteries substantially potentiated their neuroprotective effects in traumatic brain injury. PMID:26388566

  8. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  9. Reaction Infiltration Instabilities in Partially Molten Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pec, M.; Holtzman, B. K.; Zimmerman, M. E.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Tabular dunites in ophiolites are thought to form high-permeability, melt channels due to a positive feedback between melt flow and melt-solid reaction in the upper mantle. Reaction-infiltration instability (RII) theory predicts whether or not channels emerge from background flow. To test the applicability of RII theory to mantle rocks, we sandwiched a partially molten rock between a melt reservoir and a porous sink. Hot-pressed 50:50 mixtures of olivine (Ol) and clinopyroxene (Cpx) with either 4, 10 or 20 vol% alkali basalt formed ~4 mm long cylinders of partially molten rock. Source and sink are disks of alkali basalt and porous alumina. We annealed the melt-rock-sink triplets for up to 5 h at a confining pressure of Pc=300 MPa with effective pressure Pe=0 to 299.9 MPa at T=1200° or 1250°C. The melt fraction in the partially molten rock influences the permeability, which, together with the applied pressure gradient, controls the melt migration velocity. The temperature influences the reaction rate. Melt velocity and reaction rate are fundamental parameters in RII theory. In experiments, two distinct features form due to melt migration, 1) a planar reaction layer (RL) and 2) finger-shaped channels. Both the RL and the channels contain Ol+melt with no Cpx, indicating that the reaction melt1+Cpx→melt2+Ol occurs. The channels develop only if the melt velocity is >5µm/s. Once a channel reaches the porous sink, a large increase in the effective permeability is detected. The morphology and spacing of the channels depends on the initial melt fraction. With 20 vol% melt, multiple, voluminous channels with a spacing of 1.8±0.5 mm develop. At lower melt contents, fewer, thinner channels with a spacing of ~3 mm develop. The channel spacing predicted by theory is about a factor 2-4 smaller than observed. Our results indicate that RII theory provides a solid framework for investigating melt migration in experiments and potentially a basis for extrapolation to mantle

  10. Fingolimod reduces cerebral lymphocyte infiltration in experimental models of rodent intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, William B.; Lekic, Tim; Krafft, Paul R.; Hasegawa, Yu; Altay, Orhan; Hartman, Richard; Ostrowski, Robert; Manaenko, Anatol; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    T-lymphocytes promote cerebral inflammation, thus aggravating neuronal injury after stroke. Fingolimod, a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor analog, prevents the egress of lymphocytes from primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Based on these findings, we hypothesized fingolimod treatment would reduce the number of T-lymphocytes migrating into the brain, thereby ameliorating cerebral inflammation following experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated the effects of fingolimod in two well-established murine models of ICH, implementing intrastriatal infusions of either bacterial collagenase (cICH) or autologous blood (bICH). Furthermore, we tested the long term neurological improvements by Fingolimod in a collagenase-induced rat model of ICH. Fingolimod, in contrast to vehicle administration alone, improved neurological functions and reduced brain edema at 24 and 72 hours following experimental ICH in CD-1 mice (n=103; p<0.05). Significantly fewer lymphocytes were found in blood and brain samples of treated animals when compared to the vehicle group (p<0.05). Moreover, fingolimod treatment significantly reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interferon-γ (INF-γ), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in the mouse brain at 72 hours post-cICH (p<0.05 compared to vehicle). Long-term neurocognitive performance and histopathological analysis were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats between 8 and 10 weeks post-cICH (n=28). Treated rats showed reduced spatial and motor learning deficits, along with significantly reduced brain atrophy and neuronal cell loss within the basal ganglia (p<0.05 compared to vehicle). We conclude that fingolimod treatment ameliorated cerebral inflammation, at least to some extent, by reducing the availability and subsequent brain infiltration of T-lymphocytes, which improved the short and long-term sequelae after experimental ICH in rodents. PMID:23261767

  11. Fingolimod reduces cerebral lymphocyte infiltration in experimental models of rodent intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Rolland, William B; Lekic, Tim; Krafft, Paul R; Hasegawa, Yu; Altay, Orhan; Hartman, Richard; Ostrowski, Robert; Manaenko, Anatol; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2013-03-01

    T-lymphocytes promote cerebral inflammation, thus aggravating neuronal injury after stroke. Fingolimod, a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor analog, prevents the egress of lymphocytes from primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Based on these findings, we hypothesized fingolimod treatment would reduce the number of T-lymphocytes migrating into the brain, thereby ameliorating cerebral inflammation following experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated the effects of fingolimod in two well-established murine models of ICH, implementing intrastriatal infusions of either bacterial collagenase (cICH) or autologous blood (bICH). Furthermore, we tested the long term neurological improvements by Fingolimod in a collagenase-induced rat model of ICH. Fingolimod, in contrast to vehicle administration alone, improved neurological functions and reduced brain edema at 24 and 72 h following experimental ICH in CD-1 mice (n=103; p<0.05). Significantly fewer lymphocytes were found in blood and brain samples of treated animals when compared to the vehicle group (p<0.05). Moreover, fingolimod treatment significantly reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interferon-γ (INF-γ), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in the mouse brain at 72 h post-cICH (p<0.05 compared to vehicle). Long-term neurocognitive performance and histopathological analysis were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats between 8 and 10 weeks post-cICH (n=28). Treated rats showed reduced spatial and motor learning deficits, along with significantly reduced brain atrophy and neuronal cell loss within the basal ganglia (p<0.05 compared to vehicle). We conclude that fingolimod treatment ameliorated cerebral inflammation, at least to some extent, by reducing the availability and subsequent brain infiltration of T-lymphocytes, which improved the short and long-term sequelae after experimental ICH in rodents. PMID:23261767

  12. 10. UPSTREAM EXTENSION TO 60' INFILTRATION PIPE: MISCELLANEOUS METAL DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. UPSTREAM EXTENSION TO 60' INFILTRATION PIPE: MISCELLANEOUS METAL DETAILS. Sheet A-22, November, 1940. File no. SA 342/31. - Prado Dam, Embankment, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  13. Safety of CT-Guided Lumbar Nerve Root Infiltrations

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Summary Selective nerve root infiltrations are frequently performed in patients with lumbar radiculopathy. Computed tomography (CT) is now commonly used for image guidance. Despite the widespread use of CT-guided lumbar nerve root infiltrations few studies have systematically examined the safety of this approach. In a two-year period, 231 lumbar nerve root infiltrations were performed on in-patients and were retrospectively reviewed. No major complications like inflammation (especially spondylodiscitis), large haematomas requiring surgery, severe allergic reactions or spinal ischaemia occurred. In accordance with other published studies, CT-guided lumbar nerve root infiltrations seem to be safe. To minimize the risk of catastrophic neurological complications due to spinal ischaemia, careful needle placement dorsal to the nerve root and the use of a non-particulate corticosteroid, like dexamethasone, are advocated. PMID:25363255

  14. Measuring Spatial Infiltration in Stormwater Control Measures: Results and Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide background information on research conducted by EPA-ORD on the use of soil moisture sensors in bioretention/bioinfiltration technologies to evaluate infiltration mechanisms and compares monitoring results to simplified modeling assumptions. A serie...

  15. Spatial Variability and Scaling of Infiltration on Undulating Agricultural Terrain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation focuses on surface water infiltration and soil physical properties affecting spatial soil water, nutrient, and plant estimation along with uncertainty and scaling associated with spatial variability. The field site in northeastern Colorado, USA comprises undulating agricultural te...

  16. Wetting and infiltration of graphite materials by molten silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.G.; Hausner, H.

    1995-02-01

    Wetting-assisted infiltration without the application of external pressure has advantages for the production of complex shaped metal-ceramic composites to near net shape with very low residual porosity. A class of fibrous Si/SiC composites was formed by infiltrating molten silicon into densely packed carbon fibers in preformed shapes. The liquid silicon/solid carbon system may be considered to be a model for reactive wetting and infiltration which is accompanied by the heterogeneous chemical reaction between silicon and carbon to form a solid SiC product layer at the silicon/carbon interface. The wetting behavior of various carbon materials by molten silicon has been extensively investigated recently with the sessile drop method. Some results of this investigation will be reported in the present paper. Attention will be paid to the surface roughness of the substrates on the wetting behavior. The eventual infiltration of silicon into the graphites will be discussed with relation to the wetting.

  17. Experimental Validation and Applications of a Fluid Infiltration Model

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Cindy S.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Horizontal infiltration experiments were performed to validate a plug flow model that minimizes the number of parameters that must be measured. Water and silicone oil at three different viscosities were infiltrated into glass beads, desert alluvium, and silica powder. Experiments were also performed with negative inlet heads on air-dried silica powder, and with water and oil infiltrating into initially water moist silica powder. Comparisons between the data and model were favorable in most cases, with predictions usually within 40% of the measured data. The model is extended to a line source and small areal source at the ground surface to analytically predict the shape of two-dimensional wetting fronts. Furthermore, a plug flow model for constant flux infiltration agrees well with field data and suggests that the proposed model for a constant-head boundary condition can be effectively used to predict wetting front movement at heterogeneous field sites if averaged parameter values are used. PMID:20428480

  18. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  19. Modeling Water Infiltration in Soil Irrigated with Treated Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaibeh, Mamoun; Albalasmeh, Ammar; Alghzawi, Ma'in

    2015-04-01

    Infiltration of soils irrigated with treated wastewater (TWW) was modeled using Philip, Horton, Kostiakov, and modified Kostiakov. Treatments were: soil irrigated with TWW for 5 years, 2 years, and a control site. Cumulative (Ft), rate of infiltration (ft), and hydraulic conductivity (HC) were measured in the field and aggregate stability (AS) in the lab. Both HC and ft were decreased with and AS was increased with TWW use and period of application. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R2) were used to measure the goodness of fit and linearity of the relationship between models and measured data. Philip model was best to fit infiltration compared to other models. High AS values in treated areas compared to control area indicated that infiltration was more affected by pore clogging than soil dispersion and swelling,

  20. Water-depth dependent infiltration into burnt forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhans, Christoph; Sheridan, Gary; Noske, Phil; Metzen, Daniel; Lane, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Infiltration into severely burnt forest soils in South Eastern Australia exhibits a behaviour that is at odds with traditional infiltration theories that assumes a coherent soil matrix, which has important implications for upscaling from plot to hillslope. Infiltration patterns were studied at three severely burnt sites with different soils by applying a blue dye solution during rainfall and runon experiments, and subsequent profile excavation. Rainfall and runon rates were varied on each plot, runoff measured, and orthogonal photos taken during quasi-steady states. From transects on these photos average inundation fractions of the surface were measured, and 1.5 mm horizontal resolution DEMs were generated with image-based software. This information was combined in a DEM inundation algorithm that calculated water depth maps for each plot and rainfall and runon rate. At all three sites, nearly 100% of infiltration occurred through macropores that bypass the matrix of a water repellent layer. Average fractions of subsoil dye staining were 3% in shallow soils with a northerly aspect and low trees, 60% in deep soils with southerly aspects and high trees, and 20% in an intermediate soil. This was consistent with runoff coefficients of 0.94 for the shallow soil, 0.08 for the deep soil, and 0.71 for the intermediate soil. Irrespective of the runoff coefficient or dyed fraction there was a positive relationship between average water depth and infiltration rates on a given plot. Functions of water depth vs. bypass infiltration were derived inversely for each plot by matching average infiltration rates with the rates derived from sampling the water depth distributions. Additionally, characteristic bypass infiltration rates for all sites as function of runon and rainfall intensity were derived, normalized by the maximum infiltration rate at full inundation. These infiltration functions represent the water depth-dependent dynamics of runoff generation in bypass infiltration

  1. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J.B.; Dunmead, S.D.; Halverson, D.C.; Landingham, R.L.

    1991-01-29

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced. 6 figures.

  2. Inverse Simulation of Field Infiltration Experiment Counting Preferential Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumr, David; Snehota, Michal; Nemcova, Renata; Dohnal, Michal; Cislerova, Milena

    2010-05-01

    The field tension and ponded infiltration experiments were conducted to monitor and describe irregularities of moisture propagation and to estimate the soil hydraulic properties (Distric Cambisol, Korkusova Hut, Sumava). On these soils the preferential pathways have been observed in several scales with the use of dye tracers, MRI and CT imaging. Preferential behavior was detected also during laboratory infiltration experiments. The flow irregularities are credited to variable air entrapment at the beginning of infiltrations. The field infiltration experiment was carried out in a shallow pit for a period of one day. The upper boundary condition was controlled by the tension disk infiltrometer, the propagation of a water front was monitored by two tensiometers installed in two depths below the infiltration disk. The propagation of saline solution front during ponded infiltration was visualized with high resolution electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Infiltration experiments were monitored with TDR probes, tensiometers and ERT. Zones of preferential flow were determined through analyses of photographs taken during laboratory dye tracer infiltration experiments performed on undisturbed soil samples. Connectivity, volumetric ratio and spatial development of preferential pathways were evaluated as the necessary information for numerical simulations of flow using dual-permeability approach. 2D axisymetric numerical simulations were conducted to evaluate the results of the experiment. The parameter estimator PEST coupled with the simulation code S2D_DUAL (Vogel et al., 2000) were employed. Two different approaches were used: 1. Single-domain approach based on Richards' equation. 2. Dual-permeability approach based on two interacting water flow domains (matrix and preferential domains), each governed by one Richards' equation. Concerning the existence of preferential flow on investigated soil, the dual-permeability model gives a better picture of the flow regime. The

  3. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  4. Intraocular involvement with subretinal pigment epithelium infiltrates by mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed Central

    Erny, B. C.; Egbert, P. R.; Peat, I. M.; Shorrock, K.; Rosenthal, A. R.

    1991-01-01

    We report a case of intraocular mycosis fungoides in a 48-year-old man. The patient presented with decreased visual acuity, white subretinal lesions, and vitritis. Post-mortem histopathology revealed malignant T cell infiltrates consistent with mycosis fungoides in the retina, vitreous, and between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane Focal atrophy of the RPE, along with the sub-RPE infiltrates, correlated with the clinically visible fundus lesions. Images PMID:1751471

  5. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Joseph B.; Dunmead, Stephen D.; Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  6. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  7. Focal fatty infiltration of the liver mimicking metastatic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Y.

    1990-01-01

    We report the mistaken diagnosis of metastatic liver disease by ultrasonography in a patient with congestive heart failure and focal fatty infiltration of the liver. Multiple echogenic space-occupying lesions in the liver can be caused by benign conditions as well as tumour deposits and in a debilitated patient the possibility of focal fatty infiltration should always be considered. Images Figure 1 PMID:2201014

  8. Tumor infiltrating immune cells in gliomas and meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Patrícia; González-Tablas, María; Otero, Álvaro; Pascual, Daniel; Miranda, David; Ruiz, Laura; Sousa, Pablo; Ciudad, Juana; Gonçalves, Jesús María; Lopes, María Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, María Dolores

    2016-03-01

    Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are part of a complex microenvironment that promotes and/or regulates tumor development and growth. Depending on the type of cells and their functional interactions, immune cells may play a key role in suppressing the tumor or in providing support for tumor growth, with relevant effects on patient behavior. In recent years, important advances have been achieved in the characterization of immune cell infiltrates in central nervous system (CNS) tumors, but their role in tumorigenesis and patient behavior still remain poorly understood. Overall, these studies have shown significant but variable levels of infiltration of CNS tumors by macrophage/microglial cells (TAM) and to a less extent also lymphocytes (particularly T-cells and NK cells, and less frequently also B-cells). Of note, TAM infiltrate gliomas at moderate numbers where they frequently show an immune suppressive phenotype and functional behavior; in contrast, infiltration by TAM may be very pronounced in meningiomas, particularly in cases that carry isolated monosomy 22, where the immune infiltrates also contain greater numbers of cytotoxic T and NK-cells associated with an enhanced anti-tumoral immune response. In line with this, the presence of regulatory T cells, is usually limited to a small fraction of all meningiomas, while frequently found in gliomas. Despite these differences between gliomas and meningiomas, both tumors show heterogeneous levels of infiltration by immune cells with variable functionality. In this review we summarize current knowledge about tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the two most common types of CNS tumors-gliomas and meningiomas-, as well as the role that such immune cells may play in the tumor microenvironment in controlling and/or promoting tumor development, growth and control. PMID:26216710

  9. Simulating bioclogging effects on dynamic riverbed permeability and infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, Michelle E.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Maier, Ulrich; Schmidt, Christian; Thullner, Martin; Ulrich, Craig; Flipo, Nicolas; Rubin, Yoram

    2016-04-01

    Bioclogging in rivers can detrimentally impact aquifer recharge. This is particularly so in dry regions, where losing rivers are common, and where disconnection between surface water and groundwater (leading to the development of an unsaturated zone) can occur. Reduction in riverbed permeability due to biomass growth is a time-variable parameter that is often neglected, yet permeability reduction from bioclogging can introduce order of magnitude changes in seepage fluxes from rivers over short (i.e., monthly) timescales. To address the combined effects of bioclogging and disconnection on infiltration, we developed numerical representations of bioclogging processes within a one-dimensional, variably saturated flow model representing losing-connected and losing-disconnected rivers. We tested these formulations using a synthetic case study informed with biological data obtained from the Russian River, California, USA. Our findings show that modeled biomass growth reduced seepage for losing-connected and losing-disconnected rivers. However, for rivers undergoing disconnection, infiltration declines occurred only after the system was fully disconnected. Before full disconnection, biologically induced permeability declines were not significant enough to offset the infiltration gains introduced by disconnection. The two effects combine to lead to a characteristic infiltration curve where peak infiltration magnitude and timing is controlled by permeability declines relative to hydraulic gradient gains. Biomass growth was found to hasten the onset of full disconnection; a condition we term `effective disconnection'. Our results show that river infiltration can respond dynamically to bioclogging and subsequent permeability declines that are highly dependent on river connection status.

  10. Modelling of percolation rate of stormwater from underground infiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Burszta-Adamiak, Ewa; Lomotowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Underground or surface stormwater storage tank systems that enable the infiltration of water into the ground are basic elements used in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). So far, the design methods for such facilities have not taken into account the phenomenon of ground clogging during stormwater infiltration. Top layer sealing of the filter bed influences the infiltration rate of water into the ground. This study presents an original mathematical model describing changes in the infiltration rate variability in the phases of filling and emptying the storage and infiltration tank systems, which enables the determination of the degree of top ground layer clogging. The input data for modelling were obtained from studies conducted on experimental sites on objects constructed on a semi-technological scale. The experiment conducted has proven that the application of the model developed for the phase of water infiltration enables us to estimate the degree of module clogging. However, this method is more suitable for reservoirs embedded in more permeable soils than for those located in cohesive soils. PMID:24292460

  11. The protective effect of heat acclimation from hypoxic damage in the brain involves changes in the expression of glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yacobi, Assaf; Stern Bach, Yael; Horowitz, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Long-term heat acclimation (34 °C, 30d) alters the physiological responses and the metabolic state of organisms. It also improves ability to cope with hypoxic stress via a cross-tolerance mechanism. Within the brain, the hippocampal and frontal cortex neurons are the most sensitive to hypoxia and cell death is mainly caused by calcium influx via glutamate-gated ion channels, specifically NMDA and AMPA receptors. GluN1 subunit levels of NMDA-R correspond to NMDA-R levels. GluN2B/GluN2A subunit ratio is a qualitative index of channel activity; a higher ratio implies lower calcium permeability. The GluA2 subunit of AMPA-R controls channel permeability by inhibiting calcium penetration. Here, in rats model we (i)used behavioral-assessment tests to evaluate heat acclimation mediated hypoxic (15’ 4.5 ± 0.5% O2) neuroprotection, (ii) measured protein and transcript levels of NMDA-R and AMPA-R subunits before and after hypoxia in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex, to evaluate the role of Ca2+ in neuro-protection/cross-tolerance. Behavioral tests confirmed hypoxic tolerance in long-term (30d) but not in short-term (2d) heat acclimated rats. Hypoxic tolerance in the long-term acclimated phenotype was accompanied by a significant decrease in basal NMDA receptor GluN1 protein and an increase in its mRNA. The long-term acclimated rats also showed post ischemic increases in the GluN2B/GluN2A subunit ratio and GluA2 subunit of the AMPA receptor, supporting the hypothesis that reduced calcium permeability contributes to heat acclimation mediated hypoxia cross-tolerance. Abrupt post ischemic change in GluN2B/GluN2A subunit ratio with no change in NMDA-R subunits transcript levels implies that post-translational processes are inseparable acclimatory cross-tolerance mechanism.

  12. Partitioning of Infiltration into Macropore and Soil-Matrix Flow: Predictive Model Based on Mesoscale Heterogeneity of Infiltrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    A condition that initiates macropore flow at the land surface is the application of water faster than it can infiltrate into the soil matrix material. Sometimes this is taken to require ponding, but accumulated evidence shows preferential flow to be commonplace when wetness is less than saturation and when macropores are not completely filled. Examples include water flowing into shrinkage cracks or funneled into macropores by hydrophobic surface material. A more inclusive criterion is that macropore flow is generated when the water application rate exceeds the infiltrability of a small area associated with a macropore. A new model based on this criterion considers the representative elementary area (REA), as would be appropriate for measurement of field-scale infiltrability, to be divided into a mosaic of functional sub-areas (FSA). A single value of matrix infiltrability characterizes each FSA. The REA as a mosaic of FSAs is hydraulically represented by a characteristic distribution of infiltrabilities. During rainfall or irrigation, each FSA absorbs water into its soil matrix material up to the rate of its matrix infiltrability. Water applied in excess of this infiltrability is assumed to flow into a macropore within or adjacent to the FSA, becoming preferential flow. Especially if crusted or hydrophobic, an FSA can generate preferential flow even during low-intensity rainfall when other FSAs are absorbing all incident water into the matrix. The total flux of preferential flow at given depth is the sum of contributions from all FSAs. In this way the characteristic distribution of FSA infiltrabilities controls the field-scale partitioning of matrix and macropore flow as an emergent phenomenon. Illustrative case studies use field-measured data concerning water application rate and preferential flux. Results show this model can quantitatively represent observations of preferential flow occurring in relatively dry soils or at modest rainfall intensities.

  13. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell infiltration and neuroinflammation in the HexB−/− mouse model of neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kyrkanides, Stephanos; Miller, Ann W.; Miller, Jen-nie H.; Tallents, Ross H.; Brouxhon, Sabine M.; Olschowka, Malory E.; O’Banion, M. Kerry; Olschowka, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Myeloid-derived immune cells, including microglia, macrophages and monocytes, have been previously implicated in neurodegeneration. We investigated the role of infiltrating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the HexB−/− mouse model of Sandhoff disease. Ablation of the chemokine receptor CCR2 in the HexB−/− mouse resulted in significant inhibition of PBMC infiltration into the brain, decrease in TNFα and MHC-II mRNA abundance and retardation in clinical disease development. There was no change in the level of GM2 storage and pro-apoptotic activity or astrocyte activation in HexB−/−;Ccr2−/− double knockout mice, which eventually succumbed secondary to GM2 gangliosidosis. PMID:18657867

  14. A novel experiment for measuring infiltration into seasonal frozen soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demand, Dominic; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Large parts of the northern hemisphere have at least seasonal frozen soils. Depending on the initial soil water content infiltration capacity can be reduced through pore blockage of ice. Many studies dealing with this topic used numerical modelling for estimating the effect of frozen soils on infiltration. Only a few studies investigated the influences of seasonal frozen soils on infiltration and runoff generation in field experiments. Some authors point out that preferential flow can be an important factor under frozen conditions, but only qualitative information are available so far. A missing methodology makes it hard to measure and quantify infiltration into frozen soils, especially the role of preferential flow. Therefore, a novel multi-method approach for measuring the influences of seasonal frozen soil on infiltration is presented. Sprinkling experiments with a rate of 50 mm/h were performed at frozen soil plots under wet and dry initial conditions in a grassland field site in the Black Forest, Germany. Additionally, two different water temperatures were used for the sprinkling experiments (~2°C and ~10°C). Thermal infrared imagery was tested for continuous, in-situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal soil thermal state during infiltration and the possibility to derive information on water flow. A dye tracer (Brilliant Blue FCF) was added to the infiltrating water and analyzed by image analysis for flow patterns and depth distribution. Thermal infrared imagery and dye tracer were used for the first time in field experiments in frozen soils and were tested for their potential to show the effect of preferential flow under frozen conditions. These information were related to observed soil moisture and temperature profiles measured with capacitance probes in five depths. Furthermore timing and amount of surface runoff was examined for all plots. Brilliant Blue flow patterns and surface runoff were compared against unfrozen soils with similar initial conditions

  15. Inverse modelling of multiple infiltration-outflow experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotková, M.; Snehota, M.; Dohnal, M.; Cislerova, M.

    2009-04-01

    Changes of (quasi)steady state water flow rates were observed in laboratory infiltration experiments done on columns of compacted sand and on two undisturbed soil columns of sandy loam and loamy sand cambisol soil. Infiltration-outflow experiments consisted of series of ponded infiltration runs with seepage face boundary condition at the lower end of columns. The initial water contents were different for each run. The results of the experiment done on an undisturbed soil column showed that the flux rates and water contents measured during quasi-steady state differ between infiltration runs. This finding contradicts the standard theory. The fluctuations of the water content during the steady state flow can be ascribed to the variations in volume of the entrapped air. The same behaviour was not observed in the sample of homogeneous sand. Computer tomography was used to characterize the structure of the undisturbed soil sample with focus on potential preferential flow pathways. In order to asses the changes between runs quantitatively, hydraulic characteristics were estimated for each infiltration run separately by inverse modelling. Experimental outflow data and tensiometric pressure head data were used as an input for inverse modelling. Numerical code based on dual permeability approach was coupled with parameter estimator. Result of the inverse modelling for each column is specific set of hydraulic properties for each infiltration run of particular soil column. Since we hypothesise that the steady state flow is affected by soil water content at the beginning of the infiltration run, we will study the relationships between initial moistures and hydraulic parameters values. Furthermore we will test if the above phenomena can be ascribed to hysteresis of hydraulic functions.

  16. Infiltration front monitoring using 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxarango, Laurent; Audebert, Marine; Guyard, Helene; Clement, Remi

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) geophysical method is commonly used to identify the spatial distribution of electrical resisitivity in the soil at the field scale. Recent progress in commercial acquisition systems allows repeating fast acquisitions (10 min) in order to monitor a 3D dynamic phenomenon. Since the ERT method is sensitive to moisture content variations, it can thus be used to delineate the infiltration shape during water infiltration. In heterogeneous conditions, the 3D infiltration shape is a crucial information because it could differ significantly from the homogeneous behavior. In a first step, the ERT method is validated at small scale (<1m) studying a suction infiltrometer test. The experiment is carried out in a pit filled with a homogenous silty-sandy soil. It is instrumented by 17 resistivity probes and 3 commercial capacitive moisture content probes to provide local measurements of the moisture content variation. The Multiple Inversion and Clustering Strategy (MICS) (Audebert et al 2014) is used to delineate the infiltration patern. A satisfying agreement between infiltration delineation and sensor measurements is obtained with a few centimeter accuracy on the moisture front location. In a second step, the same methodology is applied at a larger scale (> 10m). Two examples of leachate injection monitoring in municipal solid waste landfills are used to put forward benefits and limitations of the ERT-MICS method. Effective infiltration porosities in a range between 3% and 8% support the assumption of a flow in heterogeneous media. Audebert, M., R. Clément, N. Touze-Foltz, T. Günther, S. Moreau, and C. Duquennoi (2014), Time-lapse ERT interpretation methodology for leachate injection monitoring based on multiple inversions and a clustering strategy (MICS), Journal of Applied Geophysics, 111, 320-333. Keywords: ERT, infiltration front, field survey

  17. Brain abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... with certain heart disorders, may receive antibiotics before dental or other procedures to help reduce the risk of infection. Alternative Names Abscess - brain; Cerebral abscess; CNS abscess Images Amebic brain ...

  18. Brain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  19. Brain surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... Before surgery, the hair on part of the scalp is shaved and the area is cleaned. The doctor makes ...

  20. Brain Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercise, diet and nutrition, cognitive activity, and social engagement — can help keep your body and brain ... Stay Mentally Active > Mentally challenging activities and social engagement may support brain health. Learn More Plan ahead ...

  1. Role of CXCR4-mediated bone marrow colonization in CNS infiltration by T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jost, Tanja Rezzonico; Borga, Chiara; Radaelli, Enrico; Romagnani, Andrea; Perruzza, Lisa; Omodho, Lorna; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Biondi, Andrea; Indraccolo, Stefano; Thelen, Marcus; Te Kronnie, Geertruy; Grassi, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Infiltration of the central nervous system is a severe trait of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 significantly ameliorates T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in murine models of the disease; however, signaling by CXC chemokine receptor 4 is important in limiting the divagation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells out of the perivascular space into the central nervous system parenchyma. Therefore, Inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 potentially may untangle T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from retention outside the brain. Here, we show that leukemic lymphoblasts massively infiltrate cranial bone marrow, with diffusion to the meninges without invasion of the brain parenchyma, in mice that underwent xenotransplantation with human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells or that developed leukemia from transformed hematopoietic progenitors. We tested the hypothesis that T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia neuropathology results from meningeal infiltration through CXC chemokine receptor 4-mediated bone marrow colonization. Inhibition of leukemia engraftment in the bone marrow by pharmacologic CXC chemokine receptor 4 antagonism significantly ameliorated neuropathologic aspects of the disease. Genetic deletion of CXCR4 in murine hematopoietic progenitors abrogated leukemogenesis induced by constitutively active Notch1, whereas lack of CCR6 and CCR7, which have been shown to be involved in T cell and leukemia extravasation into the central nervous system, respectively, did not influence T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia development. We hypothesize that lymphoblastic meningeal infiltration as a result of bone marrow colonization is responsible for the degenerative alterations of the neuroparenchyma as well as the alteration of cerebrospinal fluid drainage in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenografts. Therefore, CXC chemokine receptor 4 may constitute a pharmacologic target for T cell acute lymphoblastic

  2. Measurement of ischemic changes in cerebral blood flow by the hydrogen clearance technique and brain cortical temperature. Influence of flunarizine.

    PubMed

    Marrannes, R; Edmonds, H L; Wauquier, A; Melis, W; Van Loon, J

    1986-06-01

    In dogs global cerebral ischemia was produced by clamping reversibly the left subclavian and brachiocephalic arteries, supplying the head. The intercostal arteries were ligated permanently. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured discontinuously using a hydrogen saturation-desaturation technique. Clamping of the former two vessels caused an increase in systemic blood pressure. When this increase was not blunted by previous splenectomy and blood withdrawal a still important CBF remained during the clamp. However, if this rise in blood pressure was impaired, CBF decreased to 9 +/- 8% (mean +/- S.D., n = 14) of the pre-ischemic value. Flunarizine is known to have anti-hypoxic/ischemic properties. The influence of this drug (0.1 mg/kg i.v.), injected 10 min after the beginning of a 30-min ischemia period, on the post-ischemic CBF was investigated. Two-three hour after ischemia CBF was significantly lower in the solvent-treated animals than in the flunarizine-treated group, in which CBF approached the preischemic values. Changes in CBF were also followed continuously by measurement of the variations of brain versus aortic temperature. It was analyzed what information this can provide on CBF. PMID:3753102

  3. The Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, David H.

    1979-01-01

    This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

  4. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  5. Residential infiltration of fine and ultrafine particles in Edmonton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Jill; Wallace, Lance; MacNeill, Morgan; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Kindzierski, Warren; Wheeler, Amanda

    2014-09-01

    Airborne indoor particles arise from both indoor sources and ambient particles that have infiltrated indoors. The intra-urban variability of infiltration factors (Finf) is a source of measurement error in epidemiological studies estimating exposure from a central site measurement, hence information on the within and between-home variability of Finf is useful to better characterize ambient PM exposure. The objective of this paper was to estimate magnitudes and predictors of daily residential infiltration factors (Finf) and ambient/non-ambient components of indoor ultrafine particle (UFP) and fine particle (FP) concentrations. FPs and UFPs were measured continuously for 7 consecutive days in 74 Edmonton homes in winter and summer 2010 (50 homes in each season). Simultaneous measurements of outdoor (near-home) FP and ambient (at a central site) UFP concentrations were also measured. Daily infiltration factors were estimated for each home; considerable variability was seen within and between homes. For FPs, seasonal-averaged Finf (the average of the 7 daily Finf estimates) ranged from 0.10 to 0.92 in winter (median = 0.30, n = 49) and 0.31 to 0.99 in summer (median = 0.68, n = 48). For UFPs, the seasonal-averaged Finf ranged from 0.08 to 0.47 across homes in winter (median = 0.21, n = 33 houses) and from 0.16 to 0.94 in summer (median = 0.57, n = 48). The higher median Finf in summer was attributed to a high frequency of open windows. Daily infiltration factors were also estimated based on the indoor/outdoor PM1 sulfur ratio. These estimates were poorly correlated with DustTrak-based FP infiltration factor estimates; the difference may be due to losses of volatile components on the PM1 filter samples. Generalized linear mixed models were used to identify variables significantly associated with Finf and the non-ambient component of indoor FP and UFP concentrations. Wind speed was consistently associated with Finf across all seasons for both FPs and UFPs. The use of an

  6. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  7. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Landscape of tumor-infiltrating T cell repertoire of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Li, Taiwen; Pignon, Jean-Christophe; Wang, Binbin; Wang, Jinzeng; Shukla, Sachet A; Dou, Ruoxu; Chen, Qianming; Hodi, F Stephen; Choueiri, Toni K; Wu, Catherine; Hacohen, Nir; Signoretti, Sabina; Liu, Jun S; Liu, X Shirley

    2016-07-01

    We developed a computational method to infer the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences of tumor-infiltrating T cells in 9,142 RNA-seq samples across 29 cancer types. We identified over 600,000 CDR3 sequences, including 15% that were full length. CDR3 sequence length distribution and amino acid conservation, as well as variable gene usage, for infiltrating T cells in many tumors, except in brain and kidney cancers, resembled those for peripheral blood cells from healthy donors. We observed a strong association between T cell diversity and tumor mutation load, and we predicted SPAG5 and TSSK6 as putative immunogenic cancer/testis antigens in multiple cancers. Finally, we identified three potential immunogenic somatic mutations on the basis of their co-occurrence with CDR3 sequences. One of them, a PRAMEF4 mutation encoding p.Phe300Val, was predicted to result in peptide binding strongly to both MHC class I and class II molecules, with matched HLA types in its carriers. Our analyses have the potential to simultaneously identify immunogenic neoantigens and tumor-reactive T cell clonotypes. PMID:27240091

  9. Brain Basics: Know Your Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... fact sheet is a basic introduction to the human brain. It may help you understand how the healthy ... largest and most highly developed part of the human brain: it consists primarily of the cerebrum ( 2 ) and ...

  10. A hydrologic analysis for the infiltration basins planned on Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kang, T.; Lee, J.; Kang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Urban development is a cause of expansion of impervious area. It reduces infiltration of rain water and may increase runoff volume from storms. Infiltration basins can be a method to receive storm water and to let the water move into the soil. The contents of the study include a hydrologic analysis on a site and an evaluation of the capacity of infiltration basins planned on the site. Most region of Jeju Island, Korea is highly pervious. Three infiltration basins were designed on the area of the Jeju English Education City. To evaluate adequacy of the capacities of the infiltration basins, infiltration rates were measured and storm water runoff was simulated. Infiltration rates on the surface of the reserved land for infiltration basins were measured by a standard double ring infiltrometer or a small infiltrometer. A FORTRAN version of SWMM was modified to incorporate the infiltration basin and the basic equations of the infiltration basin are same as those of the infiltration trench used in MIDUSS. The code modified was used to simulate storm runoff from watersheds, infiltration from the infiltration basins, and reservoir routing of the infiltration basins. The saturated hydraulic conductivities on the reserved sites were measured by 0.0068, 0.0038, and 0.00017 cm/sec. The return period of the design rainfall is fifty years. The following results were obtained from a hydrologic analysis on the watersheds and the infiltration basins to be built. The two infiltration basins with higher infiltration rates have adequate capacities to infiltrate the total water inflow to the basins. Some water, however releases from the other infiltration basin and the capacity of the basin is not sufficient to infiltrate the total runoff after the land use change. A channel is needed in which the water released from the less pervious basin flows. The hydrologic analysis method of the study can be used for capacity evaluation of future infiltration basins on highly pervious areas in

  11. The Brains Behind the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Arcangelo, Marcia

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with five neuroscientists--Martin Diamond, Pat Wolfe, Robert Sylwester, Geoffrey Caine, and Eric Jensen--disclose brain-research findings of practical interest to educators. Topics include brain physiology, environmental enrichment, memorization, windows of learning opportunity, brain learning capacity, attention span, student interest,…

  12. Enhancement of T cell recruitment and infiltration into tumours

    PubMed Central

    Oelkrug, C; Ramage, J M

    2014-01-01

    Studies have documented that cancer patients with tumours which are highly infiltrated with cytotoxic T lymphocytes show enhanced survival rates. The ultimate goal of cancer immunotherapy is to elicit high-avidity tumour-specific T cells to migrate and kill malignant tumours. Novel antibody therapies such as ipilumimab (a cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 blocking antibody) show enhanced T cell infiltration into the tumour tissue and increased survival. More conventional therapies such as chemotherapy or anti-angiogenic therapy and recent therapies with oncolytic viruses have been shown to alter the tumour microenvironment and thereby lead to enhanced T cell infiltration. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the migration of high-avidity tumour-specific T cells into tumours will support and provide solutions for the optimization of therapeutic options in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24828133

  13. Mathematical physics of infiltration on flat and sloping topography

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    We review the modern mathematical-physical analysis of water movement in unsaturated soils, which is central to understanding of the terrestrial segment of the hydrologic cycle. The relevant flow equation is a strongly nonlinear Fokker-Planck (convection-diffusion) equation. The theory of infiltration (the penetration into a soil mass of water made available at its surface) is described. Solutions are developed for hillslope topographies. We deal primarily with ponded infiltration, but constant-rainfall infiltration is discussed also. The emphasis is on quasi-analytic and analytic solutions. Fully nonlinear solutions are developed, together with linearized solutions of certain problems. The nonlinear solutions involve either usefully convergent series or traveling waves. The linearizations use product solutions.

  14. Diffuse Infiltrative Gastrointestinal Lipomatosis in a Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Beninson, Jennifer A; Keller, Jill M; Hoenerhoff, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    An intact adult male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) went into cardiopulmonary arrest during a surgical procedure, and efforts at resuscitation were unsuccessful. Gross examination revealed a gastric rupture along the greater curvature of the stomach, which was associated with free blood and ingesta in the abdominal cavity, and a 2-cm nodular, partially circumferential, soft-to-firm mass within the pyloric region. Histologically, the pyloric mass was composed of sheets of infiltrative adipocytes expanding the muscular wall. Similar infiltrative sheets of adipocytes were present adjacent to the rupture site and within the small intestine, cecum, and colon. These findings are consistent with diffuse infiltrative lipomatosis, an exceedingly rare condition in human and veterinary species. This report is the first description of this rare disease in guinea pigs, and the concurrent involvement of both the stomach and intestines has not been reported in any veterinary species. PMID:26473346

  15. Granuloma annulare with prominent lymphoid infiltrates ("pseudolymphomatous" granuloma annulare).

    PubMed

    Cota, Carlo; Ferrara, Gerardo; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2012-05-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is characterized histopathologically by 3 patterns: necrobiotic granuloma, interstitial incomplete form and, rarely, sarcoidal or tuberculoid granuloma. The amount of lymphoid infiltrate in GA is usually limited. We describe 10 cases of GA with prominent "pseudolymphomatous" lymphoid infiltrates mimicking cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. Patients were 6 males and 4 females (mean age 49.9 years, median age 47 years, age range 25-70). Lesions were localized to a limited area of the body (n = 6), or involved the entire trunk (n = 3), or were generalized (n = 1). The correct clinical diagnosis of GA was provided only in 30% of the cases. In all cases, histopathologic features were characterized by dense, nodular, superficial, and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes. Immunohistology revealed predominance of T lymphocytes in 7 of 7 tested cases. This "pseudolymphomatous" variant of GA represents a pitfall in the histopathologic diagnosis of the disease and may be misinterpreted as other types of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:22207445

  16. Runoff production on a slope with randomly distributed infiltrabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouche, E.; Harel, M.

    2013-12-01

    Runoff generated on one- and two-dimensional slopes with randomly distributed infiltrability is studied in the queuing theory and connectivity frameworks. The equivalence between the runoff-runon equation and the customers waiting time in a single server queue provides a theoretical link between the statistical descriptions of infiltrability and that of runoff flow rate. Different distributions of infiltrability, representing soil heterogeneities at different scales, are considered. Numerical simulations validate these results and improve our understanding of runoff-runon process. All of the quantities describing the generation of runoff (runoff one-point statistics) and its organization into patterns (patterns statistics and connectivity) are studied as functions of rainfall rate and runoff dimensionality.

  17. Vegetation on the Soil Infiltration System Treating Livestock Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Shinji; Fujikawa, Yoko; Fukui, Masami; Hamasaki, Tastuhide; Sugahara, Masataka

    In the overland flow wastewater treatments and the constructed wetlands, the purification by soil infiltration units is enhanced using vegetation. However, wetland plants (i.e. cattail (Typha latifolia)) and trees, rather than agronomic crops, have been used in conventional systems. We carried out laboratory-scale soil infiltration experiments using two forage crops, tall fescue (Festuca araundinacea) and white clover (Trifolium repens) while using livestock wastewater for irrigation. The purpose of the study was to clarify the amount of accumulation of available phosphorus and exchangeable cations in the soil and its effect on the plant growth. The application of livestock wastewater increased available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium and sodium in the upper soil. The soil sodification, examined based on exchangeable sodium ratio and plant growth, was not very significant after 10 months of livestock wastewater application. Growing forage crops on the soil infiltration system may be a promising technology to improve crop production and treatment efficacy.

  18. Improved infiltration of stem cells on electrospun nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Shabani, Iman; Haddadi-Asl, Vahid; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Babaeijandaghi, Farshad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2009-04-24

    Nanofibrous scaffolds have been recently used in the field of tissue engineering because of their nano-size structure which promotes cell attachment, function, proliferation and infiltration. In this study, nanofibrous polyethersulfone (PES) scaffolds was prepared via electrospinning. The scaffolds were surface modified by plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The surface changes then investigated by contact angle measurements and FTIR-ATR. The results proved grafting of the collagen on nanofibers surface and increased hydrophilicity after plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The cell interaction study was done using stem cells because of their ability to differentiate to different kinds of cell lines. The cells had normal morphology on nanofibers and showed very high infiltration through collagen grafted PES nanofibers. This infiltration capability is very useful and needed to make 3D scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  19. Leukocyte infiltration into spinal cord of EAE mice is attenuated by removal of endothelial leptin signaling.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Suidong; Hsuchou, Hung; Kastin, Abba J; Mishra, Pramod K; Wang, Yuping; Pan, Weihong

    2014-08-01

    Leptin, a pleiotropic adipokine, crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) from the periphery and facilitates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE induces dynamic changes of leptin receptors in enriched brain and spinal cord microvessels, leading to further questions about the potential roles of endothelial leptin signaling in EAE progression. In endothelial leptin receptor specific knockout (ELKO) mice, there were lower EAE behavioral scores in the early phase of the disorder, better preserved BSCB function shown by reduced uptake of sodium fluorescein and leukocyte infiltration into the spinal cord. Flow cytometry showed that the ELKO mutation decreased the number of CD3 and CD45 cells in the spinal cord, although immune cell profiles in peripheral organs were unchanged. Not only were CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes reduced, there were also lower numbers of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) granulocytes in the spinal cord of ELKO mice. In enriched microvessels from the spinal cord of the ELKO mice, the decreased expression of mRNAs for a few tight junction proteins was less pronounced in ELKO than WT mice, as was the elevation of mRNA for CCL5, CXCL9, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Altogether, ELKO mice show reduced inflammation at the level of the BSCB, less leukocyte infiltration, and better preserved tight junction protein expression and BBB function than WT mice after EAE. Although leptin concentrations were high in ELKO mice and microvascular leptin receptors show an initial elevation before inhibition during the course of EAE, removal of leptin signaling helped to reduce disease burden. We conclude that endothelial leptin signaling exacerbates BBB dysfunction to worsen EAE. PMID:24576482

  20. The diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS). A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ghrenassia, Etienne; Martis, Nihal; Boyer, Julien; Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny; Mekinian, Arsène; Coppo, Paul

    2015-05-01

    The Diffuse Infiltrative Lymphocytosis Syndrome (DILS) is a rare multisystemic syndrome described in HIV-infected patients. It is characterised by CD8(+) T-cell lymphocytosis associated with a CD8(+) T-cell infiltration of multiple organs. DILS is usually seen in uncontrolled or untreated HIV infection but can also manifest itself independently of CD4(+) T-cell counts. The syndrome may present as a Sjögren-like disease that generally associates sicca signs with bilateral parotiditis, lymphadenopathy, and extraglandular organ involvement. The latter may affect the lungs, nervous system, liver, kidneys, and digestive tract. Anomalies of the respiratory system are often identified as lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. Facial nerve palsy, aseptic meningitis or polyneuropathy are among the more frequent neurological features. Hepatic lymphocytic infiltration, lymphocytic interstitial nephropathy and digestive tract lymphocytic infiltration account for more rarely noted complications. Sicca syndrome, organomegaly and/or organ dysfunction associated with polyclonal CD8(+) T-cell organ-infiltration are greatly suggestive of DILS in people living with HIV. Labial salivary gland biopsy is therefore helpful when the focus score is equal or greater than 1 (or Chisholm Score ≥ 3). Primary Sjögren syndrome, chronic HCV or HTLV1 infection, graft versus host disease, IgG4-related disease, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome are among the differential diagnoses that need to be considered. Treatment consists in highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), which is usually effective in resolving clinical signs and symptoms. Steroids, however, may also be occasionally required when organ infiltration does not respond to HAART. This review should provide an insight into this rare entity complicating the course of HIV infection. PMID:25660200

  1. Streamflow, Infiltration, and Recharge in Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Infiltration events in channels that flow only sporadically produce focused recharge to the Tesuque aquifer in the Espa?ola Basin. The current study examined the quantity and timing of streamflow and associated infiltration in Arroyo Hondo, an unregulated mountain-front stream that enters the basin from the western slope of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Traditional methods of stream gaging were combined with environmental-tracer based methods to provide the estimates. The study was conducted during a three-year period, October 1999?October 2002. The period was characterized by generally low precipitation and runoff. Summer monsoonal rains produced four brief periods of streamflow in water year 2000, only three of which extended beyond the mountain front, and negligible runoff in subsequent years. The largest peak flow during summer monsoon events was 0.59 cubic meters per second. Snowmelt was the main contributor to annual streamflow. Snowmelt produced more cumulative flow downstream from the mountain front during the study period than summer monsoonal rains. The presence or absence of streamflow downstream of the mountain front was determined by interpretation of streambed thermographs. Infiltration rates were estimated by numerical modeling of transient vertical streambed temperature profiles. Snowmelt extended throughout the instrumented reach during the spring of 2001. Flow was recorded at a station two kilometers downstream from the mountain front for six consecutive days in March. Inverse modeling of this event indicated an average infiltration rate of 1.4 meters per day at this location. For the entire study reach, the estimated total annual volume of infiltration ranged from 17,100 to 246,000 m3 during water years 2000 and 2001. During water year 2002, due to severe drought, streamflow and streambed infiltration in the study reach were both zero.

  2. Brain magnetic resolution imaging to diagnose bing-neel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Jung; Suh, Sang-Il; Kim, Joo Han; Kim, Byung-Jo

    2009-12-01

    Radiologic findings of Bing-Neel syndrome, which is an extremely uncommon complication resulting from malignant lymphocyte infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM), have been infrequently reported due to extreme rarity of the case. A 75-year-old man with WM presented at a neurology clinic with progressive gait and memory disturbances, and dysarthria of 2 months duration. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation electrophoresis showed IgM kappa-type monoclonal gammopathy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multifocal, hyperintense lesions on T2 weighted-images. Brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) demonstrated hyperintensities in cerebral and cerebellar lesions that appeared isointense on apparent diffusion coefficient maps, which were compatible with vasogenic edema. Although histologic analysis is a confirmative study to prove direct cell infiltration into the brain, brain MRI with DWI may be a good supportive study to diagnose Bing-Neel syndrome. PMID:20062579

  3. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  4. Local infiltrative anesthesia for transaxillary subpectoral breast implants.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A A

    1995-01-01

    Breast augmentations using a transaxillary subpectoral approach are usually performed under general anesthesia. This article describes a technique that uses local infiltrative anesthesia in breast augmentation, adenomastectomies with immediate breast reconstruction, and when placing breast expansors. Large anesthetic solutions with vasoconstrictor and long-acting effects are prepared. The axila, the subpectoral space, and a surrounding area of 3 cm outside the demarcation limits are infiltrated. Minimal bleeding, long-lasting effects, and a considerable postoperative analgesic effect are some of the advantages of this procedure. PMID:7900554

  5. Infiltrative pattern of carcinomatosis in extremity muscles on MRI.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Fatima; Hwang, Sinchun; Landa, Jonathan; Lefkowitz, Robert A; Panicek, David M

    2016-01-01

    Carcinomas can cause an unusual, infiltrative pattern of metastatic carcinoma in extremity muscles on MRI. To assess this pattern, reports of MRI exams of 907 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of carcinoma were reviewed retrospectively to identify those that mentioned muscle metastasis or myositis in an extremity. Thirty-six (4%) of those reports described muscle metastasis (n=18) or myositis (n=18); based on medical record review and imaging follow-up, 17 cases represented metastases. Metastases manifested as an infiltrative carcinomatosis pattern in five patients, resulted from primary esophageal or gastric adenocarcinomas, and often were misdiagnosed as myositis. PMID:27133685

  6. An experiment of rainfall infiltration under different boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Shuang; Tong, Fuguo; Xue, Song

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall infiltration is a two-phase flow of water and gas, which should be simulated through solving the nonlinear governing equations of gas and water flow. In order to avoid the three main problems, such as convergence, numerical stability and computational efficiency in the solution of the nonlinear governing equations, Richard equation was usually used to simulate rainfall infiltration when the effect of gas phase could be ignored. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of boundary condition on rainfall infiltration, and to know in which cases Richard equation is available for the simulation of rainfall infiltration. The sample of soil has a height of 1200 mm. It is tightly enclosed in a toughened glass sleeve. The gas pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure on the top surface of the model. The gas tight of its bottom can be controlled by a tap to simulate two different gas boundary conditions, permeable boundary and impermeable boundary. When the bottom of the model is not gas tight, the water infiltration rate is entirely bigger than gas tight. There is a big difference over the long time of rainfall that infiltration rate tends to be stable to 0.05cm/min when permeable but it is only 0.002cm/min when impermeable. The dramatic contrast reflects that gas paly a hindered part during rainfall infiltration. In addition, the gas pressure is obviously lower when the model is not gas tight. Although the pore gas pressure rise a little bit when water block gas, it is still same with atmospheric pressure all time. The situation is different when gas tight, the pore gas pressure increases sharply in the early stage and stable to a higher value, such as 10cm gas pressure on 67cm depth. Therefore, people basically negate the correlation between gas pressure and rainfall infiltration rate, but the evidence points out that the effect of gas pressure is in a significant position and Richard equations are not accurate under gas impermeable condition.

  7. Intracystic papillary breast carcinoma with areas of infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Martín Gutiérrez, Silvia; Nieto Gallo, María Antonia; Noguero Meseguera, Rosario; Rodríguez Prieto, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast associated with areas of infiltration is rare in that it constitutes less than 1% of breast cancers. After initial radiological study, these tumors show lesions with little likelihood of malignancy in a high proportion of cases. Two cases of intracystic papillary carcinoma associated with infiltration were diagnosed at the Breast Unit of Hospital Infanta Cristina. In both cases, the reason for consultation arose after palpation of a nodule and the initial radiographic analyses showed lesions with little likelihood of malignancy. PMID:24893058

  8. Infiltration of CCR2+Ly6Chigh Proinflammatory Monocytes and Neutrophils into the Central Nervous System Is Modulated by Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; St-Pierre, Stéphanie; Roy, Patrick; Morley, Barbara J; Hao, Junwei; Simard, Alain R

    2016-03-01

    Myeloid cells, including proinflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, have important roles in the pathology of multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). These cells infiltrate the CNS in the early stages of disease development and contribute to the inflammatory response that is associated with symptom severity. It is thus crucial to identify and understand new mechanisms that can regulate the CNS infiltration of proinflammatory myeloid cells. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been increasingly studied for their immune-regulatory properties. In this study, we assessed the ability of nicotine, an nAChR ligand, to modulate proinflammatory myeloid cell numbers within the bone marrow, spleen, blood, and CNS of EAE mice. We found that nicotine significantly inhibits the infiltration of proinflammatory monocytes and neutrophils into the CNS at time points where these cells are known to play critical roles in disease pathology. In contrast, nicotine does not affect the expansion of other monocytes. We also show that nicotine exerts these effects by acting on α7 and α9 nAChR subtypes. Finally, mRNA transcript levels for CCL2 and CXCL2, chemokines involved in the chemotaxis of proinflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, respectively, are reduced in the brain of nicotine-treated EAE mice before the massive infiltration of these cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence that nAChRs can regulate proinflammatory cell infiltration into the CNS, which could be of significant value for the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:26810225

  9. Infiltration of CCR2+Ly6Chigh Proinflammatory Monocytes and Neutrophils into the Central Nervous System Is Modulated by Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; St-Pierre, Stéphanie; Roy, Patrick; Morley, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid cells, including proinflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, have important roles in the pathology of multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). These cells infiltrate the CNS in the early stages of disease development and contribute to the inflammatory response that is associated with symptom severity. It is thus crucial to identify and understand new mechanisms that can regulate the CNS infiltration of proinflammatory myeloid cells. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been increasingly studied for their immune-regulatory properties. In this study, we assessed the ability of nicotine, an nAChR ligand, to modulate proinflammatory myeloid cell numbers within the bone marrow, spleen, blood, and CNS of EAE mice. We found that nicotine significantly inhibits the infiltration of proinflammatory monocytes and neutrophils into the CNS at time points where these cells are known to play critical roles in disease pathology. In contrast, nicotine does not affect the expansion of other monocytes. We also show that nicotine exerts these effects by acting on α7 and α9 nAChR subtypes. Finally, mRNA transcript levels for CCL2 and CXCL2, chemokines involved in the chemotaxis of proinflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, respectively, are reduced in the brain of nicotine-treated EAE mice before the massive infiltration of these cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence that nAChRs can regulate proinflammatory cell infiltration into the CNS, which could be of significant value for the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:26810225

  10. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  11. 9. UPSTREAM EXTENSION TO 60' INFILTRATION PIPE: REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. UPSTREAM EXTENSION TO 60' INFILTRATION PIPE: REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF VALVE CONTROL STRUCTURE. Sheet A-20, July, 1939. File no. SA 342/29. - Prado Dam, Embankment, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  12. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  13. Perfluorocarbon tracer method for air-infiltration measurements

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.

    1982-09-23

    A method of measuring air infiltration rates suitable for use in rooms of homes and buildings comprises the steps of emitting perfluorocarbons in the room to be measured, sampling the air containing the emitted perfluorocarbons over a period of time, and analyzing the samples at a laboratory or other facility.

  14. Weed management using goats: Effects on water infiltration rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats are used increasingly for weed control, fire fuel reduction and ecological restoration. The high stocking rates typical of these applications have been reported to decrease the rate of water infiltration in goat pastures. The hypothesis that annual goat browsing for weed control decreases infi...

  15. Diffuse Infiltrative Lesion of the Breast: Clinical and Radiologic Features

    PubMed Central

    An, Yeong Yi; Cha, Eun Suk; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Na Young; Whang, In Yong; Yoon, Soo Kyung

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the clinical and radiologic features of a variety of diffuse, infiltrative breast lesions, as well to review the relevant literature. Radiologists must be familiar with the various conditions that can diffusely involve the breast, including normal physiologic changes, benign disease and malignant neoplasm. PMID:21228947

  16. Improved Cellular Infiltration in Electrospun Fiber via Engineered Porosity

    PubMed Central

    NAM, JIN; HUANG, YAN; AGARWAL, SUDHA; LANNUTTI, JOHN

    2016-01-01

    Small pore sizes inherent to electrospun matrices can hinder efficient cellular ingrowth. To facilitate infiltration while retaining its extracellular matrix-like character, electrospinning was combined with salt leaching to produce a scaffold having deliberate, engineered delaminations. We made elegant use of a specific randomizing component of the electrospinning process, the Taylor Cone and the falling fiber beneath it, to produce a uniform, well-spread distribution of salt particles. After 3 weeks of culture, up to 4 mm of cellular infiltration was observed, along with cellular coverage of up to 70% within the delaminations. To our knowledge, this represents the first observation of extensive cellular infiltration of electrospun matrices. Infiltration appears to be driven primarily by localized proliferation rather than coordinated cellular locomotion. Cells also moved from the salt-generated porosity into the surrounding electrospun fiber matrix. Given that the details of salt deposition (amount, size, and number density) are far from optimized, the result provides a convincing illustration of the ability of mammalian cells to interact with appropriately tailored electrospun matrices. These layered structures can be precisely fabricated by varying the deposition interval and particle size conceivably to produce in vivo-like gradients in porosity such that the resulting scaffolds better resemble the desired final structure. PMID:17536926

  17. The effectiveness of articaine in mandibular facial infiltrations

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Dennis F

    2016-01-01

    Four percent articaine local anesthetic has been successfully used to attain local anesthesia for dental procedures. Mandibular block anesthesia may consume longer time to attain and have a higher failure of local anesthesia compared to infiltration. Mandibular facial infiltration has been reported to successfully attain effective local anesthesia for dental procedures. This study involved only several tooth sites and found that 1.8 cc of 4% articaine facial infiltration in the mandible may be effective when the facial mandibular cortex is <2.0–3.0 mm. A waiting time of 5–10 minutes may be required for effective anesthesia. An additional 1.8 cc of dose may be required to attain anesthesia if an initial 1.8 cc of dose fails. The need for additional anesthetic may be predicted by a measurement of the facial cortex using cone beam computerized tomography. A study of mandibular sites is needed to delineate the anatomical dimensions, density of cortical bone, and apical neural location for ensuring successful local anesthetic infiltration. PMID:26730209

  18. Polyacrylamide molecular weight effects on soil infiltration and erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seal formation at the surface of smectitic soils during rainstorms reduces soil infiltration rate (IR) and causes runoff and erosion. Surface application of dry anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) with high molecular weight (MW) has been found to be effective in stabilizing soil aggregates, and decreasing ...

  19. Immune infiltrates are prognostic factors in localized gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Semeraro, Michaela; Sarabi, Matthieu; Desbois, Mélanie; Locher, Clara; Mendez, Rosa; Vimond, Nadège; Concha, Angel; Garrido, Federico; Isambert, Nicolas; Chaigneau, Loic; Le Brun-Ly, Valérie; Dubreuil, Patrice; Cremer, Isabelle; Caignard, Anne; Poirier-Colame, Vichnou; Chaba, Kariman; Flament, Caroline; Halama, Niels; Jäger, Dirk; Eggermont, Alexander; Bonvalot, Sylvie; Commo, Frédéric; Terrier, Philippe; Opolon, Paule; Emile, Jean-François; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Kroemer, Guido; Chaput, Nathalie; Le Cesne, Axel; Blay, Jean-Yves; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2013-06-15

    Cancer immunosurveillance relies on effector/memory tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells with a T-helper cell 1 (TH1) profile. Evidence for a natural killer (NK) cell-based control of human malignancies is still largely missing. The KIT tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate markedly prolongs the survival of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) by direct effects on tumor cells as well as by indirect immunostimulatory effects on T and NK cells. Here, we investigated the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) expressing CD3, Foxp3, or NKp46 (NCR1) in a cohort of patients with localized GIST. We found that CD3(+) TIL were highly activated in GIST and were especially enriched in areas of the tumor that conserve class I MHC expression despite imatinib mesylate treatment. High densities of CD3(+) TIL predicted progression-free survival (PFS) in multivariate analyses. Moreover, GIST were infiltrated by a homogeneous subset of cytokine-secreting CD56(bright) (NCAM1) NK cells that accumulated in tumor foci after imatinib mesylate treatment. The density of the NK infiltrate independently predicted PFS and added prognostic information to the Miettinen score, as well as to the KIT mutational status. NK and T lymphocytes preferentially distributed to distinct areas of tumor sections and probably contributed independently to GIST immunosurveillance. These findings encourage the prospective validation of immune biomarkers for optimal risk stratification of patients with GIST. PMID:23592754

  20. Groundwater Infiltration Path of Road Deicing Agent and its Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroizumi, T.; Hada, J.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-12-01

    A deicing agent has been sprinkled on an expressway to prevent it from freezing in the hilly and mountainous area along the expressway having been used for more than 30 years. We investigated the infiltration, the river runoff, and the scattering of the de-icing agent quantitatively, observed the variation of water quality in river, and discussed the infiltration route and balance of the deicing agent in order to clarify the influence of the de-icing agent on the groundwater salinization. As a result, it turned out that 65% of the de-icing agent sprinkled on the road surface flowed into the waterway, the 25% infiltrated into underground through the crack of a road surface, and the remaining 10% dispersed out of an expressway. Next, for the rate of the de-icing agent outflowing to the river during a frozen snow term, it was estimated that the 39% of the sprinkled de-icing agent outflowed with surface water, and the 17% did with groundwater. Moreover, it was shown clearly that the 44% was probably stored in underground from the balance between the sprinkled de-icing agent and the outflowing one. In addition, the Cl- concentration of groundwater by the infiltrated deicing agent was simulated to clarify its extent and to predict its change in future when stopped sprinkling the deicing agent.

  1. LAND USE AND MANAGEMENT IMPACT ON INFILTRATION RATE OF SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil physical properties and water infiltration were measured for five land use and soil management practices at North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds, Coshocton, Ohio. The five treatments were no-till with and without manure (NTM, NTWM), no-till corn-soybean rotation (NTCSR), conventional till...

  2. Use of thermal data to estimate infiltration, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    LeCain, Gary D.; Kurzmack, Mark

    2001-04-29

    Temperature and pressure monitoring in a vertical borehole in Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, measured disruptions of the natural gradients associated with the February, 1998, El Nino precipitation events. The temperature and pressure disruptions indicated infiltration and percolation through the 12.1 m of Pagany Wash alluvium and deep percolation to greater than 35.2 m into the Yucca Mountain Tuff.

  3. Manufacturing of Three-dimensionally Microstructured Nanocomposites through Microfluidic Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Dermanaki-Farahani, Rouhollah; Lebel, Louis Laberge; Therriault, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microstructured composite beams reinforced with complex three-dimensionally (3D) patterned nanocomposite microfilaments are fabricated via nanocomposite infiltration of 3D interconnected microfluidic networks. The manufacturing of the reinforced beams begins with the fabrication of microfluidic networks, which involves layer-by-layer deposition of fugitive ink filaments using a dispensing robot, filling the empty space between filaments using a low viscosity resin, curing the resin and finally removing the ink. Self-supported 3D structures with other geometries and many layers (e.g. a few hundreds layers) could be built using this method. The resulting tubular microfluidic networks are then infiltrated with thermosetting nanocomposite suspensions containing nanofillers (e.g. single-walled carbon nanotubes), and subsequently cured. The infiltration is done by applying a pressure gradient between two ends of the empty network (either by applying a vacuum or vacuum-assisted microinjection). Prior to the infiltration, the nanocomposite suspensions are prepared by dispersing nanofillers into polymer matrices using ultrasonication and three-roll mixing methods. The nanocomposites (i.e. materials infiltrated) are then solidified under UV exposure/heat cure, resulting in a 3D-reinforced composite structure. The technique presented here enables the design of functional nanocomposite macroscopic products for microengineering applications such as actuators and sensors. PMID:24686754

  4. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.; Hevesi, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e. winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  5. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.

    2016-07-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  6. Analytical model of infiltration under constant-concentration boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triadis, D.; Broadbridge, P.

    2010-03-01

    Known integrable models for 1D flow in unsaturated soil have a rescaled soil water diffusivity that is either constant or proportional to C(C - 1)/(C - Θ)2, where Θ is the degree of saturation and C > 1 is constant. With a wider more realistic range of hydraulic conductivity functions than has been used in this context before, a formal series solution is developed for infiltration, subject to constant-concentration boundary conditions. A readily programmed iteration algorithm, applicable for any value of C, is used to construct many coefficients of the infiltration series without requiring any numerical integration. In particular, for either C - 1 small or 1/C small, several infiltration series coefficients are constructed as formal power series in C - 1 or in 1/C, for which we construct a number of terms explicitly. In the limit as the diffusivity approaches a delta function, the infiltration coefficients are obtained in simpler closed form. All but the sorptivity depend on the form of the conductivity function.

  7. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L. Hevesi, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  8. SEWER INFILTRATION AND INFLOW CONTROL PRODUCT AND EQUIPMENT GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report lists and discusses new and existing equipment, materials, and practices available to prevent the entry of unwanted water into the sewer system from infiltration and inflow, and thereby needlessly usurping the capacity of the sewerage system. The report has six section...

  9. Pore geometry, avalanching, and subsurface flow: A sand infiltration model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardson, R.; Hunt, J. R.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    The deposition of sand into gravel riverbeds has been well-documented, along with its negative impacts on developing salmon eggs and riverbank extraction for water supplies. Dam releases may be used on regulated rivers to flush the bed of fine sediment, but it is not generally known how deep the sand deposit extends or how much sand is there. One-dimensional (plane-bed) experiments consistently show that the depth of infiltration is a function of the sand and gravel grain size distributions and that the saturation sand fraction is near 8-10%. However, precise empirical relationships developed in individual studies do poorly at predicting the results of other experiments. Furthermore, no infiltration model includes the effect of flow conditions in the water column, although flow conditions clearly impact the deposit characteristics. We propose a mechanistic model for the infiltration of fine sediment and compare its predictions to the results of two recent infiltration experiments. This model is based on geometric arguments about pore and particle shape and five mechanisms: particle settling, particle capture, subsurface avalanching, average subsurface flow, and subsurface pressure fluctuations. The model successfully predicts for both experiments the fraction of sand deposited and the shape of that deposit as a function of depth.

  10. Seismic tomography Technology for the Water Infiltration Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    J. Descour

    2001-04-30

    NSA Engineering, Inc., conducted seismic tomography surveys in Niche No.3 in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and Alcove No.8 in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) cross drift as part of the Infiltration Experiment being conducted in Niche No.3. NSA Engineering is a direct support contractor to the Yucca Mountain Project. This report documents the work performed from August 14 through 30, 2000, prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment. The objective of the seismic tomography survey was to investigate the flow path of water between access drifts and more specifically to (Kramer 2000): (1) Conduct a baseline seismic tomography survey prior to the infiltration experiment; (2) Produce 2-D and 3-D tomographic images of the rock volume between Alcove No.8 and Niche No.3; (3) Correlate tomography results with published structural and lithological features, and with other geophysical data such as ground penetrating radar (GPR); and (4) Results of this survey will form a baseline with which to compare subsequent changes to the rock mass. These changes may be as a result of the water infiltration tests that could be conducted in Alcove No.8 in 2001. The scope of this reported work is to use the velocity tomograms to: (a) assess the structures and lithologic features within the surveyed area and/or volume between the two access drifts; and (b) provide information on the structural state of the rock mass as inferred by the velocity signatures of the rock prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment.

  11. Infiltration in heterogeneous soil monitored by neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snehota, Michal; Sobotkova, Martina; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Sacha, Jan; Vontobel, Peter; Cislerova, Milena

    2014-05-01

    The process of infiltration in near-saturated soil and fate of residual air bubbles was studied using neutron imaging. It is the continuation of previous study on flow instability. Ponding infiltration-outflow experiment conducted at NEUTRA beamline of the Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institut aimed at i) characterizing the types of structures susceptible to air trapping, ii) monitoring of entrapped air and water redistribution during steady state flow iii) imaging the process of entrapped air dissolution. Experiments were conducted on series of undisturbed samples of soil from the Cambisol series and on an artificially prepared sample. The latter was composed of coarse sand (representing pathways of fast preferential flow), which surrounded blocks of fine ceramic. Cumulative infiltration and outflow fluxes of water were measured gravimetrically by two precision digital scales thus the full water balance data were obtained. Small samples (30 mm in diameter) were used to achieve good spatial resolution of neutron images. Degassed water was used to dissolve bubbles of entrapped air at the end of infiltration experiments. The neutron radiography and tomography data show quantitatively exchange of water and air between domains of fine and coarse materials during quasi-steady state flow in the sample. The redistribution of the entrapped air directly affected the hydraulic conductivity. On neutron tomography images the gradual dissolving of trapped air bubbles was clearly detected. The effect also led to significant increase of hydraulic conductivity. The obtained data show clearly that air as a non-wetting phase should not be overlooked in case of near-saturated infiltration in soil with preferential flow. The research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation Project No. 14-03691S.

  12. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy with Balanced CD4/CD8 T-Cell Infiltration and Good Response to Mefloquine Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sanjo, Nobuo; Kina, Satoko; Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Nose, Yurie; Ishibashi, Satoru; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Maehara, Taketoshi; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Yokota, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old man was admitted for sub-acute progressive dementia and Gerstmann syndrome. MRI demonstrated lesions in the white matter involving the left parietal lobe, accompanied by speckled or faint linear peripheral enhancement. Brain biopsy revealed JC virus infection in oligodendrocytes and balanced infiltration of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes. We diagnosed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) with controlled inflammation. The finding of CD4/CD8 T cells in the infected PML brain suggested therapeutically valuable immune system involvement, which we decided to preserve by withholding corticosteroids. We treated the patient with risperidone, cytarabine and mefloquine to suppress virus replication, but not with the corticosteroid that is conventionally used in inflammatory PML cases. The patient was discharged three months after admission, and one year later, his score on the Mini-Mental State Examination had recovered to 26/30, from 5/30 on admission. PMID:27301518

  13. Brain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... know what causes some brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. The symptoms of brain diseases vary widely depending on the specific problem. In some cases, damage is permanent. In other cases, treatments such as surgery, medicines, or physical therapy can correct the source of the problem or ...

  14. Observations on infiltration of silicon carbide compacts with an aluminium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    The melt infiltration of ceramic particulates permits an opportunity to observe such fundamental materials phenomena as nucleation, dynamic wetting and growth in constrained environments. Experimental observations are presented on the infiltration behavior and matrix microstructures that form when porous compacts of platelet-shaped single crystals of alpha- (hexagonal) silicon carbide are infiltrated with a liquid 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration process involved counter gravity infiltration of suitably tamped and preheated compacts of silicon carbide platelets under an external pressure in a special pressure chamber for a set period, then by solidification of the infiltrant metal in the interstices of the bed at atmospheric pressure.

  15. Infiltration/cure modeling of resin transfer molded composite materials using advanced fiber architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loos, Alfred C.; Weideman, Mark H.; Long, Edward R., Jr.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Kinsley, Philip J.; Hart, Sean M.

    1991-01-01

    A model was developed which can be used to simulate infiltration and cure of textile composites by resin transfer molding. Fabric preforms were resin infiltrated and cured using model generated optimized one-step infiltration/cure protocols. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) was used to monitor in situ resin infiltration and cure during processing. FDEMS measurements of infiltration time, resin viscosity, and resin degree of cure agreed well with values predicted by the simulation model. Textile composites fabricated using a one-step infiltration/cure procedure were uniformly resin impregnated and void free. Fiber volume fraction measurements by the resin digestion method compared well with values predicted using the model.

  16. Electrical resistivity imaging study of near-surface infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampousis, Angelos

    High resolution electrical resistivity images (ERI method) were obtained during vadose zone infiltration experiments on agricultural soils in cooperation with Cornell University's Agricultural Stewardship Program, Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County, Extension Education Center, Riverhead, New York [ as well as Cornell University's Long Island Horticultural Research & Extension Center (LIHREC) in Riverhead, New York]. One natural soil was also studied. Infiltration was monitored by means of image analysis of two-dimensional array resistivity generated by a Syscal Kid Switch resistivity system (Griffiths et al., 1990). The data was inverted with the computer program RES2DINV (Loke, 2004). The agricultural soils considered were Riverhead sandy loam (RdA), Haven loam (HaA), and Bridgehampton silt loam (BgA). The natural site was located in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The soils there are classified as Schoharie silty clay loam. The electrical images of the three sites were compared against established soil properties, including particle size distribution, available water capacity, and soluble salts (from the literature), as well as against site-specific soil samples and penetrometer data, which were collected along with the geophysical measurements. This research evaluates the potential of acquiring high resolution, non-destructive measurements of infiltration in the uppermost 1.5 meter of the vadose zone. The results demonstrate that resistivity differences can detect infiltration in soils typical of the north-eastern United States. Temporal and spatial variations of soil water content in the upper 1.5 meters (relevant to agriculture) of the subsurface can be monitored successfully and non-destructively with ERI. The sensitivity of the method is higher in subsurface environments that demonstrate high overall apparent resistivity values (e.g. high sand content). Under conditions of increased soil heterogeneity, instead of the formation of a continuous

  17. Synthetic Coal Slag Infiltration into Varying Refractory Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Tetsuya K; Thomas, Hugh; Bennett, James P; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    The infiltrations of synthetic coal slag into 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2}, and 90%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} refractories with a temperature gradient induced along the penetration direction were compared to one another. The infiltrating slag was synthesized with a composition that is representative of an average of the ash contents from U S coal feedstock. Experiments were conducted with a hot-face temperature of 1450°C in a CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere. Minimal penetration was observed in the 90%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material because interactions between the refractory and the slag produced a protective layer of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which impeded slag flow into the bulk of the refractory. After 5 h, the 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample exhibited an average penetration of 12.7 mm whereas the 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} sample showed 3.8 mm. Slag infiltrated into the 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} refractory systems by dissolving the respective refractories' matrix materials, which consist of fine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles and an amorphous alumino-silicate phase. Due to enrichment in SiO{sub 2}, a network-former, infiltration into the 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} system yielded a higher viscosity slag and hence, a shallower penetration depth. The results suggest that slag infiltration can be limited by interactions with the refractory through the formation of either a solid layer that physically impedes fluid flow or a more viscous slag that retards infiltration.

  18. Infiltration and soil erosion modelling on Lausatian post mine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunth, Franziska; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Land management of reclaimed lignite mine sites requires long-term and safe structuring of recultivation areas. Erosion by water leads to explicit soil losses, especially on heavily endangered water repellent and non-vegetated soil surfaces. Beyond that, weathering of pyrite-containing lignite burden dumps causes sulfuric acid-formation, and hence the acidification of groundwater, seepage water and surface waters. Pyrite containing sediment is detached by precipitation and transported into worked-out open cuts by draining runoff. In addition to ground water influence, erosion processes are therefore involved in acidification of surface waters. A model-based approach for the conservation of man-made slopes of post mining sites is the objective of this ongoing study. The study shall be completed by modeling of the effectiveness of different mine site recultivation scenarios. Erosion risks on man-made slopes in recultivation areas should be determined by applying the physical, raster- and event based computer model EROSION 2D/3D (Schmidt, 1991, 1992; v. Werner, 1995). The widely used erosion model is able to predict runoff as well as detachment, transport and deposition of sediments. Lignite burden dumps contain hydrophobic substances that cover soil particles. Consequently, these soils show strong water repellency, which influences the processes of infiltration and soil erosion on non-vegetated, coal containing dump soils. The influence of water repellency had to be implemented into EROSION 2D/3D. Required input data for soil erosion modelling (e.g. physical soil parameters, infiltration rates, calibration factors, etc.) were gained by soil sampling and rainfall experiments on non-vegetated as well as recultivated reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatia lignite mining region (southeast of Berlin, Germany). The measured infiltration rates on the non-vegetated water repellent sites were extremely low. Therefore, a newly developed water repellency-factor was applied to

  19. Nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.; Rolston, D.E.; Bradner, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10 times that of the applied treated wastewater, following basin 'rest' periods of several weeks, which allowed time for mineralization and nitrification. Approximately 90% of the phosphorus in treated wastewater was removed within the upper 4.6 m of the subsurface, primarily by adsorption reactions, with abundant iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides occurring as soil coatings. A reduction in the flow rate of infiltrating water arriving at the water table may explain the accumulation of relatively coarse (>0.45 ??m), organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus slightly below the water table. Mineralization and nitrification reactions at this second location of organic nitrogen accumulation contributed to concentrations of nitrate as much as three times that of the applied treated wastewater. Phosphorus, which accumulated below the water table, was immobilized by adsorption or precipitation reactions during basin rest periods.Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10

  20. Tubastatin A, an HDAC6 inhibitor, alleviates stroke-induced brain infarction and functional deficits: potential roles of α-tubulin acetylation and FGF-21 up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifei; Leng, Yan; Wang, Junyu; Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Bergman, Joel; Leeds, Peter; Kozikowski, Alan; Chuang, De-Maw

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 6 exists exclusively in cytoplasm and deacetylates cytoplasmic proteins such as α-tubulin. HDAC6 dysfunction is associated with several pathological conditions in the central nervous system. This study investigated the beneficial effects of tubastatin A (TubA), a novel specific HDAC6 inhibitor, in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and an in vitro model of excitotoxicity. Post-ischemic TubA treatment robustly improved functional outcomes, reduced brain infarction, and ameliorated neuronal cell death in MCAO rats. These beneficial effects lasted at least three days after MCAO. Notably, when given at 24 hours after MCAO, TubA still exhibited significant protection. Levels of acetylated α-tubulin were decreased in the ischemic hemisphere on Days 1 and 3 after MCAO, and were significantly restored by TubA. MCAO markedly downregulated fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) and TubA significantly reversed this downregulation. TubA also mitigated impaired FGF-21 signaling in the ischemic hemisphere, including up-regulating β-Klotho, and activating ERK and Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathways. In addition, both TubA and exogenous FGF-21 conferred neuroprotection and restored mitochondrial trafficking in rat cortical neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Our findings suggest that the neuroprotective effects of TubA likely involve HDAC6 inhibition and the subsequent up-regulation of acetylated α-tubulin and FGF-21. PMID:26790818

  1. Phase field modeling of microstructure evolution of electrocatalyst-infiltrated solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Linyun; Li, Qun; Hu, Jiamian; Lee, Shiwoo; Gerdes, Kirk; Chen, Long-Qing

    2015-02-01

    A phase field model is developed to examine microstructural evolution of an infiltrated solid oxide fuel cell cathode. It is employed to generate the three-phase backbone microstructures and morphology of infiltrate nano-particles [La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSM)]. Two-phase Y2O3 + ZrO2 and LSM backbones composed of 0.5-1 μm particles are first generated and then seeded with infiltrate, and evolution is compared for starting infiltrate particle diameters of 5 nm and 10 nm. The computed lifetime triple phase boundary (3PB) density of the infiltrated cathode is then compared to the cathode backbone. Results indicate that initial coarsening of infiltrate nano-particles is the primary evolution process, and infiltrate coarsening is the majority contributor to 3PB reduction. However, at all times, the infiltrated cathode possesses significantly greater 3PB length than even the uncoarsened backbone. Infiltrate particle size effects indicate that the smaller particle size produces greater 3PB length for the same infiltration amount, consistent with intuition. A maximum 3PB enhancement is reached when increasing infiltrate particle loading, and the maximum enhancement depends on infiltrate particle size. It is found that architectural degradation modes will insignificantly affect the lifetime performance of infiltrated cathodes. This work suggests that lifetime optimized particle size/loading combinations are identifiable, and can be precise if additional fundamental data become available.

  2. Relative contributions of transient and steady state infiltration during ephemeral streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, K.W.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Hoffmann, J.P.; Fleming, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of infiltration during three ephemeral streamflow events in a coarse-grained alluvial channel overlying a less permeable basin-fill layer were conducted to determine the relative contribution of transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow to cumulative infiltration for the event. Water content, temperature, and piezometric measurements from 2.5-m vertical profiles within the alluvial sediments were used to constrain a variably saturated water flow and heat transport model. Simulated and measured transient infiltration rates at the onset of streamflow were about two to three orders of magnitude greater than steady state infiltration rates. The duration of simulated transient infiltration ranged from 1.8 to 20 hours, compared with steady state flow periods of 231 to 307 hours. Cumulative infiltration during the transient period represented 10 to 26% of the total cumulative infiltration, with an average contribution of approximately 18%. Cumulative infiltration error for the simulated streamflow events ranged from 9 to 25%. Cumulative infiltration error for typical streamflow events of about 8 hours in duration in is about 90%. This analysis indicates that when estimating total cumulative infiltration in coarse-grained ephemeral stream channels, consideration of the transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow will improve predictions of the total volume of infiltration that may become groundwater recharge. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Brain investigation and brain conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Redolfi, Alberto; Bosco, Paolo; Manset, David; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

    Summary The brain of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patients occur at different levels and for different reasons: at the molecular level, changes are due to amyloid deposition; at cellular level, to loss of neuron synapses, and at tissue level, to connectivity disruption. All cause extensive atrophy of the whole brain organ. Initiatives aiming to model the whole human brain have been launched in Europe and the US with the goal of reducing the burden of brain diseases. In this work, we describe a new approach to earlier diagnosis based on a multimodal and multiscale brain concept, built upon existing and well-characterized single modalities. PMID:24139654

  4. [Predictors of bacterial excretion in patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Novoselov, P N; Bolotov, A A

    2009-01-01

    An association of bacterial excretion with the magnitude of the X-ray and clinical symptoms of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, with the intensity of concomitant anxiety-depression disorders and the results of complex laboratory peripheral blood tests was studied in 100 patients with this condition. The fact that M. tuberculosis was present in the sputum was shown to be linked to the significant increase in the size of tuberculous infiltrates, the extent of decay in the latter, their connection with the root of the lung, the spread of excretion foci, and the intensity of cough and bloody expectoration. The similar trend was demonstrated in the degree of situational anxiety, depressive indecision, and pessimism, as well as in the values of leukocytosis and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The predictive informative value of a set of findings is illustrated by the discriminant function equation that allows the correct prediction of bacterial excretion in 76.8% of cases. PMID:20095373

  5. Real Time Electrical Monittoring of the Soil Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losinno, B.; Sainato, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Infiltration into the soil plays a key role in the agricultural field. Standard methodologies to determine basic infiltration rate are altered by the presence of preferential flow pathways in the soil. At intensive livestock farms, previous studies showed that in areas with high stocking rates and consequently high levels of trampling, both the basic infiltration rate measured in the field as a field such as saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) measured in laboratory had values significantly lower than those obtained in the areas without animals. Therefore, the evaluation of the infiltration process as an entry of pollutants into the profile is of importance in determining indicators of vulnerability to groundwater contamination. Geoelectrical methodology was used in combination with tracers to study the movement of water flow. A salty solution was used as tracer as it progresses along the profile. It is assumed that the water flow rate is similar to that of the applied solution. Geolelctric surveys can measure the apparent electrical resistivity inverse of the ECa, apparent electrical conductivity) in real time and thus determine the direction and speed of water flow through the profile. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize potential preferential flow pathways, comparing sectors where the high trampling by animals has generated high compaction, with areas without animals. We chose two sites: one located under high trampling at path between the pens of a feedlot placed at a lower position which receives runoff from feedlots. The background site was chosen at a pasture plot, with sporadic presence of animals. The soil is silty-loamy. In each of the sites sprinkler irrigation was performed in a square of 4 m x 4 m with saline solution of potassium bromide (concentration 5 g / l). After the irrigation, dipole - dipole survey was done with a line of stainless steel electrodes spaced 20 cm. while the flow is penetrating into the ground. Two dimension

  6. Capillarity in isothermal infiltration of alumina fiber preforms with aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, V.J.; Mortensen, A. . Dept. of Materials Science); Compton, L.M. )

    1994-10-01

    Models derived in petroleum engineering and soil science for flow of two immiscible fluids in a porous medium are extended to the infiltration of ceramic preforms by a liquid metal. SAFFIL alumina fiber preforms are infiltrated with an aluminum matrix in a series of interrupted unidirectional and isothermal experiments at various low applied pressures, to measure profiles of the volume fraction of metal along the length of the preforms. Comparison of experimental data with theory reveals the existence of a pressure-dependent incubation time for wetting of the alumina preforms by molten aluminum at 973 K. If this incubation time is taken into account, experimental curves of metal distribution are well predicted by theory, confirming the validity of the models after initiation of flow.

  7. Immunophenotypic characterization of lymphoid cell infiltrates in vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Sosa, S; Aguirre-Lombardo, M; Jimenez-Brito, G; Ruiz-Argüelles, A

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of vitiligo is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the nature of lymphoid cells infiltrating depigmented areas of skin in vitiligo. Immunochemical procedures were carried out in biopsies from 20 patients with active lesions to search for cells expressing CD1a, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20, CD25, CD30, CD56, CD68 and CD79a. Results indicate that early lesions are infiltrated mainly by dendritic cells, whereas older lesions display significantly lower proportions of these cells and increased percentages of mature T cells. This finding might suggest that the autoimmune reactivity towards melanocyte antigens might be T cell-dependent and antigen-driven. It is possible that a non-immune offence of melanocytes is responsible for the exposure of intracellular antigens, while autoreactivity might be a secondary, self-perpetuating mechanism. PMID:23607858

  8. Geology and Stream Infiltration of North Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.

    1992-01-01

    A geohydrologic investigation of North Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii, and its stream was undertaken in response to concern that runoff from the H-3 highway draining into the stream might seep into the ground and seriously contaminate potable water pumped at a nearby skimming well. North Halawa Stream flows over highly weathered alluvium or highly weathered basaltic basement for almost its entire course. Measurements of discharge at selected points along the stream indicate that infiltration occurs along some reaches. The infiltration of water from North Halawa Stream varies with season and stage. Water lost by the stream probably passes into and out of a perched aquifer in the alluvium of North Halawa Valley. Some of the water could pass from the alluvium to the basal aquifer from which the skimming well draws its water.

  9. Rapid-infiltration research at Flushing Meadows Project, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwer, H.; Rice, R.C.; Lance, J.C.; Gilbert, R.G.

    1980-10-01

    The Flushing Meadows Project in Arizona was initiated to investigate the feasibility of using wastewater for irrigation and the effects of infiltration on water quality. The results of the second phase of this 10 yr study, focusing on maximization of nitrogen removal and reduction of hydraulic loading, are discussed. Infiltration rates employed in this phase were 0.3-1 m/d, using a water depth of 0.3 m in the six experimental water basins. Removal of dissolved and suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and pathogens was monitored. Phosphate removal increased with increasing distance of wastewater movement; 65% of the total nitrogen content was removed. (3 graphs, 1 map, 23 references, 3 tables)

  10. Post-granulite facies fluid infiltration in the Adirondack Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.; Valley, J.W.

    1988-06-01

    Granulite facies lithologies from the Adirondack Mountains of New York contain alteration assemblages composed dominantly of calcite +/- chlorite +/- sericite. These assemblages document fluid infiltration at middle to upper crustal levels. Cathodoluminescence of samples from the Marcy anorthosite massif indicates that the late fluid infiltration is more widespread than initially indicated by transmitted-light petrography alone. Samples that appear unaltered in transmitted light show extensive anastomosing veins of calcite (< 0.05 mm wide) along grain boundaries, in crosscutting fractures, and along mineral cleavages. The presence of the retrograde calcite documents paleopermeability in crystalline rocks and is related to the formation of high-density CO/sub 2/-rich fluid inclusions. Recognition of this process has important implications for studies of granulite genesis and the geophysical properties of the crust.

  11. Diffuse Infiltrative Primary Cardiac Lymphoma with Delayed Extracardiac Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Yong; Kim, Ho; Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Jae Joong; Chung, Sang Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) is an extremely rare and fatal neoplasm of the heart. Traditionally, it is defined as lymphoma involving the heart or pericardium. PCL has a poor prognosis because of the diagnostic difficulty and its location. We present the case of a 48-year-old man who presented with pericardial effusion and diffuse cardiac wall thickening. We first suspected infiltrative heart disease. However, even after performing a biopsy, we could not establish an accurate diagnosis. After 20 months, primary cardiac diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was diagnosed by cervical lymph node biopsy. In this case, after chemotherapy, the DLBCL lesions, including cardiac wall thickening, improved. The treatment outcome suggests that the diagnosis was diffuse infiltrative PCL with delayed extracardiac involvement. PMID:24855605

  12. Unusual sclerosing orbital pseudotumor infiltrating orbits and maxillofacial regions.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Huseyin; Aralaşmak, Ayşe; Yılmaz, Temel Fatih; Ozdemir, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP) is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses. PMID:24991481

  13. Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions

    PubMed Central

    Toprak, Huseyin; Aralaşmak, Ayşe; Yılmaz, Temel Fatih; Ozdemir, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP) is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses. PMID:24991481

  14. Chemical vapor infiltration of non-oxide ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    Continuous fiber ceramic composites are enabling new, high temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor infiltration methods for producing these composites are being investigated, with the complexity of filament weaves and deposition chemistry merged with standard heat and mass transport relationships. Silicon carbide- based materials are, by far, the most mature, and are already being used in aerospace applications. This paper addresses the state-of-the-art of the technology and outlines current issues.

  15. Temperature dependence of electrical resistivity measurements: A useful infiltration tracer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidlisecky, A.; Knight, R.

    2008-12-01

    As part of an ongoing monitoring project, three resistivity probes were installed to a depth of 2m below a seasonal infiltration pond on the central coast of California. The probes were instrumented with 35 resistivity electrodes and 5 temperature loggers. They were designed to monitor the change in bulk resistivity beneath the pond during infiltration. The pond was filled in January 2008 and resistivity measurements were made on each probe every hour for a period of 4 months. In addition to changes in bulk resistivity, we observed diurnal fluctuations in the apparent resistivity signal due to the temperature dependence of in-situ resistivity. By processing the resistivity data, using a band pass filter, we can recover a time-depth section of pseudo- temperature data. We refer to these data as pseudo-temperature because they can be treated as a surrogate for temperature in terms of phase but not amplitude. These pseudo-temperature sections can be used as a tracer to calculate 1D infiltration rates. When compared with in-situ temperature loggers, we see good agreement. Moreover, we note that the resistivity fluctuations correspond to temperature variations that are less than one degree Celsius. The use of the temperature dependence of measured resistivity is a promising field technique. The pseudo-temperature data may prove more robust than using traditional temperature probes given that the larger sampling volume of the resistivity measurement will limit the influence local flow path perturbations caused by probe installation. Future research will involve extending this approach to 2D tomography in hopes of providing us with a technique for obtaining spatially exhaustive estimates of near-surface infiltration rates.

  16. Bilateral diffuse pulmonary infiltration in a heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Sharif-Kashani, B; Ahmadi, Z H; Bikdeli, B; Tabarsi, P; Dorudinia, A; Shahabi, P; Raeissi, S; Shadafza, B; Estahbanati, G; Naji, A; Saliminejad, L; Bakhshayesh-Karam, M; Karimi, S; Khodadad, K; Masjedi, M-R; Gavazzi, A

    2010-06-01

    Pulmonary complications are not infrequent after heart transplantation. Kaposi sarcoma is a vascular tumor that can involve the skin as well as visceral organs. We describe a case of visceral and cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma that presented with diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltration and breathlessness 6 month after heart transplantation. Following modulation of the immunosuppressive regimen and addition of chemotherapy, the patient had an excellent response and has had an uneventful 1-year follow-up. PMID:20015115

  17. [A 25-year-old patient with corneal infiltration].

    PubMed

    Aperlic, K; Tietz, H-J; Erhard, M; Regnath, T

    2011-05-01

    Filamentous fungal keratitis represents a serious infection of the eye. When corneal infiltrates appear, particularly in those who wear contact lenses, mycological assessment should already be performed initially so that filamentous fungal keratitis can be recognized early and treated. Keratitis caused by Fusarium responds well in most cases to topical therapy with ketoconazole or other antimycotic agents so that surgical intervention is only necessary in advanced or treatment-refractory cases. PMID:21528373

  18. Biliary Ascariasis Mimicking Colonic Tumor Infiltration of the Biliary System.

    PubMed

    Sundriyal, Deepak; Mittal, Gyanendra; Kumar, Sushil; Manjunath, Suraj; Sharma, Navneet; Gupta, Mahesh

    2015-09-01

    Ascariasis is a common problem in developing countries with poor hygiene and sanitation. It is endemic in India and usually seen in the northern states. Biliary ascariasis is an uncommon cause of obstructive jaundice. We present a case of carcinoma of hepatic flexure of colon in which the patient developed biliary ascariasis and posed a diagnostic challenge as it mimicked tumor infiltration of the biliary system. PMID:27217679

  19. Modeling Engineered Approaches to Enhance Denitrification under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, P. T.; Akhavan, M.; Finsterle, S.; Andres, S.

    2012-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) use the controlled application of treated wastewater to soil to remove wastewater constituents before recharging groundwater. Because wastewater from new wastewater treatment plants is often enriched in NO3, denitrification (DNF) is the most important process for nitrogen removal. Two key requirements for DNF in the subsurface are the absence of molecular oxygen and an adequate supply of carbon to serve as a substrate for heterotrophic bacteria. These requirements can be met by adjusting the wastewater application to maximize anaerobic conditions beneath the infiltration basin, and by incorporating a carbon source layer, where carbon is supplied to infiltrating wastewater by dissolution from a solid matrix, e.g., woodchips. To examine the interplay between alternative wastewater application approaches and the length and thickness of the carbon source layer on DNF, a series of simulations were conducted in two soil types using TOUGHREACT. Because RIBS are often overdesigned, basins may be only partially flooded such that overland flow within the basin controls the infiltration area. For this reason, TOUGHREACT was modified to include both overland and subsurface flow. Simulations with the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model predict uneven water distribution over the basins, a condition that significantly affects DNF. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time, i.e., shorter but more intense flooding periods, result in greater water saturations, shorter residence times and lower oxygen concentrations in the vadose zone, ultimately resulting in greater DNF. While the addition of a carbon source layer at the bottom of the RIBS is essential for supplying needed carbon, flow bypassing around this carbon layer, which is typically of lower permeability than the surrounding soil, can be problematic. These simulations demonstrate the interplay between the selection of wastewater application approach and carbon source layer design on

  20. The diffuse infiltration of road runoff: an environmental improvement.

    PubMed

    Piguet, Pascal; Parriaux, Aurèle; Bensimon, Michaël

    2008-07-01

    The Laboratory of Engineering and Environmental Geology (GEOLEP) has been mandated by Swiss authorities (Swiss Federal Road Office FedRO) to test a new road runoff management concept. This concept promotes the diffuse infiltration of road runoff into infiltration slopes designed for this purpose. Soils retain particles and contaminants; this lowers the road impact on the environment and simultaneously improves aquifer recharge. This concept has to be adapted to aquifer vulnerability and traffic conditions. Thus, a real-scale experimental station was designed and built in Switzerland to assess the feasibility of this new concept. This station allowed the testing of two lysimeters composed of 80 cm of A and B-horizons. Water and chemical fluxes were measured at the lysimeter bases. Road runoff was sampled in a distinct collector. Infiltration of road runoff into the local aquifer was monitored thanks to six piezometers. Water quality and quantity were therefore measured at each step of the infiltration process. Results provided by 112 natural events showed that soil horizons accommodated road runoff flows. The least favourable conditions for contaminant retention are encountered during thunderstorms, when high concentrations of substances deposited on the road are remobilised within a short time and rapidly percolates through soil horizons. Thus, three artificial events were designed to mimic heavy thunderstorms. Concentrations measured in road runoff notably decreased after soil filtration. Substances with high distribution coefficients Kd (low mobility) had concentrations reduced to lower values (1/1000 to 1/10,000), while those with high mobility retained similar concentrations even after soil filtration. However, these mobile substances exhibited low concentrations in the underlying aquifer due to dilution. This innovative road runoff management concept can thus be readily implemented outside groundwater protection zones where aquifers are slightly vulnerable; it

  1. Epinephrine Affects Pharmacokinetics of Ropivacaine Infiltrated Into Palate.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Shuichi; Yasuda, Asako; Sunada, Katsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulpal anesthesia success rates for ropivacaine following maxillary infiltration anesthesia seem to be low. We investigated the hypothesis that the addition of epinephrine would affect the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine by retaining ropivacaine in the mucosa of the injected area through the time-dependent distribution of ropivacaine in the rat maxilla and serum following maxillary infiltration anesthesia using (3)H-labeled ropivacaine. We then examined the vasoactivity of ropivacaine with or without epinephrine on local peripheral blood flow. The addition of epinephrine to ropivacaine increased ropivacaine concentrations in the palatal mucosa and adjacent maxilla by more than 3 times that of plain ropivacaine at 20 minutes. By observing the autoradiogram of (3)H-ropivacaine, plain ropivacaine in the maxilla was remarkably reduced 20 minutes after injection. However, it was definitely retained in the palatal mucosa, hard palate, adjacent maxilla, and maxillary nerve after the administration with epinephrine. Ropivacaine with epinephrine significantly decreased labial blood flow. This study suggests that 10 μg/mL epinephrine added to 0.5% ropivacaine could improve anesthetic efficacy and duration for maxillary infiltration anesthesia over plain ropivacaine. PMID:27269664

  2. Genomic Correlates of Immune-Cell Infiltrates in Colorectal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Giannakis, Marios; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Shukla, Sachet A.; Qian, Zhi Rong; Cohen, Ofir; Nishihara, Reiko; Bahl, Samira; Cao, Yin; Amin-Mansour, Ali; Yamauchi, Mai; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Stewart, Chip; Rosenberg, Mara; Mima, Kosuke; Inamura, Kentaro; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Nowak, Jonathan A.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Chan, Andrew T.; Ng, Kimmie; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Getz, Gad; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Wu, Catherine J.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji; Garraway, Levi A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Large-scale genomic characterization of tumors from prospective cohort studies may yield new insights into cancer pathogenesis. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 619 incident colorectal cancers (CRCs) and integrated the results with tumor immunity, pathology, and survival data. We identified recurrently mutated genes in CRC, such as BCL9L, RBM10, CTCF, and KLF5, that were not previously appreciated in this disease. Furthermore, we investigated the genomic correlates of immune-cell infiltration and found that higher neoantigen load was positively associated with overall lymphocytic infiltration, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), memory T cells, and CRC-specific survival. The association with TILs was evident even within microsatellite-stable tumors. We also found positive selection of mutations in HLA genes and other components of the antigen-processing machinery in TIL-rich tumors. These results may inform immunotherapeutic approaches in CRC. More generally, this study demonstrates a framework for future integrative molecular epidemiology research in colorectal and other malignancies. PMID:27149842

  3. Rainier Mesa CAU Infiltration Model using INFILv3

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, Daniel G.; Kwicklis, Edward M.

    2012-07-13

    The outline of this presentation are: (1) Model Inputs - DEM, Precipitation, Air temp, Soil props, Surface geology, Vegetation; (2) Model Pre-processing - Runoff Routing and sinks, Slope and Azimuth, Soil Ksat reduction with slope (to mitigate bathtub ring), Soil-Bedrock Interface permeabilities; (3) Model Calibration - ET using PEST, Chloride mass balance data, Streamflow using PEST; (4) Model Validation - Streamflow data not used for calibration; (5) Uncertainty Analysis; and (6) Results. Conclusions are: (1) Average annual infiltration rates =11 to 18 mm/year for RM domain; (2) Average annual infiltration rates = 7 to 11 mm/year for SM domain; (3) ET = 70% of precipitation for both domains; (4) Runoff = 8-9% for RM; and 22-24% for SM - Apparently high average runoff is caused by the truncation of the lowerelevation portions of watersheds where much of the infiltration of runoff waters would otherwise occur; (5) Model results are calibrated to measured ET, CMB data, and streamflow observations; (6) Model results are validated using streamflow observations discovered after model calibration was complete; (7) Use of soil Ksat reduction with slope to mitigate bathtub ring was successful (based on calibration results); and (8) Soil-bedrock K{_}interface is innovative approach.

  4. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2013-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the evaluation and measurement of water infiltration rates has become indispensable for the evaluation and modeling of the previously mentioned processes. Infiltration is one of the most difficult hydrological parameters to evaluate or measure accurately. Although the theoretical aspects of the process of soil water infiltration are well known since the middle of the past century, when several methods and models were already proposed for the evaluation of infiltration, still nowadays such evaluation is not frequently enough accurate for the purposes being used. This is partially due to deficiencies in the methodology being used for measuring infiltration, including some newly proposed methods and equipments, and in the use of non appropriate empirical models and approaches. In this contribution we present an analysis and discussion about the main difficulties found in the evaluation and measurement of soil water infiltration rates, and the more commonly committed errors, based on the past experiences of the author in the evaluation of soil water infiltration in many different soils and land conditions, and in their use for deducing soil water balances under variable and changing climates. It is concluded that there are not models or methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil

  5. Shock response of boron carbide based composites infiltrated with magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafri, Mathan; Dariel, Moshe P.; Frage, Naum; Zaretsky, Eugene

    2012-03-01

    The fully dense composites were obtained by vacuum infiltrating boron carbide compacts (80% green density) with molten AZ91 magnesium alloy (850°C) and with the melt of a 50/50 AZ91- silicon mixture (1050°C). The densities composites were, 2.44 g/cm3 and 2.54 g/cm3, respectively. The impact response of the composites was studied in a series of VISAR -instrumented planar impact experiments with velocities of W and Cu impactors ranging from 100 to 1000 m/s. The velocity history recorded for the composites produced by infiltration with the Mg-Si alloy contains a distinct elastic precursor front followed by a plastic ramp. In contrast, the velocity history of the composite infiltrated with AZ91 does not display any step-like front; the amplitude of the elastic wave grows gradually from zero level and transforms smoothly into the plastic front. The influence of the composites microstructure on their compressive and tensile behavior is discussed.

  6. High-temperature-pressure polymerized resin-infiltrated ceramic networks.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, J F; Ruse, D; Phan, A C; Sadoun, M J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce composite blocks (CB) for CAD/CAM applications by high-temperature-pressure (HT/HP) polymerization of resin-infiltrated glass-ceramic networks. The effect of network sintering and the absence/presence of initiator was investigated. Mechanical properties were determined and compared with those of Paradigm MZ100 (3M ESPE) blocks and HT/HP polymerized experimental "classic" CB, in which the filler had been incorporated by conventional mixing. The networks were made from glass-ceramic powder (VITA Zahnfabrik) formed by slip casting and were either sintered or not. They were silanized, infiltrated by urethane dimethacrylate, with or without initiator, and polymerized under HT/HP (300 MPa, 180°C) to obtain resin-infiltrated glass-ceramic network (RIGCN) CB. HT/HP polymerized CB were also made from an experimental "classic" composite. Flexural strength (σf), fracture toughness (KIC), and Vickers hardness were determined and analyzed by one- or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Scheffé multiple-means comparisons (α = 0.05), and Weibull statistics (for σf). Fractured surfaces were characterized with scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of RIGCN CB were significantly higher. Sintering induced significant increases in σf and hardness, while the initiator significantly decreased hardness. The results suggested that RIGCN and HT/HP polymerization could be used to obtain CB with superior mechanical properties, suitable for CAD/CAM applications. PMID:24186559

  7. Host cell infiltration into PDT-treated tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd; Dougherty, Graeme J.; Chaplin, David J.

    1992-06-01

    C3H mice bearing SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) 24 hours after receiving Photofrin (25 mg/kg, i.v.). Single cell suspensions obtained by the enzymatic digestion of tumors excised either 30 minutes or 4 hours after PDT were analyzed for the content of host immune cells and colony forming ability of malignant cells. The results were compared to the data obtained with non-treated tumors. It is shown that there is a marked increase in the content of cells expressing Mac-1 (monocytes/macrophages or granulocytes) in the tumor 30 minutes post PDT, while a high level of other leucocytes are found within the tumors by 4 hours after PDT. As elaborated in Discussion, the infiltration rate of host immune cells, dying of malignant tumor cells, and yet unknown death rate of host cells originally present in PDT treated tumor occurring concomitantly during this time period complicates this analysis. The results of this study suggest a massive infiltration of macrophages and other leucocytes in PDT treated SCCVII tumor, supporting the suggestion that a potent immune reaction is one of the main characteristics of PDT action in solid tumors. It remains to be determined to what extent is the activity of tumor infiltrating immune cells responsible for its eradication by PDT.

  8. Catalyst-infiltrated supporting cathode for thin-film SOFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Yamahara, Keiji; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe,Lutgard C.

    2004-04-12

    The fabrication and electrochemical performance of co-fired,LSM-SYSZ [i.e., La0.65Sr0.30MnO3 (LSM) - (Sc2O3)0.1(Y2O3)0.01(ZrO2)0.89] supported thin-film cells were examined using humidified hydrogen as a fuel. Co-firing of bi-layers and tri-layers was successful at 1250 C by optimizing the amount of carbon pore formers. A power density of a factor of 2.5 higher than that recently reported for the same type of cell at 800 C [3] was obtained for a cell with cobalt infiltration into the supporting cathode: the peak power densities were 455, 389, 285, 202, 141mW/cm2 at 800, 750, 700, 650, 600 C, respectively, and in most cases power densities at 0.7V exceeded more than 90 percent of the peak output. Increasing the cathode porosity from 43 to 53 percent improved peak power densities by as much as 1.3, shifting the diffusion limitation to high current densities. Cobalt infiltration into the support improved those by as much as a factor of 2 due to a significant reduction in non-ohmic resistance. These results demonstrate that cobalt catalyst-infiltrated LSM can be effective and low-cost supporting electrodes for reduced temperature, thin film SOFCs.

  9. Modelling multiphase dynamics during infiltration using a pore network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzavaras, Jannis; Arns, Ji-Youns; Max, Koehne; Hans-Joerg, Vogel

    2013-04-01

    We present an implementation of water infiltration into a pore network model where the local water pressures is continuously updated during the transient process. The network geometry is designed to represent structured soil which is different from simple granular porous media in some respect: Pores are more elongated and less isometric and the pore size distribution is much wider and structured hierarchically. To reproduce these properties, the classical concept of pore-bodies and throats is replaced by direct measurements of pore topology and the pores below the minimal pore size of the network model are represented by a continuous network of water saturated micro pores. The latter ensures that the water phase is always continuous which affects the propagation of the water potential during infiltration. The network model is based on cylindrical pores and considers capillary and gravitational forces. The propagation of interfaces is calculated for each time step by repeatedly solving the complete set of linear equation arising from Kirchhoff's law based on mass balance at each node of the network. This is done using the public domain package ITPack. The successive overrelaxation (SOR) and the Jacobi conjugate gradient (JCG) method proved to be more robust and faster than other solvers tested for the complex topology. The model accounts for entrapped air which is assumed to be incompressible. We present first results demonstrating the impact of external forcing (i.e infiltration rate) and pore topology on the dynamics of water-gas interfaces, the volume of entrapped air and hysteresis.

  10. Infiltration and evaporation of small hydrocarbon spills at gas stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilpert, Markus; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2014-12-01

    Small gasoline spills frequently occur at gasoline dispensing stations. We have developed a mathematical model to estimate both the amount of gasoline that infiltrates into the concrete underneath the dispensing stations and the amount of gasoline that evaporates into the typically turbulent atmosphere. Our model shows that the fraction of infiltrated gasoline can exceed the fraction that evaporates from the sessile droplets. Infiltrated gasoline then evaporates and is slowly released to the atmosphere via slow diffusive transport in pores. Tentative experiments show that our theoretical approach captures observed experimental trends. Predictions based on independently estimated model parameters roughly describe the experimental data, except for the very slow vapor release at the end of Stage II evaporation. Our study suggests that, over the lifespan of a gas station, concrete pads underneath gas dispensing stations accumulate significant amounts of gasoline, which could eventually break through into underlying soil and groundwater. Our model also shows that lifetimes of spilled gasoline droplets on concrete surfaces are on the order of minutes or longer. Therefore contamination can be carried away by foot traffic or precipitation runoff. Regulations and guidelines typically do not address subsurface and surface contaminations due to chronic small gasoline spills, even though these spills could result in non-negligible human exposure to toxic and carcinogenic gasoline compounds.

  11. Role of inflammatory infiltrates in triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hirofumi; Koo, Si-lin; Dent, Rebecca; Tan, Puay Hoon; Iqbal, Jabed

    2015-07-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogenous disease often characterised by aggressive biology and poor prognosis. Efforts to precisely treat TNBC have been compounded by the lack of specific therapeutic molecular targets. Recent transcriptomic studies have revealed, among others, an immunomodulatory subtype of TNBC, whereby activated immune response genes are associated with good prognosis. Since then, a great deal of effort has been made to understand the immune microenvironment of some TNBC subtype, which comprises several immune cell populations including lymphocytes and macrophages. There is increasing evidence that the basal subtype may be significantly regulated by tumour-infiltrating T-cells and that high levels of tumour-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells may be a reflection of improved prognosis with chemotherapy sensitivity in TNBC. On the other hand, tumour-associated macrophages have been associated with a relatively poor outcome in TNBC. Comparison of the immune signatures in TNBC with non-TNBC may furthermore help us to understand these immune mechanisms potentially leading to new therapeutic approaches. Within this short review, we discuss the current scientific evidence regarding (a) the role of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in the clinical outcome in TNBC and (b) the newly discovered immunomodulatory genotype that may provide for a therapeutic target in TNBC. PMID:25750267

  12. MicroRNAs in vascular tissue engineering and post-ischemic neovascularization☆

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Massimo; Saif, Jaimy; Rajakaruna, Cha; Brooks, Marcus; Angelini, Gianni D.; Emanueli, Costanza

    2015-01-01

    Increasing numbers of paediatric patients with congenital heart defects are surviving to adulthood, albeit with continuing clinical needs. Hence, there is still scope for revolutionary new strategies to correct vascular anatomical defects. Adult patients are also surviving longer with the adverse consequences of ischemic vascular disease, especially after acute coronary syndromes brought on by plaque erosion and rupture. Vascular tissue engineering and therapeutic angiogenesis provide new hope for these patients. Both approaches have shown promise in laboratory studies, but have not yet been able to deliver clear evidence of clinical success. More research into biomaterials, molecular medicine and cell and molecular therapies is necessary. This review article focuses on the new opportunities offered by targeting microRNAs for the improved production and greater empowerment of vascular cells for use in vascular tissue engineering or for increasing blood perfusion of ischemic tissues by amplifying the resident microvascular network. PMID:25980937

  13. MicroRNAs in vascular tissue engineering and post-ischemic neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Massimo; Saif, Jaimy; Rajakaruna, Cha; Brooks, Marcus; Angelini, Gianni D; Emanueli, Costanza

    2015-07-01

    Increasing numbers of paediatric patients with congenital heart defects are surviving to adulthood, albeit with continuing clinical needs. Hence, there is still scope for revolutionary new strategies to correct vascular anatomical defects. Adult patients are also surviving longer with the adverse consequences of ischemic vascular disease, especially after acute coronary syndromes brought on by plaque erosion and rupture. Vascular tissue engineering and therapeutic angiogenesis provide new hope for these patients. Both approaches have shown promise in laboratory studies, but have not yet been able to deliver clear evidence of clinical success. More research into biomaterials, molecular medicine and cell and molecular therapies is necessary. This review article focuses on the new opportunities offered by targeting microRNAs for the improved production and greater empowerment of vascular cells for use in vascular tissue engineering or for increasing blood perfusion of ischemic tissues by amplifying the resident microvascular network. PMID:25980937

  14. Effect of crocin on nitric oxide synthase expression in post-ischemic isolated rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi; Dianat, Mahin; Badavi, Mohammad; Samarbaf-zadeh, Alireza; Naghizadeh, Bahareh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress damages cells and brings about the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study was carried out to investigate the preconditioning and cardio protective potential effects of crocin and vitamin E by the eNOS and iNOS express gene in ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Material & Methods: Male rats were divided into seven groups, namely: sham, control group and experimental groups treated with crocin(10, 20 and 40 mg/kg), vitamin E (100 mg/kg) and combination of crocin (40 mg/kg) with vitamin E (100 mg/kg) that were gavaged The heart was removed and relocated to a Langendorff apparatus and subjected to global ischemia and then the left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were measured as a hemodynamic parameter. Total RNA was extracted from heart frozen tissues. RT-PCR technique was performed by specific primers designed for nitric oxide gene and the results were assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: Results after ischemia and reperfusion showed that crocin 40 mg/kg produced a significant improvement of LVEDP as a mechanical function (p<0.05), associated with a reduction of iNOS release (p<0.05). The eNOS mRNA levels were significantly higher in crocin-treated 40 mg/kg compared to controls treated by RT-PCR technique. The combination of crocin and vitamin E have shown more effective on the reduction of iNOS release (p<0.01). Conclusion: In the isolated rat heart, protective effect of crocin, may possibly be explained by regulating eNOS and iNOS expressions. The Results resultsconfirmed the hypothesis that cardioprotective effect of crocin is partly mediated by nitric oxide. This could explain the cardioprotective action of crocin following ischemia and reperfusion. PMID:26468461

  15. Mechanotransduction Drives Post Ischemic Revascularization Through KATP Channel Closure and Production of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Elizabeth; Wang, Hui; Hong, Nankang; Yu, Kevin; Buerk, Donald G.; DeBolt, Kristine; Gonder, Daniel; Sorokina, Elena M.; Patel, Puja; De Leon, Diva D.; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Fisher, Aron B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: We reported earlier that ischemia results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the closure of a KATP channel which causes membrane depolarization and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) activation. This study was undertaken to understand the role of ischemia-mediated ROS in signaling. Results: Angiogenic potential of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC) was studied in vitro and in the hind limb in vivo. Flow adapted PMVEC injected into a Matrigel matrix showed significantly higher tube formation than cells grown under static conditions or cells from mice with knockout of KATP channels or the NOX2. Blocking of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) accumulation completely abrogated the tube formation in wild-type (WT) PMVEC. With ischemia in vivo (femoral artery ligation), revascularization was high in WT mice and was significantly decreased in mice with knockout of KATP channel and in mice orally fed with a KATP channel agonist. In transgenic mice with endothelial-specific NOX2 expression, the revascularization observed was intermediate between that of WT and knockout of KATP channel or NOX2. Increased HIF-1α activation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was observed in ischemic tissue of WT mice but not in KATP channel and NOX2 null mice. Revascularization could be partially rescued in KATP channel null mice by delivering VEGF into the hind limb. Innovation: This is the first report of a mechanosensitive ion channel (KATP channel) initiating endothelial signaling that drives revascularization. Conclusion: The KATP channel responds to the stop of flow and activates signals for revascularization to restore the impeded blood flow. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 872–886. PMID:23758611

  16. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  17. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  18. Brain radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  19. Brain Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... new neural connections every second. This growing brain development is influenced by many factors, including a child’s relationships, experiences and environment. Learn more about the crucial role you play ...

  20. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    Ling GSF. Traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 406. Stippler M. Trauma of ...

  1. Role of osteopontin in hepatic neutrophil infiltration during alcoholic steatohepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Udayan M.; Banerjee, Atrayee; McRee, Rachel; Wellberg, Elizabeth; Ramaiah, Shashi K. . E-mail: sramaiah@cvm.tamu.edu

    2005-08-22

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major complication of heavy alcohol (EtOH) drinking and is characterized by three progressive stages of pathology: steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Alcoholic steatosis (AS) is the initial stage of ALD and consists of fat accumulation in the liver accompanied by minimal liver injury. AS is known to render the hepatocytes increasingly sensitive to toxicants such as bacterial endotoxin (LPS). Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), the second and rate-limiting step in the progression of ALD, is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation, neutrophil infiltration, and neutrophil-mediated parenchymal injury. However, the pathogenesis of ASH is poorly defined. It has been theorized that the pathogenesis of ASH involves interaction of increased circulating levels of LPS with hepatocytes being rendered highly sensitive to LPS due to heavy EtOH consumption. We hypothesize that osteopontin (OPN), a matricellular protein (MCP), plays an important role in the hepatic neutrophil recruitment due to its enhanced expression during the early phase of ALD (AS and ASH). To study the role of OPN in the pathogenesis of ASH, we induced AS in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks. AS rats experienced extensive fat accumulation and minimal liver injury. Moderate induction in OPN was observed in AS group. ASH was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks followed by LPS injection. The ASH rats had substantial neutrophil infiltration, coagulative oncotic necrosis, and developed higher liver injury. Significant increases in the hepatic and circulating levels of OPN was observed in the ASH rats. Higher levels of the active, thrombin-cleaved form of OPN in the liver in ASH group correlated remarkably with hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Finally, correlative studies between OPN and hepatic neutrophil infiltration was corroborated in a simple

  2. Brain imaging and brain function

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

  3. Bypassing the blood-brain barrier: delivery of therapeutic agents by macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Kwon, Young Jik; Sun, Chung-Ho; Madsen, Steen J.

    2010-02-01

    Introduction: Failure to eradicate infiltrating glioma cells using conventional treatment regimens results in tumor recurrence and is responsible for the dismal prognosis of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This is due to the fact that these migratory cells are protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood brain tumor barrier (BBTB) which prevents the delivery of most anti-cancer agents. We have evaluated the ability of monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Ma) to cross the BBB in rats. This will permit access of anti-cancer agents such as nanoparticles to effectively target the infiltrating tumor cells, and potentially improve the treatment effectiveness for malignant gliomas. Materials and Methods: The infiltration of Mo/Ma into brain tumor spheroids in vitro was determined using fluorescent stained Mo/Ma. Tumors were also established in the brains of inbred rats and ALA-PDT was given 18 days following tumor induction. The degredation of the BBTB and quantification of the number of infiltrating Mo/Ma was examined on histological sections from removed brains. Results & Conclusion: PDT was highly effective in locally opening the BBTB and inducing macrophage migration into the irradiated portions of brain tumors.

  4. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2013-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the evaluation and measurement of water infiltration rates has become indispensable for the evaluation and modeling of the previously mentioned processes. Infiltration is one of the most difficult hydrological parameters to evaluate or measure accurately. Although the theoretical aspects of the process of soil water infiltration are well known since the middle of the past century, when several methods and models were already proposed for the evaluation of infiltration, still nowadays such evaluation is not frequently enough accurate for the purposes being used. This is partially due to deficiencies in the methodology being used for measuring infiltration, including some newly proposed methods and equipments, and in the use of non appropriate empirical models and approaches. In this contribution we present an analysis and discussion about the main difficulties found in the evaluation and measurement of soil water infiltration rates, and the more commonly committed errors, based on the past experiences of the author in the evaluation of soil water infiltration in many different soils and land conditions, and in their use for deducing soil water balances under variable and changing climates. It is concluded that there are not models or methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil

  5. Purinergic signalling in brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Pedata, Felicita; Dettori, Ilaria; Coppi, Elisabetta; Melani, Alessia; Fusco, Irene; Corradetti, Renato; Pugliese, Anna Maria

    2016-05-01

    Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia a primary damage due to the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, i.e microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. Extracellular concentrations of ATP and adenosine in the brain increase dramatically during ischemia in concentrations able to stimulate their respective specific P2 and P1 receptors. Both ATP P2 and adenosine P1 receptor subtypes exert important roles in ischemia. Although adenosine exerts a clear neuroprotective effect through A1 receptors during ischemia, the use of selective A1 agonists is hampered by undesirable peripheral effects. Evidence up to now in literature indicate that A2A receptor antagonists provide protection centrally by reducing excitotoxicity, while agonists at A2A (and possibly also A2B) and A3 receptors provide protection by controlling massive infiltration and neuroinflammation in the hours and days after brain ischemia. Among P2X receptors most evidence indicate that P2X7 receptor contribute to the damage induced by the ischemic insult due to intracellular Ca(2+) loading in central cells and facilitation of glutamate release. Antagonism of P2X7 receptors might represent a new treatment to attenuate brain damage and to promote proliferation and maturation of brain immature resident cells that can promote tissue repair following cerebral ischemia. Among P2Y receptors, antagonists of P2Y12 receptors are of value because of their antiplatelet activity and possibly because of additional anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover strategies that modify adenosine or ATP concentrations at injury sites might be of value to limit damage after ischemia. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Purines in Neurodegeneration and

  6. Brain death.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of brain death should be based on a simple premise. If every possible confounder has been excluded and all possible treatments have been tried or considered, irreversible loss of brain function is clinically recognized as the absence of brainstem reflexes, verified apnea, loss of vascular tone, invariant heart rate, and, eventually, cardiac standstill. This condition cannot be reversed - not even partly - by medical or surgical intervention, and thus is final. Many countries in the world have introduced laws that acknowledge that a patient can be declared brain-dead by neurologic standards. The U.S. law differs substantially from all other brain death legislation in the world because the U.S. law does not spell out details of the neurologic examination. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve as a standard. In this chapter, I discuss the history of development of the criteria, the current clinical examination, and some of the ethical and legal issues that have emerged. Generally, the concept of brain death has been accepted by all major religions. But patients' families may have different ideas and are mostly influenced by cultural attitudes, traditional customs, and personal beliefs. Suggestions are offered to support these families. PMID:24182378

  7. CLIMATIC FORECASTING OF NET INFILTRATION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, USING ANALOGUE METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    SciTech Connect

    B. Faybishenko

    2005-09-07

    Net infiltration is a key hydrologic parameter that controls the rate of deep percolation through the unsaturated zone, the groundwater recharge, radionuclide transport, and seepage into the underground tunnels. Because net infiltration is largely affected by climatic conditions, future changes in climatic conditions will potentially alter net infiltration. The objectives of this presentation are to: (1) Present a conceptual model and a semi-empirical approach for regional, climatic forecasting of net infiltration, based on the precipitation and temperature data from analogue meteorological stations, and (2) Demonstrate the results of forecasting net infiltration for future climates--interglacial, monsoon and glacial--over the Yucca Mountain region for the period of 500,000 years. Calculations of the net infiltration were performed using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, for which potential evapotranspiration was evaluated from the temperature-based Thornthwaite formula. (Both Budyko's and Thornthwaite's formulae have been used broadly in hydrological studies.) The results of calculations were used for ranking net infiltration, along with the aridity and precipitation-effectiveness (P-E) indexes, for future climatic scenarios. Using this approach, we determined a general trend of increasing net infiltration from the present-day (interglacial) climate to monsoon, intermediate (glacial transition), and then to the glacial climate. Ranking of the aridity and P-E indexes is practically the same as that of net infiltration. The validation of the computed net infiltration rates yielded a good match with other field and modeling study results of groundwater recharge and net infiltration evaluation.

  8. Fluid infiltration of the Tudor Gabbro during regional metamorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, S.R.; Valley, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Tudor Gabbro (TG), an ovate body (4 x 9 km) 40 km SE of Bancroft. Ontario, was metamorphosed to upper greenschist facies along with surrounding sediments and volcanics. Allen (1976) delineated concentric isograds around the gabbro, including +sphene, +tremolite (to 1.5 km), +tremolite + clinozoisite, +diopside (approx. 120 m), and +garnet (approx. 80 m). Metamorphic conditions are inferred to be 490+/-50/sup 0/C, 5 kb with no thermal gradient. Allen suggested that H/sub 2/O infiltration of the marble and calc-schist accounts for the isograds. The gabbro mineralogy of titanaugite, andesine to labradorite, and minor hornblende is extensively recrystallized to albite and/or oligoclase + actinolite + epidote + ilmenite + calcite (up to 4 wt%) +/- biotite +/- chlorite +/- sphene +/- scapolite. Isotopic analyses of calcite from 39 TG samples show delta/sup 18/O = 9.4 to 16.6 and delta/sup 13/C = -1.9 to 3.4. Bulk silicate delta/sup 18/O of TG range from 7.1 to 10.2. Calcites in metasediment have delta/sup 18/O = 18.1 to 25.3 and delta/sup 13/C = 1.3 to 5.6. Two whole rock silicate analyses of a skarn developed locally at the contact show intermediate delta/sup 18/O of 16.2 and 17.3. The stability of Czo component in epidote requires H/sub 2/O-rich fluids. The delta/sup 13/C of TG calcites average +0.7 nearly identical to the average of 178 carbonates from Grenville marbles (+1.0), showing that metasediment-derived CO/sub 2/ pervasively infiltrated the TG. The infiltration of H/sub 2/O into both the TG and the metasediment suggests that H/sub 2/O-rich fluids migrated upward along the contact.

  9. High-temperature-pressure Polymerized Resin-infiltrated Ceramic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, J.F.; Ruse, D.; Phan, A.C.; Sadoun, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce composite blocks (CB) for CAD/CAM applications by high-temperature-pressure (HT/HP) polymerization of resin-infiltrated glass-ceramic networks. The effect of network sintering and the absence/presence of initiator was investigated. Mechanical properties were determined and compared with those of Paradigm MZ100 (3M ESPE) blocks and HT/HP polymerized experimental “classic” CB, in which the filler had been incorporated by conventional mixing. The networks were made   from glass-ceramic powder (VITA Zahnfabrik) formed by slip casting and were either sintered or not. They were silanized, infiltrated by urethane dimethacrylate, with or without initiator, and polymerized under HT/HP (300 MPa, 180°C) to obtain resin-infiltrated glass-ceramic network (RIGCN) CB. HT/HP polymerized CB were also made from an experimental “classic” composite. Flexural strength (σf), fracture toughness (KIC), and Vickers hardness were determined and analyzed by one- or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Scheffé multiple-means comparisons (α = 0.05), and Weibull statistics (for σf). Fractured surfaces were characterized with scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of RIGCN CB were significantly higher. Sintering induced significant increases in σf and hardness, while the initiator significantly decreased hardness. The results suggested that RIGCN and HT/HP polymerization could be used to obtain CB with superior mechanical properties, suitable for CAD/CAM applications. PMID:24186559

  10. A15 multifilamentary superconductors by the infiltration process

    SciTech Connect

    Pickus, M.R.; Holthuis, J.T.; Rosen, M.

    1980-05-01

    The inherent brittleness of the A15 compounds, and the requirement for a filamentary morphology, led to a heavy reliance on a powder approach for the preparation of superconducting tapes and wires. The quench-age technique, a non-powder process, was employed for the niobium-aluminum system, following the special features of the equilibrium phase diagram. The powder approach proved particularly effective for binaries, such as Nb-Sn, and for the ternaries Nb(Al,Ge) and Nb(Al,Si). Two variations of the powder process were assessed. One involved the use of precompounded powder of the desired stoichiometry but required simultaneous application of heat and pressure. The second variation was the infiltration process. This process involves the preparation of a ductile niobium matrix containing a controlled network of interconnected pores which are subsequently infiltrated with liquid metals (Sn) or low melting-point eutectics (e.g., Al-Ge, Al-Si). The composite is then subjected to a thermomechanical treatment to form a multiply connected array of A15 filaments in a niobium matrix. Multifilamentary conductors, based on Nb/sub 3/Sn, Nb/sub 3/Al, Nb/sub 3/ (Al,Ge) and Nb/sub 3/ (Al,Si), were readily obtained. Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors made by the infiltration process exhibit a critical temperature (Tc) of 18.1 K and a critical current carrying capacity (I/sub c/) of 8 x 10/sup 4/ amp.cm/sup -2/ at 12 Tesla.

  11. On the melt infiltration of copper coated silicon carbide with an aluminium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure-assisted infiltration of porous compacts of Cu coated and uncoated single crystals of platelet shaped alpha (hexagonal) SiC was used to study infiltration dynamics and particulate wettability with a 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration lengths were measured for a range of experimental variables which included infiltration pressure, infiltration time, and SiC size. A threshold pressure (P(th)) for flow initiation through compacts was identified from an analysis of infiltration data; P(th) decreased while penetration lengths increased with increasing SiC size (more fundamentally, due to changes in interparticle pore size) and with increasing infiltration times. Cu coated SiC led to lower P(th) and 60-80 percent larger penetration lengths compared to uncoated SiC under identical processing conditions.

  12. Ni-coated SiC{sub p} reinforced aluminum composites processed by vacuum infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, W.S.; Lin, S.J.

    1996-12-01

    A vacuum infiltration process has been developed to process aluminum-base composites reinforced with particulate SiC{sub p}. Electroless nickel coating of SiC{sub p} was used to improve wetting by molten aluminum. Experimental results showed that composites of aluminum with 5.9 wt % Si and 0.23 wt % Mg containing about 50 vol % Ni-coated SiC{sub p} were completely infiltrated at a temperature above 700 C. The effects of nickel coating thickness and infiltration temperature on infiltration behavior were investigated. The infiltration rate increased and the infiltration incubation time decreased with increasing infiltration temperature or nickel coating thickness. The microstructure, nickel distribution, bending strength and fracture were also examined. Nonuniformity bending strength and fracture morphology were attributed to nickel macrosegregation.

  13. Pragmatic RCT on the Efficacy of Proximal Caries Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lueckel, H; Balbach, A; Schikowsky, C; Bitter, K; Paris, S

    2016-05-01

    Proximal caries infiltration has been shown to be efficacious in hampering caries lesion progression when performed by dentists working in a university setting. The aim of this randomized split-mouth, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of resin infiltration of proximal caries lesions being performed by several dentists in private practices, in combination with individualized oral hygiene plus noninvasive measures compared with these alone. In this study, 87 children and young adults (with 238 pairs of proximal caries lesions radiographically extending into the inner half of the enamel [E2] or the outer third of the dentin [D1]) were randomly allocated to either 1 of 2 treatments. Test lesions were infiltrated, and a mock treatment was performed in control lesions by 5 German private practitioners. All patients received instructions for a noncariogenic diet, flossing and fluoridation, and individualized noninvasive interventions. The primary outcome was radiographic lesion progression (pairwise comparison) evaluated independently by 2 evaluators who were blinded to treatment allocation. After approximately 10 mo (mean ± SD 307 ± 43 d), 92 of 148 lesion pairs in 24 of 38 treated patients who were at high caries risk could be re-evaluated clinically as well as radiographically using individualized bitewing holders, as at baseline; 186 of 204 lesion pairs in 70 of 77 patients (35 of 38 high-risk patients) could be evaluated after 18 mo (mean 542 ± 110 d). No unwanted effects were observed. After 10 mo, progression was recorded in 2 of 92 test lesions (2%) and in 22 of 92 control lesions (24%) (P= 0.001, McNemar/Obuchowski test; relative risk reduction, 91; 95% confidence interval, 62%-98%). After 18 mo, lesion progression was recorded in all included patients in 10 of 186 test lesions (5%) and in 58 of 186 control lesions (31%) (P< 0.001; relative risk reduction, 83; 95% confidence interval, 67%-91%). Thus, resin infiltration seems to be

  14. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT NO. 1: CLIMATE AND INFILTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-05-01

    For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration and water storage in the

  15. [Principles of adoptive cell therapy based on "Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes"].

    PubMed

    Martins, Filipe; Orcurto, Angela; Michielin, Olivier; Coukos, George

    2016-05-18

    Adoptive cell therapy consists in the use of T lymphocytes for therapeutic purposes. Up to now, of limited use in clinical practice for logistical reasons, technical progress and substantial level of evidence obtained in the last decade allow its arrival in universitary hospitals. We will principally discuss the administration of expanded tumor infiltrating T cells in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. This treatment modality exploits the natural specificity of these cells and aims to potentiate their effectiveness. This personalized immunotherapy detains a potential for expansion to many other advanced tumor types. PMID:27424426

  16. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; McLaughlin, J.C.; Probst, K.J.; Anderson, T.J.; Starr, T.L.

    1997-12-01

    Silicon carbide-based heat exchanger tubes are of interest to energy production and conversion systems due to their excellent high temperature properties. Fiber-reinforced SiC is of particular importance for these applications since it is substantially tougher than monolithic SiC, and therefore more damage and thermal shock tolerant. This paper reviews a program to develop a scaled-up system for the chemical vapor infiltration of tubular shapes of fiber-reinforced SiC. The efforts include producing a unique furnace design, extensive process and system modeling, and experimental efforts to demonstrate tube fabrication.

  17. Optical coherence tomography findings of bilateral foveal leukemic infiltration.

    PubMed

    Le, John Q; Braich, Puneet S; Brar, Vikram S

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 59-year-old man with a history of atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia who presented with a several-week history of decreased vision in both eyes. His clinical examination revealed bilateral foveal infiltration, which was also demonstrated on optical coherence tomography. After a failed induction with imatinib (Gleevec(®)), he was treated with omacetaxine (Synribo(®)) with an appropriate hematologic response. As his leukemia improved with chemotherapy, his retinal lesions regressed as demonstrated by serial optical coherence tomography and fundus photographs, with near complete restoration of foveal architecture. PMID:27540313

  18. Optical coherence tomography findings of bilateral foveal leukemic infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Le, John Q; Braich, Puneet S; Brar, Vikram S

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 59-year-old man with a history of atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia who presented with a several-week history of decreased vision in both eyes. His clinical examination revealed bilateral foveal infiltration, which was also demonstrated on optical coherence tomography. After a failed induction with imatinib (Gleevec®), he was treated with omacetaxine (Synribo®) with an appropriate hematologic response. As his leukemia improved with chemotherapy, his retinal lesions regressed as demonstrated by serial optical coherence tomography and fundus photographs, with near complete restoration of foveal architecture. PMID:27540313

  19. Plastic bronchitis caused by neoplastic infiltrates in a child.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Tamar; Wexler, Isaiah D; Shoseyov, David; Weintraub, Michael; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Kerem, Eitan

    2006-09-01

    We report on a case of a 7-year-old girl admitted for pneumonia not responding to oral antibiotics. During hospitalization, her pulmonary status deteriorated as a result of significant atelectasis. An extensive workup revealed an anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with neoplastic cells, found in both a biopsied lymph node and pleural fluid aspirate. Bronchoscopic examination showed nearly complete obstruction of the left side by bronchial casts composed of tumor cells, fibrin, and necrotic material, consistent with plastic bronchitis. Neoplastic infiltration of the bronchi should be considered in the differential diagnosis of disease entities causing plastic bronchitis in children. PMID:16779857

  20. Advances in modeling of chemical vapor infiltration for tube fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, T.L.

    1998-04-01

    The forced flow/thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration process (FCVI) can be used for fabrication of tube-shaped components of ceramic matrix composites. Recent experimental work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes process and materials development studies using a small tube reactor. Use of FCVI for this geometry involves significant changes in fixturing as compared to disk-shaped preforms previously fabricated. The authors have used their computer model of the CVI process to simulate tube densification and to identify process modifications that will decrease processing time. This report presents recent model developments and applications.

  1. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Wong, Tony; Binning, Philip John

    2015-10-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two different models are employed. The models continuously simulate infiltration rates from infiltration trenches using a 19 year rainfall time series from Copenhagen as input. The annual and single event stormwater runoff reduction from infiltration trenches was determined for 9 different scenarios that covered different soil conditions and infiltration trench dimensions. Monte Carlo simulations were used in order to quantify the impact of parameter variability for each scenario. Statistical analysis of the continuous long term model simulations was used to quantify the hydrological performance of infiltration trenches. Results show that infiltration trenches are affected by groundwater when there is an unsaturated depth of less than 1.5-3 m in sandy loam, 6.5-8 m in silt loam and 11-12 m in silty clay loam. A correction factor that can be applied for infiltration trench design when there is a shallow groundwater table is presented. The analyses showed that below a certain value of unsaturated depth the dissipation capacity of the mound/groundwater becomes the dominant process determining the infiltration capacity from infiltration trenches. In these cases it is essential to consider the local groundwater conditions in the infiltration trench design process.

  2. Organic brain syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    OBS; Organic mental disorder (OMS); Chronic organic brain syndrome ... Listed below are disorders associated with OBS. Brain injury caused by ... the brain ( subarachnoid hemorrhage ) Blood clot inside the ...

  3. A model for lupus brain disease

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Betty; Volpe, Bruce T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease characterized by antibodies that bind target autoantigens in multiple organs in the body. In peripheral organs, immune complexes engage the complement cascade, recruiting blood-borne inflammatory cells and initiating tissue inflammation. Immune complex-mediated activation of Fc receptors on infiltrating blood-borne cells and tissue resident cells amplifies an inflammatory cascade with resulting damage to tissue function, ultimately leading to tissue destruction. This pathophysiology appears to explain tissue injury throughout the body, except in the central nervous system. This review addresses a paradigm we have developed for autoantibody-mediated brain damage. This paradigm suggests that antibody-mediated brain disease does not depend on immune complex formation but rather on antibody-mediated alterations in neuronal activation and survival. Moreover, antibodies only access brain tissue when blood-brain barrier integrity is impaired, leading to a lack of concurrence of brain disease and tissue injury in other organs. We discuss the implications of this model for lupus and for identifying other antibodies that may contribute to brain disease. PMID:22725954

  4. Targeting YAP-dependent MDSC infiltration impairs tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guocan; Lu, Xin; Dey, Prasenjit; Deng, Pingna; Wu, Chia Chin; Jiang, Shan; Fang, Zhuangna; Zhao, Kun; Konaparthi, Ramakrishna; Hua, Sujun; Zhang, Jianhua; Li-Ning-Tapia, Elsa M.; Kapoor, Avnish; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Patel, Neelay Bhaskar; Guo, Zhenglin; Ramamoorthy, Vandhana; Tieu, Trang N.; Heffernan, Tim; Zhao, Di; Shang, Xiaoying; Khadka, Sunada; Hou, Pingping; Hu, Baoli; Jin, Eun-Jung; Yao, Wantong; Pan, Xiaolu; Ding, Zhihu; Shi, Yanxia; Li, Liren; Chang, Qing; Troncoso, Patricia; Logothetis, Christopher J.; McArthur, Mark J.; Chin, Lynda; Wang, Y. Alan; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    The signaling mechanisms between prostate cancer cells and infiltrating immune cells may illuminate novel therapeutic approaches. Here, utilizing a prostate adenocarcinoma model driven by loss of Pten and Smad4, we identify polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) as the major infiltrating immune cell type and depletion of MDSCs blocks progression. Employing a novel dual reporter prostate cancer model, epithelial and stromal transcriptomic profiling identified Cxcl5 as a cancer-secreted chemokine to attract Cxcr2-expressing MDSCs and, correspondingly, pharmacological inhibition of Cxcr2 impeded tumor progression. Integrated analyses identified hyperactivated Hippo-YAP signaling in driving Cxcl5 upregulation in cancer cells through YAP-TEAD complex and promoting MDSCs recruitment. Clinico-pathological studies reveal upregulation and activation of YAP1 in a subset of human prostate tumors, and the YAP1 signature is enriched in primary prostate tumor samples with stronger expression of MDSC relevant genes. Together, YAP-driven MDSC recruitment via heterotypic Cxcl5-Cxcr2 signaling reveals effective therapeutic strategy for advanced prostate cancer. Significance We demonstrate a critical role of MDSCs in prostate tumor progression and discover a cancer cell non-autonomous function of Hippo-YAP pathway in regulation of Cxcl5, a ligand for Cxcr2 expressing MDSCs. Pharmacologic elimination of MDSCs or blocking the heterotypic CxCl5-Cxcr2 signaling circuit elicits robust anti-tumor responses and prolongs survival. PMID:26701088

  5. Clonal dominance among T-lymphocyte infiltrates in arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Stamenkovic, I.; Stegagno, M.; Wright, K.A.; Krane, S.M.; Amento, E.P.; Colvin, R.B.; Duquesnoy, R.J.; Kurnick, J.T.

    1988-02-01

    Synovial membranes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as other types of chronic destructive inflammatory arthritis contain infiltrates of activated T lymphocytes that probably contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In an effort to elucidate the nature of these infiltrates, interleukin 2 (IL-2)-responsive T lymphocytes were grown out of synovial fragments from 14 patients undergoing surgery for advanced destructive inflammatory joint disease. Eleven of the samples examined were from patients with classical rheumatoid arthritis, while three others were obtained from individuals with clinical osteoarthritis. Southern blot analysis of T-cell receptor (TCR) ..beta..-chain genes in 13 of 14 cultures showed distinct rearrangements, indicating that each culture was characterized by the predominance of a limited number of clones. T-cell populations from peripheral blood stimulated with a variety of activators and expanded with IL-2 did not demonstrate evidence of similar clonality in long-term culture. These results suggest that a limited number of activated T-cell clones predominate at the site of tissue injury in rheumatoid synovial membranes as well as in other types of destructive inflammatory joint disease. Further characterization of these T-cell clones may aid our understanding of the pathogenesis of these rheumatic disorders.

  6. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB[sub 2] composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Miller, J.H.; Cooley, K.C.; Lowden, R.A. ); Starr, T.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Efficiency of the Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction of aluminum can be substantially improved by the use of a TiB[sub 2] cathode surface. The use of TiB[sub 2], however, has been hampered by the brittle nature of the material and the grain-boundary attack of sintering-aid phases by molten aluminum. In the current work, TiB[sub 2] is toughened through the use of reinforcing fibers, with chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) used to produce pure TiB[sub 2]. It has been observed, however, that the formation of TiB[sub 2] from chloride precursors at fabrication temperatures below 900 to 1000[degrees]C alloys the retention of destructive levels of chlorine in the material. At higher fabrication temperatures and under appropriate infiltration conditions, as determined from the use of a process model, a TIB[sub 2]THORNEL P-25 fiber composite, 45 mm in diam and 6 mm thick, has been fabricated in 20 h. The material has been demonstrated to be stable in molten aluminum in short-duration tests.

  7. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Miller, J.H.; Cooley, K.C.; Lowden, R.A.; Starr, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Efficiency of the Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction of aluminum can be substantially improved by the use of a TiB{sub 2} cathode surface. The use of TiB{sub 2}, however, has been hampered by the brittle nature of the material and the grain-boundary attack of sintering-aid phases by molten aluminum. In the current work, TiB{sub 2} is toughened through the use of reinforcing fibers, with chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) used to produce pure TiB{sub 2}. It has been observed, however, that the formation of TiB{sub 2} from chloride precursors at fabrication temperatures below 900 to 1000{degrees}C alloys the retention of destructive levels of chlorine in the material. At higher fabrication temperatures and under appropriate infiltration conditions, as determined from the use of a process model, a TIB{sub 2}THORNEL P-25 fiber composite, 45 mm in diam and 6 mm thick, has been fabricated in 20 h. The material has been demonstrated to be stable in molten aluminum in short-duration tests.

  8. Macrophage Infiltration into the Glomeruli in Lipoprotein Glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Takasaki, Satoshi; Maeda, Kunihiko; Joh, Kensuke; Yamakage, Shu; Fukase, Sachiko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsunaga, Akira; Saito, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is characterized by histopathological features showing intra-glomerular lipoprotein thrombi and type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP), with heterozygote mutation of apolipoprotein (apo) E gene. On the other hand, as another renal lipidosis with type III HLP, apoE2 homozygote-related glomerulopathy (apoE2-GN) showing foamy macrophages has been reported. The case of a 25-year-old man who had LPG by clinical behavior and gene analysis, but demonstrated atypical histopathological features with a substantial amount of foamy macrophage infiltration in the glomeruli, is presented. The combination of alleles for apoE Tokyo/Maebashi and classical apoE2 (Arg158Cys) was inferred to be the leading cause of the unique renal pathology with lipoprotein thrombi and foamy macrophages. In addition, foamy macrophages infiltrated some part of the apoE-positive region within the glomerulus, but did not exist in lipoprotein thrombi despite apoE positivity, suggesting that properties of apoE are crucial in the development of LPG rather than macrophage function. This case provides important information related to the pathogenesis of LPG and apoE2-GN. PMID:26955632

  9. An investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During this study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures -- caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors -- have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality. 87 tabs.

  10. Modeling of forced flow/thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, T.L.; Smith, A.W.

    1992-09-01

    The forced flow/thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration process (FCVI) has proven to be a successful technique for fabrication of ceramic matrix composites. It is particularly attractive for thick components which cannot be fabricated using the conventional, isothermal method (ICVI). Although it offers processing times that are at least an order of magnitude shorter than ICVI, FCVI has not been used to fabricate parts of complex geometry and is perceived by some to be unsuitable for such components. The major concern Is that selection and control of the flow pattern and thermal profile for optimum infiltration can be a difficult and costly exercise. In order to reduce this effort, we are developing a computer model for FCVI that simulates the densification process for given component geometry, reactor configuration and operating parameters. Used by a process engineer, this model can dramatically reduce the experimental effort needed to obtain uniform densification. A one-dimensional process model, described in a previous interim report, has demonstrated good agreement with experimental results in predicting overall densification time and density uniformity during processing and the effect of various fiber architectures and operating parameters on these process issues. This model is fundamentally unsuitable for more complex geometries, however, and extension to two- and three-dimensions is necessary. This interim report summarizes our progress since the previous interim report toward development of a ``finite volume`` model for FCVI.

  11. Modeling of forced flow/thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, T.L.; Smith, A.W. )

    1992-09-01

    The forced flow/thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration process (FCVI) has proven to be a successful technique for fabrication of ceramic matrix composites. It is particularly attractive for thick components which cannot be fabricated using the conventional, isothermal method (ICVI). Although it offers processing times that are at least an order of magnitude shorter than ICVI, FCVI has not been used to fabricate parts of complex geometry and is perceived by some to be unsuitable for such components. The major concern Is that selection and control of the flow pattern and thermal profile for optimum infiltration can be a difficult and costly exercise. In order to reduce this effort, we are developing a computer model for FCVI that simulates the densification process for given component geometry, reactor configuration and operating parameters. Used by a process engineer, this model can dramatically reduce the experimental effort needed to obtain uniform densification. A one-dimensional process model, described in a previous interim report, has demonstrated good agreement with experimental results in predicting overall densification time and density uniformity during processing and the effect of various fiber architectures and operating parameters on these process issues. This model is fundamentally unsuitable for more complex geometries, however, and extension to two- and three-dimensions is necessary. This interim report summarizes our progress since the previous interim report toward development of a finite volume'' model for FCVI.

  12. [Typing of infiltration cells in primary, localized, nodular, cutaneous amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Sepp, N; Grünewald, K; Soyer, H P; Kerl, H; Breathnach, S M; Fritsch, P; Hintner, H

    1992-04-01

    Amyloid tumours in two patients with primary localized nodular cutaneous amyloidosis contained very dense infiltrates consisting mainly of plasma cells and lymphocytes. In one case IgM was detected on many cells of the infiltrate, while in the other IgA was found in morphologically apparently normal plasma cells. Immunohistochemical investigations did not reveal any immunoglobulin light chain restriction in either of the tumours. Numerous cells expressed B cell markers, such as CD20 or CD38. Rearrangement studies on material from the amyloid tumour of one of the patients confirmed the monoclonality of plasma cells. This observation indicates that the nodules of primary localized nodular cutaneous amyloidosis indeed represent an extramedullary plasmocytoma, which consists of amyloid-producing plasma cells. Of special interest was the unexpectedly high proportion of cells expressing T cell markers (CD3, CD5, CD4 greater than CD8) in the amyloid nodules of both patients. After excluding co-expression of B and T cell markers on identical cells by immunohistochemical studies on serial sections and also after molecular biological studies, we assume that this is a separate T cell population that may have a regulatory effect on the production of amyloid. PMID:1597370

  13. Glioblastoma-infiltrated innate immune cells resemble M0 macrophage phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Wei, Jun; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Healy, Luke M.; Maiti, Sourindra N.; Thomas, Ginu; Zhou, Shouhao; Wang, Qianghu; Elakkad, Ahmed; Liebelt, Brandon D.; Yaghi, Nasser K.; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Huang, Neal; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Prabhu, Sujit S.; Rao, Ganesh; Sawaya, Raymond; Langford, Lauren A.; Bruner, Janet M.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Bar-Or, Amit; Li, Wei; Colen, Rivka R.; Curran, Michael A.; Bhat, Krishna P.; Antel, Jack P.; Cooper, Laurence J.; Sulman, Erik P.; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas are highly infiltrated by diverse immune cells, including microglia, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Understanding the mechanisms by which glioblastoma-associated myeloid cells (GAMs) undergo metamorphosis into tumor-supportive cells, characterizing the heterogeneity of immune cell phenotypes within glioblastoma subtypes, and discovering new targets can help the design of new efficient immunotherapies. In this study, we performed a comprehensive battery of immune phenotyping, whole-genome microarray analysis, and microRNA expression profiling of GAMs with matched blood monocytes, healthy donor monocytes, normal brain microglia, nonpolarized M0 macrophages, and polarized M1, M2a, M2c macrophages. Glioblastoma patients had an elevated number of monocytes relative to healthy donors. Among CD11b+ cells, microglia and MDSCs constituted a higher percentage of GAMs than did macrophages. GAM profiling using flow cytometry studies revealed a continuum between the M1- and M2-like phenotype. Contrary to current dogma, GAMs exhibited distinct immunological functions, with the former aligned close to nonpolarized M0 macrophages. PMID:26973881

  14. TCR Sequencing Can Identify and Track Glioma-Infiltrating T Cells after DC Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Melody S; Sedighim, Shaina; Wang, Tina; Antonios, Joseph P; Everson, Richard G; Tucker, Alexander M; Du, Lin; Emerson, Ryan; Yusko, Erik; Sanders, Catherine; Robins, Harlan S; Yong, William H; Davidson, Tom B; Li, Gang; Liau, Linda M; Prins, Robert M

    2016-05-01

    Although immunotherapeutic strategies are emerging as adjunctive treatments for cancer, sensitive methods of monitoring the immune response after treatment remain to be established. We used a novel next-generation sequencing approach to determine whether quantitative assessments of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) content and the degree of overlap of T-cell receptor (TCR) sequences in brain tumors and peripheral blood were predictors of immune response and overall survival in glioblastoma patients treated with autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell immunotherapy. A statistically significant correlation was found between a higher estimated TIL content and increased time to progression and overall survival. In addition, we were able to assess the proportion of shared TCR sequences between tumor and peripheral blood at time points before and after therapy, and found the level of TCR overlap to correlate with survival outcomes. Higher degrees of overlap, or the development of an increased overlap following immunotherapy, was correlated with improved clinical outcome, and may provide insights into the successful, antigen-specific immune response. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(5); 412-8. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26968205

  15. Animating Brains.

    PubMed

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-07-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  16. Smart Brains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1995-01-01

    New techniques have opened windows to the brain. Although the biochemistry of learning remains largely a mystery, the following findings seem to have clear implications for education: (1) the importance of early-learning opportunities for the very young; (2) the connection between music and abstract reasoning; and (3) the importance of good…

  17. Vision's Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Julie Ann

    1978-01-01

    The functional architecture of the primary visual cortex has been explored by monitoring the responses of individual brain cells to visual stimuli. A combination of anatomical and physiological techniques reveals groups of functionally related cells, juxtaposed and superimposed, in a sometimes complex, but presumably efficient, structure. (BB)

  18. [Soil infiltration characteristics under main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dao-Ping; Chen, San-Xiong; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Xie, Li; Jiang, Jiang

    2007-03-01

    The study on the soil infiltration under different main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province showed that the characteristics of soil infiltration differed significantly with land use type, and the test eight vegetation types could be classified into four groups, based on soil infiltration capability. The first group, deciduous broadleaved forest, had the strongest soil infiltration capability, and the second group with a stronger soil infiltration capability was composed of grass, pine forest, shrub community and tea bush. Bamboo and evergreen broadleaved forest were classified into the third group with a relatively strong soil infiltration capability, while bare land belonged to the fourth group because of the bad soil structure and poorest soil infiltration capability. The comprehensive parameters of soil infiltration (alpha) and root (beta) were obtained by principal component analysis, and the regression model of alpha and beta could be described as alpha = 0. 1708ebeta -0. 3122. Soil infiltration capability was greatly affected by soil physical and chemical characteristics and root system. Fine roots (< or = 1 mm in diameter) played effective roles on the improvement of soil physical and chemical properties, and the increase of soil infiltration capability was closely related to the amount of the fine roots. PMID:17552181

  19. Infiltration of Macrophages Correlates with Severity of Allograft Rejection and Outcome in Human Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bourier, Felix; Kühne, Louisa; Banas, Miriam C.; Rümmele, Petra; Wurm, Simone; Banas, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite substantial progress in recent years, graft survival beyond the first year still requires improvement. Since modern immunosuppression addresses mainly T-cell activation and proliferation, we studied macrophage infiltration into the allografts of 103 kidney transplant recipients during acute antibody and T-cell mediated rejection. Macrophage infiltration was correlated with both graft function and graft survival until month 36 after transplantation. Results Macrophage infiltration was significantly elevated in antibody-mediated and T-cell mediated rejection, but not in kidneys with established IFTA. Treatment of rejection with steroids was less successful in patients with more prominent macrophage infiltration into the allografts. Macrophage infiltration was accompanied by increased cell proliferation as well as antigen presentation. With regard to the compartmental distribution severity of T-cell-mediated rejection was correlated to the amount of CD68+ cells especially in the peritubular and perivascular compartment, whereas biopsies with ABMR showed mainly peritubular CD68 infiltration. Furthermore, severity of macrophage infiltration was a valid predictor of resulting creatinine values two weeks as well as two and three years after renal transplantation as illustrated by multivariate analysis. Additionally performed ROC curve analysis showed that magnitude of macrophage infiltration (below vs. above the median) was a valid predictor for the necessity to restart dialysis. Having additionally stratified biopsies in accordance to the magnitude of macrophage infiltration, differential CD68+ cell infiltration was reflected by striking differences in overall graft survival. Conclusion The differences in acute allograft rejection have not only been reflected by different magnitudes of macrophage infiltration, but also by compartment-specific infiltration pattern and subsequent impact on resulting allograft function as well as need for dialysis

  20. Enhanced infiltration regime for treated-wastewater purification in soil aquifer treatment (SAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadav, Itamar; Arye, Gilboa; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona

    2012-02-01

    SummaryUtilization of treated wastewater (TWW) for agriculture is a widely accepted practice in regions suffering from freshwater (FW) shortages. Soil aquifer treatment is often employed for wastewater purification in regions with sandy soil. Infiltration rates of water through the soil can decrease as a result organic matter (OM) accumulation and the consequential water repellency. We examined several infiltration regimes with the aim of achieving lower levels of OM accumulation, reduced water repellency and increased infiltration rate in the topsoil layer of the infiltration basin. OM accumulation in the topsoil layer was found to be the main factor adversely affecting soil permeability. In measurements performed in the infiltration basins of the Tel Aviv wastewater-purification facility over a 1-year period, infiltration rates were found to differ with season, being low in the winter and high in the summer. Similar observations were made on small model infiltration ponds established to simulate the large basins. Several water-application regimes were tested for enhancement of the infiltration rates. Rapid application of TWW was the most efficient method in terms of reducing OM accumulation and water repellency in the topsoil layer. Low-rate, and spraying of TWW over the soil using sprinklers produced the highest OM accumulation and consequently, higher water repellency. Low-rate, single outlet application—the conventional infiltration method employed in the commercial infiltration basins—exhibited moderate OM accumulation and water repellency. Neither water repellency nor OM accumulation were observed in the FW-application regime. Accumulation of OM originating from the percolating TWW, at the topsoil layer was identified as dominating infiltration rate at the infiltration basins. Reduction of OM content by the means proposed and evaluated in this experiment can drastically increase infiltration rates.

  1. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  2. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  3. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  4. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

  5. Elucidating the mechanobiology of malignant brain tumors using a brain matrix-mimetic hyaluronic acid hydrogel platform

    PubMed Central

    Ananthanarayanan, Badriprasad; Kim, Yushan; Kumar, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant brain tumor characterized by diffuse infiltration of single cells into the brain parenchyma, which is a process that relies in part on aberrant biochemical and biophysical interactions between tumor cells and the brain extracellular matrix (ECM). A major obstacle to understanding ECM regulation of GBM invasion is the absence of model matrix systems that recapitulate the distinct composition and physical structure of brain ECM while allowing independent control of adhesive ligand density, mechanics, and microstructure. To address this need, we synthesized brain-mimetic ECMs based on hyaluronic acid (HA) with a range of stiffnesses that encompasses normal and tumorigenic brain tissue and functionalized these materials with short Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides to facilitate cell adhesion. Scanning electron micrographs of the hydrogels revealed a dense, sheet-like microstructure with apparent nanoscale porosity similar to brain extracellular space. On flat hydrogel substrates, glioma cell spreading area and actin stress fiber assembly increased strongly with increasing density of RGD peptide. Increasing HA stiffness under constant RGD density produced similar trends and increased the speed of random motility. In a three-dimensional (3D) spheroid paradigm, glioma cells invaded HA hydrogels with morphological patterns distinct from those observed on flat surfaces or in 3D collagen-based ECMs but highly reminiscent of those seen in brain slices. This material system represents a brain-mimetic model ECM with tunable ligand density and stiffness amenable to investigations of the mechanobiological regulation of brain tumor progression. PMID:21820737

  6. Progesterone Induces the Growth and Infiltration of Human Astrocytoma Cells Implanted in the Cerebral Cortex of the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Germán-Castelán, Liliana; Manjarrez-Marmolejo, Joaquín; González-Arenas, Aliesha; González-Morán, María Genoveva; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) promotes cell proliferation in several types of cancer, including brain tumors such as astrocytomas, the most common and aggressive primary intracerebral neoplasm in humans. In this work, we studied the effects of P4 and its intracellular receptor antagonist, RU486, on growth and infiltration of U373 cells derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, implanted in the motor cortex of adult male rats, using two treatment schemes. In the first one, fifteen days after cells implantation, rats were daily subcutaneously treated with vehicle (propylene glycol, 160 μL), P4 (1 mg), RU486 (5 mg), or P4 + RU486 (1 mg and 5 mg, resp.) for 21 days. In the second one, treatments started 8 weeks after cells implantation and lasted for 14 days. In both schemes we found that P4 significantly increased the tumor area as compared with the rest of the treatments, whereas RU486 blocked P4 effects. All rats treated with P4 showed tumor infiltration, while 28.6% and 42.9% of the animals treated with RU486 and P4 + RU486, respectively, presented it. Our data suggest that P4 promotes growth and migration of human astrocytoma cells implanted in the motor cortex of the rat through the interaction with its intracellular receptor. PMID:24982875

  7. Modeling Hydrologic and Geochemical Aspects of Rapid Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, S.; Finsterle, S.; Gu, C.; Maggi, F.

    2010-12-01

    Land-based wastewater treatment is the controlled application of wastewater to soil to remove wastewater constituents. A Rapid Infiltration Basin (RIB) is a major land treatment technique where treated wastewater is infiltrated at high rates in shallow basins, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen compounds, there is particular concern that a RIB may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. RIBs are operated in repetitive cycles of flooding, infiltration, and drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect pollutant residence time and water table rise in shallow groundwater systems. They also alter water saturation and air content in the vadose zone, which have an impact on denitrification. Optimum values of the wetting-drying cycle ratio and the hydraulic loading rate are expected to vary with the quality of applied wastewater, soil type, treatment objective, and climate. Soil development within the basins may have an important effect on RIB performance. In this study, numerical modeling is used to obtain optimum values for the wetting-drying cycle ratio and hydraulic loading rate for different soil types and environmental conditions. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Overland flow within RIBs is coupled with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on hydraulic performance. TOUGHREACT v1.1 is used for modeling nitrogen fate and transport. Flow simulations indicate that using a long flooding cycle results in more water spreading over the basin and higher vadose zone water saturations than more frequent short-duration flooding events. Results of modeling fate and

  8. Post-injury administration of allicin attenuates ischemic brain injury through sphingosine kinase 2: In vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Ji; Chang, Ting; Cai, Wen-Ke; Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Yong-Xiang; Sun, Chao; Li, Zhu-Yi; Li, Wei-Xin

    2015-10-01

    Allicin, one of the main biologically active compounds derived from garlic, has been shown to exert various pharmacological activities and is considered to have therapeutic potential for many pathologic conditions. In the present study, we investigated the potential post-ischemic neuroprotective effects of allicin and its underlying mechanisms. Using a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, we found that intraperitoneal treatment with 50 mg/kg allicin significantly reduced brain infarct volume, attenuated cerebral edema and decreased the neurological deficit score. Allicin treatment also diminished TUNEL positive cells and inhibited the activation of caspase-3 after MCAO. These protective effects could be observed even if the administration was delayed to 6 h after injury. In addition, we evaluated the in vitro protective effects of allicin against oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) induced neuronal injury in primary cultured cortical neurons. Allicin (50 μM) increased neuronal viability, decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and inhibited apoptotic neuronal death after OGD. These protective effects could be observed even if the administration was delayed to 4 h after injury. Furthermore, allicin significantly increased the expression of sphingosine kinases 2 (Sphk2) both in vivo and in vitro. Pretreatment with the Sphk2 inhibitor ABC294640 partially reversed the protective effects of allicin against MCAO and OGD injury, indicating that an Sphk2-mediated mechanism was involved in allicin-induced protection in our models. The combination of findings suggests that post-injury administration of allicin has potential as a neuroprotective strategy for ischemic stroke. PMID:26275594

  9. Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories

    PubMed Central

    Man, Yan-gao; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Mason, Jeffrey; Avital, Itzhak; Bilchik, Anton; Bruecher, Bjoern; Protic, Mladjan; Nissan, Aviram; Izadjoo, Mina; Zhang, Xichen; Jewett, Anahid

    2013-01-01

    It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness. PMID:23386907

  10. Non Infiltrating Angiolipoma of the Palate in Geriatric Patient: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chinnaswami, Ravindran; Narasimhan, Malathi; Kumar, Annie Evangelin Nithia; Natarajan, Parthasarathy

    2016-01-01

    Angiolipoma is one of the rare variant of lipoma. This benign tumour consists of both fatty and vascular elements. It mostly occur in the trunk and extremities and is uncommon in head and neck region. Angiolipoma is classified as infiltrating and non- infiltrating types. Among all neoplasms of the oral cavity, lipomas account for 1 to 5% and the incidence of angiolipoma is 5 to 17% in it. There is no sex predilection for this tumour. It is classified as infiltrative and non-infiltrative type. Surgical excision is the method to be considered for both the types of angiolipoma, however the infiltrating type recurs post-surgery. We report a rare case report of 55-year-old female with non-infiltrating angiolipoma of the hard palate mimicking a mucocele treated by surgical excision with no signs of recurrence and good wound healing after three months follow up with minimal scar formation. PMID:27014643

  11. Non Infiltrating Angiolipoma of the Palate in Geriatric Patient: A Case Report with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Deepak; Chinnaswami, Ravindran; Narasimhan, Malathi; Kumar, Annie Evangelin Nithia; Natarajan, Parthasarathy

    2016-01-01

    Angiolipoma is one of the rare variant of lipoma. This benign tumour consists of both fatty and vascular elements. It mostly occur in the trunk and extremities and is uncommon in head and neck region. Angiolipoma is classified as infiltrating and non- infiltrating types. Among all neoplasms of the oral cavity, lipomas account for 1 to 5% and the incidence of angiolipoma is 5 to 17% in it. There is no sex predilection for this tumour. It is classified as infiltrative and non-infiltrative type. Surgical excision is the method to be considered for both the types of angiolipoma, however the infiltrating type recurs post-surgery. We report a rare case report of 55-year-old female with non-infiltrating angiolipoma of the hard palate mimicking a mucocele treated by surgical excision with no signs of recurrence and good wound healing after three months follow up with minimal scar formation. PMID:27014643

  12. A multilevel multiscale mimetic method for an anisotropic infiltration problem

    SciTech Connect

    Lipnikov, Konstantin; Moulton, David; Svyatskiy, Daniil

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of multiphase flow and transport in highly heterogeneous porous media must capture a broad range of coupled spatial and temporal scales. Recently, a hierarchical approach dubbed the Multilevel Multiscale Mimetic (M3) method, was developed to simulate two-phase flow in porous media. The M{sup 3} method is locally mass conserving at all levels in its hierarchy, it supports unstructured polygonal grids and full tensor permeabilities, and it can achieve large coarsening factors. In this work we consider infiltration of water into a two-dimensional layered medium. The grid is aligned with the layers but not the coordinate axes. We demonstrate that with an efficient temporal updating strategy for the coarsening parameters, fine-scale accuracy of prominent features in the flow is maintained by the M{sup 3} method.

  13. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface

  14. Temperature sensitivity of photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with ethanol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu Van, Lanh; Stefaniuk, Tomasz; Kasztelanic, Rafał; Cao Long, Van; Klimczak, Mariusz; Le Van, Hieu; Trippenbach, Marek; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present a numerical study on the optimization of dispersion of a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with water-ethanol mixtures. The advantage of such an approach stems from the fact that the dependence of the refractive index on temperature is larger in liquids than in solid materials. Here, we examine photonic crystal fibers with a regular, hexagonal lattice and with various geometrical and material parameters, such as different number of rings of holes, various lattice constants and the size of core and air-holes. Additionally, for the optimized structure with flat dispersion characteristics, we analyze the influence of temperature and concentration of the ethanol solution on the dispersion characteristic and the zero dispersion wavelength shift of the fundamental mode.

  15. Malignant Infiltration of the Liver Presenting as Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Nicole E.; Sanders, Corron; Hughes, Randall S.; Fontana, Robert J.; Stravitz, R. Todd; Fix, Oren; Han, Steven H.; Naugler, Willscott E.; Zaman, Atif; Lee, William M.

    2014-01-01

    There have been few reports of acute liver failure (ALF, with encephalopathy and coagulopathy) due to infiltration of the liver by malignant cells. We describe a case series of 27 patients with ALF caused by malignancy. We examined a large, multi-center ALF registry (1910 patients; mean age, 47.1±13.9 years) and found only 27 cases (1.4%) of ALF attributed to malignancy. Twenty cases (74%) presented with abdominal pain and 11 with ascites. The malignancies included lymphoma or leukemia (33%), breast cancer, (30%), and colon cancer (7%); 90% of the patients with lymphoma or leukemia had no history of cancer, compared to 25% of patients with breast cancer. Overall, 44% of the patients had evidence of liver masses by imaging. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy in 15 (55%) and autopsy for 6 cases. Twenty-four patients (89%) died within 3 weeks of ALF. PMID:25277846

  16. Integrated loading rate determination for wastewater infiltration system sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research); Siegrist, R.L. )

    1991-01-01

    One of the principal parameters used in wastewater system design is the hydraulic loading rate. Historically the determination of the loading rate has been a straight forward process involving selection of a rate based on soil texture or water percolation rate. Research and experience over the past decade has provided additional insight into the complex processes occurring within wastewater-amended soil systems and has suggested the fallacy of this approach. A mean grain size vs. sorting (MESO) diagram constitutes a new basis for soil classification for wastewater infiltration system design. Crude characterization of the soil hydraulic properties is possible according to the MESO Diagram and loading rate as well as certain purification aspects can be assessed from the diagram. In this paper, an approach is described based on the MESO Diagram that integrates soil properties and wastewater pretreatment to yield a loading rate. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Mass transport measurements and modeling for chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, T.L.; Chiang, D.Y.; Fiadzo, O.G.; Hablutzel, N.

    1997-12-01

    This project involves experimental and modeling investigation of densification behavior and mass transport in fiber preforms and partially densified composites, and application of these results to chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process modeling. This supports work on-going at ORNL in process development for fabrication of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) tubes. Tube-shaped composite preforms are fabricated at ORNL with Nextel{trademark} 312 fiber (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) by placing and compressing several layers of braided sleeve on a tubular mandrel. In terms of fiber architecture these preforms are significantly different than those made previously with Nicalon{trademark} fiber (Nippon Carbon Corp., Tokyo, Japan) square weave cloth. The authors have made microstructure and permeability measurements on several of these preforms and a few partially densified composites so as to better understand their densification behavior during CVI.

  18. Infiltration at yucca mountain, nevada, traced by 36Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, A. E.; Wolfsberg, K.; Gifford, S. K.; Bentley, H. W.; Elmore, D.

    1987-11-01

    Measurements of chloride and 36Cl in soils from two locations near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been used to trace the infiltration of precipitation in this arid region. The results show that the 36Cl fallout from nuclear-weapons testing formed a well-defined peak at one location, with a maximum 36Cl/Cl ratio 0.5 m below the surface. The structure of the 36Cl bomb pulse at the other location was much more complex, and the quantity of 36Cl in the bomb pulse was < 1% of the 6 × 10 12 atoms {36Cl }/{m 2} in the bomb pulse at the first location. The data indicate hydrologic activity subsequent to the 36Cl bomb-pulse fallout at one location, but none at the other location.

  19. Infiltration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, traced by {sup 36}Cl

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, A.E.; Wolfsberg, K.; Gifford, S.K.; Bentley, H.W.; Elmore, D.

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of chloride and {sup 36}Cl in soils from two locations near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been used to trace the infiltration of precipitation in this arid region. The results show that the {sup 36}Cl fallout from nuclear weapons testing formed a well-defined peak at one location, with a maximum 0.5m below the surface. The structure of the {sup 36}Cl bomb pulse at the other location was much more complex, and quantity of {sup 36}Cl in the bomb pulse was <1% of the 6 x 10{sup 12} atoms {sup 36}Cl/m{sup 2} in the bomb pulse at the first location. The data indicate hydrologic activity subsequent to the {sup 36}Cl bomb pulse fallout at one location, but none at the other location. 11 refs.

  20. Primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Minni, A; Roukos, R; De Carlo, A; Di Tillo, G; Illuminati, G; Gallo, P

    2012-10-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the skin is an extremely rare neoplasm but is common in the major and minor salivary glands accounting of approximately 30% of all malignant tumors arising from these glands. Cutaneous involvement should be carefully assessed to exclude the possibility of metastases from distant sites. We report an 81 year-old man presenting a primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating his left parotid gland. Excision of the affected skin and a total parotidectomy with supraomohyoid neck dissection (level I-III) was performed followed by radiotherapy. No relapse after 2 years follow up has been observed. Since the primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that frequently develops metastases it is important to distinguish it from primary MEC originating from the salivary glands for better management and suitable therapeutic decisions. PMID:23090800

  1. Water infiltration and intermittent flow in rough-walled fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Su, G.

    1995-05-01

    Flow visualization experiments were conducted in transparent replicas of natural rough-walled fractures. The fracture was inclined to observe the interplay between capillary and gravity forces. Water was introduced into the fracture by a capillary siphon. Preferential flow paths were observed, where intermittent flow frequently occurred. The water infiltration experiments suggest that intermittent flow in fractures appears to be the rule rather than the exception. In order to investigate the mechanism causing intermittent flow in fractures, parallel plates with different apertures were assembled using lucite and glass. A medium-coarse-fine pore structure is believed to cause the intermittency in flow. Intermittent flow was successfully produced in the parallel plate experiments using the lucite plates. After several trials, intermittent flow was also produced in the glass plates.

  2. LSM-YSZ Cathodes with Reaction-Infiltrated Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Chun; Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, StevenJ.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-01-31

    To improve the LSM-YSZ cathode performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Sm0.6Sr0.4CoO3-sigma (SSC) perovskite nanoparticles are incorporated into the cathodes by a reaction-infiltration process. The SSC particles are {approx}20 to 80nm in diameter, and intimately adhere to the pore walls of the preformed LSM-YSZ cathodes. The SSC particles dramatically enhance single-cell performance with a 97 percent H2+3 percent H2O fuel, between 600 C and 800 C. Consideration of a simplified TPB (triple phase boundary) reaction geometry indicates that the enhancement may be attributed to the high electrocatalytic activity of SSC for electrochemical reduction of oxygen in a region that can be located a small distance away from the strict triple phase boundaries. The implication of this work for developing high-performance electrodes is also discussed.

  3. Wear and Reactivity Studies of Melt infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarmon, David C.; Ojard, Greg; Brewer, David N.

    2013-01-01

    As interest grows in the use of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for critical gas turbine engine components, the effects of the CMCs interaction with the adjoining structure needs to be understood. A series of CMC/material couples were wear tested in a custom elevated temperature test rig and tested as diffusion couples, to identify interactions. Specifically, melt infiltrated silicon carbide/silicon carbide (MI SiC/SiC) CMC was tested in combination with a nickel-based super alloy, Waspaloy, a thermal barrier coating, Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a monolithic ceramic, silicon nitride (Si3N4). To make the tests more representative of actual hardware, the surface of the CMC was kept in the as-received state (not machined) with the full surface features/roughness present. Test results include: scanning electron microscope characterization of the surfaces, micro-structural characterization, and microprobe analysis.

  4. Laser Machining of Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarmon, D. C.; Ojard, G.; Brewer, D.

    2012-01-01

    As interest grows in considering the use of ceramic matrix composites for critical components, the effects of different machining techniques, and the resulting machined surfaces, on strength need to be understood. This work presents the characterization of a Melt Infiltrated SiC/SiC composite material system machined by different methods. While a range of machining approaches were initially considered, only diamond grinding and laser machining were investigated on a series of tensile coupons. The coupons were tested for residual tensile strength, after a stressed steam exposure cycle. The data clearly differentiated the laser machined coupons as having better capability for the samples tested. These results, along with micro-structural characterization, will be presented.

  5. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of fast landslides has become more and more dangerous during the last decades, due to the increased density of settlements, industrial plants and infrastructures. Such problem is particularly worrying in Campania (Southern Italy), where the fast population growth led a diffuse building activity without planning: indeed, recent flowslides caused hundreds of victims and heavy damages to buildings, roads and other infrastructures. Large mountainous areas in Campania are mantled by loose pyroclastic granular soils up to a depth of a few meters from top soil surface. These soils have usually a grain size that falls in the domain of silty sands, including pumice interbeds (gravelly sands), with saturated hydraulic conductivities up to the order of 10-1 cm/min. Such deposits often cover steep slopes, which stability is guaranteed by the apparent cohesion due to suction under unsaturated conditions, that are the most common conditions for these slopes [Olivares and Picarelli, 2001]. Whereas rainfall infiltration causes soil to approach saturation, suction vanishes and slope failure may occur. Besides soil physical properties, landslide triggering is influenced by several factors, such as rainfall intensity, soil initial moisture and suction, slope inclination, boundary conditions. Whereas slope failure occurs with soil close to being saturated, landslide may develop in form of fast and destructive flowslide. Calibration of reliable mathematical models of such a complex phenomenon requires availability of experimental observations of the major variables of interest, such as soil moisture and suction, soil deformation and displacements, pore water pressure, during the entire process of infiltration until slope failure. Due to the sudden trigger and extremely rapid propagation of such type of landslides, such data sets are rarely available for natural slopes where flowslides occurred. As a consequence landslide risk assessment and early warning in Campania rely on

  6. On the infiltration process in treated effluents spreading basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewy, A.; Weisbrod, N.; Lev, O.; Lazarovitch, N.

    2009-12-01

    Secondary treated effluents originating from the Dan Region in Israel are sent to tertiary treatment that uses Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) for purification within the vadose zone. The SAT is based on intermittent flooding (1-2 days) and drying (2-3 days) cycles in spreading basins constructed at the surface of a 40-m deep vadose zone. The site is located in the natural sand dunes north to the city of Ashdod, above the Israeli Coastal Plain Aquifer. The study aim is to investigate the physical and chemical processes that occur within the upper 2 meters of the spreading basins’ sandy soil profiles during the cyclic SAT operation. We explored two 2-m profiles about 50 m apart. In addition to ponding depth, continuous measurements of volumetric water content (VWC), temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) and oxidation-reduction potential at 8 different depths within the first profile were recorded. Data were collected in 15-min resolution during infiltration events for 3 months. Measurements in the second profile have been collected for a few weeks now and also include air pressure measurements. Additionally, soil samples were taken from both profiles to determine hydraulic parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the infiltration rate in the first profile is about 72 cm day-1, a low rate compared to what would be expected from a sandy profile. The VWC changes along this profile during the flooding stage imply percolation in the form of a double wetting front. First, the wetting front proceeds from the surface downward until effective saturation of 0.55. Second, the wetting front proceeds from 2-m upwards until effective saturation of 0.7 is reached. We assume the presence of a local lower hydraulic conductivity layer or a local perched water table at a depth of 4-5 m (perched above a deeper low hydraulic conductivity layer). This layer may cause the observed double wetting front. This combined with approximately 30% of entrapped air within the pores may be

  7. Chronic Left Lower Lobe Pulmonary Infiltrates During Military Deployment.

    PubMed

    Hunninghake, John C; Skabelund, Andrew J; Morris, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Deployment to Southwest Asia is associated with increased airborne hazards such as geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust, or air pollution. There are numerous ongoing studies to evaluate the potential effects of inhaled particulate matter on reported increases in acute and chronic respiratory symptoms. Providers need to be aware of potential causes of pulmonary disease such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia, asthma, and vocal cord dysfunction that have been associated with deployment. Other pulmonary disorders such as interstitial lung disease are infrequently reported. Not all deployment-related respiratory complaints may result from deployment airborne hazards and a broad differential should be considered. We present the case of a military member with a prolonged deployment found to have lobar infiltrates secondary to pulmonary vein stenosis from treatment for atrial fibrillation. PMID:27483542

  8. Rapid fabrication of ceramic composite tubes using chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, T.L.; Chiang, D.; Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; McLaughlin, J.C.; Matlin, W.M.

    1996-06-01

    Ceramic composite tubes can be fabricated with silicon carbide matrix and Nicalon fiber reinforcement using forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI). The process model GTCVI is used to design the equipment configuration and to identify conditions for rapid, uniform densification. The initial injector and mandrel design produced radial and longitudinal temperature gradients too large for uniform densification. Improved designs have been evaluated with the model. The most favorable approach utilizes a free-standing preform and an insulated water-cooled gas injector. Selected process conditions are based on the temperature limit of the fiber, matrix stoichiometry and reagent utilization efficiency. Model runs for a tube 12 inches long, 4 inches OD and 1/4 inch wall thickness show uniform densification in approximately 15 hours.

  9. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    This program is designed to develop a Hall-Heroult aluminum smelting cathode with substantially improved properties. The carbon cathodes in current use require significant anode-to-cathode spacing in order to prevent shorting, causing significant electrical inefficiencies. This is due to the non-wettability of carbon by aluminum which causes instability in the cathodic aluminum pad. It is suggested that a fiber reinforced-TiB{sub 2} matrix composite would have the requisite wettability, strength, strain-to-failure, cost, and lifetime to solve this problem. The approach selected to fabricate such a cathode material is chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). This program is designed to evaluate potential fiber reinforcements, fabricate test specimens, and test the materials in a static bath and lab-scale Hall cell.

  10. [Research progress of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiahui; Chen, Xiaosong; Shen, Kunwei

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. The formation and progression of tumor and the sensitivity to treatment differs from patient to patient. In addition to the widely used molecular subtype, novel markers are needed to better personalize the treatment of breast cancer. Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) have been consistently documented in breast cancer lesions especially in triple negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive breast cancer. Several clinical trials have revealed that TIL are associated with prognosis and can predict therapeutic efficacy of special therapy. TIL could be divided to different subtypes including CD8 + TIL, CD4 + TIL, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 + TIL, programmed death-1 + TIL. They play different roles in the process of anti-tumor immunity and can predict different prognosis. Screening out special TIL subtype which is well associated with prognosis and therapeutic efficacy and developing targeting immunotherapy can help to improve outcomes of breast cancer patients. PMID:26654152

  11. Martian 'Brain'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    5 May 2004 Most middle-latitude craters on Mars have strange landforms on their floors. Often, the floors have pitted and convoluted features that lack simple explanation. In this case, the central part of the crater floor shown in this 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image bears some resemblance to the folded nature of a brain. Or not. It depends upon the 'eye of the beholder,' perhaps. The light-toned 'ring' around the 'brain' feature is more easily explained--windblown ripples and dunes. The crater occurs near 33.1oS, 91.2oW, and is illuminated from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  12. Characterization of glass-infiltrated alumina-based ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Bona, Alvaro Della; Mecholsky, John J; Barrett, Allyson A; Griggs, Jason A

    2010-01-01

    Objective characterize the microstructure, composition, and important properties of glass-infiltrated alumina-based ceramics similar to the In-Ceram system. Methods Materials used were: IA- In-Ceram Alumina (Vita); IAE- IA electrophoretically deposited (Vita); AEM- IA using a vacuum driven method (Vita); VC- Vitro-Ceram (Angelus); TC- Turkom-Cera (Turkom-Ceramic); CC- Ceramcap (Foto-Ceram); and AG- Alglass (EDG). Ceramic specimens were fabricated following manufacturers’ instructions and ISO6872 standard and polished successively through 1μm alumina abrasive. Semi-quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and stereology (Vv). The elastic modulus (E) and Poisson’s ratio (ν) were determined using time-of-flight data measured in an ultrasonic pulser/receiver and the density (ρ) was determined using a helium pycnometer. Vicker’s indentation was used to calculate hardness (H). Bar specimens (25×4×1.2mm3) were loaded in three-point bending to fracture using a universal testing machine with cross-head speed of 1mm/min. Flexural strength (σ3P) was calculated and statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Tukey (α=0.05) and Weibull (m= modulus, σ0= characteristic strength). Results SEM and EDS analyses revealed similar microstructure for all ceramics, except for a lead-based matrix in CC and a zirconia phase in VC. TC, AG and CC showed significantly lower mean σ3P values than the other ceramics (p 0.05). AEM showed the greatest m (16). Conclusion Despite few differences in microstructure and composition, the IA, IAE, AEM and VC ceramics have similar properties. Significance The glass-infiltrated alumina-based ceramics from different manufacturers presented distinct characteristics. It is necessary to characterize new commercially available materials to understand their properties. PMID:18692231

  13. Immune signature of tumor infiltrating immune cells in renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Katharina; Fornara, Paolo; Lautenschläger, Christine; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Seliger, Barbara; Riemann, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated immune cells have been discussed as an essential factor for the prediction of the outcome of tumor patients. Lymphocyte-specific genes are associated with a favorable prognosis in colorectal cancer but with poor survival in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Flow cytometric analyses combined with immunohistochemistry were performed to study the phenotypic profiles of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and the frequency of T cells and macrophages in RCC lesions. Data were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and survival of patients. Comparing oncocytoma and clear cell (cc)RCC, T cell numbers as well as activation-associated T cell markers were higher in ccRCC, whereas the frequency of NK cells was higher in oncocytoma. An intratumoral increase of T cell numbers was found with higher tumor grades (G1:G2:G3/4 = 1:3:4). Tumor-associated macrophages slightly increased with dedifferentiation, although the macrophage-to-T cell ratio was highest in G1 tumor lesions. A high expression of CD57 was found in T cells of early tumor grades, whereas T cells in dedifferentiated RCC lesions expressed higher levels of CD69 and CTLA4. TIL composition did not differ between older (>70 y) and younger (<58 y) patients. Enhanced patients’ survival was associated with a higher percentage of tumor infiltrating NK cells and Th1 markers, e.g. HLA-DR+ and CXCR3+ T cells, whereas a high number of T cells, especially with high CD69 expression correlated with a worse prognosis of patients. Our results suggest that immunomonitoring of RCC patients might represent a useful tool for the prediction of the outcome of RCC patients. PMID:25949868

  14. Single-zone stack-dominated infiltration modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.H.

    1991-09-01

    Simplified, physical models for calculating infiltration in a single zone, usually calculate the air flows from the natural driving forces separately and then combine them. For most purposes -- especially minimum ventilation or energy considerations -- the stack effect dominates and total ventilation can be calculated by treating other effects (i.e., wind and small fans) as perturbations, using superposition techniques. The stack effect is caused by differences in density between indoor and outdoor air, normally attributable to the indoor-outdoor temperature difference. This report derives an exact, but practical, expression for calculating the stack effect from the air densities and leakage distribution using the power law formulation of envelope leakage. The neutral height -- the height at which there is no stack-related indoor-outdoor pressure difference -- is a key intermediate in stack modeling. This report defines a computable parameter called stack height, which contains all of the leakage distribution information necessary for estimating stack flows, thus freeing the model from specific assumptions (e.g., that the leakage is separable into evenly distributed floor, wall, and ceiling components). Example calculations including comparisons with other models, as well as validations using measured data from dwellings, are also presented. The dimensionless neutral level, which is related to the neutral height, is often used as an indicator of leakage distribution and in superposition. Its definition and role in these regards are discussed in detail. The more exact formulation is then used to analyze the simple box cases normally assumed in infiltration modeling and other approximations. Measured ventilation data will be used to infer leakage distributions and neutral levels as well as for example calculations.

  15. Silicon Brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Beyond the digital neural networks of Chap. 16, the more radical mapping of brain-like structures and processes into VLSI substrates has been pioneered by Carver Mead more than 30 years ago [1]. The basic idea was to exploit the massive parallelism of such circuits and to create low-power and fault-tolerant information-processing systems. Neuromorphic engineering has recently seen a revival with the availability of deep-submicron CMOS technology, which allows for the construction of very-large-scale mixed-signal systems combining local analog processing in neuronal cells with binary signalling via action potentials. Modern implementations are able to reach the complexity-scale of large functional units of the human brain, and they feature the ability to learn by plasticity mechanisms found in neuroscience. Combined with high-performance programmable logic and elaborate software tools, such systems are currently evolving into user-configurable non-von-Neumann computing systems, which can be used to implement and test novel computational paradigms. The chapter introduces basic properties of biological brains with up to 200 Billion neurons and their 1014 synapses, where action on a synapse takes ˜10 ms and involves an energy of ˜10 fJ. We outline 10x programs on neuromorphic electronic systems in Europe and the USA, which are intended to integrate 108 neurons and 1012 synapses, the level of a cat's brain, in a volume of 1 L and with a power dissipation <1 kW. For a balanced view on intelligence, we references Hawkins' view to first perceive the task and then design an intelligent technical response.

  16. Brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions.

  17. Analytical determination of transition time between transient and steady state water infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassabatere, Laurent; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The hydraulic characterization of soil hydraulic properties is a prerequisite to the modelling of flow in the vadose zone. Since many years, numerous methods were developed to determine soil hydraulic properties. Many of these methods rely on water infiltration experiments and their analysis using analytical or numerical models. At the beginning, most models were developed for water infiltration at steady state. These models had the advantage to be easy to develop from a theoretical point of view. Yet, many drawbacks remain including the need to wait for a long time, leading to time-consuming experiments, the risk to infiltrate water in large volumes of soil, leading to a response affected by soil variability, and the uncertainty regarding the attainment of steady state (i.e. constant infiltration rate). More recently, infiltration models and mathematical developments addressed the case of consecutive transient and steady states. Yet, one main problem remain. In the field, the operator is never sure about the state of water infiltration data. This paper present analytical formulations for the estimation of a transition time. We consider the model developed by Haverkamp et al. (1994) linking 1D infiltration flux to cumulative infiltration and related approximated expansions. An analytical method based on scaling is proposed to define transition time values in terms of both scaled cumulative infiltration and times. Dimensional times are then calculated for a large variety of soils and initial conditions. These time database can be considered as a relevant tool for the guidance for operators who conduct water infiltration experiments and wants to know when to stop and also for modelers who want to know how to select the data to fit transient or steady state models. Haverkamp, R., Ross, P. J., Smetten, K. R. J., Parlange, J. Y. (1994), Three-dimensional analysis of infiltration from the disc infiltrometer: 2 Physically based infiltration equation. Water Resour. Res

  18. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  19. Connecting bacterial colonization to physical and biochemical changes in a sand box infiltration experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubol, S.; Freixa, A.; Carles-Brangarí, A.; Fernàndez-Garcia, D.; Romaní, A. M.; Sanchez-Vila, X.

    2014-09-01

    Infiltration through sediments is linked to complex biogeochemical processes occurring at small spatial scales, often leading to a progressive reduction in infiltration rates due to microbial growth and/or mechanical clogging. Unraveling the linkage between microbial dynamics and water infiltration in a heterogeneous medium is of concern in artificial recharge ponds and natural infiltration systems. We present an 84-day laboratory infiltration experiment that aims at studying the temporal variation of selected biogeochemical parameters at different depths along the infiltration path. The experimental setup consists of a 1.2 m high tank packed with a heterogeneous soil and instrumented with arrays of sensors as well as soil and liquid samplers. Results indicate that: (i) microbial processes are responsible for infiltration reduction, enhancing the spatially heterogeneous distribution of infiltration rates with time, (ii) bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are present at all monitored depths, indicating the potential for deep biological clogging, (iii) bacteria functioning and richness exhibit depth zonation after the system reaches a mature state and (iv) the retention curve changes towards highest saturation by the end of the experiment. The increase in water holding capacity is largest at depth, where the presence of EPS is noticeable. The reduction in time of the quantity of water infiltrating along the tank can only be accounted for with a truly interdisciplinary approach involving physical, chemical and biological processes.

  20. Net-Infiltration Map of the Navajo Sandstone Outcrop Area in Western Washington County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in the arid southwestern United States and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration and recharge becomes critically important for inventorying ground-water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. A Geographic Information System (GIS)-based model utilizing readily available soils, topographic, precipitation, and outcrop data has been developed for predicting net infiltration to exposed and soil-covered areas of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop of southwestern Utah. The Navajo Sandstone is an important regional bedrock aquifer. The GIS model determines the net-infiltration percentage of precipitation by using an empirical equation. This relation is derived from least squares linear regression between three surficial parameters (soil coarseness, topographic slope, and downgradient distance from outcrop) and the percentage of estimated net infiltration based on environmental tracer data from excavations and boreholes at Sand Hollow Reservoir in the southeastern part of the study area. Processed GIS raster layers are applied as parameters in the empirical equation for determining net infiltration for soil-covered areas as a percentage of precipitation. This net-infiltration percentage is multiplied by average annual Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation data to obtain an infiltration rate for each model cell. Additionally, net infiltration on exposed outcrop areas is set to 10 percent of precipitation on the basis of borehole net-infiltration estimates. Soils and outcrop net-infiltration rates are merged to form a final map. Areas of low, medium, and high potential for ground-water recharge have been identified, and estimates of net infiltration range from 0.1 to 66 millimeters per year (mm/yr). Estimated net-infiltration rates of less than 10 mm/yr are considered low, rates of 10 to 50 mm

  1. Infiltration processing of boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal cermets

    DOEpatents

    Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    A chemical pretreatment method is used to produce boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal composites by an infiltration process. The boron carbide or other starting constituents, in powder form, are immersed in various alcohols, or other chemical agents, to change the surface chemistry of the starting constituents. The chemically treated starting constituents are consolidated into a porous ceramic precursor which is then infiltrated by molten aluminum or other metal by heating to wetting conditions. Chemical treatment of the starting constituents allows infiltration to full density. The infiltrated precursor is further heat treated to produce a tailorable microstructure. The process at low cost produces composites with improved characteristics, including increased toughness, strength.

  2. [Corneal infiltrates after keratoplasty caused by tissue inclusions of corn starch glove powder. An intraoperative complication].

    PubMed

    Mittelviefhaus, H

    1993-12-01

    Corneal infiltrations after keratoplasty may be the first sign of postoperative infection. We report on our findings of unusual corneal infiltrations, which were caused by contamination of the corneal tissue with remnants of latex glove powder. The diagnosis was proved by the specific distribution pattern and the clinical course. Infiltrates of decreasing size were observed in the area of all four temporarily supporting single-stitch sutures of the transplant and at the first stitches of the permanent running corneal sutures. There is no treatment necessary, but the infiltrates have to be differentiated from infection. Improvement of operative habits and techniques can avoid this complication. PMID:8124042

  3. Variably-saturated groundwater modeling for optimizing managed aquifer recharge using trench infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Benoit, Jerome; Healy, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Spreading-basin methods have resulted in more than 130 million cubic meters of recharge to the unconfined Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah in the past decade, but infiltration rates have slowed in recent years because of reduced hydraulic gradients and clogging. Trench infiltration is a promising alternative technique for increasing recharge and minimizing evaporation. This paper uses a variably saturated flow model to further investigate the relative importance of the following variables on rates of trench infiltration to unconfined aquifers: saturated hydraulic conductivity, trench spacing and dimensions, initial water-table depth, alternate wet/dry periods, and number of parallel trenches. Modeling results showed (1) increased infiltration with higher hydraulic conductivity, deeper initial water tables, and larger spacing between parallel trenches, (2) deeper or wider trenches do not substantially increase infiltration, (3) alternating wet/dry periods result in less overall infiltration than keeping the trenches continuously full, and (4) larger numbers of parallel trenches within a fixed area increases infiltration but with a diminishing effect as trench spacing becomes tighter. An empirical equation for estimating expected trench infiltration rates as a function of hydraulic conductivity and initial water-table depth was derived and can be used for evaluating feasibility of trench infiltration in other hydrogeologic settings

  4. Numerical Studies of Infiltration Dynamics of Liquid-Copper and Silicon/Solid-Carbon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, K.; Sha, J. J.; Lei, Zhen-Kun; Maqsood, A.; Mujahid, M.

    2014-06-01

    Mathematical modeling of infiltration dynamics of liquid Cu-Si alloy into porous carbon is presented. Two-dimensional infiltration equations are developed using the Washburn equation in the limit of both interface and diffusion control, for situations where the capillary radius decreases either linear or parabolic, and the contact angles are assumed to exponentially decrease with time during infiltration. One major manufacturing process for the Cu-Si/C composites is liquid melt infiltration. This article focuses on nonequilibrium wetting effects and offers a fundamental approach to these complex kinetic phenomena.

  5. Spectral and lifetime domain measurements of rat brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abi Haidar, D.; Leh, B.; Allaoua, K.; Genoux, A.; Siebert, R.; Steffenhagen, M.; Peyrot, D.; Sandeau, N.; Vever-Bizet, C.; Bourg-Heckly, G.; Chebbi, I.; Collado-Hilly, M.

    2012-02-01

    During glioblastoma surgery, delineation of the brain tumour margins remains difficult especially since infiltrated and normal tissues have the same visual appearance. This problematic constitutes our research interest. We developed a fibre-optical fluorescence probe for spectroscopic and time domain measurements. First measurements of endogenous tissue fluorescence were performed on fresh and fixed rat tumour brain slices. Spectral characteristics, fluorescence redox ratios and fluorescence lifetime measurements were analysed. Fluorescence information collected from both, lifetime and spectroscopic experiments, appeared promising for tumour tissue discrimination. Two photon measurements were performed on the same fixed tissue. Different wavelengths are used to acquire two-photon excitation-fluorescence of tumorous and healthy sites.

  6. Unstable infiltration fronts in porous media on laboratory scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Cindi; Neuweiler, Insa

    2014-05-01

    Water flow and transport of substances in the unsaturated zone are important processes for the quality and quantity of water in the hydrologic cycle. The water movement through preferential paths is often much faster than standard models (e. g. Richards equation in homogeneous porous media) predict. One type/phenomenon of preferential flow can occur during water infiltration into coarse and/or dry porous media: the so-called gravity-driven fingering flow. To upscale the water content and to describe the averaged water fluxes in order to couple models of different spheres it is necessary to understand and to quantify the behavior of flow instabilities. We present different experiments of unstable infiltration in homogeneous and heterogeneous structures to analyze development and morphology of gravity-driven fingering flow on the laboratory scale. Experiments were carried out in two-dimensional and three-dimensional sand tanks as well as in larger two-dimensional sand tanks with homogeneous and heterogeneous filling of sand and glass beads. In the small systems, water content in the medium was measured at different times. We compare the experiments to prediction of theoretical approaches (e.g. Saffman and Taylor, 1958; Chuoke et al., 1959; Philip 1975a; White et al., 1976; Parlange and Hill, 1976a; Glass et al., 1989a; Glass et al., 1991; Wang et al., 1998c) that quantify properties of the gravity-driven fingers. We use hydraulic parameters needed for the theoretical predictions (the water-entry value (hwe), van Genuchten parameter (Wang et al., 1997, Wang et al., 2000) and saturated conductivity (Ks), van Genuchten parameter (Guarracino, 2007) to simplify the prediction of the finger properties and if necessary to identify a constant correction factor. We find in general that the finger properties correspond well to theoretical predictions. In heterogeneous settings, where fine inclusions are embedded into a coarse material, the finger properties do not change much

  7. Characterization of liquid metal infiltration of a chopped fiber preform aided by external pressure. 2: Modeling of liquid metal infiltration process

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.; Zhang, Z.; Flower, H.M.

    1995-09-01

    Based on the visualized flow behavior of Al10SiMg alloy melt in Saffil chopped fiber preforms, unidirectional infiltration of a chopped fiber preform aided by squeeze pressure has been analyzed. The relationships between melt flow and process parameters have been statistically established by the hydrodynamic analysis. The stress distribution, the variation of saturation degree and the formation of cavities due to air entrapment in the preform during infiltration have been discussed together with the analysis results.

  8. Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... abta.org Donate Now Menu Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ... or Complete our contact form Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ...

  9. Enhanced immunohistochemical detection of neural infiltration in primary melanoma: is there a clinical value?

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Patrick; Tian, Jaiying; Zhong, Judy; Silva, Ines; Shapiro, Richard; Pavlick, Anna; Berman, Russell; Osman, Iman; Darvishian, Farbod

    2014-08-01

    Neural infiltration in primary melanoma is a histopathologic feature that has been associated with desmoplastic histopathologic subtype and local recurrence in the literature. We tested the hypothesis that improved detection and characterization of neural infiltration into peritumoral or intratumoral location and perineural or intraneural involvement could have a prognostic relevance. We studied 128 primary melanoma cases prospectively accrued and followed at New York University using immunohistochemical detection with antihuman neurofilament protein and routine histology with hematoxylin and eosin. Neural infiltration, defined as the presence of tumor cells involving or immediately surrounding nerve foci, was identified and characterized using both detection methods. Neural infiltration rate of detection was enhanced by immunohistochemistry for neurofilament in matched-pair design (47% by immunohistochemistry versus 25% by routine histology). Immunohistochemical detection of neural infiltration was significantly associated with ulceration (P = .021), desmoplastic and acral lentiginous histologic subtype (P = .008), and head/neck/hands/feet tumor location (P = .037). Routinely detected neural infiltration was significantly associated with local recurrence (P = .010). Immunohistochemistry detected more intratumoral neural infiltration cases compared with routine histology (30% versus 3%, respectively). Peritumoral and intratumoral nerve location had no impact on clinical outcomes. Using a multivariate model controlling for stage, neither routinely detected neural infiltration nor enhanced immunohistochemical characterization of neural infiltration was significantly associated with disease-free or overall survival. Our data demonstrate that routinely detected neural infiltration is associated with local recurrence in all histologic subtypes but that improved detection and characterization of neural infiltration with immunohistochemistry in primary melanoma does not

  10. On the physics of unstable infiltration, seepage, and gravity drainage in partially saturated tuffs.

    PubMed

    Faybishenko, B; Bodvarsson, G S; Salve, R

    2003-01-01

    To improve understanding of the physics of dynamic instabilities in unsaturated flow processes within the Paintbrush nonwelded unit (PTn) and the middle nonlithophysal portion of the Topopah Spring welded tuff unit (TSw) of Yucca Mountain, we analyzed data from a series of infiltration tests carried out at two sites (Alcove 4 and Alcove 6) in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), using analytical and empirical functions. The analysis of infiltration rates measured at both sites showed three temporal scales of infiltration rate: (1) a macro-scale trend of overall decreasing flow, (2) a meso-scale trend of fast and slow motion exhibiting three-stage variations of the flow rate (decreasing, increasing, and [again] decreasing flow rate, as observed in soils in the presence of entrapped air), and (3) micro-scale (high frequency) fluctuations. Infiltration tests in the nonwelded unit at Alcove 4 indicate that this unit may effectively dampen episodic fast infiltration events; however, well-known Kostyakov, Horton, and Philip equations do not satisfactorily describe the observed trends of the infiltration rate. Instead, a Weibull distribution model can most accurately describe experimentally determined time trends of the infiltration rate. Infiltration tests in highly permeable, fractured, welded tuff at Alcove 6 indicate that the infiltration rate exhibits pulsation, which may have been caused by multiple threshold effects and water-air redistribution between fractures and matrix. The empirical relationships between the extrinsic seepage from fractures, matrix imbibition, and gravity drainage versus the infiltration rate, as well as scaling and self-similarity for the leading edge of the water front are the hallmark of the nonlinear dynamic processes in water flow under episodic infiltration through fractured tuff. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we propose a conceptual model of a dynamic fracture flow and fracture-matrix interaction in fractured tuff

  11. On the physics of unstable infiltration, seepage, and gravity drainage in partially saturated tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Faybishenko, B.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Salve, R.

    2002-04-01

    To improve understanding of the physics of dynamic instabilities in unsaturated flow processes within the Paintbrush nonwelded unit (PTn) and the middle nonlithophysal portion of the Tonopah Spring welded tuff unit (TSw) of Yucca Mountain, we analyzed data from a series of infiltration tests carried out at two sites (Alcove 4 and Alcove 6) in the Exploratory Studies Facility, using analytical and empirical functions. The analysis of infiltration rates measured at both sites showed three temporal scales of infiltration rate: (1) a macro-scale trend of overall decreasing flow, (2) a meso-scale trend of fast and slow motion exhibiting three-stage variations of the flow rate (decreasing, increasing, and [again] decreasing flow rate, as observed in soils in the presence of entrapped air), and (3) micro-scale (high frequency) fluctuations. Infiltration tests in the nonwelded unit at Alcove 4 indicate that this unit may effectively dampen episodic fast infiltration events; however, well-known Kostyakov, Horton, and Philip equations do not satisfactorily describe the observed trends of the infiltration rate. Instead, a Weibull distribution model can most accurately describe experimentally determined time trends of the infiltration rate. Infiltration tests in highly permeable, fractured, welded tuff at Alcove 6 indicate that the infiltration rate exhibits pulsation, which may have been caused by multiple threshold effects and water-air redistribution between fractures and matrix. The empirical relationships between the extrinsic seepage from fractures, matrix imbibition, and gravity drainage versus the infiltration rate, as well as scaling and self-similarity for the leading edge of the water front are the hallmark of the nonlinear dynamic processes in water flow under episodic infiltration through fractured tuff. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we propose a conceptual model of a dynamic fracture flow and fracture-matrix interaction in fractured tuff

  12. On the physics of unstable infiltration, seepage, and gravity drainage in partially saturated tuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faybishenko, B.; Bodvarsson, G. S.; Salve, R.

    2003-05-01

    To improve understanding of the physics of dynamic instabilities in unsaturated flow processes within the Paintbrush nonwelded unit (PTn) and the middle nonlithophysal portion of the Topopah Spring welded tuff unit (TSw) of Yucca Mountain, we analyzed data from a series of infiltration tests carried out at two sites (Alcove 4 and Alcove 6) in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), using analytical and empirical functions. The analysis of infiltration rates measured at both sites showed three temporal scales of infiltration rate: (1) a macro-scale trend of overall decreasing flow, (2) a meso-scale trend of fast and slow motion exhibiting three-stage variations of the flow rate (decreasing, increasing, and [again] decreasing flow rate, as observed in soils in the presence of entrapped air), and (3) micro-scale (high frequency) fluctuations. Infiltration tests in the nonwelded unit at Alcove 4 indicate that this unit may effectively dampen episodic fast infiltration events; however, well-known Kostyakov, Horton, and Philip equations do not satisfactorily describe the observed trends of the infiltration rate. Instead, a Weibull distribution model can most accurately describe experimentally determined time trends of the infiltration rate. Infiltration tests in highly permeable, fractured, welded tuff at Alcove 6 indicate that the infiltration rate exhibits pulsation, which may have been caused by multiple threshold effects and water-air redistribution between fractures and matrix. The empirical relationships between the extrinsic seepage from fractures, matrix imbibition, and gravity drainage versus the infiltration rate, as well as scaling and self-similarity for the leading edge of the water front are the hallmark of the nonlinear dynamic processes in water flow under episodic infiltration through fractured tuff. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we propose a conceptual model of a dynamic fracture flow and fracture-matrix interaction in fractured tuff

  13. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Montain Using Analogue Meteororological Data

    SciTech Connect

    B. Faybishenko

    2006-09-11

    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes.

  14. Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Eric; Bar-Ilan, Ofek; Illes, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience are increasingly intersecting with issues of ethical, legal, and social interest. This study is an analysis of press coverage of an advanced technology for brain imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, that has gained significant public visibility over the past ten years. Discussion of issues of scientific validity and interpretation dominated over ethical content in both the popular and specialized press. Coverage of research on higher order cognitive phenomena specifically attributed broad personal and societal meaning to neuroimages. The authors conclude that neuroscience provides an ideal model for exploring science communication and ethics in a multicultural context. PMID:17330151

  15. Visualization of microvascular proliferation as a tumor infiltration structure in rat glioma specimens using the diffraction-enhanced imaging in-plane CT technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Seung-Jun; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Ando, Masami; Choi, Gi-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hong; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2012-03-01

    In order to study potent microenvironments of malignant gliomas with a high- resolution x-ray imaging technique, an injection orthotopic glioma model was made using the Sprague-Dawley rat. Total brain tissue, taken out as an ex vivo model, was examined with diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) computed tomography (CT) acquired with a 35 keV monochromatic x-ray. In the convolution-reconstructed 2D/3D images with a spatial resolution of 12.5 × 12.5 × 25 µm, distinction among necrosis, typical ring-shaped viable tumors, edemas and healthy tissues was clearly observed near the frontal lobe in front of the rat's caudate nucleus. Multiple microvascular proliferations (MVPs) were observed surrounding peritumoral edemas as a tumor infiltration structure. Typical dimensions of tubular MVPs were 130 (diameter) ×250 (length) µm with a partial sprout structure revealed in the 3D reconstructed image. Hyperplasia of cells around vessel walls was revealed with tumor cell infiltration along the perivascular space in microscopic observations of mild MVP during histological analysis. In conclusion, DEI-CT is capable of imaging potent tumor-infiltrating MVP structures surrounding high-grade gliomas.

  16. Effect of spatial variability of soil properties on infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenech, Marisa; Castro Franco, Mauricio; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, José Luis

    2013-04-01

    Topography and soil properties are key determinants of spatial variability of water content. Prediction of soil hydraulic properties are essential for modeling water flow and solute transport. In the southeastern of Buenos Aires Province, the effect of the relief on soil spatial variability is result of the relationship between elevation and effective depth (ED). Digital elevation models (DEM) provide quantitive information about relief. The objective was to determine the effect of spatial variability of soil properties on infiltration. The field was 50 ha and the soil classes were vertic Hapludoll, typic and petrocalcic Argiudoll. ED was measured using Gidding_Soil_Sampler® in 30x30m grid size. Elevation data were measured ussing a DGPS Trimble_R3®. From this, a DEM was generated. Two elevation and ED areas were delineated named High and Low zones. Three soil samples were taken at each zone with three replications at depth 0-30 and 30-90 cm. Texture, bulk density (δb) and organic matter (OM) were determined. A disc infiltrometer was used to determine the water infiltration rate (i). Clay content (As) and OM were homogeneous in the profile of the High zone. However, As content at 30-90 cm decreased in the Low zone. At the High zone, δb ranged from 1.31 to 1.34 g cm-3 and was higher than at the Low zone (δb=1.16 - 1.27 g cm-3). Also the i had less variation at the High zone. Under pressure head of -1 cm , the i increased in the Low zone. At lower pressure heads, the i was greater in the High zone. Higher i at the Low zone could be due to major ED, textural heterogeneity and higher OM content. Textural homogeneity, shallow ED and high δb allowed a more stable i at the High zone. Using topography and ED is a promising way of characterizing soil hydraulic behavior and its spatial variability across a field.

  17. Geochemical stability of phosphorus solids below septic system infiltration beds.

    PubMed

    Zurawsky, M A; Robertson, W D; Ptacek, C J; Schiff, S L

    2004-09-01

    Review of 10 mature septic system plumes in Ontario, revealed that phosphorus (P) attenuation commonly occurred close to the infiltration pipes, resulting in discrete narrow intervals enriched in P by a factor of 2-4 (. MSc thesis, Dept. Earth Sci., University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont.; Ground Water 36 (1995) 1000; J. Contam. Hydrol. 33 (1998) 405). Although these attenuation reactions appeared to be sustainable under present conditions, the potential for remobilization of this P mass, should geochemical conditions change, is unknown. To test the stability of these P solids, dynamic flow column tests were carried out using sediments from three of the previously studied sites (Cambridge, Langton and Muskoka) focusing on sediments from the 'High-P' and underlying (Below) zones. Tests were continued for 166-266 pore volumes (PVs), during which time varying degrees of water saturation were maintained. During saturated flow conditions, relatively high concentrations of PO4 were eluted from the Cambridge and Langton High-P zones (up to 4 and 9 mg/l P, respectively), accompanied by elevated concentrations of Fe (up to 1.4 mg/l) and Mn (up to 4 mg/l) and lower values of Eh (<150 mV). The Below zones from Cambridge and Langton, however, maintained lower concentrations of P (generally<2 mg/l), Fe (<0.2 mg/l) and Mn (<1 mg/l) and maintained higher Eh (>250 mV) during saturated flow conditions. During unsaturated flow, P and Fe declined dramatically in the High-P zones (P<1 mg/l, Fe<0.2 mg/l), whereas concentrations remained about the same during saturated and unsaturated flow in the Below zones. This behavior is at least partly attributed to the development of reducing conditions during saturated flow in the High-P zones, leading to reductive dissolution of Fe (III)-P solids present in the sediments. Reducing conditions did not develop in the Below zones apparently because of lower sediment organic carbon (OC) contents (0.03-0.04 wt.%) compared to the High-P zones (0

  18. Revealing the mechanisms and significance of frozen soil infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stähli, Manfred; Hayashi, Masaki

    2015-04-01

    Frozen soil is one of the most characteristic features of Nordic hydrology. Depending on climate, snow cover and soil properties it can slow down or even inhibit the water's journey from the soil surface to the stream, or it can speed up the journey by generating overland flow. When Harald Grip's and Allan Rhode's book came out in the mid-eighties, state-of-the-art knowledge on frozen soil hydrology was based on numerous cold-chamber experiments and only few field measurements, especially from Alaska. It was already then recognized that frozen soil is not impermeable per se, but its permeability depends on the amount and connectivity of air-filled pores, which in turn depends on ice content. How has our understanding of frozen soil hydrology further developed since then? One important innovation was the application of dye tracers to frozen field plots and soil columns uncovering the flow paths of infiltrating water. A second crucial advance was the development of numerical models to calculate water transfer from the snow cover into soil profiles. These models made researchers aware of the high sensitivity of frozen soil infiltration to boundary conditions (e.g. depth to groundwater) and winter history (e.g. evolution of snow cover, number of mid-winter melt events). A further important insight was that local effects of frozen ground on water flow may vanish at the scale of catchments due to the highly variable topography, vegetation and soil of a landscape. Nevertheless, studies showing the impact of frozen soil on large scale ground-water recharge or stream runoff are still scarce. A recent analysis of long-term runoff data from Switzerland sheds new light on the response of small catchments to frozen ground. Finally, it can be concluded that the Nordic lessons on frozen soil hydrology have been noted by the worldwide research community and are receiving increased attention in the context of climate change and its impacts on seasonally and permanently frozen soil.

  19. Geochemical stability of phosphorus solids below septic system infiltration beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurawsky, M. A.; Robertson, W. D.; Ptacek, C. J.; Schiff, S. L.

    2004-09-01

    Review of 10 mature septic system plumes in Ontario, revealed that phosphorus (P) attenuation commonly occurred close to the infiltration pipes, resulting in discrete narrow intervals enriched in P by a factor of 2-4 ( Wood, J.S.A. 1993. MSc thesis, Dept. Earth Sci., University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont.; Ground Water 36 (1995) 1000; J. Contam. Hydrol. 33 (1998) 405). Although these attenuation reactions appeared to be sustainable under present conditions, the potential for remobilization of this P mass, should geochemical conditions change, is unknown. To test the stability of these P solids, dynamic flow column tests were carried out using sediments from three of the previously studied sites (Cambridge, Langton and Muskoka) focusing on sediments from the 'High-P' and underlying (Below) zones. Tests were continued for 166-266 pore volumes (PVs), during which time varying degrees of water saturation were maintained. During saturated flow conditions, relatively high concentrations of PO 4 were eluted from the Cambridge and Langton High-P zones (up to 4 and 9 mg/l P, respectively), accompanied by elevated concentrations of Fe (up to 1.4 mg/l) and Mn (up to 4 mg/l) and lower values of Eh (<150 mV). The Below zones from Cambridge and Langton, however, maintained lower concentrations of P (generally<2 mg/l), Fe (<0.2 mg/l) and Mn (<1 mg/l) and maintained higher Eh (>250 mV) during saturated flow conditions. During unsaturated flow, P and Fe declined dramatically in the High-P zones (P<1 mg/l, Fe<0.2 mg/l), whereas concentrations remained about the same during saturated and unsaturated flow in the Below zones. This behavior is at least partly attributed to the development of reducing conditions during saturated flow in the High-P zones, leading to reductive dissolution of Fe (III)-P solids present in the sediments. Reducing conditions did not develop in the Below zones apparently because of lower sediment organic carbon (OC) contents (0.03-0.04 wt.%) compared to the

  20. Evolution of transversus abdominis plane infiltration techniques for postsurgical analgesia following abdominal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Gadsden, Jeffrey; Ayad, Sabry; Gonzales, Jeffrey J; Mehta, Jaideep; Boublik, Jan; Hutchins, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltration is a regional anesthesia technique that has been demonstrated to be effective for management of postsurgical pain after abdominal surgery. There are several different clinical variations in the approaches used for achieving analgesia via TAP infiltration, and methods for identification of the TAP have evolved considerably since the landmark-guided technique was first described in 2001. There are many factors that impact the analgesic outcomes following TAP infiltration, and the various nuances of this technique have led to debate regarding procedural classification of TAP infiltration. Based on our current understanding of fascial and neuronal anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall, as well as available evidence from studies assessing local anesthetic spread and cutaneous sensory block following TAP infiltration, it is clear that TAP infiltration techniques are appropriately classified as field blocks. While the objective of peripheral nerve block and TAP infiltration are similar in that both approaches block sensory response in order to achieve analgesia, the technical components of the two procedures are different. Unlike peripheral nerve block, which involves identification or stimulation of a specific nerve or nerve plexus, followed by administration of a local anesthetic in close proximity, TAP infiltration involves administration and spread of local anesthetic within an anatomical plane of the surgical site. PMID:26677342

  1. Biochar impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils in the SE USA Coastal Plain region frequently have a compacted subsoil layer (E horizon), which is a barrier for water infiltration. Four different biochars were evaluated to increase water infiltration through a compacted horizon from a Norfolk soil (fine-loamy, kaolinitic...

  2. Explicit expressions for Green-Ampt (delta function diffusivity) infiltration rate and cumulative storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvucci, Guido Daniel; Entekhabi, Dara

    1994-09-01

    The sharp wetting front model of infiltration (Green and Ampt, 1911; Philip, 1954) yields through simple integration an exact solution relating the infiltration rate (i), cumulative infiltration (I), and time (t). The relation, however, is implicit for i or I; i.e., it is of the form t = A[I - B ln (1 + I/B)]. Numerical iteration is required to find the infiltration rate, and furthermore, analytic manipulations are limited using this traditional formulation of the Green-Ampt infiltration. In this note we present an accurate expression for the infiltration rate in the form of a rapidly converging series in the variable τ = t/(t + χ). Truncating the series at four terms yields a useful expression for i(t). The proposed four-term expression gives less than 2% error at all times and is readily integrated to yield the cumulative infiltration I(t). In conjunction with the exact expression for time (t) given i or I, the proposed expression is useful in infiltration/runoff calculations that necessitate the time compression approximation (TCA).

  3. Methods to Use Surface Infiltration Tests in Permeable Pavement Systems to Determine Maintenance Frequency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, there is limited guidance on selecting test sites to measure surface infiltration rates in permeable pavement systems to determine maintenance frequency. The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete suggest to either (1) p...

  4. [Use of local infiltration for tonsillectomy in adults under general anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Revilla Borjas, C; Stuyt, M T

    1990-01-01

    The paper deals with 60 adults (aged between 13-30) tonsillectomies done under general anesthesia. The collective was alternatively divided in 2 groups, only one of them receiving local infiltration. In the infiltrated group the tonsil dissection was easier, the bleeding sparse and the follow-up less unpleasant. PMID:2221308

  5. Statistical description of a structured clay soil using dye infiltration experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spatial variability of preferential pathways in a field soil with native grasses and after a sorghum crop, as visualized through dye infiltration experiments, was studied by applying configuration entropy and correlation functions. After dye infiltration into a 3m x 3m plots located on a soil cl...

  6. Lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltration within skeletal muscle in young girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fat infiltration within skeletal muscle is strongly associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Lower physical activity may be a risk factor for greater fat infiltration within skeletal muscle, although whether lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltrati...

  7. Antecedent moisture content and soil texture effects on infiltration and erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water infiltration, seal formation, runoff and erosion depend on the soil’s inherent properties and surface conditions. Most erosion models consider only soil inherent properties (mainly texture) in assessing infiltration and erosion without consideration of spatial and temporary variation in the su...

  8. Shape factors for elements of the infiltration profile in surface irrigation:Generic approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced mathematical models of surface irrigation are based on the equations of motion applied to a series of cells comprising the surface stream and an infiltration profile. In the simulation, a mass balance must be preserved amongst the inflow, surface stream, infiltrated profile, and runoff vol...

  9. Pantoea ananatis as a cause of corneal infiltrate after rice husk injury.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Geetha; Lalitha, Prajna; Jeganathan, Lakshmi Priya; Dsilva, Sean Socrates; Prajna, N Venkatesh

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of an agricultural worker presenting with corneal infiltrate following ocular injury with a rice husk. On examination, a superficial corneal foreign body was removed and sent for culture, which grew Pantoea ananatis. This is, to our knowledge, the first clinical case report of Pantoea ananatis causing corneal infiltrate. PMID:22461671

  10. Comparison of soil infiltration rates in burned and unburned mountainous watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Deborah A.; Moody, John A.

    2001-10-01

    Steady-state infiltration measurements were made at mountainous sites in New Mexico and Colorado, USA, with volcanic and granitic soils after wildfires and at comparable unburned sites. We measured infiltration in the New Mexico volcanic soils under two vegetation types, ponderosa pine and mixed conifer, and in the Colorado granitic soils under ponderosa pine vegetation. These measurements were made within high-severity burn areas using a portable infiltrometer with a 0·017 m2 infiltration area and artificial rainfall rates ranging from 97 to 440 mm h-1. Steady-state infiltration rates were less at all burned sites relative to unburned sites. The volcanic soil with ponderosa pine vegetation showed the greatest difference in infiltration rates with a ratio of steady-state infiltration rate in burned sites to unburned soils equal to 0·15. Volcanic soils with mixed conifer vegetation had a ratio (burned to unburned soils) of at most 0·38, and granitic soils with ponderosa pine vegetation had a ratio of 0·38. Steady-state infiltration rates on unburned volcanic and granitic soils with ponderosa pine vegetation are not statistically different. We present data on the particle-size distribution at all the study sites and examples of wetting patterns produced during the infiltration experiments. Published in 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Bedrock infiltration estimates using catchment water storage in the mountain rain snow transition zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of bedrock infiltration from mountain catchments in the western U.S. are essential to water resource managers because they provide an estimate of mountain block recharge to regional aquifers. On smaller scales, bedrock infiltration is an important term in water mass balance studies, which...

  12. Water quality impacts on infiltration rates and using chemical transport models as management tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of low quality waters for irrigation requires improved tools for managing soil salinity, and increased knowledge of chemical effects on infiltration, plant ion uptake, and impact to ground and surface water. Impacts of irrigation water with SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) 2,4,6,8 and l0 on infiltr...

  13. Hydrogeochemical transport modeling of the infiltration of tertiary treated wastewater in a dune area, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbohede, Alexander; Wallis, Ilka; Van Houtte, Emmanuel; Van Ranst, Eric

    2013-09-01

    Managed artificial recharge (MAR) is a well-established practice for augmentation of depleted groundwater resources or for environmental benefit. At the St-André MAR site in the Belgian dune area, groundwater resources are optimised through re-use of highly treated wastewater by means of infiltration ponds. The very high quality of the infiltration water sets this system apart from other MAR systems. The low total dissolved solid (TDS) content in the infiltration water (less than 50 mg/L) compared to the dune aquifer (500 mg/L) triggers a number of reactions, increasing the TDS through soil-aquifer passage. Multi-component reactive transport modelling was applied to analyse the geochemical processes that occur. Carbonate dissolution is the main process increasing the TDS of the infiltration water. Oxic aquifer conditions prevail between the infiltration ponds and the extraction wells. This is driven by the high flow velocities, leaving no time to consume O2 between the ponds and extraction wells. Cation exchange is important when infiltration water is replaced by native dune water or when significant changes in infiltration-water quality occur. The seasonal variation of O2 and temperature in the infiltration water are the main drivers for seasonal changes in the concentration of all major ions.

  14. Subcutaneous Marcaine Infiltration and Post-Operative Pain Perception after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haleblian, George E.; Leitao, Victor A.; Robinson, Marnie R.; Pierre, Sean A.; Sur, Roger L.; Preminger, Glenn M.

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies have shown a significant decrease in patient reported pain scores when operative incisions are infiltrated with subcutaneous local anesthetic. We hypothesize that patient reported pain and narcotic use could be further decreased for patients with post-percutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostomy tubes if the nephrostomy tract and incision are infiltrated with local anesthetic.

  15. Transient soil surface sealing and infiltration model for bare soil under droplet impact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The marked reduction in infiltration rate caused by formation of a soil surface seal due to water droplet impact on bare soil is a well known phenomenon but is rarely considered in infiltration models, especially under center pivot irrigation. Water application rates under center pivot irrigation c...

  16. A numerical study of infiltration and solidification/remelting of pure metal in a porous preform

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, X.; Khan, J.A.; Hawkins, L.E.

    1995-12-31

    Infiltration and solidification/remelting of pure metal in a preform is modeled numerically. The preform is assumed to be two-dimensional porous media. It is also assumed that under the action of constant applied pressure, the flow of liquid metal through the preform is within the range of the validity of Darcy`s Law. The distinguishing feature of this flow and heat transfer problem is the existence of two moving fronts--the infiltration front and the phase-change front. The governing momentum and energy equations are cast into a Body-Fitted Coordinate (BFC) system to track the transient positions of both fronts during the infiltration process. For the sake of generality the parameters that govern the infiltration process are non-dimensionalized. The dimensionless groups which govern the infiltration process include the applied pressure difference ({Psi}{sub 1}), the melting temperature ({theta}{sub m}), the preform permeability ratio, the porosity ({phi}), and the geometric sizes (inlet gate size {delta}, and the preform aspect ratio L/H). A computational code has been developed to solve the problem and is verified using the available published results. The key parameters describing the physical phenomenon (infiltration front, remelting front, total infiltration time and remelting region size) are presented as a function of the operating variables (i.e., {Psi}{sub 1}, {theta}{sub m}, {phi}, {omega} and {delta}). The results can be used to optimize the infiltration processing of Metal-Matrix Composites and other related manufacturing processes.

  17. Comparison of soil infiltration rates in burned and unburned mountainous watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Steady-state infiltration measurements were made at mountainous sites in New Mexico and Colorado, USA, with volcanic and granitic soils after wildfires and at comparable unburned sites. We measured infiltration in the New Mexico volcanic soils under two vegetation types, ponderosa pine and mixed conifer, and in the Colorado granitic soils under ponderosa pine vegetation. These measurements were made within high-severity burn areas using a portable infiltrometer with a 0.017 m2 infiltration area and artificial rainfall rates ranging from 97 to 440 mm h-1. Steady-state infiltration rates were less at all burned sites relative to unburned sites. The volcanic soil with ponderosa pine vegetation showed the greatest difference in infiltration rates with a ratio of steady-state infiltration rate in burned sites to unburned soils equal to 0.15. Volcanic soils with mixed conifer vegetation had a ratio (burned to unburned soils) of at most 0.38, and granitic soils with ponderosa pine vegetation had a ratio of 0.38. Steady-state infiltration rates on unburned volcanic and granitic soils with ponderosa pine vegetation are not statistically different. We present data on the particle-size distribution at all the study sites and examples of wetting patterns produced during the infiltration experiments. Published in 2001 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  18. Monitoring infiltration and recharge of playa lakes in the Texas Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preliminary results from playa lakes monitored by the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) suggest that a small volume of deep infiltration and recharge to the Ogallala aquifer occurs along the margins of the lake beds, while the majority of infiltration associated with a typical inundation remains ...

  19. Uncertainty in Climatology-Based Estimates of Soil Water Infiltration Losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local climatology is often used to estimate infiltration losses at the field scale. The objective of this work was to assess the uncertainty associated with such estimates. We computed infiltration losses from the water budget of a soil layer from monitoring data on water flux values at the soil su...

  20. Reduced Leukocyte Infiltration in Absence of Eosinophils Correlates with Decreased Tissue Damage and Disease Susceptibility in ΔdblGATA Mice during Murine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Pramod K.; Li, Qun; Munoz, Luis E.; Mares, Chris A.; Morris, Elizabeth G.; Teale, Judy M.; Cardona, Astrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common helminth parasitic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and the leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. NCC is caused by the presence of the metacestode larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium within brain tissues. NCC patients exhibit a long asymptomatic phase followed by a phase of symptoms including increased intra-cranial pressure and seizures. While the asymptomatic phase is attributed to the immunosuppressive capabilities of viable T. solium parasites, release of antigens by dying organisms induce strong immune responses and associated symptoms. Previous studies in T. solium-infected pigs have shown that the inflammatory response consists of various leukocyte populations including eosinophils, macrophages, and T cells among others. Because the role of eosinophils within the brain has not been investigated during NCC, we examined parasite burden, disease susceptibility and the composition of the inflammatory reaction in the brains of infected wild type (WT) and eosinophil-deficient mice (ΔdblGATA) using a murine model of NCC in which mice were infected intracranially with Mesocestoides corti, a cestode parasite related to T. solium. In WT mice, we observed a time-dependent induction of eosinophil recruitment in infected mice, contrasting with an overall reduced leukocyte infiltration in ΔdblGATA brains. Although, ΔdblGATA mice exhibited an increased parasite burden, reduced tissue damage and less disease susceptibility was observed when compared to infected WT mice. Cellular infiltrates in infected ΔdblGATA mice were comprised of more mast cells, and αβ T cells, which correlated with an abundant CD8+ T cell response and reduced CD4+ Th1 and Th2 responses. Thus, our data suggest that enhanced inflammatory response in WT mice appears detrimental and associates with increased disease susceptibility, despite the reduced parasite burden in the CNS. Overall reduced leukocyte infiltration due to

  1. Reduced Leukocyte Infiltration in Absence of Eosinophils Correlates with Decreased Tissue Damage and Disease Susceptibility in ΔdblGATA Mice during Murine Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pramod K; Li, Qun; Munoz, Luis E; Mares, Chris A; Morris, Elizabeth G; Teale, Judy M; Cardona, Astrid E

    2016-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common helminth parasitic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and the leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. NCC is caused by the presence of the metacestode larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium within brain tissues. NCC patients exhibit a long asymptomatic phase followed by a phase of symptoms including increased intra-cranial pressure and seizures. While the asymptomatic phase is attributed to the immunosuppressive capabilities of viable T. solium parasites, release of antigens by dying organisms induce strong immune responses and associated symptoms. Previous studies in T. solium-infected pigs have shown that the inflammatory response consists of various leukocyte populations including eosinophils, macrophages, and T cells among others. Because the role of eosinophils within the brain has not been investigated during NCC, we examined parasite burden, disease susceptibility and the composition of the inflammatory reaction in the brains of infected wild type (WT) and eosinophil-deficient mice (ΔdblGATA) using a murine model of NCC in which mice were infected intracranially with Mesocestoides corti, a cestode parasite related to T. solium. In WT mice, we observed a time-dependent induction of eosinophil recruitment in infected mice, contrasting with an overall reduced leukocyte infiltration in ΔdblGATA brains. Although, ΔdblGATA mice exhibited an increased parasite burden, reduced tissue damage and less disease susceptibility was observed when compared to infected WT mice. Cellular infiltrates in infected ΔdblGATA mice were comprised of more mast cells, and αβ T cells, which correlated with an abundant CD8+ T cell response and reduced CD4+ Th1 and Th2 responses. Thus, our data suggest that enhanced inflammatory response in WT mice appears detrimental and associates with increased disease susceptibility, despite the reduced parasite burden in the CNS. Overall reduced leukocyte infiltration due to

  2. A Simple Infiltration Method for Determining Hydraulic Conductivities at Various Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Hsu, K.

    2010-12-01

    Soil hydraulic properties usually show high spatial variation. Most infiltration methods assume a uniform hydraulic conductivity and rely on the attainment of a steady state flow rate of water into the soil. In this study, a falling head infiltration method is developed to determine hydraulic conductivities at various depths. Water content sensors at various depths are required to add to the classical ponded infiltration test. The falling head infiltration theory proposed by Philip [1992a] is extended to multiple steps in the proposed method. The Green-Ampt model is used to physically approximate the movement of the wetting front. General analytical solutions for infiltration depth and saturated hydraulic conductivity are derived for a multi-layer soil. The falling head infiltration method is compared to the constant head infiltration method for a homogeneous soil. The results show that the falling head infiltration method is more efficient in water use than is the constant head infiltration method. Then, the proposed method is demonstrated for a two-layer soil system. Numerical experiment results show that with measured variations of water content, the effective arrival time of the wetting front can be well approximated by the average of the start and finish times of the change in water content to obtain the hydraulic conductivity. The calculated hydraulic conductivity is the harmonic mean of the layer soil, and thus hydraulic conductivities at various depths can be estimated sequentially from the top down. The multi-step falling head infiltration method was applied to a sandbox experiment in the laboratory. The experimental results are consistent with the hydraulic conductivity obtained using the constant head ponded infiltration method. The multi-step falling head infiltration method also shows a consistent decrease of hydraulic conductivity in the sand column. The proposed method is less laborious and more versatile than the constant head ponded infiltration

  3. Muscle wasting and aging: Experimental models, fatty infiltrations, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Brioche, Thomas; Pagano, Allan F; Py, Guillaume; Chopard, Angèle

    2016-08-01

    Identification of cost-effective interventions to maintain muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance during muscle wasting and aging is an important public health challenge. It requires understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. Muscle-deconditioning processes have been deciphered by means of several experimental models, bringing together the opportunities to devise comprehensive analysis of muscle wasting. Studies have increasingly recognized the importance of fatty infiltrations or intermuscular adipose tissue for the age-mediated loss of skeletal-muscle function and emphasized that this new important factor is closely linked to inactivity. The present review aims to address three main points. We first mainly focus on available experimental models involving cell, animal, or human experiments on muscle wasting. We next point out the role of intermuscular adipose tissue in muscle wasting and aging and try to highlight new findings concerning aging and muscle-resident mesenchymal stem cells called fibro/adipogenic progenitors by linking some cellular players implicated in both FAP fate modulation and advancing age. In the last part, we review the main data on the efficiency and molecular and cellular mechanisms by which exercise, replacement hormone therapies, and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate prevent muscle wasting and sarcopenia. Finally, we will discuss a potential therapeutic target of sarcopenia: glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. PMID:27106402

  4. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO(4) precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P. PMID:22982614

  5. Detecting infiltration and impacts of introduced water using strontium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Brinck, Elizabeth L; Frost, Carol D

    2007-01-01

    Water introduced to surface drainages, such as agricultural and roadway runoff, mine drainage, or coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced water, potentially can be of environmental concern. In order to mitigate potential environmental effects, it may be important to be able to trace water discharged to the surface as it infiltrates and interacts with near-surface aquifers. We have chosen to study water withdrawn during CBNG production for isotope tracing in the hyporheic zone because it poses a variety of economic, environmental, and policy issues in the Rocky Mountain states. Ground water quality must be protected as CBNG water is added to semiarid ecosystems. Strontium (Sr) isotopes are effective fingerprints of the aquifer from which water originates. In this study, CBNG water was found to have a higher (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio than the local alluvial aquifer water. This measurable difference allows the strontium isotope ratio and concentration to be used as tracers of CBNG water following its discharge to the surface. The dissolution and mobilization of salts from soil are an important contributor to ground water quality degradation. In the Powder River basin of Wyoming, the soils are calcium carbonate-buffered systems. The chemical similarity of strontium to calcium allows it to substitute into calcium minerals and enabled us to use strontium isotopes to identify calcium salts mobilized from the soil. Strontium isotopes are an effective monitor of the source of ions and the volume and direction of introduced water flow in the hyporheic zone. PMID:17760582

  6. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

    2005-09-30

    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  7. [Pulmonary function in patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), R(aw), R(in),, R(ex), DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 103 patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 83.5% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 63.1%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 60.2 and 41.7%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC and FVC, and decreased and increased TGV and TLC; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC% and increased R(aw) R(in), and R(ex); pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. Significant disorders were observed rarely and very pronounced ones were exceptional. PMID:17915466

  8. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of fast landslides has become more and more dangerous during the last decades, due to the increased density of settlements, industrial plants and infrastructures. Such problem is particularly worrying in Campania (Southern Italy), where the fast population growth led a diffuse building activity without planning: indeed, recent flowslides caused hundreds of victims and heavy damages to buildings, roads and other infrastructures. Large mountainous areas in Campania are mantled by loose pyroclastic granular soils up to a depth of a few meters from top soil surface. These soils have usually a grain size that falls in the domain of silty sands, including pumice interbeds (gravelly sands), with saturated hydraulic conductivities up to the order of 10-1 cm/min. Such deposits often cover steep slopes, which stability is guaranteed by the apparent cohesion due to suction under unsaturated conditions, that are the most common conditions for these slopes [Olivares and Picarelli, 2001]. Whereas rainfall infiltration causes soil to approach saturation, suction vanishes and slope failure may occur. Besides soil physical properties, landslide triggering is influenced by several factors, such as rainfall intensity, soil initial moisture and suction, slope inclination, boundary conditions. Whereas slope failure occurs with soil close to being saturated, landslide may develop in form of fast and destructive flowslide. Calibration of reliable mathematical models of such a complex phenomenon requires availability of experimental observations of the major variables of interest, such as soil moisture and suction, soil deformation and displacements, pore water pressure, during the entire process of infiltration until slope failure. Due to the sudden trigger and extremely rapid propagation of such type of landslides, such data sets are rarely available for natural slopes where flowslides occurred. As a consequence landslide risk assessment and early warning in Campania rely on

  9. Study of water infiltration in a lightweight green roof substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomankova, Klara; Holeckova, Martina; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Snehota, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Green roofs have a positive impact on the environment (e.g. improving microclimate and air quality in cities, reducing solar absorbance and storm water). A laboratory infiltration experiment was conducted on the narrow flume serving as 2D vertical model of a green roof. The lightweight Optigreen substrate Type M was used (depth of 20 cm). The front wall of the flume was transparent and inspected by digital camera. The experiment was designed to measure pressure head, volumetric water content and calculate water retention in the substrate. Experiment comprised three artificial rainfall intensities with different values of initial water content of the substrate. The experimental results confirmed that green roofs have the ability to retain rainwater and thus have a beneficial effect on reducing runoff. In the experiment with the artificial 10 minutes rainfall event (total precipitation of 29 mm), the air dry substrate retained 95.9 % of precipitation. On the other hand for moist initial condition 4.2 % of precipitations amount was captured in the substrate. Additionally, the analysis of images taken during the experiment confirmed preferential flow and uneven advancement of the wetting front. The research was realized as a part of the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings supported by the EU and with financial support from the Czech Science Foundation under project number 14-10455P.

  10. Analytical model of solute transport by unsteady unsaturated gravitational infiltration.

    PubMed

    Lessoff, S C; Indelman, P

    2004-08-01

    Penetration of reactive solute into a soil during a cycle of water infiltration and redistribution is investigated by deriving analytical closed form solutions for fluid flux, moisture content and contaminant concentration. The solution is developed for gravitational flow and advective transport and is applied to two scenarios of solute applications encountered in the applications: a finite pulse of solute dissolved in irrigation water and an instantaneous pulse broadcasted onto the soil surface. Through comparison to simulations of Richards' flow, capillary suction is shown to have contrasting effects on the upper and lower boundaries of the fluid pulse, speeding penetration of the wetting front and reducing the rate of drying. This leads to agreement between the analytical and numerical solutions for typical field and experimental conditions. The analytical solution is further incorporated into a stochastic column model of flow and transport to compute mean solute concentration in a heterogeneous field. An unusual phenomenon of plume contraction is observed at long times of solute propagation during the drying stage. The mean concentration profiles match those of the Monte-Carlo simulations for capillary length scales typical of sandy soils. PMID:15240168

  11. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22 years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO4 precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P.

  12. Indoor air quality and infiltration in multifamily naval housing

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.; Wilfert, G.L.; Dennis, G.W.

    1984-11-01

    Measurements of indoor air quality and air infiltration were taken in three units of a multifamily housing complex at the Naval Submarine base in Bangor, Washington, over 5 consecutive days during the heating season of 1983. Three dwelling units of identical size constructed in 1978 were monitored, each in a separate two-story four-unit complex. One unit was a downstairs unit and the other two units were upstairs units. Two of the units were occupied by smokers (one downstairs and one upstairs). None of the units had combustion appliances. Pollutants monitored indoors included radon, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide. Indoor and outdoor temperature and windspeed were also recorded. Outdoor formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide were also measured. Air exchange was measured about three times during each 24-h period, using a perfluorocarbon tracer with automatic tracer sampling. The daily average air exchange rate ranged from 0.22 to 0.91 air changes per hour (ACH). Pollutant concentrations were generally low except for particulate matter in the units with smokers, which were two to four times higher than in the unit with nonsmokers. Levels of carbon monoxide were also slightly elevated in one of the units with a smoker compared to the unit with nonsmokers. 5 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Mononuclear Leukocyte Infiltrate in Extraplacental Membranes and Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Holzman, Claudia; Senagore, Patricia K.; Wang, Jianling

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the amnion and chorion define histological chorioamnionitis (HCA), a condition linked to spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). Less is known about placental patterns of mononuclear leukocyte (MNL) density and PTD. In this prospective study (1998–2004), women were sampled from 52 clinics in 5 Michigan communities and enrolled at 16–27 weeks’ gestation. HCA and MNL distributions in delivered placentas were evaluated microscopically in a subcohort (290 preterm, 823 term). Midpregnancy biomarkers from maternal blood (i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), corticotropin-releasing hormone, and cytokines) were compared among term and PTD subjects grouped by presence/absence of HCA and high MNL density. A density of more than 10 MNLs per high-power field in the chorion of the membrane roll, referred to as MNL-CMR, was associated with medically indicated PTD (odds ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 3.6) and spontaneous PTD (odds ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.7). Associations persisted after removal of women with HCA-positive placentas, abruption, hypertensive disorders, or obesity. HCA-associated PTD showed higher CRP and cytokine levels. MNL-CMR-associated PTD showed higher CRP and corticotropin-releasing hormone levels. These data suggest that an MNL infiltrate in the chorion of the membrane roll marks PTD pathways that are distinct from HCA and not entirely explained by pregnancy complications. PMID:23429723

  14. Detecting infiltration and impacts of introduced water using strontium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Brinck, E.L.; Frost, C.D.

    2007-09-15

    Water introduced to surface drainages, such as agricultural and roadway runoff, mine drainage, or coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced water, potentially can be of environmental concern. In order to mitigate potential environmental effects, it may be important to be able to trace water discharged to the surface as it infiltrates and interacts with near-surface aquifers. We have chosen to study water withdrawn during CBNG production for isotope tracing in the hyporheic zone because it poses a variety of economic, environmental, and policy issues in the Rocky Mountain states. Ground water quality must be protected as CBNG water is added to semiarid ecosystems. Strontium (Sr) isotopes are effective fingerprints of the aquifer from which water originates. In this study, CBNG water was found to have a higher Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio than the local alluvial aquifer water. This measurable difference allows the strontium isotope ratio and concentration to be used as tracers of CBNG water following its discharge to the surface. The dissolution and mobilization of salts from soil are an important contributor to ground water quality degradation. In the Powder River basin of Wyoming, the soils are calcium carbonate-buffered systems. The chemical similarity of strontium to calcium allows it to substitute into calcium minerals and enabled us to use strontium isotopes to identify calcium salts mobilized from the soil. Strontium isotopes are an effective monitor of the source of ions and the volume and direction of introduced water flow in the hyporheic zone.

  15. Reactive melt infiltration of silicon-molybdenum alloys into microporous carbon preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Behrendt, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations on the reactive melt infiltration of silicon-1.7 and 3.2 at.% molybdenum alloys into microporous carbon preforms have been carried out by modeling, differential thermal analysis (DTA), and melt infiltration experiments. These results indicate that the pore volume fraction of the carbon preform is a very important parameter in determining the final composition of the reaction-formed silicon carbide and the secondary phases. Various undesirable melt infiltration results, e.g. choking-off, specimen cracking, silicon veins, and lake formation, and their correlation with inadequate preform properties are presented. The liquid silicon-carbon reaction exotherm temperatures are influenced by the pore and carbon particle size of the preform and the compositions of infiltrants. Room temperature flexural strength and fracture toughness of materials made by the silicon-3.2 at.% molybdenum alloy infiltration of medium pore size preforms are also discussed.

  16. Combining cottage cheese whey and straw reduces erosion while increasing infiltration in furrow irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; Robbins, C.W.; Freeborn, L.L.

    1998-12-31

    Loose straw in irrigation furrows can decrease irrigation induced erosion, and acid cottage cheese whey can increase soil aggregate stability and soil infiltration. A field study was conducted at two sites where these materials were compared alone and in combination to determine their effectiveness in increasing infiltration and reducing irrigation induced erosion. Straw was applied by hand and whey was applied by gravity flow down irrigation furrows, 76 cm apart, and the field was planted to sweet corn (Zea Mays L.). Straw + whey was the most effective treatment for controlling erosion and sediment loss. Seasonal infiltration was significantly higher for straw + whey than for other treatments at the first site, and all three treatments increased infiltration over that of the control at the second site. These studies showed that two inexpensive agricultural byproducts, cottage cheese whey and straw, applied to irrigation furrows of different slopes can significantly reduce soil loss and increase infiltration.

  17. /SiCp Reinforced Composites Produced by Pressure-Assisted Aluminum Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinkök, Necat

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates Al2O3/SiCp-Al composites fabricated by pressure-assisted liquid-metal infiltration techniques and modified alumina/SiC particle preforms. The infiltration was achieved successfully; microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites were examined. An experimental design based on the Taguchi technique was used to acquire the data and investigate the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites. An orthogonal array and analysis of variance were employed to investigate the influence of test parameters such as infiltration temperature and infiltration pressure. It was found that the infiltration temperature was the most effective factor in increasing the mechanical properties of hybrid Al2O3/SiCp composite.

  18. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Brain Metastases: From Biology to Treatment.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Anna S; Venur, Vyshak A; Preusser, Matthias; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has been a subject of intense research over the last several years, leading to new approaches for modulation of the immune system to treat malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-CLTA-4 antibodies and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies) potentiate the host's own antitumor immune response. These immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown impressive clinical efficacy in advanced melanoma, metastatic kidney cancer, and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-all malignancies that frequently cause brain metastases. The immune response in the brain is highly regulated, challenging the treatment of brain metastases with immune-modulatory therapies. The immune microenvironment in brain metastases is active with a high density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in certain patients and, therefore, may serve as a potential treatment target. However, clinical data of the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in brain metastases compared with extracranial metastases are limited, as most clinical trials with these new agents excluded patients with active brain metastases. In this article, we review the current scientific evidence of brain metastases biology with specific emphasis on inflammatory tumor microenvironment and the evolving state of clinical application of immune checkpoint inhibitors for patients with brain metastases. PMID:27249713

  19. Tumour-infiltrating inflammation and prognosis in colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Z; Liu, Y; Liu, C; Cui, A; Liang, Z; Wang, G; Peng, H; Cui, L; Li, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of tumour-infiltrating inflammation in the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been fully evaluated. The primary objective of our meta-analysis was to determine the impact of tumour-infiltrating inflammation on survival outcomes. Methods: Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify studies reporting the prognostic significance of tumour-infiltrating inflammation for patients with CRC. The primary outcome measures were overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results: A total of 30 studies involving 2988 patients were identified. Studies were subdivided into those considering the associations between CRC survival and generalised tumour inflammatory infiltrate (n=12) and T lymphocyte subsets (n=18). Pooled analyses revealed that high generalised tumour inflammatory infiltrate was associated with good OS (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.48–0.72), CS (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.27–0.61) and DFS (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57–0.91). Stratification by location and T lymphocyte subset indicated that in the tumour centre, CD3+, CD8+ and FoxP3+ infiltrates were not statistically significant prognostic markers for OS or CS. In the tumour stroma, high CD8+, but not CD3+ or FoxP3+ cell infiltrates indicated increased OS. Furthermore, high CD3+ cell infiltrate was detected at the invasive tumour margin in patients with good OS and DFS; and high CCR7+ infiltrate was also indicated increased OS. Conclusion: Overall, high generalised tumour inflammatory infiltrate could be a good prognostic marker for CRC. However, significant heterogeneity and an insufficient number of studies underscore the need for further prospective studies on subsets of T lymphocytes to increase the robustness of the analyses. PMID:24504370

  20. Impact of stormwater infiltration basins on groundwater quality, Perth metropolitan region, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve bores were sunk adjacent to three stormwater infiltration basins in the Perth metropolitan area to examine the impact of runoff from a light industrial area, a medium-density residential area, and a major arterial road on groundwater quality, and to examine the hydrological response of the aquifer to runoff recharge. Automatic and manual water level monitoring between April and November 1990 indicated that groundwater levels responded within minutes to recharge from the infiltration basins. Peak water levels of up to 2.5 m above rest levels occurred 6 24 h after the commencement of ponding in the infiltration basins. There was a marked reduction in salinity and increase in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer downgradient of the infiltration basins. Concentrations of toxic metals, nutrients, pesticides, and phenolic compounds in groundwater near the infiltration basins were low and generally well within Australian drinking water guidelines. However, sediment in the base of an infiltration basin draining a major road contained in excess of 3500 ppm of lead. Phthalates, which are US EPA priority pollutants, were detected in all but one bore near the infiltration basins. Their detection may be a sampling artifact, but they may also be derived from the plastic litter that accumulates in the infiltration basins. The concentration of iron in groundwater near the infiltration basins appears to be controlled by dissolved oxygen concentrations, with high iron concentrations occurring where dissolved oxygen concentrations are low. Pumping bores located near infiltration basins may suffer from iron encrustation problems caused by the mixing of shallow, oxygenated groundwater with water containing higher concentrations of iron from deeper in the aquifer.